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Sample records for psychiatric day hospital

  1. Day hospital versus admission for acute psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Max; Crowther, Ruth; Sledge, William Hurt; Rathbone, John; Soares-Weiser, Karla

    2014-01-01

    Background Inpatient treatment is an expensive way of caring for people with acute psychiatric disorders. It has been proposed that many of those currently treated as inpatients could be cared for in acute psychiatric day hospitals. Objectives To assess the effects of day hospital versus inpatient care for people with acute psychiatric disorders. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (June 2010) which is based on regular searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO. We approached trialists to identify unpublished studies. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of day hospital versus inpatient care, for people with acute psychiatric disorders. Studies were ineligible if a majority of participants were under 18 or over 65, or had a primary diagnosis of substance abuse or organic brain disorder. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted and cross-checked data. We calculated risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous data. We calculated weighted or standardised means for continuous data. Day hospital trials tend to present similar outcomes in slightly different formats, making it difficult to synthesise data. We therefore sought individual patient data so that we could re-analyse outcomes in a common format. Main results Ten trials (involving 2685 people) met the inclusion criteria. We obtained individual patient data for four trials (involving 646 people). We found no difference in the number lost to follow-up by one year between day hospital care and inpatient care (5 RCTs, n = 1694, RR 0.94 CI 0.82 to 1.08). There is moderate evidence that the duration of index admission is longer for patients in day hospital care than inpatient care (4 RCTs, n = 1582, WMD 27.47 CI 3.96 to 50.98). There is very low evidence that the duration of day patient care (adjusted days/month) is longer for patients in day hospital care than inpatient care (3 RCTs, n = 265, WMD 2.34 days/month CI 1.97 to 2.70). There is no difference between day hospital care and inpatient care for the being readmitted to in/day patient care after discharge (5 RCTs, n = 667, RR 0.91 CI 0.72 to 1.15). It is likely that there is no difference between day hospital care and inpatient care for being unemployed at the end of the study (1 RCT, n = 179, RR 0.88 CI 0.66 to 1.19), for quality of life (1 RCT, n = 1117, MD 0.01 CI ?0.13 to 0.15) or for treatment satisfaction (1 RCT, n = 1117, MD 0.06 CI ?0.18 to 0.30). Authors’ conclusions Caring for people in acute day hospitals is as effective as inpatient care in treating acutely ill psychiatric patients. However, further data are still needed on the cost effectiveness of day hospitals. PMID:22161384

  2. 42 CFR 409.63 - Reduction of inpatient psychiatric benefit days available in the initial benefit period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...illness. (2) After entitlement, all psychiatric care days, whether in a general or a psychiatric hospital...benefit days. Accordingly, the individual has 72 days of psychiatric care (150 days less 78 days) available in the first benefit...

  3. 42 CFR 409.63 - Reduction of inpatient psychiatric benefit days available in the initial benefit period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...illness. (2) After entitlement, all psychiatric care days, whether in a general or a psychiatric hospital...benefit days. Accordingly, the individual has 72 days of psychiatric care (150 days less 78 days) available in the first benefit...

  4. 42 CFR 409.63 - Reduction of inpatient psychiatric benefit days available in the initial benefit period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...illness. (2) After entitlement, all psychiatric care days, whether in a general or a psychiatric hospital...benefit days. Accordingly, the individual has 72 days of psychiatric care (150 days less 78 days) available in the first benefit...

  5. 42 CFR 409.63 - Reduction of inpatient psychiatric benefit days available in the initial benefit period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...illness. (2) After entitlement, all psychiatric care days, whether in a general or a psychiatric hospital...benefit days. Accordingly, the individual has 72 days of psychiatric care (150 days less 78 days) available in the first benefit...

  6. 42 CFR 409.63 - Reduction of inpatient psychiatric benefit days available in the initial benefit period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...illness. (2) After entitlement, all psychiatric care days, whether in a general or a psychiatric hospital...benefit days. Accordingly, the individual has 72 days of psychiatric care (150 days less 78 days) available in the first benefit...

  7. Psychiatric Hospitalization and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganz, Varda Peller; Pao, Jane

    1978-01-01

    Studies of college students hospitalized for psychiatric disturbances revealed that diagnosis did not significantly affect academic performance, nor did leave of absence following hospitalization ensure better re-entry adjustment. It is recommended that students be evaluated individually and be allowed to re-enter as soon as the acute illness…

  8. Antidepressant adherence after psychiatric hospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Zivin, Kara; Ganoczy, Dara; Pfeiffer, Paul N.; Miller, Erin M.; Valenstein, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    Objective Depressed patients discharged from psychiatric hospitalizations face increased risks for adverse outcomes including suicide, yet antidepressant adherence rates during this high-risk period are unknown. Using Veterans Affairs (VA) data, we assessed antidepressant adherence and predictors of poor adherence among depressed veterans following psychiatric hospitalization. Method We identified VA patients nationwide with depressive disorders who had a psychiatric hospitalization between April 1, 1999 and September 30, 2003, received antidepressant medication, and had an outpatient appointment following discharge. We calculated medication possession ratios (MPRs), a measure of medication adherence, within three and six months following discharge. We assessed patient factors associated with having lower levels of adherence (MPRs <0.8) after discharge. Results 20,931 and 23,182 patients met criteria for three and six month MPRs. The mean three month MPR was 0.79 (s.d.=0.37). The mean six month MPR was 0.66 (s.d.=0.40). Patients with poorer adherence were male, younger, non-white, and had a substance abuse disorder, but were less likely to have PTSD or other anxiety disorders. Conclusion Poor antidepressant adherence is common among depressed patients after psychiatric hospitalization. Efforts to improve adherence at this time may be critical in improving the outcomes of these high-risk patients. PMID:19609666

  9. Inpatient Suicide in a Chinese Psychiatric Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jie; Ran, Mao-Sheng; Hao, Yuantao; Zhao, Zhenhuan; Guo, Yangbo; Su, Jinghua; Lu, Huixian

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the risk factors for suicide among psychiatric inpatients in China. In this study we identified the risk factors of suicide among psychiatric inpatients at Guangzhou Psychiatric Hospital. All psychiatric inpatients who died by suicide during the 1956-2005 period were included in this study. Using a case-control design, 64…

  10. Psychiatric Hospitalization after Deliberate Self-Poisoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Gregory L.; Safranko, Ivan; Lewin, Terry J.; Whyte, Ian M.; Bryant, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    The decision for psychiatric hospitalization after deliberate self-poisoning (DSP) is not well understood. This study, a longitudinal cohort study of 3,148 consecutive DSP patients found 920 (29.2%) subjects were referred for psychiatric hospitalization, 576 (18.3%) on involuntary basis. A logistic regression analysis showed increased risk for:…

  11. 42 CFR 409.63 - Reduction of inpatient psychiatric benefit days available in the initial benefit period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... stay was for diagnosis or treatment of mental illness. (2) After entitlement, all psychiatric care days... for a mental condition and, after 10 days, transferred to a participating psychiatric hospital. The... mental condition. Only the 78 days spent in the psychiatric hospital during the pre-entitlement...

  12. 42 CFR 409.63 - Reduction of inpatient psychiatric benefit days available in the initial benefit period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... stay was for diagnosis or treatment of mental illness. (2) After entitlement, all psychiatric care days... for a mental condition and, after 10 days, transferred to a participating psychiatric hospital. The... mental condition. Only the 78 days spent in the psychiatric hospital during the pre-entitlement...

  13. 42 CFR 409.63 - Reduction of inpatient psychiatric benefit days available in the initial benefit period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... stay was for diagnosis or treatment of mental illness. (2) After entitlement, all psychiatric care days... for a mental condition and, after 10 days, transferred to a participating psychiatric hospital. The... mental condition. Only the 78 days spent in the psychiatric hospital during the pre-entitlement...

  14. [Family and psychiatric hospitalization in a general hospital].

    PubMed

    de Mello, Rita Mello; Schneider, Jacó Fernando

    2011-06-01

    This study aims to identify the reasons that lead relatives to hospitalize patients in a psychiatric unit of a general hospital. It is a qualitative study based on Alfred Schutz' phenomenological sociology. Fourteen relatives, each with one family member hospitalized, were interviewed from August to October 2009. The guiding question of the phenomenological interview was "What do you expect from psychiatric hospitalization in a general hospital?". Phenomenological sociology was used to understand and interpret the interviews. Statements showed three concrete categories, that lead to the reasons for: treatment guidelines and continuity; prospects for improvement; ideas about normality. This research shows the experiences of relatives, contributing with mental health professionals' reflection about their actions and about the involvement of families in a general hospital's psychiatric unit. PMID:21987981

  15. [For a society without secure psychiatric hospitals].

    PubMed

    Santos, Ana Luiza Gonçalves Dos; Farias, Francisco Ramos de; Pinto, Diana de Souza

    2015-12-01

    The article explores the possibility of defending a society without secure psychiatric hospitals in Brazil. These hospitals have been sustained by persistent legal and psychiatric paradigms, including the notions "safety measure" and "dangerousness," in conjunction with particular social and historical circumstances. The open repression of so-called dangerous individuals is still practiced in the name of the principle of social defense, outdated concepts notwithstanding. Together, law and psychiatry constructed spaces of power/knowledge within these workings of social control. Addressing this topic from the transdisciplinary field of social memory means identifying the struggles within particular power/knowledge arrangements, which play out in a state of ongoing tension. PMID:26625915

  16. NAPPH (National Association of Private Psychiatric Hospitals) statement of principles of psychiatric hospital practice ethics.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    A competitive and dynamic healthcare environment requires that psychiatric hospital administrators and physicians continually monitor their hospital's ability to deliver quality services to their patients. To ensure that hospitals stand for and abide by psychiatric hospital practice ethics, the National Association of Private Psychiatric Hospitals (NAPPH) Board of Trustees has formally approved and distributed to the industry a "Statement of Principles of Psychiatric Hospital Practice Ethics." Adopted at the June 22, 1989, Board meeting, the guidelines not only summarize views long held in the industry, but are a condition of NAPPH membership. Nine critical areas are identified in the NAPPH statement: admissions, advertising, marketing and referral development, resource allocation and appropriateness of care, treatment rendered, patients' rights, family rights and involvement, competition, and financial resources. Central to ethical hospital practice is a moral responsibility--shared among administrators, trustees, physicians and staff--to ensure access to care, quality of care, and fair treatment of patients. NAPPH represents more than 300 private psychiatric hospitals throughout the United States, and the NAPPH mission includes the promotion of high-quality care and treatment, efficient hospital operation, and advocacy for the patients served by its member hospitals. Each NAPPH hospital actively supports the appropriate, safe, and compassionate treatment of the mentally ill. PMID:10296960

  17. Comorbidity and Pattern of Substance Use in Hospitalized Psychiatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sepehrmanesh, Zahra; Ahmadvand, Afshin; Moraveji, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Substance use in patients with psychiatric disorder is an every-day seen. Detection of this comorbidity can significantly affect the treatment of these disorders, as well as substance use. Objectives: This study has been conducted to determine the prevalence and pattern of substance use in hospitalized psychiatric patients. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 210 hospitalized psychiatric patients were selected by simple randomization from all records of hospitalized patients. The instrument of gathering data was a demographic checklist including age, gender, marital status, education, type of disorder and substance abuse and duration of psychiatric disorder. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 16 using Fisher exact and Chi square tests. Results: The mean age of patients was 37.9 years. Most of the patients were male, married and unemployed. The Prevalence of substance use was 36.7%. The most prevalent pattern of substance use was opium, opioid, methamphetamines and other substances (poly substance). The prevalence of substance use in patients with mood disorders was more than the other disorders and the most prevalent substance use in these patients was opium and opioid. Poly substance use was the most prevalent pattern of use (80 %) in psychotic and mood disorders due to substance. Significant difference was seen between genders, marital status, occupation, duration of illness and frequency of substance use (P < 0.05 ), however no significant difference was seen between educational levels, age and substance use. Conclusions: The patients with mood disorders had the highest comorbidity with substance use and concurrent use of poly substance was the most prevalent pattern of use in these patients. Therefore, successful treatment of psychiatric disorders and substance use needs multimodal and more serious interventions. Regarding to the pattern of poly substance use in these patients, careful screening should be performed at admission. PMID:25389488

  18. Elements of Successful School Reentry after Psychiatric Hospitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemens, Elysia V.; Welfare, Laura E.; Williams, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    Psychiatric hospitalization is an intensive intervention designed to stabilize adolescents who are experiencing an acute mental health crisis. Reintegrating to school after discharge from psychiatric hospitalization can be overwhelming for many adolescents (E. V. Clemens, L. E. Welfare, & A. M. Williams, 2010). The authors used a consensual…

  19. Origins of psychiatric hospitalization in medieval Spain.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Jesús; Baldessarini, Ross J; Undurraga, Juan; Sánchez-Moreno, José

    2012-12-01

    Specification of the earliest institution devoted primarily to the treatment of the mentally ill in the western world remains elusive. Uncertainty arises from limited documentation and gradual evolution of most candidate sites from hospices for the poor, foreign, or homeless, or as clinical centers for the care of a range of persons with general medical and psychiatric disorders. Plausible candidates identified in the late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries include Bethlem Asylum in London. Much less often considered are two centers in medieval Spain: the Moorish Maristan at Granada (1365) and the Christian Hospital of Our Lady Mary for Lunatics, the Insane and Innocents at Valencia (1409). Since the early Spanish sites are not well known, we have summarized available information concerning their foundation, facilities, theories and practices, as arising from the cultural and political background of the times and regions. PMID:22350131

  20. Psychiatric Hospitalization among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandell, David S.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined predictors of psychiatric hospitalization among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Data were collected from 760 caregivers of children with ASD. Cox regression was used to determine factors associated with hospitalization. Almost 11% were hospitalized. Youth in single parent homes were more likely to be hospitalized

  1. Characteristics of violent behavior in a large state psychiatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Kraus, John E; Sheitman, Brian B

    2004-02-01

    Violent behavior is a significant problem in psychiatric hospitals. The authors reviewed hospital incident reports to identify the characteristics of violent behavior in a large state psychiatric hospital. They found that a very small percentage of patients accounted for a majority of violent episodes, that rates of violent behavior varied among hospital units, that assaultive behavior was more common than self-harm in the long-term units, and that most commonly the assault victims were other patients. The data support earlier studies demonstrating that a small number of patients are responsible for a majority of violent episodes in a hospital setting. PMID:14762245

  2. An Emergency Psychiatric Service in a General Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Conrad J.; Tyhurst, James S.

    1964-01-01

    The same extensive range of general hospital facilities should be allocated to emergency psychiatric illness as are available for other medical conditions. During the study herein reported, for every three medical consultations in the emergency ward of a large general hospital, two psychiatric consultations were requested. Over a two-year period when 24-hour coverage by psychiatric consultants was instituted, such assessments increased from 148 to 340 (during the first four months of each year); the increase in police referrals was outstanding, rising from 16 to 105. The general wards of the hospital assumed greater responsibility for further medical treatment, while committal to the mental hospital declined. Many more psychiatric patients could have been treated in the general hospital if facilities had been available. The development of an emergency psychiatric service is not an easy process and co-ordination with other psychiatric resources is required. Residents in training face situations in the emergency ward which are not encountered in any other aspect of their clinical experience. PMID:14158957

  3. Psychiatric hospitalization among children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Mandell, David S

    2008-07-01

    This study examined predictors of psychiatric hospitalization among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Data were collected from 760 caregivers of children with ASD. Cox regression was used to determine factors associated with hospitalization. Almost 11% were hospitalized. Youth in single parent homes were more likely to be hospitalized (OR = 2.54), as were youth diagnosed at a later age (OR = 1.10). Engaging in self-injurious behavior (OR = 2.14), aggressive behavior (OR = 4.83), and being diagnosed with depression (OR = 2.48) or obsessive compulsive disorder (OR = 2.35) increased the odds of hospitalization. Risk for hospitalization increased with age and over time. The results suggest early diagnosis and community-based interventions for aggressive and self-injurious behaviors may reduce hospitalizations. PMID:17975720

  4. Children in Foster Care: Before, during, and after Psychiatric Hospitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persi, Joe; Sisson, Megan

    2008-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that foster children are at greater risk for mental health problems than are children in the general population, very little is known about the smaller group of foster children admitted to psychiatric hospitals. The present study sought to determine whether foster children admitted to inpatient care are a distinct…

  5. READMIT: a clinical risk index to predict 30-day readmission after discharge from acute psychiatric units.

    PubMed

    Vigod, Simone N; Kurdyak, Paul A; Seitz, Dallas; Herrmann, Nathan; Fung, Kinwah; Lin, Elizabeth; Perlman, Christopher; Taylor, Valerie H; Rochon, Paula A; Gruneir, Andrea

    2015-02-01

    Our aim was to create a clinically useful risk index, administered prior to discharge, for determining the probability of psychiatric readmission within 30 days of hospital discharge for general psychiatric inpatients. We used population-level sociodemographic and health administrative data to develop a predictive model for 30-day readmission among adults discharged from an acute psychiatric unit in Ontario, Canada (2008-2011), and converted the final model into a risk index system. We derived the predictive model in one-half of the sample (n = 32,749) and validated it in the other half of the sample (n = 32,750). Variables independently associated with 30-day readmission (forming the mnemonic READMIT) were: (R) Repeat admissions; (E) Emergent admissions (i.e. harm to self/others); (D) Diagnoses (psychosis, bipolar and/or personality disorder), and unplanned Discharge; (M) Medical comorbidity; (I) prior service use Intensity; and (T) Time in hospital. Each 1-point increase in READMIT score (range 0-41) increased the odds of 30-day readmission by 11% (odds ratio 1.11, 95% CI 1.10-1.12). The index had moderate discriminative capacity in both derivation (C-statistic = 0.631) and validation (C-statistic = 0.630) datasets. Determining risk of psychiatric readmission for individual patients is a critical step in efforts to address the potentially avoidable high rate of this negative outcome. The READMIT index provides a framework for identifying patients at high risk of 30-day readmission prior to discharge, and for the development, evaluation and delivery of interventions that can assist with optimizing the transition to community care for patients following psychiatric discharge. PMID:25537450

  6. [40 years of toxicomania at the psychiatric hospital in Liège].

    PubMed

    Husquinet, H

    1981-12-01

    Drug abuse was observed during 40 years (1939-1979) in a psychiatric hospital for women (sanatorium Sainte-Agathe, Liège, Belgium). Seventy patients were labelled with that diagnosis, -i.e. 2,9% of 2386 admissions. The frequency of drug addiction grew with years and between 1975 and 1979, outnumbered 10% of all admissions. 3/4 of those patients were previously inmates of other psychiatric clinics and well known in medical urgency services. Morphinomaniacs were the only patients between 1939 and 1949 (11 women). As a rule, they survived and did not come back. No haschich, L.S.D. or heroin addicts were seen: their psychiatric confinement was never required. Beginning in december 1959, barbituromaniacs (58 patients) invaded the wards. Other hypnotics were used as well (e.g. metaqualone). Forty-five per cent of the patients died and the survivors came back and back again, -en masse. The illness is very serious if it starts before 30 years: the risk of death goes to 75%. Barmaids and prostitutes were definitely doing hazardous jobs (5 deaths among 6 cases). Other psychiatric illnesses interfere with toxicomania, especially depression. Four patients committed suicide without hypnotics. To conclude: barbiturates are dangerous drugs and they ought not to be used for insomnia. Benzodiazepine abuse did not occur in the hospital and did not induce fatal issues. Combined with phenothiazines, benzodiazepines can solve nearly all sleep disturbances. PMID:6127976

  7. Effect of Low Birth Weight and Gender on the Need for Adult Psychiatric Hospitalization

    E-print Network

    Manzardo, Ann M.

    2011-12-31

    Background: Low birth weight is associated with increased rates of psychiatric symptomology in childhood but less is known about the risk of adult psychiatric hospitalization. The primary objective of this study is to examine the relationship...

  8. The Use of Physical Restraint in Norwegian Adult Psychiatric Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Background. The use of coercion within the psychiatric services is problematic and raises a range of ethical, legal, and clinical questions. “Physical restraint” is an emergency procedure used in psychiatric hospitals to control patients that pose an imminent physical danger. We wished to review the literature published in scientific peer-reviewed journals describing studies on the use of physical restraint in Norway, in order to identify the current state of knowledge and directions for future research. Design. The databases PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Embase were searched for studies relating to physical restraint (including holding) in Norwegian psychiatric hospitals, supplemented with hand searches. Results. 28 studies were included. Most of the studies were on rates of restraint, but there were also some studies on perceptions of patients and staff, case studies, and ethnographic studies. There was only one intervention study. There are differences in use between wards and institutions, which in part may be explained by differences in patient populations. Staff appear to be less negative to the use of restraint than patients. Conclusions. The studies that were identified were primarily concerned with rates of use and with patients' and staff's perspectives. More interventional studies are needed to move the field forward. PMID:26682211

  9. Coping strategies of hospitalized people with psychiatric disabilities in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui-Ching; Wu, Ching-Kuan; Liao, Jing-Wei; Chang, Li-Hsin; I-Chen, Tang

    2010-03-01

    Research has found that people with psychiatric disabilities Taiwan tended to utilize passive and emotional-focused strategies to cope with their illness unlike Western studies. A self-reported questionnaire that incorporated categories: socio-demographic characteristics, the self-impact of illness, illness adaptation, and coping strategy scale was administrated to 140 persons with psychiatric disabilities routinely hospitalized over a long period of time to explore the strategies of coping with their mental disorders. Analysis of survey data found the sense of helplessness and the overall illness adaptation significantly impact negative emotion coping utilization. Those who felt highly impact by the illness, more sense of helplessness, less actively managing their illness, and more social support availability were more likely to use positive emotion as a coping strategy. The better overall adaption to the illness significantly impact procrastination and previous illness experience utilization. Only a positive coping strategy was found significantly to manage the illness. PMID:19826952

  10. Massage with aromatherapy: effectiveness on anxiety of users with personality disorders in psychiatric hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Thiago da Silva; Braga, Eliana Mara

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the effectiveness of aromatherapy massage using the essential oils (0.5%) of Lavandula angustifolia and Pelargonium graveolens for anxiety reduction in patients with personality disorders during psychiatric hospitalization. METHOD Uncontrolled clinical trial with 50 subjects submitted to six massages with aromatherapy, performed on alternate days, on the cervical and the posterior thoracic regions. Vital data (heart and respiratory rate) were collected before and after each session and an anxiety scale (Trait Anxiety Inventory-State) was applied at the beginning and end of the intervention. The results were statistically analyzed with the chi square test and paired t test. RESULTS There was a statistically significant decrease (p < 0.001) of the heart and respiratory mean rates after each intervention session, as well as in the inventory score. CONCLUSION Aromatherapy has demonstrated effectiveness in anxiety relief, considering the decrease of heart and respiratory rates in patients diagnosed with personality disorders during psychiatric hospitalization. PMID:26107706

  11. Implementing psychiatric day treatment for infants, toddlers, preschoolers and their families: a study from a clinical and organizational perspective

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An increasing number of empirical studies indicate that infants, toddlers and preschoolers may suffer from non-transient mental illnesses featuring developmental psychopathology. A few innovative child psychiatric approaches have been developed to treat infants, toddlers and preschoolers and their families, but have not yet been conceptually presented and discussed in the framework of different healthcare systems. The organizational and clinical experience gained while developing specific approaches may be important across disciplines and guide future developments in psychiatric treatment of infants, toddlers, preschoolers and their families. Results This article introduces the Preschool Family Day Hospital for Infants, Toddlers and Preschoolers and their Families at Münster University Hospital, Germany. This hospital is unique in the German healthcare system with regard to its social-service institution division of labor. Specifically, it uses an intermittent treatment approach and an integrated interactional family psychiatric approach to treat children and their parents as separate patients. This multidisciplinary, developmentally and family-oriented approach includes components of group treatments with children and separate treatments with parents. Specific techniques include video-assisted treatments of the parent–child interaction, psychiatric and psychotherapeutic treatments for parents, and conjoint family therapies that include both parents and siblings. Conclusions The Family Day Hospital for infants, toddlers and preschoolers and their families offers innovative family-oriented treatments for those who suffer from a wide range of severe child psychiatric disorders that cannot be sufficiently treated in outpatient settings. Treatment is based on the need for family-oriented approaches to the early psychiatric treatment of infants, toddlers and preschoolers. Family day hospitals are an innovative approach to preschool child psychiatry that requires further evaluation. PMID:23601961

  12. 42 CFR 409.62 - Lifetime maximum on inpatient psychiatric care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...62 Lifetime maximum on inpatient psychiatric care. There is a lifetime maximum of 190 days on inpatient psychiatric hospital services available...an individual receives benefits for 190 days of care in a psychiatric hospital, no further...

  13. 42 CFR 409.62 - Lifetime maximum on inpatient psychiatric care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...62 Lifetime maximum on inpatient psychiatric care. There is a lifetime maximum of 190 days on inpatient psychiatric hospital services available...an individual receives benefits for 190 days of care in a psychiatric hospital, no further...

  14. 42 CFR 409.62 - Lifetime maximum on inpatient psychiatric care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...62 Lifetime maximum on inpatient psychiatric care. There is a lifetime maximum of 190 days on inpatient psychiatric hospital services available...an individual receives benefits for 190 days of care in a psychiatric hospital, no further...

  15. 42 CFR 409.62 - Lifetime maximum on inpatient psychiatric care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...62 Lifetime maximum on inpatient psychiatric care. There is a lifetime maximum of 190 days on inpatient psychiatric hospital services available...an individual receives benefits for 190 days of care in a psychiatric hospital, no further...

  16. 42 CFR 409.62 - Lifetime maximum on inpatient psychiatric care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...62 Lifetime maximum on inpatient psychiatric care. There is a lifetime maximum of 190 days on inpatient psychiatric hospital services available...an individual receives benefits for 190 days of care in a psychiatric hospital, no further...

  17. 42 CFR 482.61 - Condition of participation: Special medical record requirements for psychiatric hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... medical record requirements for psychiatric hospitals. The medical records maintained by a psychiatric.... Medical records must stress the psychiatric components of the record, including history of findings and... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition of participation: Special medical...

  18. 42 CFR 482.61 - Condition of participation: Special medical record requirements for psychiatric hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... medical record requirements for psychiatric hospitals. The medical records maintained by a psychiatric.... Medical records must stress the psychiatric components of the record, including history of findings and... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition of participation: Special medical...

  19. 42 CFR 482.61 - Condition of participation: Special medical record requirements for psychiatric hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... medical record requirements for psychiatric hospitals. The medical records maintained by a psychiatric.... Medical records must stress the psychiatric components of the record, including history of findings and... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition of participation: Special medical...

  20. 42 CFR 482.61 - Condition of participation: Special medical record requirements for psychiatric hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Special medical record... medical record requirements for psychiatric hospitals. The medical records maintained by a psychiatric.... Medical records must stress the psychiatric components of the record, including history of findings...

  1. 42 CFR 482.61 - Condition of participation: Special medical record requirements for psychiatric hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition of participation: Special medical record... medical record requirements for psychiatric hospitals. The medical records maintained by a psychiatric.... Medical records must stress the psychiatric components of the record, including history of findings...

  2. Tough Transitions: Mental Health Care Professionals' Perception of the Psychiatric Hospital to School Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemens, Elysia V.; Welfare, Laura E.; Williams, Amy M.

    2010-01-01

    Psychiatric reasons are among the most common causes of hospitalization for adolescents. A Consensual Qualitative Research approach was used to explore mental health professionals' perceptions of the needs of adolescents as they transition from psychiatric hospital to school. Academic, social, and emotional domains emerged as important areas of…

  3. Effectiveness of a Brief Care Management Intervention for Reducing Psychiatric Hospitalization Readmissions.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Carole; Holsinger, Brandi; Flanagan, Jenny V; Ayers, Amanda M; Hutchison, Shari L; Terhorst, Lauren

    2014-03-14

    This study examines a recovery-focused care management bridging strategy implemented during time of inpatient stay with the goal to increase engagement in aftercare and reduce early psychiatric readmissions. The sample included 195 individuals who received care from a large psychiatric specialty hospital. Eighty-seven individuals were assigned to receive the intervention, while 108 individuals were assigned to the control group. Individuals in the intervention group received a brief interview prior to inpatient discharge plus usual care, and individuals in the control group received usual care. After controlling for age, living situation, and utilization, individuals in the control group were more likely to be readmitted within 30 days of an index readmission than individuals in the intervention group (OR?=?2.44, p?=?.02). Bridging strategies utilized prior to discharge for individuals at higher risk of early mental health inpatient readmission may be used as an effective alternative to more costly interventions. PMID:24627234

  4. [Wish to change smoking behaviour among staff and patients of a psychiatric hospital].

    PubMed

    Grempler, Julia; Droste-Arndt, Hildegard; Flammer, Erich; Steinert, Tilman

    2012-05-01

    Objective To examine smoking behaviour and motivation to reach abstinence among staff and patients of a psychiatric hospital.Methods In two due day surveys all in-patients and staff of the Centre for Psychiatry Weissenau were interviewed by a questionnaire.Results The response rate was 78.5 %. 442 (48 %) out of 933 subjects (523 patients, 410 staff) were smokers. Patients were smoking more frequently than staff (58 % vs. 34 %) and were more severely nicotine-dependent. Significant gender differences were observed with regard to prevalence and nicotin dependence. 57 % said they wanted to stop smoking and 34 % would appreciate therapeutic offers. There were no significant differences between patients and staff.Conclusions Psychiatric patients are as motivated as staff for offers about smoking cessation. There is a need for therapeutic offers. PMID:22422161

  5. Coping Strategies of Family Members of Hospitalized Psychiatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Phyllis M.; Davis, Bertha L.; Hammond, Pamela V.; Condon, Esther H.; McGee, Zina T.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory research paper investigated the coping strategies of families of hospitalized psychiatric patients and identified their positive and negative coping strategies. In this paper, the coping strategies of 45 family members were examined using a descriptive, correlational, mixed method research approach. Guided by the Neuman Systems Model and using the Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scales and semistructured interviews, this paper found that these family members used more emotion-focused coping strategies than problem-focused coping strategies. The common coping strategies used by family members were communicating with immediate family, acceptance of their situation, passive appraisal, avoidance, and spirituality. The family members also utilized resources and support systems, such as their immediate families, mental health care professionals, and their churches. PMID:21994826

  6. Ethics, patient rights and staff attitudes in Shanghai's psychiatric hospitals

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Adherence to ethical principles in clinical research and practice is becoming topical issue in China, where the prevalence of mental illness is rising, but treatment facilities remain underdeveloped. This paper reports on a study aiming to understand the ethical knowledge and attitudes of Chinese mental health professionals in relation to the process of diagnosis and treatment, informed consent, and privacy protection in clinical trials. Methods A self-administered survey was completed by 1110 medical staff recruited from Shanghai’s 22 psychiatric hospitals. Simple random selection methods were used to identify target individuals from the computerized registry of staff. Results The final sample for analysis consisted 1094 medical staff (including 523 doctors, 542 nurses, 8 pharmacologists and 21 other staff). The majority reported that their medical institutions had not established an Ethics Committee (87.8%) and agreed that Ethics Committees should be set up in their institutions (72.9%). Approximately half (52%) had not received systematic education in ethics, and almost all (89.1%) of the staff thought it was necessary. Nearly all participants (90.0%) knew the Shanghai Mental Health Regulations which was the first local regulations relating to mental health in China, but only 11% and 16.6% respectively knew of the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki. About half (51.8%) thought that the guardian should make the decision as to whether the patient participated in clinical trials or not. Conclusions The study indicates that most psychiatric hospitals in Shanghai have no Medical Ethics Committee. More than half the medical staff had not received systematic education and training in medical ethics and they have insufficient knowledge of the ethical issues related to clinical practice and trials. Training in ethics is recommended for medical staff during their training and as ongoing professional development. PMID:22595041

  7. [Palliative care day hospital and nursing coordination].

    PubMed

    Teillet, Fabienne

    2015-11-01

    The palliative care day hospital is still underdeveloped in France, unlike in Anglo-Saxon countries. Its main mission is to help improve the quality of life at home of the patient suffering from a serious and progressive disease. It offers an inter-disciplinary and global approach in which the nurse's role is quite specific. PMID:26567073

  8. 42 CFR 482.60 - Special provisions applying to psychiatric hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special provisions applying to psychiatric hospitals. 482.60 Section 482.60 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION CONDITIONS OF PARTICIPATION FOR HOSPITALS Requirements for Specialty Hospitals §...

  9. 42 CFR 482.60 - Special provisions applying to psychiatric hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special provisions applying to psychiatric hospitals. 482.60 Section 482.60 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION CONDITIONS OF PARTICIPATION FOR HOSPITALS Requirements for Specialty Hospitals §...

  10. Daily weather variables and affective disorder admissions to psychiatric hospitals.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Stephen; Kinsella, Anthony; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have reported that admission rates in patients with affective disorders are subject to seasonal variation. Notwithstanding, there has been limited evaluation of the degree to which changeable daily meteorological patterns influence affective disorder admission rates. A handful of small studies have alluded to a potential link between psychiatric admission rates and meteorological variables such as environmental temperature (heat waves in particular), wind direction and sunshine. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test, ARIMA and time-series regression analyses to examine whether daily meteorological variables--namely wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, rainfall, hours of sunshine, sunlight radiation and temperature--influence admission rates for mania and depression across 12 regions in Ireland over a 31-year period. Although we found some very weak but interesting trends for barometric pressure in relation to mania admissions, daily meteorological patterns did not appear to affect hospital admissions overall for mania or depression. Our results do not support the small number of papers to date that suggest a link between daily meteorological variables and affective disorder admissions. Further study is needed. PMID:24599495

  11. Daily weather variables and affective disorder admissions to psychiatric hospitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWilliams, Stephen; Kinsella, Anthony; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have reported that admission rates in patients with affective disorders are subject to seasonal variation. Notwithstanding, there has been limited evaluation of the degree to which changeable daily meteorological patterns influence affective disorder admission rates. A handful of small studies have alluded to a potential link between psychiatric admission rates and meteorological variables such as environmental temperature (heat waves in particular), wind direction and sunshine. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test, ARIMA and time-series regression analyses to examine whether daily meteorological variables—namely wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, rainfall, hours of sunshine, sunlight radiation and temperature—influence admission rates for mania and depression across 12 regions in Ireland over a 31-year period. Although we found some very weak but interesting trends for barometric pressure in relation to mania admissions, daily meteorological patterns did not appear to affect hospital admissions overall for mania or depression. Our results do not support the small number of papers to date that suggest a link between daily meteorological variables and affective disorder admissions. Further study is needed.

  12. Architectural design of a secure forensic state psychiatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Dvoskin, Joel A; Radomski, Steven J; Bennett, Charles; Olin, Jonathan A; Hawkins, Robert L; Dotson, Linda A; Drewnicky, Irene N

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the architectural design of a secure forensic state psychiatric hospital. The project combined input from staff at all levels of the client organization, outside consultants, and a team of experienced architects. The design team was able to create a design that maximized patient dignity and privacy on one hand, and the ability of staff to observe all patient activity on the other. The design centers around 24-bed units, broken into smaller living wings of eight beds each. Each eight-bed living wing has its own private bathrooms (two) and showers (two), as well as a small living area solely reserved for these eight patients and their guests. An indoor-outdoor dayroom allows patients to go outside whenever they choose, while allowing staff to continue observing them. The heart of the facility is a large treatment mall, designed to foster the acquisition of social, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral skills that will help patients to safely return to their communities. PMID:12239707

  13. Adult general psychiatric patients served in Nebraska's state hospitals: patient characteristics and needs.

    PubMed

    Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu; Watkins, Kate; Ryan, Steve; Harvey, Jim; Shaffer, Blaine

    2015-02-01

    This study identified the characteristics and needs of adults discharged from state psychiatric hospitals. A retrospective analysis of data on patients discharged from adult psychiatric units of three state psychiatric hospitals in Nebraska 2005-2008 was conducted. Diagnoses were classified into six groups, and Axis III data from the state psychiatric hospitals provided information about medical comorbidity. Only 12% of admitted patients had private insurance or could pay for their own treatment. Almost all discharged patients (95%) had a diagnosis of serious mental illness, and substance abuse (68%) and personality disorder (68%) were common, as were significant general health problems. Fourteen percent of patients used emergency services five or more times during the study period. Greater efforts must be made to diagnose, treat, and monitor major somatic illnesses and to better understand the factors that contribute to readmission and emergency service use in this population. PMID:24691573

  14. Implementing the clinical nurse specialist role in a regional state psychiatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Michael; Caldwell, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Elaine; McQuaide, Teresa A

    2008-01-01

    Clinical nurse specialists (CNSs) are essential to enhancing psychiatric-mental health nursing within state psychiatric hospital settings. This article presents a project focused on the CNSs in a state psychiatric hospital to expand their clinical role to increase the quality of care to individuals with serious mental illness and their numbers in other state psychiatric hospitals. As the patient population served in these settings becomes more complex, it is critical that advanced practice nurses are provided with appropriate updated state-of-the-art advanced knowledge and skills to collaborate within the interdisciplinary team. Furthermore, because of the complexity of the client and systems characteristics, the CNSs' clinical leadership is critical to promote the best practices in direct care services as well as provide support to various levels of nursing through staff development and training, role modeling, and mentoring of new staff. PMID:18418116

  15. The Use of Movies to Facilitate Family Engagement in Psychiatric Hospitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, David

    2007-01-01

    Studies indicate that the impact of family involvement may be the most important predictor of successful psychiatric hospitalization of adolescents. Yet the ability to engage both an adolescent and his or her family in family therapy in the context of what is often an involuntary hospitalization is a major challenge. A number of promising…

  16. How to evacuate a psychiatric hospital: a Hurricane Katrina success story.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Joan; Lackey, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the successful evacuation of an entire psychiatric hospital from New Orleans, Louisiana, to Memphis, Tennessee, on a weekend night. The destination site was 400 miles away and buses were used for transport. The evacuation occurred shortly before Hurricane Katrina struck New Orleans and included 73 adult, adolescent, and child acute psychiatric patients. Thirty-five staff members also participated in the evacuation with their families and pets. This report is significant because little is known about how to implement a disaster plan that involves the transport of an entire psychiatric hospital-patients, nurses, physicians, staff, and family members--to another city. The knowledge gained can also benefit psychiatric nurses and their organizations when establishing or modifying their disaster plans. PMID:18251350

  17. [State of suicide and effective efforts in suicide prevention in psychiatric hospitals and clinics].

    PubMed

    Orui, Masatsugu; Hirokawa, Seiko; Akazawa, Masato; Tachimori, Hisateru; Kawano, Kenji; Mori, Takao; Akita, Hiroya; Takeshima, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    Although factors related to suicide are complicated, mental health disorders are an important risk factor. It is anticipated that suicide prevention measures will be implemented from the perspective of improved psychiatric medicine. No national-scale study has been carried out in Japan on the state of psychiatric medicine and its influence on suicide since 2000. Moreover, many efforts not intended for suicide prevention have been shown to be effective for this purpose. Here, we conducted surveys to obtain basic data on suicide prevention and improvements in mental health care among 1,728 psychiatric hospitals and clinics in Japan in 2010. The incidence of suicide in psychiatric hospitals and clinics from January to December 2009 was estimated to be 100.5 for outpatients and 154.5 for inpatients per 100,000 patients. Regarding the duration from consultation to suicide, 87% of outpatients committed suicide less than one month following their last consultation. Moreover, approximately two-thirds of patients had undergone consultations for more than one year. A number of suicides in psychiatric hospitals and clinics occurred while patients were continuously undergoing treatment. Efforts shown to be effective in suicide prevention included risk assessment with multiple medical staff (i.e., doctors and nurses), a 24-hour crisis line, and a follow-up system for discontinued outpatients. We expect that the results of this survey will aid in the implementation of effective suicide prevention in psychiatric medicine. PMID:23346816

  18. MobiDay: a Personalized Context-Aware Mobile Service for Day Hospital Workflow Support

    E-print Network

    Ricci, Francesco

    MobiDay: a Personalized Context-Aware Mobile Service for Day Hospital Workflow Support Patrick, Italy fricci@unibz.it Manfred Mitterer Hospital of Meran-Merano, Italy manfred.mitterer@asbm eran service, integrated in the hospital information system, aimed at supporting the user task in a day

  19. Effects of Multiple Maltreatment Experiences among Psychiatrically Hospitalized Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boxer, Paul; Terranova, Andrew M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Relying on indicators coded from information collected routinely during intake assessments at a secure inpatient psychiatric facility, this study examined the extent to which different forms of maltreatment accounted for variations in youths' emotional and behavioral problems. Methods: Clinical information was reviewed for a large (N =…

  20. Borderline Personality Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder at Psychiatric Discharge Predict General Hospital Admission for Self-Harm.

    PubMed

    Mellesdal, Liv; Gjestad, Rolf; Johnsen, Erik; Jørgensen, Hugo A; Oedegaard, Ketil J; Kroken, Rune A; Mehlum, Lars

    2015-12-01

    We investigated whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was predictor of suicidal behavior even when adjusting for comorbid borderline personality disorder (BPD) and other salient risk factors. To study this, we randomly selected 308 patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital because of suicide risk. Baseline interviews were performed within the first days of the stay. Information concerning the number of self-harm admissions to general hospitals over the subsequent 6 months was retrieved through linkage with the regional hospital registers. A censored regression analysis of hospital admissions for self-harm indicated significant associations with both PTSD (? = .21, p < .001) and BPD (? = .27, p < .001). A structural model comprising two latent BPD factors, dysregulation and relationship problems, as well as PTSD and several other variables, demonstrated that PTSD was an important correlate of the number of self-harm admissions to general hospitals (B = 1.52, p < .01). Dysregulation was associated directly with self-harm (B = 0.28, p < .05), and also through PTSD. These results suggested that PTSD and related dysregulation problems could be important treatment targets for a reduction in the risk of severe self-harm in high-risk psychiatric patients. PMID:26581019

  1. Validation of the Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes (ChIPS) with Psychiatrically Hospitalized Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swenson, Lance P.; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Hollander, Beth L. G.; Dyl, Jennifer; Rizzo, Christie J.; Steinley, Douglas L.; Spirito, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the concurrent validity of the Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes (ChIPS) for adolescent inpatients aged 12 to 18. The results reveal moderate agreement between ChIPS diagnoses and Schedule for Affective Disorder sand Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime version diagnoses.

  2. Illness Severity and Psychiatric Hospitalization Rates Among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders

    PubMed Central

    Sentell, Tetine; Unick, George Jay; Ahn, Hyeong Jun; Braun, Kathryn L.; Miyamura, Jill; Shumway, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Objective The study objective was to fill research gaps about inpatient psychiatric service utilization among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AA/PIs). Methods Rates of psychiatric hospitalization, illness severity, and length of stay were compared among AA/PI adults overall and across diagnoses (schizophrenia, depression, bipolar, anxiety, and other psychiatric disorders identified by All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Groups) by using discharge data from all hospitalizations in Hawaii from December 2006 to 2010. Multivariable models adjusted for gender, age, payer, and residence. Results In multivariable analyses of total psychiatric hospitalizations, Chinese (rate ratio [RR]=.22), Japanese (RR=.23), Filipinos (RR=.30), and Native Hawaiians (RR=.37) had significantly lower rates than whites. Native Hawaiians had significantly higher hospitalization rates compared with other AA/PI groups. Length of stay was significantly longer for Chinese (length of stay ratio [LOSR]=1.53), Filipinos (LOSR=1.20), and Japanese (LOSR=1.19) compared with whites, whereas severity of illness was significantly higher for Japanese (odds ratio [OR]=1.36) and Filipinos (OR=1.30). Within specific diagnoses, Native Hawaiians had higher hospitalization rates than other AA/PI groups for depression, bipolar disorder, and anxiety disorder. Chinese, Japanese, and Filipinos had significantly higher illness severity or longer stays than whites for at least one diagnostic category. Conclusions AA/PI subgroups had lower psychiatric hospitalization rates than whites, but rates varied across AA/PI subgroups. Native Hawaiians had higher hospitalization rates for many diagnoses. Chinese, Japanese, and Filipinos had greater illness severity or longer stays than whites overall and for some diagnoses, whereas Native Hawaiians did not. Disaggregating AA/PI groups provides important insight into mental health services utilization and need. PMID:23945849

  3. Prognostic Patterns in Self-Report, Relative Report, and Professional Evaluation Measures for Hospitalized and Day-Care Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sappington, A. A.; Michaux, Mary H.

    1975-01-01

    This study attempted to determine differences between patients who relapse and those who do not in both hospital and day-care settings. Subjects were 142 adult psychiatric patients. Three groups of measures were used: one based on professional evaluation, one based on self-report, and one based on relative report. (Author)

  4. Enquiry about the Needs of Children Whose Mothers Are Admitted to Psychiatric Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manderson, J.; McCune, N.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess whether children's needs are taken into consideration in female patients who are admitted to an adult psychiatric hospital. A retrospective case note audit of 100 female inpatients aged between 18 and 55 years over a 6-month period were randomly selected. The medical and nursing case notes of patients with…

  5. White Matter Hyperintensities and Their Associations with Suicidality in Psychiatrically Hospitalized Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Stefan; Noam, Gil G.; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Kwon, Bae J.; Clark, Megan A.; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Increasingly, researchers and clinicians are recognizing that there may be biological markers associated with increased risk of suicide. The objective of this study was to compare white matter hyperintensities in psychiatrically hospitalized children and youth with and without a history of suicide attempt while controlling for other…

  6. Working Models of Attachment in Psychiatrically Hospitalized Adolescents: Relation to Psychopathology and Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenstein, Diana S.; Horowitz, Harvey A.

    This study examined the role of attachment in adolescent psychopathology among psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. Subjects consisted of 60 adolescents and 27 of their mothers. Measures included the Adult Attachment Interview classification for both the adolescents and their mothers, and a battery of diagnostic and personality assessment of…

  7. 42 CFR 482.60 - Special provisions applying to psychiatric hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special provisions applying to psychiatric hospitals. 482.60 Section 482.60 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION CONDITIONS OF PARTICIPATION...

  8. Assaultive Behavior in State Psychiatric Hospitals: Differences Between Forensic and Nonforensic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linhorst, Donald M.; Scott, Lisa Parker

    2004-01-01

    Forensic patients are occupying an increasingly large number of beds in state psychiatric hospitals. The presence of these mentally ill offenders has raised concerns about the risk they present to nonforensic patients. This study compared the rate of assaults and factors associated with assaultive behavior among 308 nonforensic patients and two…

  9. 42 CFR 482.62 - Condition of participation: Special staff requirements for psychiatric hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... program. (d) Standard: Nursing services. The hospital must have a qualified director of psychiatric nursing services. In addition to the director of nursing, there must be adequate numbers of registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and mental health workers to provide nursing care necessary under...

  10. A Functional Model of Quality Assurance for Psychiatric Hospitals and Corresponding Staffing Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamis-Gould, Edna; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A model for quality assurance (QA) in psychiatric hospitals is described. Its functions (general QA, utilization review, clinical records, evaluation, management information systems, risk management, and infection control), subfunctions, and corresponding staffing requirements are reviewed. This model was designed to foster standardization in QA…

  11. Racial Disparities in Mental Health Outcomes after Psychiatric Hospital Discharge among Individuals with Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eack, Shaun M.; Newhill, Christina E.

    2012-01-01

    Racial disparities in mental health outcomes have been widely documented in noninstitutionalized community psychiatric samples, but few studies have specifically examined the effects of race among individuals with the most severe mental illnesses. A sample of 925 individuals hospitalized for severe mental illness was followed for a year after…

  12. Mothers with Severe Psychiatric Illness and Their Newborns: A Hospital-Based Model of Perinatal Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Ana; Merminod, Gaelle, Schechter, Daniel S.

    2009-01-01

    Women with severe psychiatric illness face numerous risks and challenges during pregnancy and as parents. Mental health professionals can help these mothers and their infants by supporting the attachment relationship and by providing the external supports that are necessary for successful parenting. The authors describe a hospital-based…

  13. 42 CFR 482.62 - Condition of participation: Special staff requirements for psychiatric hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... nurses, licensed practical nurses, and mental health workers to provide nursing care necessary under each... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition of participation: Special staff requirements for psychiatric hospitals. 482.62 Section 482.62 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE &...

  14. Hospital Providers: The Day After FDA Approval

    PubMed Central

    DeKoven, Mitchell; McCagh, Brian; Zoch, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    Hospitals have a lot at stake when new biologic drugs and devices hit the market. Cooperation among medical and administrative leaders can help providers avoid some harrowing financial pitfalls – while improving patient satisfaction. PMID:23393477

  15. Integrating psychosocial rehabilitation into the hospital psychiatric service.

    PubMed

    Bell, M D; Ryan, E R

    1984-10-01

    Psychosocial rehabilitation services, while sorely needed by patients with prolonged mental illness, are not usually offered as part of hospital psychiatry. The authors describe the Veterans Resource Program (VRP), a hospital-based psychosocial rehabilitation program, as a model for introducing rehabilitation services into a hospital psychiatry system. Its perceived residential treatment environment was found to be more practically oriented and to provide more autonomy for patients than did an intensive treatment unit, while still possessing many supportive relationship characteristics. The authors found that the VRP patients had very low dropout and relapse rates; VRP patients also had better recidivism and employment rates compared with baseline rates and with patients in two comparison programs. These results suggest that integrating rehabilitation into hospital psychiatry improves patient care. PMID:6489948

  16. Overnight hospitalization of acutely ill day hospital patients.

    PubMed

    Turner, V E; Hoge, M A

    1991-06-01

    As the trend toward community-based treatment of the seriously mentally ill has continued, partial hospital programs have admitted an increasing number of highly symptomatic individuals. As a result, patient crises occur more often in these programs, and staff have had to develop novel crisis intervention strategies that do not rely on standard hospital care. One such strategy involves the use of "overnight hospitalization" or a "backup bed" to provide temporary safety and clinical management with the goal of returning the patient to the partial hospital within 24 hr. Given the lack of data on this intervention the present study was designed to provide further information about the implementation and effectiveness of this clinical strategy. The authors outline the rationale and procedures for a backup bed system and provide data on outcome that is drawn from an examination of backup bed utilization in a public-sector mental-health setting over a 1-year period. Clinical implications of the findings for future use of overnight hospitalization with partial hospital patients are reviewed. PMID:10114455

  17. Schizophrenia and tobacco smoking in a Spanish psychiatric hospital.

    PubMed

    LLerena, Adrián; de la Rubia, Alfredo; Peñas-Lledó, Eva M; Diaz, Francisco J; de Leon, Jose

    2003-04-01

    This study in a Spanish hospital replicated two US studies suggesting that schizophrenia is associated with smoking when compared with other severe mental illnesses. Neither antipsychotics nor institutionalism could explain this relationship. Seventy of the 100 schizophrenic and 53 of the 100 non-schizophrenic inpatients were current smokers. After correcting for confounding factors, schizophrenia increased the risk of smoking by 2- to 3-fold. Heavy smoking was not associated with schizophrenia. PMID:12591592

  18. Post-Traumatic Stress, Trauma-Informed Care, and Compassion Fatigue in Psychiatric Hospital Staff: A Correlational Study.

    PubMed

    Jacobowitz, William; Moran, Christine; Best, Cheryl; Mensah, Lucy

    2015-11-01

    Assault of staff in psychiatric hospitals is a frequent occurrence, and studies indicate that hospital staff are at risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We performed a correlational study with a convenience sample of 172 staff in a psychiatric hospital and compared the rate of traumatic events (TEs), resilience, confidence, and compassion fatigue to PTSD symptoms (PTSS). Regression analyses identified two variables that were unique predictors of PTSS: (1) trauma-informed care (TIC) meeting attendance and (2) burnout symptoms. Severe TEs, age, and compassion satisfaction also contributed to the model. Attention to these factors may help reduce PTSS in psychiatric staff. PMID:26631861

  19. Racial disparities during admission to an academic psychiatric hospital in a large urban area.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jane E; Heads, Angela M; Cho, Raymond Y; Lane, Scott D; Soares, Jair C

    2015-11-01

    Multiple studies confirm that African Americans are less likely than non-Hispanic whites to receive needed mental health services. Research has consistently shown that African Americans are under-represented in outpatient mental health treatment settings and are over-represented in inpatient psychiatric settings. Further, African Americans are more likely to receive a diagnosis of schizophrenia and are less likely receive an affective disorder diagnosis during inpatient psychiatric hospitalization compared to non-Hispanic white patients, pointing to a need for examining factors contributing to mental health disparities. Using Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Service Use, this study examined predisposing, enabling and need factors differentially associated with health service utilization among African American and non-Hispanic white patients (n=5183) during psychiatric admission. We conducted univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to examine both main effects and interactions. In the multivariate model, African American race at admission was predicted by multiple factors including younger age, female gender, multiple psychiatric hospitalizations, elevated positive and negative symptoms of psychosis, a diagnosis of schizophrenia and substance use, as well as having housing and commercial insurance. Additionally, screening positive for cannabis use at intake was found to moderate the relationship between being female and African American. Our study findings highlight the importance of examining mental health disparities using a conceptual framework developed for vulnerable populations (such as racial minorities and patients with co-occurring substance use). PMID:26555499

  20. Discharge Outcomes in Seniors Hospitalized for More than 30 Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozyrskyj, Anita; Black, Charlyn; Chateau, Dan; Steinbach, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    Hospitalization is a sentinel event that leads to loss of independence for many seniors. This study of long-stay hospitalizations (more than 30 days) in seniors was undertaken to identify risk factors for not going home, to characterize patients with risk factors who did go home and to describe one year outcomes following home discharge. Using…

  1. Predicting days in hospital using health insurance claims.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yang; Schreier, Gunter; Chang, David C W; Neubauer, Sandra; Liu, Ying; Redmond, Stephen J; Lovell, Nigel H

    2015-07-01

    Health-care administrators worldwide are striving to lower the cost of care while improving the quality of care given. Hospitalization is the largest component of health expenditure. Therefore, earlier identification of those at higher risk of being hospitalized would help health-care administrators and health insurers to develop better plans and strategies. In this paper, a method was developed, using large-scale health insurance claims data, to predict the number of hospitalization days in a population. We utilized a regression decision tree algorithm, along with insurance claim data from 242?075 individuals over three years, to provide predictions of number of days in hospital in the third year, based on hospital admissions and procedure claims data. The proposed method performs well in the general population as well as in subpopulations. Results indicate that the proposed model significantly improves predictions over two established baseline methods (predicting a constant number of days for each customer and using the number of days in hospital of the previous year as the forecast for the following year). A reasonable predictive accuracy (AUC =0.843) was achieved for the whole population. Analysis of two subpopulations-namely elderly persons aged 63 years or older in 2011 and patients hospitalized for at least one day in the previous year-revealed that the medical information (e.g., diagnosis codes) contributed more to predictions for these two subpopulations, in comparison to the population as a whole. PMID:25680222

  2. [Cooperative model between psychiatric hospitals aiming at quality management of coercive measures].

    PubMed

    Ketelsen, Regina; Zechert, Christian; Driessen, Martin

    2007-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Since 1996 three, meanwhile eight, psychiatric hospitals have been working closely together in a multidisciplinary team aiming at improving quality management and reducing the frequency and duration of coercive measures, respectively. METHODS Development, aims, and functioning of the cooperation are described, and selected data of comparisons of documented restraints and of coercive measures in one of the hospitals (1998-2004) are presented. RESULTS This way of cooperation was conductive to changes in organizational policies and practices of coercive measures and, in parts, resulted in reducing coercive measures. CONCLUSIONS The cooperation was effective in improving quality management and implementation of changes in practice of coercive measures. PMID:17394112

  3. The right to vote and voting patterns of hospitalized psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Howard, G; Anthony, R

    1977-01-01

    Hospitalized psychiatric patients have traditionally been denied their right to vote. This right was restored in 1972 when the Queens Board of Elections established a registration and polling site on the Creedmore Hospital grounds. A patient education program stimulated interest in current affairs and facilitated informed voting. Gross analysis of patient-voting patterns showed no significant difference from the community at large. However, deeper analysis suggests that the patient vote was independent of the borough of residence, tending to be more Democratic-Liberal and less Republican-Conservative. Furthermore, the patient vote was seen to reflect thoughfulness and awareness of relevant self-interest. PMID:887688

  4. The effects of state psychiatric hospital waitlist policies on length of stay and time to readmission.

    PubMed

    Holdsworth La, Elizabeth; Zhu, Ruoqing; Hassmiller Lich, Kristen; Ellis, Alan R; Swartz, Marvin S; Kosorok, Michael R; Morrissey, Joseph P

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the effects of a waitlist policy for state psychiatric hospitals on length of stay and time to readmission using data from North Carolina for 2004-2010. Cox proportional hazards models tested the hypothesis that patients were discharged "quicker-but-sicker" post-waitlist, as hospitals struggled to manage admission delays and quickly admit waitlisted patients. Results refute this hypothesis, indicating that waitlists were associated with increased length of stay and time to readmission. Further research is needed to evaluate patients' clinical outcomes directly and to examine the impact of state hospital waitlists in other areas, such as state hospital case mix, local emergency departments, and outpatient mental health agencies. PMID:24965771

  5. Effectiveness of an intervention to improve day centre services for people with psychiatric disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Eklund, Mona; Gunnarsson, A Birgitta; Sandlund, Mikael; Leufstadius, Christel

    2014-01-01

    Background/aim Day centres for people with psychiatric disabilities need to be evaluated for effectiveness in order to provide the best possible support. This study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of a tailor-made intervention to improve day centre services for people with psychiatric disabilities. Methods The intervention was devised to bridge identified gaps in the services and lasted for 14 months. Eight centres were allotted to the intervention (55 attendees) or comparison condition (51 attendees). Fidelity to the intervention and major events in the day centres were assessed. The outcomes were degree of meaningfulness found in the day centre occupations, satisfaction with the rehabilitation received, satisfaction with everyday occupations and quality of life. Results The fidelity to the intervention was good, but more positive events, such as new occupational opportunities, had taken place in the comparison units. No differences were identified between the intervention and the comparison group regarding changes from baseline to the 14-month follow-up in perceived meaningfulness among day centre occupations, satisfaction with everyday occupations or quality of life. Conclusions The intervention seemed ineffective, but the positive events in the comparison group resembled the measures included in the tailor-made interventions. This first intervention study in the day centre context has hopefully helped to generate hypotheses and methods for future research. PMID:24571494

  6. [Closing forensic psychiatric hospitals in Italy: a new deal for mental health care?].

    PubMed

    Casacchia, Massimo; Malavolta, Maurizio; Bianchini, Valeria; Giusti, Laura; Di Michele, Vittorio; Giosuè, Patricia; Ruggeri, Mirella; Biondi, Massimo; Roncone, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The date of March 31, 2015, following the Law 81/2014, has marked a historical transition with the final closure of the six forensic psychiatric hospitals in Italy. This law identifies a new pathway of care that involves small-scale high therapeutic profile facilities (Residenze per la Esecuzione della Misura di Sicurezza, REMS) instead of the old forensic psychiatric hospitals. The Law promotes a new recovery-oriented rehabilitation approach for the persons with mental disorders who committed a criminal offence, but lack criminal responsibility and deemed as socially dangerous. After a brief description of what happens abroad, this article highlights the positive aspects of the law that, as a whole, has to be considered innovative and unavoidable. The main debated problems are also reviewed, including the lack of changes to the Criminal Code; the improper equation between insanity and mental illness and social dangerousness; the evaluation of "socially dangerousness", based solely on "subjective qualities" of the person, assessed out of his/her context, without paying attention to family and social conditions suitable for discharge; the expensive implementation of the REMS, mainly based on security policies and less on care and rehabilitation, the delay in their construction, and the search for residential alternatives structures; the uncertain boundaries of professional responsibility. Finally, several actions are suggested that can support the implementation of the law: information programs addressed to the general population; training activities for mental health professionals; systematic monitoring and evaluation of the outcomes of the care provided to the forensic psychiatric population; implementation of Agreement Protocols and a better cooperation with the judiciary. Scientific societies dealing with psychosocial rehabilitation need to be involved in such issues relating to the identification of the best care and rehabilitation pathways, which should be implemented following closure of forensic psychiatric hospitals. PMID:26489069

  7. The outcomes of psychiatric inpatients by proportion of experienced psychiatrists and nurse staffing in hospital: New findings on improving the quality of mental health care in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Sun Jung; Jang, Sung-In; Hahm, Myung-Il; Kim, Seung Ju; Lee, Seo Yoon; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-10-30

    Readmission rates for mental health care are higher in South Korea than other Organization for Economic Development (OECD) countries. Therefore, it is worthwhile to continue investigating how to reduce readmissions. Taking a novel approach, we determined the relationship between psychiatrist experience and mental health care readmission rates. We used National Health Insurance claim data (N=21,315) from 81 hospitals to analyze readmissions within 30 days of discharge for "mood disorders" or "schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders" during 2010-2013. In this study, multilevel models that included both patient and hospital-level variables were analyzed to examine associations with readmission. Readmissions within 30 days of discharge accounted for 1079 (5.1%) claims. Multilevel analysis demonstrated that the proportion of experienced psychiatrists at a hospital was inversely associated with risk of readmission (OR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.74-0.84 per 10% increase in experienced psychiatrists). Readmission rates for psychiatric disorders within 30 days of discharge were lower in hospitals with a higher number of nurses (OR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.94-0.96 per 10 nurses). In conclusion, health policymakers and hospital managers should make an effort to reduce readmissions for psychiatric disorders and other diseases by considering the role that physician experience plays and nurse staffing. PMID:26260566

  8. Predicting time to readmission in patients with recent histories of recurrent psychiatric hospitalization: a matched-control survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Schmutte, Timothy; Dunn, Christine L; Sledge, William H

    2010-12-01

    The most robust predictor of future psychiatric hospitalization is the number of previous admissions. About half of psychiatric inpatients with histories of repeated hospitalizations are readmitted within 12 months. This study sought to determine which patient characteristics predicted time-to-readmission within 12 months after controlling for the number of previous hospitalizations in 75 adults with recent histories of recurrent admissions and 75 matched controls. Results revealed multiple clinical and demographic between-group differences at index hospitalization. However, the only predictors of shorter time-to-readmission in multivariate Cox proportional hazards were unemployment (hazards ratio = 9.26) and residential living status (hazards ratio = 2.05) after controlling for prior hospitalizations (hazard ratio = 1.24). Unemployment and residential living status were not proxies of psychosis or moderated by illness severity or comorbid substance use. Results suggest that early psychiatric readmission may be more influenced by residential and employment status than by severe mental illness. PMID:21135635

  9. Soviet special psychiatric hospitals. Where the system was criminal and the inmates were sane.

    PubMed

    Adler, N; Gluzman, S

    1993-12-01

    The subversion of psychiatric intervention for political purposes in the USSR during the 1970s and 1980s resulted in both intra-psychic and subsequent adaptational dysfunction in those dissidents who physically survived it. Incarceration in special psychiatric hospitals subjected the inmates to a sense of helplessness under the control of a malevolent power, futility, despair, danger from close and contentious contact with hardened criminals and the violently insane, overdosage with mind-altering and body-distorting neuroleptic drugs, and a Kafkaesque ambiguity concerning the specific terms of instutionalisation. Discharge did not bring release from continued threats and the eroded social networks to which the inmates returned subjected them to a new set of stressors. While some families remained intact and provided necessary support during the re-entry period, many families had been destroyed either by the circumstances of the family member's incarceration or by the length of the victim's stay in the psychiatric hospital. Wives left, people died, friends deserted, jobs evaporated, and often there was not even a home to accept them. Social agencies were either hostile or indifferent to their plight. Many felt like they had been thrown overboard from a prison ship without a life preserver. It was the proverbial transition from the frying pan into the fire. PMID:8306112

  10. Exit procedures of forensic psychiatric hospitals in The Netherlands: current problems and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Tigges, L C

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, I have outlined both the legal framework and the organizational structure of the Dutch system of hospital order treatment. I have also dealt with a number of developments, such as the changing composition of the patient population and the disappointing results achieved with sexually violent patients. In addition, I have described a number of developments in the field of exit procedures: the lack of interim rehabilitation facilities, the need for constant supervision of some patients after completion of their hospital order, and the critical attitude of the courts towards recommendations for the extension of hospital orders. Finally, I have issued a plea for comparative international research of a descriptive nature aimed at improving the quality of forensic psychiatric care worldwide. PMID:10114434

  11. Psychiatric casualties in the Pacific during World War II: servicemen hospitalised in a Brisbane mental hospital.

    PubMed

    Mellsop, G W; Duraiappah, V; Priest, J A

    World War II created many psychiatric casualties but precise incidences were not accurately established. Battle shock was under-reported as some commanding officers were reluctant to admit that their men experienced battle stress. The objective in triage of any casualties was to retain as many patients in the war zone as possible, if further useful service was feasible. This also applied to soldiers with stress-related symptoms, who were treated in base hospitals as near to an operational zone as possible. The main treating maxims were "immediacy, proximity and expectancy", which involved rapid early treatment in the war zone, hoping for an early return to duty (which often meant active duty). Only those with severe psychiatric illness were sent back to their home country. The medical officer had to be sure that the patient had not responded to treatment before sending him home. During the war, the terminology used for psychological responses to the stress of combat was derived from several classifications in textbooks. Psychiatric nomenclature, barely adequate for civilian psychiatry, was totally inadequate for military psychiatry during that period. The aim of classification was to facilitate data collection rather than to provide definitive diagnoses. Psychiatric therapies during World War II were, at least to some degree, diagnostically non-specific. Diagnosis varied according to the soldier's proximity to the war zone (i.e., less severe diagnoses were given to men closer to the frontline, who would be required in battle). In addition, as psychiatrists were rarely available, medical officers without relevant (or having only limited) specialty training usually diagnosed and treated soldiers with psychiatric problems. At the beginning of the war, traumatic psychiatric reactions were classified into psychoneurosis, anxiety state and anxiety reaction, psychoneurosis mixed, and conversion hysteria. By the end of the war, the United States Surgeon General released a revised nomenclature with two new diagnostic categories: transient personality reactions to acute and special stress; and neurotic-type reactions to routine military stress. It was not until the 1950s that formal criteria for the diagnosis of trauma appeared, in the first diagnostic and statistical manual (DSM-I) of the American Psychiatric Association. PMID:8538560

  12. Outcome at discharge for clients in a psychiatric day care program.

    PubMed

    Inoue, K; Kadoya, K; Iwashige, T; Tadai, T; Tani, N

    1992-03-01

    The effectiveness of a psychiatric day care program was assessed in terms of the outcome at discharge for 79 clients. One-third of the clients were employed, either full-time or part-time (in case of students, at school), during the postprogram period of three months or more. Another one-third left the program prematurely with or without exacerbation of psychotic symptoms. Clients having premature termination were significantly less adherent to outpatient clinic visits and/or psychotropic medication. Family's understanding of and cooperation in the program were significantly less favorable in clients with early termination. The possible strategies for reducing the dropouts were discussed. PMID:1635335

  13. A Qualitative Analysis Exploring Explanatory Models of Aggression and Violence in a Small Cohort of Rural Psychiatrically Hospitalized Adolescents, Their Parents, and Selected Hospital Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Daniel C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the etiology and cultural underpinnings of adolescent violence as collective case study analysis of three inter-related groups: psychiatrically hospitalized rural adolescents, their parent/guardian, and various hospital staff. Violence among adolescents is a serious societal issue that has had varying…

  14. Dromokaition Psychiatric Hospital of Athens: from its establishment in 1887 to the era of deinstitutionalization.

    PubMed

    Fiste, Markella; Ploumpidis, Dimitrios; Tsiamis, Costas; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Liappas, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Dromokaition Psychiatric Hospital opened its doors in 1887, following the donation made by Zorzis Dromokaitis from the island of Chios. Private donations and all forms of charities had contributed to a large extent in the establishment of hospitals across Greece, during the late 19th and the early 20th century. Dromokaition was one of them but it was also unique, as it was the first psychiatric hospital in Athens, admitting patients from every part of the country. This paper aimed at highlighting the long service of the institution through the different historical periods the country went through. We present the chronicle of its foundation, the development of its inner structure, and the medical and organizational influences which it received, along the way. The therapeutic methods used during the first decades of its operation reflected the corresponding European standards of the time. As a model institution from its foundation, it followed closely the prevailing European guidelines, throughout its historical path, either as an independent institution or as an integrated one within the National Health Service. PMID:25694790

  15. Sexual dysfunctions in the patients hospitalized in psychiatric wards compared to other specialized wards in Isfahan, Iran, in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadzadeh, Gholamhossain; Shahin, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Having pleasurable sexual intercourses plays a major role in marital life satisfaction. Many of the medical and psychiatric disorders may affect the sexual function of the patients. The present study aims to investigate the relative frequency of sexual dysfunctions in the patients hospitalized in psychiatric wards and that of the patients in other specialized wards. Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive-analytical, cross-sectional one, carried out on 900 patients hospitalized in psychiatric, cardiac, orthopedic, ophthalmology, and dermatology and plastic surgery wards of 5 hospitals in Isfahan. Data collection tools included demographic questionnaire and Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX). Results: Sexual dysfunction in the patients hospitalized in psychiatric wards (38%) was significantly higher than in the patients in other wards (27%), (P = 0.00). Among the patients hospitalized in psychiatric wards, those with bipolar disorder (37.3%) had the highest prevalence rate of sexual dysfunction. The patients with schizophrenia, major depression, substance abuse, and anxiety disorders had the following rates respectively. Among the patients in non-psychiatric wards, those in cardiac wards (37.1%) had the highest prevalence rate of sexual dysfunction. There was a significant relationship between the drug uses, mostly psychiatric drugs especially anti-psychotics, and the occurrence of sexual dysfunction. Conclusion: Considering the significant relative frequency of sexual dysfunction in psychiatric patients and undesired effects of simultaneous occurrence of both of these disorders in the patients, more emphasis is recommended to be placed on the prevention and proper treatment of these disorders in the patients. PMID:26623400

  16. 42 CFR 424.13 - Requirements for inpatient services of hospitals other than psychiatric hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... hospitalization when a SNF bed is not available. (1) A physician may certify or recertify need for continued hospitalization if the physician finds that the patient could receive proper treatment in a SNF but no bed is available in a participating SNF. (2) If this is the basis for the physician's certification...

  17. The association between depressive symptoms in the community, non-psychiatric hospital admission and hospital outcomes: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Prina, A. Matthew; Cosco, Theodore D.; Dening, Tom; Beekman, Aartjan; Brayne, Carol; Huisman, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper aims to systematically review observational studies that have analysed whether depressive symptoms in the community are associated with higher general hospital admissions, longer hospital stays and increased risk of re-admission. Methods We identified prospective studies that looked at depressive symptoms in the community as a risk factor for non-psychiatric general hospital admissions, length of stay or risk of re-admission. The search was carried out on MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library Database, and followed up with contact with authors and scanning of reference lists. Results Eleven studies fulfilled our inclusion and exclusion criteria, and all were deemed to be of moderate to high quality. Meta-analysis of seven studies with relevant data suggested that depressive symptoms may be a predictor of subsequent admission to a general hospital in unadjusted analyses (RR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.28–1.44), but findings after adjustment for confounding variables were inconsistent. The narrative synthesis also reported depressive symptoms to be independently associated with longer length of stay, and higher re-admission risk. Conclusions Depressive symptoms are associated with a higher risk of hospitalisation, longer length of stay and a higher re-admission risk. Some of these associations may be mediated by other factors, and should be explored in more details. PMID:25466985

  18. Value of the general health questionnaire in detecting psychiatric morbidity in a general hospital out-patient population.

    PubMed

    Bagadia, V N; Ayyar, K S; Lakdawala, P D; Susainathan, U; Pradhan, P V

    1985-10-01

    On administering the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) in English, Gujarati and Marathi, to 500 non-acutely ill adult patients selected randomly from a General Hospital Out-patient Department, it was found that 57% scored high (12 and above), indicating the possibility of psychiatric morbidity in this group. On subjecting 50 of these patients to blind psychiatric evaluation a misclassification rate of 30% was observed with respect to the G. H. Q. 96% of the psychiatrically ill scored high on GHQ, 37% of those scoring high on G. H. Q. were psychiatrically normal. If this misclassification rate is lowered by suitable modifications such as reducing items pertaining to Group A of the G. H. Q., then this test will be very useful as a simple tool to detect psychiatric morbidity. PMID:21927123

  19. [The treatment of leukaemia in paediatric haematology day hospital].

    PubMed

    Héritier, Sébastien; Morand, Karine; Courcoux, Mary-France; Leverger, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The paediatric haematology day hospital administers almost all types of chemotherapy used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Blood transfusions, myelograms and lumbar punctures are also performed there. The prevention of pain and anxiety generated by the care is a priority. PMID:26183094

  20. Recycling former psychiatric hospitals in New Zealand: echoes of deinstitutionalisation and restructuring.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Alun E; Kearns, Robin A; Moon, Graham

    2009-03-01

    This paper addresses a gap in the understanding of the geography of deinstitutionalisation: the fate of closed asylums. We contend that the closure process was an exercise in both deinstitutionalisation and welfare state restructuring, and examine discourses surrounding the re-use of two former psychiatric hospitals in New Zealand-Seaview in Hokitika and Kingseat near Auckland. Drawing on an analysis of media coverage and field observation, we consider former asylums as sites of celebrity. We find the shadow of stigma to be prominent, manifested directly in suggestions that the former hospitals be used as prisons and in the partial redevelopment of one as a 'horror theme park'. Indirectly, we see stigma reflected in the physical deterioration of the asylums prior to closure. While this stigmatising is attributable in the first instance to deinstitutionalisation, the evidence suggests strongly that it was co-opted and exploited by the forces of restructuring. PMID:18499501

  1. Antipsychotic Polypharmacy in Children and Adolescents at Discharge from Psychiatric Hospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Saldaña, Shannon N.; Keeshin, Brooks R.; Wehry, Anna M.; Blom, Thomas; Sorter, Michael T.; DelBello, Melissa P.; Strawn, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective Antipsychotic polypharmacy—the use of more than one second-generation antipsychotic—has increased in children and adolescents and may be associated with increased adverse effects, nonadherence, and greater costs. Thus, we sought to examine the demographic and clinical characteristics of psychiatrically hospitalized children and adolescents who were prescribed antipsychotic polypharmacy and to identify predictors of this prescribing pattern. Design Retrospective medical record review. Setting Large, acute care, urban, children's hospital, inpatient psychiatric unit. Patients One thousand four hundred twenty-seven children and adolescents who were consecutively admitted and discharged between September 2010 and May 2011. Measurements and Main Results At discharge, 840 (58.9%) of the 1427 patients were prescribed one or more antipsychotics, 99.3% of whom received second-generation antipsychotics. Of these 840 patients, 724 (86.2%) were treated with antipsychotic monotherapy, and 116 (13.8%) were treated with antipsychotic polypharmacy. Positive correlations with antipsychotic polypharmacy were observed for placement or custody outside the biological family; a greater number of previous psychiatric admissions; longer hospitalizations; admission for violence/aggression or psychosis; and intellectual disability, psychotic, disruptive behavior, or developmental disorder diagnoses. Negative correlations with antipsychotic polypharmacy included admission for suicidal ideation/attempt or depression, and mood disorder diagnoses. Significant predictors of antipsychotic polypharmacy included admission for violence or aggression (odds ratio [OR] 2.76 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36-5.61]), greater number of previous admissions (OR 1.21 [95% CI 1.10-1.33]), and longer hospitalizations (OR 1.08 [95% CI 1.04-1.12]). In addition, diagnoses of intellectual disability (OR 2.62 [95% CI 1.52-4.52]), psychotic disorders (OR 5.60 [95% CI 2.29-13.68]), and developmental disorders (OR 3.18 [95% CI 1.78-5.65]) were predictors of antipsychotic polypharmacy. Conclusion Certain youth may have a higher likelihood of being prescribed antipsychotic polypharmacy, which should prompt careful consideration of medication treatment options during inpatient hospitalization. Future examinations of the rationale for combining antipsychotics, along with the long-term safety, tolerability, and cost effectiveness of these therapies, in youth are urgently needed. PMID:24990538

  2. Developing pharmacy applications using a microcomputer relational database in a long-term care psychiatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Salek, W

    1989-03-01

    The database applications developed with a microcomputer for a 1000 bed long-term care forensic psychiatric care hospital are described. The implementation of a microcomputer system was instituted as an interim measure prior to the development of a hospital wide minicomputer system. Primary emphasis was placed on increasing the efficiency of professional staff while enhancing clinical therapeutic monitoring. The system operates on an IBM-AT with 30 megabyte hard disk drive and an Epson FX-100 dot matrix printer. A relational database manager, Team-Up, was utilized in the development of applications that included census maintenance, scheduled drug inventory, drug regimen review, drug utilization protocols and a skilled nursing unit dose patient profile. Other ancillary functions included generation of stock labels, a literature abstract database and an on-line policy and procedure manual. Advantages of the system include an increase in staff productivity through the use of information that is readily attainable from the patient database. Possible disadvantages are the programming and hardware limitations imposed by a microcomputer system. Long term care psychiatric facilities may be able to enhance staff efficiency by computerizing existing manual systems. Because of the diverse and specialized requirements of long term care facilities, a microcomputer used in conjunction with a programmable relational database can be easily customized to fulfill this need. PMID:10292384

  3. Nursing interventions for substance use during psychiatric hospital admissions: Clinical context and predictors.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Duncan; Warren, Jonathan; Odubanwo, Adewunmi; Bowers, Len

    2015-12-01

    Empirical information about how nurses manage substance use on psychiatric wards is lacking. The aims of the study were to identify the frequency and clinical features of incidents among a sample of inpatients over a 12-month period and how nursing staff intervened. Electronic, anonymized inpatient records were searched for incidents of substance use on 17 acute psychiatric wards in four hospitals in London. Searches were conducted for all patients admitted during 2012 and details of incidents and patient characteristics were extracted for analysis. Substance use was reported for 291 patients, with 25 incidents per 100 patients admitted to hospital. Only half of the incidents were followed by a response that specifically addressed the patients' substance use behaviour. These interactions usually concerned the circumstances and reasons for use, but rarely involved specific support for patients' substance use problems. The likelihood of staff taking any form of action was increased if the patient had been formally admitted, and was reduced if the patient was subject to containment during the shift or had a history of self-harm. The results demonstrate that nurses require specific training and guidance on supporting substance using patients. PMID:26300518

  4. Evaluation of tobacco use on Chinese population through ATTOC model: a cross-sectional survey on hospitalized psychiatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xue; Peng, Zugui; Ziedonis, Douglas M; Wang, Chaomin; Yu, Bo; Li, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility of Addressing Tobaccos through Organizational Change (ATTOC) intervention to Chinese psychiatric patients, and to better address tobacco use through the ATTOC intervention model in the context of China. Methods: The study was conducted in Mental Health Center of West China Hospital in 2010. A total of 100 hospitalized psychiatric patients were recruited to carry out ATTOC intervention. Subjects suffers from mental illness were diagnosed by professional psychiatrists according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) criteria. Results: The prevalence of tobacco use in hospitalized psychiatric patients were closely correlated with the type of mental illness, family smoking history, sex, age, marital status, education status, etc. However, most psychiatric patients knew little about these, and tended to ignore the importance of smoking cessation. Conclusions: The ATTOC intervention program of the U.S. may be suitable for hospitalized Chinese psychiatric patients, and it could be applied for the tobacco smoking treatment in China. However, the health effects of tobacco use still did not draw amount attentions from both the clinicians and general public. It is urgently needed to raise people’s awareness and carry out ATTOC intervention to control tobacco use, and ultimately terminate tobacco use. PMID:26131197

  5. 42 CFR 424.13 - Requirements for inpatient services of hospitals other than psychiatric hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Certification of need for hospitalization when a SNF bed is not available. (1) A physician may...the patient could receive proper treatment in a SNF but no bed is available in a participating SNF. (2) If this is the basis for the...

  6. 42 CFR 424.13 - Requirements for inpatient services of hospitals other than psychiatric hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Certification of need for hospitalization when a SNF bed is not available. (1) A physician may...the patient could receive proper treatment in a SNF but no bed is available in a participating SNF. (2) If this is the basis for the...

  7. 42 CFR 424.13 - Requirements for inpatient services of hospitals other than psychiatric hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Certification of need for hospitalization when a SNF bed is not available. (1) A physician may...the patient could receive proper treatment in a SNF but no bed is available in a participating SNF. (2) If this is the basis for the...

  8. 42 CFR 424.13 - Requirements for inpatient services of hospitals other than psychiatric hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for posthospital care, if appropriate. (b) Certification of need for hospitalization when a SNF bed is... physician finds that the patient could receive proper treatment in a SNF but no bed is available in a participating SNF. (2) If this is the basis for the physician's certification or recertification, the...

  9. 42 CFR 424.13 - Requirements for inpatient services of hospitals other than psychiatric hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for posthospital care, if appropriate. (b) Certification of need for hospitalization when a SNF bed is... physician finds that the patient could receive proper treatment in a SNF but no bed is available in a participating SNF. (2) If this is the basis for the physician's certification or recertification, the...

  10. Physical symptoms in outpatients with psychiatric disorders consulting the general internal medicine division at a Japanese university hospital

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Yukiko; Takeshima, Taro; Mise, Junichi; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo; Matsumura, Masami

    2015-01-01

    Purpose General practitioners have an important role in diagnosing a variety of patients, including psychiatric patients with complicated symptoms. We evaluated the relationship between physical symptoms and psychiatric disorders in general internal medicine (GIM) outpatients in a Japanese university hospital. Materials and methods We coded the symptoms and diagnoses of outpatients from medical documents using the International Classification of Primary Care, second edition (ICPC-2). The participants were new outpatients who consulted the GIM outpatient division at Jichi Medical University Hospital in Tochigi, Japan from January–June, 2012. We reviewed all medical documents and noted symptoms and diagnoses. These were coded using ICPC-2. Results A total of 1,194 participants were evaluated, 148 (12.4%) of whom were diagnosed as having psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of depression, anxiety disorder, and somatization was 19.6% (number [n] =29), 14.9% (n=22), and 14.2% (n=21), respectively, among the participants with psychiatric disorders. The presence of several particular symptoms was associated with having a psychiatric disorder as compared with the absence of these symptoms after adjusting for sex, age, and the presence of multiple symptoms (odds ratio [OR] =4.98 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.66–14.89] for palpitation; OR =4.36 [95% CI: 2.05–9.39] for dyspnea; OR =3.46 [95% CI: 1.43–8.36] for tiredness; and OR =2.99 [95% CI: 1.75–5.13] for headache). Conclusion Not only the psychiatric symptoms, but also some physical symptoms, were associated with psychiatric disorders in GIM outpatients at our university hospital. These results may be of help to general practitioners in appropriately approaching and managing patients with psychiatric disorders. PMID:26316801

  11. Psychiatric Hospital Bed Numbers and Prison Population Sizes in 26 European Countries: A Critical Reconsideration of the Penrose Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Blüml, Victor; Waldhör, Thomas; Kapusta, Nestor D.; Vyssoki, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Background Recently, there has been a revived interest in the validity of the Penrose hypothesis, which was originally postulated over 75 years ago. It suggests an inverse relationship between the numbers of psychiatric hospital beds and the sizes of prison population. This study aims to investigate the association between psychiatric hospital beds and prison populations in a large sample of 26 European countries between 1993 and 2011. Methods The association between prison population sizes and numbers of psychiatric hospital beds was assessed by means of Spearman correlations and modeled by a mixed random coefficient regression model. Socioeconomic variables were considered as covariates. Data were retrieved from Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union. Outcomes Mean Spearman correlation coefficients between psychiatric beds and prison population showed a significant negative association (-0.35; p = <0.01). However, in the mixed regression model including socioeconomic covariates there were no significant fixed parameter estimates. Meanwhile, the covariance estimates for the random coefficients psychiatric beds (?2 = 0.75, p = <0.01) and year (?2 = 0.0007, p = 0.03) yielded significant results. Interpretation These findings do not support the general validity of the Penrose hypothesis. Notably, the results of the mixed-model show a significant variation in the magnitude and direction of the association of psychiatric hospital bed numbers and the prison population sizes between countries. In this sense, our results challenge the prevalent opinion that a reduction of psychiatric beds subsequently leads to increasing incarcerations. These findings also work against the potential stigmatization of individuals suffering from mental disorders as criminals, which could be an unintentional byproduct of the Penrose hypothesis. PMID:26529102

  12. Discharged from a mental health admission ward: is it safe to go home? A review on the negative outcomes of psychiatric hospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Loch, Alexandre Andrade

    2014-01-01

    Before psychiatry emerged as a medical discipline, hospitalizing individuals with mental disorders was more of a social stigmatizing act than a therapeutic act. After the birth of the mental health disciplines, psychiatric hospitalization was legitimized and has proven to be indispensable, preventing suicides and helping individuals in need. However, despite more than a century passing since this legitimization occurred, psychiatric hospitalization remains a controversial issue. There is the question of possible negative outcomes after a psychiatric admission ceases to take its protective effect, and even of whether the psychiatric admission itself is related to a negative setback after discharge. This review aims to summarize some of the most important negative outcomes after discharge from a psychiatric institution. These experiences were organized into two groups: those after a brief psychiatric hospitalization, and those after a long-stay admission. The author further suggests possible ways to minimize these adversities, emphasizing the need of awareness related to this important issue. PMID:24812527

  13. [Asylum: the Huge Psychiatric Hospital in the 19th century U.S].

    PubMed

    Kazano, Haruki

    2012-01-01

    The large-scale state psychiatric hospitals, referred to as "asylums," were built in the USA in the 19th century and generally have a bad reputation in Japan as institutions with an unpleasant environment for the patients. Asylums were not built for institutionalizing mental patients. The original meaning of the word asylum is a "retreat" or "sanctuary," and these institutions were originally built to act as sanctuaries for the protection of mental patients. The field of psychiatric medicine in western countries in the 19th century began to embrace the concept of "moral treatment" for mental patients, including no restraint of the patients and treating them in a more open environment. With this background, asylums were built according to the efforts of social activist Dorothea Dix with financial assistance from the Quakers. The psychiatrist Dr. Thomas Kirkbride had a large influence on asylum architecture, and believed that the hospital building and environment as well as location have healing effects on the patients, which he called the "therapeutic landscape". Kirkbridelater proposed an architectural plan that became the basis for subsequent mental hospital architecture, and many asylums were built according to this plan. As the architecture was considered part of the treatment, many leading architects and landscape architects at the time became involved in building asylums. In the later half of the 19th century, over 150 asylums were built across the USA. However, moral treatment fell out of favor toward the end of the 19th century, and the concept of therapeutic landscape was also neglected. The hospitals had many uncured patients, and caregivers became pessimistic about the efficacy of the treatments. Abuse and neglect of the patients were also common. The environment at the asylums deteriorated, which created the image of asylums that, we hold today. Many asylums have been demolished or abandoned. These early attempts at asylum failed due to insufficient treatment methods. However, the concept of the therapeutic landscape that comprehensively sees the architecture of the hospital building and landscape of the property as part of the treatment as well as the architectural beauty of asylum buildings may deserve reevaluation. PMID:23234200

  14. Risk Factors of Acute Behavioral Regression in Psychiatrically Hospitalized Adolescents with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Périsse, Didier; Amiet, Claire; Consoli, Angèle; Thorel, Marie-Vincente; Gourfinkel-An, Isabelle; Bodeau, Nicolas; Guinchat, Vincent; Barthélémy, Catherine; Cohen, David

    2010-01-01

    Aim: During adolescence, some individuals with autism engage in severe disruptive behaviors, such as violence, agitation, tantrums, or self-injurious behaviors. We aimed to assess risk factors associated with very acute states and regression in adolescents with autism in an inpatient population. Method: Between 2001 and 2005, we reviewed the charts of all adolescents with autism (N=29, mean age=14.8 years, 79% male) hospitalized for severe disruptive behaviors in a psychiatric intensive care unit. We systematically collected data describing socio-demographic characteristics, clinical variables (severity, presence of language, cognitive level), associated organic conditions, etiologic diagnosis of the episode, and treatments. Results: All patients exhibited severe autistic symptoms and intellectual disability, and two-thirds had no functional verbal language. Fifteen subjects exhibited epilepsy, including three cases in which epilepsy was unknown before the acute episode. For six (21%) of the subjects, uncontrolled seizures were considered the main cause of the disruptive behaviors. Other suspected risk factors associated with disruptive behavior disorders included adjustment disorder (N=7), lack of adequate therapeutic or educational management (N=6), depression (N=2), catatonia (N=2), and painful comorbid organic conditions (N=3). Conclusion: Disruptive behaviors among adolescents with autism may stem from diverse risk factors, including environmental problems, comorbid acute psychiatric conditions, or somatic diseases such as epilepsy. The management of these behavioral changes requires a multidisciplinary functional approach. PMID:20467546

  15. The closure of a long-stay psychiatric hospital: a longitudinal study of patients' behavior.

    PubMed

    Francis, V M; Vesey, P; Lowe, G

    1994-07-01

    This paper summarises longitudinal data based on repeat assessments of the behavioural functioning of 90 long-stay psychiatric patients. Data were gathered over a period of 4-5 years that spanned a hospital closure and the resettlement of patients in various alternative settings. Time-series analyses of individual data sets showed that resettlement led to no significant behavioural change in the majority of patients. However, some significant behavioural improvements were evidenced for approximately 20% of the group, while behavioural deterioration occurred in approximately 12%. Supplementary findings showed that following resettlement the quality of care provided significantly improved in many respects. However, access to social, recreational or vocational activities was reduced. In addition, the level of physical health symptomatology was shown to increase for this group of patients. PMID:7939968

  16. Assessment of Psychiatrically Hospitalized Suicidal Adolescents: Self-Report Instruments as Predictors of Suicidal Thoughts and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huth-Bocks, Alissa C.; Kerr, David C. R.; Ivey, Asha Z.; Kramer, Anne C.; King, Cheryl A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The validity and clinical utility of the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire-Junior, and Suicide Probability Scale (SPS) were examined longitudinally among suicidal adolescents. Method: Between 1998 and 2000, 289 psychiatrically hospitalized, suicidal youth, ages 12 to 17 years,…

  17. Brief Report: Understanding Crisis Behaviors in Hospitalized Psychiatric Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder--Iceberg Assessment Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Kate H.; Barnes, Julia C.; Young, Nicholas D.; Gabriels, Robin L.

    2015-01-01

    Children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at risk for emotional dysregulation and behavior problems that can escalate to levels requiring psychiatric hospitalization. Evaluating the etiology of such behaviors can be challenging for health care providers, as individuals with ASD can have difficulty self-reporting concerns.…

  18. The Contribution of Children's Temperamental Fear and Effortful Control to Restraint and Seclusion during Inpatient Treatment in a Psychiatric Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgett, David J.; Valentino, Kristin; Hayden, Lisa C.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined temperament characteristics as risk factors for restraint and seclusion (R/S) events in psychiatrically hospitalized youth, extending work that has sought to identify R/S risk factors and research examining temperament-behavior problem associations that has largely relied upon community samples. It was anticipated that…

  19. Patient outcomes following discharge from secure psychiatric hospitals: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fazel, Seena; Fimi?ska, Zuzanna; Cocks, Christopher; Coid, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundSecure hospitals are a high-cost, low-volume service consuming around a fifth of the overall mental health budget in England and Wales.AimsA systematic review and meta-analysis of adverse outcomes after discharge along with a comparison with rates in other clinical and forensic groups in order to inform public health and policy.MethodWe searched for primary studies that followed patients discharged from a secure hospital, and reported mortality, readmissions or reconvictions. We determined crude rates for all adverse outcomes.ResultsIn total, 35 studies from 10 countries were included, involving 12 056 patients out of which 53% were violent offenders. The crude death rate for all-cause mortality was 1538 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI 1175-1901). For suicide, the crude death rate was 325 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI 235-415). The readmission rate was 7208 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI 5916-8500). Crude reoffending rates were 4484 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI 3679-5287), with lower rates in more recent studies.ConclusionsThere is some evidence that patients discharged from forensic psychiatric services have lower offending outcomes than many comparative groups. Services could consider improving interventions aimed at reducing premature mortality, particularly suicide, in discharged patients. PMID:26729842

  20. Medication burden in bipolar disorder: A chart review of patients at psychiatric hospital admission

    PubMed Central

    Weinstock, Lauren M.; Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Epstein-Lubow, Gary; Tezanos, Katherine; Celis-deHoyos, Cintly E.; Miller, Ivan W.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) often receive complex polypharmacy regimens as part of treatment, yet few studies have sought to evaluate patient characteristics associated with this high medication burden. This retrospective chart review study examined rates of complex polypharmacy (i.e., ? 4 psychotropic medications), patterns of psychotropic medication use, and their demographic and clinical correlates in a naturalistic sample of adults with bipolar I disorder (BDI; N=230) presenting for psychiatric hospital admission. Using a computer algorithm, a hospital administrator extracted relevant demographic, clinical, and community treatment information for analysis. Patients reported taking an average of 3.31(SD=1.46) psychotropic medications, and 5.94(SD=3.78) total medications at intake. Overall, 82 (36%) met criteria for complex polypharmacy. Those receiving complex polypharmacy were significantly more likely to be female, to be depressed, to have a comorbid anxiety disorder, and to have a history of suicide attempt. Women were significantly more likely than men to be prescribed antidepressants, benzodiazepines, and stimulants, even after controlling for mood episode polarity. Study data highlight the high medication burden experienced by patients with BD, especially those who are acutely symptomatic. Data also highlight the particularly high medication burden experienced by women with BD; a burden not fully accounted for by depression. PMID:24534121

  1. Excess non-psychiatric hospitalizations among employees with mental disorders: a 10-year prospective study of the GAZEL cohort

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo Da Silva, M; Lemogne, C; Melchior, M; Zins, M; Van Der Waerden, J; Consoli, S M; Goldberg, M; Elbaz, A; Singh-Manoux, A; Nabi, H

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine whether non-psychiatric hospitalizations rates were higher in those with mental disorders. Method In a cohort of 15 811 employees, aged 35–50 years in 1989, mental disorder status was defined from 1989 to 2000. Hospitalizations for all-causes, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and cancer, were recorded yearly from 2001 to 2011. Negative binomial regression models were used to estimate hospitalization rates over the follow-up. Results After controlling for baseline sociodemographic factors, health-related behaviors, self-rated health, and self-reported medical conditions, participants with a mental disorder had significantly higher rates of all-cause hospitalization [incidence rate ratio, IRR = 1.20 (95%, 1.14–1.26)], as well as hospitalization due to MI [IRR = 1.44 (95%, 1.12–1.85)]. For stroke, the IRR did not reach statistical significance [IRR = 1.37 (95%, 0.95–1.99)] and there was no association with cancer [IRR = 1.01 (95%, 0.86–1.19)]. A similar trend was observed when mental disorders groups were considered (no mental disorder, depressive disorder, mental disorders due to psychoactive substance use, other mental disorders, mixed mental disorders, and severe mental disorder). Conclusion In this prospective cohort of employees with stable employment as well as universal access to healthcare, we found participants with mental disorders to have higher rates of non-psychiatric hospitalizations. PMID:25289581

  2. Thyroid dysfunction in major psychiatric disorders in a hospital based sample

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; Calvin, Sam; Singh, Jyotin Kshitiz; Thomas, Binston; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Abnormalities in thyroid hormonal status is common in major psychiatric disorders. Although the relevance of thyroid dysfunction to bipolar disorder is well-recognized, yet the association between thyroid dysfunction and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders is under-emphasized. The aim of this study was to examine and compare the rates of abnormal thyroid hormonal status in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and mood disorders in an inpatient tertiary care general hospital psychiatry unit. Methods: This was a retrospective hospital-based study on 468 inpatient samples. Data on serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), T3 (triiodothyroxine), T4 (L-thyroxine), free unbound fractions of T3 and T4 (FT3 and FT4) were obtained from records of 343 patients, 18 patients were anti-TPO (anti thyroid peroxidase antibody) positive. The rates of abnormal thyroid hormonal status were compared using the chi square test. Results: Abnormal thyroid hormonal status in general, and presence of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, in particular were seen in 29.3, 25.17 and 4.08 per cent patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, respectively. These were comparable to the rates in patients with mood disorders (23.24, 21.62 and 1.62%, respectively). Eleven of the 18 patients with antiTPO positivity had a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder. There were no gender differences. Interpretation & conclusions: Thyroid dysfunction was present in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder as well as mood disorders. Autoimmune thyroid disease was more commonly seen in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders compared to mood disorders. The findings reiterate the relevance of screening patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders for abnormal thyroid hormonal status. PMID:24521631

  3. Preferences and Barriers to Care Following Psychiatric Hospitalization at Two Veterans Affairs Medical Centers: A Mixed Methods Study.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Paul N; Bowersox, Nicholas; Birgenheir, Denis; Burgess, Jennifer; Forman, Jane; Valenstein, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    Patient preferences and barriers to care may impact receipt of adequate mental health treatment following psychiatric hospitalization and could inform quality improvement initiatives. This study assessed preferences for a broad range of post-hospital services and barriers to counseling by surveying 291 patients and interviewing 25 patients who had recently been discharged from an inpatient psychiatric stay at one of the two Veterans Affairs Medical Centers. Individual counseling was the most frequently reported service that survey respondents preferred, but did not receive; whereas, open-ended survey responses and interviews also identified telephone follow-up "check-in" calls as a frequently preferred service. Difficulty with transportation was the most commonly cited barrier to counseling among survey respondents and in interviews; however, patients strongly preferred in-person counseling to telephone or internet-video alternatives. Increasing support from family and support from an individual Veteran peer were also perceived to be helpful in the majority of survey respondents. PMID:25779387

  4. Brief Report: Understanding Crisis Behaviors in Hospitalized Psychiatric Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder-Iceberg Assessment Interview.

    PubMed

    Stark, Kate H; Barnes, Julia C; Young, Nicholas D; Gabriels, Robin L

    2015-11-01

    Children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at risk for emotional dysregulation and behavior problems that can escalate to levels requiring psychiatric hospitalization. Evaluating the etiology of such behaviors can be challenging for health care providers, as individuals with ASD can have difficulty self-reporting concerns. This brief report introduces the Iceberg Assessment Interview (IAI), a tool to organize and elucidate the assessment of issues potentially underlying problem behaviors. A summary of IAIs from a chart review of patients ages 5-18 with ASD (n = 23) admitted to a specialized psychiatric hospital unit illustrates the clinical utility of this tool. Summarized IAI data includes presenting crisis behaviors, caregiver-perceived environmental conditions, and underlying psychosocial and medical problems. PMID:26324248

  5. Social-Cognitive Moderators of the Relationship between Peer Victimization and Suicidal Ideation among Psychiatrically Hospitalized Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Jennifer; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Becker, Sara; Seaboyer, Lourah; Rizzo, Christie; Lichtenstein, David; Spirito, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Peer victimization among children and adolescents is a major public health concern, given its widespread individual and societal ramifications. Victims of peer aggression often face significant levels of psychological distress and social difficulties, such as depression, suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and social rejection. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether cognitive distortions and perceptions of social support moderate the association between peer victimization and suicidal thoughts among psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. Participants included 183 psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents (ages 13–18). In multiple regression analyses that controlled for gender, social and cognitive factors served as significant resources factors. Cognitive factors also moderated the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation. PMID:25125940

  6. Relation of Callous-Unemotional Traits to Length of Stay among Youth Hospitalized at a State Psychiatric Inpatient Facility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stellwagen, Kurt K.; Kerig, Patricia K.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the association of callous-unemotional (C/U) traits with length of psychiatric hospitalization among two samples each with 50 participants: a group of 7-11 year-olds (39 males and 11 females) receiving services on a children's unit, and a group of 12-17 year-olds (27 males and 23 females) receiving services on an adolescent unit. Our…

  7. A Geriatric Day Hospital: Who Improves the Most?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desrosiers, Johanne; Hebert, Rejean; Payette, Helene; Roy, Pierre-Michel; Tousignant, Michel; Cote, Sylvie; Trottier, Lise

    2004-01-01

    This study compared the changes in some bio-psychosocial variables (functional independence, nutritional risk, pain, balance and walking, grip strength, general well-being, psychiatric profile, perception of social support, leisure satisfaction, and caregivers' feeling of burden) in four categories of clients during their program at a geriatric…

  8. Statistical aspects of psychiatric inpatient care in Japan: Based on a comprehensive nationwide survey of psychiatric hospitals conducted from 1996 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Tachimori, Hisateru; Takeshima, Tadashi; Kono, Toshiaki; Akazawa, Masato; Zhao, Xianghua

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this review is to clarify the state of psychiatric admissions and discharges in Japan using statistical data collected from 1996 to 2012. We performed a secondary analysis of nationwide data on psychiatric hospitals, which are collected yearly by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The latest national figures for indices defined in the 'Reform Vision of Mental Health and Welfare' (originally released in 2004) were 70.9% for 'discharge rate for newly admitted patients' and 23.3% for 'discharge rate for long-term patients', which have target rates of ?76% and ?29%, respectively. The national discharge rate for newly admitted patients was roughly on the increase, but appeared to reach a plateau in recent years. [Correction added on 17 July 2015, after first online publication: 'on the decline' has been corrected to 'on the increase' in the sentence above.] The national discharge rate for long-term patients was higher in 2012 than in 1999 and appeared to increase throughout the 2000s, although not enough to reach the target. Some improvements in the discharge rate for newly admitted patients indicated some progress in mental health reform, although problems should continue to be addressed in order to reach the targets. As for discharge rates of long-term admissions in local communities, some problems still remain to be solved in order to achieve the goals of the reform vision. PMID:25801941

  9. Interactional aspects of care during hospitalization: perspectives of family caregivers of psychiatrically ill in a tertiary care setting in India.

    PubMed

    Dinakaran, P; Mehrotra, Seema; Bharath, Srikala

    2014-12-01

    There are very few studies on user-perspectives about mental health care services that explore perspectives of family caregivers in India. An exploratory study was undertaken to understand the perceived importance of various aspects of interactions with mental health service providers during hospitalization, from the perspectives of family caregivers. In addition, it also aimed at documenting their actual experience of interactional aspects of care during the hospitalization of their relatives. The study was conducted on fifty family caregivers of patients with varied psychiatric diagnoses hospitalized in a tertiary psychiatric care setting in South India. Measures of Interactional aspects of care were developed to assess perceived importance of six different interactional domains of care and the actual experience of care in these domains. Provision of informational inputs and addressing of concerns raised emerged as the domains of care given highest importance. The item pertaining to 'sharing with the caregiver about different alternatives for treatment' received negative ratings in terms of actual experience by maximum number of participants (18%). Significant differences on perceived importance of four domains of interactional aspects of care (dignity, confidentiality and fairness, addressing concerns raised, informational inputs and prompt attention and consistent care) emerged between caregiver subgroups based on educational level of the caregiver, socio-economic status, hospitalization history and broad diagnostic categories. In addition, the care givers of patients with psychoses assigned significantly more positive ratings on actual experience for all the domains of interactional aspects of care. The findings have implications for further research and practice. PMID:25440563

  10. A comparative study of admissions to two public sector regional secure units and one independent medium-secure psychiatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Moss, K R

    2000-07-01

    To date there has been no research carried out in respect of the contribution being made by the independent sector to medium-secure psychiatric care. There are also no published studies comparing the provision of the independent sector with that of the public sector. As such this is a neglected field of study. This paper examines the characteristics of patients admitted to one independent medium-secure psychiatric hospital and two regional secure units in terms of their demographic characteristics, source, detention under the Mental Health Act, 1983, psychiatric diagnosis, criminal history and discharge. The results of the study are tested for their significance using the chi-square distribution. There is discussion of how the independent sector may be providing a service either unavailable within the National Health Service or for which the National Health Service is unsuitable in terms of patients either requiring medium- to long-term hospital care in conditions of security or those who cannot live independently and therefore require 'asylum', which is no longer an option within the National Health Service. In this sense, the independent sector could be seen as meeting a national need by acting as a 'safety valve' for National Health Service facilities. PMID:10976183

  11. Prevalence of Cannabis Residues in Psychiatric Patients: A Case Study of Two Mental Health Referral Hospitals in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Awuzu, Epaenetus A.; Kaye, Emmanuel; Vudriko, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have reported that abuse of cannabis is a risk factor for psychosis. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of delta 9-tetrahydrocanabinol (?9-THC), a major metabolite of cannabis, in psychiatric patients in Uganda, and to assess the diagnostic capacity of two referral mental health hospitals to screen patients for exposure to cannabis in Uganda. Socio-demographic characteristics of the patients were collected through questionnaires and review of medical records. Urine samples were collected from 100 patients and analyzed using ?9-THC immunochromatographic kit (Standard Diagnostics®, South Korea). Seventeen percent of the patients tested positive for ?9-THC residues in their urine. There was strong association (P < 0.05) between history of previous abuse of cannabis and presence of ?9-THC residues in the urine. Alcohol, cocaine, heroin, pethidine, tobacco, khat and kuber were the other substances abused in various combinations. Both referral hospitals lacked laboratory diagnostic kits for detection of cannabis in psychiatric patients. In conclusion, previous abuse of cannabis is associated with occurrence of the residues in psychiatric patients, yet referral mental health facilities in Uganda do not have the appropriate diagnostic kits for detection of cannabis residues as a basis for evidence-based psychotherapy. PMID:24453492

  12. 42 CFR 482.61 - Condition of participation: Special medical record requirements for psychiatric hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01... Section 482.61 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...data. Medical records must stress the psychiatric...

  13. 42 CFR 482.61 - Condition of participation: Special medical record requirements for psychiatric hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01... Section 482.61 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...data. Medical records must stress the psychiatric...

  14. 42 CFR 482.61 - Condition of participation: Special medical record requirements for psychiatric hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01... Section 482.61 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...data. Medical records must stress the psychiatric...

  15. National Cancer Institute Cancer Center Designation and 30-day Mortality for Hospitalized, Immunocompromised Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Friese, Christopher R.; Silber, Jeffrey H.; Aiken, Linda H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To examine 30-day mortality and NCI designation for cancer patients who are immunocompromised and hospitalized. Method Secondary analysis of1998 and 1999hospital claims, cancer registry and vital statistics (n=10,370) linked to survey and administrative data from160 Pennsylvania hospitals. Logistic regression models estimated the effects of NCI designation on the likelihood of 30-day mortality. Results NCI-designated centers were associated with a 33% reduction in the likelihood of death, after adjusting for patient, hospital, and nursing characteristics. Conclusions Immunocompromised cancer patients have lower mortality in NCI-designated hospitals. Identification and adoption of care processes from these institutions may improve mortality. PMID:20504224

  16. Effectiveness of Day Hospital Mentalization-Based Treatment for Patients with Severe Borderline Personality Disorder: A Matched Control Study.

    PubMed

    Bales, Dawn L; Timman, Reinier; Andrea, Helene; Busschbach, Jan J V; Verheul, Roel; Kamphuis, Jan H

    2015-09-01

    The present study extends the body of evidence regarding the effectiveness of day hospital Mentalization-Based Treatment (MBT) by documenting the treatment outcome of a highly inclusive group of severe borderline personality disorder (BPD) patients, benchmarked by a carefully matched group who received other specialized psychotherapeutic treatments (OPT). Structured diagnostic interviews were conducted to assess diagnostic status at baseline. Baseline, 18-month treatment outcome and 36-month treatment outcome (after the maintenance phase) on psychiatric symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory) and personality functioning (118-item Severity Indices of Personality Problems) were available for 29 BPD patients assigned to MBT, and an initial set of 175 BPD patients assigned to OPT. Propensity scores were used to determine the best matches for the MBT patients within the larger OPT group, yielding 29 MBT and 29 OPT patients for direct comparison. Treatment outcome was analysed using multilevel modelling. Pre to post effect sizes were consistently (very) large for MBT, with a Cohen's d of -1.06 and -1.42 for 18 and 36?months, respectively, for the reduction in psychiatric symptoms, and ds ranging from 0.81 to 2.08 for improvement in domains of personality functioning. OPT also yielded improvement across domains but generally of moderate magnitude. In conclusion, the present matched control study, executed by an independent research institute outside the UK, demonstrated the effectiveness of day hospital MBT in a highly inclusive and severe group of BPD patients, beyond the benchmark provided by a mix of specialized psychotherapy programmes. Interpretation of the (large) between condition effects warrants cautionary caveats given the non-randomized design, as well as variation in treatment dosages. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25060747

  17. Clinical Application of the "Scribble Technique" with Adults in an Acute Inpatient Psychiatric Hospital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanes, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    The "scribble technique," described by Florence Cane's book, "The Artist in Each of Us" (1983), has historically been employed by art therapists as a technique to reduce inhibitions and liberate spontaneous imagery from the unconscious. Reviews the technique and presents examples produced by adult patients in an acute inpatient psychiatric ward.…

  18. Leisure Activity and Hospital Readmission of Short-Term Psychiatric Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMinn, Sheri B.; Lay, C. Marvin

    William Menninger (1948) reported research results indicating a significant relationship in a former patient's ability to stay well and his participation in recreation. J. Bates (1963) indicated one reason patients return to psychiatric facilities was the lack of skills that center around recreation. This study was conducted to investigate the…

  19. PCL-R Psychopathy Predicts Disruptive Behavior Among Male Offenders in a Dutch Forensic Psychiatric Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Martin; De Ruiter, Corine; Nijman, Henk

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between psychopathy, according to the Dutch language version of Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), and various types of disruptive behavior during inpatient forensic psychiatric treatment is investigated. Ninety-two male participants were administered the PCL-R following admission to an inpatient forensic…

  20. Emergency Psychiatric Services for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities: Perspectives of Hospital Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsky, Yona; Gracey, Carolyn; Gelfand, Sara

    2008-01-01

    Strains on the mainstream mental health system can result in inaccessible services that force individuals with intellectual disabilities into the emergency room (ER) when in psychiatric crisis. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical and systemic issues surrounding emergency psychiatry services for people with intellectual disabilities,…

  1. Relation between bed use, social deprivation, and overall bed availability in acute adult psychiatric units, and alternative residential options: a cross sectional survey, one day census data, and staff interviews.

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, G.; Beadsmoore, A.; Moore, C.; Hardy, P.; Muijen, M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the relation between bed use, social deprivation, and overall bed availability in acute adult psychiatric units and to explore the range of alternative residential options. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey, combined with one day census data; ratings by and interviews with staff; examination of routine data sources. SETTINGS: Nationally representative sample of acute psychiatric units. SUBJECTS: 2236 patients who were inpatients on census day. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Bed occupancy levels, judged need for continuing inpatient care, reasons preventing discharge, scores on the Health of the Nation outcome scales. RESULTS: Bed occupancy was related to social deprivation and total availability of acute beds (r = 0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.19 to 0.88, F = 8.72, df = 2.23; P = 0.002). However, 27% (603/2215) of current inpatients (61% (90/148) of those with stays of > 6 months) were judged not to need continuing admission. The major reasons preventing discharge were lack of suitable accommodation (37% (176/482) of patients in hospital < 6 months v 36% (31/86) of those in hospital > 6 months); inadequate domiciliary based community support (23% (113) v 9% (8)); and lack of long term rehabilitation places (21% (100) v 47% (40)). Scores on the Health of the Nation outcome scale were generally consistent with these staff judgments. CONCLUSIONS: The shortage of beds in acute psychiatric units is related to both social deprivation and the overall availability of acute beds. Patients currently inappropriately placed on acute admission wards should be relocated into more suitable accommodation, either in hospital or in the community. A range of provisions is required; simply providing more acute beds is not the answer. PMID:9022489

  2. Does Sense of Control Predict Depression Among Individuals After Psychiatric Hospital Discharge?

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoo Jung; Fusco, Rachel A

    2015-11-01

    Sense of control is known to be related to depression. Yet, few studies have examined the role of sense of control as related to depression for discharged psychiatric patients. In this study the longitudinal relationship between sense of control and depressive mood was examined using the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study, a 6-wave, 1-year study of 948 ethnically diverse postdischarge psychiatric patients. Sense of control was decomposed into 2 components (i.e., a time-invariant as well as a time-varying component) and so as to examine which component of sense of control would more accurately explain this relationship. Results demonstrated that time-varying sense of control significantly predicted changes in depressive mood during the transition to community environment. Time-invariant sense of control, however, was not significantly related to changes in depressive mood. Findings of this study hold important implications for intervention practice with people before or after psychiatric discharge, including the need for incorporation of therapeutic and psychoeducational efforts that bolster sense of control. PMID:26488915

  3. [Readmission to a psychiatric hospital: the comprehension of the health/illness process through the experience of daily life].

    PubMed

    Salles, Mariana Moraes; Barros, Sonia

    2007-03-01

    This study is part of a research that aimed at identifying the daily life of people with mental disruptions who are re-admitted to psychiatric hospitals. It was possible to pinpoint that these individuals express several conceptions of the health/mental illness process and that they also distinguish the kinds of treatment they go through. As far as methodology is concerned the study used the qualitative approach based on Agnes Heller's concept of daily life. The interviews with patients and their relatives were submitted to speech analysis, which showed, among other results, that relatives have developed new tools and possibilities in order to understand the patients' mental state and provide them with the necessary assistance. PMID:17542129

  4. Assessing the diagnostic validity of a structured psychiatric interview in a first-admission hospital sample

    PubMed Central

    NORDGAARD, JULIE; REVSBECH, RASMUS; SÆBYE, DITTE; PARNAS, JOSEF

    2012-01-01

    The use of structured psychiatric interviews performed by non-clinicians is frequent for research purposes and is becoming increasingly common in clini-cal practice. The validity of such interviews has rarely been evaluated empirically. In this study of a sample of 100 diagnostically heterogeneous, first-admitted inpatients, the results of an assessment with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID), yielding a DSM-IV diagnosis and performed by a trained non-clinician, were compared with a consensus lifetime best diagnostic estimate (DSM-IV) by two experienced research clinicians, based on multiple sources of information, which included videotaped comprehensive semi-structured narrative interviews. The overall kappa agreement was 0.18. The sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of schizophrenia by SCID were 19% and 100%, respectively. It is concluded that structured interviews performed by non-clinicians are not recommendable for clinical work and should only be used in research with certain precautions. It is suggested that a revival of systematic theoretical and practical training in psychopathology is an obvious way forward in order to improve the validity and therapeutic utility of psychiatric diagnosis. PMID:23024678

  5. The shift of psychiatric inpatient care from hospitals to jails and prisons.

    PubMed

    Lamb, H Richard; Weinberger, Linda E

    2005-01-01

    Far-reaching structural changes have been made in the mental health system. Many severely mentally ill persons who come to the attention of law enforcement now receive their inpatient treatment in jails and prisons, at least in part, because of a dramatic reduction of psychiatric inpatient beds. While more high-quality community treatment, such as intensive case management and assertive community treatment, is needed, the authors believe that for many, 24-hour structured care is needed in the mental health system for various lengths of time to decrease criminalization. Another central theme of this article is that when a mentally ill individual is arrested, that person now has a computerized criminal record, which is easily accessed by the police and the courts in subsequent encounters. This may influence their decisions and reinforce the tendency to choose the criminal justice system over the mental health system. PMID:16394231

  6. The effects of daily weather variables on psychosis admissions to psychiatric hospitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWilliams, Stephen; Kinsella, Anthony; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard

    2013-07-01

    Several studies have noted seasonal variations in admission rates of patients with psychotic illnesses. However, the changeable daily meteorological patterns within seasons have never been examined in any great depth in the context of admission rates. A handful of small studies have posed interesting questions regarding a potential link between psychiatric admission rates and meteorological variables such as environmental temperature (especially heat waves) and sunshine. In this study, we used simple non-parametric testing and more complex ARIMA and time-series regression analysis to examine whether daily meteorological patterns (wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, rainfall, sunshine, sunlight and temperature) exert an influence on admission rates for psychotic disorders across 12 regions in Ireland. Although there were some weak but interesting trends for temperature, barometric pressure and sunshine, the meteorological patterns ultimately did not exert a clinically significant influence over admissions for psychosis. Further analysis is needed.

  7. 42 CFR 424.13 - Requirements for inpatient services of hospitals other than inpatient psychiatric facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Certification of need for hospitalization when a SNF bed is not available. (1) The physician...the patient could receive proper treatment in a SNF but no bed is available in a participating SNF. (2) If this is the basis for the...

  8. 42 CFR 424.13 - Requirements for inpatient services of hospitals other than inpatient psychiatric facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Certification of need for hospitalization when a SNF bed is not available. (1) The physician...the patient could receive proper treatment in a SNF but no bed is available in a participating SNF. (2) If this is the basis for the...

  9. 42 CFR 424.13 - Requirements for inpatient services of hospitals other than inpatient psychiatric facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Certification of need for hospitalization when a SNF bed is not available. (1) The physician may certify or... treatment in a SNF but no bed is available in a participating SNF. (2) If this is the basis for the... physician is expected to continue efforts to place the patient in a participating SNF as soon as a...

  10. Evaluating Psychiatric Hospital Admission Decisions for Children in Foster Care: An Optimal Classification Tree Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowden, Jessica A.; Leon, Scott C.; Bryant, Fred B.; Lyons, John S.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored clinical and nonclinical predictors of inpatient hospital admission decisions across a sample of children in foster care over 4 years (N = 13,245). Forty-eight percent of participants were female and the mean age was 13.4 (SD = 3.5 years). Optimal data analysis (Yarnold & Soltysik, 2005) was used to construct a nonlinear…

  11. Reducing unnecessary hospital days to improve quality of care through physician accountability: a cluster randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Over 20% of hospital bed use is inappropriate, implying a waste of resources and the increase of patient iatrogenic risk. Methods This is a cluster, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial, carried out in a large University Hospital of Northern Italy, aiming to evaluate the effect of a strategy to reduce unnecessary hospital days. The primary outcome was the percentage of patient-days compatible with discharge. Among secondary objectives, to describe the strategy’s effect in the long-term, as well as on hospital readmissions, considered to be a marker of the quality of hospital care. The 12 medical wards with the longest length of stay participated. Effectiveness was measured at the individual level on 3498 eligible patients during monthly index days. Patients admitted or discharged on index days, or with stay >90 days, were excluded. All ward staff was blinded to the index days, while staff in the control arm and data analysts were blinded to the trial’s objectives and interventions. The strategy comprised the distribution to physicians of the list of their patients whose hospital stay was compatible with discharge according to a validated Delay Tool, and of physician length of stay profiles, followed by audits managed autonomously by the physicians of the ward. Results During the 12 months of data collection, over 50% of patient-days were judged to be compatible with discharge. Delays were mainly due to problems with activities under medical staff control. Multivariate analysis considering clustering showed that the strategy reduced patient-days compatible with discharge by 16% in the intervention vs control group, (OR=0.841; 95% CI, 0.735 to 0.963; P=0.012). Follow-up at 1 year did not yield a statistically significant difference between the percentages of patient-days judged to be compatible with discharge between the two arms (OR=0.818; 95% CI, 0.476 to 1.405; P=0.47). There was no significant difference in 30-day readmission and mortality rates for all eligible patients (N=3498) between the two arms. Conclusions Results indicate that a strategy, involving physician direct accountability, can reduce unnecessary hospital days. Relatively simple interventions, like the one assessed in this study, should be implemented in all hospitals with excessive lengths of stay, since unnecessary prolongation may be harmful to patients. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT01422811. PMID:23305251

  12. Psychosocial functioning of individuals with schizophrenia in community housing facilities and the psychiatric hospital in Zurich.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Matthias; Briner, David; Kawohl, Wolfram; Seifritz, Erich; Baumgartner-Nietlisbach, Gabriela

    2015-12-15

    Individuals with severe mental illness frequently have difficulties in obtaining and maintaining adequate accommodation. If they are not willing or able to adapt to requirements of traditional supported housing institutions they may live in sheltered and emergency accommodation. Adequate mental health services are rarely available in these facilities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate mental health, functional and social status of individuals living in community sheltered housing facilities. A cross-sectional survey of n=338 individuals in sheltered housing compared to a sample of patients at intake in acute inpatient psychiatry (n=619) concerning clinical and social variables was carried out in the catchment area of Zurich. Matched subsamples of individuals with schizophrenia (n=168) were compared concerning functioning and impairments on the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS). Individuals with schizophrenia in sheltered housing (25% of the residents) have significantly more problems concerning substance use, physical illness, psychopathological symptoms other than psychosis and depression, and relationships, daily activities and occupation than patients with schizophrenia at intake on an acute psychiatric ward. Community sheltered accommodation although conceptualized to prevent homelessness in the general population de facto serve as housing facilities for individuals with schizophrenia and other severe mental illness. PMID:26416587

  13. [Alteration of profile of treatment of the public psychiatric hospitals of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, in the context of mental health care reform].

    PubMed

    Coelho, Vívian Andrade Araújo; Volpe, Fernando Madalena; Diniz, Sabrina Stephanie Lana; Silva, Eliane Mussel da; Cunha, Cristiane de Freitas

    2014-08-01

    This article seeks to describe the profile of treatment and internment in public psychiatric hospitals in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, from 2002 to 2011. The changes in the characteristics of treatment and the profiles of the patients treated are analyzed in the context of health care reform. It is a study of temporal series with trend analysis by means of linear regression. There was a reduction in the total of patients treated in the period under scrutiny. Inversely, there was an increase in internments with a reduction in length of stay, though no change in readmission rates. Patients from Belo Horizonte prevailed, however a relative increase in demand from the surrounding area was observed. There was a reversal in the prevalence of morbidity switching from psychotic disorders to disorders resulting from the use of alcohol and/or other drugs. The alteration observed in the profile of treatment in public psychiatric hospitals in Belo Horizonte was concomitant with the progressive implementation of community mental health services, which have probably met the demand that was formerly directed to these hospitals. Currently the psychiatric hospital is not the first, much less the only venue for treatment in the mental health network in Minas Gerais. PMID:25119099

  14. Message-Based Patient Guidance in Day-Hospital Patrick Lamber, Bernd Ludwig, Francesco Ricci, Floriano Zini, and Manfred Mitterer

    E-print Network

    Ricci, Francesco

    Message-Based Patient Guidance in Day-Hospital Patrick Lamber, Bernd Ludwig, Francesco Ricci.ricci@unibz.it, floriano.zini@unibz.it Hospital Franz Tappeiner via Rossini 5, 39012 Meran (BZ), Italy Email: manfred.mitterer@asbmeran-o.it Abstract--Day hospital workflows are highly dynamic. It is, therefore, important to provide patients

  15. Schizophrenia and tobacco smoking: a replication study in another US psychiatric hospital.

    PubMed

    de Leon, Jose; Tracy, Joseph; McCann, Eileen; McGrory, Amy; Diaz, Francisco J

    2002-07-01

    A prior study in a US state hospital suggested that schizophrenia is more closely associated with tobacco smoking when compared with other severe mental illnesses. This second study, in a neighborhood hospital, tries to (1) replicate that schizophrenia is associated with smoking and heavy smoking, and (2) rule out that this relationship is explained by substance use. The methodology was very similar to the first study. The sample included 588 inpatients. Logistic regression was used to develop models of variables associated with smoking or heavy smoking. The frequency of current smoking for the total, schizophrenic and non-schizophrenic samples were respectively 71, 75, and 55%. The sequence of frequencies from the highest to lowest was the same as in the first study: male schizophrenic patients, male non-schizophrenic patients, female schizophrenic patients and female non-schizophrenic patients. This second study consistently replicated the relationship between schizophrenia and smoking (after correcting for other variables) including history of alcohol and drug abuse or dependence. Only one of two definitions of heavy smoking showed a significant association with schizophrenia. In summary, these two studies suggest that schizophrenia is strongly associated with smoking. Neither substance use, antipsychotics, nor institutionalism can explain this relationship. PMID:12084420

  16. An Approach to the Teaching of Psychiatric Nursing in Diploma and Associate Degree Programs: Workshop Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National League for Nursing, New York, NY. Mental Health and Psychiatric Nursing Advisory Service.

    This workshop was the third and final phase of a project to determine what goals, methods, content, and learning experiences in psychiatric-mental health nursing should be included in diploma and associate degree education for nursing in light of present day trends in psychiatric care. The project indicates that the hospital is no longer the focal…

  17. Half of 30-Day Hospital Readmissions Among HIV-Infected Patients Are Potentially Preventable

    PubMed Central

    Kitchell, Ellen; Etherton, Sarah Shelby; Duarte, Piper; Halm, Ethan A.; Jain, Mamta K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Thirty-day readmission rates, a widely utilized quality metric, are high among HIV-infected individuals. However, it is unknown how many 30-day readmissions are preventable, especially in HIV patients, who have been excluded from prior potentially preventable readmission analyses. We used electronic medical records to identify all readmissions within 30 days of discharge among HIV patients hospitalized at a large urban safety net hospital in 2011. Two independent reviewers assessed whether readmissions were potentially preventable using both published criteria and detailed chart review, how readmissions might have been prevented, and the phase of care deemed suboptimal (inpatient care, discharge planning, post-discharge). Of 1137 index admissions, 213 (19%) resulted in 30-day readmissions. These admissions occurred among 930 unique HIV patients, with 130 individuals (14%) experiencing 30-day readmissions. Of these 130, about half were determined to be potentially preventable using published criteria (53%) or implicit chart review (48%). Not taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) greatly increased the odds of a preventable readmission (OR 5.9, CI:2.4–14.8). Most of the preventable causes of readmission were attributed to suboptimal care during the index hospitalization. Half of 30-day readmission in HIV patients are potentially preventable. Increased focus on early ART initiation, adherence counseling, management of chronic conditions, and appropriate timing of discharge may help reduce readmissions in this vulnerable population. PMID:26154066

  18. [The role of the nurse and child health nurse in a haematology day hospital].

    PubMed

    Perray, Stéphanie; Costes, Élodie; Héritier, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    The paediatric haemato-oncology nurse and the child health nurse in a day hospital have specific technical skills and in-depth knowledge in order to be able to provide global care for children with leukaemia. Close collaboration between the different professionals working in this care unit is essential. PMID:26183096

  19. Reducing alternate level of care days at Winchester District Memorial Hospital.

    PubMed

    Ricottone, Madeline

    2015-09-01

    Winchester District Memorial Hospital has maintained near-zero alternative level of care census days for three consecutive years by focusing on partnerships, staff/physician engagement, and maintaining a circle of care with patients and families. The strategies and challenges faced revisiting internal discharge processes and linking directly to their local community through change management techniques are discussed. PMID:26152906

  20. Intelligible Models for HealthCare: Predicting Pneumonia Risk and Hospital 30-day Readmission

    E-print Network

    Intelligible Models for HealthCare: Predicting Pneumonia Risk and Hospital 30-day Readmission Rich intelligible models with state-of-the-art accuracy. In the pneumonia risk prediction case study.1145/2783258.2788613 . the application of machine learning to important problems in healthcare such as predicting pneumonia risk

  1. Seasonality of Admissions for Mania: Results From a General Hospital Psychiatric Unit in Pondicherry, India

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Siddharth

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Bipolar disorder is affected by variables that modulate circadian rhythm, including seasonal variations. There is evidence of a seasonal pattern of admissions of mania in various geographical settings, though its timing varies by region and climate. Variables such as age and gender have been shown to affect seasonality in some studies. Methodology: Data on monthly admission patterns for mania at a general hospital psychiatry unit in Pondicherry, India, were collected for 4 years (2010–2013) and analyzed for seasonality and seasonal peaks. The effects of age and gender were analyzed separately. Results: There was overall evidence of a seasonal pattern of admissions for mania (P < .01, Friedman test for seasonality), with a peak beginning during the rainy season and ending before summer (P < .0.1, Ratchet circular scan test). Male sex (P < .005, Ratchet circular scan test) and age > 25 years (P < .005, Ratchet circular scan test) were specifically associated with this seasonal peak. Discussion: The effect of seasons on mania is complex and is modulated by a variety of variables. Our study is consistent with earlier research findings: a greater degree of seasonality for mania in men. It is possible that climatic and individual variables interact to determine seasonal patterns in bipolar disorder in a given setting.

  2. Psychiatric rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Wallace, C J

    1993-01-01

    The financial, personal, and societal costs of severe mental illness are extraordinarily high. Individuals suffering from schizophrenia occupy 25 percent of all hospital beds and account for 40 percent of all long-term care days. The rate of Supplemental Security income (SSI) and Social Security disability insurance (SSDI) beneficiaries who are disabled because of a mental disorder has increased more than 50 percent since 1986, and a total of more than 1.1 million individuals received benefits in 1991 because of their mental disorders. All of these costs have continued to rise despite the nearly ubiquitous administration of antipsychotic medication with its well-documented benefits. The most promising treatment to complement medication and produce better outcomes is psychiatric rehabilitation. It is based on the same rationale as rehabilitation for physically challenged individuals--illness produces impairments that make individuals less able to perform basic life skills that handicap them when they try to be students, workers, spouses, parents, etc. Rehabilitation teaches individuals to perform the basic skills using methods that compensate for the impairments, and modifying the environment so the new methods are successful or the skills are not required. Rehabilitation with severely mentally ill individuals is particularly challenging because of the extent of their impairments and disabilities. The impairments--flagrant symptoms that unpredictably wax, wane, and persist even with medication; reduced motivation to participate in community life; residual deficits in the most elemental cognitive processes of attention, memory, and abstraction--clearly limit individuals' abilities to perform life skills and function in major societal roles. Moreover, the challenge of successful rehabilitation is magnified by the individual-to-individual, time-to-time, and disorder-to-disorder variations in these impairments and disabilities. Given this challenge, how well does psychiatric rehabilitation work in practice? Two types of studies provide answers to this question; those that have focused exclusively on teaching skills to severely mentally ill individuals, and those that have focused on larger units of care, case management, and vocational rehabilitation, that typically include skills training as one of their services. The first type of study provides "pure" information but sacrifices, to some extent, clinical utility and immediate generality. The second provides information that can be transferred to clinical practice but sacrifices clarity about what is the effective ingredient in a set of intermingled services. The results of the first type have generally indicated, with some qualifications, that severely mentally ill individuals learn skills, use them in their own environments, and may receive other clinically meaningful benefits.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8084983

  3. [Notes on the abandoned construction project for the provincial psychiatric hospital in Istria in the second half of the nineteenth century].

    PubMed

    Cergna, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    Records about the need for a psychiatric hospital in Istria date back to the early 19th century). This article presents the views on the issue expressed by advisors of the National Council of Istria more than half a century later. It starts with the session held on 15 March 1864 and follows the development of views the National Council held, from the motion to build a new mental hospital in at the feet of Monte Ghiro to the actual construction of the "Santorio Santorio" Provincial Hospital (still existing) at the hill of St Mihovil in Pula. The paper also investigates the reasons why the Council advisors abandoned the project of building the psychiatric hospital in Istria in favour of a home for the mentally ill in Trieste, where many Istrian patients were provided accommodation from as early as the end of the eighteenth century until the end of World War II. During the rule of the Habsburg Monarchy, many other cities of the Empire hospitalised mental patients from Istria, whose pitiful condition was reported by Matteo Campitelli at the session of the Istrian Provincial Parliament in 1886. PMID:24304106

  4. The Day-Hospital of the University Hospital, Bobo Dioulasso: An Example of Optimized HIV Management in Southern Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Chas, Julie; Hema, Arsène; Slama, Laurence; Kabore, Nongondo Firmin; Lescure, François-Xavier; Fontaine, Camille; Pialoux, Gilles; Sawadogo, Adrien

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the epidemiological evolution of patients with HIV (PtHIV), between 2002 and 2012, in a day-hospital that became an HIV reference centre for south-west Burkina Faso. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study of PtHIV followed in the Bobo Dioulasso university hospital since 2002. The study was based on clinical data recorded using ESOPE software and analysed using Excel and SAS. Results A total of 7320 patients have been treated at the centre since 2002; the active file of patients increased from 147 in 2002 to 3684 patients in 2012. Mean age was stable at 38.4 years and the majority were female (71%). The delay to initiation of antiretroviral (ARV) treatment after HIV diagnosis decreased from 12.9 months in 2002 to 7.2 months in 2012. The percentage of PtHIV lost to follow-up, untreated for HIV and deaths all decreased after 2005. Voluntary anonymous screening and/or an evocative clinical picture were the main reasons for HIV diagnosis, usually at a late stage (41.1% at WHO stage 3). Virological success increased due to a decrease in time to initiation of ARV treatment and an increase in percentage of patients treated (90.5% in 2012, mainly with 1st line drugs). However, there was also a slight increase in the rate of therapeutic failures and the percentage of patients who progressed to 2nd or 3rd line-ARVs. Conclusion Our day-hospital is a good example of the implementation of a specialist centre for the management of PtHIV in a resource-limited country (Burkina Faso). PMID:25970181

  5. Assessing the Representativeness of Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Inpatient Utilization Data for Individuals With Psychiatric and Nonpsychiatric Conditions.

    PubMed

    Slade, Eric P; Goldman, Howard H; Dixon, Lisa B; Gibbons, Brent; Stuart, Elizabeth A

    2015-12-01

    Sampling and reporting biases in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) survey could render data on inpatient utilization that are not representative for individuals with severe psychiatric conditions. The authors assessed the representativeness of MEPS data on psychiatric inpatient utilization, by comparing MEPS estimates of total annual psychiatric and nonpsychiatric inpatient admissions and bed days, and mean length of stay, for nonelderly U.S. adults in calendar years 2005 to 2010 (N = 9,288) to estimates from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), a nationally representative inpatient care database derived from hospitals' administrative records (N = 21,934,378). Compared with the NIS, the MEPS indicated 34% as many psychiatric admissions and 86% as many nonpsychiatric admissions, while mean psychiatric length of stay was greater in MEPS than in NIS. In MEPS data, underrepresentation of psychiatric inpatient utilization at community hospitals may result in measurement distortions for commonly used statistics on psychiatric inpatient utilization and costs. PMID:26149973

  6. Application of Barcoding to Reduce Error of Patient Identification and to Increase Patient's Information Confidentiality of Test Tube Labelling in a Psychiatric Teaching Hospital.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hsiu-Chu; Li, Hsing; Chang, Hsin-Fei; Lu, Mei-Rou; Chen, Feng-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Learning from the experience of another medical center in Taiwan, Kaohsiung Municipal Kai-Suan Psychiatric Hospital has changed the nursing informatics system step by step in the past year and a half . We considered ethics in the original idea of implementing barcodes on the test tube labels to process the identification of the psychiatric patients. The main aims of this project are to maintain the confidential information and to transport the sample effectively. The primary nurses had been using different work sheets for this project to ensure the acceptance of the new barcode system. In the past two years the errors in the blood testing process were as high as 11,000 in 14,000 events per year, resulting in wastage of resources. The actions taken by the nurses and the new barcode system implementation can improve the clinical nursing care quality, safety of the patients, and efficiency, while decreasing the cost due to the human error. PMID:26262221

  7. Making strides in women’s mental health care delivery in rural Ethiopia: demographics of a female outpatient psychiatric cohort at Jimma University Specialized Hospital (2006–2008)

    PubMed Central

    Chemali, Zeina N; Borba, Christina PC; Henderson, Tanya E; Tesfaye, Markos

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the delivery of mental health care to a sample of women living in Jimma, rural Ethiopia, and their access to mental health services. A total of 226 psychiatric charts were reviewed for women seen at Jimma University Specialized Hospital. The mental health charts included documentation ranging from one paragraph to a full note. No psychiatric chart recorded medication status, detailed substance abuse history, or a history of violence. Rendering appropriate mental health care for women requires concerted efforts by multiple stake holders. Using our results, we advance concrete and practical suggestions for improving women’s mental health in rural Ethiopia. We point out that the health care system needs to be responsive, allowing for change starting with gender rights, so that rural women have access to basic mental health services. PMID:23901297

  8. Applicability of the Chinese Version of the Hypomania Symptom Checklist (HCL-32) Scale for Outpatients of Psychiatric Departments in General Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Bin; Tan, Qingrong; Ji, Jianlin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to determine the suitability of the Chinese version of the Hypomania Symptom Checklist (HCL-32) scale for psychiatric department outpatients with mood disorders in Chinese general hospitals, and provide a theoretical basis for the application of the HCL-32 scale. Methods Outpatients with mood disorders receiving continuous treatment in the psychiatric medicine department of three top-ranking general hospitals in three cities completed scoring the HCL-32 scale. Results A total of 1010 patients were recruited. 417 were diagnosed with bipolar disorder (236 for type I and 181 for type II) and 593 were depression. Four factors with eigenvalues >1 were considered. Factor 1 with an eigenvalue of 5.5 was labeled “active/cheerful”. Factor 2 with an eigenvalue of 2.7 was labeled “adventurous/irritable.” The coefficient of internal consistency reliability of the HCL-32 total scale was 0.84, and the coefficients for factors 1 and 2 were 0.84 and 0.88, respectively. With the total score of HCL-32?14 as positive standard, the sensitivity of HCL-32 was calculated at 69.30% and the specificity was 97.81%. Conclusions Results showed that HCL-32 had a preferable reliability and validity and was suitable as auxiliary means for bipolar disorder screening in general hospitals. PMID:24116062

  9. Health literacy and 30-day hospital readmission after acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Stacy Cooper; Fang, Gang; Annis, Izabela E; O'Conor, Rachel; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Wolf, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the validity of a predictive model of health literacy, and to examine the relationship between derived health literacy estimates and 30-day hospital readmissions for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting and participants A National Institute of Aging (NIA) study cohort of 696 adult, English-speaking primary care patients, aged 55–74?years, was used to assess the validity of derived health literacy estimates. Claims from 7733 Medicare beneficiaries hospitalised for AMI in 2008 in North Carolina and Illinois were used to investigate the association between health literacy estimates and 30-day hospital readmissions. Measures The NIA cohort was administered 3 common health literacy assessments (Newest Vital Sign, Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults, and Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine). Health literacy estimates at the census block group level were derived via a predictive model. 30-day readmissions were measured from Medicare claims data using a validated algorithm. Results Fair agreement was found between derived estimates and in-person literacy assessments (Pearson Correlation coefficients: 0.38–0.51; ? scores: 0.38–0.40). Medicare enrollees with above basic literacy according to derived health literacy estimates had an 18% lower risk of a 30-day readmission (RR=0.82, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.92) and 21% lower incidence rate of 30-day readmission (IRR=0.79, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.87) than patients with basic or below basic literacy. After adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics, the risk of 30-day readmission was 12% lower (p=0.03), and the incidence rate 16% lower (p<0.01) for patients with above basic literacy. Conclusions Health literacy, as measured by a predictive model, was found to be a significant, independent predictor of 30-day readmissions. As a modifiable risk factor with evidence-based solutions, health literacy should be considered in readmission reduction efforts. PMID:26068508

  10. Performance of stool cultures before and after a 3-day hospitalization: fewer cultures, better for patients and for money.

    PubMed

    Le Guern, Rémi; Loïez, Caroline; Grandbastien, Bruno; Courcol, René; Wallet, Frédéric

    2013-09-01

    We evaluated retrospectively the yield of stool culture (SC) depending on the length of hospitalization, and we characterized the patients missed by the 3-day rejection rule. SC detects bacterial enteric pathogens (Campylobacter spp., Salmonella enterica, Yersinia spp., Shigella spp.). During this 5-year study period, 13,039 SCs were requested, and 376 were positive (2.9%). The yield of SC dropped from 11.7% before 3 days of hospitalization to 0.7% after 3 days in children and 4.3% to 0.3% in adults. Finally, only 13 clinically relevant cases (0.2% of SC prescribed after 3 days) were undiagnosed by strict application of the 3-day rule. In conclusion, rejection of SC prescribed after 3 days of hospitalization allows to reduce workload by 37.8% for children and 65.7% for adults, representing a cost of €12,500 ($16,250) per year in our hospital. PMID:23867328

  11. Pediatric Day Case Surgical Practice at a Tertiary Hospital in Lagos: How Have We Faired?

    PubMed Central

    Elebute, OA; Ademuyiwa, AO; Bode, CO; Idiodi-Thomas, HOI

    2014-01-01

    Background: There has been a gradual increase in the number of patients treated as a day case surgery in our center. This study has been conducted to audit pediatric day case surgery practice at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital. Aims: The aim of the following study is to determine the morbidity and mortality from day case surgery in our center. Subjects and Methods: The type of study was a prospective study over a 2½ year period at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital. The patients scheduled for surgeries were assessed in the pediatric outpatient clinic and information obtained for each of the patients included age, sex, diagnosis and operation planned. Additional information collected included the (1) type of anesthesia (2) post-operative complications and the cadre of the surgeon. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 19 (IBM Corp. Released 2010. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 19.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp, USA). Result: A total of 381 patients were operated during the study period. The age range of patients was 2 weeks to 15 years and the mean age was 2.9 years (3.0). There were 338 male patients (88.7%;338/381) and 43 females (11.3%;43/381). Inguinal hernias and hydroceles constituted almost half of the cases treated while 16.0% of cases were undescended testis. There were four morbidities and no mortality. Conclusion: Day case surgery is associated with a low morbidity and no mortality in our center. PMID:25221704

  12. SIADH-related hyponatremia in hospital day care units: clinical experience and management with tolvaptan.

    PubMed

    De Las Peñas, Ramón; Ponce, Santiago; Henao, Fernando; Camps Herrero, Carlos; Carcereny, Enric; Escobar Álvarez, Yolanda; Rodríguez, César A; Virizuela, Juan Antonio; López López, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Hyponatremia (Na ?135 mmol/l) is the most frequent electrolyte disorder in clinical practice, and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is the commonest cause of hyponatremia in cancer patients. Correcting hyponatremia in these patients can reduce morbidity and mortality, increase the response to anti-cancer agents, and help reduce hospital length of stay and costs. Tolvaptan is an oral medication used to treat SIADH-related hyponatremia patients that needs to be initiated at hospital so patients can have their serum sodium monitored. If tolvaptan could be initiated in hospital day care units (DCUs), performing the same tests, hospitalization could be avoided, quality of life improved, and costs reduced. This is the first publication where a panel of oncologists are sharing their experience and making some recommendations with the use of tolvaptan to treat SIADH-related hyponatremia in DCU after collecting and examining 35 clinical cases with these type of patients. The conclusion from this retrospective observational analysis is that the use of tolvaptan in DCU is safe and effective in the therapeutic management of SIADH-related hyponatremia. PMID:26431960

  13. Transient ischemic attack evaluation models: hospitalization, same-day clinics, or rapid evaluation units.

    PubMed

    Warrior, Lakshmi; Prabhakaran, Shyam

    2011-01-01

    Transient ischemic attack (TIA) has been well established as a risk factor for future stroke. Therefore, the diagnosis of TIA may serve as a golden opportunity for providing early time sensitive therapies to this high-risk group. Currently, there is no standardized algorithm for triaging suspected TIA, leading to errors in diagnosis, significant delays in evaluation and treatment, and greater morbidity and mortality. There are several proposed methods for triaging patients: hospitalization, same-day clinics, and rapid evaluation units. We review the benefits and limitations for each model, focusing on stroke risk reduction, costs, and feasibility. PMID:20634680

  14. Days of heroin use predict poor self-reported health in hospitalized heroin users

    PubMed Central

    Meshesha, Lidia Z.; Tsui, Judith I.; Liebschutz, Jane M.; Crooks, Denise; Anderson, Bradley J.; Herman, Debra S.; Stein, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined associations between substance use behaviors and self-reported health among hospitalized heroin users. Of the 112 participants, 53 (47%) reported good or better health. In multivariable logistic regression models, each day of heroin use in the last month was associated with an 8% lower odds of reporting health as good or better (OR=.92; 95%CI 0.87, 0.97, p < .05). Cocaine, cannabis, cigarettes, alcohol use, unintentional overdose, nor injection drug use were associated with health status. PMID:24045030

  15. Duration of Hospitalization and Post Discharge Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Ting-Pong

    2006-01-01

    A retrospective cohort of discharged patients from all public psychiatric hospitals in Hong Kong (1997-1999) was linked to suicide data from Coroner's court. Patients hospitalized shorter than 15 days had significantly lower suicide rates than longer stay patients. The results were fairly consistent across immediate/late post discharge periods,…

  16. Psychiatric In-Patients Away from Home: Accounts by People with Intellectual Disabilities in Specialist Hospitals outside Their Home Localities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinn, Deborah; Hall, Ian; Ali, Afia; Hassell, Holly; Patkas, Iannis

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study reflects a growing concern with the placement of people with intellectual disabilities and complex mental health problems in out of area placements at a distance from their families and communities. Materials and methods: We interviewed service users (n = 17) living in out of area in-patient psychiatric units using a…

  17. 42 CFR 456.170 - Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations. 456.170 Section...Hospitals Medical, Psychiatric, and Social Evaluations and Admission Review § 456.170 Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations. (a)...

  18. [Prospective assessment of children with pervasive developmental disorder after 2 years of day-hospital treatment].

    PubMed

    Poinso, F; Dubois, B; Chatel, C; Viellard, M; Bastard-Rosset, D; Girardot, A-M; Grandgeorge, P; De Martino, S; Sokolowsky, M; Salle-Collemiche, X; Da Fonseca, D

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) has not been systematically assessed in French day-care units. In this prospective study, 11 children with a diagnosis of PDD were followed up for 2years in a day-care unit in the Marseille university hospital. The treatment they received is based on an initial assessment by the "Centre Ressources Autisme" (CRA PACA) and further included a continued observation of the child and an assessment of the child's abilities and needs. This treatment used various therapeutic approaches 10h weekly and also included parental counseling and coordinated work with schools. Treatment in our day-care unit can be categorized as eclectic, non-intensive therapy. It is based on methods such as TEACCH (Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication handicapped Children), Floor Time Play, speech and language therapy, developmental therapy, and psychotherapy. International studies on intensive behavioral therapies suggest that this treatment is superior to non-behavioral and/or non-intensive treatment. They suggest its efficiency is due both to the nature of the treatment (behavioral) and to its intensity (more than 25h a week). In this study, the CRA diagnosed children using the ADI and ADOS. The 11 children (mean age, 3years 5months) were tested twice, with the Vineland and CARS scales. The first assessment was on admission to the day hospital and the second was 2years later. The results showed developmental progress with a mean increase of 13.5 months at the Vineland Scale, and a decrease of the autism severity score on the CARS. The treatment presented here proves to be efficient; if compared to similar results in international studies, we obtained better results than their eclectic intensive or non-intensive treatment comparison group. PMID:23219270

  19. Understanding psychiatric institutionalization: a conceptual review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Since Goffman’s seminal work on psychiatric institutions, deinstitutionalization has become a leading term in the psychiatric debate. It described the process of closure or downsizing of large psychiatric hospitals and the establishment of alternative services in the community. Yet, there is a lack of clarity on what exactly the concept of institutionalization means in present-day psychiatry. This review aims to identify the meaning of psychiatric institutionalization since the early 1960s to present-day. Method A conceptual review of institutionalization in psychiatry was conducted. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize the findings. Results Four main themes were identified in conceptualizing institutionalization: bricks and mortar of care institutions; policy and legal frameworks regulating care; clinical responsibility and paternalism in clinician-patient relationships; and patients’ adaptive behavior to institutionalized care. Conclusions The concept of institutionalization in psychiatry reflects four distinct themes. All themes have some relevance for the contemporary debate on how psychiatric care should develop and on the role of institutional care in psychiatry. PMID:23773398

  20. Psychiatric illness delays diagnosis of esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, R W; Diggs, B S; Spight, D H; Robinson, J; Elder, K A; Andrus, J; Thomas, C R; Hunter, J G; Jobe, B A

    2008-01-01

    Evidence suggests that patients with psychiatric illnesses may be more likely to experience a delay in diagnosis of coexisting cancer. The association between psychiatric illness and timely diagnosis and survival in patients with esophageal cancer has not been studied. The specific aim of this retrospective cohort study was to determine the impact of coexisting psychiatric illness on time to diagnosis, disease stage and survival in patients with esophageal cancer. All patients with a diagnosis of esophageal cancer between 1989 and 2003 at the Portland Veteran's Administration hospital were identified by ICD-9 code. One hundred and sixty patients were identified: 52 patients had one or more DSM-IV diagnoses, and 108 patients had no DSM-IV diagnosis. Electronic charts were reviewed beginning from the first recorded encounter for all patients and clinical and demographic data were collected. The association between psychiatric illness and time to diagnosis of esophageal cancer and survival was studied using Cox proportional hazard models. Groups were similar in age, ethnicity, body mass index, and history of tobacco and alcohol use. Psychiatric illness was associated with delayed diagnosis (median time from alarm symptoms to diagnosis 90 days vs. 35 days in patients with and without psychiatric illness, respectively, P < 0.001) and the presence of advanced disease at the time of diagnosis (37% vs. 18% of patients with and without psychiatric illness, respectively, P= 0.009). In multivariate analysis, psychiatric illness and depression were independent predictors for delayed diagnosis (hazard ratios 0.605 and 0.622, respectively, hazard ratio < 1 indicating longer time to diagnosis). Dementia was an independent risk factor for worse survival (hazard ratio 2.984). Finally, psychiatric illness was associated with a decreased likelihood of receiving surgical therapy. Psychiatric illness is a risk factor for delayed diagnosis, a diagnosis of advanced cancer, and a lower likelihood of receiving surgical therapy in patients with esophageal cancer. Dementia is associated with worse survival in these patients. These findings emphasize the importance of prompt evaluation of foregut symptoms in patients with psychiatric illness. PMID:19125795

  1. Daily time series for cardiovascular hospital admissions and previous day's air pollution in London, UK.

    PubMed Central

    Poloniecki, J D; Atkinson, R W; de Leon, A P; Anderson, H R

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test for a significant association between air pollution and emergency hospital admissions for circulatory diseases (international classification of diseases-9 390-459) in London, England, that would be consistent with a causal effect of pollution on the previous day. METHODS: Long term concurrent trends, temperature, humidity, day of the week, influenza epidemic of 1989, and cyclical covariations with periodicity > 20 days in daily measures of pollution and admissions for 1987-94 were allowed for. RESULTS: There were 373556 admissions. No association was found between O3 and circulatory diseases. Four other pollutants were associated with acute myocardial infarction and circulatory diseases combined. P values and attributable cases (95% confidence intervals) for acute myocardial infarction were: black smoke P = 0.003, 2.5% (0.8% to 4.3%); NO2 P = 0.002, 2.7% (0.8% to 4.6%); CO P = 0.001, 2.1% (0.7% to 3.5%); and SO2 P = 0.0006, 1.7% (0.7% to 2.6%). There were also associations between black smoke and angina (P = 0.02), NO2 and arrhythmia (P = 0.04), and CO and other circulatory diseases (P = 0.004), but none with heart failure. Acute myocardial infarction was the only diagnosis for which there were significant associations with and without adjustment for cyclical terms. The associations with acute myocardial infarction were significant only in the cool season. CONCLUSION: Population data were consistent with 1 in 50 heart attacks currently presenting at London hospitals being triggered by outdoor air pollution. Further research is now needed to investigate whether background concentrations of black smoke, NO2, CO, and SO2 are a preventable cause of myocardial infarction. These results, if applied to all myocardial infarctions in the United Kingdom, indicate a potential saving of 6000 heart attacks a year. PMID:9326156

  2. Associations of volume and other hospital characteristics on mortality within 30?days of acute myocardial infarction in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Sun Jung; Kim, Woorim; Jang, Sung-In; Yoo, Ki-Bong; Lee, Seo Yoon; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objective The mortality for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has declined worldwide. However, improvements in care for AMI in South Korea have lagged slightly behind those in other countries. Therefore, it is important to investigate how factors such as hospital volume, structural characteristics of hospital and hospital staffing level affect 30-day mortality due to AMI in South Korea. Setting We used health insurance claim data from 114 hospitals to analyse 30-day mortality for AMI. Participants These data consisted of 19?638 hospitalisations during 2010–2013. Interventions No interventions were made. Outcome measure Multilevel models were analysed to examine the association between the 30-day mortality and inpatient and hospital level variables. Results In the 30?days after hospitalisation, 10.5% of patients with AMI died. Hospitalisation cases at hospitals with a higher AMI volume had generally inverse associations with 30-day mortality (1st quartile=ref; 2nd quartile=OR 0.811, 95% CI 0.658 to 0.998, 3rd quartile=OR 0.648, 95% CI 0.500 to 0.840, 4th quartile=OR 0.807, 95% CI 0.573 to 1.138). In addition, hospitals with a greater proportion of specialists were associated with better outcomes (above median=OR 0.789, 95% CI 0.663 to 0.940). Conclusions Health policymakers need to include volume and staffing when defining the framework for treatment of AMI in South Korean hospitals. Otherwise, they must consider increasing the proportion of specialists or regulating the hiring of emergency medicine specialists. In conclusion, they must make an effort to reduce 30-day mortality following AMI based on such considerations. PMID:26546143

  3. Analysis of Time-of-Day Energy Demand and Supply in University and Hospital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazaki, Yoichi

    The aim of this study was to estimate the time-of-day energy demand in University of Yamanashi. Our University consisted of Kofu campus (Faculty of Education & Human Sciences and Faculty of Engineering) and Faculty of Medicine campus (Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital). The energy data of 4 facilities were classified into hot water, heating, cooling and electric power demands based on electric power consumptions, city gas and heavy oil from 1996 to 2005. For 10 years, primary energy increased 1.2 times in the whole of the university. The amount of electric power consumption was 63% in the fuel classification. The amount of electric power consumption of faculty reacted to the change in temperature greatly. In 2005, it was found that thermoelectric-ratios for 4 facilities, i.e. Education, Engineering, Medicine and Hospital were 2.3, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.7 respectively. These data are very useful for the energy saving and energy management of university.

  4. Hypotension During Hospitalization for Acute Heart Failure Is Independently Associated With 30-Day Mortality: Findings from ASCEND-HF

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Priyesh A.; Heizer, Gretchen; O’Connor, Christopher M.; Schulte, Phillip J.; Dickstein, Kenneth; Ezekowitz, Justin A.; Armstrong, Paul W.; Hasselblad, Vic; Mills, Roger M.; McMurray, John J.; Starling, Randall C.; Wilson Tang, W. H.; Califf, Robert M.; Hernandez, Adrian F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Outcomes associated with episodes of hypotension while hospitalized are not well understood. Methods and Results Using data from ASCEND-HF, we assessed factors associated with inhospital hypotension and subsequent 30-day outcomes. Patients were classified as having symptomatic or asymptomatic hypotension. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with in-hospital hypotension, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between hypotension and 30-day outcomes. We also tested for treatment interaction with nesiritide on 30-day outcomes and the association between inhospital hypotension and renal function at hospital discharge. Overall, 1555/7141 (21.8%) patients had an episode of hypotension, of which 73.1% were asymptomatic and 26.9% were symptomatic. Factors strongly associated with in-hospital hypotension included randomization to nesiritide (odds ratio [OR] 1.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.76–2.23; p<0.001), chronic metolazone therapy (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.17–2.60; p<0.001), and baseline orthopnea (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.13–1.52; p=0.001) or S3 gallop (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.06–1.40; p=0.006). In-hospital hypotension was associated with increased hazards of 30-day mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 2.03, 95% CI 1.57–2.61; p<0.001), 30-day heart failure (HF) hospitalization or mortality (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.34–1.86; p<0.001), and 30-day all-cause hospitalization or mortality (HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.22–1.61; p<0.001). Nesiritide had no interaction on the relationship between hypotension and 30-day outcomes (interaction p=0.874 for death, p=0.908 for death/HF hospitalization, p=0.238 death/all-cause hospitalization). Conclusions Hypotension while hospitalized for acute decompensated HF is an independent risk factor for adverse 30-day outcomes, and its occurrence highlights the need for modified treatment strategies. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00475852. PMID:25281655

  5. Family influence and psychiatric care: Physical treatments in Devon mental hospitals, c. 1920 to the 1970s?

    PubMed Central

    Baur, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    ‘What is it that appears to make the mentally ill so vulnerable to therapeutic experimentation?’1 One commentator wrote in the 1990s, regarding mental hospitals as repressive, coercive and custodial institutions where medical staff subjected patients to orgies of experimentation. A careful study of surviving documents of the Devon County Lunatic Asylum (DCLA), however, paints a different picture. Rather than medical staff, patients’ relatives and the wider community exercised a considerable influence over a patient's hospital admission and discharge, rendering the therapeutic regime in the middle of the 20th century the result of intense negotiations between the hospital and third parties. PMID:23876990

  6. Strategies to Reduce 30-Day Readmissions in Older Patients Hospitalized with Heart Failure and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Dharmarajan, Kumar; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2014-01-01

    Readmission within 30 days after hospital discharge for common cardiovascular conditions such as heart failure and acute myocardial infarction is extremely common among older persons. To incentivize investment in reducing preventable rehospitalizations, the United States federal government has directed increasing financial penalties to hospitals with higher-than-expected 30-day readmission rates. Uncertainty exists, however, regarding the best approaches to reducing these adverse outcomes. In this review, we summarize the literature on predictors of 30-day readmission, the utility of risk prediction models, and strategies to reduce short-term readmission after hospitalization for heart failure and acute myocardial infarction. We report that few variables have been found to consistently predict the occurrence of 30-day readmission and that risk prediction models lack strong discriminative ability. We additionally report that the literature on interventions to reduce 30-day rehospitalization has significant limitations due to heterogeneity, susceptibility to bias, and lack of reporting on important contextual factors and details of program implementation. New information is characterizing the period after hospitalization as a time of high generalized risk, which has been termed the post-hospital syndrome. This framework for characterizing inherent post-discharge instability suggests new approaches to reducing readmissions. PMID:25431752

  7. Transporting Forensic Psychiatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Dike, Charles C; Nicholson, Elizabeth; Young, John L

    2015-12-01

    Patients in a forensic psychiatric facility often require escorted transport to medical facilities for investigations or treatments of physical health ailments. Transporting these patients presents significant safety and custody challenges because of the nature of patients housed in forensic psychiatric facilities. A significant proportion of these patients may be transfers from the Department of Corrections (DOC) under legal mandates for psychiatric evaluation and treatment better provided in a hospital setting, and most of them will return to the DOC. Although departments of correction have protocols for escorting these potentially dangerous individuals, it is unclear whether receiving psychiatric hospitals have established procedures for maintaining the safety of others and custody of these individuals during transportation outside the hospital facility. The literature is sparse on precautions to be observed when transporting dangerous forensic psychiatric patients, including those with high escape risk. In this article, we describe one forensic inpatient facility's procedure for determining the appropriate level needed to transport these individuals outside of the forensic facility. We also describe the risk assessment procedure for determining level of transport. These are quality improvement measures resulting from a critical review of an incident of escape from the forensic facility several years ago. PMID:26668224

  8. Effects of day-hospital rehabilitation in stroke patients: a review of randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Dekker, R; Drost, E A; Groothoff, J W; Arendzen, J H; van Gijn, J C; Eisma, W H

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the literature on the effects of day-hospital rehabilitation (DHR) in stroke patients. In The Netherlands DHR concerns a multidisciplinary approach to decrease disability and handicap and to optimize quality of life in an outpatient setting. Data were collected by a computer-aided search of published randomized trials. Fifteen articles reporting on seven randomized controlled trials were selected. Data extraction included a score for quality of the methods, based on four categories: "study population", "interventions", "effects" and "data presentation and analysis". To each criterion a weight was attached and the maximum score was set at 100 points. In judging the methodological quality of the selected studies, one study proved insufficient. Of the remaining studies the sum score varied from 34 to 67, with a mean of 50. Comparison of the results of the studies is complicated by different definitions of DHR, different natures of the control group and the study population, and the variety of measurement instruments applied. Often instruments were applied whose reliability and validity was not proven. As of now it is not possible to prove that DHR for stroke patients is effective. In future research a standardized definition of DHR, a uniform control group, and acceptable research methodology and adequate measurement instruments must be applied. PMID:9606770

  9. Day Hospital Treatment for Anorexia Nervosa: A 12-Month Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Marzola, Enrica; De-Bacco, Carlotta; Buzzichelli, Sara; Brustolin, Annalisa; Campisi, Stefania; Amianto, Federico; Migliaretti, Giuseppe; Fassino, Secondo

    2015-09-01

    Day hospitals (DHs) represent a treatment option for anorexia nervosa (AN), a mental disorder that is difficult to treat and has no evidence-based treatments available. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of a DH treatment that was specifically focused on the emotions of severe AN patients. Body mass index and eating psychopathology were the primary outcome measures. Fifty-six adult patients with AN were assessed upon admission, at the end of treatment (EOT) and at a 12-month follow-up evaluation (T18) using Eating Disorders Inventory-2, Beck Depression Inventory, Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety and Brief Social Phobia Scale. All participants received a multidisciplinary treatment programme that focused on psychodynamic psychotherapy. Seventy-eight per cent of participants reported positive outcomes at EOT and 68% at T18. Moreover, 82.1% and 65.4% of long-standing patients showed positive outcomes at EOT and T18, respectively. All measures of psychopathology were significantly improved at EOT and were maintained at follow-up. Our DH was effective at treating severe AN patients; however, further investigations of the processes of change are warranted. PMID:25974364

  10. “Too Young to be Worried!” Psychiatric Assessment and Follow-up of Young People After Severe Physical Assault in an Inner City Hospital of South London

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, S; Datta, SS; Sheridan, PB; Lax-Pericall, T

    2014-01-01

    Background: Interpersonal violence amongst youth is on the rise world-wide and London is no exception. The resulting injuries can be very serious and even result in death. This is a difficult to engage subgroup of patients and there is likely to be significant unmet social and mental health needs. Aim: The current paper discusses the results of immediate psychiatric and social assessment of young people following a serious physical assault as assessed by a pediatric liaison Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS). CAMHS in Kings College Hospital, London in one calendar year and also the help seeking behavior of the young people following the assault. Subjects and Methods: The Department of Pediatric Liaison Psychiatry is based within the Kings College Hospital and has a multidisciplinary team comprising of nurses, consultant child and adolescent psychiatrists and social workers who reviewed all patients who were referred to them following an episode of assault. All young people who were referred to the department of pediatric liaison psychiatry based within Kings College Hospital over one calendar year were included in the analysis. Results: 83% (29/35) of the victims were male and 83% (29/35) were from minority ethnic backgrounds. Although 70% (25/35) of the young people included in this study had significant safe guarding concerns, only 17% (6/35) turned up for their follow-up appointments with child mental health teams. Conclusions: Innovative models of service delivery are required to cater to the unique needs of this group of extremely vulnerable young people. PMID:24669337

  11. Vitamin D Deficiency and Depressive Symptomatology in Psychiatric Patients Hospitalized with a Current Depressive Episode: A Factor Analytic Study

    PubMed Central

    von Känel, Roland; Fardad, Nasser; Steurer, Nadine; Horak, Nicole; Hindermann, Esther; Fischer, Franz; Gessler, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Background Low vitamin D levels have been associated with depressive symptoms in population-based studies and non-clinical samples as well as with clinical depression. This study aimed to examine the association of vitamin D levels with the severity and dimensions of depressive symptoms in hospitalized patients with a current episode of depression taking into account confounding variables. Methods We investigated 380 patients (mean age 47±12 years, 70% women) who were consecutively hospitalized with a main diagnosis of an ICD-10 depressive episode. All patients self-rated depressive symptom severity with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and the Brief Symptom Inventory. A principal component analysis was performed with all 34 items of these questionnaires and serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH D) were measured. Results Vitamin D deficiency (<50 nmol/l), insufficiency (50–75 nmol/l), and sufficiency (>75 nmol/l) were present in 55.5%, 31.8% and 12.6%, respectively, of patients. Patients with vitamin D deficiency scored higher on the HADS-D scale and on an anhedonia symptom factor than those with insufficient (p-values ?0.023) or sufficient (p-values ?0.008) vitamin D. Vitamin D deficient patients also scored higher on the BDI-II scale than those with sufficient vitamin D (p = 0.007); BDI-II cognitive/affective symptoms, but not somatic/affective symptoms, were higher in patients with vitamin D deficiency (p = 0.005) and insufficiency (p = 0.041) relative to those with sufficient vitamin D. Effect sizes suggested clinically relevant findings. Conclusions Low vitamin D levels are frequent in hospitalized patients with a current episode of depression. Especially 25-OH D levels <50 nmol/l were associated with cognitive/affective depressive symptoms, and anhedonia symptoms in particular. PMID:26397113

  12. The Validity of Goal Achievement as an Outcome Measure in Physical Rehabilitation Day Hospitals for Older People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneebone, Ian I.; Hurn, Jane S.; Raisbeck, Elizabeth; Cropley, Mark; Khoshnaw, Hiro; Milton, Jane E.

    2010-01-01

    Physical rehabilitation day hospitals are widely used community-based services designed to meet the medical and rehabilitation needs of older people. While there is evidence for the effectiveness of these services, concerns about the shortcomings of how this is measured have led to the recommendation that the achievement of individually tailored…

  13. Psychiatric diagnosis, psychiatric power and psychiatric abuse.

    PubMed Central

    Szasz, T

    1994-01-01

    Psychiatric abuse, such as we usually associate with practices in the former Soviet Union, is related not to the misuse of psychiatric diagnoses, but to the political power intrinsic to the social role of the psychiatrist in totalitarian and democratic societies alike. Some reflections are offered on the modern, therapeutic state's proclivity to treat adults as patients rather than citizens, disjoin rights from responsibilities, and thus corrupt the language of political-philosophical discourse. PMID:7996558

  14. The Day Reagan Was Shot: How a University Hospital PR Staff Handled the Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Emily R.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The experiences of George Washington University Hospital's public relations staff when it handled the crisis of the shooting of President Reagan is described. Security, choice of a spokesperson, relations with the news media, dealing with VIPs, etc., are discussed. (MLW)

  15. Development and use of an administrative claims measure for profiling hospital-wide performance on 30-day unplanned readmission

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Leora I.; Partovian, Chohreh; Lin, Zhenqiu; Grady, Jacqueline N.; Herrin, Jeph; Conover, Mitchell; Montague, Julia; Dillaway, Chloe; Bartczak, Kathleen; Suter, Lisa G.; Ross, Joseph S.; Bernheim, Susannah M.; Krumholz, Harlan M.; Drye, Elizabeth E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Existing publicly-reported readmission measures are condition-specific, representing < 20% of adult hospitalizations. An all-condition measure may better measure quality and promote innovation. Objective To develop an all-condition, hospital-wide readmission measure. Design Measure development Setting 4,821 US hospitals. Patients Medicare Fee for Service (FFS) beneficiaries ? 65 years. Measurements Hospital-level, risk-standardized unplanned readmissions within 30 days of discharge. The measure uses Medicare FFS claims and is a composite of five specialty-based risk-standardized rates for medicine, surgery/gynecology, cardiorespiratory, cardiovascular and neurology cohorts. We randomly split the 2007–2008 admissions for development and validation. Models were adjusted for age, principal diagnosis and comorbidity. We examined calibration in Medicare and all-payer data, and compared hospital rankings in the development and validation samples. Results The development dataset contained 8,018,949 admissions associated with 1,276,165 unplanned readmissions (15.9%). The median hospital risk-standardized unplanned readmission rate was 15.8 (range 11.6–21.9). The five specialty cohort models accurately predicted readmission risk in both Medicare and all-payer datasets for average risk patients but slightly overestimated readmission risk at the extremes. Overall hospital risk-standardized readmission rates did not differ statistically in the split samples (p=0.7 for difference in rank) and 76% of hospitals’ validation set rankings were within two deciles of the development rank (24% >2 deciles). Of hospitals ranking in the top or bottom deciles, 90% remained within two deciles (10% >2 deciles), and 82% remained within one decile (18% > 1 decile). Limitations Risk-adjustment was limited to that available in claims data. Conclusions We developed a claims-based hospital-wide unplanned readmission measure for profiling hospitals that produced reasonably consistent results in different datasets and was similarly calibrated in both Medicare and all-payer data. Primary funding source Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services PMID:25402406

  16. Implementing a Music Therapy Program at a New 72-Hour Acute Psychiatric Admissions Unit: A Case Study of a Patient Who Was Malingering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Because of the relatively poor treatment available, the high financial costs of hospitalization, multiple and complex issues of persons with severe mental illnesses, and advancements in pharmacotherapy, psychiatric patients are often only hospitalized for a few days before they are discharged. Thus, brief psychosocial interventions for persons who…

  17. Risk factors associated with psychiatric readmission.

    PubMed

    Lorine, Kim; Goenjian, Haig; Kim, Soeun; Steinberg, Alan M; Schmidt, Kendall; Goenjian, Armen K

    2015-06-01

    The present study focused on identifying risk factors for early readmission of patients discharged from an urban community hospital. Retrospective chart reviews were conducted on 207 consecutive inpatient psychiatric admissions that included patients who were readmitted within 15 days, within 3 to 6 months, and not admitted for at least 12 months post-discharge. Findings indicated that a diagnosis of schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (OR = 18; 95% CI 2.70-117.7; p < 0.05), history of alcohol abuse (OR = 9; 95% CI 1.80-40.60; p < 0.05), number of previous psychiatric hospitalizations (OR = 2; 95% CI 1.28-3.73; p < 0.05), and type of residence at initial admission (e.g., homeless, OR = 29; 95% CI 3.99-217; p < 0.05) were significant risk factors for early readmission, where OR compares readmission group 1 versus group 3 in the multinomial logistic regression. Initial positive urine drug screen, history of drug abuse or incarceration, and legal status at initial admission did not predict early readmission. Reducing the risk factors associated with psychiatric readmissions has the potential to lead to the identification and development of preventative intervention strategies that can significantly improve patient safety, quality of care, well-being, and contain health care expenditures. PMID:25974053

  18. College Student Utilization of a Comprehensive Psychiatric Emergency Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Sharon L.; Kader, Mahrin; Haggerty, Melinda Z.; Bakhai, Yogesh D.; Warren, Calvert G.

    2013-01-01

    The authors sought to identify college students at risk for experiencing a mental health crisis that warranted a psychiatric evaluation at a hospital and/or a psychiatric hospitalization. A retrospective chart review of college students evaluated at a comprehensive psychiatric emergency program during a 1-year period was conducted. Demographic…

  19. 42 CFR 456.170 - Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations. 456... Hospitals Medical, Psychiatric, and Social Evaluations and Admission Review § 456.170 Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations. (a) Before admission to a mental hospital or before authorization for...

  20. 42 CFR 456.170 - Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations. 456... Hospitals Medical, Psychiatric, and Social Evaluations and Admission Review § 456.170 Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations. (a) Before admission to a mental hospital or before authorization for...

  1. 42 CFR 456.170 - Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations. 456... Hospitals Medical, Psychiatric, and Social Evaluations and Admission Review § 456.170 Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations. (a) Before admission to a mental hospital or before authorization for...

  2. Hospital Nursing and 30-Day Readmissions among Medicare Patients with Heart Failure, Acute Myocardial Infarction, and Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Matthew D.; Ma, Chenjuan

    2013-01-01

    Background Provisions of the Affordable Care Act that increase hospitals’ financial accountability for preventable readmissions have heightened interest in identifying system-level interventions to reduce readmissions. Objectives To determine the relationship between hospital nursing; i.e. nurse work environment, nurse staffing levels, and nurse education, and 30-day readmissions among Medicare patients with heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, and pneumonia. Method and Design Analysis of linked data from California, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania that included information on the organization of hospital nursing (i.e., work environment, patient-to-nurse ratios, and proportion of nurses holding a BSN degree) from a survey of nurses, as well as patient discharge data, and American Hospital Association Annual Survey data. Robust logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between nursing factors and 30-day readmission. Results Nearly one-quarter of heart failure index admissions (23.3% [n=39,954]); 19.1% (n=12,131) of myocardial infarction admissions; and 17.8% (n=25,169) of pneumonia admissions were readmitted within 30-days. Each additional patient per nurse in the average nurse’s workload was associated with a 7% higher odds of readmission for heart failure (OR=1.07, [1.05–1.09]), 6% for pneumonia patients (OR=1.06, [1.03–1.09]), and 9% for myocardial infarction patients (OR=1.09, [1.05–1.13]). Care in a hospital with a good versus poor work environment was associated with odds of readmission that were 7% lower for heart failure (OR = 0.93, [0.89–0.97]); 6% lower for myocardial infarction (OR = 0.94, [0.88–0.98]); and 10% lower for pneumonia (OR = 0.90, [0.85–0.96]) patients. Conclusions Improving nurses’ work environments and staffing may be effective interventions for preventing readmissions. PMID:23151591

  3. Impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases on outcomes and hospital days after percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian Wei; Zhou, Yu Jie; Yang, Qing; Yang, Shi Wei; Nie, Bin; Xu, Xiao Han

    2013-08-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is common in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), but the impact of COPD on outcomes after PCI has received limited attention. Consecutive patients with coronary heart disease (n = 5155) undergoing PCI were enrolled in this study; 645 patients (73% men) aged 68.4 ± 13.2 years had COPD and 4510 patients (71% men) aged 64.7 ± 12.1 years did not. During the in-hospital period after PCI, the patients with COPD experienced a significantly higher incidence of angina (P < .001), arrhythmias (P < .001), and composite major adverse cardiac events (MACEs; P < .001) and longer hospital stay (P < .001) than those without COPD. Additionally, severity of COPD (measured by pulmonary function tests) was associated with increased composite MACE (P < .001) and hospital stay (P < .001) after PCI. In conclusion, COPD is associated with significantly increased composite MACE and hospital stay in patients after PCI. Increasing severity of COPD is associated with increased composite MACE and hospital stay after PCI. PMID:22942128

  4. Motivational Interviewing to Reduce Substance Use in Adolescents with Psychiatric Comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard A; Abrantes, Ana M; Minami, Haruka; Prince, Mark A; Bloom, Erika Litvin; Apodaca, Timothy R; Strong, David R; Picotte, Dawn M; Monti, Peter M; MacPherson, Laura; Matsko, Stephen V; Hunt, Jeffrey I

    2015-12-01

    Substance use among adolescents with one or more psychiatric disorders is a significant public health concern. In this study, 151 psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents, ages 13-17 with comorbid psychiatric and substance use disorders, were randomized to a two-session Motivational Interviewing intervention to reduce substance use plus treatment as usual (MI) vs. treatment as usual only (TAU). Results indicated that the MI group had a longer latency to first use of any substance following hospital discharge relative to TAU (36days versus 11days). Adolescents who received MI also reported less total use of substances and less use of marijuana during the first 6months post-discharge, although this effect was not significant across 12months. Finally, MI was associated with a significant reduction in rule-breaking behaviors at 6-month follow-up. Future directions are discussed, including means of extending effects beyond 6months and dissemination of the intervention to community-based settings. PMID:26362000

  5. DAY-CARE REHABILITATION CENTER FOR EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED ADOLESCENTS. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CRAWFORD, HUGH A.; VAN DUYNE, WILLIAM V.

    IN THIS FIVE YEAR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT, EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED ADULTS AND ADOLESCENTS RECEIVED TREATMENT AT A DAY CARE REHABILITATION CENTER SPONSORED BY THE RHODE ISLAND DIVISION OF VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION (DVR) LOCATED IN A PRIVATE PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITAL (BUTLER HOSPITAL). THE MAJOR TREATMENT GOALS WERE PRESERVATION AND RESTORATION OF…

  6. Psychiatric emergencies.

    PubMed

    Bayrakal, S

    1972-06-01

    Dr. Bayrakal believes that the time has come for the family physician to deal with minor psychiatric disturbances in his office as well as psychiatric emergencies in the emergency department. The newly emerging medico-social philosophy of both the federal and provincial governments, he says, is giving greater responsibility and authority to the family physician in every area of medicine, including psychiatry.The author discusses major psychiatric emergencies (suicide, suicidal attempt, homicide, social scandal, as well as other psychiatric emergencies) on the ward including adolescent psychiatry. (The descriptions and treatment procedures are given on a concrete clinical level without theoretical overload.)In the family physician's work, psychological understanding is of profound importance. Giving him the added scope of psychiatric consideration to see the patient in bio-psycho-social totality will enable him to practice a more humanized form of medicine. PMID:20468779

  7. 42 CFR 456.170 - Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Mental Hospitals Medical, Psychiatric, and Social...

  8. Waiving the Three-Day Rule: Admissions and Length-of-Stay at Hospitals and Skilled Nursing Facilities did not Increase

    PubMed Central

    Grebla, Regina C.; Keohane, Laura; Lee, Yoojin; Lipsitz, Lewis A.; Rahman, Momotazur; Trivedl, Amal N.

    2015-01-01

    The traditional Medicare program requires an enrollee to have a hospital stay of at least three consecutive calendar days to qualify for coverage of subsequent postacute care in a skilled nursing facility. This long-standing policy, implemented to discourage premature discharges from hospitals, might now be inappropriately lengthening hospital stays for patients who could be transferred sooner. To assess the implications of eliminating the three-day qualifying stay requirement, we compared hospital and postacute skilled nursing facility utilization among Medicare Advantage enrollees in matched plans that did or did not eliminate that requirement in 2006–10. Among hospitalized enrollees with a skilled nursing facility admission, the mean hospital length-of-stay declined from 6.9 days to 6.7 days for those no longer subject to the qualifying stay but increased from 6.1 to 6.6 days among those still subject to it, for a net decline of 0.7 day when the three-day stay requirement was eliminated. The elimination was not associated with more hospital or skilled nursing facility admissions or with longer lengths-of-stay in a skilled nursing facility. These findings suggest that eliminating the three-day stay requirement conferred savings on Medicare Advantage plans and that study of the requirement in traditional Medicare plans is warranted. PMID:26240246

  9. LUNAR PHASE AND PSYCHIATRIC ILLNESS IN GOA

    PubMed Central

    Parmeshwaran, R.; Patel, V.; Fernandes, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    There has been considerable research on the influence of the lunar cycle on mental illness with conflicting findings. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between full moon (FM), new moon (NM), and other moon (OM) days and the frequency of specific psychiatric disorders in patients seen at a tertiary psychiatric hospital in Goa and to examine relationships with eclipses. Analysis of all new patients in two calendar years (1997 & 1993) was carried out. Diagnoses of interest were : Non affective psychoses; depression; and mania. The numbers of new patients seen at the OPD of the Institute of Psychiatry & Human Behaviour, Goa, with these diagnoses were compared between FM, NM and OM days. Numbers of patients with these diagnoses on eclipse days (lunar/solar) were also examined. A significant trend was observed for greater numbers of patients with non-affective psychoses on FM days, but no pattern was observed for mania or depression. The excess of non-affective psychoses was more marked on days of a visible lunar eclipse. A relationship between FM and non-affective psychoses has been demonstrated. Its implications for further research and the potential mechanism to explain these findings are discussed. PMID:21455355

  10. Lunar phase and psychiatric illness in goa.

    PubMed

    Parmeshwaran, R; Patel, V; Fernandes, J M

    1999-01-01

    There has been considerable research on the influence of the lunar cycle on mental illness with conflicting findings. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between full moon (FM), new moon (NM), and other moon (OM) days and the frequency of specific psychiatric disorders in patients seen at a tertiary psychiatric hospital in Goa and to examine relationships with eclipses. Analysis of all new patients in two calendar years (1997 & 1993) was carried out. Diagnoses of interest were : Non affective psychoses; depression; and mania. The numbers of new patients seen at the OPD of the Institute of Psychiatry & Human Behaviour, Goa, with these diagnoses were compared between FM, NM and OM days. Numbers of patients with these diagnoses on eclipse days (lunar/solar) were also examined. A significant trend was observed for greater numbers of patients with non-affective psychoses on FM days, but no pattern was observed for mania or depression. The excess of non-affective psychoses was more marked on days of a visible lunar eclipse. A relationship between FM and non-affective psychoses has been demonstrated. Its implications for further research and the potential mechanism to explain these findings are discussed. PMID:21455355

  11. Medicare Inpatient Treatment for Elderly Non-dementia Psychiatric Illnesses 1992–2002; Length of Stay and Expenditures by Facility Type

    PubMed Central

    Akincigil, Ayse; Prince, Jonathan D.; Kalay, Ece; Lucas, Judith A.; Walkup, James T.; Crystal, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    We summarize Medicare utilization and payment for inpatient treatment of non-dementia psychiatric illnesses (NDPI) among the elderly during 1992 and 2002. From 1992 to 2002, overall mean Medicare expenditures per elderly NDPI inpatient stay declined by $2,254 (in 2002 dollars) and covered days by 2.8. However, these changes are complicated by expanded use of skilled nursing facilities and hospital psychiatric units, and decreased use of long-stay hospitals and general hospital beds. This suggests that inpatient treatment for NDPI is shifting into less expensive settings which may reflect cost-cutting strategies, preferences for less restrictive settings, and outpatient treatment advances. PMID:18293080

  12. Survival curves to support quality improvement in hospitals with excess 30-day mortality after acute myocardial infarction, cerebral stroke and hip fracture: a before–after study

    PubMed Central

    Kristoffersen, Doris Tove; Helgeland, Jon; Waage, Halfrid Persdatter; Thalamus, Jacob; Clemens, Dirk; Lindman, Anja Schou; Rygh, Liv Helen; Tjomsland, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate survival curves (Kaplan-Meier) as a means of identifying areas in the clinical pathway amenable to quality improvement. Design Observational before–after study. Setting In Norway, annual public reporting of nationwide 30-day in-and-out-of-hospital mortality (30D) for three medical conditions started in 2011: first time acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke and hip fracture; reported for 2009. 12 of 61 hospitals had statistically significant lower/higher mortality compared with the hospital mean. Participants Three hospitals with significantly higher mortality requested detailed analyses for quality improvement purposes: Telemark Hospital Trust Skien (AMI and stroke), Østfold Hospital Trust Fredrikstad (stroke), Innlandet Hospital Trust Gjøvik (hip fracture). Outcome measures Survival curves, crude and risk-adjusted 30D before (2008–2009) and after (2012–2013). Interventions Unadjusted survival curves for the outlier hospitals were compared to curves based on pooled data from the other hospitals for the 30-day period 2008–2009. For patients admitted with AMI (Skien), stroke (Fredrikstad) and hip fracture (Gjøvik), the curves suggested increased mortality from the initial part of the clinical pathway. For stroke (Skien), increased mortality appeared after about 8?days. The curve profiles were thought to reflect suboptimal care in various phases in the clinical pathway. This informed improvement efforts. Results For 2008–2009, hospital-specific curves differed from other hospitals: borderline significant for AMI (p=0.064), highly significant (p?0.005) for the remainder. After intervention, no difference was found (p>0.188). Before–after comparison of the curves within each hospital revealed a significant change for Fredrikstad (p=0.006). For the three hospitals, crude 30D declined and they were non-outliers for risk-adjusted 30D for 2013. Conclusions Survival curves as a supplement to 30D may be useful for identifying suboptimal care in the clinical pathway, and thus informing design of quality improvement projects. PMID:25808167

  13. HIV care engagement within 30 days after hospital discharge among patients from a Thai tertiary-care centre.

    PubMed

    Ayudhya, Daruni Phalakawong Na; Khawcharoenporn, Thana

    2015-06-01

    A cohort study was conducted to assess the rate of follow-up visit within 30 days after hospital discharge and to determine factors associated with no follow-up among Thai HIV-infected adults during the period from November 2012 to October 2013. Of the 120 eligible patients, 76 (63%) were males, median age was 40 years, and 57 (48%) were newly diagnosed with HIV infection. The rate of follow-up within 30 days after hospital discharge was 69%. Independent factors associated with no follow-up were no caregiver (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 7.82; p?=?0.002), age (aOR 1.06; p?=?0.007 for each year younger), being immigrant (aOR 5.10; p?=?0.03) and monthly household income less than $US 300 (aOR 2.99; p?=?0.04). These findings suggest the need for interventions to improve care engagement including close monitoring for follow-up, pre-discharge financial and medical coverage planning, assessment for the need for caregiver and patient education about the importance of care engagement. PMID:25015932

  14. Antimicrobial use over a four-year period using days of therapy measurement at a Canadian pediatric acute care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Bruce R; MacTavish, Sandra J; Bresee, Lauren C; Rajapakse, Nipunie; Vanderkooi, Otto; Vayalumkal, Joseph; Conly, John

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is a concern that is challenging the ability to treat common infections. Surveillance of antimicrobial use in pediatric acute care institutions is complicated because the common metric unit, the defined daily dose, is problematic for this population. OBJECTIVE: During a four-year period in which no specific antimicrobial stewardship initiatives were conducted, pediatric antimicrobial use was quantified using days of therapy (DOT) per 100 patient days (PD) (DOT/100 PD) at the Alberta Children’s Hospital (Calgary, Alberta) for benchmarking purposes. METHODS: Drug use data for systemic antimicrobials administered on wards at the Alberta Children’s Hospital were collected from electronic medication administration records. DOT were calculated and rates were determined using 100 PD as the denominator. Changes over the surveillance period and subgroup proportions were represented graphically and assessed using linear regression. RESULTS: Total antimicrobial use decreased from 93.6 DOT/100 PD to 75.7 DOT/100 PD (19.1%) over the 2010/2011 through to the 2013/2014 fiscal years. During this period, a 20.0% increase in PD and an essentially stable absolute count of DOT (2.9% decrease) were observed. Overall, antimicrobial use was highest in the pediatric intensive care and oncology units. DISCUSSION: The exact changes in prescribing patterns that led to the observed reduction in DOT/100 PD with associated increased PD are unclear, but may be a topic for future investigations. CONCLUSION: Antimicrobial use data from a Canadian acute care pediatric hospital reported in DOT/100 PD were compiled for a four-year time period. These data may be useful for benchmarking purposes. PMID:26600813

  15. PSYCHIATRIC REACTIONS IN HYSTERECTOMY

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, M.S.; Kaur, Nirmaljit; Bohra, Neena; Goyal, Uma

    1990-01-01

    SUMMARY 50 women undergoing hysterectomy at Smt. Surheta Kriplani Hospital, New Delhi, when compared with age and parity matched 25 control cases on neuroticism and depression scales showed statistically insignificant difference at various points of time. The improvement in both groups was insignificant one week after procedure but became significant after I weeks (p< 0.01). The neuroticism or depression in study cases was hardly attributable to hysterectomy. The marital as well as social adjustments after 4 weeks of procedure were either unchanged or improved. It is emphasized that an attempt should be made to identify the patients who are more prone to get psychiatric disturbance in order to prevent or minimise these psychiatric disturbances. PMID:21927427

  16. Poetry Therapy in Psychiatric Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Catherine J.

    Poetry therapy has been in use with adult psychiatric patients at Saint Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, D.C, for 10 years. The treatment used involves reading poetry, listening to recordings, studying poets, and writing poetry. The patients' choice of poems is not restricted by the staff, but different types of poetry appeal to different types of…

  17. The direct and interactive effects of physical abuse severity and negative affectivity on length of psychiatric hospitalization: evidence of differential reactivity to adverse environments in psychiatrically high-risk youth.

    PubMed

    Comas, Michelle; Valentino, Kristin; Bridgett, David J; Hayden, Lisa C

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the interactive influence of multiple factors (i.e., physical abuse severity and negative affectivity) in predicting youth's inpatient psychiatric length of stay (LOS), extending previous research focused on identification of only single LOS predictors. Elevated physical abuse severity was hypothesized to predict longer youth LOS, and negative affectivity was anticipated to exacerbate this relationship. This study included 42 youth. Clinicians rated youth temperament, whereas physical abuse severity and LOS were coded from youth medical records. Controlling for other previously determined predictors of LOS (i.e., age, gender, and GAF), moderation analyses confirmed hypotheses, revealing a temperament by environment interaction. Specifically, physical abuse severity was positively associated with LOS only in the context of high negative affectivity. Findings highlighted the importance of disentangling the interactive effects of multiple factors in predicting LOS. Moreover, critical clinical implications involving prioritized trauma assessment and treatment for inpatient youth are discussed. PMID:23824554

  18. Psychiatric wards: places of safety?

    PubMed

    Jones, J; Nolan, P; Bowers, L; Simpson, A; Whittington, R; Hackney, D; Bhui, K

    2010-03-01

    In recent years, the purpose and quality of provision delivered in acute inpatient psychiatric settings have been increasingly questioned. Studies from a service user perspective have reported that while some psychiatric inpatients feel safe and cared for, others feel their time in hospital is neither safe nor therapeutic. This paper explores the experiences of service users on acute inpatient psychiatric wards in England, with a particular focus on their feelings of safety and security. Interviews were conducted with 60 psychiatric inpatients in England. The majority of service users felt safe in hospital and felt supported by staff and other service users. However, anything that threatened their sense of security such as aggression, bullying, theft, racism and the use of alcohol and drugs on the ward, made some respondents feel insecure and unsafe. Psychiatric wards are still perceived by many as volatile environments, where service users feel forced to devise personal security strategies in order to protect themselves and their property. It would appear that there remains much to do before research findings and policies are implemented in ways that facilitate all service users to derive the maximum benefit from their inpatient experience. PMID:20465757

  19. Psychiatric manifestations in cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Fraidakis, M J

    2013-01-01

    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare and severe, but treatable, inborn disorder of bile acid biosynthesis and sterol storage with autosomal recessive inheritance and variable clinical presentation. CTX treatment consists of chenodeoxycholic acid and must be started as early as possible to prevent permanent disability. Psychiatric manifestations are rare and non-specific, and often lead to significant diagnostic and treatment delay. Therefore, better recognition of the gamut of psychiatric manifestations in CTX can diminish the risk of misdiagnosis and irreversible neurological deterioration. We hereby describe the psychiatric features in CTX. A complete review of all published cases of CTX in the medical literature was undertaken and the case reports with psychiatric presentation were collected and analyzed. We also describe the psychiatric features in relation to the neurological semeiology in six patients with CTX diagnosed at the La Salpêtrière Hospital. We conclude that psychiatric manifestations in CTX follow a bimodal/bitemporal pattern, appearing early in the disease course in the form of a behavioral/personality disorder associated with learning difficulties or mental retardation, or manifesting in advanced disease in the setting of dementia as rich neuropsychiatric syndromes, such as frontal, orbitofrontal or frontotemporal syndromes of cortico-subcortical dementia encompassing behavioral/personality disturbance, affective/mood disorders or psychotic disorders. Behavioral/personality disturbance in childhood or adolescence, especially when accompanied by learning difficulties, should therefore lead to further investigation to exclude CTX, as early diagnosis and treatment is critical for prognosis. PMID:24002088

  20. The Revolving Door Phenomenon Revisited: Time to Readmission in 17’415 Patients with 37’697 Hospitalisations at a German Psychiatric Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Frick, Ulrich; Frick, Hannah; Langguth, Berthold; Landgrebe, Michael; Hübner-Liebermann, Bettina; Hajak, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Objective Despite the recurring nature of the disease process in many psychiatric patients, individual careers and time to readmission rarely have been analysed by statistical models that incorporate sequence and velocity of recurrent hospitalisations. This study aims at comparing four statistical models specifically designed for recurrent event history analysis and evaluating the potential impact of predictor variables from different sources (patient, treatment process, social environment). Method The so called Andersen-Gil counting process model, two variants of the conditional models of Prentice, Williams, and Peterson (gap time model, conditional probability model), and the so called frailty model were applied to a dataset of 17’415 patients observed during a 12 years period starting from 1996 and leading to 37’697 psychiatric hospitalisations. Potential prognostic factors stem from a standardized patient documentation form. Results Estimated regression coefficients over different models were highly similar, but the frailty model best represented the sequentiality of individual treatment careers and differing velocities of disease progression. It also avoided otherwise likely misinterpretations of the impact of gender, partnership, historical time and length of stay. A widespread notion of psychiatric diseases as inevitably chronic and worsening could be rejected. Time in community was found to increase over historical time for all patients. Most important protective factors beyond diagnosis were employment, partnership, and sheltered living situation. Risky conditions were urban living and a concurrent substance use disorder. Conclusion Prognostic factors for course of diseases should be determined only by statistical models capable of adequately incorporating the recurrent nature of psychiatric illnesses. PMID:24116059

  1. Managing Acutely Ill Substance-Abusing Patients in an Integrated Day Hospital Outpatient Program: Medical Therapies, Complications, and Overall Treatment Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    O'Toole, Thomas P; Conde-Martel, Alicia; Young, J Hunter; Price, Jennifer; Bigelow, George; Ford, Daniel E

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Substance-abusing adults are admitted to hospitals for medical complications from their drug and alcohol use at substantially higher rates than the general public; yet, their care is often defined by against medical advice (AMA) discharges and low rates of referral to addiction treatment programs. METHODS We present findings from a chart review of consecutive admissions to an integrated medical-substance abuse treatment program designed for acutely ill, hospitalized substance using adults. We specifically looked at factors associated with program completion and medical complications in this cohort of at-risk adults. RESULTS Overall, 83 patient cases were studied. The mean age was 41.2 years; most were African American (73.5%), male (68.7%), and homeless (77.1%). Heroin (96.4%) and cocaine (88.0%), followed by alcohol (44.6%) were the most commonly used substances before admission. The most common admitting diagnoses were infectious endocarditis (43.4%), abscess or nonhealing ulcer (18.1%), and osteomyelitis (13.3%) with intravenous antibiotic (68.7%), physical therapy (48.2%), or wound care (41.0%), the most commonly prescribed care on the integrated care/day hospital unit. The mean length of stay in the day hospital was 12.4 days. Overall, 69.9% of patients successfully completed their medical therapy, and 63.9% were successfully referred to an outpatient substance abuse treatment program. Only 10.8% required an unscheduled hospital readmission and 15.7% required an after-hours emergency department visit during their stay. CONCLUSION Outpatient/day hospital-based integrated treatment is a viable option for medically ill substance-abusing adults who would otherwise be hospitalized and is associated with higher than expected completion rates and low rate of complications. Co-locating the unit at a hospital and integrating extensive social supports appear to be key components to this model. PMID:16808738

  2. A Clinical Predictor Score for 30-Day Mortality among HIV-Infected Adults Hospitalized with Pneumonia in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Koss, Catherine A.; Jarlsberg, Leah G.; den Boon, Saskia; Cattamanchi, Adithya; Davis, J. Lucian; Worodria, William; Ayakaka, Irene; Sanyu, Ingvar; Huang, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Background Pneumonia is a major cause of mortality among HIV-infected patients. Pneumonia severity scores are promising tools to assist clinicians in predicting patients’ 30-day mortality, but existing scores were developed in populations infected with neither HIV nor tuberculosis (TB) and include laboratory data that may not be available in resource-limited settings. The objective of this study was to develop a score to predict mortality in HIV-infected adults with pneumonia in TB-endemic, resource-limited settings. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a prospective study enrolling HIV-infected adults with cough ?2 weeks and <6 months and clinically suspected pneumonia admitted to Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda from September 2008 to March 2011. Patients provided two sputum specimens for mycobacteria, and those with Ziehl-Neelsen sputum smears that were negative for mycobacteria underwent bronchoscopy with inspection for Kaposi sarcoma and testing for mycobacteria and fungi, including Pneumocystis jirovecii. A multivariable best subsets regression model was developed, and one point was assigned to each variable in the model to develop a clinical predictor score for 30-day mortality. Results Overall, 835 patients were studied (mean age 34 years, 53.4% female, 30-day mortality 18.2%). A four-point clinical predictor score was identified and included heart rate >120 beats/minute, respiratory rate >30 breaths/minute, oxygen saturation <90%, and CD4 cell count <50 cells/mm3. Patients’ 30-day mortality, stratified by score, was: score 0 or 1, 12.6%, score 2 or 3, 23.4%, score 4, 53.9%. For each 1 point change in clinical predictor score, the odds of 30-day mortality increased by 65% (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.39-1.96, p <0.001). Conclusions A simple, four-point scoring system can stratify patients by levels of risk for mortality. Rapid identification of higher risk patients combined with provision of timely and appropriate treatment may improve clinical outcomes. This predictor score should be validated in other resource-limited settings. PMID:25962069

  3. Spaces of psychiatric contention: a case study of a therapeutic community.

    PubMed

    Spandler, Helen

    2009-09-01

    This article uses a historical case study of a day hospital therapeutic community (TC) to explore the emergence of particular spaces of psychiatric contention. Using ideas from critical social geography, it employs the notion of 'convergent spaces' to understand how particular sites become important in the development of innovative practice and new social movements. It argues that these spaces of convergence enabled innovation to occur through a collectivised social setting where commonalities were expressed, new resistant identities forged and charismatic figures such as 'tricksters' emerge to challenge and subvert psychiatric authority. In discussing some of the problems which beset the day hospital, it is proposed that the notion of 'paradoxical spaces' might also be helpful to understand how contested spaces can avoid imposing new forms of totalisation. It concludes by reflecting on the conditions of possibility for new spaces of contention. PMID:19269880

  4. Development, Validation and Deployment of a Real Time 30 Day Hospital Readmission Risk Assessment Tool in the Maine Healthcare Information Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Shiying; Wang, Yue; Jin, Bo; Shin, Andrew Young; Zhu, Chunqing; Huang, Min; Zheng, Le; Luo, Jin; Hu, Zhongkai; Fu, Changlin; Dai, Dorothy; Wang, Yicheng; Culver, Devore S.; Alfreds, Shaun T.; Rogow, Todd; Stearns, Frank; Sylvester, Karl G.; Widen, Eric; Ling, Xuefeng B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Identifying patients at risk of a 30-day readmission can help providers design interventions, and provide targeted care to improve clinical effectiveness. This study developed a risk model to predict a 30-day inpatient hospital readmission for patients in Maine, across all payers, all diseases and all demographic groups. Methods Our objective was to develop a model to determine the risk for inpatient hospital readmission within 30 days post discharge. All patients within the Maine Health Information Exchange (HIE) system were included. The model was retrospectively developed on inpatient encounters between January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2012 from 24 randomly chosen hospitals, and then prospectively validated on inpatient encounters from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013 using all HIE patients. Results A risk assessment tool partitioned the entire HIE population into subgroups that corresponded to probability of hospital readmission as determined by a corresponding positive predictive value (PPV). An overall model c-statistic of 0.72 was achieved. The total 30-day readmission rates in low (score of 0–30), intermediate (score of 30–70) and high (score of 70–100) risk groupings were 8.67%, 24.10% and 74.10%, respectively. A time to event analysis revealed the higher risk groups readmitted to a hospital earlier than the lower risk groups. Six high-risk patient subgroup patterns were revealed through unsupervised clustering. Our model was successfully integrated into the statewide HIE to identify patient readmission risk upon admission and daily during hospitalization or for 30 days subsequently, providing daily risk score updates. Conclusions The risk model was validated as an effective tool for predicting 30-day readmissions for patients across all payer, disease and demographic groups within the Maine HIE. Exposing the key clinical, demographic and utilization profiles driving each patient’s risk of readmission score may be useful to providers in developing individualized post discharge care plans. PMID:26448562

  5. Residential mobility among patients admitted to acute psychiatric wards.

    PubMed

    Tulloch, Alex D; Fearon, Paul; David, Anthony S

    2011-07-01

    Residential mobility among those with mental disorders is consistently associated with hospital admission. We studied 4485 psychiatric admissions in South London, aiming to describe the prevalence, timing and associations of residential moves occurring in association with admission. Moves tended to cluster around discharge; 15% of inpatients moved during admission or up to 28 days after discharge. The strongest associations were with younger age (especially 16-25 years) and homelessness. Unadjusted effects of gender, marital status and previous service use were mediated by homelessness. Possible mechanisms for the associations with homelessness and younger age are discussed. PMID:21612971

  6. Observational follow-up study following two cohorts of children with severe pneumonia after discharge from day care clinic/hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Nur H; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Salam, Mohammed Abdus; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Gyr, Niklaus

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To compare the features of relapse, morbidity, mortality and re-hospitalisation following successful discharge after severe pneumonia in children between a day care group and a hospital group and to explore the predictors of failures during 3?months of follow-up. Design An observational study following two cohorts of children with severe pneumonia for 3?months after discharge from hospital/clinic. Setting Day care was provided at the Radda Clinic and hospital care at a hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Participants Children aged 2–59?months with severe pneumonia attending the clinic/hospital who survived to discharge. Intervention No intervention was done except providing some medications for minor illnesses, if indicated. Primary outcome measures The primary outcome measures were the proportion of successes and failures of day care at follow-up visits as determined by estimating the OR with 95% CI in comparison to hospital care. Results The authors enrolled 360 children with a mean (SD) age of 8 (7)?months, 81% were infants and 61% were men. The follow-up compliance dropped from 95% at first to 85% at sixth visit. The common morbidities during the follow-up period included cough (28%), fever (17%), diarrhoea (9%) and rapid breathing (7%). During the follow-up period, significantly more day care children (n=22 (OR 12.2 (95% CI 8.2–17.8))) required re-hospitalisation after completion of initial day care compared with initial hospital care group (n=11 (OR 6.1 (95% CI 3.4–10.6))). The predictors for failure were associated with tachycardia, tachypnoea and hypoxaemia on admission and prolonged duration of stay. Conclusions There are considerable morbidities in children discharged following treatment of severe pneumonia like cough, fever, rapid breathing and diarrhoea during 3-month period. The findings indicate the importance of follow-up for early detection of medical problems and their management to reduce the risk of death. Establishment of an effective community follow-up would be ideal to address the problem of ‘non-compliance with follow-up’. Trial registration The original randomised control trial comparing day care with hospital care was registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (identifier NCT00455468). PMID:22842561

  7. Cohesion to the Group and Its Association with Attendance and Early Treatment Response in an Adult Day-Hospital Program for Eating Disorders: A Preliminary Clinical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crino, Natalie; Djokvucic, Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Treatment outcome studies demonstrate that day-hospital programs are effective in the treatment of eating disorders. Few descriptions are available on the specifics of treatment, particularly the process of therapy. The group therapy modality is thought to provide important therapeutic benefits. The present study aimed to examine the association…

  8. Comparison of assessment and management of suicidal risk for acute psychiatric assessment between two state sponsored hospitals in England and Italy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ranbir; Verdolini, Norma; Agius, Mark; Moretti, Patrizia; Quartesan, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    The risk of suicide is one of the most important risk factors looked into for acute psychiatric assessments that influences the management plan. The prevalence of suicide is on a rise across European countries; as a consequence, the different countries have created specific guidelines and policies in order to prevent suicides in the acute settings. These guidelines are based on both different cultural aspects as well as the different organization of the mental health system in the different countries. This paper wants to present the comparison between the guidelines of two European countries, England and Italy, in order to evaluate the systems, understand differences and common contact points. The different European countries could learn one from the other and a European shared point of view may be a way forward to create better understanding and preventing the risk of suicide across the population. PMID:26417782

  9. Too Few Psychiatric Patients Screened for Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 155667.html Too Few Psychiatric Patients Screened for Diabetes: Study Commonly prescribed antipsychotic medications tied to greater ... WEDNESDAY, Nov. 11, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Despite guidelines, diabetes screening rates are low among adults with severe ...

  10. The relationship of illness management and recovery to state hospital readmission.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, Tom; Zechner, Michelle

    2014-09-01

    The current study examined the association between number of hours attended of the Illness Management and Recovery (IMR) program and psychiatric readmission rates after discharge from a state psychiatric hospital. The study used archival data, N = 1186, from a large northeastern state psychiatric hospital in the United States. A Cox's regression survival analyses was conducted, adjusting for extreme outliers and controlling for sociodemographic covariates, to examine the association between different amounts of IMR and the risk for returning to the hospital. After controlling for the client characteristics of age, sex, marital status, psychiatric diagnosis, and Global Assessment of Functioning score at discharge, as well as controlling for mean daily dose of generic hospital programming and the number of days of hospitalization, it was found that, for each hour of IMR, there was an associated 1.1% reduction in the risk for returning to the hospital. This suggests that participation in IMR while in inpatient settings may assist individuals in reducing their risk for returning to the hospital. PMID:25099301

  11. Psychiatric thoughts in ancient India.

    PubMed

    Abhyankar, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    A review of the literature regarding psychiatric thoughts in ancient India is attempted. Besides interesting reading, many of the concepts are still relevant and can be used in day-to-day practice especially towards healthy and happy living. Certain concepts are surprisingly contemporary and valid today. They can be used in psychotherapy and counselling and for promoting mental health. However, the description and classification of mental illness is not in tune with modern psychiatry. PMID:25838724

  12. Psychiatric Thoughts in Ancient India*

    PubMed Central

    Abhyankar, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    A review of the literature regarding psychiatric thoughts in ancient India is attempted. Besides interesting reading, many of the concepts are still relevant and can be used in day-to-day practice especially towards healthy and happy living. Certain concepts are surprisingly contemporary and valid today. They can be used in psychotherapy and counselling and for promoting mental health. However, the description and classification of mental illness is not in tune with modern psychiatry. PMID:25838724

  13. Impact of risperidone long acting injection on resource utilization in psychiatric secondary care.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M; Currie, A; Lloyd, K; Price, M; Peperell, Kate

    2008-03-01

    Risperidone long acting injection (RLAI) is the only long acting atypical antipsychotic available in the UK. Its impact on NHS resource use has not been widely studied. This review of medical records was conducted to quantify the impact of RLAI on NHS psychiatric secondary care resource use, primarily in terms of episodes of inpatient hospital care 12 months before and 12 months after RLAI initiation. Data on number of hospitalizations and hospital bed days were collected retrospectively, from patient notes and hospital databases in four acute psychiatric units in the UK for all individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who were prescribed RLAI more than 12 months previously. Data were collected on 100 individuals (58 male) with a mean age 40.8 years (range 19-70). The median duration of illness before RLAI initiation was 12 years (range six months to 43 years). There were 62 admissions in the 12 months pre-RLAI, falling to 22 admissions in the 12 months post-RLAI. Number of admissions, we argue, offer a more reliable indicator of the impact of treatment than total hospital bed days in this type of study. In this study there were 40 fewer admissions in the 12 months after RLAI was initiated compared with the previous 12 months. This is important as readmission is a good proxy measure of relapse, and adherence to medication is known to be a key factor in relapse prevention. PMID:18308820

  14. Attitudes of Psychiatric Nurses about the Request for Euthanasia on the Basis of Unbearable Mental Suffering(UMS)

    PubMed Central

    Wampers, Martien; De Lepeleire, Jan; Correll, Christophe U.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction When psychiatric patients express a wish for euthanasia, this should first and foremost be interpreted as a cry for help. Due to their close day-to-day relationship, psychiatric nurses may play an important and central role in responding to such requests. However, little is known about nurses’ attitudes towards euthanasia motivated by unbearable mental suffering. Objectives The aim of this study was to provide insight into the attitudes and actions taken by psychiatric nurses when confronted with a patient’s euthanasia request based on unbearable mental suffering (UMS). Method A questionnaire was sent to 11 psychiatric hospitals in the Flemish part of Belgium. Results The overall response rate was 70% (N = 627). Psychiatric nurses were frequently confronted with a request for euthanasia, either directly (N = 329, 53%) or through a colleague (N = 427, 69%). A majority (N = 536, 84%) did not object to euthanasia in a psychiatrically ill population with UMS. Confounding factors were the psychiatric diagnosis and the type of ward where the nurses were working. Most participants acknowledged a lack of knowledge and skills to adequately address the euthanasia request (N = 434, 71%). Nearly unanimously (N = 618, 99%), study participants indicated that dealing with euthanasia requests and other end-of-life issues should be part of the formal training of nurses. Conclusion The results highlight the need for ethically sound and comprehensive provision of care. Psychiatric nurses play an important role in dealing with the complex issue of requests for euthanasia. There is also a need for education, training and clear guidelines on the level of health care organizations. PMID:26700007

  15. [Promoting "successful aging" in community psychiatric care].

    PubMed

    Niimura, Hidehito; Nemoto, Takahiro; Sakuma, Kei; Mizuno, Masafumi

    2011-01-01

    Recently, patients with schizophrenia have been progressively aging in a way similar to that of the general population. In Japan, community mental health care has become more active in the context of the policy of promoting the discharge of patients from psychiatric hospitals. Patients with chronic schizophrenia who have been discharged are already approaching old age. "Successful aging" may be a key concept in their community-based psychiatric care. Successful aging does not emphasize a loss of youth, but focuses on gains and growth achieved with aging. In the Sasagawa Project, 78 patients with schizophrenia were gradually transferred from a psychiatric hospital to a community dwelling. Eight years have passed since the project began. Elder patients (>60 years old) showed stable psychiatric symptoms and were rarely readmitted to the psychiatric ward. They were, however, more often readmitted to hospital due to physical disease (for example, lifestyle-related disease or fracture) than were middle -aged patients (<60 years old). Elder patients cannot simultaneously receive mental health services under the Services and Support for Persons with Disabilities Act, and long-term care under the Long-Term Care Insurance Act. We hope that the government will establish a new system and institutions that address the needs of elder psychiatric patients. Elder patients with schizophrenia have an optimistic view of their own aging, but they are not sufficiently prepared for old age. In the mental health care of aging psychiatric patients, it is necessary to not only control psychiatric symptoms, but also promote and improve their quality of life by maintaining their ability to continue living in the community (for example, by supporting their preparations for old age). PMID:21702130

  16. [Psychiatric and psychosomatic consulation-liaison. An overview].

    PubMed

    Wolf, M; Arolt, V; Burian, R; Diefenbacher, A

    2013-05-01

    A high rate of psychiatric comorbidity is found in patients with somatic diseases in general hospitals. Reasons for psychiatric disorders in somatically ill patients are variable and can lead to or be a result of the physical illness or just occur coincidentally. Consultation-liaison services (C/L) assist the physician and the treatment team on internal surgical wards in general hospitals in paying attention to and caring for somatic psychiatric comorbidities with diagnostic, therapeutic and, if appropriate, secondary preventative methods. In this article an overview of the development of C/L psychiatry is given. Furthermore, the importance of particular psychiatric disorders seen by psychiatric C/L services and their treatment is described. Finally, specific aspects of service delivery with regard to collaborative care between general hospital physicians and private practitioners are discussed. PMID:23595917

  17. The Relationship between Body Mass Index and Hospitalisation Rates, Days in Hospital and Costs: Findings from a Large Prospective Linked Data Study

    PubMed Central

    Korda, Rosemary J.; Joshy, Grace; Paige, Ellie; Butler, James R. G.; Jorm, Louisa R.; Liu, Bette; Bauman, Adrian E.; Banks, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Background Internationally there is limited empirical evidence on the impact of overweight and obesity on health service use and costs. We estimate the burden of hospitalisation—admissions, days and costs—associated with above-normal BMI. Methods Population-based prospective cohort study involving 224,254 adults aged ?45y in Australia (45 and Up Study). Baseline questionnaire data (2006-2009) were linked to hospitalisation and death records (median follow-up 3.42y) and hospital cost data. The relationships between BMI and hospital admissions and days were modelled using zero-inflated negative binomial regression; generalised gamma models were used to model costs. Analyses were stratified by sex and age (45-64, 65-79, ?80y), and adjusted for age, area of residence, education, income, smoking, alcohol-intake and private health insurance status. Population attributable fractions were also calculated. Results There were 459,346 admissions (0.55/person-year) and 1,483,523 hospital days (1.76/person-year) during follow-up. For ages 45-64y and 65-79y, rates of admissions, days and costs increased progressively with increments of above-normal BMI. Compared to BMI 22.5-<25kg/m2, rates of admissions and days were 1.64-2.54 times higher for BMI 40-50kg/m2; costs were 1.14-1.24 times higher for BMI 27.5-<30kg/m2, rising to 1.77-2.15 times for BMI 40-50kg/m2. The BMI-hospitalisation relationship was less clear for ?80y. We estimated that among Australians 45-79y, around 1 in every 8 admissions are attributable to overweight and obesity (2% to overweight, 11% to obesity), as are 1 in every 6 days in hospital (2%, 16%) and 1 in every 6 dollars spent on hospitalisation (3%, 14%). Conclusions The dose-response relationship between BMI and hospital use and costs in mid-age and older Australians in the above-normal BMI range suggests even small downward shifts in BMI among these people could result in considerable reductions in their annual health care costs; whether this would result in long-term savings to the health care system is not known from this study. PMID:25739093

  18. Exploring identity dynamics in mental help-seeking trajectories: an ethnographic study among inpatient service users of two Belgian psychiatric hospitals.

    PubMed

    Sercu, Charlotte; Pattyn, Elise; Bracke, Piet

    2015-04-01

    Using an ethnographic approach, in combining interviews with forty-two inpatient service users and participant observations, this research explored service users' experiences of their help seeking trajectories in an effort to uncover identity dynamics by which these are informed. They described both identity dynamics that made them postpone their search for help, like their belief in the essential difference between themselves and mental health service users; and dynamics that catalyzed their hospitalization, like the loss of social roles. Their accounts illustrate how experiences of barriers and facilitators for help seeking are closely intertwined with identity and therefore context related dynamics. PMID:25858204

  19. Psychiatric Adjustment in the Year after Meningococcal Disease in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shears, Daniel; Nadel, Simon; Gledhill, Julia; Gordon, Fabiana; Garralda, M. Elena

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess psychiatric status after meningococcal disease. Method: Cohort study of 66 children (34 boys, 32 girls) ages 4 to 17 years admitted to pediatric hospitals with meningococcal disease. The main outcome measure was psychiatric disorder (1-year period and point prevalence on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia…

  20. 42 CFR 456.170 - Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations. 456... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Mental Hospitals Medical, Psychiatric, and Social Evaluations and Admission Review § 456.170 Medical,...

  1. 42 CFR 456.170 - Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations. 456... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Mental Hospitals Medical, Psychiatric, and Social Evaluations and Admission Review § 456.170 Medical,...

  2. Psychiatric disorders and recidivism in sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Långström, Niklas; Sjöstedt, Gabrielle; Grann, Martin

    2004-04-01

    Research on psychiatric morbidity in sexual offenders (SOs) has mostly been based on small, selected samples. We studied psychiatric disorders and their relationship with criminal recidivism in a nationwide, representative cohort of SOs. Data on ICD-9 and -10 psychiatric and neurologic morbidity diagnosed during hospital admissions 1987-1997, but prior to sexual offending, were retrieved for all adult male SOs released from Swedish prisons 1993-1997 (N = 1215). Preoffending disorder prevalence and associations between morbidity and criminal reconvictions during a 5-year postdetainment follow-up were explored. Alcohol use disorder was the most frequent diagnosis, followed by drug use disorder, personality disorder, and psychosis. Morbidity requiring admission to hospital was more common in rapists as compared to child molesters. Alcohol use disorder, drug use disorder, personality disorder, and psychosis all increased the risk for sexual recidivism whereas alcohol use disorder and personality disorder predicted violent nonsexual recidivism. Controlling for sociodemographic confounds changed the risk estimates only marginally. Because disorders were identified among only those who had been admitted to psychiatric hospitals as inpatients, underestimation of true prevalence rates was inevitable. However, our findings support psychiatric consultation for improved assessment and management of mental health needs and recidivism risk in SOs. PMID:15208898

  3. Analysis of Early Out-of Hospital Mortality after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation among Patients with Aortic Stenosis Successfully Discharged from the Hospital and Alive at 30 days (From the PARTNER Trial)

    PubMed Central

    Beohar, Nirat; Zajarias, Alan; Thourani, Vinod H.; Herrmann, Howard C.; Mack, Michael; Kapadia, Samir; Green, Philip; Arnold, Suzanne V.; Cohen, David J.; Généreux, Philippe; Xu, Ke; Leon, Martin B.; Kirtane, Ajay J.

    2015-01-01

    In high risk/inoperable patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a proven alternative to standard (i.e., medical) therapy (ST) or surgical AVR. Concerns have been raised, however, about patients who survive the procedure but have a short subsequent survival. We therefore sought to identify correlates of early out-of-hospital mortality (EOHM) among patients undergoing successful TAVI, rendering TAVI potentially “futile”. Patients who were discharged from the hospital and survived >30 days but <12 months after TAVI were identified (EOHM group). Independent predictors of EOHM were explored, including patient-level factors and procedural non-fatal major complications (NFMC). A sensitivity analysis was also performed excluding patients with NFMC. Among 485 patients who were discharged from the hospital and survived 30 days following TAVI, 101 (21%) were dead within one year. Independent predictors of EOHM included serum creatinine, liver disease, coagulopathy, mental status, body mass index, male gender, and STS score. Although NFMC were strongly associated with EOHM, patient-level risk factors for EOHM were similar among patients who did and did not experience NFMC. Compared to ST, TAVI patients with EOHM had similar 6-month 6-minute walk distance & functional class, with higher rates of repeat hospitalization. In conclusion, among high risk/inoperable patients undergoing TAVI who were discharged and alive at 30 days, EOHM was not infrequent, and was largely determined by presenting characteristics and the occurrence of peri-procedural NFMC. Careful screening and minimization of NFMC may maximize the benefit of TAVI. PMID:25277334

  4. Chromosomal abnormalities in a psychiatric population

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W.

    1995-02-27

    Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awareness to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. Amoebiasis among institutionalized psychiatric patients in Taiwan.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, H. S.; Wang, L. C.

    1999-01-01

    Although information on amoebiasis among institutionalized psychiatric patients is available, reports on the relationship between behaviour and this infection are not abundant. From July 1995 to June 1996, stool and blood samples were collected from 565 patients in three psychiatric hospitals of North Taiwan. Stool samples were examined using the direct smear and formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation techniques as well as ProSpecT Entamoeba histolytica Microplate Assay kit. Blood samples were examined by the Amebiasis Serology Microwell ELISA kit. Among these patients, 14 (2.5%) harboured one or two species of intestinal parasites. There were 6 (1.1%) E. histolytica/E. dispar cyst passers: 5 positive in stool ELISA test and 2 with antibodies against E. histolytica. Among demographic factors, type of psychiatric disorder and disability, only a significant sexual difference in seropositivity of E. histolytica was observed. These findings indicate that the infected patients acquired the infections before they entered the hospitals. PMID:10355798

  6. Negative Rumor: Contagion of a Psychiatric Department

    PubMed Central

    McEwan, Stephanie; Bota, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, a sizable body of literature on the effects of rumors and gossip has emerged. Addressing rumors in the workplace is an important subject, as rumors have a direct impact on the quality of the work environment and also on the productivity and creativity of the employees. To date, little has been written on the effect of rumors and gossip in psychiatric hospitals. This article presents case vignettes of rumors spread in psychiatric hospitals and the impact on team cohesion and morale among the staff implicated in these, too often, neglected occurrences. Dynamic aspects with particular focus on rumors in psychiatric units and suggestions for remedy and treatment are presented. PMID:25133051

  7. Remote Psychiatric and Psychological Services via the Communications Technology Satellite (CTS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covvey, H. Dominic; And Others

    To provide remote psychiatric services to a population in Moose Factory, Ontario, via satellite, digital data links will be used to provide 24-hour access to the psychiatric medical file system and the psychiatric patient register at University Hospital, London, Ontario, and to permit scoring and interpretation of standard psychological tests. The…

  8. [What do psychiatric patients expect of inpatient psychiatric hospital treatment?].

    PubMed

    Fleischmann, Heribert

    2003-05-01

    Patients are mostly passive utilizer of the health-care-system. They are confronted with a supply of medical service and they are allowed to show their satisfaction with it retrospectively. Our medical system has in future to develop itself from an effective perspective to an utilizer orientated medicine. Orientation to the utilizers means to ask for the expectations of the patients for supply (at customer's option). Aim of our investigation was to check the subjective expectations of the patients before the beginning of in-patient treatment: 1. What is their opinion about the label of the disorder, they are suffering. 2. Of what therapeutic measures do they expect help for theirselves. 3. Do they want to play a part in planning of therapeutic measures. 209 of 344 (61%) of the patients were at admission ready for answering a self designed questionnaire. Only 4% of the patients said, that their disorder is called insanity. They preferred labels like mental illness (45%), somatic illness (43%) and mental health problem (42%). A pharmacological therapy expected in totally 61% of the patients. Mostly were expected drugs against depressive disorders (32%), drugs against addiction (31%) and tranquilizers (29%). Only 10% of the patients expected to get antipsychotic drugs. A verbal therapeutic intervention expected 76% of the patients. To have a speak with the doctor is with 69% a first rank desire, followed by speaking with the psychologist (60%), the nurses (58%) and the patients comrades (56%). Psychotherapy in a narrower sense expect only 40% of the patients. Furthermore there are privacy and recreation through promenades in front of the expectations (69%), followed by relaxation (59%), occupational therapy (55%) and sports or active exercise therapy (54%). 75% of the patients want to be informed about the therapy. 69% want to cooperate with planning of the therapy. Only 21% commit the therapy to the doctor. About one third of the patients expect a consultation with their relatives, the custodians and their family doctor. PMID:14509060

  9. Incidence and risk factors of workplace violence on psychiatric staff

    PubMed Central

    Ridenour, Marilyn; Lanza, Marilyn; Hendricks, Scott; Hartley, Dan; Rierdan, Jill; Zeiss, Robert; Amandus, Harlan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND A study by Hesketh et al. found that 20% of psychiatric nurses were physically assaulted, 43% were threatened with physical assault, and 55% were verbally assaulted at least once during the equivalent of a single work week. From 2005 through 2009, the U.S. Department of Justice reported that mental health occupations had the second highest average annual rate of workplace violence, 21 violent crimes per 1,000 employed persons aged 16 or older. OBJECTIVE An evaluation of risk factors associated with patient aggression towards nursing staff at eight locked psychiatric units. PARTICIPANTS Two-hundred eighty-four nurses in eight acute locked psychiatric units of the Veterans Health Administration throughout the United States between September 2007 and September 2010. METHODS Rates were calculated by dividing the number of incidents by the total number of hours worked by all nurses, then multiplying by 40 (units of incidents per nurse per 40-hour work week). Risk factors associated with these rates were analyzed using generalized estimating equations with a Poisson model. RESULTS Combining the data across all hospitals and weeks, the overall rate was 0.60 for verbal aggression incidents and 0.19 for physical aggression, per nurse per week. For physical incidents, the evening shift (3 pm – 11 pm) demonstrated a significantly higher rate of aggression than the day shift (7 am – 3 pm). Weeks that had a case-mix with a higher percentage of patients with personality disorders were significantly associated with a higher risk of verbal and physical aggression. CONCLUSION Healthcare workers in psychiatric settings are at high risk for aggression from patients. PMID:24894691

  10. Present-Day Hospital Readmissions after Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation: A Large Single-Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Ruben E.; Singh, Steve K.; Hoang, Dale T.; Ali, Syed W.; Elayda, MacArthur A.; Mallidi, Hari R.; Frazier, O.H.

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) therapy improves survival, hemodynamic status, and end-organ perfusion in patients with refractory advanced heart failure. Hospital readmission is an important measure of the intensity of LVAD support care. We analyzed readmissions of 148 patients (mean age, 53.6 ± 12.7 yr; 83% male) who received a HeartMate II LVAD from April 2008 through June 2012. The patients had severe heart failure; 60.1% were in Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support class 1 or 2. All patients were observed for at least 12 months, and readmissions were classified as planned or unplanned. Descriptive and multivariate regression analyses were used to identify predictors of unplanned readmission. Twenty-seven patients (18.2%) had no readmissions or 69 planned readmissions, and 121 patients (81.8%) had 460 unplanned readmissions. The LVAD-related readmissions were for bleeding, thrombosis, and anticoagulation (n=103; 49.1%), pump-related infections (n=60; 28.6%), and neurologic events (n=28; 13.3%). The readmission rate was 2.1 per patient-year. Unplanned readmissions were for comorbidities and underlying cardiac disease (54.3%) or LVAD-related causes (45.7%). In the unplanned-readmission rate, there was no significant difference between bridge-to-transplantation and destination-therapy patients. Unplanned readmissions were associated with diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR]=3.3; P=0.04) and with shorter mileage from residence to hospital (OR=0.998; P=0.046). Unplanned admissions for LVAD-related sequelae and ongoing comorbidities were common. Diabetes mellitus and shorter distance from residence to hospital were significant predictors of readmission. We project that improved management of comorbidities and of anticoagulation therapy will reduce unplanned readmissions of LVAD patients in the future. PMID:26504434

  11. 42 CFR 412.27 - Excluded psychiatric units: Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Excluded psychiatric units: Additional requirements. 412.27 Section 412.27 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Hospital Services Subject to and Excluded From...

  12. Outward Bound--An Adjunctive Psychiatric Therapy: Preliminary Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stich, Thomas F.; Sussman, Lewis R.

    According to a small study, Outward Bound can enhance the treatment of hospitalized psychiatric patients. Researchers measured the effect of a therapeutic Outward Bound program of prescribed physical and social tasks on the contentment and self-esteem of seven patients undergoing short-term treatment at the Veterans Administration Hospital in…

  13. Suicide Prevention in the Psychiatric Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matakas, Frank; Rohrbach, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    It is currently impossible to distinguish between patients with depression who will make a suicide attempt and those who will not. Prevention, therefore, must be based on the assumption that any patient with more than mild symptoms of depression is at risk of suicide, and can only be effective if it is applicable to all patients with moderate to…

  14. Reduced medical costs and hospital days when using oral arsenic plus ATRA as the first-line treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Liang, Gong-Wen; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Jiang, Qian; Han, Sheng; Shi, Lu-Wen; Zhu, Hong-Hu

    2015-12-01

    We have demonstrated that oral arsenic (Realgar-Indigo naturalis formula, RIF) plus all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is not inferior to intravenous arsenic trioxide (ATO) plus ATRA as the first-line treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). To compare the cost-effectiveness of oral and intravenous arsenic, we analyzed the results of 30 patients in each group involved in a randomized controlled trial at our center. The median total medical costs were $13,183.49 in the RIF group compared with $24136.98 in the ATO group (p<0.0001). This difference primarily resulted from the different costs of induction therapy (p=0.016) and maintenance treatment (p<0.0001). The length of hospitalization for the RIF group was significantly lower than that for the ATO group (24 vs. 31 days, p<0.0001) during induction therapy. During maintenance treatment, the estimated medical costs were $2047.14 for each patient in the RIF group treated at home compared with $11273.81 for each patient in the ATO group treated in an outpatient setting (p<0.0001). We conclude that oral RIF plus ATRA significantly reduced the medical costs and length of hospital stay during induction and remission therapy compared with ATO plus ATRA in APL patients. PMID:26403986

  15. Teaching Scholarly Activity in Psychiatric Training: Years 6 and 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zisook, Sidney; Boland, Robert; Cowley, Deborah; Cyr, Rebecca L.; Pato, Michele T.; Thrall, Grace

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To address nationally recognized needs for increased numbers of psychiatric clinician-scholars and physician-scientists, the American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training (AADPRT) has provided a series of full-day conferences of psychiatry residency training directors designed to increase their competence in…

  16. Psychiatric Pharmacy Residency Training*

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Carol A.; DiPaula, Bethany A.

    2010-01-01

    The role of the psychiatric pharmacist in the care of the mentally ill has continually evolved since the late 1960s and early 1970s. Pharmacists in the field of psychiatric pharmacy work to improve the health, safety, and welfare of those impacted by one or more psychiatric conditions. Specialty residency training programs are accredited to establish minimum training standards and a board-certification process ensures that individuals provide a high level of quality of care. It is the position of the College of Psychiatric and Neurologic Pharmacists (CPNP) that Psychiatric Pharmacy residency programs obtain American Society of Health-System Pharmacy (ASHP) accreditation and help the profession move forward as a recognized specialty. PMID:21301597

  17. Challenges and Outcomes of Parallel Care for Patients with Co-Occurring Psychiatric Disorder in Methadone Maintenance Treatment

    PubMed Central

    King, Van L.; Brooner, Robert K.; Peirce, Jessica; Kolodner, Ken; Kidorf, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objective Most opioid users seeking treatment in community-based substance abuse treatment programs have at least one co-occurring psychiatric disorder, and the presence of psychiatric comorbidity in this population is associated with increased psychological distress, poorer quality of life, and reduced response to substance abuse treatment. This observational study describes clinical outcomes of referring patients receiving methadone maintenance and diagnosed with at least one co-occurring psychiatric disorder to a community psychiatry program located on the same hospital campus. Methods Participants (n=156) were offered priority referrals to a community psychiatry program that included regularly scheduled psychiatrist appointments, individual and group therapy, and enhanced access to psychiatric medications for one-year. Psychiatric distress was measured with the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R), which participants completed monthly. Results While about 80% of the sample (n=124) initiated psychiatric care, the average length of treatment was only 128.2 days (SD = 122.8), participants attended only 33% of all scheduled appointments (M = 14.9 sessions, SD = 14.1), and 84% (n = 104) did not complete a full year of care. Of those who did not complete a full year, almost two-thirds (65%, n = 68) left psychiatric care while still receiving substance abuse treatment. Exploratory negative binomial regression showed that baseline cocaine and alcohol use disorder (p = .002 and .022, respectively), and current employment (p = .034), were associated with worse psychiatric treatment retention. Modest reductions in psychiatric distress over time were observed (SCL-90-R Global Severity Index change score = 2.5; paired t = 3.54, df = 121, p = .001). Conclusions Referral of patients with co-occurring psychiatric disorders receiving methadone maintenance to a community psychiatry program is often ineffective, even after reducing common barriers to care. Service delivery models designed to improve attendance and retention, such as integrated care models, should be evaluated. This study is part of a larger clinical trial, registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov under #NCT00787735. PMID:24976801

  18. Traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents: psychiatric disorders in the second three months.

    PubMed

    Max, J E; Lindgren, S D; Robin, D A; Smith, W L; Sato, Y; Mattheis, P J; Castillo, C S; Stierwalt, J A

    1997-06-01

    Psychiatric disorders may be common after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children, yet there is a death of prospective studies examining this problem. Fifty children aged 6 to 14, hospitalized after TBI, were assessed soon after TBI regarding preinjury psychiatric, behavioral, adaptive, and family functioning, family psychiatric history status and injury severity. The outcome measure was the presence of a "novel" psychiatric disorder (not present before the injury) during the second 3 months after the injury. Forty-two subjects were reassessed at 6 months. Severity of injury, family psychiatric history, and family function predicted a novel psychiatric disorder. Among children suffering a mild/moderate injury, those with preinjury lifetime psychiatric disorders were no longer (as they had been in the first 3 months) at higher risk than those without such a lifetime history. Thus, there appeared to be children, identifiable through clinical assessment, at increased risk for novel psychiatric disorders after TBI. PMID:9205426

  19. Psychiatric illness in physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Shortt, S E

    1979-01-01

    Psychiatric illness and behavioural problems among physicians are reviewed in this paper. Some studies suggest that the medical profession has a high rate of alcoholism, drug abuse and marital discord. As well, physicians appear to commit suicide and to seek admission to psychiatric institutions more frequently than comparable populations. Considered as etiologic factors in psychiatric illness among physicians are the role strain inherent in the profession and the personality development of individual practitioners prior to their entering medical school. The review concludes with suggestions for an improved approach to treatment and prevention. PMID:380794

  20. Psychiatric issues in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, E S

    2001-04-01

    In recent years there has been considerable research interest at the interface between epilepsy and psychiatry. Topics of interest include the epidemiology of psychiatric co-morbidity in epilepsy; clinical syndromes at this interface and their classification; the relationship between cognitive dysfunction and psychiatric co-morbidity; biological mechanisms that mediate such co-morbidity, especially with developments in imaging and genetic research; the association between temporal lobe surgery, vagus nerve stimulation, and other non-pharmacological treatments, and the development of such co-morbidity; the contribution of anticonvulsant drugs towards the development of psychiatric co-morbidity; quality of life and other psychosocial issues; and non-epileptic attack disorder. In this review, papers on these psychiatric issues in epilepsy, with a focus on those published in the past year (October 1999 to October 2000) are critically evaluated, and some important current issues at this interface are considered in detail. PMID:11262739

  1. Neuroinflammation and psychiatric illness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence support the pathogenic role of neuroinflammation in psychiatric illness. While systemic autoimmune diseases are well-documented causes of neuropsychiatric disorders, synaptic autoimmune encephalitides with psychotic symptoms often go under-recognized. Parallel to the link between psychiatric symptoms and autoimmunity in autoimmune diseases, neuroimmunological abnormalities occur in classical psychiatric disorders (for example, major depressive, bipolar, schizophrenia, and obsessive-compulsive disorders). Investigations into the pathophysiology of these conditions traditionally stressed dysregulation of the glutamatergic and monoaminergic systems, but the mechanisms causing these neurotransmitter abnormalities remained elusive. We review the link between autoimmunity and neuropsychiatric disorders, and the human and experimental evidence supporting the pathogenic role of neuroinflammation in selected classical psychiatric disorders. Understanding how psychosocial, genetic, immunological and neurotransmitter systems interact can reveal pathogenic clues and help target new preventive and symptomatic therapies. PMID:23547920

  2. Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Certification and Lifelong Learning Modules Online CME Learning on Demand Sign In My Profile Publications Donate My Cart About AACAP Facts for Families Guide Skip breadcrumb navigation Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation Quick Links Facts For Families Guide Facts For ...

  3. Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... health and psychiatric histories Information about the child's development Information about school and friends Information about family relationships Interview of the child or adolescent Interview of parents/guardians If needed, laboratory studies ...

  4. Establishing a Coalition of Hospital-Affiliated and Community-Based Child Care Services through a Family Home Day Care Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardo, Kathy A.

    The director of the child care and services program of a New England hospital designed and implemented this practicum for the purpose of expanding child care services for children of hospital employees and residents of communities around the hospital. The primary goal was to increase the number of quality child care slots in the area. A second aim…

  5. Organic Brain Dysfunction and Child Psychiatric Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Philip; Rutter, Michael

    1968-01-01

    The total population of 11,865 children of compulsory school age resident on the Isle of Wight was studied to determine the prevalence of epilepsy, cerebral palsy, and other neurological disorders. With the use of reliable methods, children selected from screening of the total population were individually studied by means of parental interviews and questionaries, neurological examination and psychiatric assessment of each child, information from school teachers, and perusal of the records of hospitals and other agencies. The association between organic brain dysfunction and psychiatric disorder was studied by comparing the findings in the children with epilepsy or with lesions above the brain stem (cerebral palsy and similar disorders) with those in (1) a random sample of the general population, (2) children with lesions below the brain stem (for example, muscular dystrophy or paralyses following poliomyelitis), and (3) children with other chronic physical handicaps not involving the nervous system (for example, asthma, heart disease, or diabetes). Psychiatric disorders in children with neuro-epileptic conditions were five times as common as in the general population and three times as common as in children with chronic physical handicaps not involving the brain. It was concluded, on the basis of a study of factors associated with psychiatric disorder, that the high rate of psychiatric disorder in the neuro-epileptic children was due to the presence of organic brain dysfunction rather than just the existence of a physical handicap (though this also played a part). However, organic brain dysfunction was not associated with any specific type of disorder. Within the neuro-epileptic group the neurological features and the type of fit, intellectual/educational factors, and socio-familial factors all interacted in the development of psychiatric disorder. PMID:4233874

  6. Narcissism and relational representations among psychiatric outpatients.

    PubMed

    Kealy, David; Ogrodniczuk, John S; Joyce, Anthony S; Steinberg, Paul I; Piper, William E

    2015-06-01

    Pathological narcissism is associated with maladaptive interpersonal behavior, although less is known regarding the internal relational representations of narcissistic patients. The authors examined the relationship between pathological narcissism and two constructs that reflect internal representations of relational patterns: quality of object relations and attachment style. Patients attending a psychiatric day treatment program (N = 218) completed measures of narcissism, general psychiatric distress, and attachment style in terms of attachment avoidance and anxiety. A semistructured interview was used to assess quality of object relations. Multiple regression analysis was conducted, controlling for general psychiatric distress. Pathological narcissism was associated with anxious attachment, but not with avoidant attachment. Narcissism was also associated with lower levels of quality of object relations. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of internal representations of self-other relations. PMID:23398104

  7. The periodicities in and biometeorological relationships with bed occupancy of an acute psychiatric ward in Antwerp, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, M.; de Meyer, F.; Peeters, D.; Meltzer, H.; Schotte, C.; Scharpe, S.; Cosyns, P.

    1993-06-01

    Recently, some investigators have established a seasonal pattern in normal human psychology, physiology and behaviour, and in the incidence of psychiatric psychopathology. In an attempt to elucidate the chronopsy and meteotropism in the latter, we have examined the chronograms of, and the biometeorological relationships to bed occupancy of the psychiatric ward of the Antwerp University Hospital during three consecutive calendar years (1987 1989). Weather data for the vicinity were provided by a local meteorological station and comprise mean atmospheric pressure, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and minutes of sunlight and precipitation/day. The number of psychiatric beds occupied during the study period exhibited a significant seasonal variation. Peaks in bed occupancy were observed in March and November, with lows in August. An important part of the variability in the number of beds occupied could be explained by the composite effects of weather variables of the preceding weeks. Our results suggest that short-term fluctuations in atmospheric activity may dictate some of the periodicities in psychiatric psychopathology.

  8. The Spectrum of Psychiatric Pathology in a Patient with Genetically Verified Huntington's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alkabie, Samir; Singh, Daljinder; Hernandez, Amy; Dumenigo, Rhaisa

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric and behavioral disturbances are common in Huntington's disease (HD) and contribute significantly to its morbidity and mortality. We herein present the case of a 43-year-old woman with genetically verified HD, whose deteriorating psychiatric condition necessitated multiple inpatient psychiatric hospitalizations and featured a clinical spectrum of neuropsychiatric disturbances classically associated with HD. This paper reviews the literature concerning Huntington's psychopathology and provides an illustrative case example of its clinical nature. PMID:26451266

  9. Psychiatric consultation to the postpartum mother.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Eleanor A; Kim, Deborah R

    2015-04-01

    The immediate postpartum period is a time of acute vulnerability to mental illness, which presents unique challenges for the psychiatric consultant. Because the postpartum hospital stay is typically brief, the consultant must have a working knowledge of postpartum physiology and the myriad forms of mental illness that may emerge in this vulnerable time, in order to quickly make a diagnosis and formulate a treatment plan. This review aims to characterize the most common reasons for postpartum consultation, review postpartum physiology and psychiatric conditions, and propose an evidence-based, practical approach to treatment. A literature search using the terms "postpartum," "obstetric," "consultation," and "psychiatry" yielded six studies that identified reasons for psychiatric consultation to the obstetrics and gynecology services. These studies informed the structure of the article such that we review the most common reasons for consultation and how to approach each issue. The most common reason for consultation is past psychiatric history, often in the absence of current symptoms. For each clinical situation, including depression, adverse birth events, and psychosis, we present a differential diagnosis, as well as risk factors, clinical signs, and recommended treatment. PMID:25764006

  10. Factors associated with hospitalization in a sample of chronic hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, K R

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the hospitalization experience of a sample of chronic hemodialysis patients, using primary data sources. There were multiple causes of hospitalization over the six-month tracking period, with stays extending from 1 to 87 days. Patients were more likely to be hospitalized if they had a negative hepatitis antigen, lower functional status scores, lower phosphate and protein levels, repeated access procedures, other cardiovascular conditions, arthritis, psychiatric disorders, ischemic peripheral vascular disease, lung disease, or larger households. Hospitalization for access-related problems was associated with arthritis, previous access procedures, and blood pressure levels. Sociodemographic and treatment characteristics did not have a significant influence on the risk of hospitalization. Improved management in these clinical areas may improve the quality of life of chronic hemodialysis patients and reduce the high level of expenditures associated with delivering inpatient services to this segment of the Medicare population. PMID:1743974

  11. Traditional Healing Practices Sought by Muslim Psychiatric Patients in Lahore, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farooqi, Yasmin Nilofer

    2006-01-01

    This research explored the type of traditional healing practices sought by Muslim psychiatric patients treated at public hospitals of Lahore city, Pakistan. The sample comprised 87 adult psychiatric patients (38% male and 62% female). The patients self-reported on the Case History Interview Schedule that they had sought diverse traditional healing…

  12. 75 FR 23105 - Medicare Program; Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities Prospective Payment System Payment-Update for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... among psychiatric hospitals and psychiatric units. Section 405(g)(2) of the Medicare Prescription Drug....103 PPI Prescription Drugs. Food: Direct Purchase...... 0.873 PPI Processed Foods & Feeds. Food... Federal Register (69 FR 66922). In developing the IPF PPS, in order to ensure that the IPF PPS is able...

  13. Adolescent Inpatient Psychiatric Admission Rates and Subsequent One-Year Mortality in England: 1998-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Anthony; Clacey, Joe; Seagroatt, Valerie; Goldacre, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a time of very rapid change not only in physical but also psychological development. During the teenage years there is a reported rise in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate age- and sex-specific National Health Service (NHS) hospital inpatient admission rates for psychiatric

  14. Psychiatric patient and anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Attri, Joginder Pal; Bala, Neeru; Chatrath, Veena

    2012-01-01

    Many patients with psychiatric illnesses are prescribed long-term drug treatment, and the anaesthesiologist must be aware of potential interactions with anaesthetic agents. Psychotropic drugs often given in combination with each other or with other non-psychiatric drugs generally exert profound effects on the central and peripheral neurotransmitter and ionic mechanisms. Hence, prior intake of these drugs is an important consideration in the management of the patient about to undergo anaesthesia and surgery. This article highlights the effects of anaesthetics on patients taking antipsychotics, tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors and lithium carbonate. The risk that should be considered in the perioperative period are the extent of surgery, the patient's physical state, anaesthesia, the direct and indirect effects of psychotropics, risk of withdrawal symptoms and risk of psychiatric recurrence and relapse. PMID:22529413

  15. MENTAL HOSPITALS IN INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, K.; Venugopal, D.; Alimchandani, A.K.

    2000-01-01

    This review traces the history of the mental hospital movement, initially on the world stage, and later in India, in relation to advances in psychiatric care. Mental hospitals have played a significant role in the evolution of psychiatry to its present status The earliest hospital in India were established during the British colonial rule. They served as a means to isolate mentally ill persons from the societal mainstream and provide treatments that were in vogue at the time. Following India's independence, there has been a trend towards establishing general hospital psychiatry units and deinstitutionalization, while at the same time improving conditions in the existing mental hospitals. Since 1947, a series of workshops of superintendents was conducted to review the prevailing situations in mental hospitals and to propose recommendations to improve the same. Implementation of the Mental Health Act, 1987, and grovernmental focus upon mental hospital reform have paved way for a more specific and futuristic role for mental hospitals in planning psychiatric services for the new millenium, especially for severe mental illnesses. PMID:21407925

  16. Is readmission a valid indicator of the quality of inpatient psychiatric care?

    PubMed

    Durbin, Janet; Lin, Elizabeth; Layne, Crystal; Teed, Moira

    2007-04-01

    Early return to hospital is a frequently measured outcome in mental health system performance monitoring yet its validity for evaluating quality of inpatient care is unclear. This study reviewed research conducted in the last decade on predictors of early readmission (within 30 to 90 days of discharge) to assess the association between this indicator and quality of inpatient psychiatric care. Only 13 studies met inclusion criteria. Results indicated that risk is greatest in the 30-day period immediately after discharge. There was modest support that attending to stability of clinical condition and preparing patients for discharge can protect against early readmission. A history of repeated admission increases risk, suggesting that special efforts are required to break the revolving door cycle. The authors identified a need for more standardization in measurement of client status at discharge and related care processes, more intervention studies on discharge practices, and studies of the effect of community care on early readmission. PMID:17437186

  17. The Patient- And Nutrition-Derived Outcome Risk Assessment Score (PANDORA): Development of a Simple Predictive Risk Score for 30-Day In-Hospital Mortality Based on Demographics, Clinical Observation, and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Frantal, Sophie; Schindler, Karin; Themessl-Huber, Michael; Mouhieddine, Mohamed; Schuh, Christian; Pernicka, Elisabeth; Schneider, Stéphane; Singer, Pierre; Ljunqvist, Olle; Pichard, Claude; Laviano, Alessandro; Kosak, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a simple scoring system to predict 30 day in-hospital mortality of in-patients excluding those from intensive care units based on easily obtainable demographic, disease and nutrition related patient data. Methods Score development with general estimation equation methodology and model selection by P-value thresholding based on a cross-sectional sample of 52 risk indicators with 123 item classes collected with questionnaires and stored in an multilingual online database. Setting Worldwide prospective cross-sectional cohort with 30 day in-hospital mortality from the nutritionDay 2006-2009 and an external validation sample from 2012. Results We included 43894 patients from 2480 units in 32 countries. 1631(3.72%) patients died within 30 days in hospital. The Patient- And Nutrition-Derived Outcome Risk Assessment (PANDORA) score predicts 30-day hospital mortality based on 7 indicators with 31 item classes on a scale from 0 to 75 points. The indicators are age (0 to 17 points), nutrient intake on nutritionDay (0 to 12 points), mobility (0 to 11 points), fluid status (0 to 10 points), BMI (0 to 9 points), cancer (9 points) and main patient group (0 to 7 points). An appropriate model fit has been achieved. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for mortality prediction was 0.82 in the development sample and 0.79 in the external validation sample. Conclusions The PANDORA score is a simple, robust scoring system for a general population of hospitalised patients to be used for risk stratification and benchmarking. PMID:26000634

  18. Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reighley, Joan

    A description is provided of a course, "Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing," designed to teach students at Level 3 of a two-year college nursing program about the role of the nurse in a psychiatric setting and about concepts of mental health and psychiatric disorders, using both classroom and clinical instruction. The first section of the course…

  19. Burden and Stress among Psychiatry Residents and Psychiatric Healthcare Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Ishara, Sergio; Bandeira, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The authors compared the levels of job burden and stress in psychiatry residents with those of other healthcare professionals at inpatient and outpatient psychiatric hospitals in a medium-sized Brazilian city. Method: In this study, the levels of job burden and stress of 136 healthcare workers and 36 psychiatry residents from six various…

  20. Histories of Child Maltreatment and Psychiatric Disorder in Pregnant Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Elisa; Zoccolillo, Mark; Paquette, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The study investigated histories of child maltreatment and psychiatric disorder in a high-risk sample of pregnant adolescents. Method: Cross-sectional data were obtained for 252 pregnant adolescents from high school, hospital, and group home settings in Montreal (Canada). Adolescents completed a child maltreatment questionnaire and a…

  1. Brief Report: Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Pregnant Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitsuhiro, Sandro Sendin; Chalem, Elisa; Barros, Marina Carvalho Moraes; Guinsburg, Ruth; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence of ICD-10 psychiatric disorders in a population of pregnant teenage women from a Brazilian public hospital. Method: 1000 pregnant teenage women were evaluated using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, a structured interview which establishes diagnoses according to the International Classification…

  2. Mapping Common Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Carlos; Krueger, Robert F.; Hasin, Deborah S.; Liu, Shang-Min; Wang, Shuai; Kerridge, Bradley T.; Saha, Tulshi; Olfson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Context Clinical experience and factor analytic studies suggest that some psychiatric disorders may be more closely related to one another, as indicated by the frequency of their co-occurrence, which may have etiologic and treatment implications. Objective To construct a virtual space of common psychiatric disorders, spanned by factors reflecting major psychopathologic dimensions, and locate psychiatric disorders in that space, as well as to examine whether the location of disorders at baseline predicts the prevalence and incidence of disorders at 3-year follow-up. Design, Setting, and Patients A total of 34 653 individuals participated in waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Main Outcome Measures The distance between disorders at wave 1, calculated using the loadings of the factors spanning the space of disorders as coordinates. This distance was correlated with the adjusted odds ratios for age, sex, and race/ethnicity of the prevalence and incidence of Axis I disorders in wave 2, with the aim of determining whether smaller distances between disorders at wave 1 predicts higher disorder prevalence and incidence at wave 2. Results A model with 3 correlated factors provided an excellent fit (Comparative Fit Index = 0.99, Tucker-Lewis Index=0.98, root mean square error of approximation=0.008) for the structure of common psychiatric disorders and was used to span the space of disorders. Distances ranged from 0.070 (between drug abuse and dysthymia) to 1.032 (between drug abuse and avoidant personality disorder). The correlation of distance between disorders in wave 1 with adjusted odds ratios of prevalence in wave 2 was ?0.56. The correlation of distance in wave 1 with adjusted odds ratios of incidence in wave 2 was ?0.57. Conclusions Mapping psychiatric disorders can be used to quantify the distances among disorders. Proximity in turn can be used to predict prospectively the incidence and prevalence of Axis I disorders. PMID:23266570

  3. National Hospital Discharge Survey

    Cancer.gov

    The National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS), which has been conducted annually since 1965, collects data from a sample of approximately 270,000 inpatient records acquired from a national sample of about 500 hospitals. Only hospitals with an average length of stay of fewer than 30 days for all patients, general hospitals, or children's general hospitals are included in the survey. Information collected includes diagnoses, surgical and nonsurgical procedures, prescription and over-the-counter drugs, immunizations, allergy shots, anesthetics, and dietary supplements.

  4. Day Hospital Mentalization-Based Treatment (MBT-DH) versus treatment as usual in the treatment of severe borderline personality disorder: protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Severe borderline personality disorder is associated with a very high psychosocial and economic burden. Current treatment guidelines suggest that several manualized treatments, including day hospital Mentalization-Based Treatment (MBT-DH), are effective in these patients. However, only two randomized controlled trials have compared manualized MBT-DH with treatment as usual. Given the relative paucity of data supporting the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of MBT-DH, the possible influence of researcher allegiance in one of the trials, and potential problems with the generalization of findings to mental health systems in other countries, this multi-site randomized trial aims to investigate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of manualized MBT-DH compared to manualized specialist treatment as usual in The Netherlands. Methods/design The trial is being conducted at two sites in The Netherlands. Patients with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of borderline personality disorder and a score of???20 on the Borderline Personality Disorder Severity Index were randomly allocated to MBT-DH or treatment as usual. The MBT-DH program consists of a maximum of 18 months’ intensive treatment, followed by a maximum of 18 months of maintenance therapy. Specialist treatment as usual is provided by the City Crisis Service in Amsterdam, a service that specializes in treating patients with personality disorders, offering manualized, non-MBT interventions including family interventions, Linehan training, social skills training, and pharmacotherapy, without a maximum time limit. Patients are assessed at baseline and subsequently every 6 months up to 36 months after the start of treatment. The primary outcome measure is the frequency and severity of manifestations of borderline personality disorder as assessed by the Borderline Personality Disorder Severity Index. Secondary outcome measures include parasuicidal behaviour, symptomatic distress, social and interpersonal functioning, personality functioning, attachment, capacity for mentalizing and quality of life. Cost-effectiveness is assessed in terms of the cost per quality-adjusted life year. Outcomes will be analyzed using multilevel analyses based on intention-to-treat principles. Discussion Severe borderline personality disorder is a serious psychological disorder that is associated with high burden. This multi-site randomized trial will provide further data concerning the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of MBT-DH for these patients. Trial registration NTR2175 PMID:24886402

  5. 77 FR 53257 - Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... Printing Office Web page at: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR . Free... hospitals, PPS- exempt cancer hospitals, LTCHs, and inpatient psychiatric facilities (IPFs)) that are...-Exempt Cancer Hospital Quality Reporting Issues. Anita Bhatia, (410) 786-7236, Ambulatory Surgical...

  6. Use of specialty hospitals by Medicare beneficiaries, 1985

    PubMed Central

    Helbing, Charles; Latta, Viola B.

    1988-01-01

    Information is provided on the use and cost of inpatient services for Medicare beneficiaries discharged from participating specialty hospitals during 1985. Specialty hospitals include: psychiatric, general long-term, rehabilitation, children's, alcohol and drug, and Christian Science sanatoriums. Specialty units of short-stay hospitals are not included in the specialty hospital data presented in this article. PMID:10312520

  7. Predictors of rehospitalization in high-utilizing patients in the VA psychiatric medical system.

    PubMed

    Bowersox, Nicholas W; Saunders, Stephen M; Berger, Bertrand D

    2012-03-01

    233 high-service-utilizing (HSU) psychiatric patients were recruited during an inpatient psychiatric treatment. They completed a questionnaire related to their treatment beliefs and were tracked via computerized medical records over 2 years. During the follow-up period, 79.8% were readmitted for additional inpatient psychiatric treatment. Survival analysis techniques were used to examine patients' rates of readmittance during the follow-up period. Number of previous year inpatient psychiatric days served as a significant predictor of readmittance status and time to readmission. The survival plot was split by previous-year inpatient days to examine the effect of this variable on readmission. Implications of findings are discussed. PMID:21701913

  8. Culture and psychiatric diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2013-01-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, neurobiologists and anthropologists have criticized the rigidity of its diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations, as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopathology. Experts in culture and mental health have responded to these criticisms by revising the very process of diagnosis for DSM-5. Specifically, the DSM-5 Cultural Issues Subgroup has recommended that concepts of culture be included more prominently in several areas: an introductory chapter on Cultural Aspects of Psychiatric Diagnosis - composed of a conceptual introduction, a revised Outline for Cultural Formulation, a Cultural Formulation Interview that operationalizes this Outline, and a glossary on cultural concepts of distress - as well as material directly related to culture that is incorporated into the description of each disorder. This chapter surveys these recommendations to demonstrate how culture and context interact with psychiatric diagnosis at multiple levels. A greater appreciation of the interplay between culture, context, and biology can help clinicians improve diagnostic and treatment planning. PMID:23816860

  9. The Effects of Sociodemographic Factors on Psychiatric Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mal Rye; Eun, Hun-Jeong; Yoo, Tai P.; Yun, Youngmi; Wood, Christopher; Kase, Michael; Park, Jong-Il

    2012-01-01

    Objective Several studies have reported that ethnic differences influence psychiatric diagnoses. Some previous studies reported that African Americans and Hispanics are diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders more frequently than Caucasians, and that Caucasians are more likely to be diagnosed with affective disorders than other ethnic groups. We sought to identify associations between sociodemographic factors and psychiatric diagnosis. Methods We retrospectively examined the medical records of all psychiatric inpatients (ages over 18 years) treated at Kern county mental hospital (n=2,051) between July 2003 and March 2007 for demographic, clinical information, and discharge diagnoses. Results African American and Hispanic males were more frequently diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders than Caucasians, whereas Caucasian females were more frequently diagnosed with affective disorders than females in the other ethnic groups, suggesting that patient ethnicity and gender may influence clinical diagnoses. Demographic variables, that is, a lower education, failure of marriage, homelessness, and low quality insurance, were found to be significantly associated with a diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorders after adjusting for clinical variables. And, the presence of a family psychiatric history, failure of marriage, not-homelessness, and quality insurance were found to be associated with a diagnosis of affective disorders. Conclusion Our results show that these demographic factors, including ethnicity, have effects on diagnoses in psychiatric inpatients. Furthermore, these variables may help prediction of psychiatric diagnoses. PMID:22993517

  10. Utilization of day surgery services at Upper hill Medical Centre and the Karen hospital in Nairobi: the influence of medical providers, cost and patient awareness

    PubMed Central

    Odhiambo, Mildred Adhiambo; Njuguna, Susan; Waireri-Onyango, Rachel; Mulimba, Josephat; Ngugi, Peter Mungai

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Health systems face challenges of improving access to health services due to rising health care costs. Innovative services such as day surgery would improve service delivery. Day surgery is a concept where patients are admitted for surgical procedures and discharged the same day. Though used widely in developed countries due to its advantages, utilization in developing countries has been low. This study sought to establish how utilization of day surgery services was influenced by medical providers, patient awareness and cost among other factors. Methods The study design was cross sectional with self administered questionnaires used to collect data. Data analysis was done by using statistical package for social science (SPSS) and presented as frequencies, percentages and Spearman's correlation to establish relationship among variables. Results Medical providers included doctors, their employees and medical insurance providers. Most doctors were aware of day surgery services but their frequency of utilization was low. Furthermore, medical insurance providers approved only half of the requests for day surgery. Doctors’ employees were aware of the services and most of them would recommend it to patients. Although, most patients were not aware of day surgery services those who were aware would prefer day surgery to in patient. Moreover, doctors and medical insurance providers considered day surgery to be cheaper than in patient. Conclusion The study showed that medical providers and patient awareness had influence over day surgery utilization, though, cost alone did not influence day surgery utilization but as a combination with other factors. PMID:26664529

  11. Pathways to psychiatric care in European prison systems.

    PubMed

    Dressing, Harald; Salize, Hans-Joachim

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe and analyse the concepts of provision of mental health services for prison inmates in 24 countries in the European Union and the EFTA. Data were gathered by means of a structured questionnaire that was completed by national experts in the participating countries. This article stresses the different organizational models of mental health care for inmates, different legal standards for screening their mental health status and different pathways to psychiatric care and aftercare. The study revealed serious shortcomings. Even the most rudimentary health reporting standards for mental health care in prison are lacking almost everywhere in Europe. Psychiatric screening and assessment procedures at prison entry and during imprisonment differ substantially and do not fulfil recognized quality standards. In many countries, the appointment of inadequately trained staff to perform such screenings increases considerably the risk that mental disorders or psychiatric needs of the inmates will remain undetected. Furthermore, the pathways to care in the case of an acute psychotic episode differ significantly, since referral to prison hospitals, medical prison wards, forensic hospitals, or general psychiatric hospital are used in various combinations depending on different national legal regulations and on the availability of services or other regional circumstances. Therefore, the collaborating experts place the quality of European prison mental health care into serious question. PMID:19743520

  12. The evaluation of chronic psychiatric care

    PubMed Central

    Kedward, H. B.; Eastwood, M. R.; Allodi, F.; Duckworth, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    During the past two decades the reduction in the size of the mental hospital population in this country has closely followed statistical predictions for bed requirements both in Canada and in the province of Ontario. The decrease has been most pronounced among chronic non-retarded patients. While these patients are now less evident in hospital statistics, it is suggested that improvements in their state may be more apparent than real, owing to differences in the terminology and numerators employed in presenting mental health statistics. Further, concern has been expressed about the quality of care received by former chronic patients now scattered through the community in a variety of after-care programs. Readmission rates have greatly increased in absolute terms and as a proportion of total admissions. The evaluation of the management of chronic psychiatric patients is discussed. PMID:20312459

  13. Exploring if day and time of admission is associated with average length of stay among inpatients from a tertiary hospital in Singapore: an analytic study based on routine admission data

    PubMed Central

    Earnest, Arul; Chen, Mark IC; Seow, Eillyne

    2006-01-01

    Background It has been postulated that patients admitted on weekends or after office hours may experience delays in clinical management and consequently have longer length of stay (LOS). We investigated if day and time of admission is associated with LOS in Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH), a 1,400 bed acute care tertiary hospital serving the central and northern regions of Singapore. Methods This was a historical cohort study based on all admissions from TTSH from 1st September 2003 to 31st August 2004. Data was extracted from routinely available computerized hospital information systems for analysis by episode of care. LOS for each episode of care was log-transformed before analysis, and a multivariate linear regression model was used to study if sex, age group, type of admission, admission source, day of week admitted, admission on a public holiday or eve of public holiday, admission on a weekend and admission time were associated with an increased LOS. Results In the multivariate analysis, sex, age group, type of admission, source of admission, admission on the eve of public holiday and weekends and time of day admitted were independently and significantly associated with LOS. Patients admitted on Friday, Saturday or Sunday stayed on average 0.3 days longer than those admitted on weekdays, after adjusting for potential confounders; those admitted on the eve of public holidays, and those admitted in the afternoons and after office hours also had a longer LOS (differences of 0.71, 1.14 and 0.65 days respectively). Conclusion Cases admitted over a weekend, eve of holiday, in the afternoons, and after office hours, do have an increased LOS. Further research is needed to identify processes contributing to the above phenomenon. PMID:16426459

  14. Multidimensional Prognostic Index in Association with Future Mortality and Number of Hospital Days in a Population-Based Sample of Older Adults: Results of the EU Funded MPI_AGE Project

    PubMed Central

    Angleman, Sara B.; Santoni, Giola; Pilotto, Alberto; Fratiglioni, Laura; Welmer, Anna-Karin

    2015-01-01

    Background The Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI) has been found to predict mortality in patients with a variety of clinical conditions. We aimed to assess the association of the MPI with future mortality and number of in-hospital days for the first time in a population-based cohort. Methods The study population consisted of 2472 persons, aged 66–99 years, from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen, Sweden, who underwent the baseline visit 2001–4, and were followed up >10 years for in-hospital days and >12 years for mortality. The MPI was a modified version of the original and aggregated seven domains (personal and instrumental activities of daily living, cognitive function, illness severity and comorbidity, number of medications, co-habitation status, and nutritional status). The MPI score was divided into risk groups: low, medium and high. Number of in-hospital days (within 1, 3 and 10 years) and mortality data were derived from official registries. All analyses were age-stratified (sexagenarians, septuagenarians, octogenarians, nonagenarians). Results During the follow-up 1331 persons (53.8%) died. Laplace regression models, suggested that median survival in medium risk groups varied by age from 2.2–3.6 years earlier than for those in the corresponding low risk groups (p = 0.002-p<0.001), and median survival in high risk groups varied by age from 3.8–9.0 years earlier than for corresponding low risk groups (p<0.001). For nonagenarians, the median age at death was 3.8 years earlier in the high risk group than for the low risk group (p<0.001). The mean number of in-hospital days increased significantly with higher MPI risk score within 1 and 3 years for people of each age group. Conclusion For the first time, the effectiveness of MPI has been verified in a population-based cohort. Higher MPI risk scores associated with more days in hospital and with fewer years of survival, across a broad and stratified age range. PMID:26222546

  15. Attitudes of college students toward mental illness stigma and the misuse of psychiatric medications

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Amanda M.; Merlo, Lisa J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Mental illness stigma remains a significant barrier to treatment. However, the recent increase in the medical and non-medical use of prescription psychiatric medications among college students seems to contradict this phenomenon. This study explored students’ attitudes and experiences related to psychiatric medications, as well as correlates of psychiatric medication misuse (i.e., attitudes towards mental illness and beliefs about the efficacy of psychiatric medications). METHOD Data were collected anonymously via self-report questionnaires from April 2008 to February 2009. Measures included the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test, Drug Abuse Screening Test, Day’s Mental Illness Stigma Scale, Attitudes Toward Psychiatric Medication Scale, and the Psychiatric Medication Attitudes Scale. Participants included 383 university students (59.2% female), recruited on campus or through online classes. RESULTS Results showed high rates of psychiatric medication misuse when compared to rates of medical use. Participants reported believing that the majority of students who use prescription psychotropics do so non-medically. In addition, less-stigmatized attitudes toward mental illness were correlated with both increased beliefs about the treatability of mental illness and increased misuse of psychiatric medications. Conversely, more stigmatized beliefs were associated with negative views toward psychiatric medication, as well as decreased likelihood of abuse. CONCLUSION Results suggest the need for improved education regarding the nature of mental illness, the appropriate use of psychiatric medications, and the potential consequences associated with abuse of these potent drugs. PMID:21208582

  16. Predicting psychiatric emergency room recidivism.

    PubMed

    Kolbasovsky, Andrew; Futterman, Robert

    2007-04-01

    To address the need to reduce psychiatric emergency-room (ER) recidivism and to promote continuity of care, this study developed a model using administratively obtainable variables to predict psychiatric ER visits in the six months following an index ER visit for a psychiatric condition. Data on member characteristics, preindex psychiatric ER use, index ER information, and postindex utilization for 1,029 adult HMO members visiting the ER for a psychiatric condition were collected and randomly divided in half. A regression model predicting psychiatric ER visits in the six months following the initial psychiatric ER visit was developed in the first data set and tested in the second. In both models, Medicaid insurance coverage, and preindex inpatient admissions for depression or substance abuse were identified as significant predictors of future psychiatric ER utilization. Administratively identifiable variables can be used to identify members at elevated risk of ER recidivism for psychiatric conditions. Through improved identification of risk, case management interventions can be strategically directed to members with the greatest need of services. PMID:17474328

  17. Musicians seeking psychiatric help: a preliminary study of psychiatric characteristics.

    PubMed

    van Fenema, Esther; Julsing, Jolien E; Carlier, Ingrid V; van Noorden, Martijn S; Giltay, Erik J; van Wee, Nic J; Zitman, Frans G

    2013-03-01

    Musicians are at increased risk for mental disorders, in particular performance anxiety. Likely causes are high levels of occupational stress, special personality traits, and coping skills. In this cross-sectional study, routine outcome monitoring (ROM) data on clinical and psychosocial characteristics were collected from the first 50 musicians visiting our outpatient psychiatric clinic for performing artists and were compared to those of a large sample of psychiatric outpatients (n=1,498) and subjects from the general population. Of the musician outpatients, 82% (n=41) met the criteria of an Axis I psychiatric disorder. Performance anxiety could not be accurately diagnosed with the MINI-plus, and in a few cases it masked different psychiatric disorders. Musician outpatients scored significantly better on functional scales despite their Axis I disorder, with equal scores on scales measuring distress compared to general outpatients. Musicians displayed significantly higher mean scores on the DAPP-sf subscale measuring narcissistic personality traits than general outpatients and non-patient controls (p=0.001). Diagnostic challenges, in particular regarding performance anxiety, of musicians seeking psychiatric care are thoroughly discussed. Musicians with psychiatric disorders may constitute a group of patients with specific characteristics who may benefit from specialized psychiatric care, and health professionals should be aware of the high prevalence of psychiatric disorders in musicians. PMID:23462899

  18. Clay and Anxiety Reduction: A One-Group, Pretest/Posttest Design with Patients on a Psychiatric Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimport, Elizabeth R.; Hartzell, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Little research exists on using clay as an anxiety-reducing intervention with patients in psychiatric hospitals. This article reports on a study that used a one-group, pretest/posttest design with 49 adults in a psychiatric facility who created a clay pinch pot. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used as a pre- and posttest measure.…

  19. A Comparison of Psychiatric Patients and Normal Subjects Based on the Model of Human Occupation and Commentary and Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barris, Roann; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A study examined the empirical validity of the model of human occupation in psychosocial occupational therapy. It compared normal subjects with three types of psychiatric patients: young adults with chronic conditions; patients with eating disorders; and hospitalized adolescent psychiatric patients. (The study report is followed by comments on the…

  20. Validity of Childhood Autism in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register: Findings from a Cohort Sample Born 1990-1999

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauritsen, Marlene B.; Jorgensen, Meta; Madsen, Kreesten M.; Lemcke, Sanne; Toft, Susanne; Grove, Jakob; Schendel, Diana E.; Thorsen, Poul

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the diagnosis of childhood autism in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register (DPCR) by reviewing medical records from 499 of 504 total children with childhood autism born 1990-1999. Based on review of abstracted behaviors recorded in case records from child psychiatric hospitals, case status…

  1. The Psychiatric Disorders of Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Charles R.; Lucas, Alexander R.

    A general textbook on the psychiatric disorders of childhood, the book is intended to be an introductory text for students and practitioners working with children (such as psychiatric and pediatric residents and psychologists, teachers, medical students). The genesis of mental illness is discussed in terms of the contributions of heredity and the…

  2. Psychiatric Aide II. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimericks, Belinda K.

    This instructor's guide is for a Psychiatric Aide II course intended to provide Psychiatric Aids Is who have demonstrated expertise in giving basic nursing care to the mentally ill with more advanced nursing interventions and techniques. (It is assumed that all nursing care the aides provide is under the direction of a Registered Nurse.)…

  3. New Frontiers in Psychiatric Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuzessery, Zoltan, Ed.

    The second annual educational workshop concerned utilization of psychiatric technicians for technical service to allied professions. Manuscripts are included for the following presentations: (1) "Brief History of Colorado Psychiatric Technicians Association" by Francis L. Hedges, (2) "Hominology--The Approach to the Whole Man" by Theodore C. Kahn,…

  4. College Students with Psychiatric Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Delar K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on college students with psychiatric disabilities. It defines and discusses various psychiatric conditions such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and personality disorders. It concludes with accommodations that a college professor can make to help these students succeed in higher education. (Contains 1…

  5. Cutaneous factitia in elderly patients: alarm signal for psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Chiriac, Anca; Foia, Liliana; Birsan, Cristina; Goriuc, Ancuta; Solovan, Caius

    2014-01-01

    Background The factitious disorders, more commonly known in daily practice as pathomimia, are expressed in dermatology units by skin lesions induced voluntarily by the patient, in order to draw attention of the medical staff and/or the family members. The disorder is often challenging to diagnose and even more difficult to document in front of the patient or relatives. It represents a challenge for the physician, and any attempt at treatment may be followed by recurrence of the self-mutilation. This paper describes two cases of pathomimia diagnosed by dermatologists and treated in a psychiatry unit, highlighting the importance of collaboration in these situations. Patients and methods Two case reports, describing old female patients with pathomimia, hospitalized in a department of dermatology for bizarre skin lesions. Results The first case was a 77-year-old female with unknown psychiatric problems and atrophic skin lesions on the face, self-induced for many months, with multiple hospitalizations in dermatology units, with no response to different therapeutic patterns, and full recovery after psychiatric treatment for a major depressive syndrome. The second case was a 61-year-old female patient with disseminated atrophic scars on the face, trunk, and limbs. She raised our interest because of possible psychiatric issues, as she had attempted to commit suicide. The prescription of antidepressants led to a significant clinical improvement. Conclusion These cases indicate that a real psychiatric disease may be recorded in patients suffering from pathomimia. Therefore, complete psychiatric evaluation in order to choose the proper therapy is mandatory for all these cases. Dermatologists and all physicians who take care of old patients must recognize the disorder in order to provide optimum care for this chronic condition. We emphasize therefore the importance of psychiatric evaluation and treatment to avoid the major risk of suicide. Skin lesions must be regarded as an alarm signal in critical cases, especially in senior people. PMID:24648724

  6. Exorcism: a psychiatric viewpoint.

    PubMed Central

    Trethowan, W. H.

    1976-01-01

    Doctors, for several reasons, should be concerned with exorcism is the view of Professor Trethowan, who in this paper, looks at the main features of exorcism as practised in the middle ages and now appearing in the modern world, as was seen in the recent Ossett case in Britain. He examines in some detail the nature of supposed demoniacal possession and describes its symptoms and signs. He also touches on the social, as opposed to the religious, background in which demoniacal possession flourished (not lacking in the world today), so leading to an examination of the psychodynamic aspects of demoniacal possession and the question of absolute evil. Finally he compares the techniques of exorcism and of modern psychiatric practice. PMID:966260

  7. Psychiatric consultation with children in underserviced areas: lessons from experiences in northern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Dubois, J R; Nugent, K; Broder, E

    1991-08-01

    There are only 350 child psychiatrists in Canada. It is therefore unrealistic to expect them to be able to provide sufficient direct treatment, even in small densely populated communities with abundant resources. Such expectations are even more unrealistic in underserviced, sparsely populated areas. A review of the literature on psychiatric consultation in underserviced areas is presented along with a description of the consultation process, taking advantage of the "multiplier effect." Some of the realities of mental health consultation in underserviced areas are discussed, stressing the importance of consultation as a way of professional life. Some guidelines for the psychiatric consultant are outlined which would enhance the "multiplier effect". It is maintained that the training of psychiatric residents should include a supervised experience consulting in underserviced areas. Finally, it is hoped that psychiatric training programs, funding bodies, hospitals, and agencies, will recognize the value of this use of psychiatric expertise. PMID:1933752

  8. A contact-based intervention for people recently discharged from inpatient psychiatric care: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bennewith, Olive; Evans, Jonathan; Donovan, Jenny; Paramasivan, Sangeetha; Owen-Smith, Amanda; Hollingworth, William; Davies, Rosemary; O'Connor, Susan; Hawton, Keith; Kapur, Navneet; Gunnell, David

    2014-01-01

    People recently discharged from inpatient psychiatric care are at high risk of suicide and self-harm, with 6% of all suicides in England occurring in the 3 months after discharge. There is some evidence from a randomized trial carried out in the United States in the 1960s-70s that supportive letters sent by psychiatrists to high-risk patients in the period following hospital discharge resulted in a reduction in suicide. The aim of the current pilot study was to assess the feasibility of conducting a similar trial, but in a broader group of psychiatric discharges, in the context of present day UK clinical practice. The intervention was piloted on 3 psychiatric inpatient wards in southwest England. On 2 wards a series of 8 letters were sent to patients over the 12 months after discharge and 6 letters were sent from the third ward over a 6 month period. A total of 102 patients discharged from the wards received at least 1 letter, but only 45 (44.1%) received the full series of letters. The main reasons for drop-out were patient opt-out (n = 24) or readmission (n = 26). In the context of a policy of intensive follow-up post-discharge, qualitative interviews with service users showed that most already felt adequately supported and the intervention added little to this. Those interviewed felt that it was possible that the intervention might benefit people new to or with little follow-up from mental health services but that fewer letters should be mailed. PMID:24673299

  9. Day to day with COPD

    MedlinePLUS

    ... but there are things you can do every day to keep COPD from getting worse, to protect ... COPD - day to day; Chronic obstructive airways disease - day to day; Chronic obstructive lung disease - day to day ; Chronic ...

  10. Gender, status, and psychiatric labels.

    PubMed

    Kroska, Amy; Harkness, Sarah K; Brown, Ryan P; Thomas, Lauren S

    2015-11-01

    We examine a key modified labeling theory proposition-that a psychiatric label increases vulnerability to competence-based criticism and rejection-within task- and collectively oriented dyads comprised of same-sex individuals with equivalent education. Drawing on empirical work that approximates these conditions, we expect the proposition to hold only among men. We also expect education, operationalized with college class standing, to moderate the effects of gender by reducing men's and increasing women's criticism and rejection. But, we also expect the effect of education to weaken when men work with a psychiatric patient. As predicted, men reject suggestions from teammates with a psychiatric history more frequently than they reject suggestions from other teammates, while women's resistance to influence is unaffected by their teammate's psychiatric status. Men also rate psychiatric patient teammates as less powerful but no lower in status than other teammates, while women's teammate assessments are unaffected by their teammate's psychiatric status. Also as predicted, education reduces men's resistance to influence when their teammate has no psychiatric history. Education also increases men's ratings of their teammate's power, as predicted, but has no effect on women's resistance to influence or teammate ratings. We discuss the implications of these findings for the modified labeling theory of mental illness and status characteristics theory. PMID:26463535

  11. PSYCHIATRIC PROBLEMS OF AFGHAN REFUGEES IN DELHI : A STUDY ON 152 OUTPATIENTS1

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Shekar; Wig, N.N.

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY A brief review of literature on psychiatric morbidity associated with migration is presented, with particular emphasis on the problems of political refugees. Initial experiences with 152 Afghan nationals attending the psychiatric outpatient department of a general hospital in Delhi during a period of 18 months are described supported by retrospective data from the records. Problems encountered in adequate assessment and management of these patients are highlighted. Need for prospective and longitudinal research on this group of patients is pointed out. PMID:21847250

  12. Rheumatoid arthritis is associated with higher 90-day Hospital Readmission Rates Compared to Osteoarthritis after Hip or Knee arthroplasty: A cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jasvinder A.; Inacio, Maria C.S.; Namba, Robert S.; Paxton, Elizabeth W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine if an underlying diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or osteoarthritis (OA) impacts the 90-day readmission rates after total hip or knee arthroplasty (THA or TKA). Methods Prospectively collected data from an integrated healthcare system Total Joint Replacement Registry of adults with RA or OA undergoing unilateral primary THA or TKA during 2009-2011 were analyzed. Adjusted logistic regression models for 90-day readmission were fit. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Study year was an effect modifier for the outcome, therefore separate analyses were conducted for each of the three study years. Results Of the 34,311 patients, 496 had RA and 33,815 had OA. Comparing RA and OA, there were: 73% and 61% women; 45% and 70% Caucasians; and the mean age was lower, 61 vs. 67 years (p<0.001). Respective crude 90-day readmission rates were 8.5% and 6.7%. The adjusted odds of 90-day readmission increased from year to year for RA compared to OA patients, from 0.89 (95% CI, 0.46-1.71) in 2009 to 1.34 (95% CI, 0.69-2.61) in 2010 to 1.74 (95% CI, 1.16-2.60) in 2011. The two most common readmission reasons were: joint prosthesis infection (10.2%) and septicemia (10.2%) in RA; joint prosthesis infection (5.7%) and other postoperative infection (5.1%) in OA. Conclusions RA is a risk factor for 90-day readmission after primary TKA or THA. An increasing risk of readmissions noted in RA in 2011 is concerning and indicates further studies should examine the reasons for this increasing trend. PMID:25302697

  13. The Cerebellum and Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Joseph R.; Hewedi, Doaa H.; Eissa, Abeer M.; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

    2015-01-01

    The cerebellum has been considered for a long time to play a role solely in motor coordination. However, studies over the past two decades have shown that the cerebellum also plays a key role in many motor, cognitive, and emotional processes. In addition, studies have also shown that the cerebellum is implicated in many psychiatric disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and anxiety disorders. In this review, we discuss existing studies reporting cerebellar dysfunction in various psychiatric disorders. We will also discuss future directions for studies linking the cerebellum to psychiatric disorders. PMID:26000269

  14. Psychiatric problems in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Silberfarb, P M

    1984-02-01

    The author discusses the prevalence of psychiatric problems in cancer, and highlights five emotional problems common to all cancer patients: the emotionally charged nature of the word cancer, the patient's perceived lack of control, the uncertainty about outcome, the discordant treatment mode, and the debilitating nature of cancer treatments. The author then divides the problems faced by breast cancer patients into three categories needing clinical intervention: (1) the psychosocial, (2) the somatic, and (3) the psychiatric. Diagnosis and treatment of the two psychiatric problems of depression and delirium is emphasized. PMID:6692281

  15. Circadian Disruption in Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Jones, Stephanie G; Benca, Ruth M

    2015-12-01

    Evidence suggests that abnormalities in circadian rhythms might prove causally or pathophysiologically significant in psychiatric illness. The circadian regulation of hormonal and behavioral timekeeping processes is often altered in patients with major depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia, and a susceptibility to rhythm instability may contribute to the functional impairment. For some patients, interventions that stabilize or resynchronize circadian rhythms prove therapeutically effective. Circadian disruption in the clinical profiles of most psychiatric illnesses and the treatment efficacy of chronobiological interventions suggest that attention to circadian phenotypes in a range of psychiatric disorders may help to uncover shared pathophysiologic mechanisms. PMID:26568124

  16. Preventing homelessness after discharge from psychiatric wards: perspectives of consumers and staff.

    PubMed

    Forchuk, Cheryl; Godin, Mike; Hoch, Jeffrey S; Kingston-Macclure, Shani; Jeng, Momodou S; Puddy, Liz; Vann, Rebecca; Jensen, Elsabeth

    2013-03-01

    After spending time in the hospital, psychiatric clients are often discharged to homeless shelters or the streets, which can place a burden on health care systems. This study examined the effects of an intervention in which psychiatric clients from acute (n = 219) and tertiary (n = 32) sites were provided with predischarge assistance in securing housing. A program evaluation design was used to examine the effectiveness of the intervention. Qualitative data were available through interviews, focus groups, and monthly meetings. The results highlight several benefits of the intervention and show that homelessness can be reduced by connecting housing support, income support, and psychiatric care. PMID:23394964

  17. Emergency Department Visits by Adults for Psychiatric Medication Adverse Events

    PubMed Central

    Hampton, Lee M.; Daubresse, Matthew; Chang, Hsien-Yen; Alexander, G. Caleb; Budnitz, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE In 2011, an estimated 26.8 million US adults used prescription medications for mental illness. OBJECTIVE To estimate the numbers and rates of adverse drug event (ADE) emergency department (ED) visits involving psychiatric medications among US adults between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2011. DESIGN AND SETTING Descriptive analyses of active, nationally representative surveillance of ADE ED visits using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System–Cooperative Adverse Drug Event Surveillance system and of drug prescribing during outpatient visits using the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. PARTICIPANTS Medical records from national probability samples of ED and outpatient visits by adults 19 years or older were reviewed and analyzed. EXPOSURES Antidepressants, antipsychotics, lithium salts, sedatives and anxiolytics, and stimulants. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES National estimates of ADE ED visits resulting from therapeutic psychiatric medication use and of psychiatric medication ADE ED visits per 10 000 outpatient visits at which psychiatric medications were prescribed. RESULTS From 2009 through 2011, there were an estimated 89 094 (95% CI, 68 641–109 548) psychiatric medication ADE ED visits annually, with 19.3% (95% CI, 16.3%–22.2%) resulting in hospitalization and 49.4% (95% CI, 46.5%–52.4%) involving patients aged 19 to 44 years. Sedatives and anxiolytics, antidepressants, antipsychotics, lithium salts, and stimulants were implicated in an estimated 30 707 (95% CI, 23 406–38 008), 25 377 (95% CI, 19 051–31 704), 21 578 (95% CI, 16 599–26 557), 3620 (95% CI, 2311–4928), and 2779 (95% CI, 1764–3794) respective ADE ED visits annually. Antipsychotics and lithium salts were implicated in 11.7 (95% CI, 10.1–13.2) and 16.4 (95% CI, 13.0–19.9) ADE ED visits per 10 000 outpatient prescription visits, respectively, compared with 3.6 (95% CI, 3.2–4.1) for sedatives and anxiolytics, 2.9 (95% CI, 2.3–3.5) for stimulants, and 2.4 (95% CI, 2.1–2.7) for antidepressants. The commonly used sedative zolpidem tartrate was implicated in 11.5% (95% CI, 9.5%–13.4%) of all adult psychiatric medication ADE ED visits and in 21.0% (95% CI, 16.3%–25.7%) of visits involving adults 65 years or older, in both cases significantly more than any other psychiatric medication. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Psychiatric medications are implicated in many ADEs treated in US EDs. Efforts to reduce ADEs should include adults of all ages but might prioritize medications causing high numbers and rates of ED visits. PMID:25006837

  18. Implementing a smoking ban in an acute psychiatric admissions unit.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Linda S; Diaz, Beth; Bird, Paula; Cook, Alan; Stephenson, Anne E; Kraus, John E; Sheitman, Brian B

    2005-11-01

    In contrast to general medical hospitals, psychiatric hospitals often allow patients to smoke cigarettes. In addition to obvious health concerns, smoking can also interfere with clinical assessments and therapeutic activities, Implementation of a smoking ban on an acute male admissions unit did not result in any increase in aggressive behaviors. In addition, staff attitudes following the ban improved, and most staff members believed the ban was both ethical and beneficial to patients. Our research indicates that banning smoking on an acute admissions unit is feasible and well tolerated by patients and staff, although it may require extra vigilance for smoking-related contraband. PMID:16350913

  19. Early Management, With a Minimal Initial Hospitalization Length, of Major Self-inflicted Rifle Wounds to the Face by a Single Latissimus Dorsi Free Musculocutaneous Flap: A 10-Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Danino, A. M.; Hariss, P. G.; Servant, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Severe ballistic injuries to the face create complex, composite defects of 2 facial subunits. These injuries have an extremely high economic impact for the Medicare system. The surgical goal with these patients is to restore basic functions of the face with a rapid morphological improvement. Our hypothesis is as follows: Early restoration of facial segments with a single free multiple island latissimus dorsi flap without primary bone reconstruction can significantly reduce hospitalization time and allow earlier psychiatric therapy with good morphological results. Surgical method: (1) Large debridement, bony stabilization with external fixation, and tracheotomy. (2) Definitive early reconstruction of soft tissue with composite free latissimus dorsi-scapular musculocutaneous flap. (3) Several refinements will optimize the results. Study design: Retrospective case series of lower- and middle-face composite facial close-range high-energy gunshot wound patients were evaluated. Age, gender, mechanism of injury, anatomic subsites involved, surgical procedures, flaps utilized, complications, functional outcomes, time of tracheotomy closure, hospitalization duration, and beginning of psychiatric treatment were analyzed. Results: Twelve defects were gunshot wounds, 12 free latissimus dorsi flaps, and no flap losses. Patients received psychiatric treatment after 22 days (7–29); the tracheotomy was removed in 10 patients with normal alimentation in all cases. Mean hospitalization duration was 21 days. Conclusions: Free tissue transfer techniques allow early reconstruction of the soft tissue framework of the face with a single multiple-island flap. Rapid restitution of facial compartments at a soft tissue level can dramatically reduce duration of hospitalization. PMID:19587777

  20. Patient Management and Psychopharmacological Treatment Associated to Smoking Ban in an Acute Psychiatric Unit.

    PubMed

    Bergé, Daniel; Mané, Anna; Fonseca, Francina; Toll, Alba; Merino, Ana; Pérez, Victor; Bulbena, Antoni

    2015-08-01

    This study investigates differences in terms of clinical and treatment management in psychiatric hospitalization associated to smoking ban. We collected data regarding medication, socio-demographic and admission characteristics from all patients admitted to an acute psychiatric hospital before and after a smoking ban was in force. We also assessed a limited sample of patients before and after the ban regarding nicotine dependence, motivation to quit smoking and attitudes towards the ban. More number of leaves of absence and movement restrictions during the ban period occurred in comparison to the pre-ban period. On the contrary a lack of significant differences in terms of hospital stay (duration, rate of voluntary admissions and voluntary discharges), use of sedatives and doses of antipsychotics was found. A period of adjustment regarding the deal with leave of access and facilitate nicotine replacement treatment may help future psychiatric facilities planning smoking free policies. PMID:25536945

  1. Psychiatric aspects of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep; Somaiya, Mansi; Kumar, Santhosh; Avasthi, Ajit

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is essentially characterized by the motor symptoms in the form of resting tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia. However, over the years it has been recognized that motor symptoms are just the “tip of the iceberg” of clinical manifestations of PD. Besides motor symptoms, PD characterized by many non-motor symptoms, which include cognitive decline, psychiatric disturbances (depression, psychosis and impulse control), sleep difficulties, autonomic failures (gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, urinary, thermoregulation) and pain syndrome. This review evaluates the various aspects of psychiatric disorders including cognitive decline and sleep disturbances in patients with PD. The prevalence rate of various psychiatric disorders is high in patients with PD. In terms of risk factors, various demographic, clinical and treatment-related variables have been shown to be associated with higher risk of development of psychiatric morbidity. Evidence also suggests that the presence of psychiatric morbidity is associated with poorer outcome. Randomized controlled trials, evaluating the various pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD are meager. Available evidence suggests that tricyclic antidepressants like desipramine and nortriptyline are efficacious for management of depression. Among the antipsychotics, clozapine is considered to be the best choice for management of psychosis in patients with PD. Among the various cognitive enhancers, evidence suggest efficacy of rivastigmine in management of dementia in patients with PD. To conclude, this review suggests that psychiatric morbidity is highly prevalent in patients with PD. Hence, a multidisciplinary approach must be followed to improve the overall outcome of PD. Further studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of various other measures for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD. PMID:25552854

  2. Psychiatric aspects of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Grover, Sandeep; Somaiya, Mansi; Kumar, Santhosh; Avasthi, Ajit

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is essentially characterized by the motor symptoms in the form of resting tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia. However, over the years it has been recognized that motor symptoms are just the "tip of the iceberg" of clinical manifestations of PD. Besides motor symptoms, PD characterized by many non-motor symptoms, which include cognitive decline, psychiatric disturbances (depression, psychosis and impulse control), sleep difficulties, autonomic failures (gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, urinary, thermoregulation) and pain syndrome. This review evaluates the various aspects of psychiatric disorders including cognitive decline and sleep disturbances in patients with PD. The prevalence rate of various psychiatric disorders is high in patients with PD. In terms of risk factors, various demographic, clinical and treatment-related variables have been shown to be associated with higher risk of development of psychiatric morbidity. Evidence also suggests that the presence of psychiatric morbidity is associated with poorer outcome. Randomized controlled trials, evaluating the various pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD are meager. Available evidence suggests that tricyclic antidepressants like desipramine and nortriptyline are efficacious for management of depression. Among the antipsychotics, clozapine is considered to be the best choice for management of psychosis in patients with PD. Among the various cognitive enhancers, evidence suggest efficacy of rivastigmine in management of dementia in patients with PD. To conclude, this review suggests that psychiatric morbidity is highly prevalent in patients with PD. Hence, a multidisciplinary approach must be followed to improve the overall outcome of PD. Further studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of various other measures for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD. PMID:25552854

  3. Day to Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurecki, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    A clean, healthy and safe school provides students, faculty and staff with an environment conducive to learning and working. However, budget and staff reductions can lead to substandard cleaning practices and unsanitary conditions. Some school facility managers have been making the switch to a day-schedule to reduce security and energy costs, and…

  4. Serious psychiatric outcome of subjects prenatally exposed to diethylstilboestrol in the E3N cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Verdoux, Hélène; Ropers, Jacques; Costagliola, Dominique; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Paoletti, Xavier

    2007-01-01

    Background Prenatal exposure to diethylstilboestrol (DES) may induce neurodevelopmental disturbances potentially mediating an increased risk of psychiatric disorders in exposed subjects. Most findings of an increased prevalence of psychiatric disorders in men and women prenatally exposed to DES are not easy to interpret because of selection biases. Method Information on hormonal treatment during pregnancy and on offspring’s medical outcome was collected from women participating in the Etude Epidemiologique de Femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l’Education Nationale (E3N) prospective cohort who completed consecutive postal questionnaires on a range of medical events since 1990. Information on hormonal treatment during pregnancy was collected in 1992 and on offspring’s medical outcome in 2004. The psychiatric outcome of subjects prenatally exposed to DES was compared to that of their unexposed siblings. Results A total of 1352 mothers with DES treatment for at least one pregnancy provided information on 1680 exposed children and 1447 unexposed siblings. After adjustment for duration of follow-up, educational level, history of obstetric complication, prenatal exposure to progestagen drugs or other hormones and parental history of psychiatric hospitalization, no association was found between prenatal exposure to DES and occurrence of strictly defined serious psychiatric outcome (suicide or psychiatric hospitalization) [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.5–1.2], or of broadly defined serious psychiatric outcome (same events plus psychiatric or psychological consultation) (adjusted OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.8–1.2). Conclusions These findings suggest that the impact of prenatal DES exposure on foetal brain development, if any, is unlikely to increase the risk of serious psychiatric disorders. PMID:17407619

  5. Effects of group metacognitive training (MCT) on mental capacity and functioning in patients with psychosis in a secure forensic psychiatric hospital: a prospective-cohort waiting list controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Metacognitive Training (MCT) is a manualised cognitive intervention for psychosis aimed at transferring knowledge of cognitive biases and providing corrective experiences. The aim of MCT is to facilitate symptom reduction and protect against relapse. In a naturalistic audit of clinical effectiveness we examined what effect group MCT has on mental capacity, symptoms of psychosis and global function in patients with a psychotic illness, when compared with a waiting list comparison group. Methods Of 93 patients detained in a forensic mental health hospital under both forensic and civil mental health legislation, 19 were assessed as suitable for MCT and 11 commenced. These were compared with 8 waiting list patients also deemed suitable for group MCT who did not receive it in the study timeframe. The PANSS, GAF, MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool- Treatment (MacCAT-T) and MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Fitness to Plead (MacCAT-FP) were recorded at baseline and repeated after group MCT or following treatment as usual in the waiting list group. Results When baseline functioning was accounted for, patients that attended MCT improved in capacity to consent to treatment as assessed by the MacCAT-T (p?=?0.019). The more sessions attended, the greater the improvements in capacity to consent to treatment, mainly due to improvement in MacCAT-T understanding (p?=?0.014) and reasoning . The GAF score improved in patients who attended the MCT group when compared to the waiting list group (p?=?0.038) but there were no changes in PANSS scores. Conclusion Measures of functional mental capacity and global function can be used as outcome measures for MCT. MCT can be used successfully even in psychotic patients detained in a forensic setting. The restoration of elements of decision making capacity such as understanding and reasoning may be a hither-to unrecognised advantage of such treatment. Because pharmacotherapy can be optimised and there is likely to be enough time to complete the course, there are clear opportunities to benefit from such treatment programmes in forensic settings. PMID:22709616

  6. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Alcohol Dependence.

    PubMed

    Fein, George

    2015-12-01

    We review our clinical studies of psychiatric comorbidity in short-term and long-term abstinent and in treatment naïve alcoholics (STAA, LTAA and TNA). TNA ypically have less severe alcoholism than treated abstinent samples and evidence less severe psychiatric disturbance. Lifetime psychiatric diagnoses are the norm for STAA and LTAA but not for TNA. Individuals with alcohol and drug use disorders show greater antisocial personality disturbance, but do not show differences in the mood or anxiety domains or in borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms. The studies show that alcoholics can achieve and maintain abstinence in the face of ongoing mood, anxiety, or BPD problems. By contrast, for ASPD, LTAA essentially stop current antisocial behaviors in all seven domains of antisocial behaviors. We believe that ongoing antisocial behavior is not consistent with maintaining abstinence, and that LTAA modify their antisocial behavior despite continued elevated social deviance proneness and antisocial dispositionality. Abstinent individuals without lifetime psychiatric disorders and TNA show more (subdiagnostic threshold) psychiatric symptoms and abnormal psychological measures than non-alcoholic controls in the mood, anxiety, BPD, and antisocial domains. In summary, our studies show that although LTAA have achieved multi-year abstinence, they still report significant psychological distress compared to NAC. We believe this distress may negatively affect their quality of life. This suggests the importance of developing effective care models to address comorbid mental health problems in LTAA. We also show that antisocial personality disorder symptoms decline to the levels seen in normal controls, and that excluding individuals from research with a psychiatric diagnosis does not control for subdiagnostic psychiatric differences between alcoholics and controls. PMID:26590836

  7. 38 CFR 17.44 - Hospital care for certain retirees with chronic disability (Executive Orders 10122, 10400 and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Hospital, Domiciliary and Nursing Home Care § 17.44 Hospital care for certain retirees...diseases shall include chronic arthritis, malignancy, psychiatric disorders, poliomyelitis with residuals,...

  8. Psychiatric Rehospitalization: Development of a Person-Level Indicator for Care Planning and Quality Assurance

    PubMed Central

    Hirdes, John P.; Vigod, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Rehospitalization affects quality of life and health system efficiency. Although this outcome is a common quality indicator, there are few applications for linking evaluation to risk mitigation at the person level. This study examined risk factors for rehospitalization to develop an application for supporting care planning based on the interRAI Mental Health (MH), a commonly available assessment system. Method: A retrospective analysis was performed of 53,538 psychiatric inpatients assessed with the interRAI MH in Ontario, Canada, between January 2010 and May 2014. The interRAI MH is a clinical system for assessing demographic variables, service utilization, functional status, and clinical needs. Logistic regression models and survival analysis were used to develop the Rehospitalization Clinical Assessment Protocol by predicting 90-day rehospitalization to any inpatient mental health bed. Results: Variables found to significantly predict rehospitalization included 6 or more lifetime hospitalizations (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40), positive symptoms of psychosis (OR = 1.23), a secondary substance use disorder (OR = 1.13), and being at risk of harm to self (OR = 1.11). Using these variables, the Rehospitalization Clinical Assessment Protocol was derived whereby those at level 2 (highest) were 74% more likely to be rehospitalized within 90 days than those at level 0. By 1-year postdischarge, 30% at level 2 and 18% at level 0 were rehospitalized. Conclusions: The Rehospitalization Clinical Assessment Protocol is an application supporting care planning for targeting risk of rehospitalization whenever a person is assessed with the interRAI MH. Further exploration is needed to understand how the use of this Clinical Assessment Protocol, service processes, and health system structures further mediate or moderate psychiatric rehospitalization risk. PMID:26693047

  9. Hospital Building - 11 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2006-06-22

    As natural resources are decreasing and environmental pollution is increasing, the buildings that play an important role in this problem should be constructed sustainably so their affects are kept to a minimum. Hospitals operate 24 hours a day...

  10. Gender, victimization, and psychiatric outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Gershon, A.; Minor, K.; Hayward, C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although gender differences in rates of internalizing disorders, particularly depression, are well documented, the causes of these differences are not well understood. One influential hypothesis [Cutler & Nolen-Hoeksema, Sex Roles (1991), 24, 425–438] proposes that higher rates of depression in females compared to males may be partially attributable to gender differences in the effects of childhood sexual abuse. The present study has evaluated this possibility by reviewing evidence for gender moderating the effects of childhood victimization on psychiatric outcomes. Method Literature search using PsycINFO and Medline, applying the following inclusion criteria: publication from 1996 to 2006, community-based sampling, adequate male-to-female sample ratio, use of clearly defined psychiatric outcomes, and a statistical test of gender differences in the effects of childhood victimization on psychiatric outcomes. Results Thirty studies met inclusion criteria. Overall, the results were mixed. Nearly half of all studies find no gender differences. In studies that do observe gender differences, victimization tends to be associated with higher psychiatric risk in females in studies with adult samples, whereas in samples of youth, victimization tends to be associated with higher psychiatric risk in males. With respect to outcome, when gender differences were observed, outcomes were distributed across both internalizing and externalizing categories for both genders. Conclusions The gender differences in prevalence rates of internalizing disorders, such as depression, do not appear to be attributable to differential effects of childhood victimization. PMID:18387212

  11. Health service costs and clinical gains of psychotherapy for personality disorders: a randomized controlled trial of day-hospital-based step-down treatment versus outpatient treatment at a specialist practice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Day-hospital-based treatment programmes have been recommended for poorly functioning patients with personality disorders (PD). However, more research is needed to confirm the cost-effectiveness of such extensive programmes over other, presumably simpler, treatment formats. Methods This study compared health service costs and psychosocial functioning for PD patients randomly allocated to either a day-hospital-based treatment programme combining individual and group psychotherapy in a step-down format, or outpatient individual psychotherapy at a specialist practice. It included 107 PD patients, 46% of whom had borderline PD, and 40% of whom had avoidant PD. Costs included the two treatment conditions and additional primary and secondary in- and outpatient services. Psychosocial functioning was assessed using measures of global (observer-rated GAF) and occupational (self-report) functioning. Repeated assessments over three years were analysed using mixed models. Results The costs of step-down treatment were higher than those of outpatient treatment, but these high costs were compensated by considerably lower costs of other health services. However, costs and clinical gains depended on the type of PD. For borderline PD patients, cost-effectiveness did not differ by treatment condition. Health service costs declined during the trial, and functioning improved to mild impairment levels (GAF?>?60). For avoidant PD patients, considerable adjuvant health services expanded the outpatient format. Clinical improvements were nevertheless superior to the step-down condition. Conclusion Our results indicate that decisions on treatment format should differentiate between PD types. For borderline PD patients, the costs and gains of step-down and outpatient treatment conditions did not differ. For avoidant PD patients, the outpatient format was a better alternative, leaning, however, on costly additional health services in the early phase of treatment. Trial registration Clinical Trials NCT00378248 PMID:24268099

  12. Perinatal complications associated with preterm deliveries at 24 to 33 weeks and 6 days gestation (2011- 2012): A hospital-based retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Khoshnood Shariati, Maryam; Karimi, Zohreh; Rezaienejad, Mahroo; Basiri, Azita; Torkestani, Farahnaze; Saleh Gargari, Soraya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Morbidity and mortality of preterm babies are important issues in perinatal medicine. In developed countries, preterm delivery is the cause of about 70% of mortality and 75% of morbidity in the neonatal period, respectively. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for preterm labor and the outcomes, in terms of perinatal mortality and morbidity at the time of discharge home, among preterm infants at less than 34 weeks gestation. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted and all infants with a gestational age of 24 to 33 weeks and 6 days who were born from November 1st, 2011 to March 31, 2012 were enrolled in this study. Results: From 1185 preterm infants were born during this period, 475 (40.08%) infants with less than 34 weeks gestational age were included in the study. Our study showed the major obstetrical risk factors for preterm labor were as follows: preeclampsia (21%), premature rupture of membranes (20.3%), abruption of placenta (10%), and idiopathic cases (48.7%). The neonatal mortality rate in less than 34 weeks was 9.05%. Significant perinatal morbidity causesd in less than 34 weeks were as follows: sepsis (46.94%), respiratory distress syndrome (41.47%), patent ductus arteriosus (21.47%), retinopathy of prematurity (3.57%), necrotizing entrocolitis (1.68%), intra-ventricular hemorrhage (9%), and broncho-pulmonary dysplasia (0.84%). Conclusion: Preterm birth is associated with adverse perinatal outcome. This situation needs to be improved by directing appropriately increased resources for improving prenatal health services and providing advanced neonatal care.

  13. Hospitality Hospitality/Foodservice: TBD

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    Hospitality Management Hospitality/Foodservice: TBD Food Science: TBD Recreation/Tourism: TBD Culinary Arts/Hospitality NTT: TBD SFBS Sustainable Food & Bioenergy Systems Faculty: Alison Harmon & Campus Restaurant Managed By: Gallatin College Program Director/ Hospitality Management Instructor

  14. The journey between ideal and real: Experiences of beginners psychiatric nurses

    PubMed Central

    Khankeh, Hamidreza; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Hoseini, Seyaid-Ali; Khodai-Ardekandi, Mohammad-Reza; Ekman, Sirkka-Liisa; Bohm, Katarina; Nakhaie, Maryam; Ranjbar, Maryam; Castrén, Maaret

    2014-01-01

    Background: Understanding how novice nurses perceive their career in the psychiatric ward can be helpful for nurse educators and managers to gain insight into psychiatric nursing care and adding applicable knowledge to the development of support strategies for this group. The aim of this study was to describe and illuminate experiences of new graduated nurses working at a psychiatric ward in an Iranian context. Materials and Methods: A descriptive phenomenology has been chosen. Participants with baccalaureate degrees in nursing were selected purposefully and they all had less than 6 months of work experience in psychiatric wards beforehand. The study was conducted at the Razi Hospital in Iran. Data were collected through unstructured individual in-depth interviews and analyzed according to the Colaizzi method by means of Husserlian phenomenology. Results: Three main themes were found in this study, of which six sub-themes were constructed as follows: Being in the world of fear and complaint, which has been abstracted by having mixed feelings of conflict and compliant on entry to the psychiatric ward, doubt about adequacy of being a psychiatric nurse and working in psychiatric ward and a frightening and non-supportive environment; A sense of imprisoned and confined, which has been constructed by different experience with different environmental milieu in psychiatric ward, as a lock sense; Becoming a psychiatric nurse, which has been constructed as a sense of usefulness, a sense of sympathy and compassion for patients and a sense of professional identity. Conclusions: This study identified areas that require modification by providing insight into lived experiences of beginners’ nurses as the value in psychiatric ward. New graduated nurses may face negative perceptions and feelings due to confrontation with a new environment, patients and colleagues as well as shortcomings in the preparation. PMID:25183982

  15. Italian psychiatric reform 1978: milestones for Italy and Europe in 2010?

    PubMed

    Pycha, Roger; Giupponi, Giancarlo; Schwitzer, Josef; Duffy, Dearbhla; Conca, Andreas

    2011-11-01

    The Italian psychiatric reform of 1978 was one of the most radical attempts in history to abolish the practise of custodial psychiatry using legislation. The work of the charismatic reformer Franco Basaglia had four main objectives, which have taken more than 30 years to achieve. Although the creation of outpatient mental health centres and a reduction in involuntary commitments occurred rapidly, the expensive development of small acute psychiatric departments in general hospitals as an alternative to psychiatric hospitals was implemented very slowly. According to a national survey by the Italian Ministry of Health, in 2001, there were a total of 9,300 acute beds for all of Italy, of which as many as 4,000 were in private facilities. With 1.72 acute beds per 10,000 inhabitants, Italy has one of the lowest figures in Europe of psychiatric beds. However, Italy's apparent and often praised low bed requirement places a large burden on families. The implementation of the reform process was most delayed and occurred at its worst in South Tyrol, in North Italy. In an effort to achieve a modern and progressive community-based psychiatric service, in particular one with more specialised services, mental health providers in this region have examined German, Austrian and Swiss models of psychiatric practice. PMID:21909732

  16. Factors predicting psychosocial recovery in psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Viinamäki, H; Niskanen, L; Jääskeläinen, J; Antikainen, R; Koivumaa-Honkanen, H; Tanskanen, A; Lavonen, T; Lehtonen, J

    1996-11-01

    We examined factors associated with psychosocial recovery in patients receiving specialist psychiatric treatment by means of a questionnaire directed at staff and patients (n = 1084) in an extensive study performed in North Savo, Kuopio, Finland. Psychosocial recovery was considered to have taken place if the Global Assessment Scale (GAS) score had increased from the lowest estimate obtained during the preceding year by at least 28 points at the time of the study (n = 102). The remaining cases (n = 982) served as controls. In the univariate analysis of all of the patients, the factors associated with good recovery were a high level of basic education, a diagnosis of major depression and adequate social support. The opportunity to contact a therapist outside fixed treatment visits was also a factor predicting psychosocial recovery. In the multivariate analysis, independent factors predicting recovery were the high frequency of treatment contacts in cases of schizophrenia, previous hospitalization in major depression, and a high level of basic education and hospitalization in personality disorders. PMID:9124085

  17. [Challenges for the future of psychiatry and psychiatric medical care].

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Teruhiko

    2013-01-01

    In addition to the prolonged economic recession and global financial crisis, the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 2011 has caused great fear and devastation in Japan. In the midst of these, Japanese people have felt to lose the traditional values and common sense they used to share, and it has become necessary to build a new consciousness. Engaged in psychiatry and psychiatric care under these circumstances, we have to analyze the challenges we face and to brainstorm on appropriate prescriptions that can be applied to solve the problems. Five points in particular were brought up: [1] The persistently high number of suicides. [2] The increase in depression and overflowing numbers of patients visiting clinics and outpatient departments at hospitals. [3] The absolute shortage of child psychiatrists. [4] Little progress with the transition from hospitalization-centered to community-centered medical care. [5] The disappearance of beds for psychiatry patients from general hospitals. The situations surrounding these five issues were briefly analyzed and problems were pointed out. The following are five problems that psychiatry is facing: 1) A lack of large clinical trials compared to the rest of the world. 2) The drug lag and handling of global trials. 3) The lack of staff involved in education and research (in the field of psychiatry). 4) Following the DSM diagnostic criteria dogmatically, without differentiating therapeutics. 5) Other medical departments, the industry, patients, and their families are demanding objective diagnostic techniques. After analyzing the problems, and discussing to some extent what kind of prescription may be considered to solve the problems, I gave my opinion. (1) The first problem is the deep-rooted prejudice and discrimination against psychiatric disorders that continue to be present among Japanese people. The second problem is the government's policy of low remuneration (fees) for psychiatric services. The third problem, symbolic of the situation, is the fact that the "psychiatry exception" system (unbalanced ratio of staff to psychiatric patients) is still present today. (2) To reach a fundamental solution, the policy of low fees for psychiatric services has to be abolished. (3) Multi-disciplinary medical teams, as practiced in other developed countries, is not yet adequately applied in Japan. From the aspect of medical fees, it is not adequately encouraged either. The only place where team medicine is actually practiced is in the "forced hospitalization" ward, but, as stated in the supplementary resolution of the Japanese diet (national assembly), high-quality medicine should not only be practiced in the "forced hospitalization" ward, but also in general psychiatry. (4) The policy of transition from hospitalization-centered to community-centered medical care, which was initiated a long time ago by the Japanese government, is not proceeding in reality, and it is time that we put our heads together and find ways to overcome this problem. It is significant that "psychiatric disorders" have been included as one of the "five diseases," (a system adopted by the government concerning community health care), and now we have the best opportunity to improve community-centered psychiatric care. PMID:23691798

  18. Acute psychiatric beds: distribution and staffing in NSW and ACT.

    PubMed

    Rosenman, S

    1995-06-01

    This study examined the availability and staffing of acute psychiatry beds in NSW and ACT. "Gazetted" acute psychiatry hospitals (which take compulsory admissions under mental health law) were polled directly for bed numbers, occupancy and staffing for the year 1990-1991. The NSW Department of Health provided beds numbers for non-gazetted and private hospitals. Four analyses sequentially reallocated beds according to the origin of patients to estimate acute bed availability and use by regional populations. Socio-demographic determinants of acute admission rates were measured. Acute "gazetted" beds averaged 13.2 per 100,000 population but ranged from 6.9 to 49.1 per 100,000 when cross-regional flows were considered. "Non-gazetted" beds raised the provision to 15.5 per 100,000 and private beds raised provision further to 24.5 per 100,000. Inner metropolitan provision was higher than rural or provincial provision. The only determinant of the admission rate to gazetted beds was the number of available beds. Bed availability did not affect either bed occupancy or referral of patients to remote hospitals. Nursing staffing of gazetted units was reasonably uniform, although smaller units had significantly more nurses per bed. Medical staffing was highly variable and appears determined by staff availability. The average provision of acute psychiatric beds approximates lowest levels seen in international models for psychiatric services. Average occupancy rates suggest that there is not an overall shortfall of acute psychiatric beds, but uneven bed distribution creates barriers to access. Referral of patients to remote hospitals is not related to actual bed provision in the regions, but appears to reflect attitudes to ensuring local care. Recommendations about current de facto standards are made. Current average nursing and medical staffing standards are reported. PMID:7487786

  19. Musical hallucinations – a challenge for psychiatric therapeutical management. Case report

    PubMed Central

    Focseneanu, BE; Marian, G

    2015-01-01

    Background. Musical hallucinations occur in individuals with and without mental illness, and many patients tend to have intact reality testing. Although literature on musical hallucinations is limited, they have been associated with hearing abnormalities, adverse effects of pharmacological agents, female gender, advances in age and psychiatric illness. Aim. To present the psychiatric management of a case of an old female patient, who suddenly developed verbal and musical hallucinations with a pervasive impact on her daily activities. Method. Female, 71 years old, developed verbal and musical hallucinations 6 months before that have intensified later. She was known with bilateral hypoacusia starting with the age of 45, and magnetic resonance imaging performed 1 year before proved multiple lacunar infarcts. Because of the persistence, most of the time of these auditory hallucinations, the patient experienced pervasive difficulties with her major areas of activities. She was referred to a psychiatric department for evaluation and treatment. Results. The psychiatric consult revealed neither a depressive relapse, nor a mild cognitive impairment, and obsessive-compulsive disorder was suspected with intrusive obsessions. Patient received, as antiobsessional augmentation escitalopram 10mg/ day, an atypical antipsychotic, risperidone, which at 3 mg/ day induced extrapyramidal symptoms and cognitive impairment. Therefore, the dose of risperidone was reduced, extrapyramidal symptoms disappeared, and 300mg/ day of acidum valproicum was initiated. Discussion. Our patient presented with diminished sensory input to the auditory cortex, and it was hard to make a differential diagnosis between an organic and a mental etiology. Conclusion. The integration of musical hallucinations into a psychiatric disorder may be a difficult task, and, their treatment represents a challenge. PMID:26664485

  20. Work and common psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Henderson, M; Harvey, S B; Overland, S; Mykletun, A; Hotopf, M

    2011-05-01

    Psychiatric disorders are now the most common reason for long-term sickness absence. The associated loss in productivity and the payment of disability benefits places a substantial burden on the economies of many developed countries. The occupational dysfunction associated with psychiatric disorders can also lead to poverty and social isolation. As a result the area of work and psychiatric disorders is a high priority for policymakers. There are two main agendas: for many researchers and clinicians the focus is on the need to overcome stigma and ensure people with severe psychiatric disorders have meaningful work; however the public health agenda predominantly relates to the more common disorders such as depression and anxiety, which contribute a greater burden of disability benefits and pensions. In this review we attempt to address this second agenda. The relatively sparse evidence available reveals a complex field with significant interplay between medical, psychological social and cultural factors. Sick leave can be a 'process' as well as an 'event'. In this review we propose a staged model where different risk and protective factors contribute to the onset of psychiatric disorders in the working population, the onset of short-term sickness absence, and the transition from short- to long-term absence. We also examine strategies to manage psychiatric disorder in the workforce with a view towards returning the employee to work. Our aim in this review is to highlight the complexity of the area, to stimulate debate and to identify important gaps in knowledge where further research might benefit both patients and wider society. PMID:21558098

  1. Supplier-induced demand for psychiatric admissions in Northern New England

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The development of hospital service areas (HSAs) using small area analysis has been useful in examining variation in medical and surgical care; however, the techniques of small area analysis are underdeveloped in understanding psychiatric admission rates. We sought to develop these techniques in order to understand the relationship between psychiatric bed supply and admission rates in Northern New England. Our primary hypotheses were that there would be substantial variation in psychiatric admission across geographic settings and that bed availability would be positively correlated with admission rates, reflecting a supplier-induced demand phenomenon. Our secondary hypothesis was that the construction of psychiatric HSAs (PHSAs) would yield more meaningful results than the use of existing general medical hospital service areas. Methods To address our hypotheses, we followed a four-step analytic process: 1) we used small area analytic techniques to define our PHSAs, 2) we calculated the localization index for PHSAs and compared that to the localization index for general medical HSAs, 3) we used the number of psychiatric hospital beds, the number of psychiatric admissions, and census data to calculate population-based bed-supply and psychiatric admission rates for each PHSA, and 4) we correlated population-based admission rates to population-based psychiatric bed supply. Results The admission rate for psychiatric diagnosis varied considerably among the PHSAs, with rates varying from 2.4 per 100,000 in Portsmouth, NH to 13.4 per 100,000 in Augusta, ME. There was a positive correlation of 0.71 between a PHSA's supply of beds and admission rate. Using our PSHAs produced a substantially higher localization index than using general medical hospital services areas (0.69 vs. 0.23), meaning that our model correctly predicted geographic utilization at three times the rate of the existing model. Conclusions The positive correlation between admission and bed supply suggests that psychiatric bed availability may partially explain the variation in admission rates. Development of PHSAs, rather than relying on the use of established general medical HSAs, improves the relevance and accuracy of small area analysis in understanding mental health services utilization. PMID:21906290

  2. Psychiatric Patients' Perspective: Nursing Uniforms.

    PubMed

    Küçük, Leyla; Çömez, Tuba; Kaçar, Selma; Sümeli, Fatma; Ta?k?ran, Özgül

    2015-12-01

    This paper studied and determined the importance of the design and color of selected uniforms of psychiatric nurses and evaluate their effects and implications for patients. In this descriptive study, a questionnaire developed by the researchers and a nursing uniforms catalog were used during the data collection stage of the research. There were 40.9% of the participants who told that the design and color of a nursing uniform is important and 31.5% of the participants selected white uniform color from the catalog for psychiatric nurses and 33.9% of the patients expressed that they find white nursing uniforms comforting. PMID:26577551

  3. Psychiatric Disorders: Diagnosis to Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Krystal, John H.; State, Matthew W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings in a range of scientific disciplines are challenging the conventional wisdom regarding the etiology, classification and treatment of psychiatric disorders. This review focuses on the current state of the psychiatric diagnostic nosology and recent progress in three areas: genomics, neuroimaging, and therapeutics development. The accelerating pace of novel and unexpected findings is transforming the understanding of mental illness and represents a hopeful sign that the approaches and models that have sustained the field for the past 40 years are yielding to a flood of new data and presaging the emergence of a new and more powerful scientific paradigm. PMID:24679536

  4. Acute behavioral crises in psychiatric inpatients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD): recognition of concomitant medical or non-ASD psychiatric conditions predicts enhanced improvement.

    PubMed

    Guinchat, Vincent; Cravero, Cora; Diaz, Lautaro; Périsse, Didier; Xavier, Jean; Amiet, Claire; Gourfinkel-An, Isabelle; Bodeau, Nicolas; Wachtel, Lee; Cohen, David; Consoli, Angèle

    2015-03-01

    During adolescence, some individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) engage in severe challenging behaviors, such as aggression, self-injury, disruption, agitation and tantrums. We aimed to assess risk factors associated with very acute behavioral crises in adolescents with ASD admitted to a dedicated neurobehavioral unit. We included retrospectively in 2008 and 2009 29 adolescents and young adults with ASD hospitalized for severe challenging behaviors and proposed a guideline (Perisse et al., 2010) that we applied prospectively for 29 patients recruited for the same indications between 2010 and 2012. In total, 58 patients were admitted (n=70 hospitalizations, mean age=15.66 (±4.07) years, 76% male). We systematically collected data describing socio-demographic characteristics, clinical variables (severity, presence of language, cognitive level), comorbid organic conditions, etiologic diagnosis of the episode, and treatments. We explored predictors of Global Assessment Functioning Scale (GAFS) score and duration of hospitalization at discharge. All but 2 patients exhibited severe autistic symptoms and intellectual disability (ID), and two-thirds had no functional verbal language. During the inpatient stay (mean=84.3 (±94.9) days), patients doubled on average their GAFS scores (mean=17.66 (±9.05) at admission vs. mean=31.4 (±9.48) at discharge). Most common etiologies for acute behavioral crises were organic causes [n=20 (28%), including epilepsy: n=10 (14%) and painful medical conditions: n=10 (14%)], environmental causes [n=17 (25%) including lack of treatment: n=11 (16%) and adjustment disorder: n=6 (9%)], and non-ASD psychiatric condition [n=33 (48%) including catatonia: n=5 (7%), major depressive episode: n=6 (9%), bipolar disorder: n=4 (6%), schizophrenia: n=6 (9%), other/unknown diagnosis: n=12 (17%)]. We found no influence of age, gender, socio-economic status, migration, level of ID, or history of seizure on improvement of GAFS score at discharge. Severity of autism at admission was the only negative predictor (p<.001). Painful medical conditions (p=.04), non-ASD psychiatric diagnoses (p=.001), prior usage of specialized ASD care programs (p=.004), functional language (p=.007), as well as a higher number of challenging behaviors upon admission (p=.001) were associated with higher GAFS scores at discharge. Clinical severity at admission, based on the number of challenging behaviors (r=.35, p=.003) and GAFS score (r=-.32, p=.008) was correlated with a longer inpatient stay. Longer hospitalization was however correlated (r=.27, p=.03) with higher GAFS score at discharge even after adjustment for confounding factors. Challenging behaviors among adolescents with ASD may stem from diverse risk factors, including environmental problems, comorbid acute psychiatric conditions, or somatic illness such as epilepsy or acute pain. The management of these behavioral challenges requires a unified, multidisciplinary approach. PMID:25575287

  5. [Applying the human dignity ideals of Confucianism and Kant to psychiatric nursing: from theory to practice].

    PubMed

    Lee, Mei-Hsiu; Lee, Shui-Chuen; Lee, Shu-Chen

    2012-04-01

    Literature articles and clinical observation suggest disease and environmental factors as primary causes of the low self-esteem and stigmatization that typify most psychiatric patients. These patients are at risk of injury when subjected to inappropriate physical restraint. Hospital staffs, including nurses, are in immediate and close contact with psychiatric patients. Mencius's and Kant's thoughts on human dignity can enhance reflections on clinical nursing practices. Mencius's belief that preserving life is not the most desirable thing and death is not the most hated thing can help nurses realize the human dignity of psychiatric patients by understanding that, as an unrighteous act is more detestable than death, the meaning and value of righteousness are greater than life itself. In light of Kant's views on human dignity, nurses should treat patients as goals rather than means. Exploring such ideas can raise nursing quality, restore a positive sense of humanity to psychiatric patients, and develop nursing values and meaning to a higher plane. PMID:22469899

  6. Associative Stigma Related to Psychiatric Nursing Within the Nursing Profession.

    PubMed

    Ben Natan, Merav; Drori, Tal; Hochman, Ohad

    2015-12-01

    This study deals with stigmas towards mental illness, individuals with mental illness, psychiatric nurses, and the role of psychiatric nursing within the nursing profession. Responses from 108 psychiatric nurses and 108 non-psychiatric nurses indicated that stigmas towards mental illness, individuals with mental illness, and the role of psychiatric nursing, are more prevalent among non-psychiatric nurses; associations between these stigmas were found among both psychiatric and non-psychiatric nurses. The findings suggest that both psychiatric and non-psychiatric nurses harbor associative stigma related to the practice of psychiatric nursing. Implications are discussed. PMID:26577552

  7. Psychiatric referrals during peace and wartimes: a Nigerian experience.

    PubMed

    Okulate, Gbenga T

    2005-07-01

    Using a questionnaire administered by us, we sought to investigate the differences between patients referred to the psychiatric department of a Nigerian military general hospital during peacetime and those referred during the civil war in Liberia in which Nigerian soldiers were involved as peacekeepers. Referrals to psychiatry in peacetime were quite few but increased considerably during the period of combat in direct relation to the increase in the number of surgical wounded in action cases. Organic mental disorders and anxiety disorders were more frequently referred in peacetime than in war, whereas substance abuse disorders were more frequent during the combat period. Non-psychotic psychiatric conditions were less referred in the wartime group, partly because of nonrecognition at the mission areas and also because of recovery in front-line areas or consideration of their evacuation as a nonpriority. Mental health workers engaged at the mission areas require more training in the identification of such cases. PMID:16130633

  8. Psychiatric Symptoms, Salivary Cortisol and Cytokine Levels in Young Marijuana Users.

    PubMed

    Cloak, Christine C; Alicata, Daniel; Ernst, Thomas M; Chang, Linda

    2015-06-01

    Psychological maturation continues into young adulthood when substance abuse and several psychiatric disorders often emerge. Marijuana is the most common illicit drug abused by youths, typically preceding other illicit substances. We aimed to evaluate the complex and poorly studied relationships between marijuana use, psychiatric symptoms, and cortisol levels in young marijuana users. Psychiatric symptoms and salivary cortisol were measured in 122 youths (13-23 years old) with and without marijuana use. Psychiatric symptoms were evaluated using the Symptom-Checklist-90-R and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Mid-day salivary cortisol levels were measured. Additionally, salivary cytokine levels were measured in a subset of participants. Although the cortisol levels and salivary cytokine levels were similar, the young marijuana users had more self-reported and clinician rated psychiatric symptoms than controls, especially anxiety-associated symptoms. Moreover, marijuana users with earlier age of first use had more symptoms, while those with longer abstinence had fewer symptoms. Greater cumulative lifetime marijuana use was also associated with greater psychiatric symptoms. The discordant anxiety (feeling stressed or anxious despite normal cortisol) in the marijuana users, as well as symptom exacerbations with early and continued marijuana use in young marijuana users suggest that marijuana use may contribute to an aberrant relationship between stress response and psychiatric symptoms. The greater symptomatology, especially in those with earlier initiation and greater marijuana usage, emphasize the need to intervene for substance use and perceived anxiety in this population. PMID:25875137

  9. Psychiatric consequences of road traffic accidents.

    PubMed Central

    Mayou, R; Bryant, B; Duthie, R

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the psychiatric consequences of being a road traffic accident victim. DESIGN--Follow up study of road accident victims for up to one year. SETTING--Emergency department of the John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford. SUBJECTS--188 consecutive road accident victims aged 18-70 with multiple injuries (motorcycle or car) or whiplash neck injury, who had not been unconscious for more than 15 minutes, and who lived in the catchment area. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Present state examination "caseness"; post-traumatic stress disorder and travel anxiety; effects on driving and on being a passenger. RESULTS--Acute, moderately severe emotional distress was common. Almost one fifth of subjects, however, suffered from an acute stress syndrome characterised by mood disturbance and horrific memories of the accident. Anxiety and depression usually improved over the 12 months, though one tenth of patients had mood disorders at one year. In addition, specific post-traumatic symptoms were common. Post-traumatic stress disorder occurred during follow up in one tenth of patients, and phobic travel anxiety as a driver or passenger was more common and frequently disabling. Emotional disorder was associated with having pre-accident psychological or social problems and, in patients with multiple injuries, continuing medical complications. Post-traumatic syndromes were not associated with a neurotic predisposition but were strongly associated with horrific memories of the accident. They did not occur in subjects who had been briefly unconscious and were amnesic for the accident. Mental state at three months was highly predictive of mental state at one year. CONCLUSIONS--Psychiatric symptoms and disorder are frequent after major and less severe road accident injury. Post-traumatic symptoms are common and disabling. Early information and advice might reduce psychological distress and travel anxiety and contribute to road safety and assessing "nervous shock." PMID:8401049

  10. Psychiatric disorders and traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzbold, Marcelo; Diaz, Alexandre; Martins, Evandro Tostes; Rufino, Armanda; Amante, Lúcia Nazareth; Thais, Maria Emília; Quevedo, João; Hohl, Alexandre; Linhares, Marcelo Neves; Walz, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are frequent. Researches in this area are important for the patients’ care and they may provide hints for the comprehension of primary psychiatric disorders. Here we approach epidemiology, diagnosis, associated factors and treatment of the main psychiatric disorders after TBI. Finally, the present situation of the knowledge in this field is discussed. PMID:19043523

  11. Academic Accommodations for Students with Psychiatric Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souma, Alfred; Rickerson, Nancy; Burgstahler, Sheryl

    This brief paper summarizes the literature on academic accommodations for students with psychiatric disabilities. A definition of psychiatric disability precedes a brief summary of the following specific psychiatric diagnoses: depression, bipolar affective disorder; borderline personality disorder; schizophrenia; and anxiety disorders. Also noted…

  12. Community Psychiatric Rehabilitation in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Amihay; Neumann, Micha

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the development of community-based rehabilitation services for persons with mental illness in Israel. It focuses on occupational, social, and residential community psychiatric rehabilitation services. The paper argues that service development has been slow and out of step with the philosophy and objectives of community…

  13. [Insomnia associated with psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Konno, Chisato; Furihata, Ryuji; Osaki, Koichi; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2009-08-01

    Most psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, mood disorders, or neurotic disorders are associated with sleep disorders of various kinds, among which insomnia is most prevalent and important in psychiatric practice. Almost all patients suffering from major depression complain of insomnia. Pharmacological treatment of insomnia associated with major depression shortens the duration to achieve remission of depression. Insomnia has been recently reported to be a risk factor for depression. In patients with schizophrenia, insomnia is often an early indicator of the aggravation of psychotic symptoms. Electroencephalographic sleep studies have also revealed sleep abnormalities characteristic to mood disorders, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders. A shortened REM sleep latency has been regarded as a biological marker of depression. Reduced amount of deep non-REM sleep has been reported to be correlated with negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Recently, REM sleep abnormalities were found in teenagers having post-traumatic stress disorder after a boat accident. Although these facts indicate that insomnia plays an important role in the development of psychiatric disorders, there are few hypotheses explaining the cause and effect of insomnia in these disorders. Here, we reviewed recent articles on insomnia associated with psychiatric disorders together with their clinical managements. PMID:19768932

  14. Long hospital stays and need for alternate level of care at discharge. Does family make a difference for elderly patients?

    PubMed Central

    McClaran, J.; Berglas, R. T.; Franco, E. D.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether parental and marital status of elderly patients admitted to acute care affect the likelihood of a need for long hospital stay or alternate level of care (nursing home) at discharge. DESIGN: A 1-year descriptive study was carried out prospectively on elderly hospitalized patients. Marital status and parental status were treated as risk factors for resource use, as were sex, age, admitting service, and diagnosis. SETTING: A 672-bed university hospital. PATIENTS: We studied 495 patients aged 65 years or more sequentially admitted over a 1-year period. Excluded from study were critically ill patients, patients admitted to intensive care, and patients with whom we could not communicate on the day were considered for the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Whether acute hospital stay exceed 44 days and need for alternate level of care at discharge. RESULTS: Many (43.4%) of the patients had no spouse and 19.4% had no children; 32.9% stayed 45 days or more and 6.9% required alternate level of care at discharge. Predictive of a long hospital stay were being without children (adjusted RR = 1.85), having a neurologic or psychiatric diagnosis (adjusted RR = 3.39), and having surgery unrelated to reason for admission (adjusted RR = 5.88). Predictive of need for alternate level of care at discharge were increasing age (adjusted RR = 1.08), having no spouse (adjusted RR = 2.59), having no children (adjusted RR = 3.27), and having a neurologic or psychiatric diagnosis (adjusted RR = 7.56). PMID:8616285

  15. Factors Influencing Time Lag Between Initial Parental Concern and First Visit to Child Psychiatric Services Among ADHD Children in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Yuko; Fujiwara, Takeo; Okuyama, Makiko

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the factors associated with a time lag between initial parental concern about ADHD symptoms and the first visit to a hospital in Japan that offers child psychiatric services. We investigated the demographic characteristic, symptoms, diagnosis, and healthcare system factors including duration between initial parental concern about symptoms and the first visit to a hospital (N = 387). The mean time lag between initial parental concern and the first visit to a hospital was 2.6 years. Risk factors for a longer time lag include the young age of a child, behavioral problems of the child, lower maternal education, difficulty in determining appropriate medical institution, referral route, and the distance from home to the hospital. A more established connection between a hospital with child psychiatric services and other health institutions is recommended for earlier referral to an appropriate hospital. PMID:25535050

  16. Influence of aeroionotherapy on some psychiatric symptoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deleanu, M.; Stamatiu, C.

    1985-03-01

    Negative aeroionotherapy (daily 15 50 min sittings, for 10 30 days) was applied in 112 patients with various psychiatric disorders, especially neuroses, with the aim of ameliorating certain symptoms (target symptoms). Corona and water air ion generators, as well as electro-aerosol generators, were used. The aeroionization (small air ion concentration), at the patient's respiration level, was moderate: n-=10,000 15,000/ml air; n+s?1,000/ml air; q=n+/n-?0.1. In most treated patients a diminution or even the disappearance of the target symptoms was obtained. Those obviously ameliorated under the influence of aeroionotherapy were: asthenia, depressive reactions, anxiety, irascibility, cephalea, insomnia, and general indisposition.

  17. Psychiatric investigation of 18 bereaved pet owners.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuya; Kawabata, Hidenobu; Maezawa, Masaji

    2011-08-01

    This survey explores the grief associated with the loss of a pet, and was carried out using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaires were handed out to 50 bereaved pet owners attending a public animal cremation service, and we received 18 responses. Participants responded within 0 to 44 (median 4) days of the death of their pet. Although most mental health problems immediately following mourning are presumed to be normal grief reactions, on the basis of several psychiatric scales, 8 of the 16 valid responses indicated depression and/or neurosis. Statistical analyses showed that the following factors were significantly associated with grief reactions: age of owner, other stressful life events, family size, age of deceased animal, rearing place, and preliminary veterinary consultation. PMID:21483181

  18. Psychiatric Diagnoses as Contemporaneous Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts among Adolescents and Young Adults: Developmental Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldston, David B.; Daniel, Stephanie Sergent; Erkanli, Alaattin; Reboussin, Beth A.; Mayfield, Andrew; Frazier, Patricia H.; Treadway, Sarah L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, naturalistic study was to examine the relationships between suicide attempts and contemporaneous psychiatric disorders, and developmental changes in these relationships from adolescence to young adulthood. The sample consisted of 180 adolescents, 12-19 years of age at hospitalization, repeatedly assessed for up to…

  19. Psychiatric Morbidity, Violent Crime, and Suicide among Children and Adolescents Exposed to Parental Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Holly C.; Kuramoto, Satoko J.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Langstrom, Niklas; Brent, David A.; Runeson, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This retrospective cohort study examined the risk for suicide, psychiatric hospitalization, and violent criminal convictions among offspring of parents who died from suicide, accidents, and other causes. Method: Population-based data from multiple Swedish national registers were linked from 1969 to 2004. Participants were 44,397…

  20. Symptom, Family, and Service Predictors of Children's Psychiatric Rehospitalization within One Year of Discharge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blader, Joseph C.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate predictors of readmission to inpatient psychiatric treatment for children aged 5 to 12 discharged from acute-care hospitalization. Method: One hundred nine children were followed for 1 year after discharge from inpatient care. Time to rehospitalization was the outcome of interest. Predictors of readmission, examined via…

  1. Neuroimaging Correlates of Novel Psychiatric Disorders after Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Max, Jeffrey E.; Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Bigler, Erin D.; Thompson, Wesley K.; MacLeod, Marianne; Vasquez, Ana C.; Merkley, Tricia L.; Hunter, Jill V.; Chu, Zili D.; Yallampalli, Ragini; Hotz, Gillian; Chapman, Sandra B.; Yang, Tony T.; Levin, Harvey S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) correlates of novel (new-onset) psychiatric disorders (NPD) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and orthopedic injury (OI). Method: Participants were 7 to 17 years of age at the time of hospitalization for either TBI or OI. The study used a prospective, longitudinal, controlled design with…

  2. Development of a Clinical Instrument to Record Sexual Aggression in an Inpatient Psychiatric Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Nicole Tuomi; Sheitman, Brian; Hazelrigg, Mark; Carmel, Harold; Williams, Jim; Paesler, Betty

    2007-01-01

    While there are a number of instruments that assess historical factors related to sexual aggression for the purposes of risk assessment, there is a notable absence of measures that assess change in ongoing, sexually aggressive behaviours engaged in by people who reside in psychiatric hospitals. The purpose of this report is to describe the…

  3. 42 CFR 412.428 - Publication of Updates to the inpatient psychiatric facility prospective payment system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Publication of Updates to the inpatient psychiatric facility prospective payment system. 412.428 Section 412.428 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES...

  4. Aggressive Behavior in the Adolescent Psychiatric Patient: A Clinical-Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Recklitis, Christopher J.; Noam, Gil G.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between ego development and psychological defenses to aggressive behavior in a group of psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. Method: Subjects were 245 adolescents ages 12-16, who were assessed for aggressive behaviors, assaultive incidents, ego development and defenses. Results: Aggressive…

  5. Emergency Psychiatric Service Use by Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities Living with Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsky, Yona; Tint, Ami; Robinson, Suzanne; Khodaverdian, Alin; Jaskulski, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) and their families in the emergency department (ED). Hospital chart audits were conducted on a sample of 20 individuals with ID living with family who had visited the ED for a psychiatric crisis. Individuals had a combined total of 44 ED…

  6. Examining the Impact of Psychiatric Diagnosis and Comorbidity on the Medical Lethality of Adolescent "Suicide Attempts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mc Manama O'Brien, Kimberly H.; Berzin, Stephanie C.

    2012-01-01

    Specific psychiatric diagnoses and comorbidity patterns were examined to determine if they were related to the medical lethality of "suicide attempts" among adolescents presenting to an urban general hospital (N = 375). Bivariate analysis showed that attempters with substance abuse disorders had higher levels of lethality than attempters without…

  7. The cemetary associated with Leyme Mental Hospital.

    PubMed

    Védie, Christian

    2005-03-01

    A detailed study of a cemetary attached to a provincial psychiatric hospital underscores its resemblance to military and Anglo-Saxon burial grounds. It is a sad reminder of the isolation and abandonment of many patients in French asylums up to the middle of the twentieth century. PMID:15981371

  8. Spiritual healing in elderly psychiatric patients: a case-control study in an Egyptian psychiatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Salib, E; Youakim, S

    2001-11-01

    In some cultures, mental illness and its treatment may be closely linked to beliefs relating to sin, suffering, and separation from the divine, or even possession by evil. The aim of this study was to explore whether there was an association between receiving spiritual healing and the occurrence of schizophrenic relapses in a sample of elderly Egyptian patients. The method used was a case-control study, comparing patients with an ICD 10 diagnosis of schizophrenia who received spiritual healing and those without spiritual healing, in terms of the occurrence of relapses during a specified period. Patients who received spiritual healing relapsed more frequently than those who did not (adjusted OR 3.5 p < 0.05). Relapse was also associated with age and certain methods of healing. The risk of relapse was independent of gender, duration of illness and type of religion. The study found spiritual healing to be positively associated with relapse of schizophrenia in a sample of elderly Egyptian patients. It is however difficult to ascertain that the relapse actually started after the process of spiritual healing and not before it. The study findings may suggest that religious history, at least in some cases, should be taken into consideration when planning future management. PMID:11767985

  9. Self-reported peer victimization and suicidal ideation in adolescent psychiatric inpatients: the mediating role of negative self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Jones, Heather A; Bilge-Johnson, Sumru; Rabinovitch, Annie E; Fishel, Hazel

    2014-10-01

    The current study investigated relationships among self-reported peer victimization, suicidality, and depression in adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Sixty-seven adolescent psychiatric inpatients at a Midwestern children's hospital completed measures of bullying and peer victimization, suicidal ideation, and depression during their inpatient stay. Analyses indicated significant moderate correlations among victimization, suicidal ideation, and depression in adolescents. Results from mediational analyses found that negative self-esteem mediated the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation. To date, this study is the first to directly examine the mechanisms underlying the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation in adolescent psychiatric inpatients. PMID:23827938

  10. Psychiatric and Addictive Symptoms of Young Adult Female Indoor Tanners

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, Carolyn J.; Cohen-Filipic, Jessye; Darlow, Susan; Kloss, Jacqueline D.; Manne, Sharon L.; Munshi, Teja

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Indoor tanning (IT) increases risk for melanoma and is particularly common among young adult women. IT has also been linked with some psychiatric symptoms, and frequent tanning may indicate tanning dependence (addiction) associated with endorphin release during ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure. The objective of the current study was to investigate associations between IT, tanning dependence, and psychiatric and substance use symptoms in young adult women. Design Cross-sectional survey and psychiatric interview. Setting Online, except for the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) that was completed over the telephone. Subjects Participants were 306 female university students aged 18–25 years. Measures MINI, Seasonal Scale Index, tanning dependence scales, reporting ever having used a tanning bed or booth with tanning lamps (single item), reporting smoking a cigarette in the last 30 days (single item). Analysis Descriptive statistics, chi square analysis, multivariate logistic regression. Results Forty-six percent of the sample reported a history of IT, and 25% were classified as tanning dependent. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that IT was significantly associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorders, generalized anxiety, and not having social anxiety. Tanning dependence was associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorders. Conclusion Tanning is of concern not only for its association with skin cancer but for its association with psychiatric and substance use symptoms. Young women with certain psychological problems may seek relief from their symptoms by IT. These findings suggest that indoor tanners may benefit from health behavior and other psychosocial interventions. PMID:23621780

  11. Aerobic exercise improves gastrointestinal motility in psychiatric inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Song, Bong Kil; Oh, Ji Sun; Woo, Seung Seok

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the benefit of aerobic exercise on colonic transit time (CTT) for psychiatric inpatients in a closed ward. METHODS: Sixty consecutive adult inpatients of the Somang Hospital Psychiatry Unit (Eumsung-gun, South Korea), without CTT-related diseases or drug therapies, were recruited for study from March to June of 2012. Upon enrollment, the patients were randomly assigned to partake in a 12-wk instructor-led group aerobic exercise program (exercise group; n = 30) or to maintain their ordinary daily activities (control group; n = 30). The exercise program was structured as 10 min warm-up (stretching), 40 min exercise, and 10 min cool-down (stretching) for three days each week. The exercise sessions consisted of walking only in week one and aerobics from weeks two to 12, with increasing intensity (50% heart rate reserve (HRR) for weeks one to four, 60% HRR for weeks five to eight, and 70% HRR for weeks nine to 12). CTT was measured before (baseline) and after (week 12) the exercise program, in duplicate (on days four and seven), using abdominal radiography and the multiple radio-opaque marker technique. Changes in the exercising patients’ CTT and weight-, cardiovascular- and fitness-related parameters were statistically assessed. RESULTS: The study dropout rate was 30.0%, with 23 patients in the exercise group and 19 patients in the control group completing the study. At week 12, the exercise group showed decreases in body weight (mean ± SE) baseline: 69.4 ± 2.8 vs study-end: 67.6 ± 2.7; P < 0.635) and body mass index (BMI) (25.2 ± 1.1 vs 24.9 ± 0.8; P < 0.810), but the extent of change was not significantly different from that experienced by the control group (body weight: 68.8 ± 4.0 vs 68.8 ± 3.9; BMI: 24.3 ± 1.1 vs 24.4 ± 1.2). However, the exercise group showed significant improvements in leg muscle strength (baseline: 41.7 ± 4.3 vs study-end: 64.1 ± 5.0; P < 0.001), cardio-respiratory endurance (120.5 ± 4.5 vs 105.4 ± 2.8; P < 0.004), and leg muscle elasticity and power output (21.5 ± 2.6 vs 30.6 ± 2.8; P < 0.001). The exercise group showed an exercise-induced reduction in total CTT (baseline: 54.2 ± 8.0 vs 30.3 ± 6.1), which was significantly different from that experienced by the control group over the 12-wk period (48.6 ± 9.3 vs 48.3 ± 12.3; P = 0.027); however, the exercise-induced decreases in CTT involving the three colonic segments examined (right, left and recto-sigmoid) showed no significant differences from the control group. CONCLUSION: A 12-wk aerobic exercise program can benefit psychiatric inpatients by increasing intestinal motility, possibly decreasing risk of metabolic- and cardiovascular-related disease. PMID:25132778

  12. Risk factors for hospital admission in the 28?days following a community-acquired pneumonia diagnosis in older adults, and their contribution to increasing hospitalisation rates over time: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Millett, Elizabeth R C; De Stavola, Bianca L; Smeeth, Liam; Thomas, Sara L

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine factors associated with hospitalisation after community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among older adults in England, and to investigate how these factors have contributed to increasing hospitalisations over time. Design Cohort study. Setting Primary and secondary care in England. Population 39?211 individuals from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, who were eligible for linkage to Hospital Episode Statistics and mortality data, were aged ?65 and had at least 1 CAP episode between April 1998 and March 2011. Main outcome measures The association between hospitalisation within 28?days of CAP diagnosis (a ‘post-CAP’ hospitalisation) and a wide range of comorbidities, frailty factors, medications and vaccinations. We examined the role of these factors in post-CAP hospitalisation trends. We also looked at trends in post-CAP mortality and length of hospitalisation over the study period. Results 14 comorbidities, 5 frailty factors and 4 medications/vaccinations were associated with hospitalisation (of 18, 12 and 7 considered, respectively). Factors such as chronic lung disease, severe renal disease and diabetes were associated with increased likelihood of hospitalisation, whereas factors such as recent influenza vaccination and a recent antibiotic prescription decreased the odds of hospitalisation. Despite adjusting for these and other factors, the average predicted probability of hospitalisation after CAP rose markedly from 57% (1998–2000) to 86% (2009–2010). Duration of hospitalisation and 28-day mortality decreased over the study period. Conclusions The risk factors we describe enable identification of patients at increased likelihood of post-CAP hospitalisation and thus in need of proactive case management. Our analyses also provide evidence that while comorbidities and frailty factors contributed to increasing post-CAP hospitalisations in recent years, the trend appears to be largely driven by changes in service provision and patient behaviour. PMID:26631055

  13. Psychoaffective immaturity in psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Loas, G; Seillier, A; Fréville, C

    2001-02-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of psychoaffective immaturity and tested the hypothesis that it associated with bad prognosis. For 135 psychiatric patients meeting criteria for personality, neurotic, affective, substance use, or psychotic disorders emotional immaturity was rated using the 1985 diagnostic criteria of Doutheau, Dubertret, Moutin, and Barrois. 58 subjects (42.96%, 95% Confidence Interval: 34.61-51.31) were classified as immature. Scores of the Nonimmature and Immature groups were compared for the Beck Depression Inventory and the Professional and Social Functioning Assessment Scale. Scores were, respectively, significantly higher and lower in those patients classified as Immature than those who were classified Nonimmature. When depression was controlled by a covariance analysis, the mean difference on the Professional and Social Functioning Assessment Scale remained significant. It appears that psychoaffective immaturity is a factor associated with severity of psychiatric disorders. PMID:11293017

  14. [Alternative treatment of psychiatric diseases].

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, S

    1993-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the use of unconventional medicine in patients with psychiatric and psychosomatic problems. Frequently used methods are herbal remedies, homeopathy, acupuncture, various forms of massage and relaxation as well as a wide variety of unconventional psychotherapeutic approaches. Conceptually, these practices can be grouped into four categories: biological-pharmacological remedies, physical-energetic methods, esoteric-spiritual techniques and psychological treatments. Often patients use these methods on their own without contacting a provider, but also without telling their psychiatrist. A review of outcome studies shows that effectiveness is difficult to assess, as there is substantial controversy on the basic definition of terms and mechanisms. The use of complementary methods in psychiatric patients poses various questions including compliance and ethical considerations, demanding a high flexibility and integrative thinking in psychotherapy. PMID:7508633

  15. [Ketamine: psychiatric indications and misuses].

    PubMed

    Delimbeuf, N; Petit, A; Karila, L; Lejoyeux, M

    2014-01-01

    Ketamine or -ketamine hydrochloride- is used as an anesthesic and a painkiller. It may also, in some indications, be prescribed in psychiatry and addictology. A literature review was conducted from 2003 to 2013, in PubMed, Google Scholar, Embase, and Psyclnfo, using the following key words (alone or combined): "ketamine", "abuse", "addiction", "dependence" and "misuse". Various studies have shown the benefit of kétamine in some psychiatric conditions such as major depressive episodes and electroconvulsive therapy. Others have demonstrated beneficial effects in alcohol or opiate abstinence maintenance. Ketamine seems to be a promising molecule in psychiatry and in the treatment of addictions, despite the absence of marketing approval for those specific uses. Being a strong psycho-stimulant, ketamine can be the source of abuse and dependence with somatic, psychiatric and cognitive complications. PMID:25158385

  16. French perspectives on psychiatric classification

    PubMed Central

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the role of the French schools in the development of psychiatric nosology. Boissier de Sauvages published the first French treatise on medical nosology in 1763. Until the 1880s, French schools held a pre-eminent position in the development of psychiatric concepts. From the 1880s until World War I, German-speaking schools exerted the most influence, featuring the work of major figures such as Emil Kraepelin and Eugen Bleuler. French schools were probably hampered by excessive administrative and cultural centralization. Between the 1880s and the 1930s, French schools developed diagnostic categories that set them apart from international classifications. The main examples are Bouffée Délirante, and the complex set of chronic delusional psychoses (CDPs), including chronic hallucinatory psychosis. CDPs were distinguished from schizophrenia by the lack of cognitive deterioration during evolution. Modern French psychiatry is now coming into line with international classification, such as DSM-5 and the upcoming ICD-11. PMID:25987863

  17. Evaluation of a forensic psychiatric setting to provide a graduate nurse programme.

    PubMed

    Martin, Trish; Donley, Mandy; Parkes, Jordan; Wilkins, Cara F

    2007-02-01

    There has been growth in the number and diversity of models of Australian graduate nurse programmes in psychiatric nursing. Programmes have also been established in specialist areas, and evidence is needed regarding best models of graduate nurse programmes and the ability of specialist areas to prepare nurses for psychiatric nursing. This paper reports on a qualitative project that examined the adequacy of a forensic psychiatric hospital to provide a graduate nurse programme. Individual, semistructured interviews were undertaken with nurses participating in the programme, and nurses who had completed the programme and had remained at the hospital or were nursing in other areas. Participants identified that the environment was safe and supportive of professional practice and development, and that skilled nurses were willing to encourage and teach graduates. Processes such as orientation, preceptorship and academic study were appreciated; however, their colleagues' willingness to be available, to teach, and to support were more valued. Participants reported that they felt confident and prepared as psychiatric nurses. Although limitations of undertaking a graduate nurse programme in a forensic setting were identified, the participants from past programmes who had gone on to work in other services did not report that their nursing careers had been disadvantaged. It can be concluded that as long as the context of the programme has adequate resources to support and assist graduates to develop the skills, knowledge and attitudes of psychiatric nursing, then the specialist nature may not be a limitation. PMID:17229272

  18. Posttraumatic stress symptoms in older adults hospitalized for fall injury?

    PubMed Central

    Jayasinghe, Nimali; Sparks, Martha A.; Kato, Kaori; Wyka, Katarzyna; Wilbur, Kaitlyn; Chiaramonte, Gabrielle; Barie, Philip S.; Lachs, Mark S.; O'Dell, Michael; Evans, Arthur; Bruce, Martha L.; Difede, JoAnn

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although unintentional falls may pose a threat of death or injury, few studies have investigated their psychological impact on older adults. This study sought to gather data on early posttraumatic stress symptoms in older adults in the hospital setting after a fall. Method Participants in this study were 100 adults age 65 years or older admitted to a large urban hospital in New York City because of a fall. Men and women were represented approximately equally in the sample; most were interviewed within days of the fall event. The study's bedside interview included the Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Scale, which inquires about the presence and severity of 17 trauma-related symptoms. Results Twenty-seven participants reported substantial posttraumatic stress symptoms (moderate or higher severity). Exploratory bivariate analyses suggested an association between posttraumatic stress symptom severity and female gender, lower level of education, unemployment, number of medical conditions, and back/chest injury. Conclusions A significant percentage of older patients hospitalized after a fall suffer substantial posttraumatic stress. Future investigations are needed to assess the association between the psychiatric impact of a fall and short-term inpatient outcomes as well as longer-term functional outcomes. PMID:25213226

  19. Imaging Genetics and Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, R; Ohi, K; Yamamori, H; Yasuda, Y; Fujimoto, M; Umeda-Yano, S; Watanabe, Y; Fukunaga, M; Takeda, M

    2015-01-01

    Imaging genetics is an integrated research method that uses neuroimaging and genetics to assess the impact of genetic variation on brain function and structure. Imaging genetics is both a tool for the discovery of risk genes for psychiatric disorders and a strategy for characterizing the neural systems affected by risk gene variants to elucidate quantitative and mechanistic aspects of brain function implicated in psychiatric disease. Early studies of imaging genetics included association analyses between brain morphology and single nucleotide polymorphisms whose function is well known, such as catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). GWAS of psychiatric disorders have identified genes with unknown functions, such as ZNF804A, and imaging genetics has been used to investigate clues of the biological function of these genes. The difficulty in replicating the findings of studies with small sample sizes has motivated the creation of large-scale collaborative consortiums, such as ENIGMA, CHARGE and IMAGEN, to collect thousands of images. In a genome-wide association study, the ENIGMA consortium successfully identified common variants in the genome associated with hippocampal volume at 12q24, and the CHARGE consortium replicated this finding. The new era of imaging genetics has just begun, and the next challenge we face is the discovery of small effect size signals from large data sets obtained from genetics and neuroimaging. New methods and technologies for data reduction with appropriate statistical thresholds, such as polygenic analysis and parallel independent component analysis (ICA), are warranted. Future advances in imaging genetics will aid in the discovery of genes and provide mechanistic insight into psychiatric disorders. PMID:25732148

  20. Explanatory Models for Psychiatric Illness

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, Kenneth S.

    2009-01-01

    How can we best develop explanatory models for psychiatric disorders? Because causal factors have an impact on psychiatric illness both at micro levels and macro levels, both within and outside of the individual, and involving processes best understood from biological, psychological, and sociocultural perspectives, traditional models of science that strive for single broadly applicable explanatory laws are ill suited for our field. Such models are based on the incorrect assumption that psychiatric illnesses can be understood from a single perspective. A more appropriate scientific model for psychiatry emphasizes the understanding of mechanisms, an approach that fits naturally with a multicausal framework and provides a realistic paradigm for scientific progress, that is, understanding mechanisms through decomposition and reassembly. Simple subunits of complicated mechanisms can be usefully studied in isolation. Reassembling these constituent parts into a functioning whole, which is straightforward for simple additive mechanisms, will be far more challenging in psychiatry where causal networks contain multiple nonlinear interactions and causal loops. Our field has long struggled with the interrelationship between biological and psychological explanatory perspectives. Building from the seminal work of the neuronal modeler and philosopher David Marr, the author suggests that biology will implement but not replace psychology within our explanatory systems. The iterative process of interactions between biology and psychology needed to achieve this implementation will deepen our understanding of both classes of processes. PMID:18483135

  1. Indian Psychiatric epidemiological studies: Learning from the past.

    PubMed

    Math, Suresh Bada; Srinivasaraju, Ravindra

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a systematic review on the epidemiology of psychiatric disorders in India based on the data published from 1960 to 2009. Extensive search of PubMed, NeuroMed, Indian Journal of Psychiatry website and MEDLARS using search terms "psychiatry" "prevalence", "community", and "epidemiology" was done along with the manual search of journals and cross-references. Retrieved articles were systematically selected using specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. Epidemiological studies report prevalence rates for psychiatric disorders varying from 9.5 to 370/1000 population in India. These varying prevalence rates of mental disorders are not only specific to Indian studies but are also seen in international studies. Despite variations in the design of studies, available data from the Indian studies suggests that about 20% of the adult population in the community is affected with one or the other psychiatric disorder. Mental healthcare priorities need to be shifted from psychotic disorders to common mental disorders and from mental hospitals to primary health centers. Increase in invisible mental problems such as suicidal attempts, aggression and violence, widespread use of substances, increasing marital discord and divorce rates emphasize on the need to prioritize and make a paradigm shift in the strategies to promote and provide appropriate mental health services in the community. Future epidemiological research need to focus on the general population from longitudinal prospective involving multi-centers with assessment of disability, co-morbidity, functioning, family burden and quality of life. PMID:21836725

  2. Re-Examination of Classic Risk Factors for Suicidal Behavior in the Psychiatric Population

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Background: For decades we have understood the risk factors for suicide in the general population but have fallen short in understanding what distinguishes the risk for suicide among patients with serious psychiatric conditions. Aims: This prompted us to investigate risk factors for suicidal behavior among psychiatric inpatients. Method: We reviewed all psychiatric hospital admissions (2008–2011) to a centralized psychiatric hospital in Ontario, Canada. Using multivariable logistic regression we evaluated the association between potential risk factors and lifetime history of suicidal behavior, and constructed a model and clinical risk score to predict a history of this behavior. Results: The final risk prediction model for suicidal behavior among psychiatric patients (n = 2,597) included age (in three categories: 60–69 [OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.73–0.76], 70–79 [OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.44–0.46], 80+ [OR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.30–.31]), substance use disorder (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.27–1.32), mood disorder (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.47–1.52), personality disorder (OR = 2.30, 95% CI = 2.25–2.36), psychiatric disorders due to general medical condition (OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.50–0.55), and schizophrenia (OR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.41–0.43). The risk score constructed from the risk prediction model ranges from ?9 (lowest risk, 0% predicted probability of suicidal behavior) to +5 (highest risk, 97% predicted probability). Conclusion: Risk estimation may help guide intensive screening and treatment efforts of psychiatric patients with high risk of suicidal behavior. PMID:26440619

  3. 46 CFR 108.209 - Hospital spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hospital spaces. 108.209 Section 108.209 Shipping COAST... Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.209 Hospital spaces. (a) Each unit carrying twelve or more persons on a voyage of more than three days must have a hospital space. (b) Each hospital...

  4. 46 CFR 108.209 - Hospital spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hospital spaces. 108.209 Section 108.209 Shipping COAST... Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.209 Hospital spaces. (a) Each unit carrying twelve or more persons on a voyage of more than three days must have a hospital space. (b) Each hospital...

  5. 46 CFR 108.209 - Hospital spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hospital spaces. 108.209 Section 108.209 Shipping COAST... Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.209 Hospital spaces. (a) Each unit carrying twelve or more persons on a voyage of more than three days must have a hospital space. (b) Each hospital...

  6. 46 CFR 108.209 - Hospital spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hospital spaces. 108.209 Section 108.209 Shipping COAST... Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.209 Hospital spaces. (a) Each unit carrying twelve or more persons on a voyage of more than three days must have a hospital space. (b) Each hospital...

  7. Homeless and Housed Inpatients with Schizophrenia: Disparities in Service Access upon Discharge from Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burra, Tara A.; Hwang, Stephen W.; Rourke, Sean B.; Stergiopoulos, Vicky

    2012-01-01

    This study examines differences in services available at the time of discharge for homeless and housed psychiatric inpatients. Participants diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were recruited from a general hospital psychiatric inpatient unit. Thirty homeless individuals and 21 housed controls (matched for diagnosis, gender,…

  8. [Development of psychiatric care in semi-urban and rural areas of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Gallegos Chacón, A

    1978-12-01

    Information is given concerning the historical background of Psychiatric Services in Costa Rica. These services have been rendered since the year 1890 when a European style Asylum was opened in San José, the Capital City. The first residency program in Psichiatry begun in the early sixties with its projection into Community Psychiatry during the third year of training as well as the first actions trying to demonstrate to the administrators the usefullness and extension of Mental Health programmes for the future of the country. The residency training program evolved into a national program offering psychiatric assistance throughout the country. Seven out-patient facilities in the metropolitan area plus eleven out-patient facilities in semi-urban and rural areas were founded. To motivate the newly graduated psychiatrists to accept their designation in smaller towns and villages for a full time work was possible because of the experience that they had in Community Psychiatry during their training, there was a clear understanding when signing for the residency programme that at least for two years, they would work in the provinces. A closed relationship after their training with the National Psychiatric Hospital and the Coordination of National Psychiatric Services was kept. In the local, semi-rural communities, the Psychiatrists can hospitalize their train-in local general Hospitals and work closely with the rest of the medical staff. PMID:377914

  9. The association between psychiatric diagnosis and violent re-offending in adult offenders in the community

    E-print Network

    Grann, Martin; Danesh, John; Fazel, Seena

    2008-11-25

    , the first was used. Thus, offenders sentenced to prison, ordered to receive community treatment as part of their sentence, or transferred to hospital were excluded as the effect of psychiatric risk factors would be altered by medical and/or psychological... Research article The association between psychiatric diagnosis and violent re-offending in adult offenders in the community Martin Grann1, John Danesh2 and Seena Fazel*3,4 Address: 1Department of Psychology, University of Stockholm, Sweden and Centre for Violence...

  10. Neuroimaging distinction between neurological and psychiatric disorders†

    PubMed Central

    Crossley, Nicolas A.; Scott, Jessica; Ellison-Wright, Ian; Mechelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background It is unclear to what extent the traditional distinction between neurological and psychiatric disorders reflects biological differences. Aims To examine neuroimaging evidence for the distinction between neurological and psychiatric disorders. Method We performed an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis on voxel-based morphometry studies reporting decreased grey matter in 14 neurological and 10 psychiatric disorders, and compared the regional and network-level alterations for these two classes of disease. In addition, we estimated neuroanatomical heterogeneity within and between the two classes. Results Basal ganglia, insula, sensorimotor and temporal cortex showed greater impairment in neurological disorders; whereas cingulate, medial frontal, superior frontal and occipital cortex showed greater impairment in psychiatric disorders. The two classes of disorders affected distinct functional networks. Similarity within classes was higher than between classes; furthermore, similarity within class was higher for neurological than psychiatric disorders. Conclusions From a neuroimaging perspective, neurological and psychiatric disorders represent two distinct classes of disorders. PMID:26045351

  11. Suicide with psychiatric diagnosis and without utilization of psychiatric service

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Considerable attention has been focused on the study of suicides among those who have received help from healthcare providers. However, little is known about the profiles of suicide deceased who had psychiatric illnesses but made no contact with psychiatric services prior to their death. Behavioural model of health service use is applied to identify factors associated with the utilization of psychiatric service among the suicide deceased. Methods With respect to completed suicide cases, who were diagnosed with a mental disorder, a comparison study was made between those who had (contact group; n = 52; 43.7%) and those who had not made any contact (non-contact group; n = 67; 56.3%) with a psychiatrist during the final six months prior to death. A sample of 119 deceased cases aged between 15 and 59 with at least one psychiatric diagnosis assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR (SCID I) were selected from a psychological autopsy study in Hong Kong. Results The contact and non-contact group could be well distinguished from each other by "predisposing" variables: age group & gender, and most of the "enabling", and "need" variables tested in this study. Multiple logistic regression analysis has found four factors are statistically significantly associated with non-contact suicide deceased: (i) having non-psychotic disorders (OR = 13.5, 95% CI:2.9-62.9), (ii) unmanageable debts (OR = 10.5, CI:2.4-45.3), (iii) being full/partially/self employed at the time of death (OR = 10.0, CI:1.6-64.1) and (iv) having higher levels of social problem-solving ability (SPSI) (OR = 2.0, CI:1.1-3.6). Conclusion The non-contact group was clearly different from the contact group and actually comprised a larger proportion of the suicide population that they could hardly be reached by usual individual-based suicide prevention efforts. For this reason, both universal and strategic suicide prevention measures need to be developed specifically in non-medical settings to reach out to this non-contact group in order to achieve better suicide prevention results. PMID:20649996

  12. 77 FR 2500 - Medicaid Program; Disproportionate Share Hospital Payments-Uninsured Definition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ...of activities, or may furnish practitioner, nursing facility, or other services to patients that...rather than as an ``inmate'' to a hospital, nursing facility, juvenile psychiatric facility, or intermediate care facility....

  13. Sub-Diagnostic Psychiatric Comorbidity in Alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Fein, George; Di Sclafani, Victoria; Finn, Peter; Scheiner, Diane L.

    2007-01-01

    Background Psychiatric comorbidity in alcohol use disorders is clearly established, however most studies ignore data on psychiatric symptom counts that do not meet criteria for a diagnosis. We examined psychiatric symptom counts and psychological measures in the domains of anxiety, mood and externalizing pathology in 48 long-term abstinent alcoholics (LTAA) compared to 48 age/gender comparable light/non-drinking controls(NC). Methods Continuous measures of pathology (i.e., symptoms counts and psychological assessments) in each domain were compared between groups for: 1) all study participants, 2) excluding individuals with a lifetime psychiatric diagnosis in the domain, and 3) excluding individuals with a current psychiatric diagnosis in the domain. Results Psychiatric symptom counts and psychological pathology were greater in LTAA than NC. The differences between groups on these measures were not reduced by removal of individuals with lifetime or current diagnoses. Conclusions The bulk of the difference between LTAA and NC in psychiatric illness was carried by sub-diagnostic psychopathology. In comparison to the limited view provided by using only symptomatology that meets criteria for a diagnosis, the use of continuous measures of psychiatric symptomatology and psychological abnormality yields a much more accurate picture of psychiatric illness co-occurring with alcoholism. PMID:16965876

  14. Psychiatric Emergencies in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Sikka, Veronica; Kalra, S; Sagar, Galwankar

    2015-11-01

    With the increasing life expectancy, the geriatric population has been increasing over the past few decades. By the year 2050, it is projected to compose more than a fifth of the entire population, representing a 147% increase in this age group. There has been a steady increase in the number of medical and psychiatric disorders, and a large percentage of geriatric patients are now presenting to the emergency department with such disorders. The management of our progressively complex geriatric patient population will require an integrative team approach involving emergency medicine, psychiatry, and hospitalist medicine. PMID:26493526

  15. ‘Often there is a Good Deal to be Done, But Socially Rather Than Medically’: The Psychiatric Social Worker as Social Therapist, 1945–70

    PubMed Central

    LONG, VICKY

    2011-01-01

    Seeking to align psychiatric practice with general medicine following the inauguration of the National Health Service, psychiatric hospitals in post-war Britain deployed new treatments designed to induce somatic change, such as ECT, leucotomy and sedatives. Advocates of these treatments, often grouped together under the term ‘physical therapies’, expressed relief that the social problems encountered by patients could now be interpreted as symptomatic of underlying biological malfunction rather than as a cause of disorder that required treatment. Drawing on the British Journal of Psychiatric Social Work, this article analyses the critique articulated by psychiatric social workers based within hospitals who sought to facilitate the social reintegration of patients following treatment. It explores the development of ‘psychiatric social treatment’, an approach devised by psychiatric social workers to meet the needs of people with enduring mental health problems in hospital and community settings that sought to alleviate distress and improve social functioning by changing an individual’s social environment and interpersonal relationships. ‘Physical’ and ‘social’ models of psychiatric treatment, this article argues, contested not only the aetiology of mental illness but also the nature of care, treatment and cure. PMID:21461311

  16. An integrative predictive model for hospital acquired complications

    E-print Network

    Liu, Jenny, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2015-01-01

    Hospital Acquired Complications (HACs) are a serious problem affecting modern day healthcare institutions. It is estimated that in US hospitals, HACs cause an approximately 10% increase in total inpatient hospital costs. ...

  17. Compare Hospitals

    MedlinePLUS

    ... visit Hospital Safety Score Home Employers & Purchasers Policy Leadership Hospitals Patients Licenses & Permissions About Leapfrog Search 2015 ... fare, resources used in caring for patients, and leadership and structures that promote patient safety. The Leapfrog ...

  18. [Approaches for suicide prevention in Osaka Psychiatric Medical Center: the importance of multi-disciplinary cooperation and partnerships with other organizations].

    PubMed

    Iwata, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is a very common problem in psychiatric practice today. Therefore, almost all staff of psychiatric hospitals have encountered the suicide of one or more of their patients. Our hospital, Osaka Psychiatric Medical Center, is a public psychiatric hospital in Japan. We provide treatment and support for patients from the acute to chronic phases of psychiatric disorders, and patients range from children to the elderly. Because we accept many patients with severe mental illness from other hospitals, many of our staff are routinely confronted with patients' violence or suicidal attempts. If a patient commits suicide, the relevant staff immediately have a conference to implement measures for preventing a recurrence. At the same time, information about the incident is conveyed to the medical safety management office and made known to all staff in our hospital. This office was established in 2007. Currently, all information about incidents and accidents in our hospital (e.g., suicide, problems between patients, problems with hospital facilities) is aggregated in the office and distributed to all staff members through the hospital intranet. This system makes it possible for staff to consider countermeasures against similar incidents and accidents, even if not involved in the incident. Additionally, we make an effort to develop cooperative relationships with organizations including the police, public health centers, and the fire department. The social welfare council in Hirakata City, where our hospital is located, provides some services to prevent suicide (e.g., telephone counseling, meetings with bereaved family members). Our hospital cooperates with these services by providing lecturers. The partnerships with these organizations help regarding the mental crises of patients in our hospital and fulfill a role to prevent suicide. Multi-disciplinary cooperation and partnerships with community organizations are not special approaches to suicide prevention, but ordinary approaches in everyday clinical practice. The most important factor is the relationship between staff and organizations relevant to preventing suicide. PMID:23346818

  19. History of the Nordic psychiatric cooperation.

    PubMed

    von Knorring, Lars

    2012-03-01

    The Nordic countries include Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden as well the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Svalbard and Åland. The countries share much common history as well as common traits in their respective societies. As early as 1906, a Scandinavian Psychiatric Association was suggested. The first Nordic Psychiatric Congress was held in Copenhagen 1913. After the First World War, at the 6th Nordic Psychiatric Congress in Stockholm 1935, a Nordic Psychiatric Association was founded and it was decided that a Nordic Journal of Psychiatry should be founded. After the Second World War, at the 8th Nordic Psychiatric Congress in Copenhagen 1946, the Nordic Psychiatric Association was terminated. At this time, the most important task of the Association, to found a Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, had been achieved. After 1946, there has been a close cooperation between the Nordic countries but no common Nordic Psychiatric Association. Today, the Nordic Psychiatric Cooperation is active and ongoing. The 30th Nordic Psychiatric Congress is scheduled to be held in Tromsö, in 2012. The Nordic Journal of Psychiatry is publishing its 64 th volume. The Journal is indexed in the important international databases and the impact factor is increasing. The Joint Committee of the Nordic psychiatric associations has established itself as the owner of the Journal and the organizer of the congresses. There are also a series of Nordic cooperations in a series of different fields, such as the Scandinavian Societies of Biological Psychiatry, the Scandinavian College of Neuropsychopharmacology (SCNP), the bi-annual Nordic Psychoanalytical Congresses, the Scandinavian Psychoanalytic Review, the Nordic Association of Psychiatric Epidemiology, NAPE, and so on. PMID:21449692

  20. Understanding hospitality.

    PubMed

    Patten, C S

    1994-03-01

    Bridging patient/"customer" issues and business aspects can be aided through developing a specific nursing basis for hospitality. The ancient practice of hospitality has evolved into three distinct levels: public, personal and therapeutic. Understanding these levels is helpful in integrating various dimensions of guest relations programs in hospitals into a more comprehensive vision. Hospitality issues must become a greater part of today's nursing management. PMID:8134046

  1. 28 CFR 549.42 - Use of psychiatric medications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...42 Use of psychiatric medications. Psychiatric medications will be used only for treatment of diagnosable mental illnesses and disorders, and their symptoms, for which such medication is accepted treatment. Psychiatric medication will...

  2. 28 CFR 549.42 - Use of psychiatric medications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...42 Use of psychiatric medications. Psychiatric medications will be used only for treatment of diagnosable mental illnesses and disorders, and their symptoms, for which such medication is accepted treatment. Psychiatric medication will...

  3. 28 CFR 549.42 - Use of psychiatric medications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...42 Use of psychiatric medications. Psychiatric medications will be used only for treatment of diagnosable mental illnesses and disorders, and their symptoms, for which such medication is accepted treatment. Psychiatric medication will...

  4. Psychiatric morbidity and posttraumatic symptoms among earthquake victims in primary care clinics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yen Kuang; Yeh, Tzung Lieh; Chen, Chwen Cheng; Lee, Chih Kuei; Lee, I Hui; Lee, Li-Ching; Jeffries, Keith J

    2003-01-01

    Three months after the devastating Chi-Chi earthquake (magnitude of 7.3 on the Richter scale) struck the central area of Taiwan, 663 victims were screened for psychiatric morbidity at a local general hospital in a community mental health program. The rate of psychiatric morbidity as defined by the 12-item Chinese Health Questionnaire as greater than 4, was 24.5%. Posttraumatic symptoms were still prevalent. The rate of posttraumatic stress disorder was 11.3%, and the rate of partial PTSD was 32.0%. Variables associated with the presence of psychiatric morbidity and posttraumatic symptoms included female gender, old age, financial loss, obsessive trait, and nervous trait. A disproportionate use of mental health services (18%) was found, suggesting an urgent need to deliver mental health care to disaster victims at local medical settings. In addition, health care professionals who work with the earthquake victims need to be promptly and efficiently trained in mental health crisis intervention. PMID:12850657

  5. Forensic psychiatric expert witnessing within the criminal justice system in Germany.

    PubMed

    Konrad, Norbert; Völlm, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the number of occupied beds in German forensic-psychiatric hospitals has continued to rise. Diversion refers to the removal of offenders from the criminal justice system at any stage of the procedure and court proceedings. There are no specific diversion programs in Germany but diversion does in fact happen via legal regulations that are based on the construct of legal responsibility. The assessments of responsibility as well as risk are the core tasks of forensic-psychiatric expert witnessing in Germany. Recommendations of an interdisciplinary working group serve as a guide to operationalize this forensic-psychiatric task. These recommendations list formal minimum requirements for expert reports on the question of criminal responsibility and risk assessment as well as minimum standards regarding content and in writing the report. PMID:24268458

  6. Epigenetic Signaling in Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Catherine J; Bagot, Rosemary C; Labonté, Benoit; Nestler, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are complex multifactorial illnesses involving chronic alterations in neural circuit structure and function. While genetic factors are important in the etiology of disorders such as depression and addiction, relatively high rates of discordance among identical twins clearly indicate the importance of additional mechanisms. Environmental factors such as stress or prior drug exposure are known to play a role in the onset of these illnesses. Such exposure to environmental insults induces stable changes in gene expression, neural circuit function, and ultimately behavior, and these maladaptations appear distinct between developmental and adult exposures. Increasing evidence indicates that these sustained abnormalities are maintained by epigenetic modifications in specific brain regions. Indeed, transcriptional dysregulation and associated aberrant epigenetic regulation is a unifying theme in psychiatric disorders. Aspects of depression and addiction can be modeled in animals by inducing disease-like states through environmental manipulations (e.g., chronic-stress, drug administration). Understanding how environmental factors recruit the epigenetic machinery in animal models is revealing new insight into disease mechanisms in humans. PMID:24709417

  7. [Mental capacity of psychiatric patients].

    PubMed

    Wu, Kevin Chien-Chang

    2010-12-01

    Nearly every society maintains legal norms that define those members of society qualified to participate in social affairs. Mental capacity and legal competence are deemed necessary conditions for legal actions to have legal validity. On Nov. 23, 2009, newly revised adult guardianship provisions came into effect in Taiwan. However, there has been lack of discussion with regard to how assessments of mental capacity and legal competence should be conducted on psychiatric patients. This paper reviewed relevant overseas literature on this subject and followed common practice in separating legal mental capacity into causal and functional components. The causal component predicates the diseases and illnesses that render the disability, while the functional component represents legally substantial impairments in terms of cognition, emotion and behavior. The paper explored functional component contents, including finance management, individual health care, independence in daily life, interpersonal relationships and communing. Findings pointed out that in setting up competence standards, a trade-off between respect for autonomy and beneficence is unavoidable. As Taiwan does not have rich empirical data on competence assessments and decisions, collaboration between the legal and psychiatric professions is recommended to engage in relevant research to enhance legal consistencies and the science of competence assessment. PMID:21140338

  8. [Compulsive buying and psychiatric comorbidity].

    PubMed

    Mueller, Astrid; Mühlhans, Barbara; Silbermann, Andrea; Müller, Ulrike; Mertens, Christian; Horbach, Thomas; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina

    2009-08-01

    Compulsive buying is an excessive behavior that has begun to receive attention from researchers in recent years. The current study provides an overview of research on compulsive buying and examines the psychiatric co-morbidity in a German female treatment seeking compulsive buying sample in comparison with age and gender-matched normal buying control groups. Thirty women suffering from compulsive buying disorder, 30 community controls, and 30 bariatric surgery candidates were assessed with the German versions of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV diagnoses (SCID). Women with compulsive buying disorder showed significantly higher prevalence rates of affective, anxiety, and eating disorders compared to community controls, and suffered significantly more often from affective and anxiety disorders compared to bariatric surgery candidates. The compulsive buying group presented with the highest rates of personality disorders, most commonly avoidant, depressive, obsessive-compulsive, and borderline personality disorder, and reported the highest prevalence rates of other impulse control disorders, especially for intermittent explosive disorder. The findings suggest an elevated psychiatric co-morbidity in patients with compulsive buying disorder. PMID:18600612

  9. Psychotherapy in Contemporary Psychiatric Practice

    PubMed Central

    Hadjipavlou, George; Hernandez, Carlos A Sierra; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: American data suggest a declining trend in the provision of psychotherapy by psychiatrists. Nevertheless, the extent to which such findings generalize to psychiatric practice in other countries is unclear. We surveyed psychiatrists in British Columbia to examine whether the reported decline in psychotherapy provision extends to the landscape of Canadian psychiatric practice. Method: A survey was mailed to the entire population of fully licensed psychiatrists registered in British Columbia (n = 623). The survey consisted of 30 items. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample and psychotherapy practice patterns. Associations between variables were evaluated using nonparametric tests. Results: A total of 423 psychiatrists returned the survey, yielding a response rate of 68%. Overall, 80.9% of psychiatrists (n = 342) reported practicing psychotherapy. A decline in the provision of psychotherapy was not observed; in fact, there was an increase in psychotherapy provision among psychiatrists entering practice in the last 10 years. Individual therapy was the predominant format used by psychiatrists. The most common primary theoretical orientation was psychodynamic (29.9%). Regarding actual practice, supportive psychotherapy was practiced most frequently. Professional time constraints were perceived as the most significant barrier to providing psychotherapy. The majority (85%) of clinicians did not view remuneration as a significant barrier to treating patients with psychotherapy. Conclusions: Our findings challenge the prevailing view that psychotherapy is in decline among psychiatrists. Psychiatrists in British Columbia continue to integrate psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in clinical practice, thus preserving their unique place in the spectrum of mental health services. PMID:26175328

  10. Psychiatric disorders and sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D

    2015-01-01

    Sexual problems are highly prevalent among patients with psychiatric disorders. They may be caused by the psychopathology of the psychiatric disorder but also by its pharmacotherapy. Both positive symptoms (e.g., psychosis, hallucinations) as well as negative symptoms (e.g., anhedonia) of schizophrenia may negatively interfere with interpersonal and sexual relationships. Atypical antipsychotics have fewer sexual side-effects than the classic antipsychotics. Mood disorders may affect libido, sexual arousal, orgasm, and erectile function. With the exception of bupropion, agomelatine, mirtazapine, vortioxetine, amineptine, and moclobemide, all antidepressants cause sexual side-effects. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may particularly delay ejaculation and female orgasm, but also can cause decreased libido and erectile difficulties. SSRI-induced sexual side-effects are dose-dependent and reversible. Very rarely, their sexual side-effects persist after SSRI discontinuation. This is often preceded by genital anesthesia. Some personality characteristics are a risk factor for sexual dysfunction. Also patients with eating disorders may suffer from sexual difficulties. So far, research into psychotropic-induced sexual side-effects suffers from substantial methodologic limitations. Patients tend not to talk with their clinician about their sexual life. Psychiatrists and other doctors need to take the initiative to talk about the patient's sexual life in order to become informed about potential medication-induced sexual difficulties. PMID:26003261

  11. Dinosaur Day!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Sandra; Baptiste, H. Prentice

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how they capitalized on their first-grade students' love of dinosaurs by hosting a fun-filled Dinosaur Day in their classroom. On Dinosaur Day, students rotated through four dinosaur-related learning stations that integrated science content with art, language arts, math, and history in a fun and time-efficient…

  12. Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merro, John; And Others

    Interviews on the quality of day care in the United States are presented in this transcript of a program broadcast in the National Public Radio weekly series, "Options in Education." Writers, day care center personnel and others describe and evaluate the current situation. Federal legislation concerning children is examined, and researchers…

  13. Nursing 302: An Introduction to Psychiatric Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaustein, Jenna Rose

    A description is provided of "Introduction to Psychiatric Nursing," a 7-week course offered to juniors and seniors in a bachelor of science nursing program. The first sections present information on curricular placement, time assignments, and the targeted student population, and define psychiatric/mental health nursing. Next, the course…

  14. Physical activity and psychiatric problems in children.

    PubMed

    Martikainen, Silja; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Lahti, Jari; Heinonen, Kati; Tammelin, Tuija; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan; Strandberg, Timo; Räikkönen, Katri

    2012-07-01

    We studied whether physical activity, measured by wrist-worn accelerometers, is associated with mother- and teacher-rated psychiatric problems in 8-year-old children (n = 199). Higher overall physical activity and more time spent in more intense physical activity were associated with lower odds for psychiatric problems in emotional, social, and behavioral domains. PMID:22575251

  15. Cultural Issues in Psychiatric Administration and Leadership.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2015-09-01

    This paper addresses cultural issues in psychiatric administration and leadership through two issues: (1) the changing culture of psychiatric practice based on new clinician performance metrics and (2) the culture of psychiatric administration and leadership in light of organizational cultural competence. Regarding the first issue, some observers have discussed the challenges of creating novel practice environments that balance business values of efficient performance with fiduciary values of treatment competence. This paper expands upon this discussion, demonstrating that some metrics from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, the nation's largest funder of postgraduate medical training, may penalize clinicians for patient medication behaviors that are unrelated to clinician performance. A focus on pharmacotherapy over psychotherapy in these metrics has unclear consequences for the future of psychiatric training. Regarding the second issue, studies of psychiatric administration and leadership reveal a disproportionate influence of older men in positions of power despite efforts to recruit women, minorities, and immigrants who increasingly constitute the psychiatric workforce. Organizational cultural competence initiatives can diversify institutional cultures so that psychiatric leaders better reflect the populations they serve. In both cases, psychiatric administrators and leaders play critical roles in ensuring that their organizations respond to social challenges. PMID:26071640

  16. Personal Digital Assistants in Psychiatric Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, John S.; Ton, Hendry

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This article describes the various administrative and clinical applications for PDA use in psychiatric care and review the process for implementation in an academic medical center. Method: The authors reviewed the psychiatric literature and tested various hardware and software products. Results: The literature describes various uses of…

  17. Community Mental Health and the Psychiatric Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Psychiatric Technology, Sacramento, CA.

    The National Association of Psychiatric Technology (NAPT), a non-profit organization, is the outgrowth of local and state organizations of psychiatric attendants, aides, and technicians who had banded together to improve their knowledge and skills and to demonstrate their competence to assume greater responsibilities in the care and treatment of…

  18. Psychiatric Learning about the brain from diagnosis

    E-print Network

    Liu, X. Shirley

    ability to concentrate 9. Recurrent thoughts of death DSM-5 #12;Antidepressant drugs Depressed Less Depressed Antidepressant · Later replaced by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI's), e.g. Prozac of depression Part III: The future of psychiatric diagnosis and treatment #12;adapted from NIH Psychiatric

  19. Accommodating Faculty and Staff with Psychiatric Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Barbara A.; Ruger, Peter H.

    This pamphlet discusses the legal protections for employees with psychiatric disabilities, and analyzes the decisions of federal and state courts in cases where employees who claimed a psychiatric disorder challenged an employment decision under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, or state law. It…

  20. Seroprevalence and associated risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection in psychiatric patients: a case-control study in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Cong, W; Dong, W; Bai, L; Wang, X-Y; Ni, X-T; Qian, A-D; Zhu, X-Q

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, the effect of Toxoplasma gondii infection on the cerebrum and neuropsychiatric patients has been increasingly highlighted. However, there is limited information about the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in psychiatric patients in Shandong province, eastern China. Therefore, through a case-control study, 445 patients hospitalized for diacrisis or treatment in Weihai, eastern China, and 445 control subjects from the general population of the same region matched by gender, age, and residence were examined with enzyme-linked immunoassays for the presence of IgG and IgM antibodies to T. gondii and associated sociodemographic and behavioural characteristics in a population of psychiatric patients. Seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to T. gondii in psychiatric patients (77/445, 17·30%) was significantly higher than in control subjects (55/445, 12·36%) (P = 0·038). Fourteen (3·15%) psychiatric patients and 10 (2·25%) control subjects had IgM antibodies to T. gondii (P = 0·408). Multivariate analysis using logic regression showed that T. gondii infection was associated with cats at home and consumption of raw/undercooked meat in psychiatric patients. Considering that most psychiatric patients usually have lower cognitive functioning and additional transmission routes related to their inappropriate behaviours that could enhance the risk of infection, psychiatric patients should be considered as a specific group of T. gondii infection. PMID:25687170

  1. There Is No Difference in IQ between Suicide and Non-Suicide Psychiatric Patients: A Retrospective Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung-Jin; Yi, Kikyoung; Lee, Joon Deuk

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to examine the association between IQ and suicide in psychiatric patients. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study using data obtained from psychiatric patients affiliated with a general hospital in Seoul, Korea. In a one-to-two ratio the psychiatric patients who died of suicide (Suicide Group; n=35) were matched to those who didn't (Non-suicide Group; n=70) by age, gender, psychiatric diagnosis and approximate time of first treatment. IQ was measured using the Korean version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised. Results There were no significant differences in any type of IQ between suicide patients and non-suicide patients. Logistic regression showed no evidence of an association between IQ and suicide. Conclusion These results do not support the existence of an association between IQ and suicide. PMID:26207125

  2. Psychiatric diagnosis: the indispensability of ambivalence

    PubMed Central

    Callard, Felicity

    2014-01-01

    The author analyses how debate over the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders has tended to privilege certain conceptions of psychiatric diagnosis over others, as well as to polarise positions regarding psychiatric diagnosis. The article aims to muddy the black and white tenor of many discussions regarding psychiatric diagnosis by moving away from the preoccupation with diagnosis as classification and refocusing attention on diagnosis as a temporally and spatially complex, as well as highly mediated process. The article draws on historical, sociological and first-person perspectives regarding psychiatric diagnosis in order to emphasise the conceptual—and potentially ethical—benefits of ambivalence vis-à-vis the achievements and problems of psychiatric diagnosis. PMID:24515564

  3. [Hiv patients in a psychiatric outpatient clinic].

    PubMed

    Lunter, C H; Sno, H N; van den Boom, F M

    1991-11-16

    The most often reported psychiatric complications among HIV-infected outpatients include: mood and anxiety disorders, and alcohol or nonopiate drug abuse. Medical records of 32 HIV-infected psychiatric outpatients in the Netherlands were studied. The most common DSM-III(-R) diagnoses included: major depression (n = 10) and adjustment disorder with depressive or anxious mood (n = 10). The psychiatric treatment of the HIV-infected outpatients did not differ fundamentally from the treatment of other psychiatric outpatients with similar problems. The increasing number of HIV infected patients in the Netherlands living outside of Amsterdam, would appear to urge more education of psychiatric and other health care professionals concerning specific aspects of HIV infection, homosexuality, prostitution and intravenous drug abuse. PMID:1956445

  4. Psychiatric Diagnoses as Contemporaneous Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts Among Adolescents and Young Adults: Developmental Changes

    PubMed Central

    Goldston, David B.; Daniel, Stephanie Sergent; Erkanli, Alaattin; Reboussin, Beth A.; Mayfield, Andrew; Frazier, Patricia H.; Treadway, Sarah L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, naturalistic study was to examine the relationships between suicide attempts and contemporaneous psychiatric disorders, and developmental changes in these relationships from adolescence to young adulthood. The sample consisted of 180 adolescents, 12-19 years of age at hospitalization, repeatedly assessed for up to 13 years (n = 1,825 assessments). Semistructured psychiatric diagnostic instruments were administered at repeated assessments to assess psychiatric disorders and suicide attempts. After controlling for demographic variables and prehospitalization suicide attempts, most contemporaneous psychiatric disorders (major depressive disorder [MDD], dysthymic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder [GAD], panic disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [AD/HD], conduct disorder, and substance use disorder [SUD]) were related to increased risk of attempts. The relationship between suicide attempts and MDD, GAD, AD/HD, and SUD strengthened as participants got older. MDD, dysthymic disorder, GAD, and panic disorder were more commonly associated with repeat than 1st-time suicide attempts. In sum, most major psychiatric disorders are associated with increased risk for suicide attempts, but the strength of the relationships between these disorders and attempts changes over the course of development. PMID:19309187

  5. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day. (a) Day means calendar day unless otherwise indicated as business day or school day. (b) Business...

  6. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day. (a) Day means calendar day unless otherwise indicated as business day or school day. (b) Business...

  7. [Diffusion formation and psychiatric diseases].

    PubMed

    Reith, W; Kulikovski, J

    2015-09-01

    The basic principle behind diffusion is Brownian motion. The diffusion parameters obtained in a clinical association provide information on the spatial distribution of water molecule mobility and, therefore, evidence of the morphological integrity of the white and grey matters of the brain. In recent years functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) could contribute to obtaining a detailed understanding of the cortical and subcortical cerebral networks. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) investigations can demonstrate the extent of anisotropy and the fiber pathways in so-called parametric images. For example, in Alzheimer's disease DTI reveals a reduced structural connectivity between the posterior cingulum and the hippocampus. This article shows examples of the application of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in psychiatric disorders. PMID:26286437

  8. Inflammation, neurotoxins and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Myint, Aye-Mu

    2013-01-01

    Although immune reactions are necessary to defend against danger signals, the mediator molecules such as cytokines can be detrimental to the organism if the exposure is longer than necessary or in certain abnormal concentrations. The neuroprotection and neurotoxicity induced by the interaction between certain cytokines and the metabolites from tryptophan catabolism, the neuroactive kynurenines, which is partly influenced by corticosteroid action plays an important role in several neurotransmissions such as serotonergic, dopaminergic and glutamatergic transmissions and receptor functions such as N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor or ?7-nicotinic-acetylcholine receptor. While the molecules in normal concentrations are essential to the normal glial-neuronal interaction, any changes that induce imbalance in the network between those molecules could disturb the interaction. The role of this network in major psychiatric disorders such as depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia and future therapeutic roles are discussed in this manuscript. PMID:25224891

  9. [ER stress and psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Kudo, Takashi

    2009-02-01

    Various stresses cause the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). For this serious "ER stress", cells have unfolded protein responses (UPR) consisting of the translation block, the induction of chaperones, and ER-associated degradation (ERAD). If cells do not overcome the ER stress by UPR, ER-mediated apoptosis occurs. Recent reports showed that several diseases, such as ischemic diseases, viral infections, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases, are caused by ER stress. In psychiatric disorders, it was recently reported that ER stress is involved in bipolar disorders. There were reports that drugs for bipolar disorders induce chaperones, that polymorphism of the molecule of ER stress is significantly related to the bipolar disorder, and that the causal gene of the autosomal recessive disease having mood disorder as a phenotype is induced by ER stress. Another report showed that ER stress is involved in sleep disturbances. PMID:19326810

  10. [Health service aspects of psychosomatic inpatient treatment in a general hospital].

    PubMed

    de Cruppé, Werner; Martens, Ute; Löwe, Bernd; Herzog, Wolfgang; Eich, Wolfgang

    2005-08-01

    The study objective is to outline basic aspects of medical care service structure in the fields of psychosomatic medicine in a clinical acute-care setting. A total of 216 inpatients in a psychosomatic ward of a general hospital were investigated during a 32 months period using a retrospective study design. Referring physicians and clinics along with referral procedures, the waiting period, teamwork with other clinics, as well as patient and therapy characteristics are described. According to provisions of outpatient psychosocial care, general practitioners refer the majority of the inpatients (55 %), followed by other clinics (25 %) and psychosomatic and psychiatric outpatient specialists (20 %). An outpatient department along with a psychosomatic C-L service are key elements for a psychosomatic department to ensure coordination of the referral procedure. The average waiting period lasts 21 days, the average length of stay is 48 days. 60 % of the inpatients show somatic and psychiatric co morbidity. A psychopharmacological treatment has to be taken into consideration along with multi-modal psychotherapy in a third of all patients. PMID:16049875

  11. Sleep disorders in psychiatric practice.

    PubMed

    Szelenberger, Waldemar; Soldatos, Constantin

    2005-10-01

    Over the last years, a large body of evidence has accumulated showing that complaints of disordered sleep are quite prevalent in the community. Insomnia is by far the most common disturbance and is often associated with concurrent psychiatric illness, in particular anxiety and mood disorders. On the other hand, sleep complaints are frequently present among psychiatric patients and have been incorporated in the official diagnostic criteria for many mental disorders, such as major depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and substance-related disorders. Estimates of the prevalence of sleep disorders diverge widely, because these disorders have been variously conceptualized. Currently, however, three different classifications for sleep disorders establish reliable diagnostic criteria and allow for more consistency in clinical research. In particular, the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for insomnia helped to establish a consensus among sleep specialists by defining accurately this clinical condition, i.e. by conceptualizing it as the subjective complaint of insufficient or non-restorative sleep, which is the important feature, not the actual amount of time spent asleep. Alongside the evolution of taxonomic systems, the development of specific diagnostic tools, such as rating scales for measuring clinical manifestations of sleep disorders, has contributed significantly to the growth in the field. For instance, the risk factors responsible for the development of chronic insomnia, its consequences, and the complex relationship between insomnia and psychopathology, have been considerably clarified. In terms of the polysomnographic aberrations observed in various mental disorders, these, although proven not to be pathognomonic for any of them, have been considerably refined over the last decade, and certain general sleep patterns for some specific disorders have emerged. Finally, substantial advances have been made in the elucidation of the neuropsychobiological substrate of disturbed sleep. Thus, hyperarousal has been identified as the cardinal feature of chronic insomnia, which is associated with an around-the-clock activation of both major components of the stress system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system. PMID:16633547

  12. Factors associated with frequent admissions to an acute geriatric psychiatric inpatient unit.

    PubMed

    Woo, Benjamin K P; Golshan, Shahrokh; Allen, Edward C; Daly, John W; Jeste, Dilip V; Sewell, Daniel D

    2006-12-01

    As a first step toward developing strategies to reduce the frequency of psychiatric hospitalizations, the authors retrospectively collected and analyzed demographic and clinical variables from 424 consecutive admissions to a university-based geriatric psychiatry inpatient unit over a 20-month period. The study sample was dichotomized into patients who were admitted more than one time (35.6%) versus those with a single admission. Factors associated with rehospitalization were examined with multivariate logistic regression analysis. The great majority of readmissions (81%) occurred in the first 3 months after discharge. The logistic regression model indicated that significant predictors of rehospitalization were single relationship status, male gender, and bipolar disorder diagnosis. Our findings overlap with findings from previous similar studies and suggest that information readily obtainable on admission to an acute geriatric psychiatry inpatient unit may provide a useful indication of risk for frequent psychiatric hospitalizations and may contribute to readmission prevention strategies. PMID:17085762

  13. Reducing conflict and containment rates on acute psychiatric wards: The Safewards cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Len; James, Karen; Quirk, Alan; Simpson, Alan; Stewart, Duncan; Hodsoll, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute psychiatric wards manage patients whose actions may threaten safety (conflict). Staff act to avert or minimise harm (containment). The Safewards model enabled the identification of ten interventions to reduce the frequency of both. Objective To test the efficacy of these interventions. Design A pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial with psychiatric hospitals and wards as the units of randomisation. The main outcomes were rates of conflict and containment. Participants Staff and patients in 31 randomly chosen wards at 15 randomly chosen hospitals. Results For shifts with conflict or containment incidents, the experimental condition reduced the rate of conflict events by 15% (95% CI 5.6–23.7%) relative to the control intervention. The rate of containment events for the experimental intervention was reduced by 26.4% (95% CI 9.9–34.3%). Conclusions Simple interventions aiming to improve staff relationships with patients can reduce the frequency of conflict and containment. Trial registration IRSCTN38001825. PMID:26166187

  14. The Checkered History of American Psychiatric Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Allan V; Grob, Gerald N

    2011-01-01

    Context American psychiatry has been fascinated with statistics ever since the specialty was created in the early nineteenth century. Initially, psychiatrists hoped that statistics would reveal the benefits of institutional care. Nevertheless, their fascination with statistics was far removed from the growing importance of epidemiology generally. The impetus to create an epidemiology of mental disorders came from the emerging social sciences, whose members were concerned with developing a scientific understanding of individual and social behavior and applying it to a series of pressing social problems. Beginning in the 1920s, the interest of psychiatric epidemiologists shifted to the ways that social environments contributed to the development of mental disorders. This emphasis dramatically changed after 1980 when the policy focus of psychiatric epidemiology became the early identification and prevention of mental illness in individuals. Methods This article reviews the major developments in psychiatric epidemiology over the past century and a half. Findings The lack of an adequate classification system for mental illness has precluded the field of psychiatric epidemiology from providing causal understandings that could contribute to more adequate policies to remediate psychiatric disorders. Because of this gap, the policy influence of psychiatric epidemiology has stemmed more from institutional and ideological concerns than from knowledge about the causes of mental disorders. Conclusion Most of the problems that have bedeviled psychiatric epidemiology since its inception remain unresolved. In particular, until epidemiologists develop adequate methods to measure mental illnesses in community populations, the policy contributions of this field will not be fully realized. PMID:22188350

  15. The mitochondrial genome and psychiatric illness.

    PubMed

    Anglin, Rebecca E S; Mazurek, Michael F; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Rosebush, Patricia I

    2012-10-01

    Psychiatric disorders are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, yet their underlying pathophysiology remains unclear. Searches for a genetic cause of bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and major depressive disorder have yielded inconclusive results. There is increasing interest in the possibility that defects in the mitochondrial genome may play an important role in psychiatric illness. We undertook a review of the literature investigating mitochondria and adult psychiatric disorders. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and EMBASE were searched from their inception through September 2011, and the reference lists of identified articles were reviewed for additional studies. While multiple lines of evidence, including clinical, genetic, ultrastructural, and biochemical studies, support the involvement of mitochondria in the pathophysiology of psychiatric illness, many studies have methodological limitations and their findings have not been replicated. Clinical studies suggest that psychiatric features can be prominent, and the presenting features of mitochondrial disorders. There is limited but inconsistent evidence for the involvement of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and mitochondria-related nuclear gene polymorphisms, and for mitochondrial ultrastructural and biochemical abnormalities in psychiatric illness. The current literature suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondrial genetic variations may play an important role in psychiatric disorders, but additional methodologically rigorous and adequately powered studies are needed before definitive conclusions can be drawn. PMID:22887963

  16. An historical framework for psychiatric nosology

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, K. S.

    2009-01-01

    This essay, which seeks to provide an historical framework for our efforts to develop a scientific psychiatric nosology, begins by reviewing the classificatory approaches that arose in the early history of biological taxonomy. Initial attempts at species definition used top-down approaches advocated by experts and based on a few essential features of the organism chosen a priori. This approach was subsequently rejected on both conceptual and practical grounds and replaced by bottom-up approaches making use of a much wider array of features. Multiple parallels exist between the beginnings of biological taxonomy and psychiatric nosology. Like biological taxonomy, psychiatric nosology largely began with ‘expert’ classifications, typically influenced by a few essential features, articulated by one or more great 19th-century diagnosticians. Like biology, psychiatry is struggling toward more soundly based bottom-up approaches using diverse illness characteristics. The underemphasized historically contingent nature of our current psychiatric classification is illustrated by recounting the history of how ‘Schneiderian’ symptoms of schizophrenia entered into DSM-III. Given these historical contingencies, it is vital that our psychiatric nosologic enterprise be cumulative. This can be best achieved through a process of epistemic iteration. If we can develop a stable consensus in our theoretical orientation toward psychiatric illness, we can apply this approach, which has one crucial virtue. Regardless of the starting point, if each iteration (or revision) improves the performance of the nosology, the eventual success of the nosologic process, to optimally reflect the complex reality of psychiatric illness, is assured. PMID:19368761

  17. [The revised system of hospitalization for medical care and protection].

    PubMed

    Fukuo, Yasuhisa

    2014-01-01

    The Act to Partially Amend the Act on Mental Health and Welfare for the Mentally Disabled was passed on June 13, 2013. Major amendments regarding hospitalization for medical care and protection include the points listed below. The guardianship system will be abolished. Consent by a guardian will no longer be required in the case of hospitalization for medical care and protection. In the case of hospitalization for medical care and protection, the administrators of the psychiatric hospital are required to obtain the consent of one of the following persons: spouse, person with parental authority, person responsible for support, legal custodian, or curator. If no qualified person is available, consent must be obtained from the mayor, etc. of the municipality. The following three obligations are imposed on psychiatric hospital administrators. (1) Assignment of a person, such as a psychiatric social worker, to provide guidance and counseling to patients hospitalized for medical care and protection regarding their postdischarge living environment. (2) Collaboration with community support entities that consult with and provide information as necessary to the person hospitalized, their spouse, a person with parental authority, a person responsible for support, or their legal custodian or curator. (3) Organizational improvements to promote hospital discharge. With regard to requests for discharge, the revised law stipulates that, in addition to the person hospitalized with a mental disorder, others who may file a request for discharge with the psychiatric review board include: the person's spouse, a person with parental authority, a person responsible for support, or their legal custodian or curator. If none of the above persons are available, or if none of them are able to express their wishes, the mayor, etc. of the municipality having jurisdiction over the place of residence of the person hospitalized may request a discharge. In order to promote transition to life in the community by persons with mental disorders, efforts will be made to enhance psychiatric care for them, with guidelines to be developed to ensure the provision of medical care to persons with mental disorders. The revised law clarifies that members of psychiatric review boards shall be "persons with expert knowledge and experience pertaining to the health and/or welfare of persons with mental disorders." Provision is made for a review of conditions related to implementation of the revised law approximately three years after it takes effect, with measures to be taken as necessary based on results of the review. The main focus of this presentation will be the revisions to the system of hospitalization for medical care and protection, and the deletion of provisions relating to the system of guardianship. PMID:24864562

  18. 42 CFR 409.65 - Lifetime reserve days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...higher than the lifetime reserve days coinsurance amount. In such cases...want to save the lifetime reserve days for future care that may be more expensive. ...elects not to use lifetime reserve days for a particular hospital or...

  19. 42 CFR 409.65 - Lifetime reserve days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...higher than the lifetime reserve days coinsurance amount. In such cases...want to save the lifetime reserve days for future care that may be more expensive. ...elects not to use lifetime reserve days for a particular hospital or...

  20. 42 CFR 409.65 - Lifetime reserve days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...higher than the lifetime reserve days coinsurance amount. In such cases...want to save the lifetime reserve days for future care that may be more expensive. ...elects not to use lifetime reserve days for a particular hospital or...

  1. Modeling Trajectory of Depressive Symptoms Among Psychiatric Inpatients: A Latent Growth Curve Approach

    PubMed Central

    Clapp, Joshua D.; Grubaugh, Anouk L.; Allen, Jon G.; Mahoney, Jane; Oldham, John M.; Fowler, J. Christopher; Ellis, Tom; Elhai, Jon D.; Frueh, B. Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Changes in the parameters of inpatient psychiatric care have inspired a sizable literature exploring correlates of prolonged intervention as well as symptom change over varying lengths of hospitalization. However, existing data offer limited insight regarding the nature of symptom change over time. Objectives of this longitudinal research were to (a) model the trajectory of depressive symptoms within an inpatient psychiatric sample, (b) identify characteristics associated with unique patterns of change, and (c) evaluate the magnitude of expected gains using objective clinical benchmarks. Methods Participants included psychiatric inpatients treated between April 2008 and December 2010. Latent growth curve modeling was used to determine the trajectory of Beck Depression Inventory II depressive symptoms in response to treatment. Age, gender, trauma history, prior hospitalization, and DSM-IV diagnoses were examined as potential moderators of recovery. Results Results indicate a nonlinear model of recovery, with symptom reductions greatest following admission and slowing gradually over time. Female gender, probable trauma exposure, prior psychiatric hospitalization, and primary depressive diagnosis were associated with more severe trajectories. Diagnosis of alcohol/substance use, by contrast, was associated with more moderate trajectories. Objective benchmarks occurred relatively consistently across patient groups with clinically significant change occurring between 2–4 weeks post-admission. Conclusion The nonlinear trajectory of recovery observed in these data provides insight regarding the dynamics of inpatient recovery. Across all patient groups, symptom reduction was most dramatic in the initial week of hospitalization. However, notable improvement continued for several weeks post-admission. Results suggest timelines for adequate inpatient care are largely contingent on program-specific goals. PMID:23759452

  2. Use of a homecare electronic health record to find associations between patient characteristics and re-hospitalizations in patients with heart failure using telehealth.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Kavita; Jacelon, Cynthia S; Bigelow, Carol; Roche, Joan; Marquard, Jenna; Bowles, Kathryn H

    2013-02-01

    Data from homecare electronic health records were used to explore the association of patient characteristics with re-hospitalizations of patients with heart failure (HF) during a 60-day period of telemonitoring following hospital discharge. Data from 403 Medicare patients with HF who had used telehealth from 2008 to 2010 were analysed. There were 112 all-cause (29%) and 73 cardiac-related (19%) re-hospitalizations within 60 days of the start of telemonitoring. In adjusted analyses, the patients' number of medications and type of cardiac medications were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with an increased risk of re-hospitalization. After stratifying the sample by illness severity, age and gender, other significant (P < 0.05) predictors associated with an increased risk of all-cause and cardiac re-hospitalization were psychiatric co-morbidity, pulmonary and obesity co-morbidities within gender, beta blocker prescription in females and primary HF diagnosis in the oldest age stratum. The study's findings may assist homecare agencies seeking to allocate resources without compromising patient care. PMID:23528787

  3. PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY IN A CHILDREN'S HOME1

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, P. K.; Agarwal, A. K; Gupta, S. C.

    1980-01-01

    SUMMARY Sixty-two inmates of a children's home were examined by using a symptom check list and Hindi adaptation of Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale—Form LM (1960). A high proportion (69.4%) of the inmates had one or other psychiatric problem. Mild mental retardation (I. Q. 50—70) was most common (40.3%), 11.3% were diagnosed as having unsocialized disturbance of conduct. Four most common psychiatric symptoms were stealing, quarrelsome behaviour, destructive behaviour and bed wetting. No significant correlation was found between psychiatric illnesses and present age, duration of stay and age at entry into the home. PMID:22058478

  4. Pertussis in hospitalized children.

    PubMed

    Gan, V N; Murphy, T V

    1990-10-01

    Before the whole-cell pertussis vaccine was available, Bordetella pertussis infections were an important cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. To determine the extent of continuing morbidity in an era of vaccination, a retrospective review was conducted of the records of neonates and infants hospitalized with pertussis infection at Parkland Memorial Hospital and Children's Medical Center, Dallas, Tex. During the 20 years from 1967 through 1986, 182 patients were younger than 24 months. Among 176 patients whose immunization history was recorded, 89% had received fewer than two doses of pertussis vaccine. The mean hospital stay was 7.4 days (range, 1 to 69 days). A convulsion occurred in 11 patients (6%). Apnea was reported in 45 patients (25%) and observed in the hospital in 26 (14%). Nine patients (5%) received mechanical ventilatory therapy. Intensive care monitoring was required in 18 patients (10%). Three (1.6%) died, all with secondary bacterial pneumonia. This hospital-based population indicates that pertussis continues to be a cause of serious morbidity and mortality in infants. PMID:2403094

  5. Personality traits and psychiatric comorbidities in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Donadon, M F; Osório, F L

    2016-01-01

    Non-adaptive personality traits may constitute risk factors for development of psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. We aim to evaluate associations and the predictive value of personality traits among alcohol-dependent individuals, with or without psychiatric comorbidities. The convenience sample comprised two groups of males over 18 years of age: one with subjects who had an alcohol dependence diagnosis (AG, n=110), and a control group without abuse and/or alcohol dependence diagnosis (CG, n=110). The groups were assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview DSM-IV (SCID-IV). AG participants were recruited among outpatients from the university hospital, whereas CG participants were recruited from a primary healthcare program. Data collection was done individually with self-assessment instruments. Parametric statistics were performed, and a significance level of P=0.05 was adopted. A positive correlation was observed between openness and the length of time that alcohol has been consumed, as were significant and negative correlations between conscientiousness and both the length of time alcohol has been consumed and the number of doses. For alcoholics, extraversion emerged as a protective factor against depression development (P=0.008) and tobacco abuse (P=0.007), whereas openness worked as a protective factor against anxiety (P=0.02). The findings point to specific deficits presented by alcoholics in relation to personality traits with or without psychiatric comorbidities and to the understanding that therapeutic approaches should favor procedures and/or preventive measures that allow more refined awareness about the disorder. PMID:26628399

  6. Personality traits and psychiatric comorbidities in alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Donadon, M.F.; Osório, F.L.

    2015-01-01

    Non-adaptive personality traits may constitute risk factors for development of psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. We aim to evaluate associations and the predictive value of personality traits among alcohol-dependent individuals, with or without psychiatric comorbidities. The convenience sample comprised two groups of males over 18 years of age: one with subjects who had an alcohol dependence diagnosis (AG, n=110), and a control group without abuse and/or alcohol dependence diagnosis (CG, n=110). The groups were assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview DSM-IV (SCID-IV). AG participants were recruited among outpatients from the university hospital, whereas CG participants were recruited from a primary healthcare program. Data collection was done individually with self-assessment instruments. Parametric statistics were performed, and a significance level of P=0.05 was adopted. A positive correlation was observed between openness and the length of time that alcohol has been consumed, as were significant and negative correlations between conscientiousness and both the length of time alcohol has been consumed and the number of doses. For alcoholics, extraversion emerged as a protective factor against depression development (P=0.008) and tobacco abuse (P=0.007), whereas openness worked as a protective factor against anxiety (P=0.02). The findings point to specific deficits presented by alcoholics in relation to personality traits with or without psychiatric comorbidities and to the understanding that therapeutic approaches should favor procedures and/or preventive measures that allow more refined awareness about the disorder. PMID:26628399

  7. Influence of Hospital and Nursing Home Quality on Hospital Readmissions

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Kali S.; Rahman, Momotazur; Mor, Vincent; Intrator, Orna

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether the quality of the hospital and of the nursing home (NH) to which a patient was discharged were related to the likelihood of rehospitalization. Study Design Retrospective cohort study of 1,382,477 individual hospitalizations discharged to 15,356 NHs from 3683 hospitals between 2006 and 2008. Methods Data come from Medicare claims and enrollment records, Minimum Data Set, Online Survey Certification and Reporting Dataset, Hospital Compare, and the American Hospital Association Database. Cross-classified random effects models were used to test the association of hospital and NH quality measures and the likelihood of 30-day rehospitalization. Results Patients discharged from higher-quality hospitals (as indicated by higher scores on their accountability process measures and high nurse staffing levels) and patients who received care in higher-quality NHs (as indicated by high nurse staffing levels and lower deficiency scores) were less likely to be rehospitalized within 30 days. Conclusions The passage of the Affordable Care Act changed the accountability of hospitals for patients’ outcomes after discharge. This study highlights the joint accountability of hospitals and NHs for rehospitalization of patients. PMID:25730351

  8. CDRP - Funded Institutions - Rapid City Regional Hospital

    Cancer.gov

    Rapid City Regional Hospital is a not-for-profit regional medical center operated in trust for the community and region by a 13-member Board of Trustees, who represents the local communities. It is licensed for 310 acute care and 56 psychiatric beds and is accredited by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organizations and the Commission for the Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities.

  9. Violent behavior in acute psychiatric inpatient facilities: a national survey in Italy.

    PubMed

    Biancosino, Bruno; Delmonte, Sara; Grassi, Luigi; Santone, Giovanni; Preti, Antonio; Miglio, Rossella; de Girolamo, Giovanni

    2009-10-01

    Violence committed by acute psychiatric inpatients represents an important and challenging problem in clinical practice. Sociodemographic, clinical, and treatment information were collected for 1324 patients (677 men and 647 women) admitted to Italian public and private acute psychiatric inpatient facilities during an index period in 2004, and the sample divided into 3 groups: nonhostile patients (no episodes of violent behavior during hospitalization), hostile patients (verbal aggression or violent acts against objects), and violent patients (authors of physical assault). Ten percent (N = 129) of patients showed hostile behavior during hospitalization and 3% (N = 37) physically assaulted other patients or staff members. Variables associated with violent behavior were: male gender, <24 years of age, unmarried status, receiving a disability pension, having a secondary school degree, compulsory admission, hostile attitude at admission, and a diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, personality disorder, mental retardation, organic brain disorder or substance/alcohol abuse. Violent behavior during hospitalization was a predictive factor for higher Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale scores and for lower Personal and Social Performance scale scores at discharge. Despite the low percentage of violent and hostile behavior observed in Italian acute inpatient units, this study shed light on a need for the careful assessment of clinical and treatment variables, and greater effort aimed at improving specific prevention and treatment programs of violent behavior. PMID:19829207

  10. Concurrent Medical and Psychiatric Disorders among Schizophrenic and Neurotic Outpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lima, Bruno R.; Pai, Shaila

    Although the occurrence of medical illnesses in psychiatric patients is quite high, medical illnesses manifested by psychiatric symptoms are often overlooked. The higher mortality rates among psychiatric patients when compared to the general population may be a reflection of neglect or inadequate treatment of the psychiatric patients' medical…

  11. Training in Psychiatric Genomics during Residency: A New Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winner, Joel G.; Goebert, Deborah; Matsu, Courtenay; Mrazek, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors ascertained the amount of training in psychiatric genomics that is provided in North American psychiatric residency programs. Methods: A sample of 217 chief residents in psychiatric residency programs in the United States and Canada were identified by e-mail and surveyed to assess their training in psychiatric genetics and…

  12. 42 CFR 456.482 - Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations. 456..., psychiatric, and social evaluations. If a facility provides inpatient psychiatric services to a beneficiary under age 21, the medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations required by §§ 456.170, and 456.370...

  13. 42 CFR 456.482 - Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations. 456..., psychiatric, and social evaluations. If a facility provides inpatient psychiatric services to a beneficiary under age 21, the medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations required by §§ 456.170, and 456.370...

  14. 42 CFR 456.482 - Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations. 456..., psychiatric, and social evaluations. If a facility provides inpatient psychiatric services to a beneficiary under age 21, the medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations required by §§ 456.170, and 456.370...

  15. 42 CFR 456.482 - Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations. 456..., psychiatric, and social evaluations. If a facility provides inpatient psychiatric services to a recipient under age 21, the medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations required by §§ 456.170, and 456.370...

  16. 42 CFR 456.482 - Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations. 456..., psychiatric, and social evaluations. If a facility provides inpatient psychiatric services to a recipient under age 21, the medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations required by §§ 456.170, and 456.370...

  17. Race Disparities in Psychiatric Rates in Emergency Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunen, Seth; Niederhauser, Ronda; Smith, Patrick O.; Morris, Jerry A.; Marx, Brian D.

    2005-01-01

    Psychiatric diagnoses based on the International Classification of Diseases--Ninth Revision were examined in the medical discharge records of 33,000 emergency department (ED) patients to determine if (a) psychiatric disorders were underdiagnosed, (b) there were race and gender disparities in psychiatric rates, and (c) psychiatric rates varied as a…

  18. Inspire Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohach, Barbara M.; Meade, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    The authors collaborated on hosting a "Spring Inspire Day." planned and delivered by preservice elementary teachers as a social studies/science methods project. Projects that have authentic application opportunities can make learning meaningful for prospective teachers as well as elementary students. With the impetus for an integrated…

  19. 46 CFR 108.209 - Hospital spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Hospital spaces. 108.209 Section...A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction...Accommodation Spaces § 108.209 Hospital spaces. (a) Each unit...than three days must have a hospital space. (b) Each...

  20. 46 CFR 108.209 - Hospital spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 false Hospital spaces. 108.209 Section...A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction...Accommodation Spaces § 108.209 Hospital spaces. (a) Each unit...than three days must have a hospital space. (b) Each...

  1. 46 CFR 108.209 - Hospital spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 false Hospital spaces. 108.209 Section...A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction...Accommodation Spaces § 108.209 Hospital spaces. (a) Each unit...than three days must have a hospital space. (b) Each...

  2. 46 CFR 108.209 - Hospital spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 false Hospital spaces. 108.209 Section...A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction...Accommodation Spaces § 108.209 Hospital spaces. (a) Each unit...than three days must have a hospital space. (b) Each...

  3. 46 CFR 108.209 - Hospital spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Hospital spaces. 108.209 Section...A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction...Accommodation Spaces § 108.209 Hospital spaces. (a) Each unit...than three days must have a hospital space. (b) Each...

  4. The effectiveness of anticonvulsants in psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Grunze, Heinz C. R.

    2008-01-01

    Anticonvulsant drugs are widely used in psychiatric indications. These include mainly alcohol and benzodiazepine withdrawal syndromes, panic and anxiety disorders, dementia, schizophrenia, affective disorders, bipolar affective disorders in particular, and, to some extent, personality disorders, A further area in which neurology and psychiatry overlap is pain conditions, in which some anticonvulsants, and also typical psychiatric medications such as antidepressants, are helpful. From the beginning of their psychiatric use, anticonvulsants have also been used to ameliorate specific symptoms of psychiatric disorders independently of their causality and underlying illness, eg, aggression, and, more recently, cognitive impairment, as seen in affective disorders and schizophrenia. With new anticonvulsants currently under development, it is likely that their use in psychiatry will further increase, and that psychiatrists need to learn about their differential efficacy and safety profiles to the same extent as do neurologists. PMID:18472486

  5. Brief Guidelines for Documentation of Psychiatric Disorders

    E-print Network

    Brief Guidelines for Documentation of Psychiatric Disorders Harvard University Division and experienced in the diagnosis of the disorder. (Use of diagnostic terminology indicating a specific disorder is available upon request. * Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text

  6. Cultural Competence in Child Psychiatric Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jellinek, Michael S.; Henderson, Schuyler W.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. faces a changing demographic landscape that is increasingly multiracial. The application of a cultural competence model for assessing and treating the psychiatric disorders of minority youths in light of this demographic change is discussed.

  7. Diversion to the mental health system: emergency psychiatric evaluations.

    PubMed

    Janofsky, Jeffrey S; Tamburello, Anthony C

    2006-01-01

    In Maryland, any citizen may petition to have individuals brought against their will for an examination by a physician. In this retrospective chart review, we evaluated the characteristics of 300 persons referred to the Johns Hopkins Hospital on emergency petitions. Sixty-one percent of petitions described individuals who made verbal or physical threats of self-harm. Forty-seven percent of the petitions described individuals who could have been arrested based on dangerousness to others or property, but were instead diverted to the emergency room for psychiatric evaluation. Although not promoted as a jail diversion program, this process has the potential to direct mentally ill citizens appropriately from the criminal justice system into the mental health system. Greater involvement of mental health professionals at all stages, including police training and participation in crisis response teams in the community, may improve this process. PMID:17032950

  8. Norms, Reliability, and Item Analysis of the Hopelessness Scale in General Psychiatric, Forensic Psychiatric, and College Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durham, Thomas W.

    1982-01-01

    Administered the Hopelessness Scale to criminal psychiatric inpatients, general psychiatric inpatients, and college students. Both psychiatric groups endorsed significantly more items in the hopeless direction. Found the scale more reliable with the psychiatric patients. Item analysis of the Hopelessness Scale suggests that three items were not…

  9. Psychiatric Morbidity Among Inmates of Leprosy Homes

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, K. C.; Singh, Gurvinder Pal; Mohan, Varinder; Mahajan, B. B.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Leprosy affected people are having high psychological distress and it in turn leads to psychiatric disorders. There is a paucity of literature from our country in this significant health problem. Aims: The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity and its association with sociodemographic and clinical factors among the inmates of leprosy homes. Settings and Design: Study sample was obtained from individuals residing in two leprosy homes of malwa belt of Punjab. Materials and Methods: In screening stage, the study subjects were administered sociodemographic proforma and general health questionnaire (GHQ-12). In the confirmation stage, the study subjects were interviewed in detail and disability assessment was done using World Health Organization disability scale. Final psychiatric diagnosis was made as per ICD-10 criteria's. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using the descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, analysis of variance, and correlation analysis. Results: Majority of the subjects was in the age group 41-50 years, female, married, illiterate, Hindu and were from nuclear families. Nearly, 50.38% of subjects were having GHQ-12 score more than twelve. Nearly, 55.6% subjects were having psychiatric disorders out of which a large number of patients was diagnosed as having dysthymia. The other psychiatric disorders found in the study population were moderate depressive episode, generalized anxiety disorder, mixed anxiety and depressive disorder and schizophrenia unspecified. Psychiatric morbidity was found to be significantly related to age, family status, and duration of leprosy illness and presence of deformities among inmates. Conclusions: This study highlighted that psychiatric disorders were found in a large number among inmates of leprosy homes. Leprosy eradication program must place specific emphasis on psychiatric care of these patients. PMID:24379491

  10. [Schroeder van der Kolk and psychiatric care].

    PubMed

    van Gijn, Jan; Gijselhart, Joost P

    2010-01-01

    J.L.C. Schroeder van der Kolk (1797-1862), appointed in 1827 as professor of anatomy in Utrecht, became famous as a reformer of institutional care for psychiatric patients ('the Dutch Pinel'). He was prompted by the unacceptable situation in the 'Buitengasthuis' in Amsterdam, where he had been employed as a young physician. As a trustee of the 'Madhouse' in Utrecht and subsequently national inspector for psychiatric institutions, he initiated substantial improvements. PMID:20456779

  11. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in psychiatric inpatients in a northern Mexican city

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Alanis-Quiñones, Olga-Patricia; Arreola-Valenzuela, Miguel-Ángel; Rodríguez-Briones, Alfredo; Piedra-Nevarez, Luis-Jorge; Duran-Morales, Ehecatl; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio; Martínez-García, Sergio-Arturo; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Background Patients with psychiatric disorders were found to show a high seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection. There is scarce information about the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in psychiatric patients in Mexico. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection and associated socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural characteristics in a population of psychiatric patients in Durango City, Mexico. Seroprevalence in patients was compared with that obtained in a control population. Methods One hundred and thirty seven inpatients of a public psychiatric hospital and 180 controls were examined for the presence of IgG and IgM antibodies against T. gondii by enzyme-linked immunoassay (Diagnostic Automation Inc., Calabasas, CA, USA). The control population consisted of blood donors of a public blood bank and elderly persons attending a senior center in the same city. Age in controls (42 years +/- 20.2) was comparable with that of the psychiatric patients (43.7 years +/-13.8) (p = 0.42). Socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics from the patients were also obtained. Results Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies indicating latent infection with T. gondii was found in 25 (18.2%) of 137 psychiatric inpatients and 16 (8.9%) of 180 controls (p = 0.02). Ten (26.3%) of 38 schizophrenic patients had latent infection and this prevalence was also significantly higher than that observed in controls (p = 0.005). Prevalence of anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies was comparable among patients and controls (4.4% vs 2.2%, respectively, p = 0.22). Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii infection in inpatients was positively associated with sexual promiscuity (adjusted OR = 15.8; 95% CI: 3.8–64.8), unwashed raw fruit consumption (adjusted OR = 5.19; 95% CI: 2.3–11.3), and a history of surgery (adjusted OR = 6.5; 95% CI: 2.6–16), and negatively associated with lamb meat consumption (adjusted OR = 0.26; 95% CI: 0.10–0.63). Conclusion In the present study, psychiatric inpatients in Durango, Mexico, in general and schizophrenia inpatients in particular had a significantly higher prevalence of T. gondii infection than the control group. Results suggest that unwashed raw fruit consumption might be the most important route of T. gondii transmission in our psychiatric inpatients while lamb meat consumption the less important. Additional studies will have to elucidate the causative relation between infection with T. gondii and psychiatric disorders. PMID:17178002

  12. Inpatient adolescent psychiatry in a teaching hospital in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyewumi, L K

    1989-12-01

    The sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of 84 adolescents admitted to the psychiatric unit of a teaching hospital in Nigeria were studied. Their ages ranged from 12-20 years (mean 17). The pattern of psychiatric disorders in this population reflected the pattern in the adult population. Major psychoses comprising schizophrenia (44%), organic brain syndrome (23%), and affective disorders (16%) predominated. Infections and drug abuse are preventable causes of organic brain syndrome. Male adolescents were as likely to be hospitalized for a major psychiatric disorder as female adolescents. The peak period for psychopathology is late adolescence. The contributions of such factors as rural-urban migration, birth order, family size, polygamy and genetics to the etiology of major mental disorders in this population require further investigations. Understanding the prevalence and pattern of presentation of mental disorders in all age groups is essential for effective mental health planning. PMID:2618786

  13. Tourette Syndrome: A Training Day for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, Uttom; Christie, Deborah

    2002-01-01

    This article describes a Tourette syndrome training day for teachers facilitated by members of the Tic Disorders Clinic at Great Ormond Street Hospital in England. The day provided a mix of information giving and discussion of current practice. Outcomes of the day are related to professional knowledge and experience. (Contains references.) (CR)

  14. Union Density and Hospital Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Koys, Daniel J; Martin, Wm Marty; LaVan, Helen; Katz, Marsha

    2015-01-01

    The authors address the hospital outcomes of patient satisfaction, healthcare quality, and net income per bed. They define union density as the percentage of a hospital's employees who are in unions, healthcare quality as its 30-day acute myocardial infraction (AMI; heart attack) mortality rate, and patient satisfaction as its overall Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems score. Using a random sample of 84 union and 84 nonunion hospitals from across the United States, multiple regression analyses show that union density is negatively related to patient satisfaction. Union density is not related to healthcare quality as measured by the AMI mortality rate or to net income per bed. This implies that unions per se are not good or bad for hospitals. The authors suggest that it is better for hospital administrators to take a Balanced Scorecard approach and be concerned about employee satisfaction, patient satisfaction, healthcare quality, and net income. PMID:26652043

  15. Predictors of psychiatric disorders in combat veterans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most previous research that has examined mental health among Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) combatants has relied on self-report measures to assess mental health outcomes; few studies have examined predictors of actual mental health diagnoses. The objective of this longitudinal investigation was to identify predictors of psychiatric disorders among Marines who deployed to combat in Iraq and Afghanistan. Methods The study sample consisted of 1113 Marines who had deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Demographic and psychosocial predictor variables from a survey that all Marines in the sample had completed were studied in relation to subsequent psychiatric diagnoses. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to determine the influence of the predictors on the occurrence of psychiatric disorders. Results In a sample of Marines with no previous psychiatric disorder diagnoses, 18% were diagnosed with a new-onset psychiatric disorder. Adjusting for other variables, the strongest predictors of overall psychiatric disorders were female gender, mild traumatic brain injury symptoms, and satisfaction with leadership. Service members who expressed greater satisfaction with leadership were about half as likely to develop a mental disorder as those who were not satisfied. Unique predictors of specific types of mental disorders were also identified. Conclusions Overall, the study’s most relevant result was that two potentially modifiable factors, low satisfaction with leadership and low organizational commitment, predicted mental disorder diagnoses in a military sample. Additional research should aim to clarify the nature and impact of these factors on combatant mental health. PMID:23651663

  16. Connectomics in psychiatric research: advances and applications

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Miao; Wang, Zhijiang; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders disturb higher cognitive functions and severely compromise human health. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders are very complex, and understanding these mechanisms remains a great challenge. Currently, many psychiatric disorders are hypothesized to reflect “faulty wiring” or aberrant connectivity in the brains. Imaging connectomics is arising as a promising methodological framework for describing the structural and functional connectivity patterns of the human brain. Recently, alterations of brain networks in the connectome have been reported in various psychiatric disorders, and these alterations may provide biomarkers for disease diagnosis and prognosis for the evaluation of treatment efficacy. Here, we summarize the current achievements in both the structural and functional connectomes in several major psychiatric disorders (eg, schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and autism) based on multi-modal neuroimaging data. We highlight the current progress in the identification of these alterations and the hypotheses concerning the aberrant brain networks in individuals with psychiatric disorders and discuss the research questions that might contribute to a further mechanistic understanding of these disorders from a connectomic perspective. PMID:26604764

  17. Neuroimaging distinction between neurological and psychiatric disorders†.

    PubMed

    Crossley, Nicolas A; Scott, Jessica; Ellison-Wright, Ian; Mechelli, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    BackgroundIt is unclear to what extent the traditional distinction between neurological and psychiatric disorders reflects biological differences.AimsTo examine neuroimaging evidence for the distinction between neurological and psychiatric disorders.MethodWe performed an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis on voxel-based morphometry studies reporting decreased grey matter in 14 neurological and 10 psychiatric disorders, and compared the regional and network-level alterations for these two classes of disease. In addition, we estimated neuroanatomical heterogeneity within and between the two classes.ResultsBasal ganglia, insula, sensorimotor and temporal cortex showed greater impairment in neurological disorders; whereas cingulate, medial frontal, superior frontal and occipital cortex showed greater impairment in psychiatric disorders. The two classes of disorders affected distinct functional networks. Similarity within classes was higher than between classes; furthermore, similarity within class was higher for neurological than psychiatric disorders.ConclusionsFrom a neuroimaging perspective, neurological and psychiatric disorders represent two distinct classes of disorders. PMID:26045351

  18. Teaching Scholarly Activity in Psychiatric Training: Years 6 and 7

    PubMed Central

    Zisook, Sidney; Boland, Robert; Cowley, Deborah; Cyr, Rebecca L.; Pato, Michele T.; Thrall, Grace

    2013-01-01

    Objective To address nationally recognized needs for increased numbers of psychiatric clinician-scholars and physician-scientists, the American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training (AADPRT) has provided a series of full-day conferences of psychiatry residency training directors designed to increase their competence in evidence-based medicine, enhance their research literacy, and aid them in transmitting that knowledge to their programs. Method These conferences take place on the day before AADPRT's annual meeting. Each year's pre-meeting conference includes a series of morning plenary sessions covering new information pertaining to a contemporary clinical theme. Results The clinical theme serves as a vehicle to teach evidence-based practice and research and neuroscience literacy. The theme is carried into the afternoon with a series of highly interactive small-group teaching sessions designed to consolidate knowledge and provide pragmatic teaching tools appropriate for residents. A detailed report of the first 5 years documented the excellent attendance, perceived satisfaction, and usefulness of the material. Conclusion This report highlights the evolution of the program from the first 5 years to Years 6 and 7, details how new pedagogic and funding challenges have been approached, discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the revised format, and describes plans for the future. PMID:23475234

  19. Investigation of Borderline Personality Disorder among Nonpsychotic, Involuntarily Hospitalized Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sansone, Randy A.; Gage, Mark D.; Wiederman, Michael W.

    1998-01-01

    Clients (N=32) who were involuntarily hospitalized in a psychiatric facility were assessed for borderline personality disorder (BPD) using an interview and two self-report questionnaires. The majority (53.1%) met criteria for BPD on all three measures, 18.8% on two measures, and 18.8% on only one measure. Implications of these findings are…

  20. Effects of Assertive Training on Hospitalized Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiedler, Phyllis E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    This study focuses on reducing the hostility of hospitalized adolescent and young adult psychiatric patients through assertive training techniques designed to teach appropriate responses to interpersonal conflict. It was predicted that, after treatment, the assertive group would show greater assertiveness, less hostility, and a more positive…

  1. Residential Treatment and Hospitalization for Children: Practice Differences and Length of Stay. Florida, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugs, Deborah; Friedman, Robert M.

    A saturation sample of child and adolescent residential treatment facilities and psychiatric hospitals in Florida was conducted. A total of 128 facilities completed surveys, with a response rate of 51%. The majority of those who responded were from Child Caring (CC) facilities (55%), Hospital/Intensive Residential Treatment (IRT) facilities (25%),…

  2. Neurovegetative dystonia--psychiatric evaluation of 40 patients diagnosed by general physicians in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bombana, J A; Ferraz, M P; Mari, J J

    1997-11-01

    The diagnosis of neurovegetative dystonia (NVD) is commonly made by general physicians in Brazil, but its precise meaning is unclear. Anecdotal evidence suggests that it is used to describe patients with a wide range of psychological and physical symptoms and is often used pejoratively, in a similar way to "crocks" in the USA. Forty patients who had been diagnosed as having NVD by general physicians working in a triage department of a general public hospital were compared with 40 non-NVD patients, matched for age and gender, from the same department. Patients were evaluated by a psychiatrist who was blind to the diagnosis that had been made. The assessment included a structured sociodemographic questionnaire, the Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS), and a routine psychiatric interview using DSM-III-R criteria. Using the CIS, the "reported symptoms" that most distinguished NVD patients from controls were somatic and anxiety, whereas for "manifest abnormality" NVD patients displayed more anxiety, histrionic behavior, hypochondriasis, and depressive thoughts. A total of 92.5% of NVD patients received diagnoses using DSM-III-R criteria compared to 37.5% of controls. The relative risk of NVD patients subsequently receiving a psychiatric disorder was 8.3 (95% CI = 2.5-43.1, p < 0.001). Although general physicians correctly identify most patients with psychiatric disorder they miss many others. Furthermore, they use an obsolete diagnostic category which has no psychiatric currency. Medical students and residents need better psychiatric training so that they can correctly identify patients in general medical settings who are suffering from mental disorders and make a diagnosis using accepted psychiatric terminology. PMID:9394265

  3. The essence of psychiatric nursing: redefining nurses' identity through moral dialogue about reducing the use of coercion and restraint.

    PubMed

    Landeweer, Elleke G M; Abma, Tineke A; Widdershoven, Guy A M

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we focus on core values of psychiatric nurses in relation to coercion and constraint. We analyze changes that took place in a project aiming at reducing coercion at a closed inpatient ward of a psychiatric hospital. Using the philosophy of Hans-Georg Gadamer and Margaret Urban Walker, we analyze both the process of moral changes through dialogue and the outcome in terms of new identities and moral responsibilities. We conclude that the project stimulated nurses to redefine their roles and develop a deeper intersubjective understanding of core values of their profession. PMID:21068547

  4. Rethinking Adolescent Inpatient Psychiatric Care: The Importance of Integrated Interventions for Suicidal Youth With Substance Use Problems

    PubMed Central

    McManama O'Brien, Kimberly H.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents psychiatrically hospitalized following a suicide attempt are at high risk for a repeat attempt or suicide completion, and substance use is consistently implicated as a risk factor for continued suicidal behavior in adolescents. Despite this knowledge, there have been few studies that have investigated the effectiveness of combined suicidality and substance use interventions within acute psychiatric care settings for suicidal youth with substance use problems. While social workers are well-positioned to deliver such interventions, greater emphasis on teaching integrated therapeutic techniques in social work curriculum and professional training is needed to ensure their implementation. PMID:26674510

  5. Dorset Days

    E-print Network

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2015-06-16

    away. From my teens I had the idea that I would try to construct an ‘archive’ of my life and perhaps that of my relatives. So I hoarded toys, photographs, letters, writings, anything I could. This desire to hold on to the past is shown in an essay... he came to meet me in Calcutta on my first trip to Assam and gave me all the change from every transaction. Or when we went on fishing expeditions and a fishing holiday together in my teens. And I remember wonderful days on the Croft...

  6. Vet Hospital 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    there appears to be a substantial difference in terms of EHRs implementation and adoption among hospitals with different organizational characteristics and by end-users in different job categories, little has been studied about the relationship between EHR...

  7. Effects of psychiatric history on cognitive performance in old-age depression.

    PubMed

    Pantzar, Alexandra; Atti, Anna Rita; Bäckman, Lars; Laukka, Erika J

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in old-age depression vary as a function of multiple factors; one rarely examined factor is long-term psychiatric history. We investigated effects of psychiatric history on cognitive performance in old-age depression and in remitted persons. In the population-based Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen study, older persons (?60 years) without dementia were tested with a cognitive battery and matched to the Swedish National Inpatient Register (starting 1969). Participants were grouped according to current depression status and psychiatric history and compared to healthy controls (n = 96). Group differences were observed for processing speed, attention, executive functions, and verbal fluency. Persons with depression and psychiatric inpatient history (n = 20) and late-onset depression (n = 49) performed at the lowest levels, whereas cognitive performance in persons with self-reported recurrent unipolar depression (n = 52) was intermediate. Remitted persons with inpatient history of unipolar depression (n = 38) exhibited no cognitive deficits. Heart disease burden, physical inactivity, and cumulative inpatient days modulated the observed group differences in cognitive performance. Among currently depressed persons, those with inpatient history, and late onset performed at the lowest levels. Importantly, remitted persons showed no cognitive deficits, possibly reflecting the extended time since the last admission (m = 15.6 years). Thus, the present data suggest that cognitive deficits in unipolar depression may be more state- than trait-related. Information on profiles of cognitive performance, psychiatric history, and health behaviors may be useful in tailoring individualized treatment. PMID:26175699

  8. Effects of psychiatric history on cognitive performance in old-age depression

    PubMed Central

    Pantzar, Alexandra; Atti, Anna Rita; Bäckman, Lars; Laukka, Erika J.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in old-age depression vary as a function of multiple factors; one rarely examined factor is long-term psychiatric history. We investigated effects of psychiatric history on cognitive performance in old-age depression and in remitted persons. In the population-based Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen study, older persons (?60 years) without dementia were tested with a cognitive battery and matched to the Swedish National Inpatient Register (starting 1969). Participants were grouped according to current depression status and psychiatric history and compared to healthy controls (n = 96). Group differences were observed for processing speed, attention, executive functions, and verbal fluency. Persons with depression and psychiatric inpatient history (n = 20) and late-onset depression (n = 49) performed at the lowest levels, whereas cognitive performance in persons with self-reported recurrent unipolar depression (n = 52) was intermediate. Remitted persons with inpatient history of unipolar depression (n = 38) exhibited no cognitive deficits. Heart disease burden, physical inactivity, and cumulative inpatient days modulated the observed group differences in cognitive performance. Among currently depressed persons, those with inpatient history, and late onset performed at the lowest levels. Importantly, remitted persons showed no cognitive deficits, possibly reflecting the extended time since the last admission (m = 15.6 years). Thus, the present data suggest that cognitive deficits in unipolar depression may be more state- than trait-related. Information on profiles of cognitive performance, psychiatric history, and health behaviors may be useful in tailoring individualized treatment. PMID:26175699

  9. Engram formation in psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gebicke-Haerter, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental factors substantially influence beginning and progression of mental illness, reinforcing or reducing the consequences of genetic vulnerability. Often initiated by early traumatic events, “engrams” or memories are formed that may give rise to a slow and subtle progression of psychiatric disorders. The large delay between beginning and time of onset (diagnosis) may be explained by efficient compensatory mechanisms observed in brain metabolism that use optional pathways in highly redundant molecular interactions. To this end, research has to deal with mechanisms of learning and long-term memory formation, which involves (a) epigenetic changes, (b) altered neuronal activities, and (c) changes in neuron-glia communication. On the epigenetic level, apparently DNA-methylations are more stable than histone modifications, although both closely interact. Neuronal activities basically deliver digital information, which clearly can serve as basis for memory formation (LTP). However, research in this respect has long time neglected the importance of glia. They are more actively involved in the control of neuronal activities than thought before. They can both reinforce and inhibit neuronal activities by transducing neuronal information from frequency-encoded to amplitude and frequency-modulated calcium wave patterns spreading in the glial syncytium by use of gap junctions. In this way, they serve integrative functions. In conclusion, we are dealing with two concepts of encoding information that mutually control each other and synergize: a digital (neuronal) and a wave-like (glial) computing, forming neuron-glia functional units with inbuilt feedback loops to maintain balance of excitation and inhibition. To better understand mental illness, we have to gain more insight into the dynamics of adverse environmental impact on those cellular and molecular systems. This report summarizes existing knowledge and draws some outline about further research in molecular psychiatry. PMID:24904262

  10. Hospital philanthropy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dean G; Clement, Jan P

    2013-01-01

    It remains an open question whether hospital spending on fundraising efforts to garner philanthropy is a good use of funds. Research and industry reports provide conflicting results. We describe the accounting and data challenges in analysis of hospital philanthropy, which include measurement of donations, measurement of fundraising expenses, and finding the relationships among organizations where these cash flows occur. With these challenges, finding conflicting results is not a surprise. PMID:23614267

  11. Tobacco use treatment in primary care patients with psychiatric illness

    PubMed Central

    Cerimele, Joseph M.; Halperin, Abigail C.; Saxon, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of smoking is higher in patients with psychiatric illness compared to the general population. Smoking causes chronic illnesses which lead to premature mortality in those with psychiatric illness, is associated with greater burden of psychiatric symptoms, and contributes to the social isolation experienced by individuals with psychiatric disorders. Most patients with psychiatric illness present initially to primary care rather than specialty care settings, and some patients receive care exclusively in the primary care setting. Therefore, family physicians and other primary care clinicians have an important role in the recognition and treatment of tobacco use disorders in patients with psychiatric illnesses. In this article we review common myths associated with smoking and psychiatric illness, techniques in implementing evidence-based tobacco use treatments, the evidence base for tobacco use treatment for patients with specific psychiatric diagnoses, and factors to consider in treating tobacco use disorders in patients with psychiatric illness. PMID:24808119

  12. Preventing suicide in jails and prisons: suggestions from experience with psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Pompili, Maurizio; Lester, David; Innamorati, Marco; Del Casale, Antonio; Girardi, Paolo; Ferracuti, Stefano; Tatarelli, Roberto

    2009-09-01

    Both among psychiatric inpatients and inmates of prisons and jails, suicide is highly prevalent with alarming rates. In many countries, there has been a call for action to prevent such deaths and to educate staff in the early recognition of suicide risk. A careful MedLine search was used to identify relevant papers dealing with suicide prevention in psychiatric inpatients. This paper reviews this research and the policy recommendations that have been developed for psychiatric hospitals in order to reduce the incidence of suicide in their patients. Results derived from this search indicated that these policy recommendations can be applied to suicide prevention in correctional settings, and it is argued that suicide prevention programs in correctional settings can benefit from the research conducted and the policy recommendations for suicide prevention in psychiatric facilities. In conclusion, the best practices for preventing suicides in jail and prison settings should include the following elements: training programs, screening procedures, communication between staff, documentation, internal resources, and debriefing after a suicide. PMID:19674240

  13. Frequency of ICD-10 psychiatric diagnosis in children with intellectual disability in Lahore, Pakistan & Caregivers Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Imran, Nazish; Azeem, Muhammad Waqar; Sattar, Ahsan; Bhatti, Mohammad Riaz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Association between Intellectual disability (ID) and psychiatric disorders in children & adolescents is well established but there is a paucity of published studies from Pakistan on this topic. The main aim of the study was to assess the frequency of ICD-10 psychiatric diagnosis in the hospital outpatient sample of children with ID in Lahore, Pakistan as well as to find out which challenging behaviors, caregivers find difficult to manage in this setup. Methods: Socio-demographic information was collected, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised & ICD-10 diagnostic criteria was used to assess children (age range 6 – 16 years) with suspected ID along with identification of behaviors found to be difficult to manage by caregivers. Results: 150 children were assessed with mean age of 10.7 years (males 70 %). Majority (72%) had mild ID while 18.7% and 9.3% had moderate and severe ID respectively. Thirty percent of children met the criteria for any psychiatric diagnosis, the most common being Oppositional Defiant Disorder (14%) and Hyperkinetic Disorders (10%). Verbal and physical aggression, school difficulties, socialization problems, inappropriate behaviors (e.g. disinhibition), sleep & feeding difficulties were the significant areas identified by the caregivers as a cause of major concern. Conclusions: Significantly high prevalence of ICD-10 psychiatric diagnosis in children with ID was found in Lahore, Pakistan. Support services for these children should be responsive not only to the needs of the child, but also to the needs of the family. PMID:26101476

  14. Psychiatric care in the German prison system.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to describe the nature of medical care within the German penal system. German prison services provide health care for all inmates, including psychiatric care. The reached level of equivalence of care and ethical problems and resource limitations are discussed and the way of legislation in this field since 2006 reform on federal law is described. Design/methodology/approach - The article summarizes basic data on German prison health care for mentally ill inmates. The legislation process and factors of influence are pointed out. A description of how psychiatric care is organized in German prisons follows. It focuses on the actual legal situation including European standards of prison health care and prevention of torture, psychiatric care in German prisons themselves, self harm and addiction. Associated problems such as blood born diseases and tuberculosis are included. The interactions between prison staff and health care personal and ethic aspects are discussed. Findings - The legislation process is still going on and there is still a chance to improve psychiatric care. Mental health problems are the major challenge for prison health care. Factors such as special problems of migrants, shortage of professionals and pure statistic data are considered. Originality/value - The paper provides a general overview on psychiatric services in prison and names weak points and strengths of the system. PMID:25758147

  15. Disorders and borders: psychiatric genetics and nosology.

    PubMed

    Smoller, Jordan W

    2013-10-01

    Over the past century, the definition and classification of psychiatric disorders has evolved through a combination of historical trends, clinical observations, and empirical research. The current nosology, instantiated in the DSM-5 and ICD-10, rests on descriptive criteria agreed upon by a consensus of experts. While the development of explicit criteria has enhanced the reliability of diagnosis, the validity of the current diagnostic categories has been the subject of debate and controversy. Genetic studies have long been regarded as a key resource for validating the boundaries among diagnostic categories. Genetic epidemiologic studies have documented the familiality and heritability of clinically defined psychiatric disorders and molecular genetic studies have begun to identify specific susceptibility variants. At the same time, there is growing evidence from family, twin and genomic studies that genetic influences on psychiatric disorders transcend clinical boundaries. Here I review this evidence for cross-disorder genetic effects and discuss the implications of these findings for psychiatric nosology. Psychiatric genetic research can inform a bottom-up reappraisal of psychopathology that may help the field move beyond a purely descriptive classification and toward an etiology-based nosology. PMID:24132891

  16. Psychiatric and Cognitive Functioning in Adolescent Inpatients with Histories of Dating Violence Victimization.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Christie J; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Spirito, Anthony; Thompson, Ariel

    2010-07-01

    The presence of dating violence victimization as well as its relation to psychiatric diagnosis and cognitive processes was examined in a sample of 155 adolescents hospitalized in a psychiatric facility. Participants and their parents completed semi-structured diagnostic interviews. Participants also completed self-report measures of dating violence victimization and cognitive functioning. Seventy-seven percent of adolescents who had initiated dating reported psychological, physical, and/or sexual abuse by a dating partner over the past year. Victims of psychological abuse alone as well as physical and/or sexual violence endorsed higher rates of major depressive disorder compared to non-victims. Physical/sexual dating violence victims also endorsed significantly higher rates of PTSD and alcohol use disorders, more frequent co-occurrence of externalizing and internalizing disorders, and more frequent negative cognitive biases, relative to non-victimized adolescents. Findings suggest that psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents with dating violence histories represent a subgroup of adolescent inpatients with a particularly serious clinical picture. PMID:20824193

  17. Nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Salín-Pascual, Rafael J; Alcocer-Castillejos, Natasha V; Alejo-Galarza, Gabriel

    2003-01-01

    Nicotine addiction is the single largest preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western World. Smoking is not any more just a bad habit, but a substance addiction problem. The pharmacological aspects of nicotine show that this substance has a broad distribution in the different body compartnents, due mainly to its lipophilic characteristic. There are nicotinic receptors as members of cholinergic receptors' family. They are located in neuromuscular junction and in the central nervous system (CNS). Although they are similar, pentameric structure with an ionic channel to sodium, there are some differences in the protein chains characteristics. Repeated administration of nicotine in rats, results in the sensitization phenomenon, which produces increase in the behavioral locomotor activity response. It has been found that most psychostimulants-induced behavioral sensitization through a nicotine receptor activation. Nicotine receptors in CNS are located mainly in presynaptic membrane and in that way they regulated the release of several neurotransmitters, among them acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. In some activities like sleep-wake cycle, nicotine receptors have a functional significance. Nicotine receptor stimulation promotes wake time, reduces both, total sleep time and rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). About nicotine dependence, this substance full fills all the criteria for dependence and withdrawal syndrome. There are some people that have more vulnerability for to become nicotine dependent, those are psychiatric patients. Among them schizophrenia, major depression, anxiety disorders and attention deficit disorder, represent the best example in this area. Nicotine may have some beneficial effects, among them are some neuroprotective effects in disorders like Parkinson's disease, and Gilles de la Tourette' syndrome. Also there are several evidences that support the role of nicotine in cognitive improvement functions like attention, concentration, and memory. Finally there are several strategies to deal with nicotine dependence, Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT), which are nicotine chewing-gum, transdermal nicotine patches, and nicotine inhalators device. Also some antidepressants like bupropion has shown to be effective in smoking cessation treatment. To know more about nicotine phenomenon would be important, because that will allow a more mature perspective about the damage and beneficial effects of that substance. PMID:15011738

  18. Indian – American contributions to psychiatric research

    PubMed Central

    Pandurangi, Anand K.

    2010-01-01

    The Indian Diaspora, especially in North America, is a visible force in the field of psychiatric medicine. An estimated 5000 persons of Indian origin practice psychiatry in the USA and Canada, and an estimated 10% of these are in academic psychiatry. Wide ranging contributions, from molecular biology of psychiatric disorders to community and cultural psychiatry, are being made by this vibrant group of researchers. This article is a brief summary and work-in-progress report of the contributions by Indian – American psychiatric researchers. Although not exhaustive in coverage, it is meant to give the reader an overview of the contributions made by three waves of researchers over a span of 50 years. PMID:21836715

  19. Alteration of sleep microstructure in psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Muzet, Alain

    2005-01-01

    Macrostructure describes the temporal organization of sleep based on successive epochs of conventional length, while microstructure, which is analyzed on the basis of the scoring of phasic events, provides additional important dynamic characteristics in the evaluation of both normal and pathological sleep processes. Relationships between sleep, sleep disorders, and psychiatric disorders are quite complex, and it clearly appears that both the macrostructure and the microstructure of sleep are valuable physiologically and clinically Psychiatric patients often complain about their sleep, and they may show sleep abnormalities that increase with the severity of their illness. Changes in the occurrence and frequency of phasic events during sleep may be associated with specific psychiatric disorders, and may provide valuable information for both diagnosis and prognosis of these disorders. PMID:16416707

  20. Childhood Maltreatment, Emotional Dysregulation, and Psychiatric Comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Dvir, Yael; Ford, Julian D.; Hill, Michael; Frazier, Jean A.

    2014-01-01

    Affect dysregulation, defined as the impaired ability to regulate and/or tolerate negative emotional states, and has been associated with interpersonal trauma and post-traumatic stress. Affect regulation difficulties also play a role in many other psychiatric conditions, including anxiety disorders and mood disorders, specifically major depression in youth and bipolar disorder throughout the life span. Exposure to traumatic events and interpersonal trauma in childhood is associated with a wide range of psychosocial, developmental, and medical impairments in children, adolescents and adults, with emotional dysregulation being a core feature that may help to account for this heightened risk. In order to understand how the developmental effects of childhood maltreatment contribute to emotional dysregulation and psychiatric sequelae, we review emotional regulation and its developmental neurobiology, and examine the research evidence of associations between childhood traumatization, emotional dysregulation, and psychiatric co-morbidities in children, adolescents and adults. PMID:24704784