0 Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner Clinical Courses Student Preceptor Guide Revised 1..............................................................................................................................................28 #12;2 TO: Psychiatric Mental Nurse Practitioner (PMH) Students, Preceptors, and Clinical Faculty Concentration Coordinator, Department of Advanced Practice & Doctoral Studies The University of Tennessee Health
This article is the first in a new column focusing on evidence-based practice (EBP) in psychiatric mental health nursing. The EBP movement was strongly influenced by a British epidemiologist, Dr. Cochrane, who advocated care based on randomized clinical controlled trials in the late 1900s. Although the majority of the EBP movement is directed toward developing clinical guidelines, the critical element
Michael J. Rice
This article introduces and defines the concept of primary mental health care, a model for the delivery of community-based, comprehensive psychiatric-mental health nurs ing care. The primary mental health care model incorporates professional role re sponsibilities, role functions, and intervention activities for psychiatric-mental health nurses at the basic and advanced levels of practice. Use of this model will enable psychiatric
Judith Haber; Carolyn V. Billings
The purpose of this study was to describe Masters entry nursing students' attitudes about psychiatric mental health clinical experiences; preparedness to care for persons with mental illness; students' perceived stigmas and stereotypes; and plans to choose mental health nursing as a career. A 31-item survey was administered to pre-licensure graduate nursing students who were recruited from a Masters entry nursing program from a university in a large city in the Midwestern US. Results indicated that clinical experiences provide valuable experiences for nursing practice, however, fewer students think that these experiences prepare them to work as a psychiatric mental health nurse and none plan to pursue careers as psychiatric mental health nurses. The findings support conclusions from other studies that increasing the amount of time in the clinical setting and adding specific content to the curriculum, particularly content related to the importance of psychiatric mental health nursing and the effects of stigma, may assist the profession's efforts to recruit and retain psychiatric mental health nurses. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of these strategies and to identify the best ways to implement them. PMID:25397970
Hunter, Lauren; Weber, Tayler; Shattell, Mona; Harris, Barbara A
The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of a small-scale study in which the decision-making process of adolescents who consent to psychiatric mental health treatment was examined. Sixteen (16) adolescents were interviewed about their decisions related to initial and continued treatment, along with their understanding of minor consent laws. Interviews were audio-recorded, and transcripts were analyzed through concept analysis. Findings are presented in the context of the decision-making steps and research questions. Most adolescents did not recognize consequences related to psychiatric mental health treatment and did not assimilate and integrate information provided to them about treatment choices. Adolescents disagreed with current minor consent laws that allow minors to consent to certain healthcare treatments without the required consent of the parent. Further, adolescents reported that a collaborative approach in making decisions about the adolescent's psychiatric mental health treatment was most facilitative of achieving the goals of treatment. PMID:22474581
Roberson, Anthony James; Kjervik, Diane K.
The National Association of Psychiatric Technology (NAPT), a non-profit organization, is the outgrowth of local and state organizations of psychiatric attendants, aides, and technicians who had banded together to improve their knowledge and skills and to demonstrate their competence to assume greater responsibilities in the care and treatment of…
National Association of Psychiatric Technology, Sacramento, CA.
For some time it has been known through the results of family, twin, and adoption studies that hereditary appears to play a significant casual role in many mental disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other mood disorders, Alzheimer`s Disease, panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, autism, dyslexia, and Tourette`s syndrome. The precise patterns of inheritance of these complex disorders have not been determined, nor have the relevant genes been localized or cloned. Because the genetics are complex and because there is also clearly an environmental contribution to behavior, we expect the analysis of the genetics of mental illness to be arduous and not quickly resolved. There are several compelling reasons to continue to focus our attention on uncovering the genetic factors for severe mental illness. Prominent among these are the implications for better treatment of mental disorders. The National Institute of Mental Health supports a wide range of studies on psychiatric genetic research. 16 refs.
Berg, K.; Mullican, C.; Maestri, N. [NIMH/NIH, Rockville, MD (United States)] [and others
Aim: Mental health professionals can contribute to generating a strong evidence base for policy and practice in psychiatry. An insight into their perception of psychiatric research is important for planning support strategies. This study explored healthcare professionals' perceptions of barriers, benefits and concerns about psychiatric research in a Singapore psychiatric hospital. Materials and Methods: Self-administered questionnaire was em- ployed to
Elaine Pek; Mythily Subramaniam; Janhavi Vaingankar; Yiong Huak Chan
Elder abuse may be defined as a violation of a vulnerable older person's human and civil rights. Psychiatric illness is an important cause of vulnerability to abuse, especially when it is comorbid with other risk factors, such as physical frailty, sensory impairment, social isolation, and physical dependency. Health care providers are likely to encounter elder abuse regularly, and therefore have an important role in its detection and management, and in the treatment of subsequent psychiatric illness. This article reviews the relationships between psychiatric illnesses and elder abuse and neglect, examines the psychiatric consequences, and discusses how these may be treated. PMID:25439645
Cooper, Claudia; Livingston, Gill
MSU College of Nursing Family Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner Option 2 Year Program 521 Theory and Research in Nursing 5 (5 lecture) NRSG 550 Advanced Health Assessment 3 (2 lecture; 1 Semester 2 - Spring NRSG 525 Family Mental Health Nursing I 6 (3 lecture; 3 clin lab) NRSG 531 Rural Health
Objective: To examine the relationship between psychiatric disorders and sexual behaviors among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. Adolescents in mental health treatment have been found to have higher rates of HIV risk behavior than their peers, but data concerning the relationship between psychopathology and risk are inconsistent and…
Brown, Larry K.; Hadley, Wendy; Stewart, Angela; Lescano, Celia; Whiteley, Laura; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph
MSU College of Nursing Family Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner Option 3 Year Program of Study Semester 1 - Fall Credits & Format NRSG 521 Theory and Research in Nursing 5 (5 lecture) NRSG 550 Rural Health Nursing 3 (2 lecture; 1 college lab) NRSG 555 Concepts of Family Care 2 (2 lecture) Total
Background Recently Bolivia has implemented a universal health system, but their mental health policy is still emerging. Objectives To investigate the current state of the mental health care system in Bolivia and discuss challenges for structuring a coordinated network of services that can effectively meet the needs of the Bolivian population. Methods This review was conducted by searching for scholarly articles through the databases Lilacs, Medline OPS, HISA and IBECS REPIDISCA via the search portal in the Virtual Health Library - NLM (http://www.bireme.br). Results Bolivia has a National Mental Health Plan that is intended to guide mental health promotion, prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of mental illness, but the resources for this area of health are limited. There are 1.06 psychiatrists and 0.46 psychologists per 100, 000 inhabitants. Information on psychiatric morbidity in Bolivia and the impact of mental disorders on the global burden of disease is scarce. Admission statistics reported by psychiatric hospitals in the country show that the main cause of hospitalization is substance abuse (30%). Alcohol consumption is responsible for 90% of these admissions, in addition to being a major cause of deaths in traffic and one of the main risk factors for domestic violence. Almost one in two women in Bolivia (47%) experienced some form of violence from their partner in the last year. Nineteen percent of women living with a partner reported being physically abused, while 7% were sexually abused by their partners. Isolated studies report that suicide rates are disproportionately high in Bolivia. Conclusions Although there is a shortage of epidemiological data in Bolivia, it is clear the impact of alcohol addiction in psychiatric admissions, domestic violence and traffic accidents. Violence against women and suicides are important issues to be tackled. Among the proposed strategies to afford human resources for mental health in Bolivia, “task shifting”, the delegation of tasks to non-specialists should be extensively adopted in the country to improve mental health care. PMID:24843384
Updated as of 8.14.2014 for AY 2014-2015 p. 1 APPLYING TO THE PSYCHIATRIC MENTAL HEALTH NURSE Mental Health Nurse Practitioner (PMHNP) program prepares graduates for advanced specialty practice with vulnerable populations and promote mental health across the lifespan. They work with children, adolescents
Chapman, Michael S.
Eighty-two of 83 mental health professionals, including psychiatrists, were surveyed to determine their attitudes and behaviors toward AIDS prevention and family planning counseling with psychiatrically ill female outpatients. Nearly all reported that information should be provided on AIDS and family planning. However, they reported that they had raised topics of AIDS with only 19% of patients and family planning with
John H. Coverdale; John F. Aruffo
There is a substantial body of literature pertaining to the role of the nurse practitioner. Research directed towards consumer satisfaction suggests that the care provided by nurse practitioners is perceived as at least equal to that provided by a medical practitioner. How- ever, there is a paucity of literature examining the nurse practitioner role in the psychiatric\\/ mental health field.
J. WORTANS; B. HAPPELL; H. JOHNSTONE
Psychiatric nursing, in various parts of the world, including regions of Canada, is recognized as a distinct nursing profession. In psychiatric mental health nursing practice, reflection is considered a foundational skill given the relational nature of nurses' therapeutic work. Communicating the significance of reflection for practice to students and teaching this intangible skill is challenging for educators. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore with psychiatric mental health nurse educators their views on how they develop reflective practitioners. Participants' perspectives and experiences in teaching reflective practice were captured in four themes: building the use of self as an agent of change, building skills of reflection/building the habit of reflection, building a bridge between theory and practice, and building a continuing reflective practice - from student to practitioner. Recommendations include a systematic incorporation of reflection into a curriculum and creating supportive learning environments that facilitate the development of reflective practitioners. PMID:23974046
Karpa, Jane V; Chernomas, Wanda M
Background: The ethics and human rights issues experienced by psychiatric-mental health and substance-abuse registered nurses (P-MH and SA RNs) and how disturbed they are by the issues are not known. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency of ethics and human rights issues experienced by P-MH and SA RNs and how disturbing the issues are to
Pamela J. Grace; Sara T. Fry; Gary S. Schultz
Many psychiatric/mental health nursing (PMHN) practices have been affected by old traditions and haphazard trial and error instead of by established scientific evidence. The purpose of this article is to explore and analyze the barriers surrounding evidence-based practice (EBP) in PMHN. I identify some strategies to overcome these barriers in an attempt to incorporate EBP within the framework of PMHN services. Barriers explain the lack of EBP in today's PMHN environment. The barriers identified in this research are: the nature of the evidence, the contribution of the psychiatric nursing researchers to EBP, the personal characteristics of psychiatric nurses, and organizational factors. While the barriers to EBP for PMHN practice are clearly apparent, the challenge, now, is to build up creative strategies through which psychiatric nurses are better able to provide EBP care as part of their everyday performance. Adaptation of a more dynamic form of EBP, increasing the number of PMHN researchers, conducting clinical research projects, choosing suitable journals for publication, training the psychiatric nurses about computer skills, integrating the EBP principles into nursing curricula, developing journal clubs, and offering organizational facilitators are essential prerequisites for the achievement of EBP in the PMHN field. It is no longer justifiable for psychiatric nurses to be deficient in knowledge and skill since the advantages of EBP for patients are well-documented. PMID:24502472
Alzayyat, Abdulkarim Subhi
Current psychiatric nursing practice remains grounded in tradition, unsystematic trial and error, and authority. Although some of the wisdom that has been passed down over time is questionable, it continues to influence nursing practice today. This state-of-the-evidence review examined features of intervention studies published between January 2006 and December 2010 in five psychiatric nursing journals; it compared findings with those from a previous study of comparable literature published between 2000 and 2005. The analysis included studies that evaluated strategies, procedures, or practices that promote mental health or prevent mental illness. Of the 553 data-based articles, 71% tested interventions; 54% were conducted in the United States. Intervention studies reflected psychological (38%) social (17%), and biological (1%) dimensions of the biopsychosocial model. Some studies involved two dimensions and 17% included all three dimensions. Studies involved nurses, students, or staff (15%), mentally ill (50%), or mentally healthy persons (35%) ranging in age from childhood through older adulthood. The 10 year review showed continuing progress toward increased dissemination compared to earlier years; less focus on nurses, students, and staff; an increase in international studies; and greater emphasis on holistic interventions. In this article, the authors note a need for more randomized, controlled trials and studies to compare effectiveness across interventions. PMID:23036061
Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Bekhet, Abir; Haberlein, Sara
Background Asylum procedures are known to be protracted, stretching to over ten years in many host countries. International research shows high levels of distress for asylum seekers. Little is known about actual psychiatric morbidity in this population, especially during the first few years postmigration. Methods The mental health status of two groups of asylum seekers was assessed: Group 1 (n?=?43) had arrived in Switzerland 2.9 (SD 1.1) months prior to assessment, while Group 2 (n?=?43) had arrived 15.5 (SD 3.2) months prior to assessment. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Symptom severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale), anxiety (Hopkins Symptom Checklist), depression (Hopkins Symptom Checklist), and pain (Verbal Rating Scale) were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Postmigratory factors such as German language proficiency and social contacts were also assessed. Interviews were conducted with the assistance of trained interpreters. Results Four out of ten participants met diagnostic criteria for at least one DSM-IV disorder. Groups did not differ with respect to psychiatric morbidity or symptom levels. Major depression (31.4%) and PTSD (23.3%) were diagnosed most frequently. The number of experienced traumatic event types was highly correlated with psychiatric morbidity. Conclusions Psychiatric morbidity in asylum seekers in the first two years after arrival is high, with no indication of a decrease in mental distress over time. Traumatic experiences seem to play a major role in morbidity during this time. Considering the magnitude of clinically relevant distress, a short psychological screening upon arrival with a focus on traumatic experiences may be warranted. PMID:22900706
Cyberbullying is an emerging issue within our society, particularly among adolescents. The phenomenon is similar to traditional bullying in that it is hurtful, repetitive behavior involving a power imbalance, often causing psychosocial issues. With the availability of cell phones, Internet, and video gaming systems, adolescents are constantly plugged into technology and therefore at risk of being a victim or a perpetrator of cyberbullying. Both physical and mental health problems can result from cyberbullying, which, in turn, can affect an adolescent's performance in school and other crucial areas of life. Legal action is an option, but many times the law is not clear. Psychiatric-mental health nurses are in a position to help educate children about resources to prevent or cope with cyberbullying in a way that will help not only the patients themselves but also parents, teachers, school administrators, and the community. PMID:21919428
Williams, Susan G; Godfrey, Alice J
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of irreversible dementia, continues to grow in prevalence as well as public health impact. Extensive research into the genetic etiology of AD has yielded knowledge of some genetic factors that are causative and other genetic factors that increase risk for disease. Consequently, the possibility of genetic testing in individuals with or at risk for AD is a question that nurses may be asked. Psychiatric-mental health (PMH) professionals are in key positions to influence the care of individuals who are considering the effect of genetic information on their health care decisions. Whether by working within interdisciplinary genetic counseling teams to provide direct specialty services or by developing skills to identify and refer individuals at risk for or concerned about their risk for AD, PMH nurses can play an important role in the health care of individuals and families experiencing AD. PMID:24124693
Schutte, Debra L
Background: Dual diagnosis (DD) refers to the coexistence of intellectual disability and psychiatric disorder. In order to provide individuals with DD with adequate care, it is essential for mental health workers to have adequate knowledge and positive attitudes. These may be achieved through proper training. Aims: To summarise the available…
Werner, S.; Stawski, M.
This paper provides an interpretation, based on the social systems theory of German sociologist Niklas Luhmann, of the recent paradigmatic shift of mental health care from an asylum-based model to a community-oriented network of services. The observed shift is described as the development of psychiatry as a function system of modern society and whose operative goal has moved from the medical and social management of a lower and marginalized group to the specialized medical and psychological care of the whole population. From this theoretical viewpoint, the wider deployment of the modern social order as a functionally differentiated system may be considered to be a consistent driving force for this process; it has made asylum psychiatry overly incompatible with prevailing social values (particularly with the normative and regulative principle of inclusion of all individuals in the different functional spheres of society and with the common patterns of participation in modern function systems) and has, in turn, required the availability of psychiatric care for a growing number of individuals. After presenting this account, some major challenges for the future of mental health care provision, such as the overburdening of services or the overt exclusion of a significant group of potential users, are identified and briefly discussed. PMID:20711755
Novella, Enric J
Objective: To explore staff perceptions of the successes and barriers to implementation of the psychosocial/psychiatric rehabilitation (PSR) model in the forensic mental health setting and identify staff supports needed for greater implementation. Method: A qualitative descriptive design was used and staff focus group data was analyzed using the constant comparative method. Results: All aspects of PSR are being implemented in the forensic setting. Barriers limiting comprehensive implementation include hospital processes and functions, legal components, client clinical presentation, staff attributes and interactions, and lack of resources. To foster greater implementation, employees require support to improve interprofessional interactions and acquire additional resources and education. Conclusions and Implications for Practice: Strengthening existing successes and addressing barriers identified will foster greater PSR implementation in the forensic setting. Adjusting the physical environment, streamlining documentation, shifting focus from security to rehabilitation goals, and adapting PSR principles to various levels of illness acuity and stages of treatment would enhance PSR implementation. A management focus on improving staff morale, self-care, peer support, team cohesion, and communication would limit burnout and increase successful implementation of PSR. Additional educational opportunities and ongoing training are suggested to support a unified understanding and sustained approach to PSR implementation in the forensic setting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25133626
Brown, Stephanie A; Lewis, Kent
This paper presents the delivery of mental health care to a sample of women living in Jimma, rural Ethiopia, and their access to mental health services. A total of 226 psychiatric charts were reviewed for women seen at Jimma University Specialized Hospital. The mental health charts included documentation ranging from one paragraph to a full note. No psychiatric chart recorded medication status, detailed substance abuse history, or a history of violence. Rendering appropriate mental health care for women requires concerted efforts by multiple stake holders. Using our results, we advance concrete and practical suggestions for improving women’s mental health in rural Ethiopia. We point out that the health care system needs to be responsive, allowing for change starting with gender rights, so that rural women have access to basic mental health services. PMID:23901297
Chemali, Zeina N; Borba, Christina PC; Henderson, Tanya E; Tesfaye, Markos
A society that values mental health and helps people live enjoyable and meaningful lives is a clear aspiration echoed throughout our Canadian health care system. The Mental Health Commission of Canada has put forth a framework for a mental health strategy with goals that reflect the virtue of optimal mental health for all Canadians (Mental Health Commission Canada, 2009). Canadian nurses, the largest group of health care workers, have a vital role in achieving these goals. In Canada, two-thirds of those who experience mental health problems do not receive mental health services (Statistics Canada, 2003). Through a gendered, critical, and sociological perspective the goal of this paper is to further understand how the past has shaped the present state of psychiatric mental health nursing (PMHN). This integrative literature review offers a depiction of Canadian PMHN in light of the intersections of history, gender, education, and quality of nursing work life. Fourteen articles were selected, which provide a partial reflection of contemporary Canadian PMHN. Findings include the association between gender and professional status, inconsistencies in psychiatric nursing education, and the limitations for Canadian nurse practitioners to advance the role of the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner. PMID:23710367
Psychiatric rehabilitation supports individuals with mental disorders to acquire the skills needed for independent lives in communities. This article assesses the potential of outsourcing psychiatric rehabilitation by analysing care farm services in the Netherlands. Service characteristics were analysed across 214 care farms retrieved from a national database. Qualitative insights were provided by five case descriptions, selected from 34 interviews. Institutional care farms were significantly larger and older than private care farms (comprising 88.8 % of all care farms). Private, independent care farms provide real-life work conditions to users who are relatively less impaired. Private, contracted care farms tailor the work activities to their capacities and employ professional supervisors. Institutional care farms accommodate for the most vulnerable users. We conclude that collaborations with independent, contracted and institutional care farms would provide mental health care organizations with a diversity in services, enhanced community integration and a better match with users' rehabilitation needs. PMID:24965090
Iancu, Sorana C; Zweekhorst, Marjolein B M; Veltman, Dick J; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Bunders, Joske F G
Almost everyone, at some point in life, experiences emotional and behavioural problems or psychiatric symptoms, but mental health services reflect only an orthodox medical model which emphasizes cure to the detriment of humanistic focus. Partnership in Coping is an emerging concept, based on recovery alliance theory, which emphasizes partnership to overcome such problems and symptoms. It is a collaboratively-integrated system that provides opportunity for own problem solving, while one's coping strategies are being empowered. This study was designed to ascertain how Partnership in Coping impacts mental health recovery. It paves the way for remedying problems inherent in the orthodox medical model approach which provide pathological perspective to the detriment of humanistic focus. The participants were 56 service users at the Federal Neuro-Psychiatric Hospital, Kaduna. The Professional Quality of Life Scale helped in selecting research assistants, while the Mental Health Recovery Measure was used in assessing the post-treatment behaviour of participants. The experimental group had Partnership in Coping during a 3-month clinical intervention period, while the control group only had medical treatment. The finding revealed that F (1, 56)?= 2268.750, P < 001. Thus, partnership enhances complete recovery from mental illness. This reality changes perception and frees people from stigmatization and hopelessness, thereby influencing service systems. PMID:20887606
Gandi, Joshua C; Wai, Paul S
The combined effects of minority status, specific ethnic group experiences (political, economic, trauma and immigration history), poverty, and illegal status pose a set of unique psychiatric risks for undocumented Latinos in the United States. Restrictive legislation and policy measures have limited access to health care, and other basic human services to undocumented immigrants and their children throughout the nation. However,
M. Carmela Pérez; Lisa Fortuna
Mental and behavioral disorders are common, affecting more than 25% of all people at some time during their lives. Mental disorders and their burden on society have increased dramatically. This scenario can be an opportunity for psychiatric/mental health (P/MH) nurses. Some literature shows gratifying experiences of care delivered by P/MH nurses, but that can also be a threat if, in a world with an economic dominance such as ours, we are not able to clarify our identity and effectiveness. One implication of this is that we need to identify the contribution of nursing to patient outcomes through nurses' independent, dependent, and interdependent roles. The authors stressed the importance of improving our accountability and fighting against invisibility to policy makers to prioritize the nurse-client relationship and identify our effectiveness. Based on some literature, the authors argue that clinical nurse specialists are in a better position than nurse practitioners to produce nursing-sensitive outcomes. PMID:21978801
Santos, José Carlos; Amaral, António Fernando Salgueiro
Before psychiatry emerged as a medical discipline, hospitalizing individuals with mental disorders was more of a social stigmatizing act than a therapeutic act. After the birth of the mental health disciplines, psychiatric hospitalization was legitimized and has proven to be indispensable, preventing suicides and helping individuals in need. However, despite more than a century passing since this legitimization occurred, psychiatric hospitalization remains a controversial issue. There is the question of possible negative outcomes after a psychiatric admission ceases to take its protective effect, and even of whether the psychiatric admission itself is related to a negative setback after discharge. This review aims to summarize some of the most important negative outcomes after discharge from a psychiatric institution. These experiences were organized into two groups: those after a brief psychiatric hospitalization, and those after a long-stay admission. The author further suggests possible ways to minimize these adversities, emphasizing the need of awareness related to this important issue. PMID:24812527
Loch, Alexandre Andrade
Psychiatric work can only be that ethical as the framework of a health-care system allows. Thus, the responsibility of the health-care elites to establish a sociopolitical framework that suits psychiatric ethics is discussed on the basis of a theory of the common good and of a philosophical and normative elite theory. "Mental health" is demonstrated to be part of a basic sphere of the common good which cannot be denied to any member of a society. The final section discusses which specific duties can be derived for health-care elites on the ground of the aforementioned conception of "mental health" as a part of the common good. PMID:24983581
This theoretical study addresses the education system for Psychiatric Nursing in an increasingly changing world of accelerated scientific and technological modernization. The objective is to discuss the pedagogy in Psychiatric Nursing, and its interface with the principles of the Brazilian psychiatric reform and national curriculum guidelines of nursing undergraduate courses. The theoretical foundation of the study consisted of constructs of the Brazilian psychiatric reform and national curriculum guidelines of nursing undergraduate courses and their relationship to factors constituting the pedagogy in psychiatric nursing. The study shows that it is not enough to identify technical issues regarding contents and teaching, didactic procedures, methods and pedagogical techniques; it is necessary to implement changes, using a new perspective and by daring to question the nature of knowledge and institutional psychiatric practices. PMID:20085170
Fernandes, Josicelia Dumęt; Sadigursky, Dora; Silva, Rosana Maria de Oliveira; Amorim, Aclair Bastos; Teixeira, Giselle Alves da Silva; de Araújo, Maria da Conceiçăo Filgueiras
This study examined characteristics and profiles of youth receiving services in 1 of Florida's Medicaid-funded residential mental health treatment programs--State Inpatient Psychiatric Program (SIPP)--between July 1, 2004, and June 30, 2008 (N=1,432). Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to classify youth, and 3 classes were identified: Children With Multiple Needs, Children With No Caregivers, and Abused Children With Substantial Maltreatment History. The results of LCA showed that Children With Multiple Needs experienced the greatest risk for adverse outcomes. Compared with youth in the other 2 classes, these children were more likely to get readmitted to SIPP, more likely to become involved with the juvenile justice system, and more likely to experience involuntary mental health assessments. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:24827018
Yampolskaya, Svetlana; Mowery, Debra; Dollard, Norín
their decisions differ, professional organizations such as the International Society of Psychiatric- Mental Health Nurses (ISPN) and the American Psychiatric Nurses Association (APNA) have made obvious choices. Additionally, the American Nurses Association (ANA... them as the logical network of providers on which to build a true health care system for the future. (American Nurses Association [ANA], 2010, p. 1). In its “Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice,” the American...
Stricklin, Suzanne Martin
Research suggests that Asian Americans underutilize mental health services but an understanding of the multiple factors involved in utilization has not been examined in a nationally representative sample. The current study analyzed data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) and examined 368 individuals with disorders to…
Le Meyer, Oanh; Zane, Nolan; Cho, Young Il; Takeuchi, David T.
In the language of the medical file, "complaint" refers to the symptoms and ailments reported by the patient. In this article, I draw on ethnographic fieldwork conducted between 2004 and 2007 in the mental healthcare setting in South India to argue that the typology of "complaint" and the dialogic exchanges involved in its production mark a far wider catchment area for the allegations and grievances that circulate between patient, kin, clinician, and observing anthropologist. I propose the notion of the register of complaint as a hermeneutic for grappling with the emotionally charged, interactional processes of accusation, arbitration, and reportage that drive clinical modes of inquiry and evaluation in the South Indian mental health encounter. Ethnographic case studies suggest that grievance and accusation command both a vital directive force and evidentiary role in the social, moral, and emotional work of psychiatric diagnosis. [complaint, diagnosis, kinship and family, emotion, PMID:22905438
Chua, Jocelyn Lim
This paper describes psychiatric mental health nurses' (PMHN) experiences of patient assaults within mental healthcare settings using a thematic analytical approach. The aim of the study was to explore and describe psychiatric mental health nurses' experiences of patient assaults. The major findings of the study related to the nature and impact of assaults and supportive strategies associated with violence perpetrated by patients against psychiatric mental health nurses. Perpetrator risk factors for patients include mental health disorders, alcohol and drug use and the inability to deal with situational crises. The injuries sustained by nurses in the context of the study include lacerations, head injuries, dislocations and bruises. Psychological harm has also occurred, including quite severe mental health problems, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. Protective strategies for combating negative consequences of workplace violence include practice of self-defence, social support and a supportive and consultative workplace culture with access to counselling services and assistance in all aspects, including finances. The paper concludes that while healthcare employers need to provide better support services to the healthcare professionals who are assaulted, the legal system also needs to acknowledge that assaults against nurses are a violation of human rights and violence should not to be tolerated as part of working in mental healthcare settings. PMID:25162186
Baby, Maria; Glue, Paul; Carlyle, Dave
Objective: In the Netherlands, patients with borderline intellectual functioning are eligible for specialized mental health care. This offers the unique possibility to examine the mix of psychiatric disorders in patients who, in other countries, are treated in regular outpatient mental health care clinics. Our study sought to examine the rates of all main Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, Axis I psychiatric diagnoses in outpatients with borderline intellectual functioning of 2 specialized regional psychiatric outpatient departments and to compare these with rates of the same disorders in outpatients from regular mental health care (RMHC) and outpatients with mild intellectual disabilities (IDs). Method: Our study was a cross-sectional, anonymized medical chart review. All participants were patients from the Dutch regional mental health care provider Rivierduinen. Diagnoses of patients with borderline intellectual functioning (borderline intellectual functioning group; n = 235) were compared with diagnoses of patients from RMHC (RMHC group; n = 1026) and patients with mild ID (mild ID group; n = 152). Results: Compared with the RMHC group, psychotic and major depressive disorders were less common in the borderline intellectual functioning group, while posttraumatic stress disorder and V codes were more common. Compared with the mild ID group, psychotic disorders were significantly less common. Conclusion: Mental health problems in people with borderline intellectual functioning may not be well addressed in general psychiatry, or by standard psychiatry for patients with ID. Specific attention to this group in clinical practice and research may be warranted lest they fall between 2 stools. PMID:25007114
Wieland, Jannelien; Haan, Sara Kapitein-de; Zitman, Frans G
Background Concordance and Shared Decision-Making (SDM) are considered measures of the quality of care that improves communication, promotes patient participation, creates a positive relationship with the healthcare professional, and results in greater adherence with the treatment plan. Methods This study compares the attitudes of 225 mental health professionals (125 psychiatrists and 100 psychiatry registrars) and 449 psychiatric outpatients towards SDM and concordance in medicine taking by using the "Leeds Attitude toward Concordance Scale" (LATCon). Results The internal consistency of the scale was good in all three samples (Cronbach's ?: patients?=?0.82, psychiatrists?=?0.76, and registrars?=?0.82). Patients scored significantly lower (1.96?±?0.48) than professionals (P?.001 in both cases), while no statistically significant differences between psychiatrists (2.32?±?0.32) and registrars (2.23?±?0.35) were registered; the three groups showed a positive attitude towards concordance in most indicators. Patients are clearly in favor of being informed and that their views and preferences be taken into account during the decision-making process, although they widely consider that the final decision must be the doctor's responsibility. Among mental health professionals, the broader experience provides a greater conviction of the importance of the patient's decision about treatment. Conclusions We observed a positive attitude towards concordance in the field of psychotropic drugs prescription both in professionals and among patients, but further studies are needed to address the extent to which this apparently accepted model is reflected in the daily practice of mental health professionals. PMID:22646974
The guidebook is introduced by general observations on the Scandinavian countries concerning history, social policy, medicine, mental health, and psychiatric diagnosis. Discussed individually for Norway, Sweden, and Denmark are the following areas: mental health programs and statistics; mental illness programs, regional, hospital, aftercare,…
Vail, David J.
A brief history of some of the work of psychiatric nurses within the American Nurses Association is presented in this article. Additionally, the authors identify the several efforts toward professionalization of the occupation of nursing that were made during the past half century. These efforts also spurred other clinical units within the American Nurses Association toward similar productivity. The development
Elizabeth Carter; Hildegard E. Peplau; Grayce M. Sills
Running Head: Mental Health and Welfare Reform MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG SINGLE MOTHERS Pennsylvania State University #12;Mental Health and Welfare Reform/2 MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG SINGLE that having a psychiatric disorder is associated with a 25 percent lower likelihood of working. Mental health
In the current study, the Objective Structured Video Examination (OSVE) was conducted to assess undergraduate nursing students' knowledge, observation, and clinical reasoning related to clinical psychiatric nursing competencies. The OSVE showed acceptable reliability and validity (Cronbach's ? = 0.714, r = 0.6, respectively). Students highly appraised the OSVE because it covered a wide area of knowledge and clinical skills; the examination instructions were clear, concrete, and easily understood; the sounds and pictures of the videos were clear; and the videos simulated real patients. The examination was fair, well-administered, well-structured, and well-sequenced. The OSVE reflected learned skills, it provided opportunities for learning, grades were clearly identified, and it eliminated personal bias. Overall, the OSVE provided a practical and useful experience. On the other hand, some students negatively perceived the OSVE as being stressful and requiring more time. [J Nurs Educ. 2015;54(2):87-95.]. PMID:25602587
Selim, Abeer A; Dawood, Eman
Background The objectives of this study are to examine the prevalence of disorder-specific mental health service use for mood and anxiety disorders, and relationships between helpseeking and age, sex, and psychiatric comorbidity. Methods The authors used Wave 2 data from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), which included 34,653 adults. Cross tabulations provided helpseeking prevalence rates for five anxiety disorders and three mood disorders by age and sex, as well as for individuals with and without comorbid anxiety and mood disorders. Logistic regression analyses explored the likelihood of helpseeking among younger and middle-aged adults in comparison to older adults. Results The prevalence of helpseeking was highest for panic disorder (45.3%) and dysthymia (44.5%) and lowest for specific phobias (7.8%). For each condition except panic disorder service use was most likely among middle-aged adults and especially unlikely among older individuals. Sex differences in treatment seeking favoring women showed only modest variability with age. Finally, the prevalence of helpseeking was generally lower among individuals without comorbid anxiety or mood disorders, and the hill-shaped influence of age on service use was attenuated in this pure group. Conclusions The results of this study highlight the highest prevalence of disorder-specific service use among middle-aged adults and women, and among individuals with panic disorder and dysthymia. For purposes of identifying groups who are in need of targeted efforts to increase service use, helpseeking was especially unlikely among people suffering from specific phobia, as well as among men and older adults. PMID:22065571
Mackenzie, Corey S.; Reynolds, Kristin; Cairney, John; Streiner, David L.; Sareen, Jitender
Despite its importance as a theory in the development of programs for populations with disabilities, social role valorization (SRV) has received relatively little attention in community mental health research. We present findings of a study that examined the relationship of housing-related SRV to community integration and global life satisfaction of persons with psychiatric disabilities. The housing environments and associated supports of a group of 73 persons with psychiatric disabilities living in a mid-sized city were assessed using the PASSING rating system on the extent that their housing environments facilitated SRV. In addition, in-person interviews were conducted to determine the levels of physical integration, psychological integration, social integration, and life satisfaction of study participants. Results showed SRV contributing directly to all three types of community integration. Psychological integration was found to mediate the relationship between SRV and life satisfaction. Implications of the findings are discussed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23658470
Aubry, Tim; Flynn, Robert J; Virley, Barb; Neri, Jaclynne
Florida Mental Health Institute, dedicated to research, training and program development for improving psychological wellbeing, has four main divisions: Aging and Mental Health, Child and Family Studies, Community Mental Health, and Mental Health Law and Policy.
U.S. Veterans who have served in the Afghanistan and Iraq wars have combat-related medical and mental health issues, notably posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury, but underuse health care resources. To better understand their health care needs, resource use, and facilitators and barriers to seeking health care, a literature review was conducted. The results suggest high prevalence of mental and medical health issues and disproportionate use of quantitative research design that lacked approaches to understanding the psychosocial, cultural, and contextual factors that affect help-seeking by Veterans. Strategies to increase the likelihood that Veterans will seek needed health care, gaps in the literature, and the need for further research are discussed. PMID:24530219
Nworah, Uchenna; Symes, Lene; Young, Anne; Langford, Rae
Many research efforts have demonstrated relationships between the experience of mental health volunteers and their attitudes toward mental illness. Questionnaire surveys were completed by adult volunteers in psychiatric and nonpsychiatric programs in order to assess general attitudes toward mental patients and to control for the potential effects…
Wahl, Otto F.; And Others
Published evidence indicates there is a growing prevalence of psychiatric illnesses on college campuses, and that approximately one quarter of students may be taking psychotropic medications. But attracting and retaining experienced mental health care professionals to college health settings is a challenging task. The psychiatric pharmacist is one…
Caley, Charles F.; Webber, Donna; Kurland, Michael; Holmes, Paula
Data are analyzed that describe the clinical work of 800 psychiatrists who practiced in one of 62 markets for mental health services in the United States during 1982 or 1983. Intensity of treatment (i.e., mean face-to-face treatment minutes per patient per month) ranges from a low of 107 minutes to a high of 368 minutes. Each of two multiple regression models accounts for 60 percent or more of the observed variation. Most of the variation in intensity of treatment can be accounted for with variables associated with the patient's severity or stage of illness and the type of treatment provided. Patients who fall on the midrange of the severity scale tend to consume the most treatment time per month. None of the economic variables were significant at any reasonable level. These findings have immediate implications for the development of more functional prospective payment systems for the financing of mental health care and for the longer-term debate over the nature of mental health services markets. PMID:3346172
Knesper, D J; Belcher, B E; Cross, J G
Aim: To assess the health-care needs of the patients with severe mental disorders. Materials and Methods: Patients with the diagnosis of a severe mental disorder (schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder, recurrent depressive disorder, major depressive disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder) were assessed using Camberwell Assessment of Need-Research version (CAN-R) Scale and indigenously designed Supplementary Needs Assessment Scale (SNAS). Results: The study included 1494 patients recruited from 15 centers. The most common diagnostic group was that of affective disorders (55.3%), followed by psychotic disorders (37.6%). The mean number of total needs as perceived by the patients was 7.6 on the CAN-R. About two-third of the needs as assessed on CAN-R were met, and one-third were unmet. On CAN-R, main domains of needs as reported by patients were those of money, welfare benefits, transport, information about the illness and treatment, relief of psychological distress, company, household skills and intimate relationships. On SNAS, the mean number of total needs as perceived by the patients was 7.6 of which 4.1 were met needs. The most common domains of needs as assessed on SNAS were those of financial help, medical reimbursement, psychoeducation, free treatment, certification of mental illness, flexible work/job timings, addressing the caregiver stress and legal aid. Conclusion: About two-third of the needs, of the patients with severe mental disorders are met as assessed using CAN-R. However, higher percentages of unmet needs are identified on SNAS. In view of the commonly reported needs, a change in the orientation of services offered to people with mental disorders is very much called for. At the government level, desired policies must be formulated to support the patients with mental disorders. PMID:25657456
Grover, Sandeep; Avasthi, Ajit; Shah, Sandip; Lakdawala, Bhavesh; Chakraborty, Kaustav; Nebhinani, Naresh; Kallivayalil, Roy Abraham; Dalal, Pranob K.; Sinha, Vishal; Khairkar, Praveen; Mukerjee, Divya G.; Thara, R.; Behere, Prakash; Chauhan, Nidhi; Thirunavukarasu, M.; Malhotra, Sameer
Patterns of reinstitutionalization following psychiatric hospitalization for individuals with serious mental illnesses (SMI)\\u000a vary by medical and psychiatric health care settings. This report presents rates of reinstitutionalization across care settings\\u000a for 35,527 patients following psychiatric discharge in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health system, a national health\\u000a care system. Over a 7-year follow-up period, 30,417 patients (86%) were reinstitutionalized.
Cheryl Irmiter; John F. McCarthy; Kristen L. Barry; Soheil Soliman; Frederic C. Blow
The concepts and management of mental health in Egypt are presented from the Pharaonic era through the Islamic Renaissance until today. Papyri from the Pharaonic period show that Soma and Psyche were not differentiated and mental disorders were described as symptoms of the heart and uterus. Although theories of causation were of a mystical nature, mental disorders were treated on a somatic basis. In the Islamic era, mental patients were neither maltreated nor tortured as a consequence of the belief that they may be possessed by a good Moslem genie. In the 14th century mental disorders was one of the four departments in Cairo's Kalawoon Hospital, a precursor of the place of psychiatry in general hospitals that was accepted in Europe six centuries later. The mental health services in Egypt today are described, and transcultural studies carried out in Egypt of the prevalence and phenomenology of anxiety, schizophrenia, depression, suicide, conversion and obsessive compulsive disorders are reviewed. The psychiatric services for children are in their infancy. Since 1983 the common and semi-accepted use of hashish has been joined by abuse by heroin and other substances. PMID:16342608
According to the societal reaction perspective, mental illness develops when symptoms are molded and imputed by societal reaction into a stable and organized social role. Individuals are thrust into the role by being labeled mentally ill. In contrast, the psychiatric concept assumes that mental illness is a disease. Its purpose is to order, predict, and control the symptoms of mental disease. This paper examines some social theories of mental disorder and compares the societal reaction perspective to the psychiatric concept.
Smith, Dorothy L.
Background Despite the increasing pervasiveness of mobile computational technologies, knowledge about psychiatric patients’ preferences regarding the design and utility of mobile applications is very poor. This paper reports on a pilot-study that involved 120 psychiatric patients in the development of a mobile application (app) that is being used for data entry into the Signature Project data bank at the Institut universitaire en santé mentale de Montréal (IUSMM), Canada. Participants were invited to comment on the ‘look and feel’ of the Signature App. Their input also extended the procedures for data collection. These suggestions may contribute to increased mental health literacy and empowerment of persons with mental illness receiving services at the IUSMM. Methods Participants were recruited to fill out a questionnaire on a tablet computer while waiting at the Emergency Room (ER, n = 40), Psychotic Disorders outpatient clinic (n = 40) or Anxiety and Mood Disorders outpatient clinic (n = 40) of IUSMM. Nine patients from each of these sub-groups participated in a focus group to review the results and to discuss how the design and use of the Signature App could be improved to better meet the needs of patients. Results This study (n = 120) indicated that psychiatric patients are clearly capable of using a tablet computer to fill out questionnaires for quantitative data entry, and that they enjoyed this experience. Results from the focus groups (n = 27) highlight that the app could also be used by patients to communicate some personal and contextual qualitative information. This would support a holistic and person-centered approach, especially at the ER where people acutely need to describe their recent history and receive emotional support. Conclusions This pilot-study has confirmed the necessity of involving patients not only in the testing of a new mobile application, but also as active contributors in the entire research and development process of a person-centered information and communication technology infrastructure. The input of participants was essential in designing the Signature Project computational procedure and making use of the app a positive and empowering experience. Participants also gave critical feedback remarks that went beyond the initial scope of the pilot-study, for example they suggested the addition of a client-clinician component. PMID:23890085
Using Psychological Reactance Theory, we examined the effects of 3 educational interventions on the appointment-related behaviors of offenders who were mandated by court to participate in psychiatric evaluations. A posttest-only control group design was used to determine the effects of type of information received on 120 probationers' preappointment requests for additional information, appropriate cancellation of appointments, and compliance with referrals.
Jogues R. Prandoni; Shavaun M. Wall
1 STUDENT MENTAL HEALTH POLICY Revised January 2013 #12;2 A. INTRODUCTION 1. Context Widening with a notable increase in the numbers of students with significant mental health difficulties entering HE the continuum from promoting positive mental well-being to working with students with severe mental health
Martin, Ralph R.
Background Unlike the widely used self rated health, the self rated mental health was found unsuitable as a proxy for mental illness. This paper analyses the relationships between the self ratings of physical health, mental health and overall health, and their association of with the objective indicators for physical and mental health. Design and methods The study is a secondary analysis of data from a nationwide representative sample of the non-institutionalized adult residents of Israel in 2003 that was collected via computer-assisted personal interview methods [n=4859]. Results The self rated physical health and the self rated mental health were strongly related to each other yet the self rated mental health was not related to chronic physical conditions and the self rated physical health was not related to mental disorders. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, those with positive self rated mental health had 93 times the odds of reporting positive overall health whereas those with positive self rated physical health had 40 times the odds of reporting positive overall health. Conclusions The self rating of mental health presents a qualitatively different dimension from mental illness. The self rated mental health is two times more important than the self rated physical health in predicting the self rated overall health Significance for public health The present study is an original study on the self rated physical, mental and overall health measures. Because of the wide range of associations with other health indicators, and the simplicity with which they are collected, self-rated health measures are widely used in large population surveys. The present study questions the automatic assumption that the self rated mental health functions as a proxy measure of psychiatric morbidity, and suggests that the self rated mental health is more closely related to subjective well-being. The results show that self rated mental health predicts self rated general health better than self rated physical health. PMID:25553310
Levinson, Daphna; Kaplan, Giora
This article reports the initial results of a prospective study on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the Dutch population\\u000a aged 18–64. The objectives and the design of the study are described elsewhere in this issue. A total of 7076 people were\\u000a interviewed in person in 1996. The presence of the following disorders was determined by means of the CIDI:
R. V. Bijl; A. Ravelli; G. van Zessen
Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) beneficiaries with primary psychiatric impairments comprise the largest, fastest growing, and most costly population in the SSDI program. The Mental Health Treatment Study provides a comprehensive test of the hypothesis that access to evidence-based employment services and behavioral health treatments, along with insurance coverage, can enable SSDI beneficiaries with psychiatric impairments to return to competitive employment. It will also examine which beneficiaries choose to enter an employment study under such conditions. Currently in the field in 22 cities across the U.S., the MHTS aims to recruit 3,000 SSDI beneficiaries with psychiatric impairments into a randomized controlled trial. This paper describes the MHTS, its background, and its process and outcome assessments. PMID:18407880
Frey, William D; Azrin, Susan T; Goldman, Howard H; Kalasunas, Susan; Salkever, David S; Miller, Alexander L; Bond, Gary R; Drake, Robert E
Student Services Department. Helping Students With Mental Health Difficulties. #12;#12;This document has been produced to assist staff in their dealings with students with mental health difficulties.1 It aims to: If a student is experiencing mental health difficulties there will often be warning
This paper presents the approach used by the Technical Assistance Center (TAC) of the University of Minnesota's Refugee Assistance Program in Mental Health for identifying successful and culturally sensitive mental health service delivery models. It divides these into four categories: the psychiatric model; the community mental health model; the…
Jaranson, James M.; Bamford, Pauline
As psychiatric facilities move toward a community mental health orientation, it appears vital to understand and measure this new ideological perspective. A valid and reliable 38-item Scale has been developed for this purpose. The Community Mental Health Ideology Scale very effectively discriminates between groups known to be highly oriented to this ideology and random samples of mental health professionals. Other
Frank Baker; Herbert C. Schulberg
Patterns of reinstitutionalization following psychiatric hospitalization for individuals with serious mental illnesses (SMI) vary by medical and psychiatric health care settings. This report presents rates of reinstitutionalization across care settings for 35,527 patients following psychiatric discharge in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health system, a national health care system. Over a 7-year follow-up period, 30,417 patients (86%) were reinstitutionalized. Among these patients, 73% were initially reinstitutionalized to inpatient psychiatric settings. Homelessness, medical morbidity, and substance use were associated with increased risks for reinstitutionalization. Despite the VA's increased emphasis on outpatient services delivery, the vast majority of patients experienced reinstitutionalization in the follow-up period. Study findings may inform efforts to refine psychiatric and medical assessment for service delivery for this vulnerable population. PMID:17763982
Irmiter, Cheryl; McCarthy, John F; Barry, Kristen L; Soliman, Soheil; Blow, Frederic C
Human experience in, health and disease, always has a spiritual dimension. pirituality is accepted as one of the defining determinants of health and it no more remains a sole preserve of religion and mysticism. In recent years, pirituality has been an area of research in neurosciences and both in the nderstanding of psychiatric morbidity and extending therapeutic interventions it seems to be full of promises. Sufism has been a prominent spiritual tradition in Islam deriving influences from major world religions, such as, Christianity and Hinduism and contributing substantially toward spiritual well-being of a large number of people within and outside Muslim world. Though Sufism started in early days of Islam and had many prominent Sufis, it is in the medieval period it achieved great height culminating in many Sufi orders and their major proponents. The Sufism aims communion with God through spiritual realization; soul being the agency of this communion, and propounding the God to be not only the cause of all existence but the only real existence. It may provide a vital link to understand the source of religious experience and its impact on mental health. PMID:23858257
Nizamie, S. Haque; Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq; Uvais, N. A.
This is the second of three lessons from Science NetLinks on mental health and human behavior. This lesson gives students an up-close, personal look at Bedlam, the world's first mental health asylum, and the kind of life and treatment that mentally ill people received before the 20th century.
Describes the clinical features of the most important psychiatric disorders in mentally retarded adolescents: mood disorders, psychotic disorders, severe behavioral disorders, personality disorders, anxiety disorders, and attention-deficit The impact of mental retardation on personality development is confirmed by the high psychopathological…
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing probability that the psychiatrist will, willingly or not, come into contact with mentally ill offenders in the course of their practice. There are increasing rates of violence, substance abuse and other psychiatric disorders that are of legal importance. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the rates of different mental disorders in 100
Yasser A Elsayed; Mohamed Al-Zahrani; Mahmoud M Rashad
... Makers Â National Center Homepage Children's Mental Health Language: English Espańol (Spanish) Share Compartir Childrenâ€™s Mental Disorders: A ... Developmental Disabilities Information For... Media Policy Makers Â Language: English Espańol (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...
Malaysia is a tropical country in the heart of south east Asia with a population of 24 million people of diverse ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds living in harmony in 330,000 km(2) of land on the Asian mainland and Borneo. Malaysia, which lies on the crossroads of trade between east and west Asia, has an ancient history as a centre of trading attracting commerce between Europe, west Asia, India and China. It has had influences from major powers that dominated the region throughout its history. Today the country, after independence in 1957, has embarked on an ambitious development project to make it a developed country by 2020. In this effort the economy has changed from one producing raw material to one manufacturing consumer goods and services and the colonial health system has been overhauled and social systems strengthened to provide better services for its people. The per capita income, which was under 1,000 US dollars at independence, has now passed 4,000 US dollars and continues to grow, with the economy largely based on strong exports that amount to over 100 billion US dollars. The mental health system that was based on institutional care in four mental hospitals at independence from British colonial rule in 1957 with no Malaysian psychiatrists is today largely based on over 30 general hospital psychiatric units spread throughout the country. With three local postgraduate training programmes in psychiatry and 12 undergraduate departments of psychiatry in the country--all started after independence--there is now a healthy development of mental health services. This is being supplemented by a newly established primary care mental health service that covers community mental health by integrating mental health into primary health care. Mental health care at the level of psychiatrists rests with about 140 psychiatrists most of whom had undertaken a four-year masters course in postgraduate psychiatry in Malaysia since 1973. However, there continues to be severe shortages of other professionals such as clinical psychologists and social workers in mental health services. There are a few specialists, and specialized services in child, adolescent, forensic, rehabilitative, liaison or research fields of mental health. In the area of services for women and children, as well as the disabled in the community, there are strong efforts to improve the care and provide services that are in keeping with a caring society. New legislation on these are being passed every year and the setting up of a Ministry for Women's Affairs is one such move in recent years. Mental health in Malaysia has been slow in developing but has in the past decade seen important strides to bring it on par with other branches of medicine. PMID:15276949
Parameshvara Deva, M
This is an account of my trips to Brazil in 2001 where I worked on a series of mental health projects with Brazilian colleagues. I first got interested in Brazil after I graduated from college when I was a Peace Corps volunteer in Northeast Brazil (Bahia state). After I got out of the Peace Corps I moved to Rio de Janeiro and went to work for United Press International (UPI) in their Rio bureau. I was UPI foreign news correspondent for a year and a half. Those years in Brazil were probably the happiest years of my life. Later on, after I became ill in the U.S., my Brazilian connection played an important role in my recovery. Raised in a Victorian family in a small town in the Midwest, and schooled in a traditional boarding school for boys and then at an all men's college, Brazil's lively Latino culture served as a healthy antidote for my tendency to be reserved and often depressed. My contact with Brazilians and Brazilian culture always beckoned me on. I maintained contact with my friends in Brazil and they stuck by me through my illness years. What seemed like my emotional and intellectual "excess" to me, was easily accepted by my Brazilian friends. I felt much more myself interacting with Brazilians and connected to a larger sense of self I developed in Brazil. I traveled to Brazil at every opportunity and made friends with Brazilians I met in the States. I initiated Portuguese classes at John Carroll University in Cleveland, Ohio in the early 1990s and then was invited to teach Brazilian culture to undergraduates. These appointments and my own resilience moved me past one depression and a dysthymia condition and into the wider community. I regained my confidence as a teacher, a role I had before and during the years of my illness. From this position, I organized a club for Brazilian students studying in the Cleveland area. After this teaching stint, I felt ready to pursue full time employment and began a job search that would eventually land me in New Haven at the Connecticut Mental Health Center. Since 1997, I've spent my vacations traveling and working in Brazil as an Outside Consultant on mental health projects with colleagues in Rio and Sao Paulo. In my travels I've been befriended and supported by adherents of a social movement, not unlike the U.S. Civil Rights Movement, that has struggled for many years to close Brazil's long-term psychiatric hospitals, create community-based services and expand the rights of mental patients. Now I see my Brazilian connection as part of my ongoing recovery. I see myself as having the opportunity to be a link between the mental health worlds of the U.S. and Brazil. I believe the two countries have much to offer each other when it comes to mental health. PMID:12653451
Little information is available concerning community-based interventions to treat the growing number older persons with severe mental illness. This study examined treatment efficacy of a specialized interdisciplinary geriatric mental health team (mental health geriatric interdisciplinary teams or MHGITs) for 69 older clients with severe mental disorders. Depression, life satisfaction, health, and psychiatric and medical hospitalization data were gathered. A decrease
Sherry M. Cummings
Mixed methods research is becoming more widely used in order to answer research questions and to investigate research problems in mental health and psychiatric nursing. However, two separate literature searches, one in Scotland and one in the USA, revealed that few mental health nursing studies identified mixed methods research in their titles. Many studies used the term 'embedded' but few studies identified in the literature were mixed methods embedded studies. The history, philosophical underpinnings, definition, types of mixed methods research and associated pragmatism are discussed, as well as the need for mixed methods research. Examples of mental health nursing mixed methods research are used to illustrate the different types of mixed methods: convergent parallel, embedded, explanatory and exploratory in their sequential and concurrent combinations. Implementing mixed methods research is also discussed briefly and the problem of identifying mixed methods research in mental and psychiatric nursing are discussed with some possible solutions to the problem proposed. PMID:21749560
Kettles, A M; Creswell, J W; Zhang, W
BackgroundGeneral psychiatric and forensic psychiatric beds, supported housing and the prison population have been suggested as indicators of institutionalized mental health care. According to the Penrose hypothesis, decreasing psychiatric bed numbers may lead to increasing prison populations. The study aimed to assess indicators of institutionalized mental health care in post-communist countries during the two decades following the political change, and
Adrian P. Mundt; Tanja Fran?iškovi?; Isaac Gurovich; Andreas Heinz; Yuriy Ignatyev; Fouad Ismayilov; Miklós Péter Kalapos; Valery Krasnov; Adriana Mihai; Jan Mir; Dzianis Padruchny; Matej Poto?an; Ji?í Raboch; M?ris Taube; Marta Welbel; Stefan Priebe
Although mental illness is a major suicide risk factor, some cases of suicide list no symptoms of mental disorder at the time of death. Studying suicides without psychiatric illness has important implications for social work because this group's service needs seem to have been overlooked. The authors of this article conducted a psychological autopsy study of 150 people who committed suicide and 150 age- and gender-matched living controls. Suicides without psychiatric illness showed similar detectable psychopathology as the suicide and living control groups with nonpsychotic psychiatric disorders. Though suicides without psychiatric disorders showed fewer warning signs that could be noticed by their informants, they experienced more negative life events than living controls. The suicide cases without psychiatric illness also seemed to be less protected by enabling factors (such as social support and employment) than living controls with and without psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, they had lower use of services than the control and deceased-with-diagnosis groups. With fewer at-risk signs and poorer enabling resources, they were undetected or unengaged by the existing physical, psychiatric, and psychosocial services. This group should be of concern to social workers, who may develop community-based health education programs and preventive services to meet this vulnerable population's psychosocial needs. PMID:25643577
Law, Yik Wa; Wong, Paul W C; Yip, Paul S F
In this chapter, the relation between religion and mental health and vice versa has been described. From primitive times different religions have different beliefs and systems of worshipping. Every religion with their belief system has implications on mental health and illness. We described how Hindu system of beliefs and rituals may have an effect in causation of various mental illnesses. It is also described how religion can help an individual to sustain one's life in various domains. The relationship between different religion and symptomatology is described. The impact and outcome of religion on mental health have been highlighted. PMID:23858253
Behere, Prakash B.; Das, Anweshak; Yadav, Richa; Behere, Aniruddh P.
Critical reasons for frustration and circularity in the formulation and implementation of mental health policy are analyzed. The primary reason proposed is the lack of equal, systematic and structurally-reinforced participation of mental health services consumers and their communities in the planning and implementing of policy and programs. This…
Bartee, Edwin M.; Kelly, Jacquelyn M.
The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure
Evelyn J Bromet
This document contains 19 papers from the ninth World Conference of Therapeutic Communities (TCs) that deal with the interface between the mental health establishments and the TC. Papers include: (1) "Psychiatry and the TC" (Jerome Jaffe); (2) "The Chemical Brain" (Sidney Cohen); (3) "Where Does the TC Fail?" (Ab Koster); (4) "Psychiatric Severity…
Acampora, Alfonso P., Ed.; Nebelkopf, Ethan, Ed.
Researchers indicate that the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in the Arab region is similar to that found in other parts of the world. Women, in particular, are more likely to suffer various disorders including depression, anxiety disorders, somatization, and eating disorders. In this article, the author highlights some of the research on the mental health needs of Arab women. Consideration
This article explores lived experiences and insights of five people with long-term "mental health problems", focusing on their search for employment in a disabling society. In our qualitative, inductive analysis we investigate why it seems almost impossible to attain a status as respected adult workers. We present five central findings: (1) losing…
Roets, Griet; Kristiansen, Kristjana; Van Hove, Geert; Vanderplasschen, Wouter
This research explores the experiences of mental illness stigma in 24 youth (58.3% male, 13-24 years, 75% Latino) in psychiatric outpatient treatment. Using Link and Phelan's (2001) model of stigmatization, we conducted thematic analysis of the interview texts, examining experiences of stigma at individual and structural levels, in addition to the…
Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.
Introduction: Husband working abroad may have not only favorable outcomes for wives and other family members but also adverse consequences, including psychological problems. Present study intended to look into psychiatric morbidity profiles of the Nepalese female psychiatric patients and the stressors related with their husband working abroad. Materials and Methods: This is a hospital-based descriptive study with convenient sampling method. Hundred consecutive female psychiatric patients, with the particular stressor, coming into the contact of the investigating team were enrolled within the study period of 12 months. The psychiatric morbidities/diagnoses were sorted out according to the International classification of disease and infirmity, 10th edition (ICD-10) criteria. Results: Average age of the enrolled cases was 29 years. Nearly half of the women were illiterate or barely literate. Some other stressors, besides the one of husband working abroad were found to precipitate the illness in about 60%, main being relational and health problems. Common presenting complaints were mood, anxiety, and physical symptoms. Almost 30% of the subjects had some mental illness in their past too and similar proportion had in their blood relatives. About one-third admitted to use substances, mainly alcohol and cigarettes. The common psychiatric diagnoses were mood, anxiety, neurotic, and stress-related disorders. Nearly 10% had presented for suicide attempt. Conclusions: The status of husband working abroad may have adverse consequences in mental health of women. Mood affect, anxiety, and stress-related disorders are common psychiatric illness among them.
Shakya, Dhana Ratna
CSMH NEWS AND RESOURCES Typical or Troubled?Â® School Mental Health Education Program Sponsored by the American Psychiatric Foundation (APF), Typical or Troubled?Â® is a school mental health education program their teen's mental health and how to support their mental health and emotional well-being. There are two
Weber, David J.
E-mental health refers to the use of telecommunication and information technology in mental health services. In Greece, ordinary telephone communications have been used to provide mental health services, such as a psychiatric crisis intervention line (METB). E-psychiatry is a relatively new approach to delivering psychiatric services through the Internet. We have developed an e-psychiatry Website, Glaucopis-net. The main objective is to provide information on a broad range of psychiatric conditions, such as dementia, depression and anxiety. Email mental health services will be offered as an alternative way of accessing help. Confidentiality issues concerning patient records and personal data will be treated in accordance with Greek legislation. Glaucopis-net will integrate new telecommunication and information services with classical mental health services. PMID:12217134
Lambousis, E; Politis, A; Markidis, M; Christodoulou, G N
Proposed changes to the Mental Health legislation in England and Wales have been identified as having significant impact upon both mental health service delivery and professional roles. The authors explore how changes to mental health law translate to clinical practice. Additionally, this presentation aims to inform not only clinicians but also health organizations and educational institutes providing mental health law
John Hurley; Paul Linsley
This site is an excellent resource for anyone seeking the latest issues surrounding mental health topics. It is designed and maintained by Clinical Psychologists and is "dedicated to educating the public about mental health, wellness, and family and relationship issues and concerns." In existence since 1995, the site provides featured topics, essays and articles, as well as latest news sections. In addition to these tools, weblogs, podcasts, and a questions and answers section are available. This site will be a valuable resource for any student, instructor or professional in the mental health field.
The perinatal period provides an important window into a woman's long-term health. Perinatal mental illness is a common condition conferring potential serious long-term psychiatric and medical consequences for the mother and family. It is known that childbirth acts as a powerful trigger for depressive episodes in some women, and that women with histories of a mood disorder are particularly vulnerable. Some evidence links perinatal mental illness with obstetrical complications and reduced lactation initiation and duration. Therefore, perinatal mental illness may be a marker for long-term risk, and may contribute directly to subsequent cardiometabolic disease through both neuroendocrine mechanisms and the effects of mental illness on health behaviours. In clinical practice, these associations underscore the importance of screening and treating women with perinatal mental illness to ensure best possible long-term outcomes. Early screening and treatment may both mitigate the primary disease process and reduce the risk of comorbid medical conditions. PMID:24063973
Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Stuebe, Alison
Mental Health and Mass Violence Evidence-Based Early Psychological Intervention for Victims Institute of Mental Health (2002). Mental Health and Mass Violence: Evidence-Based Early Psychological are available through: The National Institute of Mental Health Office of Communications and Public Liaison 6001
Baker, Chris I.
This document contains statistics on mental illness and organized mental health service delivery systems. Data sources cited include the National Institute of Mental Health, state mental health agencies, universities in the Epidemiological Catchment Area program, the National Center for Health Statistics, and the National Association of State…
Taube, Carl A., Ed.; Barrett, Sally A., Ed.
Mental Health Matters is a collection of various mental health articles which cover topics such as psychological disorders and treatments for mental illnesses. The site is easy to navigate and users can choose from disorders, symptoms, medications, and treatments. Once a visitor chooses a subfield from the homepage, they are provided with another set of choices which contain more specific information on the various main topics. The site is also designed so that users can search by disorder or category to find the appropriate information to answer their queries.
Purpose: Latino farmworkers are a vulnerable population who confront multiple threats to their mental health. Informed by the stress-process model of psychiatric disorder, the goal of this paper is to determine primary and context-specific stressors of poor mental health among Latino farmworkers. Methods: Structured interview data were obtained…
Crain, Rebecca; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Schwantes, Melody; Isom, Scott; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.
There is growing awareness of the mental health impact of all types of mass violence. The exposure of large population groups, mostly having no mental health problems prior to the exposure, and the subsequent development, in a significant proportion of the population, of a variety of psychiatric symptoms and disorders represent both a challenge and an opportunity for psychiatrists. There
R. Srinivasa Murthy
The operational psychiatric requirements for a comprehensive Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) on a permanently manned Space Station are examined. Consideration is given to the psychological health maintenance program designed for the diagnosis of mental distress in astronauts during flight and for prevention of mental breakdown. The types of mental disorders that can possibly affect the astronauts in flight are discussed, including various organic, psychotic, and affective mental disorders, as well as anxiety, adjustment, and somatoform/dissociative disorders. Special attention is given to therapeutic considerations for psychiatric operations on Space Station, such as restraints, psychopharmacology, psychotherapy, and psychosocial support.
Santy, Patricia A.
Many theories of mental health agree on the important role played by cognition. They differ however in how and by what process cognition influences mental health. Research in cognitive neuroscience directs our attention to 4 major points as relevant to theories of mental health: (1) monism as a framework, (2) issue of neural plasticity, (3) connection between mental operation and action system (i.e., the control of cognitive and motor activity is shared by the same neural connection.), (4) the issue of the unconscious. On the other hand, research in cross-cultural psychology indicates that cognitive process is strongly influenced by cultural values and norms. Thus, a valid mental health theory should account for all these components. The paper discusses cross-cultural differences in information processing, particularly contrasting East Asian and Western cultural contexts, which may have implications for understanding of mental health and suggests the doctrine of Morita Therapy as a possible integrated theory. It also critiques some therapy techniques on the grounds of both cultural psychology and cognitive science. PMID:12875224
This study investigated adolescents with a mental health diagnosis and their experience of stigma in schools. Forty adolescents between the ages of twelve and seventeen who met DSM-IV criteria for a psychiatric illness and who were prescribed psychiatric medication were selected. The Teen Subjective Experience of Medication Interview was used to…
Kranke, Derrick; Floersch, Jerry
One of the difficulties in the research has long been the issue of 'drift'. This theory suggests that the greater proportion of psychiatric admissions from poorer areas and higher levels of observed psychiatric symptoms is the result of inward migration which is prompted by poor mental health, either due to decreasing income or to 'disintegration' which means that people with
Students & Mental Health Resource Pack Produced by - www.rethink.org/at-ease/ SHEFFIELD EARLY is severe mental illness? 1.4 Treatment and prognosis What is mental health awareness? 2.1 Introduction 2 for students with experience of mental health problems 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Pre-entry guidance for students 5
1 Student Mental Health Committee Final Report University of California Office of the President: Report of the University of California Student Mental Health Committee On behalf of the Student Mental in December 2005, and was given a charge to assess 1) trends in student mental health, 2) how these trends
O'Toole, Alice J.
This volume, successor to the 1973 volume "Racism and Mental Health," presents a range of perspectives on mental health, prejudice, and discrimination. Contributors are of multiracial, multiethnic, and gender-diverse backgrounds. They use their existential experiences to analyze pressing mental health and mental illness issues. Contributions…
Willie, Charles V., Ed.; And Others
Background Relationships within acute psychiatric units between patient-level experiences and events and fluctuations in mental state\\u000a have rarely been examined.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim Data from a multi-centre service evaluation (11 units, 5,546 admissions) were used to examine mental state patterns and associations\\u000a with clinical characteristics, events and adverse incidents.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method During the 12-month evaluation period, nursing staff completed shift-level ratings using a new rating scale,
Ketrina A. Sly; Terry J. Lewin; Vaughan J. Carr; Agatha M. Conrad; Martin Cohen; Srinivasan Tirupati; Philip B. Ward; Tim Coombs
Providing affordable and comprehensive metal health services for those who need these services is a tremendous challenge for the helping professions. The demand for services across the nation exceeds the ability of the mental health community to provide them. This is especially true for rural communities. DeLeon (2000) reported that even though 25% of the citizens of the United States
DAVID L. FENELL; ALAN J. HOVESTADT
The need to help the emotionally disturbed is discussed with a focus on community mental health centers. Psychiatric services described are diagnosis, inpatient care, day care, outpatient care, emergency care, continuity of care and services, and care adjusted to age groupings ranging from infancy to adolescence. Aspects of the community goal of…
National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Rockville, MD. Center for Studies of Child and Family Mental Health.
The World Health Organization (WHO) has for long proposed the development of community-based mental health services worldwide. However, the progress toward community mental health care in most African countries is still hampered by a lack of resources, with specialist psychiatric care essentially based in large, centrally located mental hospitals. It is again time to reconsider the direction of mental health care in Africa. Based on a small inquiry to a number of experienced mental health professionals in sub-Saharan Africa, we discuss what a community concept of mental health care might mean in Africa. There is a general agreement that mental health services should be integrated in primary health care. A critical issue for success of this model is perceived to be provision of appropriate supervision and continuing education for primary care workers. The importance of collaboration between modern medicine and traditional healers is stressed and the paper ends in a plea for WHO to take the initiative and develop mental health services according to the special needs and the socio-cultural conditions prevailing in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:18458779
ALEM, ATALAY; JACOBSSON, LARS; HANLON, CHARLOTTE
In young adult life a large proportion of mentally retarded subjects develop psychiatric complications, both severe and mild, whose origin is undoubtedly multifactorial (biological and psychological). A series of 27 subjects (13 male, 14 female; mean age 27.6 years) with IQ ranging from 70 to 40 were studied in our Institute from 1994 to 1995 and followed up 1 and 2 years later. Paykel scale (life events), FACES III (type of family insight), MFFT and Watkin's test (cognitive styles) were used to evaluate all cases. We found that (1) minor disorders prevailed in mild and moderate mental retardation and severe disorders in profound mental retardation; (2) minor disorders were generally determined by psychological and environmental factors although biological ones may have an important role; (3) psychological factors prevailed in young adult life when the subject had to cope with relatively harder tasks, and (4) the prognosis is generally good if proper care is given. PMID:10026455
Molteni, M; Moretti, G
... emotional health can sometimes have emotional problems or mental illness. Mental illness often has a physical cause, such as a ... with family, work or school can sometimes trigger mental illness or make it worse. However, people who are ...
Women have undergone a revolution in their self-perception and their traditional relationships to work, money, marriage, and family. These social changes have implications for every aspect of women's lives, including their mental health. Because of the special problems and conflicts confronting women today, data need to be analyzed on policies,…
Towns, Kathryn; And Others
Mental health professionals have significantly underestimated the importance of lifestyle factors (a) as contributors to and treatments for multiple psychopathologies, (b) for fostering individual and social well-being, and (c) for preserving and optimizing cognitive function. Consequently, therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLCs) are underutilized…
The categorization of gender identity variants (GIVs) as “mental disorders” in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) is highly controversial among professionals as well as among persons with GIV. After providing a brief history of GIV categorizations in the DSM, this paper presents some of the major issues of the ongoing debate: GIV as psychopathology versus natural variation; definition of “impairment” and “distress” for GID; associated psychopathology and its relation to stigma; the stigma impact of the mental-disorder label itself; the unusual character of “sex reassignment surgery” as a psychiatric treatment; and the consequences for health and mental-health services if the disorder label is removed. Finally, several categorization options are examined: Retaining the GID category, but possibly modifying its grouping with other syndromes; narrowing the definition to dysphoria and taking “disorder” out of the label; categorizing GID as a neurological or medical rather than a psychiatric disorder; removing GID from both the DSM and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD); and creating a special category for GIV in the DSM. I conclude that--as also evident in other DSM categories--the decision on the categorization of GIVs cannot be achieved on a purely scientific basis, and that a consensus for a pragmatic compromise needs to be arrived at that accommodates both scientific considerations and the service needs of persons with GIVs. PMID:19851856
Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F. L.
A computerised algorithm was developed to predict child psychiatric diagnoses on the basis of the symptom and impact scores derived from Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires (SDQs) completed by parents, teachers and young people. The predictive algorithm generates \\
R. Goodman; D. Renfrew; M. Mullick
MENTAL HEALTH and INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS: What Educators Need to Know Ingle International cares about you and your students www.studyinsured.com #12;www.studyinsured.comMental Health and International Students: What Educators Need to Know Mental Health and International Students: What Educators Need to Know
Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation in Florida Final Summary of Survey, with the Program Office of Substance Abuse and Mental Health in Florida's Department of Children and Families (DCF). Background Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation (ECMHC) is an effective prevention and early
McQuade, D. Tyler
Students do not leave their mental health at the front door when they come to school. From wellness to serious illness, a student's mental health status is integral to how they think, feel, interact, behave, and learn. Decades of research and experience have laid a solid foundation and framework for effectively providing mental health…
Rossen, Eric; Cowan, Katherine C.
BACKGROUND: This article discusses the importance of screening students in schools for emotional\\/behavioral problems. METHODS: Elements relevant to planning and implementing effective mental health screening in schools are considered. Screening in schools is linked to a broader national agenda to improve the mental health of children and adolescents. Strategies for systematic planning for mental health screening in schools are presented.
Mark D. Weist; Marcia Rubin; Elizabeth Moore; Steven Adelsheim; Gordon Wrobel
The volume is reported to reflect the broad range of National Institute of Mental Health activities in areas of research, development of mental health manpower, and delivery of mental health services. Twenty papers examine, respectively, relationship of life histories and biochemistry of siblings and twins to schizophrenia, training of Navaho…
Segal, Julius, Ed.
The existing insurance coverage for mental health benefits provides incentives for hospital as compared with community care and reinforces a medical approach to psychological disability. Moreover, the structure of benefits favors the affluent as compared with the disadvantaged and provides little assistance for the community integration of the chronic mental patient. In considering mental health benefits under National Health Insurance we must be careful to avoid reinforcing these patterns. It is suggested that NHI include a mental health resource development fund intended for building a stronger network of community mental health care and that the pattern of insurance benefits under NHI be consistent with developing psychiatric services on a capitation basis. PMID:645997
BACKGROUND: In post-apartheid South Africa the organisation and delivery of mental health care is undergoing significant change. With the heritage of an under-resourced, fragmented, racially inequitable service, heavily reliant on chronic custodial treatment in large centralised institutions, this change is long overdue. New policy has set out a vision for a community-based, comprehensive, integrated mental health service. In order to realise this vision a review is required of the way in which care is currently delivered, or the 'process' of mental health care. To date, no national research has been conducted regarding process of care indicators in South African mental health services. AIMS OF THE STUDY: This study documents four public sector mental health service process indicators in South Africa: bed occupancy rates, admission rates, average length of stay and default rates. METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed to provincial mental health co-ordinators, requesting numbers of occupied and available beds in psychiatric inpatient facilities, annual mental health admissions, average length of stay (ALOS), and default rate in ambulatory care settings. The information was supplemented by consultations with mental health co-ordinators in each of the 9 provinces. RESULTS: The national bed occupancy rate is 83% (range: 63-109%). The national annual rate of admission to psychiatric inpatient facilities is 150 per 100 000 population (range: 33-300). The national average length of admission is 219 days in psychiatric hospitals, 11 days in general regional hospitals and 7 days in general district hospitals. On average 11% of psychiatric patients who attend ambulatory care services on a monthly basis fail to keep their appointments. DISCUSSION: Although the national mean bed occupancy is compatible with international figures, there is considerable discrepancy between provinces, indicating both over- and under- utilisation of inpatient resources. Admission rates are low, relative to developed countries, though comparable to developing countries. Low admission rates are associated with a range of factors including inadequate service provision, unmet need, inaccessible services, cross-border flow between provinces and custodial patterns of care. There is evidence of long periods of admission relative to international settings. There is also considerable diversity between provinces, with certain institutions continuing to provide long term custodial patterns of care. Default rates are low relative to international settings and past reports default in South Africa. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH POLICIES: In keeping with current policies there is an urgent need for local level evaluation and reform of chronic custodial care. The ongoing monitoring of process indicators is important in the transition to community-based mental health care. IMPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: Limitations of the data, and problems of collecting information on mental health care within an integrated health system indicate the need for further research in this area. There is also a need for further research into unmet need for mental health care in South Africa. PMID:11967461
Lund, Crick; Flisher, Alan J.
The built environment has direct and indirect effects on mental health. High-rise housing is inimical to the psychological well-being of women with young children. Poor-quality housing appears to increase psychological distress, but methodological issues make it difficult to draw clear conclusions. Mental health of psychiatric patients has been linked to design elements that affect their ability to regulate social interaction (e.g., furniture configuration, privacy). Alzheimer's patients adjust better to small-scale, homier facilities that also have lower levels of stimulation. They are also better adjusted in buildings that accommodate physical wandering. Residential crowding (number of people per room) and loud exterior noise sources (e.g., airports) elevate psychological distress but do not produce serious mental illness. Malodorous air pollutants heighten negative affect, and some toxins (e.g., lead, solvents) cause behavioral disturbances (e.g., self-regulatory ability, aggression). Insufficient daylight is reliably associated with increased depressive symptoms. Indirectly, the physical environment may influence mental health by altering psychosocial processes with known mental health sequelae. Personal control, socially supportive relationships, and restoration from stress and fatigue are all affected by properties of the built environment. More prospective, longitudinal studies and, where feasible, randomized experiments are needed to examine the potential role of the physical environment in mental health. Even more challenging is the task of developing underlying models of how the built environment can affect mental health. It is also likely that some individuals may be more vulnerable to mental health impacts of the built environment. Because exposure to poor environmental conditions is not randomly distributed and tends to concentrate among the poor and ethnic minorities, we also need to focus more attention on the health implications of multiple environmental risk exposure. PMID:14709704
Evans, Gary W
Objective: Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to…
Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.
Cytogenetic survey of 257 mentally retarded individuals. A cytogenetic inquiry was undertaken among 257 patients with mental retardation of two psychiatric hospitals. 25 patients show chromosomes anomalies (10%). We found: --18 trisomy 21 (Down's syndrome); --3 sexual chromosome anomalies: 47, XYY syndrome; 47, XYY/46, XY mosaďcism; 47, XXY, or Klinefelter syndrom; --1 partial delection of long arm of chromosome number 18 (46, XX, 18 q--); --3 translocations; 45, XX, t (1, 13) (p 36, q 11); 46, XX, t (5 p--, 18 p+) (p 12, p 11); 46, XY, t (9, 19) (q 21, p 18). We also found 9 large Y chromosomes (46, XY q+), 8 cases of variant chromosomes, 1 case with chromosomes associations..., we report a case of masculine Turner phenotype or Noonan syndrom. PMID:135524
Bourgeois, M; Bénézech, M; Tournier-Zerbid, N; Constant-Boy, M; Benazet-Rissou, J
A critical review of the use in New South Wales mental health services of the principles of psychiatric epidemiology to guide the setting of clinical priorities, resource allocation and outcomes evaluation
The development of mental health services in Australia and internationally is entering a new era. Due to landmark reports by the World Health Organisation (1996) and the Office of the Surgeon General of the United States, Dr David Satcher (1999) the area of mental illness has been given a much higher priority within health generally. In Australia the National Health
This project collects resources for studying mental health and stress issues with middle schoolers. Teens and stress Science NetLinks: The Laughing Brain 2: A Good Laugh Dealing with anger Stress-o-meter Look at each of the above sites. Choose one and read the content. Write a one-paragraph summary. Play interactive games and take quizzes. Keep a log of what you do. Tell which site you liked best and why. ...
Unfortunately, the term "infant mental health" can be confusing for some people because it may be understood as translating into "mental illness." Others may not appreciate that babies and toddlers have the capacity to experience complex emotions. The Guest Editors of this issue of the Journal explore the meaning of infant mental health.
Osofsky, Joy D.; Thomas, Kandace
This document presents timely statistical information on the nation's organized mental health service delivery system. Included are: (1) "Chronic Mental Disorder in the United States" (Howard H. Goldman and Ronald W. Manderscheid); (2) "Specialty Mental Health System Characteristics" (Michael J. Witkin, Joanne E. Atay, Adele S. Fell, and Ronald W.…
National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD.
Background The classical serotonergic psychedelics LSD, psilocybin, mescaline are not known to cause brain damage and are regarded as non-addictive. Clinical studies do not suggest that psychedelics cause long-term mental health problems. Psychedelics have been used in the Americas for thousands of years. Over 30 million people currently living in the US have used LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline. Objective To evaluate the association between the lifetime use of psychedelics and current mental health in the adult population. Method Data drawn from years 2001 to 2004 of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health consisted of 130,152 respondents, randomly selected to be representative of the adult population in the United States. Standardized screening measures for past year mental health included serious psychological distress (K6 scale), mental health treatment (inpatient, outpatient, medication, needed but did not receive), symptoms of eight psychiatric disorders (panic disorder, major depressive episode, mania, social phobia, general anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and non-affective psychosis), and seven specific symptoms of non-affective psychosis. We calculated weighted odds ratios by multivariate logistic regression controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, use of illicit drugs, risk taking behavior, and exposure to traumatic events. Results 21,967 respondents (13.4% weighted) reported lifetime psychedelic use. There were no significant associations between lifetime use of any psychedelics, lifetime use of specific psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, peyote), or past year use of LSD and increased rate of any of the mental health outcomes. Rather, in several cases psychedelic use was associated with lower rate of mental health problems. Conclusion We did not find use of psychedelics to be an independent risk factor for mental health problems. PMID:23976938
Krebs, Teri S.; Johansen, Pĺl-Řrjan
... or natural disasters such as hurricanes, are at risk of developing mental health issues. Dr. Sandro Galea : But we also know that people who are isolated- socially isolated- are at great risk of mental illness after these events. We know ...
Effects of the current global economic downturn on population mental health will emerge in the years ahead. Judging from earlier experience of financial crises in various parts of the world, stresses associated with rising unemployment, poverty and social insecurity will lead to upward trends in many national suicide rates, as well as to less readily charted increase in the prevalence of psychiatric illness, alcohol-related disorders and illicit drug use. At the same time, mental health services are being cut back as part of government austerity programs. Budget cuts will thus affect psychiatric services adversely just when economic stressors are raising the levels of need and demand in affected populations. Proactive fiscal and social policies could, however, help to mitigate the health consequences of recession. Evidence- based preventive measures include active labor market and family support programs, regulation of alcohol prices and availability, community care for known high-risk groups, and debt relief projects. Economic mental health care could best be achieved, not by decimating services but by planning and deploying these to meet the needs of defined area populations. PMID:21968374
Mental health is becoming a central issue for public health complex emergencies. In this review we present a culturally valid mental health action plan based on scientific evidence that is capable of addressing the mental health effects of complex emergencies. A mental health system of primary care providers, traditional healers, and relief workers, if properly trained and supported, can provide cost-effective, good mental health care. This plan emphasises the need for standardised approaches to the assessment, monitoring, and outcome of all related activities. Crucial to the improvement of outcomes during crises and the availability to future emergencies of lessons learned from earlier crises is the regular dissemination of the results achieved with the action plan. A research agenda is included that should, in time, fill knowledge gaps and reduce the negative mental health effects of complex emergencies. PMID:15582064
Mollica, R F; Cardozo, B Lopes; Osofsky, H J; Raphael, B; Ager, A; Salama, P
Background: The literature review shows that treatment compliance in child psychiatric practice is a multifactorial issue that includes parameters such as the type of problem presented by the child, the family’s functioning and the therapeutic team’s organization and functioning. Methods: In order to examine these parameters and their inter-relationship, epidemiological data from the files of 455 cases, representing the total
H. Lazaratou; M. Vlassopoulos; G. Dellatolas
Mental health and mental illness are mounting concerns in the United States. It is estimated that by 2020, mental illness will be the second leading cause of mortality in the United States. These rising rates have been attributed to a lack of access to mental health care, lack of knowledge regarding mental health treatment options, and stigma concerning mental health
Elvin Thomaseo Burton
The interface of women’s reproductive and mental health is an evolving area of psychiatric practice, necessitating familiarity\\u000a with psychobiological factors unique to women. The role of estrogen in particular has profound implications for the etiology\\u000a and treatment of women’s psychiatric illness, and has been reviewed along with the role of other hormones. Additionally, the\\u000a stress of specific life events such
Sermsak Lolak; Navid Rashid; Thomas N. Wise
Perspectives, provided by Mental Health Net, is a quarterly online magazine devoted to mental health. It features short (usually less than 2,000 word) articles about all aspects of its topic. The Vol. 1, No. 4 issue contains articles on Prozac, loneliness, and managed care, among others. It also includes a regular column on "Being Human." Archives are available at the site, as are submission guidelines. Mental Health Net is a well known "comprehensive guide to mental health online," with pointers to resources in the field, arranged by topic and resource type.
Background Psychiatric manifestations have been noted in patients with low serum vitamin B12 levels even in the absence of other neurologic and/or haematologic abnormalities. There is no literature on low serum B12 prevalence among Ugandans with psychiatric illnesses. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence, risk factors, and clinical manifestations of low serum vitamin B12 among psychiatric patients admitted in a Mental Health Hospital in Uganda. Method Using a cross sectional descriptive study design, 280 in-patients selected by systematic sampling were studied using a standardized protocol. Low serum vitamin B12 was defined as a level?240 pg /mL. Results We found a prevalence of low serum B12 in 28.6% of the participants. Absent vibration sense which was significantly associated (58.3% Vs. 26.7%: OR?=?3.84 (95% C.I. 1.18, 12.49); p-value?=?0.025) with low vitamin B12 was observed among 12 participants. Macro-ovalocytes present among 23 participants on peripheral film were significantly associated with low serum levels (73.9% Vs. 26.2%: OR?=?7.99 (95% C.I. 3.01, 21.19) p-value?0.0001). Factors significantly associated with low serum B12 levels included psychiatric diagnosis of schizophrenia (AOR 1.74 (95% C.I. 1.00, 3.02); p-value?=?0.049), duration of psychiatric illness?>?or?=?3 years (AOR 2.27 (95% C.I. 1.29, 3.98); p-value?=?0.004), and hospitalization?3 weeks (AOR 4.01 (95% C.I. 1.02, 15.79); p-value?=?0.047). Female participants were associated with protection from low serum levels (AOR 0.4 (95% C.I. 0.22, 0.73); p-value?=?0.003). Conclusion Low serum B12 is common among hospitalized psychiatric patients with the majority having no haematological findings. Associated risk factors included having a psychiatric diagnosis of schizophrenia, a shorter duration of hospitalization and longer duration of psychiatric illness. Female participants were less likely to have low serum vitamin B12 levels. Routine screening for serum vitamin B12 levels should be adopted by all hospitals for admitted psychiatric patients. PMID:24533701
The aim of this study was to explore Palestinian mothers' perceptions of child mental health problems and their understanding of their causes; to determine Palestinian mothers' awareness of existing services and sources of help and support; to identify professionals in the community whom Palestinian mothers would consult if their child had mental health problems; and to establish their views on ways of increasing awareness of child mental health issues and services. Checklists exploring the above issues were completed by 249 Palestinian mothers living in refugee camps in the Gaza Strip. Palestinian mothers equally perceived emotional, behavioural and psychotic symptoms as suggestive of mental ill health in childhood. Mothers perceived multiple causes of child mental health problems, including family problems, parental psychiatric illness and social adversity. A substantial proportion (42.6%) had knowledge of local child mental health care services. Overall, mothers preferred Western over traditional types of treatment, and were keen to increase mental health awareness within their society. Despite a different cultural tradition, Palestinian mothers appear open to a range of services and interventions for child mental health problems. As in other non-Western societies, child mental health service provision should be integrated with existing primary health care, schools, and community structures. PMID:16946953
Thabet, Abdel Aziz; El Gammal, Hossam; Vostanis, Panos
In recent years, the mental health community has made great strides in understanding more about the delivery of mental health services, improving efficiency and quality in services, and also about how to build strengths and resilience in the face of lifes stresses. This volume adds to the knowledge base so that the important task of system change…
Manderscheid, Ronald W., Ed.; Henderson, Marilyn J., Ed.
Lorna Jean King is interviewed concerning the present status of sensory integration as a treatment modality in the area of mental health. Topics covered are: use of sensory integration techniques with adults and adolescents in both chronic and acute mental health settings; goals and expected outcomes of using sensory integration techniques; cost-effectiveness of these techniques; differences between occupational therapy and
Barbara W. Posthuma
This paper offers tips for working with interpreters in mental health settings. These tips include: (1) Using trained interpreters, not bilingual staff or community members; (2) Explaining "interpreting procedures" to the providers and clients; (3) Addressing the stigma associated with mental health that may influence interpreters; (4) Defining…
Background The Mental Health Country Profile is a tool that was generated by the International Mental Health Policy and Services Project to inform policy makers, professionals and other key stakeholders about important issues which need to be considered in mental health policy development. The Mental Health Country Profile contains four domains, which include the mental health context, resources, provision and outcomes. We have aimed to generate a Mental Health Country Profile for Vietnam, in order to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the Vietnamese mental health situation, in order to inform future reform efforts and decision-making. Methods This study used snowball sampling to identify informants for generating a Mental Health Country Profile for Vietnam, and the data gathering was done through semi-structured interviews and collection of relevant reports and documents. The material from the interviews and documents was analysed according to qualitative content analysis. Results Marked strengths of the Vietnam mental health system are the aims to move toward community management and detection of mental illness, and the active involvement of several multilateral organizations and NGOs. However, there are a number of shortages still found, including the lack of treatment interventions apart from medications, the high proportion of treatments to be paid out-of-pocket, prominence of large tertiary psychiatric hospitals, and a lack of preventative measures or mental health information to the public. Conclusions At the end of this decade, mental health care in Vietnam is still characterised by unclear policy and poor critical mass especially within the governmental sector. This initial attempt to map the mental health situation of Vietnam suffers from a number of limitations and should be seen as a first step towards a comprehensive profile. PMID:20813036
What Is Why Is It Important? ? #12;What Is Infant Mental Health?2 What Is Infant Mental Health? What is infant mental health? Does the term "infant mental health" make you think of a baby on a couch telling his problems to a psychiatrist? So what is infant mental health? Infant mental health reflects
McQuade, D. Tyler
Public health systems have relied on public health surveillance to plan health programs, and extensive sur- veillance systems exist for health behaviors and chronic disease. Mental health has used a separate data collection system that emphasizes measurement of disease preva- lence and health care use. In recent years, efforts to inte- grate these systems have included adding chronic disease measures
Elsie J. Freeman; Lisa J. Colpe; Tara W. Strine; Satvinder Dhingra; Lisa C. McGuire; Laurie D. Elam-Evans; Geraldine S. Perry
Cognition November, 2013 Addiction & Mental Health Learning Events Information & Evaluation Services, Addiction and Mental Health, Edmonton Zone http://www.intranet2.capitalhealth.ca/regional%2. #12;Cognition November, 2013 Addiction & Mental Health Learning Events Information & Evaluation
The mental health profile of Bulgaria has been compiled and following analysis of both the factual findings and the process of data collection a report has been prepared. The subject of discussion in the paper concerns several major findings: the discrepancy between what the policy documents state and the actual situation in mental health; the organizational culture, which alienates; and the peculiarities of the process of change and how it is driven under political pressure from outside the country. Analysis extends to encompass the influence of the general health reform on the mental health sector, the deficits of the leadership and how they impact on the effectiveness of the system, and the interdependence between the country's economy and the health sector. A conclusion is made about the need to consolidate the public health approach using the lever of international collaboration in the field of mental health. PMID:15276942
Tomov, Toma; Mladenova, Maya; Lazarova, Irina; Sotirov, Vladimir; Okoliyski, Mihail
This paper correlates economic stress with minority status, resource allocations for mental health programs, and vulnerability to mental disability. Several hypotheses are advanced: 1. A major and recurring psychological pattern of the American national character is prowhite, antiblack paranoia. 2. Mental health fiscal allocations and programmatic determinations in ghetto, lower socioeconomic, minority-populated urban areas are predicated on political and racist considerations, the underlying motivation being to keep minorities at greater risk of mental disability. 3. Economic privation and stress increase vulnerability to mental illness, especially in a minority population for whom health, mental health, educational, and social services are grossly inadequate. 4. Poverty and economic stress combine with health systems that are unresponsive to the needs of blacks and other minorities, resulting in the perpetuation of disabilities and other conditions in blacks that are potentially preventable. 5. Health and mental health resources should be increased rather than diminished during periods of economic stress, especially in the public sector. 6. In order to provide each citizen with access to quality health and mental health care regardless of race and/or economic status, there must be enacted a national health insurance program based on tax-levy monies that will cover all aspects of health and mental health care. 7. Racism and social status will continue to be powerful determinants of the quality of service that white professionals render to black patients and to poor white patients, unless our training institutions mount a massive campaign to train appropriately and to include significant numbers of minority candidates and trainees in the effort. To date this effort is virtually nonexistent. PMID:439171
Butts, Hugh F.
In the United States, research directed specifically at improving our understanding of the psychiatric assessment and treatment of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) has grown, yet lags far behind efforts for typically developing children and adults. In the United States, a lack of a national approach to the mental health problems of…
Charlot, Lauren; Beasley, Joan B.
The mental health status of a group of 486 admissions to the Philadelphia Prisons was systematically examined in a carefully controlled study using multiple indices of psychopathology. In addition to measures of psychopathology, demographic information and descriptive personality and intelligence data were collected on all subjects. Subsets of subjects also received individual psychiatric interviews and psychological evaluations. The results indicate
EDWARD GUY; JEROME J. PLATT; ISRAEL ZWERLING; SAMUEL BULLOCK
This sourcebook contains 19 papers which discuss the mental health service needs of Southeast Asian refugees in the United States. The volume is divided into five sections: Treatment; Prevention; Services; Training; and Research. The papers (and their authors) are: (1) "Psychiatric Care for Southeast Asians: How Different Is Different?" (Tran Minh…
Owan, Tom Choken, Ed.
Prior research suggests that individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) have a disposition towards anxiety. Information regarding this is typically derived from parents and carers. The perspectives of the individuals with WS are rarely included in research of this nature. We examined the mental health of 19 adults with WS using explicit (psychiatric…
Stinton, Chris; Tomlinson, Katie; Estes, Zachary
Although many researchers have investigated emotional and behavioral difficulties in individuals with Williams syndrome, few have used standardized diagnostic assessments. We examined mental health problems in 92 adults with Williams syndrome using the Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with Developmental Disabilities--PAS-ADD (Moss,…
Stinton, Chris; Elison, Sarah; Howlin, Patricia
A literature review was conducted aiming to understand the interface between the Intellectual Disability and Mental Health fields and to contribute to mitigating the path of institutionalizing individuals with intellectual deficiencies. The so-called dual diagnosis phenomenon remains underestimated in Brazil but is the object of research and specific public policy internationally. This phenomenon alerts us to the prevalence of mental health problems in those with intellectual disabilities, limiting their social inclusion. The findings reinforce the importance of this theme and indicate possible diagnostic invisibility of the development of mental illness in those with intellectual disabilities in Brazil, which may contribute to sustaining psychiatric institutionalization of this population. PMID:25119948
Surjus, Luciana Togni de Lima e Silva; Campos, Rosana Teresa Onocko
in the definition and maintenance of mental health and "mental illness". We will be exploring what our culture and various cultures of the world have to say about mental health, mental illness, and treatment of mental illness. We will be addressing questions like the following: --What is a mental illness? Do different
Developed as a public service by the National Institute of Mental Health, this Web site contains a wealth of materials that will be very useful to mental health practitioners, parents, and those who work with young people in any capacity. First-time visitors will want to read the brief notes on the mental health of children and adolescents, as well as the section dealing with the treatment of children with mental disorders, which answers some basic questions about various disorders and psychotropic medicines commonly prescribed to treat these conditions. The Educational Materials section provides a number of booklets, fact sheets, and additional Web sites on such conditions as autism, depression, learning disabilities, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Researchers and health care professionals will want to examine the sections devoted to current research reports and multi-center collaborations, including the Child and Adolescent Research Consortium and the Child Abuse and Neglect Working Group.
School Mental Health: A Federal Perspective David Esquith Director for the Office of Safe Ingrid Donato Branch Chief, Mental Health Promotion, Center for Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) #12;Health Resources and Services Administration Maternal
Weber, David J.
While more than 800,000 people die from suicide globally each year, the median amount of the health budget allocated to mental health in 2011 was 2.8%. In Afghanistan, six out of every 100,000 men committed suicide. In the United States, that number was 19. These and other data can be gleaned from the age-standardized suicide rates interactive graph on the World Health OrganizationĂ˘ÂÂs Global Health Observatory website dedicated to issues of Mental Health. Additionally, the page provides links to reports on Policy and financing of mental health, Human resources (in terms of the number of psychiatrists available per 100,000 people in a given country), and Mental health care delivery.
As it approaches its 100th anniversary in 2009, the National Mental Health Association (NMHA) remains the countryâ??s oldest and largest nonprofit organization that deals with all aspects of mental health and mental illness. First-time users of their site will find that their homepage contains copious amounts of material related to their advocacy efforts, along with materials that deal with helping a loved one who may be suffering the effects of mental illness. The â??Need Info?â?ť area is a good place to start for these types of materials, as it provides access to information on treatment resources, support groups, and fact sheets. Visitors can also elect to sign up for one (or several) of their helpful email updates, which include work on related legislation, and mental health news coverage.
Objective: Psychiatric rehabilitation is an evidence-based service with the goal of recovery for people with severe mental illness. Psychiatric residents should understand the services and learn the principles of psychiatric rehabilitation. This study assessed whether a 3-month rotation in a psychiatric rehabilitation center changes the competency…
Randall, Melinda; Romero-Gonzalez, Mauricio; Gonzalez, Gerardo; Klee, Anne; Kirwin, Paul
... A Guide for Latinos and their families. Latino Mental Health Video - English View the Video in Spanish Cultural ... Latinos with mental illness often go without professional mental health treatment. At-Risk Groups Studies have shown that ...
Rural schools often can not provide the same access to mental health service as schools in larger population areas can.. Understanding the implications of these sometimes limited services is important in overcoming barriers to adequate services...
Lee, Steven W.; Lohmeier, Jill H.; Niileksela, Christopher Robert; Oeth, Jessica
Although there have been growing concerns about stress in nursing over recent years, research has primarily focused on general nurses. This paper reports on stress in mental health nursing. The data were obtained, via questionnaires, from mental health nurses at the end of their training. Four-hundred and forty-seven questionnaires were returned, an 80% response rate. Open-ended questions were asked about
C. J Kipping
This study examined the predisposition to seek mental health care in the future for personal and mental health problems among Black males transitioning from the foster care system (n=74). Results of simultaneous multiple regression analysis showed that custody status, diagnosis of a DSM-IV psychiatric disorder, and emotional control contributed significantly to the prediction of Black male's predisposition to seek mental health care. Specifically, Black males who were still in foster care were more predisposed to seek mental health care, whereas those diagnosed with a DSM-IV psychiatric disorder and who adhered more to the norm of emotional control were less predisposed to seek mental health care. Implications for mental health service delivery are discussed. PMID:17710190
Scott, Lionel D.; Munson, Michelle R.; McMillen, J. Curtis; Snowden, Lonnie R.
This fact sheet addresses the mental health needs of children and adolescents. It emphasizes that children and adolescents can have mental health problems, that these mental health problems can be severe, and that these problems are common in young people. Some causes of mental health problems are identified, such as exposure to environmental…
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Mental Health Services.
The Butabika-East London Link collaborated with Ugandan mental health services to train mental health professionals (psychiatric clinical officers, "PCOs", and clinical psychologists and psychiatrists, "Core Group") in psychological therapies. The aims of this research were to investigate how professionals were applying and…
Hall, Jennifer; d'Ardenne, Patricia; Nsereko, James; Kasujja, Rosco; Baillie, Dave; Mpango, Richard; Birabwa, Harriet; Hunter, Elaine
This study compares mental health services in three facilities on two domains: federal versus state funding and academic affiliation. Data from a cross-sectional study of psychiatric outpatients is utilized to compare 196 VA patients to 337 non-VA patients treated in two state mental health agencies. The strength of academic affiliation of the facilities and the degree of participation in research
Rani A. Desai; David J. Dausey; Michael Sernyak; Robert A. Rosenheck
Clinical diagnoses of dissociative disorders (DDs), including Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), are controversial because there are mental health professionals in North America and elsewhere who are skeptical about whether these psychiatric disorders actually exist. This paper explores the attitudes of mental health professionals in Israel toward DDs and DID through a survey of 211 practicing clinicians (return rate of 39.5%).
-III-R psychiatric diagnosis. About the same percentage have used illicit drugs during the previous year. Logistic1 WELFARE REFORM, SUBSTANCE USE, AND MENTAL HEALTH1 Rukmalie Jayakody2 Pennsylvania State for Poverty, Risk and Mental Health, University of Michigan, 504 E. Liberty, Suite 202, Ann Arbor, MI 48104
New York City Department of Health & Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) Mental Health Scholarship Program One in an agency program providing mental health services in contract with the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene Bureau of Mental Health (BMH) or Bureau of Children, Youth and Families (CYF). Individuals
Web Sites Related to Mental Health Web Sites Related to Mental Health American Academy of Child://www.psychologicalscience.org/ Canadian Mental Health Association http://www.cmha.ca/ Center for Mental Health Services Research http://gwbweb.wustl.edu/Users/cmhsr/ Depression and Related Affective Disorders Association http://www.drada.org/ Disaster Mental Health http
de Lijser, Peter
Gonzales NA, Coxe S, Roosa MW, White RMB, Knight GP, Zeiders KH and Saenz D (2011) Economic hardship, neighborhood context, and parenting: Prospective effects on Mexican–American adolescent's mental health. American Journal of Community Psychology 47(1–2): 98–113O’Kane D (2011) A phenomenological study of child and adolescent mental health consultation in primary care. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 18(2): 185–188Sentse
Erhabor S Idemudia
One of the major problems in measuring community mental health status is the lack of consensus among mental health workers in psychiatry, psychology, sociology, and epidemiology as to what constitutes mental illness. Additionally, changing social mores preclude a definition of mental illness in behavioral terms. An operational definition of mental…
Chen, Martin K.
A person's mental health and many common mental disorders are shaped by various social, economic, and physical environments operating at different stages of life. Risk factors for many common mental disorders are heavily associated with social inequalities, whereby the greater the inequality the higher the inequality in risk. The poor and disadvantaged suffer disproportionately, but those in the middle of the social gradient are also affected. It is of major importance that action is taken to improve the conditions of everyday life, beginning before birth and progressing into early childhood, older childhood and adolescence, during family building and working ages, and through to older age. Action throughout these life stages would provide opportunities for both improving population mental health, and for reducing risk of those mental disorders that are associated with social inequalities. As mental disorders are fundamentally linked to a number of other physical health conditions, these actions would also reduce inequalities in physical health and improve health overall. Action needs to be universal: across the whole of society and proportionate to need. Policy-making at all levels of governance and across sectors can make a positive difference. PMID:25137105
Allen, Jessica; Balfour, Reuben; Bell, Ruth; Marmot, Michael
Purpose. To devise an analytical framework to help identify strengths and weaknesses in the audit process as specified by existing psychiatric nursing audit systems, in order to analyse current audit practice and identify improvements for incorporation in the Newcasde Clinical Audit Toolkit for Mental Health (1). Data sources. Published material relating to the following six systems: the Central Nottinghamshire Psychiatric
RUTH BALOGH; HELEN QUINN; ANNE SIMPSON; SENGA BOND
The deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill which started in the 1960s greatly contributed to the overcrowding of judicial systems throughout the world. In the ensuing years, the actors involved in the adversarial system present in United States courts, a system that is primarily interested in assessing the culpability of the offender, have come to realize that the system is lacking therapeutic and reintegrative approaches to offenders, especially those who are mentally ill. Therapeutic jurisprudence, an interdisciplinary science, addresses this problematic situation of the mentally ill. It offers a fresh insight into the potentially beneficial and detrimental effects of legal decisions and views one of the roles of law as that of a healing agent. At present, many states have instituted mental health courts based on these concepts, incorporating previous drug court experiences. Their goal is to avoid the criminalization of the mentally ill and their recidivism through the creation of special programs. This article describes the mental health court programs of Washoe County and Clark County, Nevada, their organization, their therapeutic goals, and their success in keeping mentally ill offenders out of the correctional system, while improving their mental condition. In so doing, the program has lightened the load of the overburdened courts and has greatly diminished the financial burden incurred for court trials and jail and prison stays. PMID:20655596
Palermo, George B
Counseling and Mental Health Services Page 1 OUR MISSION The mission of Counseling and Mental Disclosure and Confidentiality The privacy of your mental health information, including all written of all disciplines involved in your treatment. Uses and Disclosures of Your Mental Health Information
Alpay, S. Pamir
The privacy and security of patients' medical records continue to challenge mental health practitioners in an ever-increasing electronic environment. Although practitioners were to be in compliance of the 1996 Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) by April 20, 2006, many practitioners still struggle to understand the nuances of the regulations. This article will cover the areas of HIPAA that
Timothy D. Letzring; Marilyn S. Snow
Seminar in Health and Mental Health Economics Spring 2012 Profs. John topics in health and mental health economics. The main objectives into several major topical modules: (1) comparative effectiveness; (2) health
Mental disorders are highly prevalent in Latin American countries and exact a serious emotional toll, yet investment in public mental health remains insufficient. Most countries of the region have developed national and local initiatives to improve delivery of mental health services over the last 22 years, following the technical leadership of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO). It is especially notable that PAHO/WHO facilitated the development of national policies and plans, as well as local programs, to deliver specialized community care for persons with severe mental disorders. Nevertheless, at present, the majority of Latin American countries maintain a model of services for severe mental disorders based primarily on psychiatric hospitals that consume most of the national mental health budget. To accelerate the pace of change, this article emphasizes the need to develop cross-country regional initiatives that promote mental health service development, focusing on severe mental disorders. As one specific example, the authors describe work with RedeAmericas, which has brought together an interdisciplinary group of international investigators to research regional approaches and train a new generation of leaders in public mental health. More generally, four regional strategies are proposed to complement the work of PAHO/ WHO in Latin America: 1) to develop multi-country studies on community services, 2) to study new strategies and interventions in countries with more advanced mental health services, 3) to strengthen advocacy groups by cross-country interchange, and 4) to develop a network of well-trained leaders to catalyze progress across the region. PMID:25339792
Minoletti, Alberto; Galea, Sandro; Susser, Ezra
&Treatment," " Children, Youth & Families," or "Mental Retardation and Developmental DisabilitiesNew York City Department of Health & Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) Mental Health Scholarship Program One in an agency program providing mental health services in contract with the Bureau of Mental Health. Individuals
Noting that the physical and mental growth of children are influenced by many environmental and familial factors, this paper explores improving the well being of children. The first part of the paper discusses child rearing, emphasizing three fundamental themes: creating an environment where children are born healthy and wanted; helping children…
Albee, George W.
... Children’s mental disorders affect many children and families. Boys and girls of all ages, ethnic/racial backgrounds, and regions ... highest among 6 to 11 year old children. ? Boys were more likely than girls to have ADHD, behavioral or conduct problems, autism ...
Culture plays a vital role in shaping public and professional attitudes towards mental illness. In Arab cultures negative attitudes toward patients experiencing mental illnesses are common. There is a lack of studies that investigate the attitudes of professionals towards patients in inpatient mental health settings. This study aimed to assess the attitudes of professionals towards patients with mental illnesses in the only psychiatric hospital in Palestine. A survey was undertaken using the Attitudes Toward Acute Mental Health Scale (ATAMHS 33). The scale was distributed to a variety of professionals at the only psychiatric hospital in Bethlehem. Data was managed and analysed by using SPSS 15 (a statistical package for social sciences). The participants (mostly nurses) expressed both negative and positive attitudes toward patients, however, results revealed more negative than positive attitudes, particularly in relation to alcohol misuse, medication, patients' ability to control their emotions, and genetic predisposition to mental illness. This paper provides baseline data about the attitude of mental health professionals towards patients experiencing mental illnesses. Education and direct contact with patients with mental illness may not be enough to foster positive attitudes towards them. This may indicate the need to revise educational curriculum at the Palestinian universities and offer more training for mental health professionals in order to change their attitudes. PMID:20887610
Ahmead, Muna K; Rahhal, Ahmad A; Baker, John A
Over the years a lot of research of attitudes towards mental disorders, towards people with mental illness and towards psychiatric services and treatment have shown a persistent negative attitude. There are, however, few studies on changes over time. The aim of this study was to compare responses to a questionnaire on attitudes towards mental disorders and psychiatric patients and the perception of psychiatric treatment in a community in northern Sweden in 1976 and 2003. In 1976 a random sample of 391 persons 18-70 years of age were asked and in 2003 a new sample of 500 persons from the same community were approached with the same questions. There are considerable changes over time. In 2003, almost 90% agree to the statement that mental illness harms the reputation more than physical illness, compared with 50% in 1976. In 2003, 51% agreed to the statement "Most people with mental disorders commit violent acts more than others" compared with 24% in 1976. There is an apparent ambivalence towards psychiatric treatment. Whilst 88% would advice a person with mental problems to contact a psychiatrist, still 26% would not like themselves to be referred to a psychiatrist. We argue that improving treatment methods is as important as changing attitudes through accurate information. PMID:18609028
Ineland, Lisa; Jacobssson, Lars; Renberg, Ellinor Salander; Sjölander, Per
Internationally, one effort to reduce the number of people with serious mental illness (SMI) in jails and prisons is the development of Mental Health Courts (MHC). Research on MHCs to date has been disproportionately focused on the study of recidivism and re-incarceration over the potential of these problem-solving courts to facilitate mental health recovery and affect the slope or gradient of opportunity for recovery. Despite the strong conceptual links between the MHC approach and the recovery-orientation in mental health, the capacity for MHCs to facilitate recovery has not been explored. This user-informed mental health and criminal justice (MH/CJ) community based participatory (CBPR) study assesses the extent to which MHC practices align with recovery-oriented principles and may subsequently affect criminal justice outcomes. We report on the experiences and perceptions of 51 MHC participants across four metropolitan Mental Health Courts. Specifically, the current study assesses: 1) how defendants’ perceptions of court practices, particularly with regard to procedural justice and coercion, relate to perceptions of mental health recovery and psychiatric symptoms, and, 2) how perceptions of procedural justice and mental health recovery relate to subsequent criminal justice outcomes. The authors hypothesized that perceived coercion and mental health recovery would be inversely related, that perceived coercion would be associated with worse criminal justice outcomes, and perceptions of mental health recovery would be associated with better criminal justice outcomes. Results suggest that perceived coercion in the MHC experience was negatively associated with perceptions of recovery among MHC participants. Perceptions of “negative pressures,” a component of coercion, were important predictors of criminal justice involvement in the 12 month period following MHC admission, even when controlling for other factors that were related to criminal justice outcomes, and that an increase in procedural justice was associated with a decrease in symptoms but curiously not to an increase in attitudes toward recovery. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:24039547
Yanos, Philip T.; Kopelovich, Sarah L.; Koerner, Joshua; Alexander, Mary Jane
Medical school is a stressful and challenging time in the academic career of physicians. Because of the psychological pressure inherent to this process, all medical schools should have easily accessible medical student mental health services. Some schools of medicine provide these services through departments of psychiatry or other associated training programs. Since this stressful lifestyle often continues through residency training and life as a physician, this is a critical period in which to develop and utilize functional and effective coping strategies. When psychiatrists provide the mental health treatment to medical students, it is important to consider transference and countertransference issues, over intellectualization, and instances of strong idealization and identification. PMID:19724734
The technique of J.Krishnamurti's communication marked by a dyadic style, ‘pariprasna’, a sense of togetherness, absence of persuasion and authoritativeness could be incorporated into psychotherapeutic sessions. Self-reliance and a genuine feeling of psychological oneness with others and to see things ‘as they are’ are discussed. The need for desirelessness to avoid conflicts and psychologically dying moment to moment to overcome fears e.g. of death and resolving chronic resentment is explained. A new way of ending sorrow has been pointed out. Krishnamurti's ideas on meditation have been dealt with briefly. Many of these concepts could be assimilated into psychiatric practice and towards promotion of mental health. Krishnamurti's call for a ‘total transformation’ of instant nature within the individual's psyche to effect a societal change is highlighted. Finally, a brief evaluation of Krishnamurti's contribution has been offered. PMID:21743741
Rao, A. Venkoba
Previous studies about unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) showed that they are a highly vulnerable group who have greater psychiatric morbidity than the general population. This review focuses on mental health issues among URMs. Articles in databases PsycINFO, Medline and PubMed from 1998 to 2008 addressing this topic were reviewed. The literature had a considerable emphasis on the assessment of PTSD symptoms. Results revealed higher levels of PTSD symptoms in comparison to the norm populations and accompanied refugee minors. In several studies, age and female gender predicted or influenced PTSD symptoms. The existing literature only permits limited conclusions on this very hard to reach population. Future research should include the analysis of long-term outcomes, stress management and a more thorough analysis of the whole range of psychopathology. Additionally, the development of culturally sensitive norms and standardized measures for diverse ethnic groups is of great importance. PMID:19341468
Huemer, Julia; Karnik, Niranjan S; Voelkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Granditsch, Elisabeth; Dervic, Kanita; Friedrich, Max H; Steiner, Hans
Excellence in Mental HealthCare: PuttingEvidence intoPractice Health Service and Population and improving the quality of life of people with mental health problems and their families throughout the world. We passionately believe that people with mental health problems should be treated with dignity
Latest research on the mental health status of children indicates that schools are key providers of mental health services (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003). The push for school mental health services has only increased as stakeholders have begun to recognize the significance of sound mental health as an essential part of…
Dixon, Decia Nicole
Latest research on the mental health status of children indicates that schools are key providers of mental health services (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003). The push for school mental health services has only increased as stakeholders have begun to recognize the significance of sound mental health as an essential part of academic success (Adelman & Taylor, 2002).
Decia Nicole Dixon
Little is known about the factors that increase the risk for enacted mental illness stigma (i.e. rejection, devaluation and exclusion) as perceived by the stigmatized person. This is particularly true for the population of adolescents diagnosed with a mental illness. The aim of this study was to address this question and examine select social and clinical factors that predict enacted stigma (self-reported) with research that follows eighty American adolescents for 6 months following a first psychiatric hospitalization. Drawing on social identity theory, and research on stigma-threatening environments, social group identification and social support, this study tested four hypotheses: affiliation or identification with higher status and lower status peers predicts more and less stigma respectively (H1); a greater and more supportive social network, and more perceived family support predict less stigma (H2); greater severity of internalizing and externalizing symptoms predicts more stigma (H3); and poorer school functioning predicts more stigma (H4). Results indicated that about 70% of adolescents reported experiencing enacted stigma (at 6 months); disrespect or devaluation was more common than outright social rejection. Using OLS regression analyses, the results provided partial support for H1, H3 and H4, while H2 was not supported. The baseline factors found to be most predictive of enacted stigma ratings at 6-months were: affiliating with more friends with mental health problems, identifying with the 'populars' peer group, higher internalizing symptom ratings, and self-reported disciplinary problems at school. These four factors remained significant when controlling for initial enacted stigma ratings, pointing to their importance in determining changes in social stigma experiences in the follow-up period. They also remained significant when controlling for perceived public stigma ratings at follow-up, indicating that the findings were not due to generalized perceptions of stigma of youth with mental illness. PMID:24695363
Background Based upon therapeutic justice principles, mental health courts use legal leverage to improve access and compliance to treatment for defendants who are mentally ill. Justice-involved women have a higher prevalence of mental illness than men, and it plays a greater role in their criminal behavior. Despite this, studies examining whether women respond differently than men to mental health courts are lacking. Study goals were to examine gender-related differences in mental health court participation, and in criminal justice, psychiatric and health-related outcomes. Methods This study utilized a quasi-experimental pre-posttest design without a control group. The data were abstracted from administrative records of Kalamazoo Community Mental Health and Substance Abuse agency, the county jail and both county hospitals, 2008 through 2011. Generalized estimating equation regression was used to assess gender-differences in pre-post program outcomes (jail days, psychiatric and medical hospitalization days, emergency department visits) for the 30 women and 63 men with a final mental health court disposition. Results Program-eligible females were more likely than males to become enrolled in mental health court. Otherwise they were similar on all measured program-participation characteristics: treatment compliance, WRAP participation and graduation rate. All participants showed significant reductions in emergency department visits, but women-completers had significantly steeper drops than males: from 6.7 emergency department visits to 1.3 for women, and from 4.1 to 2.4 for men. A similar gender pattern emerged with medical-hospitalization-days: from 2.2 medical hospital days down to 0.1 for women, and from 0.9 days up to 1.8 for men. While women had fewer psychiatric hospitalization days than men regardless of program involvement (2.5 and 4.6, respectively), both genders experienced fewer days after MHRC compared to before. Women and men showed equal gains from successful program completion in reduced jail days. Conclusions Despite similar participation characteristics, findings point to greater health gains by female compared to male participants, and to lower overall psychiatric acuity. Mental-health-court participation was associated with decreased psychiatric hospitalization days and emergency department visits. Successful program completion correlated to fewer jail days for both women and men. PMID:25530934
Kothari, Catherine L; Butkiewicz, Robert; Williams, Emily R; Jacobson, Caron; Morse, Diane S; Cerulli, Catherine
Asian and Pacific Islander Americans (APIAs) are a diverse group, representing many cultures of origin, a range of immigration experiences, and varying access to economic and other resources. Despite stereotypes such as the “model minority” and cultural values that stigmatize mental illness and complicate mental health help-seeking, APIAs' psychiatric rehabilitation and recovery needs are significant. These needs are inadequately treated
Rebecca P. Cameron; Hendry Ton; Cynthia Yang; Marya C. Endriga; Mei-Fang Lan; Alan K. Koike
This study estimates the prevalence and correlates of two components of problem recognition among parents and assesses their relative effects on child mental health service use in several settings. Analyses were based on data from a population-based sample of 1,420 youth-parent pairs. Child psychopathology and impairment were assessed using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment. Problem perception was defined as
Sarah E. Teagle
Conclusion While the extent of linkages and the patterning of the relationships between career development and mental health is yet to be fully studied and articulated, this paper has argued that such connections do exist. Given such a premise, it has been contended that career counseling does serve as a therapeutic modality as it provides dislocated, unhappy, maladjusted or underemployed
Edwin L. Herr
... degree in social work (M.S.W.); Licensed Clinical Social Workers (L.C.S.W.) have additional supervised training and clinical work experience. Licensed Professional Counselor: Master’s degree in psychology, counseling or a related field. Mental Health Counselor: ...
This lesson, from Science NetLinks, provides students with a sound introduction and historical overview of the important figures and discoveries that have greatly advanced the study of human behavior since the early 1900s. This lesson is the first of three lessons on mental health and human behavior.
There is growing awareness of the mental health impact of all types of mass violence. The exposure of large population groups, mostly having no mental health problems prior to the exposure, and the subsequent development, in a significant proportion of the population, of a variety of psychiatric symptoms and disorders represent both a challenge and an opportunity for psychiatrists. There is sufficient evidence from the variety of mass violence/conflict situations, that a significant proportion of the exposed population develop different mental disorders. There are vulnerable groups like women, children, widows, orphans, elderly, disabled, those exposed to severe pain and loss of body parts. There is also a consistent finding of the dose-response to the amount of trauma and the prevalence of mental disorders. There is growing recognition that there is need to consider a variety of syndromes, in addition to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) like acute stress disorder (ASD), depression, complicated bereavement reactions, substance use disorders, poor physical health, fear, anxiety, physiological arousal, somatisation, anger control, functional disability and arrest or regression of childhood developmental progression. The challenge is to reach all of the ill persons and provide mental health services. The opportunity provided by this field is to develop a better understanding of issues of resilience, recovery and effectiveness of public health approaches to mental health care. PMID:17566896
Murthy, R Srinivasa
Cognition December, 2013 Addiction & Mental Health Learning Events Information & Evaluation Services, Addiction and Mental Health, Edmonton Zone http://www.intranet2.capitalhealth.ca/regional%2, Addictions and Related Disorders conference in Richmond, BC. http://conference2013.jackhirose
... Engagement Training Resources The Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act Contents Introduction Summary of MHPAEA Protections ... Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008 (MHPAEA) is a federal ...
... Vet Centers) War Related Illness & Injury Study Center Homeless Veterans Returning Service Members Rural Veterans Seniors & Aging Veterans Volunteers Women Veterans Careers, Job Help & Training Find a Job with VA Health Care Jobs (VA Careers) Travel Nurses Get Job ...
... Vet Centers) War Related Illness & Injury Study Center Homeless Veterans Returning Service Members Rural Veterans Seniors & Aging Veterans Volunteers Women Veterans Careers, Job Help & Training Find a Job with VA Health Care Jobs (VA Careers) Travel Nurses Get Job ...
In contrast to European countries and the United States of America, there has been a steady increase in the psychiatric inpatient population in Japan between 1960 and 1993. Japan has the biggest number of psychiatric beds in the world, both in absolute and relative numbers per population. However, Japan now focuses on community based services and the human rights of patients. In other Asian countries, the number of psychiatric beds is relatively small; however, the numbers are increasing each year in China, the Republic of Korea, Philippines, Indonesia and in many other countries in Asia. These countries are still facing the challenge of increasing psychiatric services and to improve the quality of care with scarce mental health resources. Should Asian countries take the similar path to European countries and develop mental health services? This review provides an overview of Asian mental health services and discussing the following issues: how many psychiatric beds do we need in Asia?; public vs private psychiatric services?; financing scheme to promote community based care in Asia; mental health services in primary health care; family education and user involvement in Asia; and the challenge for psychiatrists in Asia. PMID:9681576
BACKGROUND: While the mental health situation for most people in low and middle-income countries is unsatisfactory, there is a renewed commitment to focus attention on the mental health of populations and on the scaling up of mental health services that have the capacity to respond to mental health service needs. There is general agreement that scaling up activities must be
This paper discusses the use of bilingual workers who do not have formal mental health training as mediators and providers of mental health care for refugees. The introduction provides a background discussion of the need for refugee mental health services, the characteristics of bilingual mental health workers, and the work places and expectations…
Mental Health Screenings in Juvenile Detention Centers: Predictors of Mental Health Service provide mental health services for juveniles in need. As a result, juvenile adolescents have low rates months post-detention. Methods: 2089 adolescents held in a detention center completed a mental health
Reforming mental health care is a focus of many ongoing initiatives in the United States, both at the national and state levels. Access to adequate mental health care services is one of the identified problems. Telepsychiatry and e-mental health services could improve access to mental health care in rural, remote and underserved areas. The authors discuss the required technology, common
Kaye L. McGinty; Sy Atezaz Saeed; Scott C. Simmons; Yilmaz Yildirim
Johnson & Johnson Â Dartmouth Community Mental Health Program Program Description Mission The mission of the Johnson & Johnson - Dartmouth Community Mental Health Program is to increase access-based guidelines, initially in a small number of sites (typically 3-4 community mental health centers
Myers, Lawrence C.
STAFF GUIDELINES FOR HANDLING STUDENT MENTAL HEALTH DIFFICULTIES MARCH 2007 #12;1 1. INTRODUCTION This document seeks to give basic advice to staff who may encounter students with mental health difficulties and guidance mechanisms in respect of mental health. These guidelines do not give detailed medical advice
Postdoctoral Fellowships National Institute of Mental Health Intramural Research Program Bethesda, Maryland, USA The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), Section on Neuroadaptation and Protein; National Institute of Mental Health; 10 Center Drive, Room 2D54; Bethesda, MD 20892-1298, USA or via e
Bandettini, Peter A.
A PROFILE OF KENTUCKY MEDICAID MENTAL HEALTH DIAGNOSES, 2000-2010 #12; #12; i A Profile of Kentucky Medicaid Mental Health Diagnoses, 20002010 BY Michael T. Childress have received a mental or behavioral health diagnosis from 2000 to 2010. A Profile of Kentucky
Hayes, Jane E.
Mental Health Consultation in Child Care and Early Childhood Settings Opportunities to Expand Department of Children & Families Children's Mental Health Program June 30, 2006 Florida State University-922-1300 Â· www.cpeip.fsu.edu #12;Mental Health Consultation in Child Care and Early Childhood Settings
McQuade, D. Tyler
By addressing common reasons that schools and mental health partners often cannot sustain sufficient school-based mental health services, Connecting With Care (CWC)--a mental health collaboration that places full-time clinicians in schools in Boston's most under-served urban neighborhood--is demonstrating how schools and districts can leverage…
Kilkenny, Robert; Katz, Nechama; Baron, Lisa
The last decade has brought important advances in the area of children's mental health, including a concerted focus on building a scientific base for un- derstanding the mental health difficulties that our most vulnerable members of society experience and examining the impact of services that potentially reduce child mental health needs (1,2). Serious concern remains, however, as to whether the
Mary M. McKay; William M. Bannon Jr
Insomnia is strongly associated with certain mental health problems in the general population. However, there is little research examining this relation in young adults—an age group where many mental health problems first present. This study examined relations between insomnia and mental health symptoms in a college population (N = 373; 60.9% women; mean age of 21 years). Insomnia was assessed
Daniel J. Taylor; Christie E. Gardner; Adam D. Bramoweth; Jacob M. Williams; Brandy M. Roane; Emily A. Grieser; Jolyn I. Tatum
Cognition October, 2013 Addiction & Mental Health Learning Events Information & Evaluation Services, Addiction and Mental Health, Edmonton Zone http://email@example.com #12;Cognition October, 2013 Addiction & Mental Health Learning Events Information & Evaluation
Cognition April, 2014 Addiction & Mental Health Learning Events Information & Evaluation Services, Addiction and Mental Health, Edmonton Zone http://insite.albertahealthservices.ca/9250.asp Contact Daniel://edmonton.cmha.ca/programs_services/asist-tuneup/ Provided by CMHA #12;Cognition April, 2014 Addiction & Mental Health Learning Events Information
The essays collected in this book examine the effects of ethnicity on the mental health of adolescents. A dual set of issues emerges throughout the volume: the importance of adolescent mental health in contributing to adult well-being, and the necessity of understanding ethnicity in studying and treating mental health problems. The book is divided…
Stiffman, Arlene Rubin, Ed.; Davis, Larry E., Ed.
Fifteen in-depth interviews were conducted to explore young people's experiences of mental health care in Australia with the aim of informing the headspace National Youth Mental Health Foundation. The interviews revealed that significant numbers of respondents had been aware of their mental health problems for several years before seeking help and…
Cohen, Anjalee; Medlow, Sharon; Kelk, Norm; Hickie, Ian; Whitwell, Bradley
This revised edition offers an interdisciplinary analysis of the developmental, clinical, and social aspects of mental health from birth to age 3. Chapters are organized into five areas, covering the context of mental health, risk and protective factors, assessment, psychopathology, intervention, and applications of infant mental health. The…
Zeanah, Charles H., Jr., Ed.
Although perceived discrimination (especially due to race-ethnicity) decreases mental health, the influence of perceived discrimination due to other reasons on mental health needs to be explored. This study examines the relationship between perceived age discrimination and mental health and determines whether psychosocial resources explain or…
Yuan, Anastasia S. Vogt
According to the American Psychiatric Association, college can be an exciting time, though for some it can be overwhelming and stressful. Depression, anxiety, substance use, and eating disorders are common mental health issues on college campuses. The 2010 American College Health Association National College Health Assessment found that 28 percent…
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011
A cohort design was used to determine the contribution of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and psychiatric illness to health care costs for adolescents and adults in the 3 years following mild or moderate-to-severe TBI compared to a matched cohort without TBI, controlling for confounders. In all, 3756 subjects 15 years or older from a large health maintenance organization database were examined. We identified subjects who sustained a TBI in 1993 (n=939) and selected three control subjects per TBI-exposed subject (n=2817), matched for age, sex, and enrollment at the time of injury. Unadjusted mean costs in 2009-adjusted dollars were compared using Kruskal-Wallis tests and Mann-Whitney U tests, and adjusted mean costs were compared using gamma regression analyses. Average costs were 76% higher in the 3 years after injury for the mild TBI group, and 5.75 times greater for the moderate-to-severe TBI group compared to controls. The presence of psychiatric illness was associated with more than doubling of total costs for both inpatient and outpatient non-mental health care. Gamma regression analyses confirmed significantly higher costs in patients with TBI or psychiatric illness. A significant interaction between moderate-to-severe TBI and psychiatric illness indicated a 3.39 times greater cost among patients with both exposures compared with those exposed to moderate-to-severe TBI without psychiatric illness. TBI and psychiatric illness were each associated with significant increases in health care costs; those with the combination of moderate-to-severe TBI and psychiatric illness had much higher costs than any other group. PMID:22142264
Rockhill, Carol Mary; Jaffe, Kenneth; Zhou, Chuan; Fan, Ming-Yu; Katon, Wayne; Fann, Jesse R
Human beings are social species which require safe and secure social surroundings to survive. Satisfying social relationships are essential for mental and physical well beings. Impaired social relationship can lead to loneliness. Since the time of dawn, loneliness is perceived as a global human phenomenon. Loneliness can lead to various psychiatric disorders like depression, alcohol abuse, child abuse, sleep problems, personality disorders and Alzheimer's disease. It also leads to various physical disorders like diabetes, autoimmune disorders like rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and cardiovascular diseases like coronary heart disease, hypertension (HTN), obesity, physiological aging, cancer, poor hearing and poor health. Left untended, loneliness can have serious consequences for mental and physical health of people. Therefore it is important to intervene at the right time to prevent loneliness, so that physical and mental health of patients is maintained. PMID:25386507
Mushtaq, Raheel; Shoib, Sheikh; Shah, Tabindah; Mushtaq, Sahil
Human beings are social species which require safe and secure social surroundings to survive. Satisfying social relationships are essential for mental and physical well beings. Impaired social relationship can lead to loneliness. Since the time of dawn, loneliness is perceived as a global human phenomenon. Loneliness can lead to various psychiatric disorders like depression, alcohol abuse, child abuse, sleep problems, personality disorders and Alzheimer’s disease. It also leads to various physical disorders like diabetes, autoimmune disorders like rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and cardiovascular diseases like coronary heart disease, hypertension (HTN), obesity, physiological aging, cancer, poor hearing and poor health. Left untended, loneliness can have serious consequences for mental and physical health of people. Therefore it is important to intervene at the right time to prevent loneliness, so that physical and mental health of patients is maintained. PMID:25386507
Shoib, Sheikh; Shah, Tabindah; Mushtaq, Sahil
Tobacco use is strongly associated with a variety of psychiatric disorders. Smokers are more likely than non-smokers to meet current criteria for mental health conditions, such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders and psychosis. Evidence also suggest that smokers with psychiatric disorders may have more difficulty quitting, offering at least a partial explanation for why smoking rates are higher in this population. The mechanisms linking mental health conditions and cigarette smoking are complex and likely differ across each of the various disorders. The most commonly held view is that patients with mental health conditions smoke in an effort to regulate the symptoms associated with their disorder. However some recent evidence suggests that quitting smoking may actually improve mental health symptoms. This is particularly true if the tobacco cessation intervention is integrated into the context of ongoing mental health treatment. In this paper we reviewed and summarized the most relevant knowledge about the relationship between tobacco use and dependence and psychiatric disorders. We also reviewed the most effective smoking cessation strategies available for patients with psychiatric comorbidity and the impact of smoking behavior on psychiatric medication. PMID:24157506
Minichino, Amedeo; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Calň, Wanda Katharina; Spagnoli, Francesco; Francesconi, Marta; Vicinanza, Roberto; Delle Chiaie, Roberto; Biondi, Massimo
This article introduces the reader to mental health in the Middle East with an Egyptian perspective, from the Pharaonic era through the Islamic Renaissance, up until the current state. During Pharaonic times, mental illness was not known as such, as there was no separator between Soma and Psyche. Actually, mental disorders were described as symptoms of the heart and uterine diseases, as stated in Eber's and Kahoun's papyri. In spite of the mystical culture, mental disorders were attributed and treated on a somatic basis. In the Islamic era, mental patients were never subjected to any torture or maltreatment because of the inherited belief that they may be possessed by a good Moslem genie. The first mental hospital in Europe was located in Spain, following the Arab invasion, and from then on it propagated to other European countries. The 14th century Kalawoon Hospital in Cairo had four departments, including medicine, surgery, ophthalmology, and mental disorders. Six centuries earlier, psychiatry in general hospitals was recognized in Europe. The influence of Avicenna and Elrazi and their contributions to European medicine is well-known. This article discusses further the current state of the mental health services in Egypt and the transcultural studies of the prevalence and phenomenology of anxiety, schizophrenia, depression, suicide, conversion, and obsessive compulsive disorders. An outline of psychiatric disorders in children is discussed. The problem of drug abuse is also addressed, especially that in Egypt after 1983, where drugs like heroine replaced the common habit of hashish. PMID:10547710
Many international studies show that adolescents in coercive institutional care display high prevalences of mental disorders, especially in the form of disruptive behavior disorders [including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder], anxiety disorders, and mood disorders. High degrees of overlap across mental disorders have also been reported. In addition, institutionalized adolescents are often traumatized. Despite this well-documented psychiatric morbidity, the mental health care needs of detained adolescents are often overlooked. The main objective of this study is to assess prevalences of psychiatric disorders, results of intelligence tests, and previous contacts with child and adolescent psychiatric services among adolescents in institutional care. DSM-IV diagnoses, mental health contacts, substance abuse, neurocognitive abilities, and school performance were registered in 100 adolescents (92 boys, 8 girls) aged 12–19 years (mean age 16.0; SD ± 1.5) consecutively committed to Swedish juvenile institutions between 2004 and 2007. At least one psychiatric disorder was diagnosed in 73% of the subjects: 48% met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for AD/HD, 17% for an autism spectrum disorder, and 10% for a mental retardation. The collapsed prevalence for psychiatric disorders requiring specialist attention was 63%. Our data indicate that systematic diagnostic procedures are crucial in the treatment planning for institutionalized adolescents. Adequate treatment strategies need to be designed and implemented to meet the extensive mental health care needs of this vulnerable population. PMID:20949366
Anckarsäter, Henrik; Nilsson, Thomas
SummaryBackground Burnout and psychiatric morbidity among gastroenterologists, surgeons, radiologists, and oncologists in the UK have been estimated by means of a questionnaire-based survey. The relationship between consultants' mental health and their job stress and satisfaction, as well as their job and demographic characteristics, were also examined.Methods Psychiatric morbidity was estimated using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. The three components of
A. J Ramirez; J Graham; M. A Richards; W. M Gregory; A Cull
The purpose of this study was to identify if health professionals report an increase in mental health preparedness abilities with having only two mental health components as part of a 2-day preparedness training conference. At each of three...
Ablah, Elizabeth; Hawley, Suzanne; Konda, Kurt M.; Wolfe, Deborah; Cook, David J.
The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and its public health institutes are collaborating with Asia Australia Mental Health on an innovative community mental health development project designed to enhance initiatives under the District Mental Health Program and increase accessibility of essential community mental health services. The project is an exciting opportunity to create positive change in meeting the challenges of community mental health care in India. It recognizes that no one single model of care can be applied to all the community in the country and that locally appropriate models working in close partnership with local communities is required. Targeted and skill-based training programs are useful to build local leadership capacity in implementing quality and culturally appropriate community mental health services. PMID:25316931
Ng, Chee; Chauhan, Ajay P.; Chavan, Bir Singh; Ramasubramanian, Chellamuthu; Singh, Amool R.; Sagar, Rajesh; Fraser, Julia; Ryan, Brigid; Prasad, Jagdish; Singh, Sujeet; Das, Jayanta; Isaac, Mohan
Historically, the specialty of urology has focused on single-system diseases. In recent years, however, there has been increasing recognition of the interconnectivity between the various systems, such as cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, erectile dysfunction and prostate cancer. This constellation of disease/syndrome and dysfunction may place urologists at the centre of men's overall health concerns. As urologists considering taking on a leadership role in men's health, they should also consider their potential in helping men suffering from the significant burden of a mental health disorder. Urologists may have a unique opportunity to identify mental health issues in their male patients, influence healthy behaviour change, and successfully refer men, who might otherwise not seek help, to appropriate medical/psychological care. PMID:25243041
Matthew, Andrew; Elterman, Dean
This paper is based on the Bruce Burns Memorial Trust Lecture, Terrorism and Mental Health, presented in October 2005, in Birmingham. In addition to written sources, it is informed by the author's experience and contact with military and police experts in this arena over 28 years as a member of the British Army. The diagnosis and treatment of post traumatic mental disorders are not addressed in this paper. The author explores the general phenomenon of terrorism, in an endeavour to inform understanding of terrorist acts. He stresses the need for contextualisation of acts of terror, their perpetrators, their effects on populations and individuals, and attention to the psychology of groups. The author aims to invite and inform further thought and debate on the subject by raising a wide range of issues which do not sit comfortably within a strict psychiatric, research-based paradigm. The author covers a brief history of terrorism; organisational requirements of terror groups and the process of recruiting personnel to them; the means, motives and opportunities terrorists exploit in their work; the need for communication with terror groups; sacrificial death; governmental responses to terrorist acts and fear and mental health. The author proposes that terrorist organisations perform some of the functions of a family; that acts of terror are 'propaganda by deed'; that terrorism, or more precisely the media's treatment of it, breeds 'formless fears' which may directly lead to the development of fear-based symptoms and illness within societies. He notes that terrorism is an enterprise from which many players ('experts', media, politicians, etc.) benefit; that terrorism has its shadow in counter-terrorism, which may range from benign to malignant and that psychiatry could, in this context, acknowledge its bias towards individual psychologies and rectify its lack of understanding of groups and the behaviours of individuals within them. PMID:17566906
Reforming mental health care is a focus of many ongoing initiatives in the United States, both at the national and state levels. Access to adequate mental health care services is one of the identified problems. Telepsychiatry and e-mental health services could improve access to mental health care in rural, remote and underserved areas. The authors discuss the required technology, common applications and barriers associated with the implementation of telepsychiatry and e-mental health services. PMID:16927161
McGinty, Kaye L; Saeed, Sy Atezaz; Simmons, Scott C; Yildirim, Yilmaz
This paper explores the relationship between rural places and mental health. It begins with a definition of mental health and an outline of the data that have led to the current concern with promoting positive mental health. We then consider aspects of rural life and place that contribute to positive mental health or increase the likelihood of mental health problems. Issues identified include environment, place, gender identity, violence and dispossession and the influence of the effects of structural changes in rural communities. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the determinants of resilience in rural places, including social connectedness, valuing diversity and economic participation. PMID:11249401
Wainer, J; Chesters, J
illness". We will be exploring what our culture and various cultures of the world have to say about mental health, mental illness, and treatment of mental illness. We will be addressing questions like the following: --What is a mental illness? Do different cultures define it differently? What is meant by culture
illness". We will be exploring what our culture and various cultures of the world have to say about mental health, mental illness, and treatment of mental illness. We will be addressing questions like the following: --What is a mental illness? Do different cultures define it differently? What is meant by culture
Background Patient retrospective recollection is a mainstay of assessing symptoms in mental health and psychiatry. However, evidence suggests that these retrospective recollections may not be as accurate as data collection though the experience sampling method (ESM), which captures patient data in “real time” and “real life.” However, the difficulties in practical implementation of ESM data collection have limited its impact in psychiatry and mental health. Smartphones with the capability to run mobile applications may offer a novel method of collecting ESM data that may represent a practical and feasible tool for mental health and psychiatry. Objective This paper aims to provide data on psychiatric patients’ prevalence of smartphone ownership, patterns of use, and interest in utilizing mobile applications to monitor their mental health conditions. Methods One hundred psychiatric outpatients at a large urban teaching hospital completed a paper-and-pencil survey regarding smartphone ownership, use, and interest in utilizing mobile applications to monitor their mental health condition. Results Ninety-seven percent of patients reported owning a phone and 72% reported that their phone was a smartphone. Patients in all age groups indicated greater than 50% interest in using a mobile application on a daily basis to monitor their mental health condition. Conclusions Smartphone and mobile applications represent a practical opportunity to explore new modalities of monitoring, treatment, and research of psychiatric and mental health conditions. PMID:25098314
Friedman, Rohn; Keshavan, Matcheri
Background: Farmers experience one of the highest rates of suicide of any industry and there is growing evidence that those involved in farming are at higher risk of developing mental health problems. This article provides an overview of the literature examining mental health issues experienced by farming populations in the United Kingdom, Europe, Australia, Canada and the United States and
C. E. Fraser; K. B. Smith; F. Judd; J. S. Humphreys; L. J. Fragar; A. Henderson
New assessment guidelines for measuring the overall impact of mental health problems in Latin America have served as a catalyst for countries to review their mental health policies. Latin American countries have taken various steps to address long-standing problems such as structural difficulties, scarce financial and human resources, and social, political, and cultural obstacles in the implementation of mental health policies and legislation. These policy developments, however, have had uneven results. Policies must reflect the desire, determination, and commitment of policy-makers to take mental health seriously and look after people's mental health needs. This paper describes the development of mental health policies in Latin American countries, focusing on published data in peer-reviewed journals, and legislative change and its implementation. It presents a brief history of mental health policy developments, and analyzes the basis and practicalities of current practice. PMID:10885167
Alarcón, R. D.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S. A.
It is generally agreed that social ties play a beneficial role in the maintenance of psychological well-being. In this targeted\\u000a review, we highlight four sets of insights that emerge from the literature on social ties and mental health outcomes (defined\\u000a as stress reactions, psychological well-being, and psychological distress, including depressive symptoms and anxiety). First,\\u000a the pathways by which social networks
Ichiro Kawachi; Lisa F. Berkman
Part of a much larger meta-resource, this site contains annotated, rated resources in over 25 subject categories, as well as associations, academic departments, employment, mailing lists, and newsgroups, among other resources. MHN has a rating system (one to four stars), based on content, presentation, ease of use, and overall experience. Interestingly, users are also allowed to interactively vote thumbs up or down on annotated resources. Mental Health Net and CMHC Systems maintain this site.
Background: Begun in the late 1990s, mental health courts are specialty criminal courts developed to address the needs of persons with mental illness. Methods: As many persons with intellectual disabilities (IDs) may overlap in the mental health court system, we used mental health court records to examine the phenomenology and outcomes of 224…
Burke, M. M.; Griggs, M.; Dykens, E. M.; Hodapp, R. M.
Each issue in the 2002 edition of the Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network (ATMHN) newsletter represents a theme critical to mental health practitioners. The Winter 2002 issue features articles on the psychological consequences of interpreters in relation to working with torture and trauma clients, addressing language issues on mental…
Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network, Parramatta.
The sequenced map of the DNA base pairs in the human genome is making it easier to understand the biological pathways involved in mental illnesses and to develop better methods of diagnosis, treatment, and ultimately prevention. This article describes the genetic counseling process for psychiatric disorders, including the use of a family pedigree and predicting genetic inheritance risks based on
Elizabeth L. Pestka
Mental Health Resources on UAA Campus Student Health and Counseling Center Psychological Services Health Education YES YES YES Mental Health Screening Events YES NO YES Situational Crisis Management YES Counseling YES YES YES Children and Adolescent Counseling NO YES NO Medication Management YES NO NO Mental
Reviews research pertinent to mental health services under health care reform proposals. Examines redistributional impact of inclusion of outpatient mental health benefits, optimal benefit packages, and findings that mental health services lower medical utilization costs. Argues that extending minimalist model of time-limited benefits to national…
Hudson, Christopher G.; DeVito, Jo Anne
Farmers' suicide in India is a cause of concern and government figures, though conservative, predict an impending epidemic. Various measures to curb this calamity are being made in a piecemeal manner. Considering it as an issue of social and mental health concern, this article attempts to evaluate the situation based on the tenet that health and illness are the result of a complex interplay between biological, psychological, social, environmental, economic and political factors. Thus in India the agrarian crisis, among other causes, has been largely debated as the major reason for the current state of farmers. It is important that (psychiatric) epidemiology and public mental health try to evolve mechanisms to understand and implement measures, and take this into consideration when attempting health promotion and prevention. PMID:21252353
The Mental Health Act (1983) and the Mental Capacity Act (2005) (both amended by the Mental Health Act (2007)) together provide a comprehensive framework for the care and treatment of people with a mental disorder in England and Wales. The Mental Health Act relates solely to the treatment of mental disorders whilst the Mental Capacity Act has much wider applicability
Daniel P. Herlihy; Frank Holloway
This study analyzed the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions data, 2001-2002, to compare the prevalence and odds of DSM-IV mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders and mental health service use across Asian American subethnic groups (648 East Asians, 485 Southeast Asians, 298 South Asians). Asian American subethnic groups varied in lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorders (p = 0.004), mainly due to differences in the presence of any substance use disorder (p = 0.06), and specifically, drug use disorders (p = 0.02). While Southeast Asians had the highest prevalence of substance use disorders (16.7 %), fewer Southeast Asians with substance use disorders used mental health services (11.1 %) compared to South Asians with substance use disorders (24.2 %). East Asians compared to South Asians had significantly lower odds of mental health service use for substance use disorders (confidence interval = 0.08-0.84). Asian American subethnic groups vary in the prevalence of mental disorders and in mental health service use, especially for substance use disorders. PMID:24957253
Lee, Su Yeon; Martins, Silvia S; Lee, Hochang B
Psychiatric disturbances often occur in aged patients after surgery, but there is no easy or precise method of predicting their occurrence. We devised an easy mental test, the Yamaguchi University Mental Disorder Scale (YDS), based on the surgical perspective. Using both this new method and the Hasegawa mental disorder scale (HDS), we examined 106 patients who had undergone general anesthesia.
Hiroto Hayashi; Yoshitaka Maeda; Hiroshi Morichika; Toshimune Miyama; Takashi Suzuki
Mental Health Continuum Healthy Reacting Injured Illness Calm, steady Normal mood fluctuations Fit, fed, rested In control (physically, mentally, emotionally) Performing well Behaving ethically or withdrawing Neglecting hygiene Healthy Reacting Injured Illness Get to know your staff Foster healthy work
Objective: To determine the concordance between the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) in diagnosing anxiety and depressive disorders. Method: Fifty women seeking psychiatric services for their children at two mental health centers in western Pennsylvania were assessed for anxiety and…
Eack, Shaun M.; Greeno, Catherine G.; Lee, Bong-Jae
A study aims to examine the existing health care policies in U.S. juvenile detention centres. The results conclude that juvenile detention facilities have many shortfalls in providing care for adolescents, particularly mental health care.
Pajer, Kathleen A.; Kelleher, Kelly; Gupta, Ravindra A.; Rolls, Jennifer; Gardner, William
Background: Many psychiatric residents have traditionally received little-or-no training in cross cultural approaches to psychiatric training and research. Method: The Dartmouth-Howard Collaboration summer school training program had a 5-year grant to explore approaches to enhancing understanding of cultural factors in mental health treatment and…
Hipolito, Maria M. S.; Malik, Mansoor; Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth; Whitley, Rob
Introduction Those in mental health-related consumer movements have made clear their demands for humane treatment and basic civil rights, an end to stigma and discrimination, and a chance to participate in their own recovery. But theorizing about the politics of recognition, 'recognition rights' and epistemic justice, suggests that they also have a stake in the broad cultural meanings associated with conceptions of mental health and illness. Results First person accounts of psychiatric diagnosis and mental health care (shown here to represent 'counter stories' to the powerful 'master narrative' of biomedical psychiatry), offer indications about how experiences of mental disorder might be reframed and redefined as part of efforts to acknowledge and honor recognition rights and epistemic justice. However, the task of cultural semantics is one for the entire culture, not merely consumers. These new meanings must be negotiated. When they are not the result of negotiation, group-wrought definitions risk imposing a revision no less constraining than the mis-recognizing one it aims to replace. Contested realities make this a challenging task when it comes to cultural meanings about mental disorder. Examples from mental illness memoirs about two contested realities related to psychosis are examined here: the meaninglessness of symptoms, and the role of insight into illness. They show the magnitude of the challenge involved - for consumers, practitioners, and the general public - in the reconstruction of these new meanings and realities. Conclusion To honor recognition rights and epistemic justice acknowledgement must be made of the heterogeneity of the effects of, and of responses to, psychiatric diagnosis and care, and the extent of the challenge of the reconstructive cultural semantics involved. PMID:22244148
The author discusses the sociopsychiatric consequences of the 1978 Italian mental health law. He also reviews the international scientific ideas that led up to it. The sociopolitical psychiatric views of the late Franco Basaglia, pioneer of the change in the mental health system of the Italian Republic, are described. Statistical reports and critical analyses are reported. Objective data, based on the author's personal experience as a practising psychiatrist in Rome, Italy, from 1969 to 1987, are given. PMID:1999825
Palermo, G B
The Adjective Check List was administered to psychiatrists, psychiatric social workers, and clinical psychologists on the staff of a university-operated community mental health center, to measure attitudes toward five mental health disciplines. Adjective stereotypes and evaluative attitudes were highly positive, although social workers tended to be more negative toward psychiatrists than toward the other disciplines. Cognitive and dynamic factors are examined in an attempt to understand discipline differences in stereotyping and evaluative attitudes. PMID:7212025
Folkins, C; Wieselberg, N; Spensley, J
This article reviews the literature pertaining to psychological impacts in the aftermath of technological disasters, focusing on the immediate psychological and mental health consequences emergency department physicians and first responders may encounter in the aftermath of such disasters. First receivers see a wide spectrum of psychological distress, including acute onset of psychiatric disorders, the exacerbation of existing psychological and psychiatric conditions, and widespread symptomatology even in the absence of a diagnosable disorder. The informal community support systems that exist after a natural disaster may not be available to communities affected by a technological disaster leading to a need for more formal mental health supportive services. PMID:25455669
MCCormick, Lisa C; Tajeu, Gabriel S; Klapow, Joshua
This article summarizes the conception and diagnosis of the mental health continuum, the findings supporting the two continua model of mental health and illness, and the benefits of flourishing to individuals and society. Completely mentally healthy adults--individuals free of a 12-month mental disorder and flourishing--reported the fewest missed…
Keyes, Corey L. M.
public interest and scientific investigation, reflecting an increased public awareness of mental illness plus incidence of mental illness (due in part to our aging population). The proposed programsNeuroscience and Mental Health Page 1 New program proposal: Neuroscience and Mental Health Â· B
... 2013-10-01 false Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. 431.620 Section 431.620...Agencies § 431.620 Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. (a)...
... 2010-10-01 false Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. 431.620 Section 431.620...Agencies § 431.620 Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. (a)...
... 2012-10-01 false Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. 431.620 Section 431.620...Agencies § 431.620 Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. (a)...
... 2014-10-01 false Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. 431.620 Section 431.620...Agencies § 431.620 Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. (a)...
... 2011-10-01 false Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. 431.620 Section 431.620...Agencies § 431.620 Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. (a)...
This study estimates the prevalence and correlates of two components of problem recognition among parents and assesses their relative effects on child mental health service use in several settings. Analyses were based on data from a population-based sample of 1,420 youth-parent pairs. Child psychopathology and impairment were assessed using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment. Problem perception was defined as reporting one or more problems or needs; family impact as reporting one or more impacts. Recent use of 30+ types of mental health services was examined. The frequency of problem perception was 13.3% and family impacts 11.2% across all observations. Among parents of children with 1+ DSM-IV psychiatric diagnosis, 39.0% perceived problems and 31.7% perceived impacts. The strongest predictor of problem perception was impact and vice versa. Problem perception (and not impact) was predictive of specialty services after controlling for child illness. Neither problem recognition component predicted general medical or school use. Findings suggest the need for parent education to help them identify serious problems and for universal screening to ensure that access to specialty services is not dependent solely on parents. Problem recognition should be expanded to include perceptions of other adults in models of access mental health care. PMID:12558014
Teagle, Sarah E
To reduce criminal justice involvement of persons with mental disorders, many communities have created mental health courts. Early mental health courts were restricted to persons charged with nonviolent misdemeanors. Recently mental health courts have begun to accept persons charged with felonies and violent crimes. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the process and outcomes of a mental health court that accepts persons charged with more serious offenses from the perspective of stakeholders in the court. Data come from semi-structured interviews with 43 professionals involved with the mental health court, including judges, attorneys, probation officers, case managers, mental health professionals, and agency administrators. The stakeholders endorsed mental health court compared to traditional court for reducing criminal justice involvement of individuals with mental disorders with a history of repeated arrests. The observations of stakeholders revealed important themes to consider in research evaluating mental health courts, including selection mechanisms, supervision processes, treatment access, use of sanctions, competency, indicators of effectiveness, participant characteristics associated with better or worse outcomes, and mechanisms of change. PMID:20655110
McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L
book on Tibetan medicine. That book was a major breakthrough and has been very important. So, thank you very much, Miss Winder. Now the top:: for my talk this morning is Tibetan psychiatry and mental health. I must teU you that when I first started... fortune to meet was Mr. Gene Smith, whom many of you may know as one of the greatest scholars of Tibetan literature. He immediately told me that there were actu ally three whole chapters of the rGyud-bii exclusively devoted to the subject of psychiatry...
The paper analyzes the situation of the psychiatric reform 25 years of the General Health Law. The author wonders what has been done and what has been left undone, on the degree of implementation of the Community model that adopts the law and its future sustainability. It highlights, among the strengths, the loss of hegemony of the psychiatric hospital and the great development of alternative resources, and seeks to explain the reason for the inadequacies of care, policy and training, as well as threats: the changes in the management of social and health services, increased privatization of services, the theoretical impoverishment and changing demands of the population. PMID:22212830
Resolution of some of the issues identified by communities in planning comprehensive community mental health services is critical to movement from the planning stage to program development and operation. These issues relate both to the relationship of the local mental health system and to other major community systems: e.g., the general health system, the anti-poverty program and multijurisdictional political systems,
Elizabeth Reichert Smith
This study compared parental psychiatric symptom severity, and the absence or presence of severe substance abuse, as predictors of contact with minor children for a representative sample of adults with diagnoses of serious mental illness (N = 45). Child contact and psychiatric symptom severity were measured during regularly scheduled 6-month…
Jones, Danson; Macias, Rosemarie Lillianne; Gold, Paul B.; Barreira, Paul; Fisher, William
The World Federation for Mental Health was founded as an international apolitical organization concerned with quality of life rather than merely the absence or prevention of mental illness. An examination of the manner and extent to which mental problems arise in different cultural settings can provide data needed to understand the relationship…
A 1992 one-Sunday fund-raising TV-show was broadcasted by the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation. The six-hour TV-show included information on mental health intermingled with entertainment and money-counting results. The mass media had covered the forthcoming TV-show extensively. The campaign has been evaluated through a stratified random sample of the population who were questioned before (n = 1,191) and after (n = 644) the campaign. Almost 94% were aware of the campaign and more than 60% watched the campaign day TV-show. Nearly 70% had read about psychiatric disorders and 45% had discussed the campaign topic with others. The proportion who were aware that suicide takes more lives than traffic accidents, and the proportion with an open attitude to mental illness had increased significantly after the campaign (p < 0.001). After the campaign, a higher proportion would recommend a person with a minor mental disorder to visit a general practitioner (p < 0.001). Through its penetrating effect the Norwegian Mental Health Campaign put mental health issues on the cultural agenda, and succeeded in changing people's knowledge and attitudes. PMID:8928111
Sřgaard, A J; Fřnnebř, V
Background The size and increasing burden of disease due to mental disorders in Europe poses substantial challenges to its population and to the health policy of the European Union. This warrants a specific research agenda concerning clinical mental health research as one of the cornerstones of sustainable mental health research and health policy in Europe. The aim of this research was to identify the top priorities needed to address the main challenges in clinical research for mental disorders. Methods The research was conducted as an expert survey and expert panel discussion during a scientific workshop. Results Eighty-nine experts in clinical research and representing most European countries participated in this survey. Identified top priorities were the need for new intervention studies, understanding the diagnostic and therapeutic implications of mechanisms of disease, and research in the field of somatic-psychiatric comorbidity. The “subjectivity gap” between basic neuroscience research and clinical reality for patients with mental disorders is considered the main challenge in psychiatric research, suggesting that a shift in research paradigms is required. Conclusion Innovations in clinical mental health research should bridge the gap between mechanisms underlying novel therapeutic interventions and the patient experience of mental disorder and, if present, somatic comorbidity. Clinical mental health research is relatively underfunded and should receive specific attention in Horizon 2020 funding programs. PMID:25061300
van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M; van Os, Jim; Knappe, Susanne; Schumann, Gunter; Vieta, Eduard; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lewis, Shôn W; Elfeddali, Iman; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Linszen, Donald; Obradors-Tarragó, Carla; Haro, Josep Maria
Within the ROAMER project, funded by the European Commission, a survey was conducted with national associations/organizations of psychiatrists, other mental health professionals, users and/or carers, and psychiatric trainees in the 27 countries of the European Union, aiming to explore their views about priorities for mental health research in Europe. One hundred and eight associations/organizations returned the questionnaire. The five most frequently selected research priorities were early detection and management of mental disorders, quality of mental health services, prevention of mental disorders, rehabilitation and social inclusion, and new medications for mental disorders. All these areas, except the last one, were among the top ten research priorities according to all categories of stakeholders, along with stigma and discrimination. These results seem to support the recent argument that some rebalancing in favor of psychosocial and health service studies may be needed in psychiatric research. PMID:23737426
Fiorillo, Andrea; Luciano, Mario; Del Vecchio, Valeria; Sampogna, Gaia; Obradors-Tarragó, Carla; Maj, Mario
Objective The objective was to identify trajectories of recovery from serious mental illnesses. Methods 177 members (92 women, 85 men) of a not-for-profit integrated health plan participated in a 2-year mixed methods study of recovery. Diagnoses included: schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, or affective psychosis. Data sources included: self-reported standardized measures, interviewer-ratings, qualitative interviews, and health plan data. Recovery was conceptualized as a latent construct, factor analyses computed and factor scores saved to calculate trajectories. Cluster analyses were used to identify individuals with similar trajectories. Results Four trajectories were identified—two stable (high and low) and two fluctuating (higher and lower). Few demographic or diagnostic factors differentiated clusters at baseline. Discriminant analyses for trajectories found differences in mental health symptoms, physical health, satisfaction with mental heath clinicians, resources and strains, satisfaction with medications, and service use. Those with higher scores on recovery factors had fewer mental heath symptoms, better physical health, greater satisfaction with mental health clinicians, fewer strains/greater resources, less service use, better quality care, and greater medication satisfaction. Consistent predictors of trajectories included: mental health symptoms, physical health, resources and strains, and use of psychiatric medications. Conclusions Having access to good quality mental health care—defined as including satisfying relationships with clinicians, responsiveness to needs, satisfaction with psychiatric medications, services at levels that are needed, support that can help manage deficits in resources and strains, and care for medical conditions—may facilitate recovery. Providing such care may alter recovery trajectories. PMID:23999823
Green, Carla A.; Perrin, Nancy A.; Leo, Michael C.; Janoff, Shannon L.; Yarborough, Bobbi Jo H.; Paulson, Robert I.
Mental Health Service Users (MHSU) are becoming increasingly recognized as very valuable contributors to the research process. The current study originated from the idea of a group of MHSU within a service user and carer research group. They wanted to investigate the attitudes of mental health staff towards clients in an acute mental health setting, as well as their attitudes towards certain aspects of service. An amended version of the 'Attitudes Towards Acute Mental Health Scale' was sent to nursing and allied staff at an acute psychiatric unit within the Gloucestershire 2gether NHS Foundation Trust. Fifty-seven of the 200 anonymous questionnaires were returned. Generally positive opinions of MHSU were obtained, but there were divided opinions on questions regarding the aetiology of mental health problems (e.g. social vs. genetic determinants). Opinions on aspects of the admissions process, therapeutic aspects of care, the use of medication and the use of control and restraint techniques were also obtained. Demographic variables of staff age, status and years of experience in mental health were found to be associated with attitudes and opinions. This MHSU-initiated study has extended the literature on mental health staff attitudes towards clients and services in an acute mental health setting. This study is split into two parts, Part A is focused on the process of involving MHSU in this project, Part B is concerned with the empirical investigation. PMID:22591380
Tyson, P J
Despite mandates for Head Start programs to provide mental health services to families and children, considerable variability remains in the level and type of services provided by mental health consultants. A qualitative study was conducted to explore staff perceptions about the role of mental health consult- ants and, in particular; the ways in…
Green, Beth L.; Simpson, Jennifer; Everhart, Maria C.; Vale, Elizabeth; Gettman, Maria Garcia
There is a critical need for research to examine the changing mental health services system, to evaluate major innovations in the provision of mental health treatment, and to remove existing barriers to comprehensive and cost-effective care. To achieve these aims, collaboration is needed among government agencies, mental health services programs, academic institutions, and the private sector. The National Institute of Mental Health supports research and research training on the mental health services system primarily through the Division of Biometry and Applied Sciences. This article focuses on the division's three priority research areas of the mental health services system: the provision of mental health care in the primary care sector, the organization and delivery of care for the chronically mentally ill, and financing and reimbursement of care. The various mechanisms of research support are also highlighted. PMID:2831177
Taube, C A; Burns, B J
On 11 March 2011, a devastating earthquake struck off the coast of Japan, causing blustering tsunami that swept over the northeast coast of the country. Many struggled to evacuate from their homes, schools, and workplaces as 8- to 9-m-tall tsunami rapidly reached the coast within half an hour after the earthquake (Emergency Disaster Response Headquarters). The officials reported a record-breaking magnitude of 9.0 Mw, which made this earthquake the most devastating earthquake in the Japan's history. It had not been long since the previous massive earthquake had hit Kobe in 1995, killing 6,434 people (Japan Meteorological Agency). The author presents the outline of the initial mental-health-care responses at various levels. It has focused on the comprehensive strategies and policies that were intended to cover all the affected areas but has not described the individual countermeasures and reactions in each prefecture and city. The psychological effects of the atomic plant accident in Fukushima has not been mentioned in detail, because the scope of the physiological effect of the accident has not been settled yet and the society is not necessarily ready to deal with the accident as a psychological matter rather than a sociopolitical one. A number of psychiatric professionals are deeply concerned with the psychological and prolonged impact of the accident, including those who are in the Fukushima prefecture and conducting heroic efforts to care for the residents. PMID:25511720
Background: World Health Organization (WHO) is in the process of revising the International Classification of Diseases 10 (ICD-10). For increasing the acceptability of the ICD-11, WHO along with World Psychiatric Association (WPA), conducted a survey of psychiatrists around the world, in which 386 psychiatrists from India participated. Aim: To present the findings of “WPA-WHO Global Survey of Psychiatrists’ Attitudes toward Mental Disorders Classification” for Indian psychiatrists who participated in the survey as members of Indian Psychiatric Society. Methodology: The online survey was sent to qualified psychiatrists who are members of Indian Psychiatric Society and are residing in India. Results: Of the 1702 members who were urged to participate in the survey, 386 (22.7%) participated. Most(79%) of the psychiatrists opined that they use formal classificatory systems in their day-to-day clinical practice. ICD-10 was the most commonly (71%) followed classificatory system. Nearly half (48%) felt the need for only 10–30 categories for use in clinical settings and another 44% opined that 31-100 categories are required for use. Most of the participants (85%) suggested that a modified/simpler classificatory system should be designed for primary care practitioners. Similarly, the same number of participants (89%) argued that for maximum utility of a nosological system diagnostic criteria should provide flexible guidance that allows cultural variation and clinical judgement. About 75% opined that the diagnostic system they were using was difficult to apply across cultures. Conclusion: Findings of the survey suggest that classificatory systems are routinely used in day-to-day practice by most of the participating psychiatrists in India and most expect that future classificatory system should provide flexible guidance that allows cultural variation and clinical judgement.
Avasthi, Ajit; Grover, Sandeep; Maj, Mario; Reed, Geoffrey; Thirunavukarasu, M.; Garg, Uttam Chand
Little is known about how psychiatric services respond to service users’ experiences of domestic violence. This qualitative meta-synthesis examined the healthcare experiences and expectations of mental health service users experiencing domestic violence. Twenty-two biomedical, social science, grey literature databases and websites were searched, supplemented by citation tracking and expert recommendations. Qualitative studies which included mental health service users (aged ? 16 years) with experiences of domestic violence were eligible for inclusion. Two reviewers independently extracted data from included papers and assessed quality. Findings from primary studies were combined using meta-synthesis techniques. Twelve studies provided data on 140 female and four male mental health service users. Themes were generally consistent across studies. Overarching theoretical constructs included the role of professionals in identifying domestic violence and facilitating disclosures, implementing personalized care and referring appropriately. Mental health services often failed to identify and facilitate disclosures of domestic violence, and to develop responses that prioritized service users’ safety. Mental health services were reported to give little consideration to the role of domestic violence in precipitating or exacerbating mental illness and the dominance of the biomedical model and stigma of mental illness were found to inhibit effective responses. Mental health services often fail to adequately address the violence experienced by mental health service users. This meta-synthesis highlights the need for mental health services to establish appropriate strategies and responses to domestic violence to ensure optimal care of this vulnerable population. PMID:25137109
Trevillion, Kylee; Hughes, Bryony; Feder, Gene; Borschmann, Rohan; Oram, Siân
M-Psychiatry: Sensor Networks for Psychiatric Health Monitoring Jesse Blum, Prof. Evan Magill, PAM can be seen as an M-Psychiatry2 project. An M-Psychiatry solution could provide patients and clini issues in- volved in an M-Psychiatry solution to this type of data collection and transmission problem
Magill, Evan H.
Insomnia is strongly associated with certain mental health problems in the general population. However, there is little research examining this relation in young adults-an age group where many mental health problems first present. This study examined relations between insomnia and mental health symptoms in a college population (N = 373; 60.9% women; mean age of 21 years). Insomnia was assessed via self-report and sleep diaries, and mental health was assessed via the Symptom Check List-90. Analyses revealed insomnia was prevalent (9.4%), and these young adults had significantly more mental health problems than those without insomnia, although some significant results were lost after controlling for comorbid health problems. PMID:21491233
Taylor, Daniel J; Gardner, Christie E; Bramoweth, Adam D; Williams, Jacob M; Roane, Brandy M; Grieser, Emily A; Tatum, Jolyn I
Objective: This paper reports a study performed to investigate and assess the mental health as well as the demographic characteristics of nurses to examine their mental health status based on four physical, anxiety, social-function and depression items. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was accomplished on 86 nurses working at three hospitals, affiliated to Iranian health ministry, in Ilam city(western Iran) all the cases were selected by purposeful sampling method. Data was collected by a two-part questionnaire containing individual data and GHQ -28 Standardized Questionnaire. The GHO-28 was developed by Goldberg, in 1978, as a screening tool to detect those likely to have or be at risk of developing psychiatric disorders. The GHQ-28 is a 28-item measure of emotional distress in medical settings. Analysis was done by SPSS 18 software. Results: The majority of participants were females(50.6 vs.49.4) of 35-40 years old(27.2% ), 84 percent were married(vs.16%), 35.8 percent with 10-15 years of record(vs.33.3% less than 5), 22.2% with 5-10, and 8.6% with more than 15-years of work record. The majority of participants have worked in surgical wards of hospitals. The analysis of GHQ results showed that 43.2%(n=35) of participants were suspected to suffer from mental disorders(vs.56.8% n=46 healthy participants); of all the suspected cases, 12.3% were supposed to have physical symptoms, 16% anxiety symptoms, 42% social dysfunction, and 6.2% symptoms of depression. In general, the participants demonstrated a Mean±SD of mental health score equal to 23.65±9.43. Conclusion: Research results showed that the high prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among nurses is alarming. It was concluded that providing efficient adequate and appropriate support services for this group can result in more healthy nurses as well as promotion of public health. PMID:25386506
Taghinejad, Hamid; Kikhavani, Sattar; Jaafarpour, Molouk; Azadi, Arman
A large existing academic disaster mental health literature provides a foundation to help guide disaster mental health response. Recent studies, however, have indicated that reconceptualization of certain mental health aspects of disasters may be indicated to guide further research to inform the planning and implementation of disaster mental health interventions. In particular, there is need to more carefully measure specific postdisaster disorders and syndromes using full diagnostic assessments, differentiate pre-existing from incident (new) postdisaster psychopathology, appropriately consider disaster trauma exposure groups in assessing psychopathology, and conduct prospective follow-up assessments over time from the acute postdisaster period to the long term. Further descriptive and longitudinal research is needed to better characterize the occurrence and course of fully-assessed psychiatric disorders after different disasters, clarify the role of disaster trauma exposures in the development of postdisaster psychopathology, and deconstruct confounding effects in determination of causalities in mental health consequences of disasters. PMID:25138235
North, Carol S
We examined the influence of mental health service use on outpatient health service use among female veterans. We conducted a retrospective and correlational study of treatment-seeking women and their pattern of health service use and the relationship between mental health and somatoform symptoms and service use. Data were obtained from a self-report measure designed to screen for mental and somatoform symptoms and from a federally maintained database of all outpatient contacts. Women who used mental health services were more likely to have a greater number of non-mental health visits than women who did not. The most commonly endorsed somatoform symptoms were feeling tired or having low energy and pain in extremities and joints. These symptoms were correlated with non-mental health service use, as were back pain, menstrual pain or problems, and trouble sleeping. We conclude that a history of somatoform symptoms might increase rates of health service use despite treatment for mental problems. PMID:11799806
Forneris, Catherine A; Bosworth, Hayden B; Butterfield, Marian I
The purpose of this study was to examine mental health treatment use among Vietnam Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder and determine whether undergoing major surgery interrupted mental health treatment or increased the risk of psychiatric hospitalization. Using retrospective data from Veterans Health Administration's electronic medical record system, a total of 3320 Vietnam-era surgery patients with preoperative posttraumatic stress disorder were identified and matched 1:4 with non-surgical patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. The receipt of surgery was associated with a decline in overall mental health treatment and posttraumatic stress disorder-specific treatment 1?month following surgery but not during any subsequent month thereafter. Additionally, surgery was not associated with psychiatric admission. PMID:25305191
Tsan, Jack Y; Stock, Eileen M; Greenawalt, David S; Zeber, John E; Copeland, Laurel A
Presented is a speech by Bertram Brown, director of the National Institute of Mental Health, on the effects of decreased federal funding of mental health research. Brown notes that there has been a 56% slash in the purchasing power of the research grant program when inflation is accounted for. It is suggested that causes of the dwindling support…
Brown, Bertram S.
As someone who has been involved in college mental health in three different roles, the author would say those who work in this field inhabit a strange space. College mental health centers are generally seen as somewhat peripheral to the core mission of universities by upper administration. Counseling centers do not reside within academic…
The author, a superintendent of schools, discusses a rising tide of social and emotional needs among school children as educators struggle with the issue of whether to deal with students' mental health issues. Readers are asked to consider this statement from "Children's Mental Health: Developing a National Action Agenda," a report prepared by the…
The effect of unemployment on mental health was examined with meta-analytic methods across 237 cross-sectional and 87 longitudinal studies. The average overall effect size was d = 0.51 with unemployed persons showing more distress than employed persons. A significant difference was found for several indicator variables of mental health (mixed…
Paul, Karsten I.; Moser, Klaus
An integrative review of literature was undertaken to examine the impact of children's mental health on their school success. The literature confirmed a confluence of problems associated with school performance and child and adolescent mental health. Poor academic functioning and inconsistent school attendance were identified as early signs of…
DeSocio, Janiece; Hootman, Janis
In this article, the author contends that to understand the concern over student mental health, one must first consider what students are reporting about themselves. Students with mental health issues are intellectually capable; rising numbers of accepted students with diagnosed psychological conditions confirm this. However, many conditions…
The report contains summaries of 176 pilot projects demonstrating new and innovative approaches for training mental health personnel. Projects were conducted under grants awarded by the Experimental and Special Training Branch of the Division of Manpower and Training Programs, National Institute of Mental Health. The projects have been developed…
Simon, Ralph, Ed.; And Others
As the evidence base for the study of mental health problems develops, there is a need for increasingly rigorous and systematic research methodologies. Complex questions require complex methodological approaches. Recognising this, the MRC guidelines for developing and testing complex interventions place qualitative methods as integral to each stage of intervention development and implementation. However, mental health research has lagged behind
Advance directives are designed to establish a person's preferences for treatment if the person becomes incompetent in the future or unable to communicate those preferences to treatment providers. Mental health advance directives are similar to the more commonly used directives for end-of-life medical decisions. A patient must be competent to execute a mental health advance directive, and the directive must
Debra S. Srebnik; John Q. La Fond
The Center for Studies of Child and Family Mental Health has made an assessment of national programs during the last decade, and found that the Nation took the course of child-centered intervention programs for mental health. There were many startling and promising programs developed during that time such as Head Start. However, many of the…
Nichols, Edwin J.; And Others
In Pakistan, societal attitudes and norms, as well as cultural practices (Karo Kari, exchange marriages, dowry, etc.), play a vital role in women's mental health. The religious and ethnic conflicts, along with the dehumanizing attitudes towards women, the extended family system, role of in-laws in daily lives of women, represent major issues and stressors. Such practices in Pakistan have created the extreme marginalisation of women in numerous spheres of life, which has had an adverse psychological impact. Violence against women has become one of the acceptable means whereby men exercise their culturally constructed right to control women. Still, compared to other South Asian countries, Pakistani women are relatively better off than their counterparts. PMID:16633458
Media representation of mental illness has received growing research attention within a variety of academic disciplines. Cultural and media studies have often dominated in this research and discussion. More recently healthcare professionals have become interested in this debate, yet despite the importance of this subject only a selection of papers have been published in professional journals relating to nursing and healthcare. This paper examines the way in which mental illness in the United Kingdom is portrayed in public life. Literature from the field of media studies is explored alongside the available material from the field of mental healthcare. Three main areas are used to put forward an alternative approach: film representation and newspaper reporting of mental illness; the nature of the audience; and finally the concept of myth. The paper concludes by considering this approach in the context of current mental health policy on mental health promotion. PMID:12755914
Background The objective of this international comparative study is to describe and compare the mental health policies in seven countries of Eastern Europe that share their common communist history: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Moldova, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia. Methods The health policy questionnaire was developed and the country-specific information was gathered by local experts. The questionnaire includes both qualitative and quantitative information on various aspects of mental health policy: (1) basic country information (demography, health, and economic indicators), (2) health care financing, (3) mental health services (capacities and utilisation, ownership), (4) health service purchasing (purchasing organisations, contracting, reimbursement of services), and (5) mental health policy (policy documents, legislation, civic society). Results The social and economic transition in the 1990s initiated the process of new mental health policy formulation, adoption of mental health legislation stressing human rights of patients, and a strong call for a pragmatic balance of community and hospital services. In contrast to the development in the Western Europe, the civic society was suppressed and NGOs and similar organizations were practically non-existent or under governmental control. Mental health services are financed from the public health insurance as any other health services. There is no separate budget for mental health. We can observe that the know-how about modern mental health care and about direction of needed reforms is available in documents, policies and programmes. However, this does not mean real implementation. Conclusions The burden of totalitarian history still influences many areas of social and economic life, which also has to be taken into account in mental health policy. We may observe that after twenty years of health reforms and reforms of health reforms, the transition of the mental health systems still continues. In spite of many reform efforts in the past, a balance of community and hospital mental health services has not been achieved in this part of the world yet. PMID:24467832
Rates of mental health difficulties were investigated among children in substitute care across five childcare teams in Craigavon and Banbridge H+SS Trust. A total of 64 children were assessed using a behavioural screening instrument. Results indicate that more than 60% of 4-10 year olds assessed may have a diagnosable psychiatric disorder. The…
Teggart, Tom; Menary, Joanne
...2013-10-01 false Comprehensive mental health program. 441.106 Section... § 441.106 Comprehensive mental health program. (a) If the plan...and implementing a comprehensive mental health program. (b) The program...
Master of Education Degree Program Clinical Mental Health Counseling information about field experiences in the clinical mental health counseling program students develop requisite counseling skills and direct knowledge of mental health
Duchowski, Andrew T.
...2012-10-01 false Comprehensive mental health program. 441.106 Section... § 441.106 Comprehensive mental health program. (a) If the plan...and implementing a comprehensive mental health program. (b) The program...
...2012-10-01 false Outpatient mental health treatment limitation. 410...Benefits § 410.155 Outpatient mental health treatment limitation. (a...liability amounts for outpatient mental health services subject to the...
REPORT OF THE PROVOSTIAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON STUDENT MENTAL HEALTH October 2014 The University of Toronto Student Mental Health Strategy and Framework #12;Report of the Provostial Advisory Committee on Student Mental Health 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS Executive Summary
...2011-10-01 false Outpatient mental health treatment limitation. 410...Benefits § 410.155 Outpatient mental health treatment limitation. (a...liability amounts for outpatient mental health services subject to the...
...2010-10-01 false Comprehensive mental health program. 441.106 Section... § 441.106 Comprehensive mental health program. (a) If the plan...and implementing a comprehensive mental health program. (b) The program...
...2011-10-01 false Comprehensive mental health program. 441.106 Section... § 441.106 Comprehensive mental health program. (a) If the plan...and implementing a comprehensive mental health program. (b) The program...
...2013-10-01 false Outpatient mental health treatment limitation. 410...Benefits § 410.155 Outpatient mental health treatment limitation. (a...liability amounts for outpatient mental health services subject to the...
Enhancement of mental health literacy is a mental health promotion strategy that may be effective at destigmatizing mental illness and increasing self-seeking behavior. Transitions is a mental health literacy program intended to heighten students' awareness and discussion of mental health problems and promote help-seeking behaviors. Transitions…
Potvin-Boucher, Jacqueline; Szumilas, Magdalena; Sheikh, Tabinda; Kutcher, Stan
Depression is among the most common psychiatric disorders seen in mental health practices. Although effective treatments for the condition exist, managed care pressures providers to utilize empirically supported, cost-effective treatments. Behavioral activation (BA) treatment for depression has emerged in recent years as a promising, cost-effective intervention for major depressive disorder. If its effectiveness could be established, BA delivered through a
Jeffrey F. Porter; C. Richard Spates; Sean Smitham
The authors report the development and initial psychometric evaluation of gender-specific brief screening instruments to identify undetected psychiatric impairment on incarceration. Women and men completed the Correctional Mental Health Screen (CMHS), a 56-item screen derived from validated measures. Representative subsamples completed structured…
Ford, Julian D.; Trestman, Robert L.; Wiesbrock, Valerie; Zhang, Wanli
We studied 9,220 children referred to a comprehensive mental health crisis stabilization program to examine the impact of caregiver capacity on crisis worker decisions to refer children for intensive community-based treatment as opposed to inpatient psychiatric hospitalization. Due to the different role of caregivers in the child welfare system,…
Epstein, Richard A.; Jordan, Neil; Rhee, Yong Joo; McClelland, Gary M.; Lyons, John S.
Objective: Inpatient psychiatric care of adolescents should, where possible, be provided in specialized units. However, admission of adolescent patients to adult mental health units does occur. There is a paucity of data about this practice. This study collates information about the experience, attitudes and knowledge of clinical staff regarding the care of adolescent patients in adult psychiatry units within Northern
Genevieve Curran; Garry Walter; Nerissa Soh; Michael Herman; Martin Baker; Michael Paton; Liz Newton; Simon Byrne
Objective: This study examines whether the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) can be used as an accurate psychiatric screening tool for children in community mental health settings. Method: Associations, logistic regression models, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were used to test the predictive relationship between the CBCL and…
Rishel, Carrie W.; Greeno, Catherine; Marcus, Steven C.; Shear, M. Katherine; Anderson, Carol
The community mental health (CMH) system provides treatment for behavioral and psychiatric problems in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Although parent stakeholder perspectives are important to improving care, these perspectives have not been systematically examined for this population in the CMH sector. Twenty-one semi-structured…
Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Baker-Ericzen, Mary; Stadnick, Nicole; Taylor, Robin
Introduction Morale and job perception of staff in community mental health care may influence feasibility and quality of care, and some research has suggested particularly high burnout of staff in the community. The aims of this study were to: a) assess morale, i. e. team identity, job satisfaction and burnout, in psychiatrists, community psychiatric nurses and social workers in community
Stefan Priebe; Walid K. H. Fakhoury; Karin Hoffmann; Richard A. Powell
The authors explored attitudes toward adults with mental illness. Results suggest that mental health trainees and professionals had less stigmatizing attitudes than did non-mental-health trainees and professionals. Professionals receiving supervision had higher mean scores on the Benevolence subscale than did professionals who were not receiving…
Smith, Allison L.; Cashwell, Craig S.
Objectives The goals of this study were to uncover the criteria by which centenarians, proxy/caregivers, and interviewers rated centenarians' mental health. Often proxy and interviewer reports are obtained in studies of the oldest-old and become a primary source of information. Methods Data were from a population-based sample of mentally competent US centenarians in northern Georgia. The dependent variables were based on alternative reports for the centenarians' mental or emotional health. Regression analysis was used to predict each source's rating of mental health separately with the same set of variables. These variables included information obtained from the centenarians and proxies about their distal experiences, demographics, and proximal resources including Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), health, personality, socioeconomic resources, and coping behaviors. Results Examination of mean-level differences between sources revealed similarity across mental health ratings. For centenarians and proxies, perceived economic status was a very important predictor of mental health. For centenarians and interviewers, personality (neuroticism and extraversion) was an important common predictor. The interviewer and proxy mental health ratings were strongly associated with MMSE, but that was not the case for centenarians. Conclusion Mean-level findings and the comparative regression results provide corroborating evidence that centenarians' self-reports of mental health are similar based on average ratings and presence of common associations with other raters (i.e., perceived economic status and personality). Implications of differences across rater pairs are discussed as guidance about the comparative value of substitution of proxies as informants for addressing specific influences on mental health. PMID:19888703
MacDonald, Maurice; Martin, Peter; Margrett, Jennifer; Poon, Leonard W.
This paper presents the findings of a qualitative project conducted to investigate the education and training requirements that non-mental health trained emergency nurses need to enable them to effectively care for psychiatric patients presenting to a West Australian emergency department. Non-mental health trained nurses are ill-equipped in their psychiatric knowledge, assessment and communication skills to provide best possible care to the one in ten patients presenting to the emergency department with a complex mental health issue. The area of assessment and management of mental health patients in the emergency department is a complex one and staff are required to assess, triage and manage these patients appropriately. Furthermore, with aggression and violence increasing, emergency department nurses are concerned about their safety in the workplace. Focus groups with emergency nurses and semi-structured interviews with subject matter experts were conducted at one West Australian teaching hospital. The findings of the project demonstrated that these nurses considered that customer focus, workplace aggression and violence, psychiatric theory, mental health assessment and chemical dependence as key learning areas. These findings will form a platform for further education and training for ED staff. PMID:17198753
Kerrison, Shirilee A; Chapman, Rose
This selective review describes recent literature and the author's experience with mental illness and mental health care, and the impact of cultural transformation on mental health in some Arab Islamic cultures, particularly in Egypt, Qatar and Kuwait. Traditional extended Arab families provide a structure for their members that may sometimes prevent and or compensate for the effects of parental loss and mental disability. The role of traditional families in the care of members and in medical decision-making is discussed. The impact of cultural change on Arab culture is also examined, as is the effect of intergenerational conflict in traditional families. PMID:19091731
Fakhr El-Islam, M
Objective: Primary care physicians are increasingly providing psychiatric care in the United States. Unfortunately, there is limited learning opportunity or exposure to psychiatry during their residency training. This survey was conducted to assess primary care resident interaction with mental health professionals and their satisfaction, knowledge, preference, and comfort with the delivery of mental health care in primary health care settings. Method: On the basis of available published literature, a 20-question survey was formulated. Following receipt of the institutional review board’s approval, these questions were sent via e-mail in February 2012 to internal and family medicine residents (N = 108) at 2 teaching hospitals in southwest Virginia. Analysis of the electronically captured data resulted in a response rate of 32%. Descriptive analysis was used to examine the results. Results: The responses were equally divided among male and female residents and family medicine and internal medicine residents. There were several interesting findings from the survey. No correlations were noted between the gender of residents, type or location of the medical school, or having had a psychiatric rotation during residency and the reported comfort level treating patients with psychiatric illness or the desire to see psychiatric patients in the future. A positive correlation was found between the residents’ training level and their belief about the percentage of mental health providers who have mental health problems. Conclusions: The current training model to acclimate primary care residents to the field of mental health appears to have major limitations. Results of this pilot survey can serve as a guide to conduct prospective, multicenter studies to identify and improve psychiatric training for primary care residency programs. PMID:25664216
Sharma, Taral; Alishayev, Ilya; Mingoia, Joseph; Vance, John Eric; Ali, Rizwan
Social support has achieved national attention as a key component of the mental health recovery paradigm for persons with serious mental illness (SMI). The aim of this study was to investigate the amount of variance accounted for by four social tie characteristics (social network orientation, emotional support, tangible support, and negative…
Chou, Chih-Chin; Chronister, Julie Ann
An approach to health education placing individual emotional development at the core of the curriculum is presented in the belief that mental health is the key to successfully transmitting good health attitudes. (MB)
Swisher, John D.
Background The study attempted to explore the quality of life (QoL) of Chinese caregivers with mentally ill relatives. It also aimed to examine the differential roles of caregiving burdens, caregiver characteristics, and satisfaction with psychiatric services in caregivers' QoL. Methods 276 caregivers with relatives attending community psychiatric facilities in Hong Kong were invited to fill out a questionnaire. One sample t-tests were conducted to compare the results of this study with that of other Chinese populations in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and mainland China. A hierarchical regression analysis was performed to examine the relative influence of different factors on caregivers' QoL. Results Our sample of caregivers had significantly lower QoL scores than other Chinese populations. Results also suggest that Chinese caregivers who had chronic illness, younger in age, a lower education level, experienced more difficulties in handling negative symptoms, and were more dissatisfied with mental health services had poorer quality of life. Indeed, caregiver characteristics displayed a much stronger association with caregivers' QoL than did caregiving burdens and satisfaction with psychiatric services. Conclusions This study supports the strong association of caregiver characteristics and the QoL of caregivers and establishes the nature of the relationship between satisfaction with mental health services and caregiver QoL. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:22289443
This paper is based on a presentation by Dr Oguisso to the First Hamburg World Forum on Mental Health, 11 June 1994, for the Standing Committee of Presidents of International Non-Governmental Organizations Concerned with Mental Health Issues. Over recent years, the International Council of Nurses (ICN) has been concerned that health providers are sometimes not adequately prepared to give quality care and that resources are often well below those targeted for other sectors of the health care system. In 1991 the ICN chose 'Mental Health--Nurses in Action' as the theme for International Nurses Day on 12 May. With the help of the ICN-provided educational kits, national nurses' associations updated nurses on the problems and informed the public that nurses as a group can provide many of the mental health services to people and answer their families needs. PMID:7773704
Although mental disorders are a major public health problem, the development of mental health services has been a low priority everywhere, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Recent years have seen a growing understanding of the importance of population mental health and increased attention to the need to develop mental health systems for responding to population mental health service needs. In countries and regions where mental health services are all but nonexistent, and in postconflict and postdisaster settings, there are many impediments to establishing or scaling up mental health services. It is frequently necessary to act simultaneously on multiple fronts: generating local evidence that will inform decision makers; developing a policy framework; securing investment; determining the most appropriate service model for the context; training and supporting mental health workers; establishing or expanding existing services; putting in place systems for monitoring and evaluation; and strengthening leadership and governance capabilities. This article presents the approach of the Centre for International Mental Health in the Melbourne School of Population Health to mental health system development, and illustrates the way in which the elements of the program are integrated by giving a brief case example from Sri Lanka. PMID:22335181
There is a large gulf between what psychiatric services should (or could) provide and what they do in practice. This article sought to determine practice differences between the differing professions working in adult mental health services in terms of their family focused work. Three hundred and seven adult mental health professionals completed a cross-sectional survey of family focused practices in adult mental health services. Findings highlight that social workers engaged in more family focused practice compared to psychiatric nurses, who performed consistently the lowest on direct family care, compared to both social workers and psychologists. Clear skill, knowledge, and confidence differences are indicated between the professions. The article concludes by offering direction for future profession education and training in family focused practices. PMID:24945363
Maybery, Darryl; Goodyear, Melinda; O'Hanlon, Brendan; Cuff, Rose; Reupert, Andrea
Understanding the management of people seeking voluntary psychiatric hospitalization who do not meet the criteria for inpatient admission: a qualitative study of mental health liaison nurses working in accident and emergency departments in the north of England.
Mental health liaison nurses assess people who self-present at accident and emergency departments seeking inpatient admission, however not all presentations meet the criteria for admission. Little is known about how liaison nurses manage this client group. This qualitative study explored how liaison nurses manage this client group. This study used the think aloud technique to recreate clinical scenarios of clients requesting admission who do not meet the criteria for such admission. Participants were then subsequently interviewed. Eighteen liaison nurses working in hospitals across the North of England participated. Data were analysed using framework analysis methods. Findings indicate that the liaison nurses use a variety of therapeutic skills and methods in managing this client group. Liaison nurses were found to 'sell' crisis and home-based treatment as an equivalent, or superior in quality, to hospital care. However, the existing evidence base does not fully support this assertion. Liaison nurses face numerous difficulties in this role. In the absence of any formalized training, liaison nurses rely on their own clinical knowledge and expertise. Implications for future service provision and further research are discussed. PMID:25634871
Hepworth, Iain; McGowan, Linda
This article summarizes the conception and diagnosis of the mental health continuum, the findings supporting the two continua model of mental health and illness, and the benefits of flourishing to individuals and society. Completely mentally healthy adults—individuals free of a 12-month mental disorder and flourishing—reported the fewest missed days of work, the fewest half-day or greater work cutbacks, the healthiest
Corey L. M. Keyes
Mental disorders are associated with premature mortality, and the magnitudes of risk have commonly been estimated using hospital data. However, psychiatric patients who are hospitalized have more severe illness and do not adequately represent mental disorders in the general population. We conducted a national cohort study using outpatient and inpatient diagnoses for the entire Swedish adult population (N=7,253,516) to examine the extent to which mortality risks are overestimated using inpatient diagnoses only. Outcomes were all-cause and suicide mortality during 8 years of follow-up (2001–2008). There were 377,339 (5.2%) persons with any inpatient psychiatric diagnosis, vs. 680,596 (9.4%) with any inpatient or outpatient diagnosis, hence 44.6% of diagnoses were missed using inpatient data only. When including and accounting for prevalent psychiatric cases, all-cause mortality risk among persons with any mental disorder was overestimated by 15.3% using only inpatient diagnoses (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 5.89; 95% CI, 5.85–5.92) vs. both inpatient and outpatient diagnoses (aHR, 5.11; 95% CI, 5.08–5.14). Suicide risk was overestimated by 18.5% (aHRs, 23.91 vs. 20.18), but this varied widely by specific disorders, from 4.4% for substance use to 49.1% for anxiety disorders. The sole use of inpatient diagnoses resulted in even greater overestimation of all-cause or suicide mortality risks when prevalent cases were unidentified (~20–30%) or excluded (~25–40%). However, different methods for handling prevalent cases resulted in only modest variation in risk estimates when using both inpatient and outpatient diagnoses. These findings have important implications for the interpretation of hospital-based studies and the design of future studies. PMID:23806577
Ioannidis, John P. A.; Sundquist, Kristina; Winkleby, Marilyn A.; Sundquist, Jan
OBJECTIVE To examine public school teachers’ perceptions about general health and mental health, and the way in which they obtained this information. METHODS Qualitative research was conducted with 31 primary and secondary school teachers at a state school in the municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010. The teachers responded to a questionnaire containing open-ended questions about mental health and general health. The following aspects were evaluated: Teachers’ understanding of the terms “health and “mental health,” the relevance of the need for information on the subject, the method preferred for obtaining information, their experience with different media regarding such matters, and perceptions about the extent to which this available information is sufficient to support their practice. The data were processed using the Qualiquantisoft software and analyzed according to the Discourse of the Collective Subject technique. RESULTS From the teachers’ perspective, general health is defined as the proper physiological functioning of the body and mental health is related to the balance between mind and body, as a requirement for happiness. Most of the teachers (80.6%) showed great interest in acquiring knowledge about mental health and receiving educational materials on the subject. For these teachers, the lack of information creates insecurity and complicates the management of everyday situations involving mental disorders. For 61.3% of the teachers, television is the medium that provides the most information on the topic. CONCLUSIONS The data indicate that there is little information available on mental health for teachers, showing that strategies need to be developed to promote mental health in schools.
Soares, Amanda Gonçalves Simőes; Estanislau, Gustavo; Brietzke, Elisa; Lefčvre, Fernando; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca
Seven models for conceptualizing positive mental health are reviewed: mental health as above normal, epitomized by a DSM-IV’s Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) score of over 80; mental health as the presence of multiple human strengths rather than the absence of weaknesses; mental health conceptualized as maturity; mental health as the dominance of positive emotions; mental health as high socio-emotional intelligence; mental health as subjective well-being; mental health as resilience. Safeguards for the study of mental health are suggested, including the need to define mental health in terms that are culturally sensitive and inclusive, and the need to empirically and longitudinally validate criteria for mental health. PMID:22654934
VAILLANT, GEORGE E.
Background To evaluate physical and mental health in children in foster care and comparison with general population. Methods: The study is carried out between September 2011 and April 2012 into nine group homes in Rome. It involved 112 children ranging in age 2–17 years, living in temporary care facilities or institutes. All data came out of clinical history and physical exams, validated by a pediatrician. Such data were being then compared with samples of general population. Results: Significant themes were high percentage of children with psychiatric disorders in foster care (22.3%); high percentage of psychiatric disorders diagnosed immediately while arriving at the foster care (56%); no significant differences in weight, height and BMI between children in foster care and general population; significant differences (P<0.05) for allergy, gastrointestinal diseases and caries between children in foster care and general population. Conclusion: The results suggest that the physical health of children in group homes is no worse than that of children living care in their own homes and that the foster care provides necessary conditions to support the growth of the children and their physical, mental and social needs. PMID:23785675
FERRARA, Pietro; ROMANI, Lorenza; BOTTARO, Giorgia; IANNIELLO, Francesca; FABRIZIO, Giovanna Carmela; CHIARETTI, Antonio; ALVARO, Francesco
Despite substantial attention in the past decade to the co-morbidity of mental health problems among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), these problems remain a significant barrier to maintaining health and secondary prevention. To address these issues, program staff from the Center for Mental Health Research on AIDS at the NIMH convened a meeting on 19th and 20th July 2007 to discuss the intersection of mental health and HIV. The conveners brought together leaders in the fields of mental illness and HIV to discuss current gaps in the research related to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of mental disorders among PLWHA, and how attention to mental health can affect a variety of health outcomes. Attendees were asked to discuss key questions that, if addressed through empirical investigation, could move the field toward the aim of reducing or alleviating the burden of mental illness for those living with HIV disease. The purpose of this brief report is to summarize this meeting's proceedings, overview key points of discussion, and outline areas that may be useful to consider for clinical researchers in the field. PMID:19057989
Grossman, Cynthia I; Gordon, Christopher M
A large body of research has documented public attitudes toward people with mental illness. The current attitudes of the people who provide services to those with psychiatric disorders are important to understand, as well. The authors review what studies over the past 5 years reveal about the attitudes of psychiatric professionals. Empirical…
Wahl, Otto; Aroesty-Cohen, Eli
Although mental disorders are a major public health problem, the development of mental health services has been a low priority everywhere, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Recent years have seen a growing understanding of the importance of population mental health and increased attention to the need to developmental health systems for responding to population mental health service needs. In countries and regions where mental health services are all but nonexistent, and in postconflict and postdisaster settings, there are many impediments to establishing or scaling up mental health services. It is frequently necessary to act simultaneously on multiple fronts: generating local evidence that will inform decision makers; developing a policy framework; securing investment; determining the most appropriate service model for the context; training and supporting mental health workers; establishing or expanding existing services; putting in place systems for monitoring and evaluation; and strengthening leadership and governance capabilities. This article presents the approach of the Centre for International Mental Health in the Melbourne School of Population Health to mental health system development, and illustrates the way in which the elements of the program are integrated by giving a brief case example from Sri Lanka. (harv rev psychiatry 2012;20:37–46.) PMID:22335181
Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) may be at increased risk for mental health problems including depression, post-traumatic stress (PTSD), and suicidality. The overriding goal of the current investigation was to examine mental health and mental health services in a diverse sample of YMSM. We analyzed cross-sectional data from a cohort study of 598 YMSM, including sociodemographics, mental health, and mental health care. We then tested for bivariate associations, and used multivariable modeling to predict depression, PTSD, suicidality and mental health care utilization. Lower socioeconomic status, unstable housing, and school non-enrollment predicted depression and PTSD scores, while unstable housing and school non-enrollment predicted recent suicide attempt(s). These recent suicide attempt(s) also predicted current utilization of counseling or treatment, any history of psychiatric hospitalization, and any history of psychiatric diagnosis. Black and API men were less likely to have ever accessed mental health counseling or treatment. There were significant class-based differences with regard to mental health outcomes, but not mental health services. Further, recent crises (i.e., suicide attempt, hospitalization) were strong predictors of accessing mental health services. Improving the mental health of YMSM requires addressing the underlying structural factors that influence mental health outcomes and service access. PMID:24224066
Storholm, Erik David; Siconolfi, Daniel E.; Halkitis, Perry N.; Moeller, Robert W.; Eddy, Jessica A.; Bare, Michael G.
Analysis of a 1,090-household survey in metropolitan Toronto, Ontario, shows that community mental health facilities generate externality fields that include such effects as fears of the negative impact on property values, traffic volumes, and residential satisfaction. There are also strongly neutral respondents who do not anticipate any impact on their neighborhoods. The spatial extent of the externality effect of mental
MICHAEL DEAR; S. MARTIN TAYLOR; G. B. HALL
This report, based on a survey conducted during the summer and fall of 1986, identifies culturally sensitive training programs for professionals, paraprofessionals, and others who provide mental health services to refugees. An introductory section discusses the language, cultural, racial, experiential, and socioeconomic factors of refugee mental…
Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Refugees Assistance Program - Mental Health Technical Assistance Center.
The theme issue of this bulletin is a discussion of youth with emotional disturbances who are in the juvenile justice system and how to meet their needs. Articles include: (1) "Responding to the Mental Health Needs of Youth in the Juvenile Justice System" (Susan Rotenberg); (2) "Prevalence of Mental Disorders among Youth in the Juvenile Justice…
McManus, Marilyn C., Ed.
Background The recent adoption of China's new national mental health law provides a good opportunity to obtain baseline information about community mental health literacy in the country. Aim Assess knowledge and attitudes about mental disorders among residents in Shanghai. Methods A total of 1953 residents aged 15 or above selected from all 19 districts in Shanghai completed two self-report questionnaires – the Mental Health Knowledge Questionnaire (MHKQ) and the Case Assessment Questionnaire (CAQ). MHKQ total scores range from 0 to 20 (higher scores indicate better mental health literacy). The CAQ presents respondents with five case vignettes and possesses nine questions after each vignette measuring respondents' knowledge and attitudes towards these mental illnesses. Results Correct response rates for the 20 MHKQ items ranged from 26 to 98%, with a mean rate of 72%. The internal consistency (alpha) of the 20 items on the MHKQ was 0.69, but this decreased to 0.59 after removing four items about mental health promotion. A 5-factor model for the 20 items in the MHKQ was identified using exploratory factor analysis on one-half of the surveys, but the model was only partially validated in the confirmatory factor analysis using the second half of the surveys. On the CAQ, rates of correct recognition of mania, depression, schizophrenia with positive symptoms, schizophrenia with negative symptoms and anxiety were 42%, 35%, 30%, 19% and 21%, respectively. Work stress (37.3%), problems with thinking (30.0%) and negative life events (24.4%) were reported to be the three main causes of mental disorders. Seeing a counselor (34.2%) or a psychiatrist (33.3%) were the two most common suggestions for help-seeking. Higher education and younger age were related with better mental health literacy and higher rates of recognition of common mental disorders. Conclusions Mental health literacy in Shanghai appears to be increasing, but the reliability and validity of the instruments used to assess mental health literacy (MHKQ and CAQ) have not been adequately assessed so this result must be considered preliminary. Further work, preferably including both qualitative and quantitative components, is needed to revise these instruments before they can be used to assess the effectiveness of mental health promotion campaigns. PMID:24991160
Wang, Jingyi; He, Yanling; Jiang, Qing; Cai, Jun; Wang, Weiling; Zeng, Qingzhi; Miao, Juming; Qi, Xuejun; Chen, Jianxin; Bian, Qian; Cai, Chun; Ma, Ning; Zhu, Ziqing; Zhang, Mingyuan
Herbal medicine is being increasingly used by women to prevent diseases, promote health and treat different diseases including a number of psychiatric disorders. The use of herbal drugs is increasing in the western world. The use of herbal drugs during pregnancy has been studied to various extents in different countries. However, more information is required regarding the impact of herbal
This paper examines the concept of catastrophic experience, its relationship to the range of acute and prolonged stressors to which women may be exposed and the broad impacts on their mental health and well-being. It identifies catastrophe in terms of multiple accumulated stresses including death, loss, victimization, demoralization, shame, stigmatization, helplessness and identity. Catastrophic experiences include personal violence in domestic circumstances of intimate partner abuse, sexual assault and child physical and sexual abuse. Women's experiences of loss through the violent deaths of children and loved ones may also have such enduring impacts. Terrorism victimizes men and women in this way, with the enduring impacts for women in terms of threat of ongoing attacks as well as acute effects and their aftermath. The catastrophes of war, conflict, genocide, sexual exploitation and refugee status differentially affect large numbers of women, directly and through their concerns for the care of their children and loved ones. Ultimate catastrophes such as Hiroshima and the Holocaust are discussed but with recognition of the very large numbers of women currently experiencing catastrophe in ongoing ways that may be silent and unrecognized. This is significant for clinical care and population impacts, and in the losses for women across such contexts. PMID:18058439
Raphael, Beverley; Taylor, Mel; McAndrew, Virginia
Vitamin D receptors and vitamin D metabolizing enzymes are present in the central nervous system. Calcitriol (the active vitamin D hormone) affects numerous neurotransmitters and neurotrophic factors, relevant for mental disorders. In the case of depressive disorders, considerable evidence supports a role of suboptimal vitamin D levels. However, the data are not conclusive and further studies are necessary. Especially, the relative importance of the pineal-melatonin system versus the vitamin D-endocrine system for the pathogenesis of seasonal affective disorders is presently unresolved. Two diagnoses, schizophrenia and autism, have been hypothetically linked to developmental (prenatal) vitamin D deficiency, however, also in adult patients, low levels have been reported, supporting the notion that vitamin D deficiency may not only be a predisposing developmental factor but also relate to the adult patients' psychiatric state. Two cases are described, whose psychiatric improvement coincided with effective treatment of vitamin D deficiency. PMID:20800506
Humble, Mats B
... 2014-10-01 false Outpatient mental health treatment limitation. 410...SMI Benefits § 410.155 Outpatient mental health treatment limitation. (a...in connection with the treatment of a mental, psychoneurotic, or personality...
by high-risk behavior8 . Mental illness is associated with both risky sexual behavior and substance abuse behavior. This is particularly concerning since the overall contribution of mental illness to the global sexual partners over a 12-month period.8 Tlaleletso UPDATES IN HIV: Diagnosing & managing ILLNESS
Crisis Text Line supports people with mental health issues through texting. Unfortunately, support is limited by the number of counselors and the time each counselor has for clients, as well as the cognitive load on ...
Chen, Ge (Ge Jackie)
Background General psychiatric and forensic psychiatric beds, supported housing and the prison population have been suggested as indicators of institutionalized mental health care. According to the Penrose hypothesis, decreasing psychiatric bed numbers may lead to increasing prison populations. The study aimed to assess indicators of institutionalized mental health care in post-communist countries during the two decades following the political change, and to explore whether the data are consistent with the Penrose hypothesis in that historical context. Methodology/Principal Findings General psychiatric and forensic psychiatric bed numbers, supported housing capacities and the prison population rates were collected in Azerbaijan, Belarus, Croatia, Czech Republic, East Germany, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Poland, Romania, Russia and Slovenia. Percentage change of indicators over the decades 1989–1999, 1999–2009 and the whole period of 1989–2009 and correlations between changes of different indicators were calculated. Between 1989 and 2009, the number of general psychiatric beds was reduced in all countries. The decrease ranged from ?11% in Croatia to ?51% in East Germany. In 2009, the bed numbers per 100,000 population ranged from 44.7 in Azerbaijan to 134.4 in Latvia. Forensic psychiatric bed numbers and supported housing capacities increased in most countries. From 1989–2009, trends in the prison population ranged from a decrease of ?58% in East Germany to an increase of 43% in Belarus and Poland. Trends in different indicators of institutionalised care did not show statistically significant associations. Conclusions/Significance After the political changes in 1989, post-communist countries experienced a substantial reduction in general psychiatric hospital beds, which in some countries may have partly been compensated by an increase in supported housing capacities and more forensic psychiatric beds. Changes in the prison population are inconsistent. The findings do not support the Penrose hypothesis in that historical context as a general rule for most of the countries. PMID:22715387
Mundt, Adrian P.; Fran?iškovi?, Tanja; Gurovich, Isaac; Heinz, Andreas; Ignatyev, Yuriy; Ismayilov, Fouad; Kalapos, Miklós Péter; Krasnov, Valery; Mihai, Adriana; Mir, Jan; Padruchny, Dzianis; Poto?an, Matej; Raboch, Ji?í; Taube, M?ris; Welbel, Marta; Priebe, Stefan
Background: Promoting mental health and preventing mental disorders are of the main concerns for every country. Achieving these goals requires effective indexes for evaluating mental health. Therefore, to develop mental health enhancement programs in Iran, there is a need to measure the state of mental health in Iran. Objectives: This study aimed to select a set of mental health indicators that can be used to monitor the status of mental health in Iran. Materials and Methods: This research work used Q-methodology which combines both quantitative and qualitative research methods for establishment of mental health indicators in Iran. In this study, 30 participants were chosen by purposive sampling from different types of professionals in the field of mental health. Results: Twenty seven mental health indicators were obtained from the Q-methodology. The most important indicators obtained in this study are as follows: annual prevalence of mental disorders, suicide rates, number of mental health professionals, mental health expenditures and suicide related deaths. Conclusions: This study provides mental health indices for measuring mental health status in Iran. These mental health indices can be used to measure progress in the reform policies and community mental health services. PMID:24719740
Mohamadi, Khosro; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Fathi Ashtiani, Ali; Azad Fallah, Parviz; Ebadi, Abbas; Yahaghi, Emad
Traditionally the treatment of mental illness has been a responsibility of state governments, but they have been unable to solve the problem with any degree of success. In spite of rationalizations as to why a health department should not become involved in this field, more and more local health departments in California and across the nation are initiating various services in mental health. With the widespread interest in mental health at national and state levels and in local citizens' groups, local health officers must involve themselves in this most difficult effort. While the treatment of the emotionally disturbed and the psychotic is demanded most aggressively by the public which seeks outpatient, inpatient, and rehabilitation services on the local level, two services—consultation and education-information services—offer more hope in the promotion of mental health as contrasted with the treatment of mental illness. PMID:14021000
Chope, H. D.
ABSTRACT Background: Meta-analyses show efficacy of several psychological and pharmacological interventions for late-life psychiatric disorders, but generalization of effects to routine mental health care for older people remains unknown. Aim of this study is to investigate the improvement of functioning within one year of referral to an outpatient mental health clinic for older adults. Methods: Pre-post measurement of the Health of Nations Outcome Scale 65+ (HoNOS 65+) in 704 older people referred for psychiatric problems (no dementia) to any of the seven participating mental health care organizations. Results: The pre-post-test Cohen's d effect size was 1.08 in the total group and 1.23 in depressed patients, the largest subgroup. Linear regression identified better functioning at baseline, comorbid personality disorder, somatic comorbidity and life events during treatment as determinants of a worse outcome. Conclusions: Functioning of older persons with psychiatric problems largely improves after treatment in routine mental health care. PMID:24758711
Veerbeek, Marjolein A; Oude Voshaar, Richard C; Pot, Anne Margriet
Training institutions need to do a more adequate job in socializing students early and continuously for the role of community mental health researcher. While psychology is singled out to illustrate this thesis, all the disciplines that make up the community mental health team could profitably be examined from this standpoint. The university climate in which psychologists are reared is examined and nuclear shortcomings in respect to basic trust, feelings of competence, and sense of identity are dramatized. PMID:24186607
Baler, L A
Three studies were conducted to examine the mental health stereotypes about gay men among college student and therapist trainee\\u000a samples. Results from Study 1 indicated that (a) college students and therapist trainees endorsed a stereotype of the mental\\u000a health of gay men that was similar in terms of its content and strength, and (b) the stereotype was consistent with five
Guy A. Boysen; David L. Vogel; Stephanie Madon; Stephen R. Wester
Background The aim of the current study was to investigate feasibility, response, and consequences of mental health screening and intervention\\u000a in a population study setting.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods In the Intervention study against Depression and Anxiety in Nord-Trndelag (IDANT), all GPs and psychiatric nurses were invited\\u000a to a psychiatric educational programme prior to the Health Study of Nord-Trndelag County, Norway (HUNT 2, 1995–1997). Included
Ottar Bjerkeset; Alv A. Dahl; Eystein Stordal; Nils Hĺvard Dahl; Marit Bjartveit Krüger; Olav Linaker
Background This study presents the life- time, 12-month, and 1-month prevalence estimates of nine psychiatric and alcohol disorders in Ukraine assessed as part of the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) research pro- gram. The Ukraine WMH survey is the first psychiatric epidemiologic study in a former Soviet Union country to administer a structured psychiatric interview to a
Evelyn J. Bromet; Semyon F. Gluzman; Volodymyr I. Paniotto; Charles P. M. Webb; Nathan L. Tintle; Victoria Zakhozha; Johan M. Havenaar; Zinoviy Gutkovich; Stanislav Kostyuchenko; Joseph E. Schwartz
This first Report of the Surgeon General on Mental Health represents the initial step in advancing the notion that mental health is fundamental to general health. It states that a review of research on mental health revealed two findings. First, the efficacy of treatment is well documented, and second, a range of treatment exists for most mental…
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Mental Health Services.
emotional distress and/or mental health issues. As key members of UW-Milwaukee's caring community, faculty and staff are encouraged to be supportive of students experiencing emotional distress and/or mental health with appropriate resources and services. Definitions: Mental Health: Mental health is a state of well
This DataWatch explores the roles of human service sectors (mental health, education, health, child welfare, and juvenile justice) in providing mental health services for children. The data are from the first wave of the Great Smoky Mountains Study of Youth, a population-based study of psychopathology and mental health service use among children. The results show somewhat higher rates of mental
Barbara J. Burns; E. Jane Costello; Adrian Angold; Dan Tweed; Dalene Stangl; Elizabeth M. Z. Farmer; Al Erkanli
NEW YORK CITY DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND MENTAL HYGIENE Thomas Farley, MD, MPH Commissioner New York City Department of Health & Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) 2014 Mental Health Scholarship Program One Year MENTAL HEALTH SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM: Letter of Intent due February 14, 2014 DEADLINE FOR SSSW AT HUNTER
People with serious mental illness have higher rates of mortality and morbidity due to physical illness. In part, this occurs because primary care and other health providers sometimes make decisions contrary to typical care standards. This might occur because providers endorse mental illness stigma, which seems inversely related to prior personal experience with mental illness and mental health care. In this study, 166 health care providers (42.2% primary care, 57.8% mental health practice) from the Veteran?s Affairs (VA) medical system completed measures of stigma characteristics, expected adherence, and subsequent health decisions (referral to a specialist and refill pain prescription) about a male patient with schizophrenia who was seeking help for low back pain due to arthritis. Research participants reported comfort with previous mental health interventions. Path analyses showed participants who endorsed stigmatizing characteristics of the patient were more likely to believe he would not adhere to treatment and hence, less likely to refer to a specialist or refill his prescription. Endorsement of stigmatizing characteristics was inversely related to comfort with one?s previous mental health care. Implications of these findings will inform a program meant to enhance VA provider attitudes about people with mental illness, as well as their health decisions. PMID:24774076
Corrigan, Patrick W; Mittal, Dinesh; Reaves, Christina M; Haynes, Tiffany F; Han, Xiaotong; Morris, Scott; Sullivan, Greer
Describes the mental-health and medical services provided at a high-school-based service center. Five years after the center's inception mental health visits had quadrupled. One third of students utilizing the center reported substance abuse within their family. Other reasons for center use included pregnancy, suicidal ideation, obesity,…
Jepson, Lisa; Juszczak, Linda; Fisher, Martin
BACKGROUND: The psychiatric morbidity among prison inmates is substantially higher than in the general population. We do, however, have insufficient knowledge about the extent of psychiatric treatment provided in our prisons. The aim of the present study was to give a comprehensive description of all non-pharmacological interventions provided by the psychiatric health services to a stratified sample of prison inmates.
Ellen Kjelsberg; Paal Hartvig; Harald Bowitz; Irene Kuisma; Peder Norbech; Aase-Bente Rustad; Marthe Seem; Tom-Gunnar Vik
Urgent action is needed to address mental health issues globally. In Africa, where mental health disorders account for a huge burden of disease and disability, and where in general less than 1% of the already small health budgets are spent on these disorders, the need for action is acute and urgent. Members of the World Health Organization, including African countries, have adopted a Comprehensive Mental Health Action Plan. Africa now has an historic opportunity to improve the mental health and wellbeing of its citizens, beginning with provision of basic mental health services and development of national mental health strategic plans (roadmaps). There is need to integrate mental health into primary health care and address stigma and violations of human rights. We advocate for inclusion of mental health into the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, and for the convening of a special UN General Assembly High Level Meeting on Mental Health within three years. PMID:24931476
Daar, Abdallah S.; Jacobs, Marian; Wall, Stig; Groenewald, Johann; Eaton, Julian; Patel, Vikram; dos Santos, Palmira; Kagee, Ashraf; Gevers, Anik; Sunkel, Charlene; Andrews, Gail; Daniels, Ingrid; Ndetei, David
Given their knowledge of the behavioral issues related to psychiatric illness, mental health care providers are in a unique position to help prevent HIV among women with severe mental illness (SMI). We conducted in-depth interviews with providers at two New York City community clinics. We identified three major, interrelated themes pertaining to HIV prevention among women of color with SMI. Interventions that address the barriers that clinicians face in discussing sex, sexuality, and HIV with patients and train providers in the cultural considerations of cross-cultural mental health care are needed to help prevent HIV among women of color with SMI. PMID:23394326
Agénor, Madina; Collins, Pamela Y.
Over the last decades the interest in evaluating mental health care has greatly increased, in particular with regard to the possibilities to evaluate the health care process. It is connected with three processes: decentralization of psychiatric services, increasing significance of the treatment within the community and evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of mental health care programmes. There is a lack of tools to describe the process of providing mental health care. One of these tools is The International Classification of Mental Health Care (ICMHC) which has been elaborated by A. de Jong. The ICMHC is designed to give a description and classification of procedures and interventions delivered within mental health facilities. The ICMHC introduces the term of a module of care. It is an organizational or functional unit, which provides mental health care or psychosocial rehabilitation. The package of available care needs within the module of care can be described with ten modalities of care. The modality of care is a category including all interventions covering together mental health care in that facility. The ICMHC is a questionnaire used to assess the therapeutic process within the EDEN project in Poland, which was founded by the EC in 2000-2003. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the tool in Poland is still inconsiderable. PMID:20209876
Piotrowski, Patryk; Cia?kowska, Magdalena; Kiejna, Andrzej
Annual Conference on Advancing School Mental Health Theme: "What Works in School Mental Health: Collaboration from the Inside Out" Early Bird Pre-Conference Training Opportunity--Youth Mental Health First Aid USA Want to become a Youth Mental Health First Aider? This Early Bird Pre-Conference opportunity
Weber, David J.
Treatment Research in Mental Illness: Improving the Nation's Public Mental Health Care through NIMH Funded Interventions Research Report of the National Advisory Mental Health Council's Workgroup on Clinical Trials EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The mission of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH
Baker, Chris I.
The present study examined current and lifetime psychiatric morbidity, chest pain, and health care utilization in 229 patients with noncardiac chest pain (NCCP), angina-like pain in the absence of cardiac etiology. Diagnostic interview findings based on the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.; "DSM-IV"; American…
White, Kamila S.; Raffa, Susan D.; Jakle, Katherine R.; Stoddard, Jill A.; Barlow, David H.; Brown, Timothy A.; Covino, Nicholas A.; Ullman, Edward; Gervino, Ernest V.
Mental health professionals are increasingly beingcalled upon by the courts to offer their expertise inchild custody and access disputes. This paperaddresses the specialized role mental healthprofessionals have in custody and access hearings,particularly in cases wherein one or both parents havereceived a mental diagnosis (i.e., of mental disorderor mental retardation). The focus upon thispopulation of parents is warranted, as there is
Creativity and its link with mental health have always been much speculated about. However there have been a handful of methodologically sound studies to clearly establish the relationship between creativity and mental health. The objective of the study therefore was to examine the psychiatric morbidity stress profile, coping skills and personality profile in creative versus non-creative populations. Forty writers, 40 musicians and 40 controls chosen after randomization, who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria constituted the sample of the study. All the subjects were administered GHQ-28; SCAN for all GHQ positives (and 10% of GHQ-ves), Perceived stress scale and coping check list and NEO-FFI. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 11.0 version. Pearson's correlation, Chi-square and ANOVA one-way tests were used. The present study corroborated the findings of earlier studies in 70's and 80's that there was no difference between creative and non-creative groups in terms of mental illness and stress profile. The writers differed significantly from the other two groups on religious and faith domain of coping skills. The two creative groups had similar personality characteristics and scored significantly high on all dimensions compared to the non-creative group. PMID:20640063
Pavitra, K. S.; Chandrashekar, C. R.; Choudhury, Partha
The Regional Aboriginal Integrated Social and Emotional (RAISE) Wellbeing program commenced in February 2003 as an Aboriginal mental health service partnership between one Aboriginal Health Service and three mainstream services: a community mental health team, a hospital mental health liaison, and an "outback" community counselling service. A case study method was used to describe the drivers (incentives for program development), linkage processes (structures and activities through which the partnership operated), and sustainability of the program. Program drivers were longstanding problems with Aboriginal peoples' access to mental health care, policy direction favouring shared service responsibility, and a relatively small amount of new funding for mental health that allowed the program to commence. Linkage processes were the important personal relationships between key individuals. Developing the program as a part of routine practice within and across the partner organisations is now needed through formal agreements, common care-management tools, and training. The program's sustainability will depend on this development occurring, as well as better collection and use of data to communicate the value of the program and support calls for adequate recurrent funds. The development of care-management tools, training and data systems will require a longer period of start-up funding as well as some external expertise. PMID:16296956
Fuller, Jeffrey D; Martinez, Lee; Muyambi, Kuda; Verran, Kathy; Ryan, Bronwyn; Klee, Ruth
As the nation's schools seek to fulfill the academic imperatives of the federal No Child Left Behind Act and associated state imperatives, they may be forgetting an important missing element in boosting academic achievement: directly confronting the mental health and psychosocial needs that impede a significant percentage of children and adolescents. This article explores the available research on mental health
Steve Jacob; Alberto Coustasse
, eatingDepression, anxiety, substance abuse, eating disorders, and other serious mental healthdisorders%), and suicidal thoughts (10%) that highlight the need for adequate(10%) that highlight the need for adequate mental health caremental health care #12;Connecting the DotsConnecting the Dots Different people may have
Rainforth, Emma C.
Objective Self-reported general health and mental health are independent predictors of all-cause mortality. This study examines whether they are also independent predictors of incident cancer, coronary heart disease and psychiatric hospitalisation. Methods We conducted a retrospective, population cohort study by linking the 19 625 Scottish adults who participated in the Scottish Health Surveys 1995–2003, to hospital admissions, cancer registration and death certificate records. We conducted Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for potential confounders including age, sex, socioeconomic status, alcohol, smoking status, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes. Results Poor general health was reported by 1215 (6.2%) participants and was associated with cancer registrations (adjusted Hazard Ratio [HR] 1.30, 95% CI 1.10, 1.55), coronary heart disease events (adjusted HR 2.30, 95% CI 1.86, 2.84) and psychiatric hospitalisations (adjusted HR 2.42, 95% CI 1.65, 3.56). There was evidence of dose relationships and the associations remained significant after adjustment for mental health. 3172 (16%) participants had poor mental health (GHQ ?4). After adjustment for general health, the associations between poor mental health and coronary heart disease events (adjusted HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.13, 1.63) and all-cause death (adjusted HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.23, 1.55) became non-significant, but mental health remained associated with psychiatric hospitalisations (fully adjusted HR 2.02, 95% CI 1.48, 2.75). Conclusion Self-reported general health is a significant predictor of a range of clinical outcomes independent of mental health. The association between mental health and non-psychiatric outcomes is mediated by general health but it is an independent predictor of psychiatric outcome. Individuals with poor general health or mental health warrant close attention. PMID:24705574
Ul-Haq, Zia; Mackay, Daniel F.; Pell, Jill P.
May is National Mental Health Awareness Month. This is a great time to highlight the importance of mental wellness and school-based mental health services to children's positive learning and development. There is heightened urgency to the imperative to advance school-based mental health and school psychologists' expertise as essential to the…
Cowan, Katherine C.
Background: Youth with psychiatric disorders are at increased risk of tobacco use. Outpatient mental health settings have received little investigation for delivering tobacco treatment. This study obtained formative data to guide development of a tobacco cessation program for transitional age youth with co-occurring psychiatric disorders with a focus on outpatient mental health settings. Methods: Applying qualitative methods, we analyzed transcripts from interviews with 14 mental health clients (aged 16–23) and 8 mental health providers. Results: The youth identified internal (nicotine addiction and mood), social, parental, and media influences to their use of tobacco. Providers’ viewed youth tobacco use as a normative developmental process, closely tied to management of psychiatric symptoms, supported by parents, and of lower priority relative to youth alcohol and illicit drug use. Youth and providers believed that clinicians can do more to address tobacco use in practice and emphasized nonjudgmental support and nondirective approaches. Top recommended quitting strategies, however, differed notably for the youth (cold turkey, support from friends, physical activity, hobbies) and providers (cessation pharmacotherapy, cessation groups, treatment referrals). Conclusions: Mental health providers’ greater prioritization of other substances and view of youth smoking as developmentally normative and a coping strategy for psychopathology are likely contributing to the general lack of attention to tobacco use currently. Integrating care within mental health settings would serve to reach youth in an arena where clinical rapport is already established, and study findings suggest receptivity for system improvements. Of consideration, however, is the apparent disconnect between provider and youth recommended strategies for supporting cessation. PMID:23322765
Career guidance may have the potential to promote public health by contributing positively to both the prevention of mental health conditions and to population level well-being. The policy implications of this possibility have received little attention. Career guidance agencies are well placed to reach key target groups. Producing persuasive…
Robertson, Peter J.
Although the first student health service is credited to Amherst College in 1861, almost 50 years passed before Princeton University established the first mental health service in 1910. At that time, a psychiatrist was hired to help with student personality development. Although other schools subsequently established such services, the first 50…
Kraft, David P.
Contact with people with mental illness is considered to be a promising strategy to change stigmatizing attitudes. This study examines the underlying mechanisms of the association between contact and attitudes toward community mental health care. Data are derived from the 2009 survey "Stigma in a Global Context-Belgian Mental Health Study", using the Community Mental Health Ideology-scale. Results show that people who received mental health treatment themselves or have a family member who has been treated for mental health problems report more tolerant attitudes toward community mental health care than people with public contact with people with mental illness. Besides, the perception of the effectiveness of the treatment seems to matter too. Furthermore, emotions arising from public contact are associated with attitudes toward community mental health care. The degree of intimacy and the characteristics of the contact relationship clarify the association between contact and attitudes toward community mental health care. PMID:23179045
Pattyn, E; Verhaeghe, M; Bracke, P
\\u000a The purpose of this chapter is to offer a mental health theory approach to law and aging. Key issues regarding legal capacity,\\u000a mental competence, guardianship, and substitute decision making for older persons are presented as a core around which elder\\u000a law is established. A critical perspective describes how legal concepts of capacity are used to conceal legal bias and ageism
W. C. Schmidt
Current evidence suggests that the rise in home foreclosures that began in 2007 created feelings of stress, vulnerability, and sapped communities of social and economic resources. Minority and low SES communities were more likely to be exposed to predatory lending and hold subprime mortgages, and were the hardest hit by the foreclosure crisis. Little research has examined whether and how the foreclosure crisis has undermined population mental health. I use data from 2245 counties in 50 U.S. states to examine whether living in high foreclosure areas is associated with residents' mental health and whether the foreclosure crisis has the potential to exacerbate existing disparities in mental health during the recessionary period. I use county-level data from RealtyTrac and other data sources, and individual-level data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey from 2006 to 2011. I find that - net of time invariant unobserved between-county differences, national time trends, and observed confounders - a rise in a county's foreclosure rate is associated with a decline in residents' mental health. This association is especially pronounced in counties with a high concentration of low SES and minority residents, which supports the perspective that the foreclosure crisis has the potential to exacerbate existing social disparities in mental health. PMID:25084488
Houle, Jason N
Advance directives are designed to establish a person's preferences for treatment if the person becomes incompetent in the future or unable to communicate those preferences to treatment providers. Mental health advance directives are similar to the more commonly used directives for end-of-life medical decisions. A patient must be competent to execute a mental health advance directive, and the directive must clearly express the patient's wishes. Once directives are executed, steps must be taken to ensure compliance, including adequate dissemination to providers, and to ensure that proxy decisions are consistent with the patient's treatment preferences. Potential effects of mental health advance directives include enhanced consumer empowerment; improved functioning; improved communication between consumers, family members, and providers; increased tolerance for consumer autonomy at the organizational level in community mental health agencies; and reduced use of hospital services and judicial proceedings. Issues to be clarified in future research and practice include strategies for increasing awareness of advance directives in mental health, barriers to execution of legally and clinically effective directives, practitioners' concerns, providers' compliance with directives, effects of directives on consumers and providers, effects of managed care on implementation of directives, and stakeholders' perceptions of the value of directives. PMID:10402612
Srebnik, D S; La Fond, J Q
In face with a triple disaster of earthquake, tsunami and nuclear power plant accident, the degrees of which are historically hardly preceded, immediate mental health countermeasure was taken by the initiative of the national and local government together with academic and clinical organizations. Based on previous experience of natural disasters, more than 50 mental health care teams have been organized and dispatched to the affected areas, scheduled by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. When 6 months have passed, the acute and temporal support system should be replaced with more sustainable local networks with aims at promoting resilience, though community psychiatric service should be developed as well. Existing guidelines should be respected but actually it tended to be only partially recognized. In Fukushima prefecture, where nuclear plant accident occurred, its mental health impact is most concerned and long-term follow-up of the residents' health has been being planned. PMID:22670406
Suzuki, Y; Kim, Y
People with serious mental illness have reduced life expectancy compared with a control population, much of which is accounted for by significant physical comorbidity. Frontline clinical staff in mental health often lack confidence in recognition, assessment and management of such 'medical' problems. Simulation provides one way for staff to practise these skills in a safe setting. We produced a multidisciplinary simulation course around recognition and assessment of medical problems in psychiatric settings. We describe an audit of strategic and design aspects of the recognition and assessment of medical problems in psychiatric settings course, using the Department of Health's 'Framework for Technology Enhanced Learning' as our audit standards. At the same time as highlighting areas where recognition and assessment of medical problems in psychiatric settings adheres to these identified principles, such as the strategic underpinning of the approach, and the means by which information is collected, reviewed and shared, it also helps us to identify areas where we can improve. PMID:25425630
Akroyd, Mike; Jordan, Gary; Rowlands, Paul
A Swedish\\/Norwegian head and neck cancer study was designed to assess prospectively the levels of mental distress and psychiatric morbidity in a heterogeneous sample of newly diagnosed head and neck cancer patients. A total of 357 patients were included. The mean age was 63 years, and 72% were males. The patients were asked to answer the HAD scale (the Hospital
E Hammerlid; M Ahlner-Elmqvist; K Bjordal; A Biörklund; J Evensen; M Boysen; M Jannert; S Kaasa; M Sullivan; T Westin
Background When a patient with a serious mental illness expresses a desire for children, mental health professionals are faced with an ethical dilemma. To date, little research has been conducted into their strategies for dealing with these issues. Methods Seven focus groups with a total of 49 participants from all professional groups active in mental health (nurses, psychologists, social workers and psychiatrists) were conducted in a 330-bed psychiatric hospital. Group discussions were transcribed verbatim and analysed by the documentary method described by Bohnsack. Results Mental health professionals did not feel that their patients’ desire for children was as important in daily practice as were parenting issues. When discussing the desire for children on the part of patients, the following themes emerged: “the patient’s own decision”, “neutrality”, “the patient’s well-being”, “issues affecting the children of mentally ill parents” and “appropriate parenthood”. In order to cope with what they perceived as conflicting norms, mental health professionals developed the following (discursive) strategies: "subordination of child welfare", "de-professionalisation", "giving rational advice" and "resignation". Conclusions The theme of “reproductive autonomy” dominated mental health professionals’ discourse on the desire for children among psychiatric patients. “Reproductive autonomy” stood in conflict with another important theme (patient’s children). Treating reproductive issues as taboo is the result of the gap between MHPs’ perceptions of (conflicting) norms when dealing with a patient’s desire for children and the limited opportunities to cope with them appropriately. In order to support both patients with a desire for children and mental health professionals who are charged with providing counselling for such patients, there is a need to encourage ethical reflection and to focus on clinical recommendations in this important area. PMID:24580889
The Tohoku-Pacific Ocean Earthquake, which occurred on March 11, 2011, caused serious damage and resulted in numerous fatalities and almost 20,000 missing persons. Furthermore, a major accident accompanied by exudation of radioactive material occurred in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A statement regarding the victims' mental health was issued by the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology on May 21, 2011, which established the Department of Disaster Psychiatry for the provision and assurance of long-term mental care support for the victims. The Department of Disaster Psychiatry was consequently reformed in April 2012, focusing on the following objectives: to verify the validity of current mental support methods; to ensure disaster psychiatry and medical care in Japan; and to promote human resource development that can respond to future large-scale disasters. Mental health support for disaster victims is of highest priority. However, the mental health of relief personnel, who act as front liners during disasters (i. e., police officers, fire fighters, Self-Defense Forces, and health care workers), has often been neglected. Therefore, countermeasures for the problems faced by relief personnel are indispensable for a more effective reconstruction. Volunteers are also important members of the disaster relief team and they have witnessed the actual tragedy, and some have experienced burnout. Thus, they require sufficient mental health support, as do relief personnel. We thought that the mental health of disaster relief personnel is an important issue; thus, we report their mental health needs, the systematic correspondence to disaster stress, and our works for relief assistance. As first responders, relief personnel even without prior disaster education proceed to the area of disaster and may get injured. We therefore suggest that prior to the occurrence of any disaster, networking, education, and disaster awareness should be advocated among relief personnel and volunteers to safeguard their mental health. However, programs on these subjects remain insufficient. We extend our utmost respect and appreciation to the disaster relief workforce for doing their best to save lives. We hope that this aids in the reconstruction process of such affected areas. PMID:24783446
The author worked as a health policy fellow in the office of Senator Edward M. Kennedy in 1999. These reflections on that experience provide a description of the ambience of working on health policy issues in the US Congress, how the author utilized his community psychiatric knowledge and skills to assist in the process of developing and promoting various health and mental health related issues, and what it was like working in the Kennedy office. In the wake of his death, the Senator's long and influential career and especially his role in advancing health and mental health access and care improvement cannot be overstated. PMID:20091425
Pollack, David A
Mental health is essential for individual and public health. To improve mental health, promotion, prevention, and the treatment of disease are required. These three kinds of interventions are interrelated but independent from one another. Although separate efforts for mental health promotion and prevention are needed as well as the public need of mental health promotion and well-being, psychiatrists usually are not accustomed to mental health promotion and prevention. This review introduces an overview of the concept, subjects according to target populations, and various intervention strategies for mental health promotion and prevention of mental illnesses. Based on literatures to date, understanding of developmental psychology, lifestyle medicine, and biopsychosocial contributors of mental health with a macroscopic perspective might help to practice mental health promotion and illness prevention. PMID:24474978
Min, Jung-Ah; Lee, Chang-Uk
MENTAL HEALTH Mental health workers can take the form of counselors, psychologists, social workers, and clinical diagnosis and treatment. A period of clinical training in mental health facilities usually follows and therapists. Also called psychotherapists, these professionals help patients with mental illnesses
This column reviews the evolution of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) mental health advocacy in relation to modern mental health advocacy efforts. In addition to developments in organized psychiatry (e.g., American Psychiatric Association's LGBT caucus), grassroots LGBT community initiatives are playing an important role (e.g., Trevor Project providing crisis intervention/suicide prevention services to LGBT youth, face-to-face mental health services in LGBT community centers). Studies have found that LGBT individuals are at increased risk for mental health problems (e.g., depression, anxiety, substance misuse, suicidal ideation, self-harm). Mental health advocacy in the LGBT community has been slowed by the long-standing association of the concept of homosexuality with psychopathology in mainstream psychiatry (e.g., homosexuality was only removed from the DSM in 1973, ego dystonic homosexuality still appears in the ICD-10). However, positive developments in LGBT mental health advocacy have been fostered by the proposed minority stress model (i.e., that elevated risk of mental illness in LGBT individuals is a consequence of a hostile stressful environment). A particularly encouraging initiative is the It Gets Better Project, in which thousands of videos, some by prominent individuals, have been posted online to send a message of hope to LGBT youth facing harassment and low self-esteem. PMID:24847996
Mental disorders are diagnosable conditions characterized by changes in thinking, mood, or behavior (or some combination of these) that can cause a person to feel stressed out and impair his or her ability to function. These disorders are common in adolescence. This "Adolescent Health Highlight" presents the warning signs of mental disorders;…
Murphey, David; Barry, Megan; Vaughn, Brigitte
In response to sustained concerns about the capability of the mental health workforce, federal groups have urged educators to adopt a competency-based system for training students in core mental health skills. A particular emphasis is training students to work in integrated systems, intervene with evidence-based practice, and employ culturally relevant therapies. Creating such a program, particularly one delivered online, requires structures that engage students in their own learning and tools for tracking competencies. We report on our competency-based graduate psychiatric mental health nursing program and the unique methods used to track student skill development and clinical reasoning. PMID:21784281
Delaney, Kathleen R; Carlson-Sabelli, Linnea; Shephard, Rebekah; Ridge, Alison
The objective of this descriptive study was to map mental health research in Brazil, providing an overview of infrastructure, financing and policies mental health research. As part of the Atlas-Research Project, a WHO initiative to map mental health research in selected low and middle-income countries, this study was carried out between 1998 and 2002. Data collection strategies included evaluation of governmental documents and sites and questionnaires sent to key professionals for providing information about the Brazilian mental health research infrastructure. In the year 2002, the total budget for Health Research was USD 101 million, of which USD 3.4 million (3.4) was available for Mental Health Research. The main funding sources for mental health research were found to be the Săo Paulo State Funding Agency (FAPESP, 53.2%) and the Ministry of Education (CAPES, 30.2%). The rate of doctors is 1.7 per 1,000 inhabitants, and the rate of psychiatrists is 2.7 per 100,000 inhabitants estimated 2000 census. In 2002, there were 53 postgraduate courses directed to mental health training in Brazil (43 in psychology, six in psychiatry, three in psychobiology and one in psychiatric nursing), with 1,775 students being trained in Brazil and 67 overseas. There were nine programs including psychiatry, neuropsychiatry, psychobiology and mental health, seven of them implemented in Southern states. During the five-year period, 186 students got a doctoral degree (37 per year) and 637 articles were published in Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)-indexed journals. The investment channeled towards postgraduate and human resource education programs, by means of grants and other forms of research support, has secured the country a modest but continuous insertion in the international knowledge production in the mental health area. PMID:16410997
Mari, Jair de Jesus; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Almeida-Filho, Naomar; Gerolin, Jerônimo; Sharan, Pratap; Saxena, Shekhar
In recent years, personality disorders – psychiatric constructs understood as enduring dysfunctions of personality – have come into ever-greater focus for British policymakers, mental health professionals and service-users. Disputes have focussed largely on highly controversial attempts by the UK Department of Health to introduce mental health law and policy (now enshrined within the 2007 Mental Health Act of England and Wales). At the same time, clinical framings of personality disorder have dramatically shifted: once regarded as untreatable conditions, severe personality disorders are today thought of by many clinicians to be responsive to psychiatric and psychological intervention. In this article, I chart this transformation by means of a diachronic analysis of debates and institutional shifts pertaining to both attempts to change the law, and understandings of personality disorder. In so doing, I show how mental health policy and practice have mutually constituted one another, such that the aims of clinicians and policymakers have come to be closely aligned. I argue that it is precisely through these reciprocally constitutive processes that the profound reconfiguration of personality disorder from being an obdurate to a plastic condition has occurred; this demonstrates the significance of interactions between law and the health professions in shaping not only the State’s management of pathology, but also perceptions of its very nature.
Health related non-profit organisations (NPOs) provide a potentially important but largely untapped role in mental health promotion in communities. This paper reports on a study investigating the activities and contributions made by NPOs to mental health and well-being. One hundred and eight NPOs based in the metropolitan area of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, participated in a survey exploring agency activities that contribute to promoting mental well-being; factors that helped or hindered the organisation in engaging in mental health promotion activities and evaluation methods and processes. An index of key themes was developed and frequencies derived from categorical data. NPOs undertook five key types of activities to promote mental health and well-being: support provision (81%); service provision (59%); information sharing (52%); activities to promote well-being (24%); and advocacy (6%). Systematic evaluation of longer-term outcomes was rare, with most NPOs (72%) relying on informal feedback from clients. Human resources in the form of paid or volunteer workers were most frequently (58%) identified as contributing to the capacity of agencies to carry out mental health promotion activities. Training and education emerged as a substantive need (34%). NPOs are well placed to enhance resiliency in the context of ongoing health problems, disability or other adverse psychosocial circumstances that place people at risk of mental health problems. As such they constitute a significant resource for advancing mental health promotion goals. What is needed to extend the practice and evidence base in this area is training and skill development for NPO workers, along with larger-scale research conducted in collaboration with NPOs to assess the contributions and cost-effectiveness of the sector. PMID:17956407
Boyle, Frances M; Donald, Maria; Dean, Julie H; Conrad, Sue; Mutch, Allyson J
The mental health consequences of living with intimate partner violence (IPV) are substantial. Despite the growing awareness of the incidence of depression and PTSD in women experiencing IPV, few studies have examined prospectively the experience of IPV during pregnancy and the impact of the abuse on women’s mental health. As a component of a larger clinical trial of an intervention for pregnant abused women, 27 women participated in a qualitative study of their responses to the abuse in the context of pregnancy and parenting. Results indicate that women’s changing perceptions of self was related to mental distress, mental health, or both mental distress and mental health. PMID:20070224
Rose, Linda; Alhusen, Jeanne; Bhandari, Shreya; Soeken, Karen; Marcantonio, Kristen; Bullock, Linda; Sharps, Phyllis
Located at the National Institutes of Health, NIMH is focused on mental health: Depression, Anxiety Disorders, Alzheimer's Disease, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Schizophrenia, etc. The site contains items of interest to the researcher (news & events, grants, contracts, & committees, and research activities) as well as the lay person (the public information section provides specifics on "mental disorders, diagnosis and treatment," as well as links to other NIMH programs such as D/ART, the Depression Awareness Recognition Treatment Program). Additionally, NIMH organizational and directory information is available. The site can be searched, through either a simple or an advanced search interface.
There is an urgent need for development of methods of assessment and management of sex offenders (rapists, child sex offenders, other sexual offenders, and murderers) to mount a society-wide battle against the scourge of sexual offences in India. This paper provides an overview of theories, models, and assessment methods of rapists. It draws upon literature from psychiatry, psychology, criminology, probation, and ethics to provide a framework for understanding reasons behind rape, how mental health issues are implicated, what mental health professionals can do to contribute to crime management, and why this is ethically right and proper. PMID:24082243
SUMMARY The clinician-patient relationship is more intense in the field of psychiatry than in other specialities of medicine. In this context, an understanding of the personality assets and liabilities of a psychiatrist takes on special significance. In the present comparative cross-sectional study, the personality profile, positive mental health characteristics and empathy were studied in two groups of residents in psychiatry and one in general medicine. Residents in psychiatry had greater amount of positive mental health characteristics and identifiable personality traits. However, in empathy the three groups did not show any significant difference. The utility and implications of the results are discussed. PMID:21927242
Chowdhury, Jyotirmoy Roy; Channabasavanna, S.M.; Prabhu, G.G.; Sarmukaddam, S.
The aim of this study was to describe and interpret interprofessional collaboration between healthcare professionals (HCPs) working at the district psychiatric centre (DPC) and employed in community mental health care (CMHC) using a dialogue-oriented co-operative approach. Data were collected by means of multistage focus groups and qualitative content analysis was performed. The main theme "development of interprofessional collaboration by means of organisational strategies and interactional styles" encompassed the following categories: "improved communication skills," "developing structures for coordination and responsibility" and " increased professional insight into the values and conditions necessary for decision-making." In conclusion, more attention should be paid to leadership in terms of coordination and feedback. The HCPs must be acknowledged, understood and strengthened in their work to improve the quality of CMHC. Finally, we recommend that a range of organisational and administrative models of care be used in order to support improvement work. PMID:24724020
Andvig, Ellen; Syse, Jonn; Severinsson, Elisabeth
The frequent association made in the academic press between poverty and minor and major mental health problems is unfounded. There is absolutely no proof that lack of revenue is the main cause of such a hardship. Poverty is first and foremost an area in society where mostly vulnerable groups congregate, particularly mothers of single-parent families, immigrants and refugees, the unemployed, as well as former psychiatric patients. Problems are also much more concentrated in poor districts with high-rise, multiple dwelling apartment buildings. On a different note, it appears that people with better personal resources occupy middle-class districts. Poverty is definitively not a source of psychological problems unless it is combined with such factors as social isolation, emigration, unemployment or an anomic district. PMID:17093621
The rapid increase in admission rates to mental hospitals in many countries in recent decades threatens to create serious problems. These may be to some extent remediable in that social factors are important in deciding the chances of admission to hospital, as well as the frequency of suicide, which reaches a peak among the aged in most countries. All communities possess valuable assets in the form of existing links between the aged and their families which may be lost by indiscriminate community planning. Although some psychological decline is inevitable during senescence, it is becoming clear that much that once passed for the ineluctable effects of mental and physical aging is due to disease that may be ameliorated or cured. The relationship between mental and physical health is particularly close in old age, and the effective treatment of the aged person with a psychiatric disorder demands the full resources of general medicine as well as psychiatry. For successful rehabilitation a full community service for the aged and proper integration of the work of the family doctor with that of preventive and hospital services are essential. The possibilities of prevention can be enhanced by fostering physical well-being and healthy adjustment during earlier stages of life, as well as by ascertaining, and remedying as far as possible, the mental and physical disorders of the aged in the early stages of their development. There is great scope for biological, medical and sociological research to define reasons for the wide variations in mental and physical well-being in old age. PMID:14439413
The U.S. Surgeon General's report "Mental Health: Culture, Race, and Ethnicity--A Supplement to Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General" (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001) was arguably the best single scholarly contribution on the mental health of ethnic minority groups in the United States. Over 10 years have now elapsed…
Sue, Stanley; Cheng, Janice Ka Yan; Saad, Carmel S.; Chu, Joyce P.
BACKGROUND: Given the high prevalence of mental health problems after disasters it is important to study health services utilization. This study examines predictors for mental health services (MHS) utilization among survivors of a man-made disaster in the Netherlands (May 2000). METHODS: Electronic records of survivors (n = 339; over 18 years and older) registered in a mental health service (MHS)
Dirk-Jan den Ouden; Peter G van der Velden; Linda Grievink; Mattijn Morren; Anja JE Dirkzwager; C Joris Yzermans
Objective: Using Canadian survey data this research provides social workers in Canada with a better understanding of their role in the Canadian mental health care system. Methods: By analyzing data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 Mental Health and Well-being, the role of social workers in the Canadian mental health system was…
Towns, Ashley M.; Schwartz, Karen
This paper reviews issues in planning and delivering mental health services to rural dwelling elderly. First, comparative data on the prevalence of mental illness among rural elderly, and the availability and accessibility of mental health services in rural areas are presented to provide a basis for subsequent discussion. Next, several strategies for improving the development and delivery of geriatric mental
Zona Chalifoux; Jane B. Neese; Kathleen C. Buckwalter; Eugene Litwak; Ivo L. Abraham
Objectives: This study aimed to investigate North Korean refugees’ knowledge of mental illnesses and treatments and analyze the factors affecting this knowledge. Methods: Subjects were selected via a snowball sampling method, and the survey outcomes of 152 North Korean refugee participants were analyzed. The factors affecting knowledge of mental illnesses were analyzed via a regression analysis by constructing a multivariate model with mental illness knowledge score as the dependent variable. Results: The North Korean refugees’ mental illness scores ranged from 3 to 24 points, with an average score of 13.0. Regarding the factors that influence mental illness knowledge, the subjects with South Korean spouses and those who had spent more time in South Korea had higher knowledge scores. Furthermore, the subjects who considered the mental health of North Korean refugees to be a serious issue revealed lower knowledge scores than those who did not believe it was a serious issue. The subjects who visit psychiatric clinics showed higher knowledge scores than those who do not. The South Korean subjects who had at least a college education exhibited higher scores than did those without advanced education. The subjects who are satisfied with life in South Korea manifested a higher mental illness knowledge score than those who are not. Conclusions: This study is significant as being the first study to ever measure and evaluate the level of North Korean refugees’ knowledge of mental illnesses. In addition, the evaluations of North Korean refugees’ mental illness knowledge and influencing factors while residing in South Korea created basic data that formed the foundation of an effort to enhance mental health literacy and provide proper mental health services. The results of this study can be utilized to solve mental health problems that might frequently occur during the unification process of North and South Korea in the future. PMID:25652712
Noh, Jin-Won; Kwon, Young Dae; Yu, Sieun; Park, Hyunchun; Woo, Jong-Min
This essay reviews the Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders, Second Edition, Revised (CCMD-2-R, 1995), by assuming the theoretical stance that symptom recognition, disease construction, and taxonomic strategy in psychiatry reflect, and are constrained by, the cultural norms and values as well as the political and economic organizations of the society in which they are embedded. The CCMD-2-R is an ethnomedical classification grounded in both symptomatology and etiology, in which Chinese psychiatrists seek to conform with international classifications on the one hand, and to sustain a nosology with Chinese cultural characteristics on the other. Although broad similarities between the ICD-10 and CCMD-2-R are evident, their blending is legitimately incomplete. Thus, the particular additions (e.g., travelling psychosis, qigong induced mental disorders), deletions (e.g., somatoform disorders, pathological gambling, a number of personality and sexual disorders), retentions (e.g., unipolar mania, neurosis, hysteria, homosexuality), and variations (e.g., depressive neurosis, neurasthenia) reveal not only the changing notions of illness but also the shifting social realities in contemporary China. The CCMD-2-R will be widely used by Chinese psychiatrists and should standardize diagnostic practice and facilitate research, but its impact on everyday clinical work and psychiatric training remains to be evaluated. For Western researchers, it is one avenue for achieving an understanding of the Chinese social world, and should usefully be contrasted with the ICD-10 and DSM-IV as the move towards an international nosology continues. PMID:8989986
Mental health problems pose challenges for military veterans, returning service members, and military family members including spouses and children. Challenges to meeting mental health needs include improving access to care and improving quality of care. Mobile Health, or "mHealth," can help meet these needs in the garrison and civilian environments. mHealth brings unique capabilities to health care provision through the use of mobile device technologies. This report identifies high-priority mHealth technology development considerations in two categories. First, priority considerations specific to mental health care provision include safety, privacy, evidence-based practice, efficacy studies, and temperament. Second, priority considerations broadly applicable to mHealth include security, outcomes, ease of use, carrier compliance, hardware, provider perspectives, data volume, population, regulation, command policy, and reimbursement. Strategic planning for the advancement of these priority considerations should be coordinated with stated Department of Defense capability needs to maximize likelihood of adoption. This report also summarizes three leading, military programs focused on mHealth projects in mental health, The Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center, The Military Operational Medicine Research Program, United States Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, and The National Center for Telehealth and Technology. PMID:25102529
Shore, Jay H; Aldag, Matt; McVeigh, Francis L; Hoover, Ronald L; Ciulla, Robert; Fisher, Ashley
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF MENTAL HEALTH ACTIVITIES REPRESENTING EIGHT MAJOR PROGRAMS OF THE INSTITUTE ARE DESCRIBED IN TERMS OF MEETING THE NEEDS OF NORMAL CHILDREN IN NORMAL ENVIRONMENTS, PROVIDING EARLY TREATMENT OF MENTAL AND EMOTIONAL DISORDERS IN CHILDHOOD, AND DEVELOPING TREATMENT AND REHABILITATION PROGRAMS FOR SEVERELY DISTURBED CHILDREN.…
For major physical diseases, it is widely accepted that members of the public will benefit by knowing what actions they can take for prevention, early intervention, and treatment. However, this type of public knowledge about mental disorders ("mental health literacy") has received much less attention. There is evidence from surveys in several…
Jorm, Anthony F.
The community mental health (CMH) system provides treatment for behavioral and psychiatric problems in children with autism\\u000a spectrum disorders (ASD). Although parent stakeholder perspectives are important to improving care, these perspectives have\\u000a not been systematically examined for this population in the CMH sector. Twenty-one semi-structured qualitative interviews\\u000a were conducted with parents of children with ASD who received services in CMH
Mary Baker-Ericzén; Nicole Stadnick; Robin Taylor
The present study examines psychiatric symptomatology and syndromal depression among 174 HIV+ and 760 HIV? homosexual men\\u000a enrolled in the Pittsburgh site of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). A central study goal was to determine whether\\u000a men's psychosocial status in the areas of demographics, social supports, and coping, in combination with their HIV-infection\\u000a status, was associated with mental health.
W. C. Dickey; M. A. Dew; J. T. Becker; L. Kingsley
Background: Mental health problem is a major public health issue in the world across the developed and developing countries. However, data in most of the developing countries including Bangladesh are scarce. In Bangladesh, socio-political situation is insecure and unstable with poverty and vulnerable to natural disaster which causes psychiatric morbidity. The pattern of psychiatric morbidity in private clinic is quite
A Fahmida; Wahab MA; Rahman MM
Background Mental health problems are prevalent and costly in working populations. Workplace interventions to address common mental health problems have evolved relatively independently along three main threads or disciplinary traditions: medicine, public health, and psychology. In this Debate piece, we argue that these three threads need to be integrated to optimise the prevention of mental health problems in working populations. Discussion To realise the greatest population mental health benefits, workplace mental health intervention needs to comprehensively 1) protect mental health by reducing work–related risk factors for mental health problems; 2) promote mental health by developing the positive aspects of work as well as worker strengths and positive capacities; and 3) address mental health problems among working people regardless of cause. We outline the evidence supporting such an integrated intervention approach and consider the research agenda and policy developments needed to move towards this goal, and propose the notion of integrated workplace mental health literacy. Summary An integrated approach to workplace mental health combines the strengths of medicine, public health, and psychology, and has the potential to optimise both the prevention and management of mental health problems in the workplace. PMID:24884425
Comments on three articles (see records EJ733583, EJ733584, and EJ733585) on the status of children's mental health services in the United States, which appeared in the September 2005 issue of the "American Psychologist." The current authors suggest that, although this series of articles provides important information, the articles fall short in…
Holden, E. Wayne; Blau, Gary M.
Practicing psychologists are increasingly identifying serious problems in behavior, emotional development, and regulation in infants and very young children that result in impaired family functioning and relationships. Often these child challenges are in combination with a range of parental concerns including addictions, homelessness, teen parenthood, and unresolved feelings from the past. Infant mental health (IMH) is a broad field encompassing
Angela M. Tomlin; Stephan A. Viehweg
This research focused on the mental health issues at adult day centers and used a cluster analysis to profile older persons who received these services. The sample included 280 participants who attended adult day care. The data were collected from intake files using a biopsychosocial framework to guide the selection of variables from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2000.
Virginia E Richardson; Holly Dabelko; Tom Gregoire
Harm reduction is a conceptual framework and set of practices that focus on the minimization of the physical, social, and legal harms substance users do to themselves and to society as a whole. Its application to community mental health settings is relatively new, and can create controversies and ethical dilemmas if not properly designed, implemented, and evaluated. Building on the
Michael A. Mancini; Donald M. Linhorst
This paper addresses the theory and practice of empowerment as an emerging mental health technology, as well as its relationship to prevention. The paper begins with a discussion of the increasing interest in empowerment by preventionists. Definitional issues are then considered; in this context the disparate philosophical world views of empowerment and prevention are outlined. Next, attention is directed to
Carolyn Swift; Gloria Levin
Reviews literature on the evaluation of consumer satisfaction with mental health treatment. The methods of assessing consumer satisfaction, methodological issues in studies assessing satisfaction, results of the studies, and the value of consumer evaluation are discussed. Consumer evaluation is found to be a useful though flawed method of assessing services. It is concluded that consumer evaluation should be included in
Research examining the relationships among Maori cultural identification, drinking behaviour, drinking motivation and mental health is almost non-existent. A review of literature suggests that stronger Maori identification could be associated with lower alcohol consumption on a typical occasion, less frequent drinking, drinking to enhance mood or…
Clarke, Dave; Ebbett, Erin
Refugee movements impose tremendous psychological and physical trauma on survivors, making refugees a high risk group for psychopathology and psychosocial adjustment problems. This paper explores the traditional impediments to developing prevention programs for refugees and describes public mental health strategies that could be used for different…
Williams, Carolyn L.
This paper poses a series of fundamental educational challenges about mental health. First, it questions whether 'mental health' is a valid concept, in the light of debates over mind/body dualism. If the concept is valid, should the absence of mental health be seen as an illness, an adaptive strategy or simply a statistical eccentricity? Fulford's concept of 'failure of intentional action' is commended as a philosophical basis for unravelling these issues. Secondly, the paper considers whether diagnosis is a simple or complex process, and whether it can be an objective activity or one which involves a strong subjective element. The current and potential value of multiaxial classification systems are discussed. Thirdly, themes concerning mental health treatment are introduced, covering problems with consent and patient preference, the evidential basis of interventions, and the range and limitations of possible treatments. Finally, the paper reviews the educational processes needed to meet these challenges effectively. It recommends the development of multifaceted educational programmes, nurturing a spirit of critical enquiry and personal awareness and, above all, the recognition and toleration of the uncertainty and complexity which lie at the heart of successful medical practice. PMID:10886637
Guide to VA Mental Health Services for Veterans and Families Keitha R Beamer, MSN: PMHCNS, BC; CARN Justice System Â· Older Veterans Â· Homeless veterans: Â National Call Center for Homeless Veterans 1 to know the VA Department of Veterans Affairs VA Healthcare 152 Medical Centers 817 Community Based
Hardy, Christopher R.
Direct patient-computer interviews were among the earliest applications of computing in medicine. Yet patient interviewing and other clinical applications have lagged behind fiscal/administrative uses. Several reasons for delays in the development and implementation of clinical computing programs and their resolution are discussed. Patient interviewing, clinician consultation and other applications of clinical computing in mental health are reviewed.
Greist, John H.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Erdman, Harold P.; Jefferson, James W.
leaflets Alcohol and depression Anorexia and Bulimia Anxiety, panic and phobias Bereavement Bipolar disorder Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) Depression Depression in older adults Feeling on the Edge in pregnancy Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Personality disorders Physical illness and mental health Post
BACKGROUND: Children with emotional and behavioural disorders should be able to count on receiving care that meets their needs and is based on the best scientific evidence available, however, many do not receive these services. Implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) relies, in part, on the research utilization practices of mental health care providers. This study reports on a survey of
Melanie A Barwick; Katherine M Boydell; Elaine Stasiulis; H Bruce Ferguson; Karen Blase; Dean Fixsen
The United States is a country of immigrants. With the exception of Native-Americans, every other American is, or descends from, an immigrant. First and second generation immigrant children are the most rapidly growing segment of the American population, with the great majority of this population being of non-European origin. This paper reviews the unique risk factors and mental health needs
Andrés J. Pumariega; Eugenio Rothe; JoAnne B. Pumariega
Mental health and solitude in old age. Elderly people experience solitude as isolation, even more so when the person is ill. However, in the same circumstances, some people see solitude as an experience of maturity. Is it simply a question of inner strength? PMID:24600946
The mental health counseling profession has gained increasing influence in the last 20 years. The purpose of this edited collection of articles is to chart the antecedents to, the present status of, and the future trends for this group of professionals. The book draws together historical tracings, rationales, conceptual models, and other…
Weikel, William J., Ed.; Palmo, Artis J., Ed.
A collection of 12 lessons, this volume covers a wide range of concerns in mental health counseling. Each piece begins with an editorial comment, followed by an introduction which outlines the scope of the problem under consideration. The main body of each paper presents a clear, easily understood analysis of the subject under consideration. A…
Directions in Mental Health Counseling, 1992
Describes a collaborative in Camden, New Jersey, that improves delivery and quality of mental health services for Head Start families. Reveals how the program addresses most of the social service and educational needs of the community through preventive intervention. Contains a description of each member's area of expertise and service. (SD)
This report contains summaries of mental health training projects conducted under grants awarded by the Experimental and Special Training Branch of the Division of Manpower and Training Programs. The projects have been developed in both academic and non-academic settings for professional, subprofessional, and nonprofessional training for a variety…
Silverstein, Sam, Ed.; And Others
The authors provide a brief overview of counseling and mental health care in Palestine, including their history and a summary of their current status. Finally, a discussion is presented of future trends in the development of the profession with regard to recent changes in the region.
Shawahin, Lamise; Ciftci, Ayse
With the growing number of counselors working outside of school settings, licensure of mental health counselors has become an important issue. A main problem facing counselors is the lack of a clear identity. Licensure would lead to increased professionalism and identification. Licensure is authorized by the state legislature, regulating the…
Background Although schools are often the first institution to provide recovery efforts for children post-disaster, few studies have involved the school community in research to improve the delivery of these mental health services on campuses. This community partnered study explores post-disaster counseling services ten months following Hurricane Katrina. Methods In July 2006, nine focus groups, comprised of 39 school-based mental health counselors and 6 program administrators (10 men, 35 women), were conducted following a two-day clinical training regarding a youth trauma intervention following Hurricane Katrina. Participants discussed types of services they had been providing prior to the training and potential barriers to delivering services. Results Participants identified high mental health needs of students and described populations that did not seem to be adequately supported by current funding sources, including those with preexisting traumatic experiences and mental health issues, indirect psychological and social consequences of the storms, and those students relocated to less impacted communities. Participants also described the need for a centralized information system. Conclusions Participants described the need for greater organizational structure that supports school counselors and provides system-level support for services. Implications for next steps of this community partnered approach are described. PMID:19896023
Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Nadeem, Erum; Wong, Marleen; Langley, Audra; Jaycox, Lisa; Stein, Bradley; Young, Phillip
The short term and long term effects of toxins on the human body are discussed from the perspective of physical and mental health. An understanding of some of the various ways that body organs and systems depend upon each other for their proper functioning is discussed. A strong emphasis is placed on the value of a healthy liver, as the
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight new and existing research on school characteristics that are essential elements in building the capacity of school communities to implement whole school approaches to mental health promotion. Design/methodology/approach: Through an overview of recent research and writing the need for a…
Notes extent and nature of problem drinking among older adults and role of mental health counselors. Asserts that nature of alcohol abuse by older persons and variety of problematic drinking behaviors suggest that range of counseling goals may be appropriate. Stresses that a broader range of treatment strategies is needed than has characterized…
A collection of 12 lessons, this volume covers a wide range of concerns in mental health counseling. Each piece begins with an editorial comment, followed by an introduction which outlines the scope of the problem under consideration. The main body of each lesson presents an analysis of the subject under consideration. A list of further sources…
Directions in Mental Health Counseling, 1991
This curriculum guide contains articles from numerous experts in the field of mental health counseling. This issue includes: (1) "Therapeutic Approaches to Anxiety Disorders" (Robert L. DuPont); (2) "The Role of Nutrition in Detoxification from Drugs and Alcohol" (Jeffrey S. Bland); (3) "'Repair' vs. 'Growth' Approaches to Therapy" (Paul L.…
Directions in Mental Health Counseling, 1993
Despite the global prevalence of mental illness and its negative effects on the economy in terms of healthcare spending, many affected individuals do not receive timely or adequate treatment due to stigmatization of such disorders in their communities. Being labeled as mentally ill can have detrimental consequences in several cultures. In Kuwait, the stigma associated with visiting the country's main provider of mental health services, the Psychological Medicine Hospital, is an obstacle for many seeking professional help for mental health. Cultural acceptance of visiting the local primary care clinic, however, allows frequent contact with primary care physicians who often find themselves frustrated at their inability to provide psychiatric services because it is not part of their training. The refusal of the patient to be referred to a stigmatized institution further increases the challenges of treating such patients for these physicians. The integration of mental health care into general health services is a concept encouraged by the World Health Organization's 2001 World Health Report and should be considered in order to overcome this dilemma. Such integrated care would serve as a cost-effective solution to facilitating the treatment of these individuals and reducing the stigma associated with mental disorders through education. PMID:24484184
Almazeedi, Hind; Alsuwaidan, Mohammad T
Medical disorders often present with psychiatric symptoms, especially in the elderly. Both physicians and nonphysical mental health workers should be alert to mental status changes in geriatric patients so that medical evaluation can be performed to uncover underlying physical illness masquerading as major psychiatric syndromes. Depression, mania, anxiety, delirium, dementia and schizophreniform psychoses are well known to have medical causes.
Charles B. Schaffer; Patrick T. Donlon
Serious limitations exist in the delivery of mental health services to refugees throughout the resettlement process: fragmentation, instability, language barriers, culturally inappropriate treatment methods, and severe staff shortages. Suggested improvements for refugee mental health services emphasize outreach, prevention, treatment approaches,…
Gong-Guy, Elizabeth; And Others
This paper provides an historical look at the Egyptian contribution to mental health from Pharaonic times through to the Islamic era and up to today. The current situation as regards mental health in Egypt is described. PMID:12690756
The impact of stress on mental health in high-risk occupations may be mitigated by organizational factors such as leadership. Studies have documented the impact of general leadership skills on employee performance and mental health. Other researchers have begun examining specific leadership domains that address relevant organizational outcomes, such as safety climate leadership. One emerging approach focuses on domain-specific leadership behaviors that may moderate the impact of combat deployment on mental health. In a recent study, US soldiers deployed to Afghanistan rated leaders on behaviors promoting management of combat operational stress. When soldiers rated their leaders high on these behaviors, soldiers also reported better mental health and feeling more comfortable with the idea of seeking mental health treatment. These associations held even after controlling for overall leadership ratings. Operational stress leader behaviors also moderated the relationship between combat exposure and soldier health. Domain-specific leadership offers an important step in identifying measures to moderate the impact of high-risk occupations on employee health. PMID:25160794
Adler, Amy B; Saboe, Kristin N; Anderson, James; Sipos, Maurice L; Thomas, Jeffrey L
ObjectiveThe aim of the present study was to map out what kind of psychotropic drugs are prescribed for elderly residents in assisted-living homes and how they relate to age, sex, form of living, psychiatric diagnosis, care needs and mental health status, and to identify factors of importance for their use; and to study the indication for treatment and the evaluation
Ing-Britt Holmquist; Bengt Svensson; Peter Höglund