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Sample records for psychiatric mental health

  1. Nursing students' attitudes about psychiatric mental health nursing.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Lauren; Weber, Tayler; Shattell, Mona; Harris, Barbara A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe Masters entry nursing students' attitudes about psychiatric mental health clinical experiences; preparedness to care for persons with mental illness; students' perceived stigmas and stereotypes; and plans to choose mental health nursing as a career. A 31-item survey was administered to pre-licensure graduate nursing students who were recruited from a Masters entry nursing program from a university in a large city in the Midwestern US. Results indicated that clinical experiences provide valuable experiences for nursing practice, however, fewer students think that these experiences prepare them to work as a psychiatric mental health nurse and none plan to pursue careers as psychiatric mental health nurses. The findings support conclusions from other studies that increasing the amount of time in the clinical setting and adding specific content to the curriculum, particularly content related to the importance of psychiatric mental health nursing and the effects of stigma, may assist the profession's efforts to recruit and retain psychiatric mental health nurses. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of these strategies and to identify the best ways to implement them. PMID:25397970

  2. Adolescents' Perceptions of Their Consent to Psychiatric Mental Health Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Roberson, Anthony James; Kjervik, Diane K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of a small-scale study in which the decision-making process of adolescents who consent to psychiatric mental health treatment was examined. Sixteen (16) adolescents were interviewed about their decisions related to initial and continued treatment, along with their understanding of minor consent laws. Interviews were audio-recorded, and transcripts were analyzed through concept analysis. Findings are presented in the context of the decision-making steps and research questions. Most adolescents did not recognize consequences related to psychiatric mental health treatment and did not assimilate and integrate information provided to them about treatment choices. Adolescents disagreed with current minor consent laws that allow minors to consent to certain healthcare treatments without the required consent of the parent. Further, adolescents reported that a collaborative approach in making decisions about the adolescent's psychiatric mental health treatment was most facilitative of achieving the goals of treatment. PMID:22474581

  3. Caffeine, mental health, and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Lara, Diogo R

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine intake is so common that its pharmacological effects on the mind are undervalued. Since it is so readily available, individuals can adjust their own dose, time of administration and dose intervals of caffeine, according to the perceived benefits and side effects of each dose. This review focuses on human studies of caffeine in subjects with and without psychiatric disorders. Besides the possibility of mild drug dependence, caffeine may bring benefits that contribute to its widespread use. These benefits seem to be related to adaptation of mental energy to the context by increasing alertness, attention, and cognitive function (more evident in longer or more difficult tasks or situations of low arousal) and by elevating mood. Accordingly, moderate caffeine intake (< 6 cups/day) has been associated with less depressive symptoms, fewer cognitive failures, and lower risk of suicide. However, its putative therapeutic effects on depression and ADHD have been insufficiently studied. Conversely, in rare cases high doses of caffeine can induce psychotic and manic symptoms, and more commonly, anxiety. Patients with panic disorder and performance social anxiety disorder seem to be particularly sensitive to the anxiogenic effects of caffeine, whereas preliminary data suggests that it may be effective for some patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). The threshold for the anxiogenic effect of caffeine is influenced by a polymorphism of the A2A receptor. In summary, caffeine can be regarded as a pharmacological tool to increase energy and effortful behavior in daily activities. More populational (cross-sectional and prospective) and experimental studies are necessary to establish the role of caffeine intake in psychiatric disorders, especially its putative efficacy on depressive mood and cognitive/attentional disorders. PMID:20164571

  4. Community Mental Health and the Psychiatric Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Psychiatric Technology, Sacramento, CA.

    The National Association of Psychiatric Technology (NAPT), a non-profit organization, is the outgrowth of local and state organizations of psychiatric attendants, aides, and technicians who had banded together to improve their knowledge and skills and to demonstrate their competence to assume greater responsibilities in the care and treatment of…

  5. Flipping the Classroom: Strategies for Psychiatric-Mental Health Course.

    PubMed

    Burden, Marsha L; Carlton, Kay Hodson; Siktberg, Linda; Pavlechko, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Experiences over 2 years substantiate the value of the pedagogical shift of "flipping the classroom" as an effective strategy in preparing students for didactic and clinical experiences in a psychiatric-mental health nursing course. This article describes strategies used to flip the classroom in the course. Student perceptions of the changed pedagogy and implications for nurse educators are presented. PMID:25888103

  6. Juvenile Mental Health Courts for Adjudicated Youth: Role Implications for Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Mental Health Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Burriss, F. Antoinette; Breland-Noble, Alfiee M.; Webster, Joe L.; Soto, Jose A.

    2013-01-01

    TOPIC Juvenile mental health courts for adjudicated youth. PURPOSE To describe the role of psychiatric nurses in reducing mental health disparities for adjudicated youth via juvenile mental health courts. SOURCES ISI Web of Knowledge; Sage Journals Online; HighWire; PubMed; Google Scholar and Wiley Online Library and websites for psychiatric nursing organizations. Years included: 2000–2010. CONCLUSIONS Juvenile mental health courts may provide a positive and effective alternative to incarceration for youth with mental health problems with psychiatric nurses playing a key role in program implementation. PMID:21501288

  7. Racial Disparities in Mental Health Outcomes after Psychiatric Hospital Discharge among Individuals with Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eack, Shaun M.; Newhill, Christina E.

    2012-01-01

    Racial disparities in mental health outcomes have been widely documented in noninstitutionalized community psychiatric samples, but few studies have specifically examined the effects of race among individuals with the most severe mental illnesses. A sample of 925 individuals hospitalized for severe mental illness was followed for a year after…

  8. Psychiatric genetic research at the National Institute of Mental Health

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, K.; Mullican, C.; Maestri, N.

    1994-12-15

    For some time it has been known through the results of family, twin, and adoption studies that hereditary appears to play a significant casual role in many mental disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other mood disorders, Alzheimer`s Disease, panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, autism, dyslexia, and Tourette`s syndrome. The precise patterns of inheritance of these complex disorders have not been determined, nor have the relevant genes been localized or cloned. Because the genetics are complex and because there is also clearly an environmental contribution to behavior, we expect the analysis of the genetics of mental illness to be arduous and not quickly resolved. There are several compelling reasons to continue to focus our attention on uncovering the genetic factors for severe mental illness. Prominent among these are the implications for better treatment of mental disorders. The National Institute of Mental Health supports a wide range of studies on psychiatric genetic research. 16 refs.

  9. Linked changes in mental, health service delivery and psychiatric education.

    PubMed

    Lefley, H P

    1988-01-01

    In sociocultural perspective, this paper traces the impact of deinstitutionalization and the community mental health movement on the mental health service delivery system and subsequent effects on psychiatric training. Examples are given of changes at the national, state, and local levels. The current need is for new initiatives to interest residents in public sector psychiatry and in work with the chronic patient. Issues discussed include new conceptions of the parameters and roles of psychiatric treatment, involvement of families and other support groups in patient care, comprehension and applications of cultural values, and new functions of the state hospital in the continuum of care as locus of specialized services and of professional training and research. PMID:3047763

  10. Knowledge & attitudes of mental health professionals regarding psychiatric research

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, N.N.; Bhatia, Triptish; Kumar, Nandini; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L.; Parker, Lisa S.; Deshpande, Smita N.

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mental health professionals have varied attitudes and views regarding informed consent and confidentiality protections in psychiatric research and clinical care. The present study was designed to understand the knowledge and views of mental health professionals (MHPs) regarding informed consent and confidentiality protection practices. Methods: Mental health professionals (n=121) who were members of the Delhi Psychiatric Society, were invited to participate in this questionnaire-based study of their knowledge and attitudes regarding informed consent and confidentiality. Half of them expressed willingness to discuss participation and gave initial oral consent (n=62); of these, 31 gave written informed consent to participate and completed the questionnaires. The questionnaires included both forced choice (yes / no / do not know) and open-ended questions. Questionnaires content reflected prominent guidelines on informed consent and confidentiality protection. Results: Attitudes of the majority of the participants towards informed consent and confidentiality were in line with ethical principles and guidelines. All expressed the opinion that confidentiality should generally be respected and that if confidentiality was breached, there could be mistrust of the professional by the patient/participant. The mean knowledge scores regarding informed consent and confidentiality were 8.55 ± 1.46 and 8.16 ± 1.29, respectively. Interpretation & conclusions: The participating mental health professionals appeared to have adequate knowledge of basic ethical guidelines concerning informed consent and confidentiality. Most respondents were aware of ethical issues in research. Given the small sample size and low response rate, the significance of the quantitative analysis must be regarded with modesty, and qualitative analysis of open-ended questions may be more valuable for development of future research. Increased efforts to involve mental health professionals in research on ethical concerns pertinent to their work must be made, and the actual practices of these professionals with regard to ethical guidelines need to be studied. PMID:24718399

  11. Critical Behaviors in Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing. Volume 1: A Survey of Mental Health Nursing Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Angeline Marchese; And Others

    This document describes the methodology followed in obtaining abstracts (see volumes 2 and 3) of more than 8,000 critical behaviors of nurses and attendants in delivering care in 50 psychiatric and mental health facilities throughout the country. The abstracts were derived from reports of actual observations by 1,785 mental health practitioners in

  12. Psychiatric nursing as 'different' care: experience of Iranian mental health nurses in inpatient psychiatric wards.

    PubMed

    Zarea, K; Nikbakht-Nasrabadi, A; Abbaszadeh, A; Mohammadpour, A

    2013-03-01

    Patients with mental illness require unique and specific care. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of nurses, who provide such care for mentally ill people, within the context of Iranian culture. This hermeneutic phenomenological study was carried out in a university-affiliated hospital in an urban area of Iran. We interviewed 10 mental health nurses to capture in detail their experiences in psychiatric units, and the approach developed by Diekelmann et al. was employed to analyse the data. Four themes and five sub-themes were identified: 'being engaged with patients' (sub-themes: 'struggle for monitor/control', 'safety/security concerns', 'supporting physiological and emotional needs'), 'being competent', 'altruistic care' and 'facing difficulties and challenges' (sub-themes: 'socio-cultural' and 'organizational challenges'). The results provide valuable insights and greater understanding of the professional experiences of psychiatric nurses in Iran, and indicate the need for a stable and responsible organizational structure for those nurses who are expected to manage patient care in psychiatric wards. PMID:22384949

  13. Transforming psychiatric mental health nursing education with team based learning.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Rebecca Bouterie; Hills, Robin L

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the team-based learning (TBL) instructional approach on learning outcomes in an undergraduate psychiatric mental health (PMH) nursing course. An uncontrolled, before and after design was employed. Data were collected over eight consecutive semesters (N=347) before and after implementation of TBL. Two variables were selected for comparison before and after implementation: scores on PMH portion of the Evolve practice exit examination and time (in hours) students reported preparing for class. After implementation, students scored higher on the PMH practice exit examination and reported increased study time. Qualitatively, students reported enjoying working in teams despite the increased study time required with the TBL method. PMID:26577556

  14. Psychiatric Mental Health Leadership at the Tipping Point.

    PubMed

    R Delaney, Kathleen

    2015-05-01

    Currently the United States health care system is responding to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) and the vision it contains for health care transformation. Along with sweeping changes in service delivery and payment structures, health care reform has championed concepts such as patient-centered care, integrated care, and wellness. Although these are not new ideas, their adaptation, in both ideology and service design has been accelerated in the context for reform. Indeed they are reaching a tipping point; the point where ideas gain wide acceptance and become influential trends. Although psychiatric mental health (PMH) nurses have been active in wellness, patient-centered care, and integrated care, at the current time they seem to be situated peripheral to these national trends. Increased presence of PMH nurses will facilitate their contribution to the development of these concepts within service structures and interventions. To increase knowledge and appreciation of PMH nurses' practice and unique perspective on these issues, leaders are needed who will connect and effectively communicate PMH nursing efforts to the broader health care arena. This article outlines the events that created a context for these three concepts (patient-centered care, wellness, and integrated care), and I suggest why they have reached a tipping point and discuss the need for greater PMH nursing presence in the American national dialog and the role of nursing leaders in facilitating these connections. PMID:26090854

  15. Mental health/psychiatric issues in elder abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Claudia; Livingston, Gill

    2014-11-01

    Elder abuse may be defined as a violation of a vulnerable older person's human and civil rights. Psychiatric illness is an important cause of vulnerability to abuse, especially when it is comorbid with other risk factors, such as physical frailty, sensory impairment, social isolation, and physical dependency. Health care providers are likely to encounter elder abuse regularly, and therefore have an important role in its detection and management, and in the treatment of subsequent psychiatric illness. This article reviews the relationships between psychiatric illnesses and elder abuse and neglect, examines the psychiatric consequences, and discusses how these may be treated. PMID:25439645

  16. Oxymoronic or synergistic: deconstructing the psychiatric and/or mental health nurse.

    PubMed

    Cutcliffe, John; Stevenson, Chris; Lakeman, Richard

    2013-04-01

    Examination of the names used to signify a nurse who specializes in working with people with mental health problems indicates the absence of a shared nomenclature and the frequent conflation of the terms 'psychiatric' and 'mental health'. Informed by the work of Derrida (1978) and Saussure (1916-1983), the authors encourage the deconstruction of and problematization of these terms, and this shows that what nurses who work with people with so-called mental illness are called has depended on where they have worked, the vagaries of passing fashion, and public policy. Further, there are irreconcilable philosophical, theoretical, and clinical positions that prevent nurses from practicing simultaneously as 'psychiatric' and 'mental health' nurses. Related service user literature indicates that it is disingenuous to camouflage 'psychiatric' services as 'mental health' services, and as signifiers, signified, and signs, psychiatric and mental health nursing are sustained by political agendas, which do not necessarily prioritize the needs of the person with the illness. Clearly demarked and less disingenuous signs for both mental health and psychiatric care would not only be a more honest approach, but would also be in keeping with the service user literature that highlights the expectation that there are two signs (and thus two services): psychiatric and mental health services. PMID:23066735

  17. Differences Between Irish and Australian Psychiatric Nurses' Family-Focused Practice in Adult Mental Health Services.

    PubMed

    Grant, Anne; Goodyear, Melinda; Maybery, Darryl; Reupert, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Psychiatric nurses' practice with parents who have mental illness, their children and families is an important issue internationally. This study provides a comparison of Irish and Australian psychiatric nurses' family-focused practices in adult mental health services. Three hundred and forty three nurses across Ireland and 155 from Australia completed the Family Focused Mental Health Practice Questionnaire. Cross-country comparisons revealed significant differences, in terms of family-focused skill, knowledge, confidence and practice. Australian psychiatric nurses engaged in higher family-focused practice compared to Irish nurses. The comparative differences between countries may be attributable to differences in training, workplace support and policy. PMID:26992860

  18. Preserving the Art and Science of Psychotherapy for Advance Practice Psychiatric Mental Health Nurses.

    PubMed

    Caughill, Ann

    2016-04-01

    Psychiatric Mental Health (PMH) Nurses are challenged to maintain the viability of their roles in today's healthcare climate as advances in research and complexity of mental healthcare needs of society continue to unfold. Today's mental health practice environment includes disciplines with marketable credentials. Roles for PMH nurses in recent decades are less clearly defined than for other disciplines, much of this related to changes in educational and practice settings. This article reviews literature on the topic of psychotherapy and a call for a renewed emphasis on this mode of treatment for psychiatric mental health advance practice nurses. PMID:27077508

  19. Psychiatric Disorders and Sexual Risk among Adolescents in Mental Health Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Larry K.; Hadley, Wendy; Stewart, Angela; Lescano, Celia; Whiteley, Laura; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between psychiatric disorders and sexual behaviors among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. Adolescents in mental health treatment have been found to have higher rates of HIV risk behavior than their peers, but data concerning the relationship between psychopathology and risk are inconsistent and…

  20. Psychiatric Disorders and Sexual Risk among Adolescents in Mental Health Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Larry K.; Hadley, Wendy; Stewart, Angela; Lescano, Celia; Whiteley, Laura; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between psychiatric disorders and sexual behaviors among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. Adolescents in mental health treatment have been found to have higher rates of HIV risk behavior than their peers, but data concerning the relationship between psychopathology and risk are inconsistent and

  1. Expanding the Role of Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioners in a State Psychiatric System: The New Hampshire Experience.

    PubMed

    de Nesnera, Alexander; Allen, Diane E

    2016-05-01

    Psychiatric mental health nurse practitioners (PMHNPs) are assuming increasing clinical responsibilities in the treatment of individuals with mental illness as the shortage of psychiatrists and their maldistribution continues to persist in the United States. States vary widely in their statutes and administrative rules delineating PMHNP's scope of practice. This column describes the legislative process of incremental changes in New Hampshire statute and rules changes over the past 15 years that have significantly expanded PMHNP's ability to treat individuals with mental illnesses in the state mental health system. PMHNPs have worked closely with physician leaders and policy makers to allow this to occur. PMID:26766758

  2. Tough Transitions: Mental Health Care Professionals' Perception of the Psychiatric Hospital to School Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemens, Elysia V.; Welfare, Laura E.; Williams, Amy M.

    2010-01-01

    Psychiatric reasons are among the most common causes of hospitalization for adolescents. A Consensual Qualitative Research approach was used to explore mental health professionals' perceptions of the needs of adolescents as they transition from psychiatric hospital to school. Academic, social, and emotional domains emerged as important areas of…

  3. Psychiatric Disorders and Mental Health Service Use in Patients with Advanced Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kadan-Lottick, Nina S.; Vanderwerker, Lauren C.; Block, Susan D.; Zhang, Baohui; Prigerson, Holly G.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Psychological morbidity has been proposed as a source of distress in cancer patients. This study aimed to: 1) determine the prevalence of diagnosable psychiatric illnesses, and 2) describe the mental health services received and predictors of service utilization in patients with advanced cancer. METHODS. This was a cross-sectional, multi-institutional study of 251 eligible patients with advanced cancer. Eligibility included: distant metastases, primary therapy failure, nonpaid caregiver, age ≥20 years, stamina for the interview, English or Spanish-speaking, and adequate cognitive ability. Trained interviewers administered the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV) modules for Major Depressive Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Panic Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and a detailed questionnaire regarding mental health service utilization. RESULTS. Overall, 12% met criteria for a major psychiatric condition and 28% had accessed a mental health intervention for a psychiatric illness since the cancer diagnosis. Seventeen percent had discussions with a mental health professional; 90% were willing to receive treatment for emotional problems. Mental health services were not accessed by 55% of patients with major psychiatric disorders. Cancer patients who had discussed psychological concerns with mental health staff (odds ratio [OR] = 19.2; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 8.90-41.50) and non-Hispanic white patients (OR = 2.7; 95% CI, 1.01-7.43) were more likely to receive mental health services in adjusted analysis. CONCLUSIONS. Advanced cancer patients experience major psychiatric disorders at a prevalence similar to the general population, but affected individuals have a low rate of utilizing mental health services. Oncology providers can enhance utilization of mental health services, and potentially improve clinical outcomes, by discussing mental health concerns with their patients. PMID:16284994

  4. Sexuality, vulnerability to HIV, and mental health: an ethnographic study of psychiatric institutions.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Diana de Souza; Mann, Claudio Gruber; Wainberg, Milton; Mattos, Paulo; Oliveira, Suely Broxado de

    2007-09-01

    This paper presents data from the ethnographic based formative phase of the Interdisciplinary Project on Sexuality, Mental Health, and AIDS (PRISSMA), sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and carried out in two psychiatric institutions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Results from ethnographic observations, focus groups, and key informant interviews with different groups of mental health care providers and day hospital and outpatient mental health clients regarding conceptions of sexuality and HIV vulnerability are described. The results suggest a diversity of notions about sexuality by both groups and point out the high HIV sexual risk in this psychiatric population. This formative phase has served as the basis for the cultural adaptation and creation of a Brazilian intervention for HIV prevention in the severely mentally ill, the feasibility of which has been successfully evaluated in the pilot phase. PMID:17700957

  5. Does Primary Care Mental Health Resourcing Affect the Use and Costs of Secondary Psychiatric Services?

    PubMed Central

    Sadeniemi, Minna; Pirkola, Sami; Pankakoski, Maiju; Joffe, Grigori; Kontio, Raija; Malin, Maili; Ala-Nikkola, Taina; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Collaborative care models for treatment of depression and anxiety disorders in primary care have been shown to be effective. The aim of this study was to investigate at the municipal level to what extent investment in mental health personnel at primary care health centres in the study area is reflected in the costs and use of secondary psychiatric services. Furthermore, we analysed whether the service provision and use of secondary psychiatric care correlates with the socioeconomic indicators of need. We found significant variation in the amount of mental health personnel provided at the health centres, uncorrelated with the indicators of need nor with the costs of secondary psychiatric care. The amount of mental health nurses at the health centres correlated inversely with the number of secondary psychiatric outpatient visits, whereas its relation to inpatient days and admission was positive. The costs of secondary psychiatric care correlated with level of psychiatric morbidity and socioeconomic indicators of need. The results suggest that when aiming at equal access of care and cost-efficiency, the primary and secondary care should be organized and planned with integrative collaboration. PMID:25162710

  6. The Detrimental Impact of Maladaptive Personality on Public Mental Health: A Challenge for Psychiatric Practice

    PubMed Central

    Hengartner, Michael Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Experts in personality psychology and personality disorders have long emphasized the pervasive and persistent detrimental impact of maladaptive personality traits on mental health and functioning. However, in routine psychiatric practice, maladaptive personality is readily ignored and personality traits are seldom incorporated into clinical guidelines. The aim of this narrative review is to outline how pervasively personality influences public mental health and how personality thereby challenges common psychiatric practice. A comprehensive search and synthesis of the scientific literature demonstrates that maladaptive personality traits and personality disorders, in particular high neuroticism and negative affectivity, first, are risk factors for divorce, unemployment, and disability pensioning; second, relate to the prevalence, incidence, and co-occurrence of common mental disorders; third, impair functioning, symptom remission, and recovery in co-occurring common mental disorders; and fourth, predispose to treatment resistance, non-response and poor treatment outcome. In conclusion, maladaptive personality is not only involved in the development and course of mental disorders but also predisposes to chronicity and re-occurrence of psychopathology and reduces the efficacy of psychiatric treatments. The pernicious impact of maladaptive personality on mental health and functioning demands that careful assessment and thorough consideration of personality should be compulsory in psychiatric practice. PMID:26106335

  7. Staff in mental health agencies: coping with the dual challenges as providers with psychiatric disabilities.

    PubMed

    Silver, Thelma

    2004-01-01

    As persons with psychiatric disabilities have moved into provider positions in mental health they have developed coping skills to help maintain themselves in their jobs. This paper reports on a qualitative study of 12 service providers with psychiatric disabilities who identified the coping strategies that helped them in managing their dual roles. These coping methods were grouped together into categories of personal factors that included attitudes, cognitions, and behaviors, and external factors, meaning formal and informal supports. PMID:15605753

  8. Mental health clustering and diagnosis in psychiatric in-patients

    PubMed Central

    Trevithick, Liam; Painter, Jon; Keown, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Aims and method This paper investigates the relationship between cluster (Mental Health Clustering Tool, MHCT) and diagnosis in an in-patient population. We analysed the diagnostic make-up of each cluster and the clinical utility of the diagnostic advice in the Department of Health’s Mental Health Clustering Booklet. In-patients discharged from working-age adult and older people’s services of a National Health Service trust over 1 year were included. Cluster on admission was compared with primary diagnosis on discharge. Results Organic, schizophreniform, anxiety disorder and personality disorders aligned to one superclass cluster. Alcohol and substance misuse, and mood disorders distributed evenly across psychosis and non-psychosis superclass clusters. Two-thirds of diagnoses fell within the MHCT ‘likely’ group and a tenth into the ‘unlikely’ group. Clinical implications Cluster and diagnosis are best viewed as complimentary systems to describe an individual’s needs. Improvements are suggested to the MHCT diagnostic advice in in-patient settings. Substance misuse and affective disorders have a more complex distribution between superclass clusters than all other broad diagnostic groups. PMID:26191449

  9. Obeah-illness versus psychiatric entities among jamaican immigrants: cultural and clinical perspectives for psychiatric mental health professionals.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Horace A

    2015-04-01

    In order to provide culturally authentic healthcare, psychiatric-mental health nurses and other professionals must familiarize themselves with the culture-specific syndromes, idioms of distress, beliefs and practices that may present among the diverse patient groups with whom they work. Psychiatric conditions relating to the Jamaican belief in "Obeah" are specific, culturally-interpreted phenomena that psychiatric nurses may encounter among Jamaican patients. This paper describes the phenomenon of Obeah and its influences on the worldview of life, health, illness; psychiatric conditions in the form of culture-bound syndromes; and help-seeking behaviors throughout Jamaican cultural communities. Inability to understand the obeah-illness concept from a culturally-interpreted perspective may be constrictive and result in less-than-optimal care. Armed with the knowledge of the concept of Obeah from a core belief perspective, how it influences psychiatric presentations, and embracing its significance to the Jamaican health belief model will assist in building a workable, caring, best-practice framework aimed toward a clinical and practice paradigm for this unique folk-health belief system. PMID:25858199

  10. Mental health and psychiatric care in Bolivia: what do we know?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently Bolivia has implemented a universal health system, but their mental health policy is still emerging. Objectives To investigate the current state of the mental health care system in Bolivia and discuss challenges for structuring a coordinated network of services that can effectively meet the needs of the Bolivian population. Methods This review was conducted by searching for scholarly articles through the databases Lilacs, Medline OPS, HISA and IBECS REPIDISCA via the search portal in the Virtual Health Library - NLM (http://www.bireme.br). Results Bolivia has a National Mental Health Plan that is intended to guide mental health promotion, prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of mental illness, but the resources for this area of health are limited. There are 1.06 psychiatrists and 0.46 psychologists per 100, 000 inhabitants. Information on psychiatric morbidity in Bolivia and the impact of mental disorders on the global burden of disease is scarce. Admission statistics reported by psychiatric hospitals in the country show that the main cause of hospitalization is substance abuse (30%). Alcohol consumption is responsible for 90% of these admissions, in addition to being a major cause of deaths in traffic and one of the main risk factors for domestic violence. Almost one in two women in Bolivia (47%) experienced some form of violence from their partner in the last year. Nineteen percent of women living with a partner reported being physically abused, while 7% were sexually abused by their partners. Isolated studies report that suicide rates are disproportionately high in Bolivia. Conclusions Although there is a shortage of epidemiological data in Bolivia, it is clear the impact of alcohol addiction in psychiatric admissions, domestic violence and traffic accidents. Violence against women and suicides are important issues to be tackled. Among the proposed strategies to afford human resources for mental health in Bolivia, “task shifting”, the delegation of tasks to non-specialists should be extensively adopted in the country to improve mental health care. PMID:24843384

  11. Empathy toward Patients with Mental Illness among Baccalaureate Nursing Students: Impact of a Psychiatric Nursing and Mental Health Educational Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mousa, Marwa Abd El-Gawad Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is an ability and skill that can be learned and developed through appropriate education and practice. While the importance of nurses' empathy is widely acknowledged, little is known about the impact of passing through the psychiatric nursing and mental health educational experience at the Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University on…

  12. Cultural competence in psychiatric mental health nursing. A conceptual model.

    PubMed

    Campinha-Bacote, J

    1994-03-01

    This article presents a conceptual model for enhancing cultural competence in psychiatric nursing. The model, The Culturally Competent Model of Care, views cultural awareness, cultural knowledge, cultural skill, and cultural encounter as critical components of cultural competence. In this dynamic model, cultural competence is viewed as a process, not an end-point in which the psychiatric nurse continuously strives to effectively work within the cultural context of individuals, families, and/or communities from diverse cultural/ethnic backgrounds. The Culturally Competent Model of Care encourages psychiatric nurses to see themselves as always in the process of becoming culturally competent, rather than being culturally competent. PMID:8121813

  13. Nurse educators' perspectives on student development of reflection for psychiatric mental health nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Karpa, Jane V; Chernomas, Wanda M

    2013-01-01

    Psychiatric nursing, in various parts of the world, including regions of Canada, is recognized as a distinct nursing profession. In psychiatric mental health nursing practice, reflection is considered a foundational skill given the relational nature of nurses' therapeutic work. Communicating the significance of reflection for practice to students and teaching this intangible skill is challenging for educators. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore with psychiatric mental health nurse educators their views on how they develop reflective practitioners. Participants' perspectives and experiences in teaching reflective practice were captured in four themes: building the use of self as an agent of change, building skills of reflection/building the habit of reflection, building a bridge between theory and practice, and building a continuing reflective practice - from student to practitioner. Recommendations include a systematic incorporation of reflection into a curriculum and creating supportive learning environments that facilitate the development of reflective practitioners. PMID:23974046

  14. Mental health recovery for psychiatric inpatient services: perceived importance of the elements of recovery.

    PubMed

    Siu, B W M; Ng, B F L; Li, V C K; Yeung, Y M; Lee, M K L; Leung, A Y H

    2012-06-01

    OBJECTIVES. To develop a questionnaire for measuring the perceived importance of the elements of mental health recovery in psychiatric inpatients in Hong Kong and to test the psychometric properties of the questionnaire. METHODS. Thematic content analysis of identified literature on mental health recovery was performed to identify the elements related to mental health recovery. A questionnaire was developed to assess the perceived importance of the identified elements. An expert panel was set up to evaluate the content validity and patient focus group's face validity of the questionnaire. Participants were recruited from medium-stay and rehabilitation wards of Castle Peak Hospital. RESULTS. A total of 101 psychiatric inpatients completed the questionnaire, the majority of whom suffered from schizophrenia (75%). Having meaning in life was rated by 91% of the participants as an important element of recovery, followed by hope (86%) and general health and wellness (85%). Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency was 0.91. Explorative factor analysis yielded 7 factors and intraclass correlation coefficients revealed a fair-to-good test-retest reliability. CONCLUSIONS. The results supported the psychometric properties of the questionnaire for measurement of mental health recovery and serve as a basis for the future development of recovery-oriented services in the psychiatric inpatient settings in this locality. PMID:22714873

  15. Psychiatric workforce needs and recommendations for the community mental health system: a state needs assessment.

    PubMed

    Walker, Elizabeth Reisinger; Berry, Frank W; Citron, Tod; Fitzgerald, Judy; Rapaport, Mark H; Stephens, Bryan; Druss, Benjamin G

    2015-02-01

    Similar to other states, Georgia is facing workforce challenges within its community mental health system. These issues may be exacerbated as implementation of the Affordable Care Act expands demand for behavioral health services. Georgia's Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Disabilities commissioned a needs assessment to examine the shortage of prescribing providers (psychiatrists, advanced practice registered nurses, and physician assistants) in the state's public mental health system. A unique partnership of key stakeholders developed and conducted the mixed-methods needs assessment at six of Georgia's 27 community mental health centers serving more than 40,000 patients annually. The assessment documented challenges in recruiting and retaining psychiatrists and workforce shortages for all prescriber groups. The authors describe opportunities for optimizing the psychiatric workforce and training the next generation of community psychiatrists. PMID:25642608

  16. Barriers to evidence-based practice utilization in psychiatric/mental health nursing.

    PubMed

    Alzayyat, Abdulkarim Subhi

    2014-02-01

    Many psychiatric/mental health nursing (PMHN) practices have been affected by old traditions and haphazard trial and error instead of by established scientific evidence. The purpose of this article is to explore and analyze the barriers surrounding evidence-based practice (EBP) in PMHN. I identify some strategies to overcome these barriers in an attempt to incorporate EBP within the framework of PMHN services. Barriers explain the lack of EBP in today's PMHN environment. The barriers identified in this research are: the nature of the evidence, the contribution of the psychiatric nursing researchers to EBP, the personal characteristics of psychiatric nurses, and organizational factors. While the barriers to EBP for PMHN practice are clearly apparent, the challenge, now, is to build up creative strategies through which psychiatric nurses are better able to provide EBP care as part of their everyday performance. Adaptation of a more dynamic form of EBP, increasing the number of PMHN researchers, conducting clinical research projects, choosing suitable journals for publication, training the psychiatric nurses about computer skills, integrating the EBP principles into nursing curricula, developing journal clubs, and offering organizational facilitators are essential prerequisites for the achievement of EBP in the PMHN field. It is no longer justifiable for psychiatric nurses to be deficient in knowledge and skill since the advantages of EBP for patients are well-documented. PMID:24502472

  17. War & military mental health: the US psychiatric response in the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Pols, Hans; Oak, Stephanie

    2007-12-01

    Involvement in warfare can have dramatic consequences for the mental health and well-being of military personnel. During the 20th century, US military psychiatrists tried to deal with these consequences while contributing to the military goal of preserving manpower and reducing the debilitating impact of psychiatric syndromes by implementing screening programs to detect factors that predispose individuals to mental disorders, providing early intervention strategies for acute war-related syndromes, and treating long-term psychiatric disability after deployment. The success of screening has proven disappointing, the effects of treatment near the front lines are unclear, and the results of treatment for chronic postwar syndromes are mixed. After the Persian Gulf War, a number of military physicians made innovative proposals for a population-based approach, anchored in primary care instead of specialty-based care. This approach appears to hold the most promise for the future. PMID:17971561

  18. Involuntary treatment of psychiatric inpatients certified under the Saskatchewan Mental Health Services Act in a secure forensic psychiatric treatment center.

    PubMed

    Adelugba, Olajide; Mela, Mansfield; Haq, Inam

    2015-04-01

    A psychiatric patient prisoner is certified and treated involuntarily under the Saskatchewan Mental Health Services Act at the Regional Psychiatric Center if he/she is mentally ill, incapable of making treatment decision and is likely to cause harm to self or others. This retrospective study examined the treatment of certified patients during a 12-year period (1996 to 2007). A total of 112 patients were treated using 263 certifications during 163 separate hospital admissions. Fifty of all the certified patients (44.6%) required more than one certification, and out of these, 72% required another certification within three months of the first certification. Among those certified, schizophrenia and related psychosis (65.2%, n = 73), substance use disorder (50%, n = 56) and antisocial personality disorder (58%, n = 65) were the most common discharge diagnoses and antipsychotics, the most frequent discharge medications. Global Assessment of Functioning score of patients improved significantly (p < .05) from 43.6 at admission to 50.4 at discharge. This functional improvement may suggest a beneficial use of certification by keeping patients in treatment. This benefit may be enhanced if the statutory duration of certification can be increased to account for the length of time required for the adequate resolution of symptoms and to reduce the need for repeat certification. PMID:24644230

  19. Mental health legislation in Lebanon: Nonconformity to international standards and clinical dilemmas in psychiatric practice.

    PubMed

    Kerbage, Hala; El Chammay, Rabih; Richa, Sami

    2016-01-01

    Mental health legislation represents an important mean of protecting the rights of persons with mental disabilities by preventing human rights violations and discrimination and by legally reinforcing the objectives of a mental health policy. The last decade has seen significant changes in the laws relating to psychiatric practice all over the world, especially with the implementation of the Convention for the Rights of People with Disabilities (CRPD). In this paper, we review the existing legislation in Lebanon concerning the following areas in mental health: treatment and legal protection of persons with mental disabilities, criminal laws in relation to offenders with mental disorders, and laws regulating incapacity. We will discuss these texts in comparison with international recommendations and standards on the rights of persons with disabilities, showing the recurrent contradiction between them. Throughout our article, we will address the clinical dilemmas that Lebanese psychiatrists encounter in practice, in the absence of a clear legislation that can orient their decisions and protect their patients from abuse. PMID:26338493

  20. Mental health of asylum seekers: a cross-sectional study of psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Asylum procedures are known to be protracted, stretching to over ten years in many host countries. International research shows high levels of distress for asylum seekers. Little is known about actual psychiatric morbidity in this population, especially during the first few years postmigration. Methods The mental health status of two groups of asylum seekers was assessed: Group 1 (n = 43) had arrived in Switzerland 2.9 (SD 1.1) months prior to assessment, while Group 2 (n = 43) had arrived 15.5 (SD 3.2) months prior to assessment. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Symptom severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale), anxiety (Hopkins Symptom Checklist), depression (Hopkins Symptom Checklist), and pain (Verbal Rating Scale) were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Postmigratory factors such as German language proficiency and social contacts were also assessed. Interviews were conducted with the assistance of trained interpreters. Results Four out of ten participants met diagnostic criteria for at least one DSM-IV disorder. Groups did not differ with respect to psychiatric morbidity or symptom levels. Major depression (31.4%) and PTSD (23.3%) were diagnosed most frequently. The number of experienced traumatic event types was highly correlated with psychiatric morbidity. Conclusions Psychiatric morbidity in asylum seekers in the first two years after arrival is high, with no indication of a decrease in mental distress over time. Traumatic experiences seem to play a major role in morbidity during this time. Considering the magnitude of clinically relevant distress, a short psychological screening upon arrival with a focus on traumatic experiences may be warranted. PMID:22900706

  1. [Closing forensic psychiatric hospitals in Italy: a new deal for mental health care?].

    PubMed

    Casacchia, Massimo; Malavolta, Maurizio; Bianchini, Valeria; Giusti, Laura; Di Michele, Vittorio; Giosuè, Patricia; Ruggeri, Mirella; Biondi, Massimo; Roncone, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The date of March 31, 2015, following the Law 81/2014, has marked a historical transition with the final closure of the six forensic psychiatric hospitals in Italy. This law identifies a new pathway of care that involves small-scale high therapeutic profile facilities (Residenze per la Esecuzione della Misura di Sicurezza, REMS) instead of the old forensic psychiatric hospitals. The Law promotes a new recovery-oriented rehabilitation approach for the persons with mental disorders who committed a criminal offence, but lack criminal responsibility and deemed as socially dangerous. After a brief description of what happens abroad, this article highlights the positive aspects of the law that, as a whole, has to be considered innovative and unavoidable. The main debated problems are also reviewed, including the lack of changes to the Criminal Code; the improper equation between insanity and mental illness and social dangerousness; the evaluation of "socially dangerousness", based solely on "subjective qualities" of the person, assessed out of his/her context, without paying attention to family and social conditions suitable for discharge; the expensive implementation of the REMS, mainly based on security policies and less on care and rehabilitation, the delay in their construction, and the search for residential alternatives structures; the uncertain boundaries of professional responsibility. Finally, several actions are suggested that can support the implementation of the law: information programs addressed to the general population; training activities for mental health professionals; systematic monitoring and evaluation of the outcomes of the care provided to the forensic psychiatric population; implementation of Agreement Protocols and a better cooperation with the judiciary. Scientific societies dealing with psychosocial rehabilitation need to be involved in such issues relating to the identification of the best care and rehabilitation pathways, which should be implemented following closure of forensic psychiatric hospitals. PMID:26489069

  2. What is cyberbullying & how can psychiatric-mental health nurses recognize it?

    PubMed

    Williams, Susan G; Godfrey, Alice J

    2011-10-01

    Cyberbullying is an emerging issue within our society, particularly among adolescents. The phenomenon is similar to traditional bullying in that it is hurtful, repetitive behavior involving a power imbalance, often causing psychosocial issues. With the availability of cell phones, Internet, and video gaming systems, adolescents are constantly plugged into technology and therefore at risk of being a victim or a perpetrator of cyberbullying. Both physical and mental health problems can result from cyberbullying, which, in turn, can affect an adolescent's performance in school and other crucial areas of life. Legal action is an option, but many times the law is not clear. Psychiatric-mental health nurses are in a position to help educate children about resources to prevent or cope with cyberbullying in a way that will help not only the patients themselves but also parents, teachers, school administrators, and the community. PMID:21919428

  3. Effect of the 1983 Mental Health Act on the management of psychiatric patients.

    PubMed Central

    Webster, L; Dean, C; Kessel, N

    1987-01-01

    Two principal objectives of the 1983 Mental Health Act were to decrease the use of emergency orders and to give patients on observation orders the right of appeal. Statistics were collected from the 13 hospitals that admit acute psychiatric patients in the Greater Manchester area, and the figures for 1980-1 were compared with those for 1984-5. Changes in use of the different sections were examined in university units, large psychiatric hospitals, and district general hospital units. The use of emergency orders decreased and the use of treatment orders increased; the use of observation orders remained unchanged. Many more patients exercised their right of appeal in 1984-5, but the number discharged by tribunals remained small. The nurses' holding power was used infrequently. The different types of hospital are now more concordant in their use of these orders than before the 1983 act. PMID:3122890

  4. Interactionality: willfully extending the boundaries of participatory research in psychiatric-mental health nursing.

    PubMed

    Soltis-Jarrett, Victoria

    2004-01-01

    The concepts of somatization and hysteria have been used in nursing, medicine, and healthcare to describe and explain the "unfounded attributes'' of women's expressions of pain and discomfort. This study, grounded in poststructural ideologies, extends the boundaries of participatory research in psychiatric-mental health nursing and, thus, developed a series of methodological techniques coined "Interactionality'' that then challenged the concept of somatization. This article focuses on the philosophical and conceptual assumptions of Interactionality, and introduces the notion of a double-voiced discourse as a means of communicating the analysis and findings of critical research. PMID:15602282

  5. Constructivism applied to psychiatric-mental health nursing: an alternative to supplement traditional clinical education.

    PubMed

    DeCoux Hampton, Michelle

    2012-02-01

    With the popularity of accelerated pre-licensure nursing programmes and the growth in nursing student enrolments, traditional clinical education continues to be a challenge to deliver. Nursing faculty members are required to develop and implement educational innovations that achieve effective learning outcomes, while using fewer resources. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the effectiveness of a constructivism-based learning project to achieve specific learning outcomes and to supplement approximately 30 clinical hours in a psychiatric-mental health nursing course. Students participated in a 10-week, multistage project that examined life histories, treatment resources, and evidence-based practice, as applied to a single individual with a mental illness. Students reported increased understanding of mental health and illness, developed personal relevance associated with the knowledge gained, and learned to problem solve with regard to nursing care of individuals diagnosed with mental illness. For many students, there also appeared to be a reduction in stigmatized attitudes towards mental illness. Constructivism-based learning is a promising alternative to supplement clinical hours, while effectively achieving learning outcomes. Future research is needed to further validate the use of this method for the learning of course content, as well as the reduction of stigma. PMID:21676137

  6. Meeting the mental health needs of the homebound: A psychiatric consult service within a home-based primary care program

    PubMed Central

    Reckrey, Jennifer; Soriano, Theresa; Rosen, Anna; Dugue, Micheline; DeCherrie, Linda; Ornstein, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    The growing population of homebound adults is increasingly receiving home-based primary care (HPBC) services. These patients are predominantly frail elderly who are homebound due to multiple medical comorbidities, yet they often also have psychiatric diagnoses requiring mental health care. Unfortunately, in-home psychiatric services are rarely available to homebound patients. In order to address unmet psychiatric need among the homebound patients enrolled in our large academic HBPC program, we piloted a psychiatric in-home consultation service. During our 16 month pilot, ten percent of all enrolled HBPC patients were referred for and received psychiatric consultation. Depression and anxiety were among the most common reasons for referral. In order to better meet patients’ medical and psychiatric needs, HBPC programs need to consider strategies to incorporate psychiatric services into their routine care plans. PMID:26414814

  7. Standardized patients: a creative teaching strategy for psychiatric-mental health nurse practitioner students.

    PubMed

    Shawler, Celeste

    2008-11-01

    In this article, a learning strategy for psychiatric nurse practitioner students in a research-intensive university is described. The strategy actively involved students in experiences with standardized patients. The course content included review of the causes, manifestations, assessment, and diagnoses of psychopathology across the lifespan. The goal was for students to build diagnostic reasoning skills so they could conceptualize case formulations and examine differential diagnoses related to mental disorders. Faculty simulated complex mental health disorders in a controlled environment where students practiced assessment and diagnostic skills with feedback from faculty, peers, and the standardized patients. On completion of the course with six different standardized patient situations and a final standardized patient scenario that involved assessment, diagnosis, and creation of a formal paper about the case, the students demonstrated excellent interviewing skills, confident assessment abilities, appropriate use of screening and diagnostic tools, and accurate diagnosis of the standardized patients. PMID:19010054

  8. Do aftercare mental health services reduce risk of psychiatric rehospitalization for children?

    PubMed

    Trask, Emily V; Fawley-King, Kya; Garland, Ann F; Aarons, Gregory A

    2016-05-01

    Appropriate and timely aftercare services are considered critical for children and adolescents with previous psychiatric hospitalization. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between type and amount of aftercare received and rehospitalization among youths who have been previously hospitalized due to psychiatric illness. The sample consisted of 569 youth ages 6-18 who received services in a large public service system. The sample of youth was 58% female and consisted largely of ethnic minorities (51% Hispanic, 26% White, 16% African American, and 7% were another race/ethnicity). Demographic, diagnostic, and service use data was obtained from billing records. Time-dependent Cox regression models evaluated the impact of aftercare (the primary dependent variable of interest) on risk of rehospitalization. Separate models were analyzed for each type of service and all models were adjusted for race/ethnicity, age, gender, diagnosis, insurance status, and comorbid substance use. Seventy percent of youths with a psychiatric hospitalization received aftercare and 28% were rehospitalized within 6 months of discharge. The total hours of services youths received was significantly related to a smaller likelihood of rehospitalization. Having a diagnosis of schizophrenia was associated with a higher risk of rehospitalization and receiving more days of day treatment was associated with a lower risk of rehospitalization. Given the restrictiveness and cost of hospitalization, mental health practitioners should focus on improving access, engagement, and quality of aftercare services. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26147361

  9. Psychiatric morbidity in pain conditions: Results from the Singapore Mental Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Mythily; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Abdin, Edimansyah; Chong, Siow Ann

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a common problem among the general population and has been found to be associated with psychiatric disorders in studies based on both clinical samples and epidemiological surveys. OBJECTIVES: To establish the prevalence, correlates and comorbidities of chronic pain disorders among the adult population of Singapore. METHODS: The data used in the present analysis were derived from the Singapore Mental Health Study, a cross-sectional epidemiological survey of a representative sample of the adult resident population of Singapore. Diagnoses of psychiatric disorders were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0. A modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0 checklist of chronic medical disorders was used, in which the chronic medical disorders were reclassified into eight types of physical disorders. Chronic pain disorders included arthritis or rheumatism, back problems including disk or spine problems, and migraine headaches. RESULTS: The lifetime prevalence estimates for arthritis, back pain and migraine in the Singapore general population were 6.0% (n=282), 7.0% (n=436) and 5.6% (n=446), respectively. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, comorbid pain disorders and the presence of other chronic physical conditions, migraine remained significantly associated with major depressive disorder (adjusted OR=2.4), generalized anxiety disorder (adjusted OR=3.0) and alcohol use disorders (adjusted OR=2.1), while back pain was significantly associated with major depressive disorder (adjusted OR=2.0). CONCLUSIONS: The significant association between pain and psychiatric disorders emphasizes the need to screen individuals with chronic pain conditions for psychiatric disorders, particularly depression. There is a need to develop integrated pharmacological and psychological treatments for both conditions. PMID:23936892

  10. Caretaker mental health and family environment factors are associated with adolescent psychiatric problems in a Vietnamese sample.

    PubMed

    Stratton, Kelcey Jane; Edwards, Alexis Christine; Overstreet, Cassie; Richardson, Lisa; Tran, Trinh Luong; Trung, Lam Tu; Tam, Nguyen Thanh; Tuan, Tran; Buoi, La Thi; Ha, Tran Thu; Thach, Tran Duc; Amstadter, Ananda Beth

    2014-12-15

    Little is known about risk factors for adolescent mental health in Vietnam. The present study investigated the relationship between caretaker mental health and adolescent mental health in a cross-sectional Vietnamese sample. Primary caretakers completed measures of their own mental distress and general health status using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) as well as reports of adolescent mental health using the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Multivariate regression models were used to examine the relationships between the caretaker and adolescent health variables. The demographic factors of age, sex, ethnicity, religious affiliation, and household wealth status demonstrated significant relationships with SDQ subscale scores. Caretaker mental health was positively associated with adolescent mental health, and this association remained significant even after accounting for other relevant demographic variables and caretaker general health status. Understanding correlates of adolescent mental health difficulties may help identify youth and families at risk for developing psychiatric problems and inform mental health interventions in Vietnam. PMID:25204862

  11. Caretaker mental health and family environment factors are associated with adolescent psychiatric problems in a Vietnamese sample

    PubMed Central

    Stratton, Kelcey Jane; Edwards, Alexis Christine; Overstreet, Cassie; Richardson, Lisa; Tran, Trinh Luong; Trung, Lam Tu; Tam, Nguyen Thanh; Tuan, Tran; Buoi, La Thi; Ha, Tran Thu; Thach, Tran Duc; Amstadter, Ananda Beth

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about risk factors for adolescent mental health in Vietnam. The present study investigated the relationship between caretaker mental health and adolescent mental health in a cross-sectional Vietnamese sample. Primary caretakers completed measures of their own mental distress and general health status using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) as well as reports of adolescent mental health using the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Multivariate regression models were used to examine the relationships between the caretaker and adolescent health variables. The demographic factors of age, sex, ethnicity, religious affiliation, and household wealth status demonstrated significant relationships with SDQ subscale scores. Caretaker mental health was positively associated with adolescent mental health, and this association remained significant even after accounting for other relevant demographic variables and caretaker general health status. Understanding correlates of adolescent mental health difficulties may help identify youth and families at risk for developing psychiatric problems and inform mental health interventions in Vietnam. PMID:25204862

  12. American Psychiatric Association: Position Statement on Firearm Access, Acts of Violence and the Relationship to Mental Illness and Mental Health Services.

    PubMed

    Pinals, Debra A; Appelbaum, Paul S; Bonnie, Richard; Fisher, Carl E; Gold, Liza H; Lee, Li-Wen

    2015-06-01

    The American Psychiatric Association, ("APA"), with more than 36,000 members at present, is the Nation's leading organization of physicians who specialize in psychiatry. APA provides for education and advocacy and develops policy through Position Statements. It promotes enhanced knowledge of particular topics relevant to psychiatric practice and patient care through Resource Documents. Since 1993, the APA has developed various positions and resource materials related to firearms and mental illness, incorporating evolving themes as new issues emerge. This paper reflects the APA's 2014 Position Statement on Firearm Access, Acts of Violence and the Relationship to Mental Illness and Mental Health Services. PMID:26095100

  13. Championing person-first language: a call to psychiatric mental health nurses.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Mary E; Pease, Elizabeth A; Lambert, Kris; Hickman, Diane R; Robinson, Ora; McCoy, Kathleen T; Barut, Jennifer K; Musker, Kathleen M; Olive, Dana; Noll, Connie; Ramirez, Jeffery; Cogliser, Dawn; King, Joan Kenerson

    2013-01-01

    At the heart of recovery-oriented psychiatric mental health care are the dignity and respect of each person and the ways in which helping professionals convey a person's uniqueness, strengths, abilities, and needs. "Person-first language" is a form of linguistic expression relying on words that reflect awareness, a sense of dignity, and positive attitudes about people with disabilities. As such, person-first language places emphasis on the person first rather than the disability (e.g., "person with schizophrenia" rather than "a schizophrenic"). This article champions the use of person-first language as a foundation for recovery-oriented practice and enhanced collaborative treatment environments that foster respect, human dignity, and hope. PMID:23698977

  14. Preferences for Psychiatric Advance Directives among Latinos: How do Clients, Family Members and Clinicians View Advance Care Planning for Mental Health?

    PubMed Central

    Van Dorn, Richard A.; Swanson, Jeffrey W.; Swartz, Marvin S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Psychiatric advance directives allow individuals to plan for future mental health treatment. Little is known about how minority groups, particularly Latinos, view these legal mechanisms. This paper examines demand for, and attitudes towards psychiatric advance directives among Latinos with mental illness (N=85), their family members (N=25) and their clinicians (N=30). Method All participants completed a one-time interview. Results Participants showed substantial interest in completing psychiatric advance directives, specifically in involving family or other surrogates in their preparation and execution. There were few between-group differences in attitudes towards psychiatric advance directives. These findings are compared to prior research on psychiatric advance directives. Conclusions Psychiatric advance directives provide an acceptable way to increase culturally appropriate services and family involvement for Latinos with mental illness. Psychiatric advance directive-interventions should capitalize on the centrality of the family in Latino culture, which could provide an opportunity to reduce mental health crises in this population. PMID:19797381

  15. Mental Health: Knowledge, Attitudes and Training of Professionals on Dual Diagnosis of Intellectual Disability and Psychiatric Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, S.; Stawski, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dual diagnosis (DD) refers to the coexistence of intellectual disability and psychiatric disorder. In order to provide individuals with DD with adequate care, it is essential for mental health workers to have adequate knowledge and positive attitudes. These may be achieved through proper training. Aims: To summarise the available…

  16. Refocusing on physical health: Community psychiatric nurses' perceptions of using enhanced health checks for people with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Bressington, Daniel; Mui, Jolene; Wells, Harvey; Chien, Wai Tong; Lam, Claire; White, Jacquie; Gray, Richard

    2016-06-01

    In the present qualitative, descriptive study, we explored Hong Kong community psychiatric nurses' (CPN) perceptions of using comprehensive physical health checks for service users diagnosed with severe mental illness (SMI). Research interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 11 CPN in order to explore their perceptions about the use of the Health Improvement Profile (HIP) over a 1-year period. Interview data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. The analysis revealed that the majority of CPN appreciated the comprehensive focus on the physical health of their clients and reported positive changes in their clinical practice. Many of them observed an increase in the motivation of their clients to improve their physical health, and also noted observable benefits in service users' well-being. The use of the HIP also helped the CPN identify implementation barriers, and highlighted areas of the tool that required modifications to suit the local cultural and clinical context. To our knowledge, this is the first study conducted in an Asian mental health service that explores nurses' views about using comprehensive health checks for people with SMI. The findings suggest that such approaches are viewed as being acceptable, feasible, and potentially beneficial in the community mental health setting. PMID:26857108

  17. Next-Generation Psychiatric Assessment: Using Smartphone Sensors to Monitor Behavior and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Zeev, Dror; Scherer, Emily A.; Wang, Rui; Xie, Haiyi; Campbell, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Optimal mental health care is dependent upon sensitive and early detection of mental health problems. The current study introduces a state-of-the-art method for remote behavioral monitoring that transports assessment out of the clinic and into the environments in which individuals negotiate their daily lives. The objective of this study was examine whether the information captured with multi-modal smartphone sensors can serve as behavioral markers for one’s mental health. We hypothesized that: a) unobtrusively collected smartphone sensor data would be associated with individuals’ daily levels of stress, and b) sensor data would be associated with changes in depression, stress, and subjective loneliness over time. Methods A total of 47 young adults (age range: 19–30 y.o.) were recruited for the study. Individuals were enrolled as a single cohort and participated in the study over a 10-week period. Participants were provided with smartphones embedded with a range of sensors and software that enabled continuous tracking of their geospatial activity (using GPS and WiFi), kinesthetic activity (using multi-axial accelerometers), sleep duration (modeled using device use data, accelerometer inferences, ambient sound features, and ambient light levels), and time spent proximal to human speech (i.e., speech duration using microphone and speech detection algorithms). Participants completed daily ratings of stress, as well as pre/post measures of depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), stress (Perceived Stress Scale), and loneliness (Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale). Results Mixed-effects linear modeling showed that sensor-derived geospatial activity (p<.05), sleep duration (p<.05), and variability in geospatial activity (p<.05), were associated with daily stress levels. Penalized functional regression showed associations between changes in depression and sensor-derived speech duration (p<.05), geospatial activity (p<.05), and sleep duration (p<.05). Changes in loneliness were associated with sensor-derived kinesthetic activity (p<.01). Conclusions and implications for practice Smartphones can be harnessed as instruments for unobtrusive monitoring of several behavioral indicators of mental health. Creative leveraging of smartphone sensing will create novel opportunities for close-to-invisible psychiatric assessment at a scale and efficiency that far exceed what is currently feasible with existing assessment technologies. PMID:25844912

  18. A randomized trial of a mental health consumer-managed alternative to civil commitment for acute psychiatric crisis

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, T. K.

    2009-01-01

    This experiment compared the effectiveness of an unlocked, mental health consumer-managed, crisis residential program (CRP) to a locked, inpatient psychiatric facility (LIPF) for adults civilly committed for severe psychiatric problems. Following screening and informed consent, participants (n=393) were randomized to the CRP or the LIPF and interviewed at baseline and at 30-day, 6-month, and 1-year post admission. Outcomes were costs, level of functioning, psychiatric symptoms, self-esteem, enrichment, and service satisfaction. Treatment outcomes were compared using hierarchical linear models. Participants in the CRP experienced significantly greater improvement on interviewer-rated and self-reported psychopathology than did participants in the LIPF condition; service satisfaction was dramatically higher in the CRP condition. CRP-style facilities are a viable alternative to psychiatric hospitalization for many individuals facing civil commitment. PMID:18626766

  19. A randomized trial of a mental health consumer-managed alternative to civil commitment for acute psychiatric crisis.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Thomas K; Stoneking, Beth C; Humphreys, Keith; Sundby, Evan; Bond, Jason

    2008-09-01

    This experiment compared the effectiveness of an unlocked, mental health consumer-managed, crisis residential program (CRP) to a locked, inpatient psychiatric facility (LIPF) for adults civilly committed for severe psychiatric problems. Following screening and informed consent, participants (n = 393) were randomized to the CRP or the LIPF and interviewed at baseline and at 30-day, 6-month, and 1-year post admission. Outcomes were costs, level of functioning, psychiatric symptoms, self-esteem, enrichment, and service satisfaction. Treatment outcomes were compared using hierarchical linear models. Participants in the CRP experienced significantly greater improvement on interviewer-rated and self-reported psychopathology than did participants in the LIPF condition; service satisfaction was dramatically higher in the CRP condition. CRP-style facilities are a viable alternative to psychiatric hospitalization for many individuals facing civil commitment. PMID:18626766

  20. Widening the Psychiatric gaze: reflections on PsychoDoctor, depression, and recent transitions in japanese mental health care.

    PubMed

    Vickery, Ken

    2010-07-01

    Japan has one of the world's highest rates of psychiatric institutionalization, and popular images of mental health care and public attitudes toward mental illness there have been stigmatized for decades. However, there are transitions underway that are reshaping the mental health care landscape as well as affecting public representations of mental illness. Those transitions include attempts to promote community-based care, move away from long-term hospitalization, reduce stigma, increase utilization of services, and bring clinical psychological services under the national health insurance umbrella. This article discusses one cultural representation in which those transitions are brought into relief: a 2002 television series entitled PsychoDoctor that portrayed the clinical practice of a psychiatrist. The article analyzes the messages inherent in the series about the nature of mental illness, the everyday-ness of sufferers, and the expanded repertoire of treatments now available. In so doing, the article suggests that the efforts of progressive clinicians, pharmaceutical companies, and mental health activists to put forth new images of mental illness and mental health care are now having a degree of success in the arena of popular culture. PMID:20688796

  1. Quality of life impact of mental health conditions in England: results from the adult psychiatric morbidity surveys

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The main objective is to present health state utility estimates for a broad range of mental health conditions including anxiety, depression, long-term depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, phobia, panic disorder, psychosis, alcohol and drug dependency that can be used in economic models. Methods This study uses pooled data from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Surveys carried out in 2000 and 2007 of a representative sample of the general population in England. Health state utility values measured by the SF-6D and EQ-5D indices are the dependent variables. Independent variables include background characteristics, mental health and physical health conditions. Regression models were estimated using OLS for the SF-6D and tobit for EQ-5D. Further regressions were carried out to consider the impact of mental health and physical health morbidities and the impact of severity of conditions on utility values. Results Mental health conditions tend to have a larger impact on health state utility values than physical health conditions. The mental health conditions associated with the highest decrements in utility are: depression, mixed anxiety and depressive disorders and long-term depression. Interaction terms used to model the effect of co-morbidities are generally found to be positive implying that simply adding the utility decrements for two mental health conditions overestimates the burden of the disease. Conclusions This paper presents reliable and representative community based mean SF-6D and EQ-5D estimates with standard errors for health state utility values across a broad range of mental health conditions that can be used in cost effectiveness modelling. PMID:24422899

  2. Making strides in women's mental health care delivery in rural Ethiopia: demographics of a female outpatient psychiatric cohort at Jimma University Specialized Hospital (2006-2008).

    PubMed

    Chemali, Zeina N; Borba, Christina Pc; Henderson, Tanya E; Tesfaye, Markos

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the delivery of mental health care to a sample of women living in Jimma, rural Ethiopia, and their access to mental health services. A total of 226 psychiatric charts were reviewed for women seen at Jimma University Specialized Hospital. The mental health charts included documentation ranging from one paragraph to a full note. No psychiatric chart recorded medication status, detailed substance abuse history, or a history of violence. Rendering appropriate mental health care for women requires concerted efforts by multiple stake holders. Using our results, we advance concrete and practical suggestions for improving women's mental health in rural Ethiopia. We point out that the health care system needs to be responsive, allowing for change starting with gender rights, so that rural women have access to basic mental health services. PMID:23901297

  3. Making strides in women’s mental health care delivery in rural Ethiopia: demographics of a female outpatient psychiatric cohort at Jimma University Specialized Hospital (2006–2008)

    PubMed Central

    Chemali, Zeina N; Borba, Christina PC; Henderson, Tanya E; Tesfaye, Markos

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the delivery of mental health care to a sample of women living in Jimma, rural Ethiopia, and their access to mental health services. A total of 226 psychiatric charts were reviewed for women seen at Jimma University Specialized Hospital. The mental health charts included documentation ranging from one paragraph to a full note. No psychiatric chart recorded medication status, detailed substance abuse history, or a history of violence. Rendering appropriate mental health care for women requires concerted efforts by multiple stake holders. Using our results, we advance concrete and practical suggestions for improving women’s mental health in rural Ethiopia. We point out that the health care system needs to be responsive, allowing for change starting with gender rights, so that rural women have access to basic mental health services. PMID:23901297

  4. Outsourcing mental health care services? The practice and potential of community-based farms in psychiatric rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Iancu, Sorana C; Zweekhorst, Marjolein B M; Veltman, Dick J; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Bunders, Joske F G

    2015-02-01

    Psychiatric rehabilitation supports individuals with mental disorders to acquire the skills needed for independent lives in communities. This article assesses the potential of outsourcing psychiatric rehabilitation by analysing care farm services in the Netherlands. Service characteristics were analysed across 214 care farms retrieved from a national database. Qualitative insights were provided by five case descriptions, selected from 34 interviews. Institutional care farms were significantly larger and older than private care farms (comprising 88.8% of all care farms). Private, independent care farms provide real-life work conditions to users who are relatively less impaired. Private, contracted care farms tailor the work activities to their capacities and employ professional supervisors. Institutional care farms accommodate for the most vulnerable users. We conclude that collaborations with independent, contracted and institutional care farms would provide mental health care organizations with a diversity in services, enhanced community integration and a better match with users' rehabilitation needs. PMID:24965090

  5. An Analysis of Canadian Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing through the Junctures of History, Gender, Nursing Education, and Quality of Work Life in Ontario, Manitoba, Alberta, and Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A society that values mental health and helps people live enjoyable and meaningful lives is a clear aspiration echoed throughout our Canadian health care system. The Mental Health Commission of Canada has put forth a framework for a mental health strategy with goals that reflect the virtue of optimal mental health for all Canadians (Mental Health Commission Canada, 2009). Canadian nurses, the largest group of health care workers, have a vital role in achieving these goals. In Canada, two-thirds of those who experience mental health problems do not receive mental health services (Statistics Canada, 2003). Through a gendered, critical, and sociological perspective the goal of this paper is to further understand how the past has shaped the present state of psychiatric mental health nursing (PMHN). This integrative literature review offers a depiction of Canadian PMHN in light of the intersections of history, gender, education, and quality of nursing work life. Fourteen articles were selected, which provide a partial reflection of contemporary Canadian PMHN. Findings include the association between gender and professional status, inconsistencies in psychiatric nursing education, and the limitations for Canadian nurse practitioners to advance the role of the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner. PMID:23710367

  6. Focusing on psychiatric patients’ strengths: A new vision on mental health care in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali; Maghsoudi, Jahangir; Oreyzi, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Identifying and using the strengths of patients, in practice, is a new territory. Today, the need to educate nurses and psychiatric patients about positive psychology in practice and the importance of understanding and focusing on strengths is clear. However, little is known about the strengths the psychiatric patients use and experience. Thus, this study has been designed and conducted in order to understand how people with psychiatric disorders demonstrate their strengths. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 13 semi-structured, qualitative interviews with patients and 2 focus groups with nurses were carried out. In addition, a qualitative content analysis was used to identify significant strengths. Results: Based on the results, the four main strengths consisted of: Finding a meaning in daily living, work as enduring strength, entertaining activities, and positive relationship. Patients also reported that health care providers rarely focused on patients’ strengths, and experts confirmed these findings. Our findings indicate that patients’ own strengths are a pivotal factor in getting through their illness from their perspective. Conclusions: Despite the enduring legacy of pessimism regarding psychiatric patients, these people have a repertoire of strengths. Nurses should, therefore, have a greater focus on eliciting and nourishing psychiatric patients’ strengths in their care. It is suggested that the theoretical and practical aspects of patients’ strengths be incorporated in nursing school curricula. PMID:26120334

  7. Randomised controlled trial of a psychiatric consultation model for treatment of common mental disorder in the occupational health setting

    PubMed Central

    van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M; Meeuwissen, Jolanda AC; de Jong, Fransina J; Hoedeman, Rob; Elfeddali, Iman

    2007-01-01

    Background Common mental disorders are the most prevalent of all mental disorders, with the highest burden in terms of work absenteeism and utilization of health care services. Evidence-based treatments are available, but recognition and treatment could be improved, especially in the occupational health setting. The situation in this setting has recently changed in the Netherlands because of new legislation, which has resulted in reduced sickness absence. Severe mental disorder has now become one of the main causes of work absenteeism. Occupational physicians (OPs) are expected to take an active role in diagnosis and treatment, and seem to be in need of support for a new approach to handle cases of more complex mental disorders. Psychiatric consultation can be a collaborative care model to achieve this. Methods/design This is a two-armed cluster-randomized clinical trial, with randomization among OPs. Forty OPs in two big companies providing medical care for multiple companies will be randomized to either the intervention group, i.e. psychiatric consultation embedded in a training programme, or the control group, i.e. only training aimed at recognition and providing Care As Usual. 60 patients will be included who have been absent from work for 6–52 weeks and who, after screening and a MINI interview, are diagnosed with depressive disorder, anxiety disorder or somatoform disorder based on DSM-IV criteria. Baseline measurements and follow up measurements (at 3 months and 6 months) will be assessed with questionnaires and an interview. The primary outcome measure is level of general functioning according to the SF-20. Secondary measures are severity of the mental disorder according to the PHQ and the SCL-90, quality of life (EQ-D5), measures of Return To Work and cost-effectiveness of the treatment assessed with the TiC-P. Process measures will be adherence to the treatment plan and assessment of the treatment provided by the Psychiatric Consultant (PC) in both groups. Discussion In the current study, a psychiatric consultation model that has already proved to be effective in the primary care setting, and aimed to enhance evidence-based care for patients with work absenteeism and common mental disorder will be evaluated for its efficacy and cost-effectiveness in the occupational health setting. PMID:17326830

  8. Prevalence of cannabis residues in psychiatric patients: a case study of two mental health referral hospitals in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Awuzu, Epaenetus A; Kaye, Emmanuel; Vudriko, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have reported that abuse of cannabis is a risk factor for psychosis. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of delta 9-tetrahydrocanabinol (Δ(9)-THC), a major metabolite of cannabis, in psychiatric patients in Uganda, and to assess the diagnostic capacity of two referral mental health hospitals to screen patients for exposure to cannabis in Uganda. Socio-demographic characteristics of the patients were collected through questionnaires and review of medical records. Urine samples were collected from 100 patients and analyzed using Δ(9)-THC immunochromatographic kit (Standard Diagnostics(®), South Korea). Seventeen percent of the patients tested positive for Δ(9)-THC residues in their urine. There was strong association (P < 0.05) between history of previous abuse of cannabis and presence of Δ(9)-THC residues in the urine. Alcohol, cocaine, heroin, pethidine, tobacco, khat and kuber were the other substances abused in various combinations. Both referral hospitals lacked laboratory diagnostic kits for detection of cannabis in psychiatric patients. In conclusion, previous abuse of cannabis is associated with occurrence of the residues in psychiatric patients, yet referral mental health facilities in Uganda do not have the appropriate diagnostic kits for detection of cannabis residues as a basis for evidence-based psychotherapy. PMID:24453492

  9. Exploring the Needs for Support of Pediatric Nurses Caring for Children with a Mental Health Disorder Hospitalized in Non-Psychiatric Units.

    PubMed

    Vallières-Noël, Marie-Michelle; Garçon, Schnell; Rosmus, Christina; Goulnik, Francoise; Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie

    2016-04-01

    This qualitative study explored the experience and the needs for support of pediatric nurses caring for children with a mental health disorder hospitalized in non-psychiatric units in a health organization in Canada. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 nurses. Content analysis revealed two main themes: (a) nurses are challenged by the lack of knowledge, the gap between access to mental health resources and the basic role of only ensuring safety. Amidst these barriers, nurses revealed their feelings of helplessness, frustration and injustice. (b) All participants voiced their willingness to break this powerlessness loop. They identified several strategies to support them: more training in mental health, better collaboration with the mental health team, etc. Further research is needed to evaluate the efficiency of these strategies to improve the delivery of care for children with a mental health disorder hospitalized in non-psychiatric units. PMID:26992867

  10. Discharged from a mental health admission ward: is it safe to go home? A review on the negative outcomes of psychiatric hospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Loch, Alexandre Andrade

    2014-01-01

    Before psychiatry emerged as a medical discipline, hospitalizing individuals with mental disorders was more of a social stigmatizing act than a therapeutic act. After the birth of the mental health disciplines, psychiatric hospitalization was legitimized and has proven to be indispensable, preventing suicides and helping individuals in need. However, despite more than a century passing since this legitimization occurred, psychiatric hospitalization remains a controversial issue. There is the question of possible negative outcomes after a psychiatric admission ceases to take its protective effect, and even of whether the psychiatric admission itself is related to a negative setback after discharge. This review aims to summarize some of the most important negative outcomes after discharge from a psychiatric institution. These experiences were organized into two groups: those after a brief psychiatric hospitalization, and those after a long-stay admission. The author further suggests possible ways to minimize these adversities, emphasizing the need of awareness related to this important issue. PMID:24812527

  11. [Is "mental health" part of the common good? The sociopolitical framework of psychiatric ethics and the responsibility of health-care elites].

    PubMed

    Bohlken, Eike

    2014-07-01

    Psychiatric work can only be that ethical as the framework of a health-care system allows. Thus, the responsibility of the health-care elites to establish a sociopolitical framework that suits psychiatric ethics is discussed on the basis of a theory of the common good and of a philosophical and normative elite theory. "Mental health" is demonstrated to be part of a basic sphere of the common good which cannot be denied to any member of a society. The final section discusses which specific duties can be derived for health-care elites on the ground of the aforementioned conception of "mental health" as a part of the common good. PMID:24983581

  12. Profile of children placed in residential psychiatric program: Association with delinquency, involuntary mental health commitment, and reentry into care.

    PubMed

    Yampolskaya, Svetlana; Mowery, Debra; Dollard, Norín

    2014-05-01

    This study examined characteristics and profiles of youth receiving services in 1 of Florida's Medicaid-funded residential mental health treatment programs--State Inpatient Psychiatric Program (SIPP)--between July 1, 2004, and June 30, 2008 (N=1,432). Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to classify youth, and 3 classes were identified: Children With Multiple Needs, Children With No Caregivers, and Abused Children With Substantial Maltreatment History. The results of LCA showed that Children With Multiple Needs experienced the greatest risk for adverse outcomes. Compared with youth in the other 2 classes, these children were more likely to get readmitted to SIPP, more likely to become involved with the juvenile justice system, and more likely to experience involuntary mental health assessments. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:24827018

  13. Cultural concepts of distress and psychiatric disorders: literature review and research recommendations for global mental health epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Rasmussen, Andrew; Kaiser, Bonnie N; Haroz, Emily E; Maharjan, Sujen M; Mutamba, Byamah B; de Jong, Joop TVM; Hinton, Devon E

    2014-01-01

    Background Burgeoning global mental health endeavors have renewed debates about cultural applicability of psychiatric categories. This study’s goal is to review strengths and limitations of literature comparing psychiatric categories with cultural concepts of distress (CCD) such as cultural syndromes, culture-bound syndromes, and idioms of distress. Methods The Systematic Assessment of Quality in Observational Research (SAQOR) was adapted based on cultural psychiatry principles to develop a Cultural Psychiatry Epidemiology version (SAQOR-CPE), which was used to rate quality of quantitative studies comparing CCD and psychiatric categories. A meta-analysis was performed for each psychiatric category. Results Forty-five studies met inclusion criteria, with 18 782 unique participants. Primary objectives of the studies included comparing CCD and psychiatric disorders (51%), assessing risk factors for CCD (18%) and instrument validation (16%). Only 27% of studies met SAQOR-CPE criteria for medium quality, with the remainder low or very low quality. Only 29% of studies employed representative samples, 53% used validated outcome measures, 44% included function assessments and 44% controlled for confounding. Meta-analyses for anxiety, depression, PTSD and somatization revealed high heterogeneity (I2 > 75%). Only general psychological distress had low heterogeneity (I2 = 8%) with a summary effect odds ratio of 5.39 (95% CI 4.71-6.17). Associations between CCD and psychiatric disorders were influenced by methodological issues, such as validation designs (β = 16.27, 95%CI 12.75-19.79) and use of CCD multi-item checklists (β = 6.10, 95%CI 1.89-10.31). Higher quality studies demonstrated weaker associations of CCD and psychiatric disorders. Conclusions Cultural concepts of distress are not inherently unamenable to epidemiological study. However, poor study quality impedes conceptual advancement and service application. With improved study design and reporting using guidelines such as the SAQOR-CPE, CCD research can enhance detection of mental health problems, reduce cultural biases in diagnostic criteria and increase cultural salience of intervention trial outcomes. PMID:24366490

  14. Use of Specialty Mental Health Services by Asian Americans with Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Meyer, Oanh; Zane, Nolan; Cho, Young Il; Takeuchi, David T.

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests that Asian Americans underutilize mental health services but an understanding of the multiple factors involved in utilization has not been examined in a nationally representative sample. The current study analyzed data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) and examined 368 individuals with disorders to…

  15. Patient Smartphone Ownership and Interest in Mobile Apps to Monitor Symptoms of Mental Health Conditions: A Survey in Four Geographically Distinct Psychiatric Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Steven Richard; Yee-Marie Tan, Shih; Behrens, Jacob; Mathew, Ian; Conrad, Erich J; Hinton, Ladson; Yellowlees, Peter; Keshavan, Matcheri

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite growing interest in mobile mental health and utilization of smartphone technology to monitor psychiatric symptoms, there remains a lack of knowledge both regarding patient ownership of smartphones and their interest in using such to monitor their mental health. Objective To provide data on psychiatric outpatients’ prevalence of smartphone ownership and interest in using their smartphones to run applications to monitor their mental health. Methods We surveyed 320 psychiatric outpatients from four clinics around the United States in order to capture a geographically and socioeconomically diverse patient population. These comprised a state clinic in Massachusetts (n=108), a county clinic in California (n=56), a hybrid public and private clinic in Louisiana (n=50), and a private/university clinic in Wisconsin (n=106). Results Smartphone ownership and interest in utilizing such to monitor mental health varied by both clinic type and age with overall ownership of 62.5% (200/320), which is slightly higher than the average United States’ rate of ownership of 58% in January 2014. Overall patient interest in utilizing smartphones to monitor symptoms was 70.6% (226/320). Conclusions These results suggest that psychiatric outpatients are interested in using their smartphones to monitor their mental health and own the smartphones capable of running mental healthcare related mobile applications. PMID:26543905

  16. The effect of income and race on quality of psychiatric care in community mental health centers.

    PubMed

    Kuno, Eri; Rothbard, Aileen B

    2005-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between quality of mental health care provided by community mental health centers (CMHCs) and the poverty and racial mix of neighborhoods. Indicators of quality of care were constructed by examining service mix and prescription patterns for adult patients with schizophrenia during fiscal year 1996. CMHCs in high income, Caucasian areas were found to have higher quality of care indicators than those in low income, African American areas; i.e., higher percentage of patients on atypical antpsychotic prescriptions (47% vs. 33%) and higher percentage using intensive case management (ICM) services (67% vs. 29%). Questions arise regarding the factors underlying this phenomena and the extent to which they are provider-driven or due to patient preferences. PMID:16142542

  17. 'Violence is not part of our job': a thematic analysis of psychiatric mental health nurses' experiences of patient assaults from a New Zealand perspective.

    PubMed

    Baby, Maria; Glue, Paul; Carlyle, Dave

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes psychiatric mental health nurses' (PMHN) experiences of patient assaults within mental healthcare settings using a thematic analytical approach. The aim of the study was to explore and describe psychiatric mental health nurses' experiences of patient assaults. The major findings of the study related to the nature and impact of assaults and supportive strategies associated with violence perpetrated by patients against psychiatric mental health nurses. Perpetrator risk factors for patients include mental health disorders, alcohol and drug use and the inability to deal with situational crises. The injuries sustained by nurses in the context of the study include lacerations, head injuries, dislocations and bruises. Psychological harm has also occurred, including quite severe mental health problems, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. Protective strategies for combating negative consequences of workplace violence include practice of self-defence, social support and a supportive and consultative workplace culture with access to counselling services and assistance in all aspects, including finances. The paper concludes that while healthcare employers need to provide better support services to the healthcare professionals who are assaulted, the legal system also needs to acknowledge that assaults against nurses are a violation of human rights and violence should not to be tolerated as part of working in mental healthcare settings. PMID:25162186

  18. Psychiatric Disorders in Outpatients With Borderline Intellectual Functioning: Comparison With Both Outpatients From Regular Mental Health Care and Outpatients With Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Wieland, Jannelien; Haan, Sara Kapitein-de; Zitman, Frans G

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In the Netherlands, patients with borderline intellectual functioning are eligible for specialized mental health care. This offers the unique possibility to examine the mix of psychiatric disorders in patients who, in other countries, are treated in regular outpatient mental health care clinics. Our study sought to examine the rates of all main Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, Axis I psychiatric diagnoses in outpatients with borderline intellectual functioning of 2 specialized regional psychiatric outpatient departments and to compare these with rates of the same disorders in outpatients from regular mental health care (RMHC) and outpatients with mild intellectual disabilities (IDs). Method: Our study was a cross-sectional, anonymized medical chart review. All participants were patients from the Dutch regional mental health care provider Rivierduinen. Diagnoses of patients with borderline intellectual functioning (borderline intellectual functioning group; n = 235) were compared with diagnoses of patients from RMHC (RMHC group; n = 1026) and patients with mild ID (mild ID group; n = 152). Results: Compared with the RMHC group, psychotic and major depressive disorders were less common in the borderline intellectual functioning group, while posttraumatic stress disorder and V codes were more common. Compared with the mild ID group, psychotic disorders were significantly less common. Conclusion: Mental health problems in people with borderline intellectual functioning may not be well addressed in general psychiatry, or by standard psychiatry for patients with ID. Specific attention to this group in clinical practice and research may be warranted lest they fall between 2 stools. PMID:25007114

  19. Standardized Patient Versus Role-Play Strategies: A Comparative Study Measuring Patient-Centered Care and Safety in Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing.

    PubMed

    Alfes, Celeste M

    2015-01-01

    Nursing faculty traditionally use role-play to demonstrate mental health behaviors. However, until students interact with a mental health patient, they may not know what to expect. Standardized patient (SP) interactions can be used to overcome this challenge. This study compared pre-licensure nursing students' knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy following a sequence of psychiatric mental health role-play and SP experiences. Results suggest that the order of teaching strategies (role-play first versus SP interaction first) does not significantly impact student knowledge, attitude, or self-efficacy. However, student scores improved in all categories after the second experience. PMID:26753304

  20. Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...

  1. Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurses' Exposure to Clients With Problematic Internet Experiences: A Mixed-Methods Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Wieland, Diane M

    2015-10-01

    The current study explored the type and number of problematic Internet experiences (PIE) encountered by psychiatric-mental health nurses (PMHN) in clinical practice and analyzed PMHNs' clinical cases of clients with PIE. A mixed-methods quantitative survey with a qualitative component measured the types and number of PIE cases via a descriptive survey and derived themes using narrative inquiry methodology from written case descriptions. A sample of 16 PMHNs provided quantitative data and nine participants summarized clinical cases. PMHNs reported 92 adult and 33 child cases of PIE. Six themes were derived from the narrative data: (a) searching for pornography; (b) developing online romantic relationships; (c) online gaming is ruining my life; (d) spending excessive time on the Internet; (e) coming to terms with online sexual behaviors and addiction; and (f) cyberbullying. Implications for PMHN practice include the need for further assessment and intervention as PIE increase in the future. PMID:26489102

  2. Prognosis after Adolescent Suicide Attempt: Mental Health, Psychiatric Treatment, and Suicide Attempts in a Nine-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groholt, Berit; Ekeberg, Oivind

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of mental health and suicidal behavior was examined 8 to 10 years after an adolescent suicide attempt. Of 71 persons, 79% had at least one psychiatric disorder (mean 1.7) at follow-up, most commonly depression (46%), personality disorder (46%), and anxiety disorder (42%). The stability of diagnoses was moderate. The suicide…

  3. Prognosis after Adolescent Suicide Attempt: Mental Health, Psychiatric Treatment, and Suicide Attempts in a Nine-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groholt, Berit; Ekeberg, Oivind

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of mental health and suicidal behavior was examined 8 to 10 years after an adolescent suicide attempt. Of 71 persons, 79% had at least one psychiatric disorder (mean 1.7) at follow-up, most commonly depression (46%), personality disorder (46%), and anxiety disorder (42%). The stability of diagnoses was moderate. The suicide

  4. The integration of treatment and rehabilitation in psychiatric practice and services: a case study of a community mental health center.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Selby; Davidson, Larry; Steiner, Jeanne; Hoge, Michael

    2002-02-01

    After briefly reviewing the relationship of psychosocial rehabilitation to psychiatric practice, the authors recommend a renewed commitment of psychiatrists to bridge and integrate psychiatric treatment with psychosocial rehabilitation in practice and in the organization of services. They use the case example of an urban, community mental health center to illustrate a strategy for achieving greater integration of these two, relatively independent fields of professional practice. The Center's strategy for integration includes (1) center-wide planning, (2) structuring the medical staff office to support the task of integration, (3) establishing a model of practice and principles of care that supports both domains of intervention, (4) educating medical staff about psychosocial rehabilitation, (5) inter-disciplinary team building, including a definition and discussion of professional roles, (6) expanding services research on psychosocial rehabilitation, and (7) advocating in alliance with rehabilitation colleagues for expanded psychosocial rehabilitation services and their integration with treatment. By taking initiative to forward the integration of treatment and rehabilitation, psychiatrists better serve seriously ill patients and more effectively define their own work and roles. PMID:11892858

  5. Migration background and juvenile mental health: a descriptive retrospective analysis of diagnostic rates of psychiatric disorders in young people

    PubMed Central

    Gaber, Tilman Jakob; Bouyrakhen, Samira; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Hagenah, Ulrich; Holtmann, Martin; Freitag, Christine Margarete; Wöckel, Lars; Poustka, Fritz; Zepf, Florian Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This article presents diagnostic rates for specific mental disorders in a German pediatric inpatient population over a period of 20 years with respect to migration background and socioeconomic status (SES). Methods Diagnostic data were obtained over a period of 20 years from 8,904 patients who visited a child and adolescent psychiatry mental health service in Germany. Data from 5,985 diagnosed patients (ICD-9 and ICD-10 criteria) were included with respect to gender, migration background, and SES. Results Migration- and gender-specific effects were found for both periods of assessment. The group of boys with a migration background showed significantly higher rates of reactions to severe stress, adjustment disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder compared to their male, non-migrant counterparts. Conversely, boys without a migration background showed a significantly higher percentage rate of hyperkinetic disorders than male migrants. Similar results were found for female migrants in the latter assessment period (ICD-10). In addition, female migrants showed lower rates of emotional disorders whose onset occurs in childhood compared to their non-migrant counterparts. Conclusions Data from this investigation provide preliminary evidence that the prevalence of various psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents is influenced by migration background and SES. PMID:23787053

  6. Psychiatric morbidity, service use, and need for care in the general population: results of The Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study.

    PubMed Central

    Bijl, R V; Ravelli, A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the use of primary health care, mental health care, and informal care services, as well as unmet care needs, by individuals with different psychiatric diagnoses. METHODS: Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study and were based on a representative sample (n = 7147) of the general population (aged 18-64 years). RESULTS: In a 12-month period, 33.9% of those with a psychiatric disorder used some form of care; 27.2% used primary care, and 15.3% used mental health care. Patients with mood disorders were the most likely to enlist professional care; those with alcohol- and drug-related disorders were the least likely to do so. Higher educated persons who live alone, single parents, unemployed persons, and disabled persons were more likely to use mental health care. Unmet need for professional help was reported by 16.8% (men 9.9%, women 23.9%) of those with a disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Care use varies widely by diagnostic category. The role of general medical practitioners in treating persons with psychiatric disorders is more limited than was anticipated. Patients in categories associated with extensive use of professional care are more likely to have unmet care needs. PMID:10754976

  7. Psychiatric mental health consultation and nursing in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Johnson, H L

    1992-05-01

    1. Our "mission" was preparing psychiatric services for the anticipated high number of allied casualties; providing clinical, educational, and developmental support to the host nation; and maintaining diplomatic relations within the hospital and surrounding community. 2. Because of cultural differences, the hospital staff were uneasy about some of the inservice classes. US staff were taught the importance of refusing to succumb to "the illusion of color blindness." 3. With the support of the host, we took leadership in receiving and training the casualties of the war. Psychiatric services were provided to allied troops as well as the citizens of Dubai. PMID:1602428

  8. Mental Health Systems in Scandinavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, David J.

    The guidebook is introduced by general observations on the Scandinavian countries concerning history, social policy, medicine, mental health, and psychiatric diagnosis. Discussed individually for Norway, Sweden, and Denmark are the following areas: mental health programs and statistics; mental illness programs, regional, hospital, aftercare,…

  9. Mental Health Systems in Scandinavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, David J.

    The guidebook is introduced by general observations on the Scandinavian countries concerning history, social policy, medicine, mental health, and psychiatric diagnosis. Discussed individually for Norway, Sweden, and Denmark are the following areas: mental health programs and statistics; mental illness programs, regional, hospital, aftercare,

  10. Toward the integration of comprehensive mental health services in HIV care: an assessment of psychiatric morbidity among HIV-positive individuals in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Olagunju, Andrew T; Ogundipe, Olasimbo A; Erinfolami, Adebayo R; Akinbode, Abiola A; Adeyemi, Joseph D

    2013-01-01

    Existing evidence from research supports the desirability of integration of mental health services into HIV care in order to mitigate the grave consequences of unattended mental health morbidity among People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). This study aims to find out the burden and pattern of psychiatric disorders that is prevalent among HIV-positive individuals attending a Nigerian-based HIV clinic. The study participants, consisting of 295 HIV-positive adults were recruited using systematic random sampling method. The participants were subjected to questionnaire to elicit demographic profile and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) to screen for probable psychiatric disorders. This was followed by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Non patient (SCID-NP) to diagnose the presence of psychiatric morbidity in any of the participant with a GHQ-28 score ≥5 and 10% of those with GHQ-28 score <5. Data were analyzed with SPSS 17. Of the 295 participants interviewed, approximately one-quarter (25.1%) of the participants had diagnosable psychiatric illness based on SCID-NP. Depression was the commonest mental disorder detected as 44 (14.9%) met the DSM-IV Axis 1 diagnosis of major depressive disorders. Anxiety disorders, concurrent Nicotine with Alcohol dependence and cannabis abuse were elicited in 24 (8.1%), 4 (1.3%), and 2 (0.7%) participants, respectively. This study finds a higher burden of psychiatric disorders in PLWHA in comparison to what is obtainable in the general population based on previous research works in similar context. Thus further underscores the need for integration of comprehensive psychiatric services into HIV care. We advocate the support and commitment of key stakeholders in HIV care to the translation of this research-based evidence into practice among PLWHA. PMID:23391152

  11. Becoming a psychiatric/mental health nurse in the UK: a qualitative study exploring processes of identity formation.

    PubMed

    Hurley, John; Lakeman, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Identity studies are well established across the social science literature with mental health nursing beginning to offer evidenced insights into what may, or may not, constitute key identity performances. For mental health nursing these performances remain contested, both from within the profession and from international contexts that favour generic constructions of mental health. This paper offers findings from a qualitative study that focused upon the process of how mental health nursing identity development is influenced, rather than what that identity may or may not be. These findings highlight that mental health nurses (MHNs) not only form their identity around service user centred education and training, but that many also use the education as a means to leave the profession. Through highlighting the impact of informal education (i.e., through work), formal education, and training upon the formation of mental health nursing identity, nurses are potentially alerted to the importance of clinically focussed mental health being prominent within curricula, rewarding mental health nursing skills specialisation, and the importance of the role of the service user in mental health nurse education and, hence, identity formation. PMID:22077747

  12. European Psychiatric Association (EPA) guidance on the quality of eMental health interventions in the treatment of psychotic disorders.

    PubMed

    Gaebel, Wolfgang; Großimlinghaus, Isabell; Kerst, Ariane; Cohen, Yoram; Hinsche-Böckenholt, Andrea; Johnson, Bert; Mucic, Davor; Petrea, Ionela; Rössler, Wulf; Thornicroft, Graham; Zielasek, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    The main aim was to develop recommendations on eMental health interventions for the treatment of psychotic disorders. A systematic literature search on eMental health interventions was performed, and 24 articles about interventions in psychotic disorders were retrieved and systematically assessed for their quality. Studies were characterized by a large heterogeneity with regard to study type, sample sizes, interventions and outcome measures. Five graded recommendations were developed dealing with the feasibility of eMental health interventions, beneficial effects of psychoeducation, preliminary results of clinical efficacy, the need of moderation in peer support eMental health groups and the need to develop quality standards. PMID:26874958

  13. [Deaf stigma in mental health, the example of mental health].

    PubMed

    Cole, P; Cantero, O

    2015-02-11

    Deaf people with mental illness have to face to a double stigma: mental illness and deafness. Deaf and hard of hearing are a fragile population in term of accessibility to psychiatric care. The approach to the psychiatric clinic of deaf people must face the stigma that permeate the professionals in mental health about deafness. The possibilities to improve the condition of the deaf in the care and reduce stigma in these vulnerable populations are growing more and more last years. PMID:25895217

  14. PTSD in psychiatric nurses and other mental health providers: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jacobowitz, William

    2013-11-01

    Psychiatric nurses are subject to a high rate of assault by patients. The stress of exposure to assault and the potential for assault appear to impact nurses' emotional states in the form of post-traumatic stress and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Most studies report a prevalence rate of PTSD in this population of between 9-10%. Training in the management of aggressive patients, participating in Critical Incident Debriefing, and having routine structured debriefing meetings may play a role in facilitating the development of resilience in nurses with respect to the risk of PTSD. Knowledge about the state of the science regarding aggression and PTSD is necessary for clinicians and researchers to develop and test effective strategies. This article presents a review of the current literature on this topic. PMID:24131410

  15. Objective structured video examination in psychiatric and mental health nursing: a learning and assessment method.

    PubMed

    Selim, Abeer A; Dawood, Eman

    2015-02-01

    In the current study, the Objective Structured Video Examination (OSVE) was conducted to assess undergraduate nursing students' knowledge, observation, and clinical reasoning related to clinical psychiatric nursing competencies. The OSVE showed acceptable reliability and validity (Cronbach's α = 0.714, r = 0.6, respectively). Students highly appraised the OSVE because it covered a wide area of knowledge and clinical skills; the examination instructions were clear, concrete, and easily understood; the sounds and pictures of the videos were clear; and the videos simulated real patients. The examination was fair, well-administered, well-structured, and well-sequenced. The OSVE reflected learned skills, it provided opportunities for learning, grades were clearly identified, and it eliminated personal bias. Overall, the OSVE provided a practical and useful experience. On the other hand, some students negatively perceived the OSVE as being stressful and requiring more time. PMID:25602587

  16. Eight-year incidence of psychiatric disorders and service use from adolescence to early adulthood: longitudinal follow-up of the Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Benjet, Corina; Borges, Guilherme; Méndez, Enrique; Albor, Yesica; Casanova, Leticia; Orozco, Ricardo; Curiel, Teresa; Fleiz, Clara; Medina-Mora, María Elena

    2016-02-01

    Half of mental disorders have their first onset before adulthood when the presence of a disorder may be particularly disruptive to developmental milestones. Retrospective prevalence estimates have been shown to underestimate the burden of mental illness and scarce data are available on the incidence of disorders throughout the adolescent period, especially in developing countries. Thus, the objective was to determine the incidence of mental disorders in an 8-year period from adolescence to young adulthood, onset of service use and their predictors in a Mexican cohort. 1071 respondents from a representative two-wave panel sample participated in the Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey in 2005 and in the follow-up survey in 2013. Disorders were evaluated with the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview. 37.9 % experienced the onset of a psychiatric disorder and 28.4 % sought services for the first time. Substance use disorders had the greatest incidence, followed by mood and behavior disorders, anxiety disorders and lastly eating disorders. Sex, age, school dropout, childhood adversities and prior mental disorders predicted the onset of new disorders. Being female, having more educated parents and most classes of disorder predicted first time service use. These findings contribute to a paradigm shift in conceptions of mental disorder similar to how we think of common physical afflictions as near universal experiences across the life course, but less frequent at any given moment. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable. Therefore, public health policy should focus on early universal promotion of positive mental health and structural determinants of mental health. PMID:26009150

  17. What Is Mental Health?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myths and Facts Recovery is Possible What Is Mental Health? Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social ... mental health problems and where to find help . Mental Health and Wellness Positive mental health allows people to: ...

  18. From psychiatric science to folk psychology: an ordinary-language model of the mind for mental health nurses.

    PubMed

    Holdsworth, N

    1995-03-01

    In this paper it is argued that, if mental health nurses are to integrate the skills necessary to accomplish the diverse tasks that comprise their professional role, then what is required is a conception of mind independent of any particular paradigm in the biophysical and psychosocial sciences. This is proposed as a necessary condition of articulating the professional autonomy of mental health nurses. A four-part model of mental functioning is presented and developed, drawing on the ordinary language of folk psychology. Objections to this strategy are anticipated and answered. The utility of the model is demonstrated by deploying it to analyse emotional states and to show how subjective experience is a necessary component of mental ill-health, which is why empathic understanding is a necessary skill for mental health nurses. Finally, the major research paradigms associated with scientific approaches to the care and treatment of mental ill-health are aligned with the elements of the model to demonstrate the potential of that model for clarifying the rationale of theoretically divergent treatment approaches for the benefit of both nurses and their clients. It is emphasized that the proposed model is 'theory' only in the weak sense of being a 'systematic account' of the mental life. PMID:7745201

  19. [Alteration of profile of treatment of the public psychiatric hospitals of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, in the context of mental health care reform].

    PubMed

    Coelho, Vívian Andrade Araújo; Volpe, Fernando Madalena; Diniz, Sabrina Stephanie Lana; Silva, Eliane Mussel da; Cunha, Cristiane de Freitas

    2014-08-01

    This article seeks to describe the profile of treatment and internment in public psychiatric hospitals in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, from 2002 to 2011. The changes in the characteristics of treatment and the profiles of the patients treated are analyzed in the context of health care reform. It is a study of temporal series with trend analysis by means of linear regression. There was a reduction in the total of patients treated in the period under scrutiny. Inversely, there was an increase in internments with a reduction in length of stay, though no change in readmission rates. Patients from Belo Horizonte prevailed, however a relative increase in demand from the surrounding area was observed. There was a reversal in the prevalence of morbidity switching from psychotic disorders to disorders resulting from the use of alcohol and/or other drugs. The alteration observed in the profile of treatment in public psychiatric hospitals in Belo Horizonte was concomitant with the progressive implementation of community mental health services, which have probably met the demand that was formerly directed to these hospitals. Currently the psychiatric hospital is not the first, much less the only venue for treatment in the mental health network in Minas Gerais. PMID:25119099

  20. Pakistan mental health country profile.

    PubMed

    Karim, Salman; Saeed, Khalid; Rana, Mowaddat Hussain; Mubbashar, Malik Hussain; Jenkins, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    The Republic of Pakistan is a South East Asian country with a population of over 140.7 million. Its population is fast growing and the majority (70%) live in rural areas with a feudal or tribal value system. The economy is dependent on agriculture and 35% of the population live below the poverty line. Islam is the main religion and 'mental illnesses' are stigmatized and widely perceived to have supernatural causes. The traditional healers along with psychiatric services are the main mental health service providers. The number of trained mental health professionals is small as compared to the population demands and specialist services are virtually non-existent. Lack of data on prevalence of various mental illnesses and monitory constraints are the major hurdles in the development of mental health services. A number of innovative programmes to develop indigenous models of care like the 'Community Mental Health Programme' and 'Schools Mental Health Programme' have been developed. These programmes have been found effective in reducing stigma and increase awareness of mental illness amongst the adults and children living in rural areas. Efforts by the government and mental health professionals have led to the implementation of a 'National Mental Health Policy' and 'Mental Health Act' in 2001. These aim at integrating mental health services with the existing health services, improving mental health care delivery and safeguarding the rights of mentally ill people. A favourable political will and the help of international institutions like the World Health Organization are required to achieve these aims. PMID:15276941

  1. SOCIAL ROLE VALORIZATION IN COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH HOUSING: DOES IT CONTRIBUTE TO THE COMMUNITY INTEGRATION AND LIFE SATISFACTION OF PEOPLE WITH PSYCHIATRIC DISABILITIES?

    PubMed Central

    Aubry, Tim; Flynn, Robert J; Virley, Barb; Neri, Jaclynne

    2013-01-01

    Despite its importance as a theory in the development of programs for populations with disabilities, social role valorization (SRV) has received relatively little attention in community mental health research. We present findings of a study that examined the relationship of housing-related SRV to community integration and global life satisfaction of persons with psychiatric disabilities. The housing environments and associated supports of a group of 73 persons with psychiatric disabilities living in a mid-sized city were assessed using the PASSING rating system on the extent that their housing environments facilitated SRV. In addition, in-person interviews were conducted to determine the levels of physical integration, psychological integration, social integration, and life satisfaction of study participants. Results showed SRV contributing directly to all three types of community integration. Psychological integration was found to mediate the relationship between SRV and life satisfaction. Implications of the findings are discussed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23658470

  2. The Psychiatric Aide in State Mental Hospitals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD. Manpower Studies Unit.

    Benchmark data essential to further study and action were obtained in 1963 from personnel records and interviews with representative samples of aides and nurses. Some findings were: (1) State and county mental hospitals employed approximately 96,000 psychiatric aides with eight states acccounting for one-half, (2) Although there were wide…

  3. A Clinical Workshop in Mental Health and Psychiatric Nursing for Instructors in Schools of Practical Nursing. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamar, Carl F.; And Others

    Twenty directors and instructors in schools of practical nursing in Kentucky and a total of nine directors and instructors from six other states and the District of Columbia attended a 2-week workshop at the University of Kentucky in July 1967. The purpose was to assist participants to integrate mental health concepts into the practical nurse…

  4. Quality of Publicly-Funded Outpatient Specialty Mental Health Care for Common Childhood Psychiatric Disorders in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zima, Bonnie T.; Hurlburt, Michael S.; Knapp, Penny; Ladd, Heather; Tang, Lingqi; Duan, Naihua; Wallace, Peggy; Rosenblatt, Abram; Landsverk, John; Wells, Kenneth B.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To describe the documented adherence to quality indicators for the outpatient care of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and major depression for children in public mental health clinics and to explore how adherence varies by child and clinic characteristics. Method: A statewide, longitudinal cohort study of 813…

  5. Same-sex sexuality and psychiatric disorders in the second Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS-2)

    PubMed Central

    Sandfort, Theo G. M.; de Graaf, Ron; ten Have, Margreet; Ransome, Yusuf; Schnabel, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Sexual orientation has been shown to be a risk factor for psychiatric disorders. This study compared whether sexual orientation-related disparities in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders are similar based on homosexual behavior versus attraction and tested whether, with increased acceptance of homosexuality, these disparities have diminished over time. Methods The Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0 was administered with a total of 6,646 Dutch persons, aged 18 to 64 years. Results Between 2.0% and 2.5% of the participants reported same-sex sexual behavior in the preceding year or same-sex attraction. Homosexually active persons and persons with same-sex attraction reported a higher prevalence of disorders than heterosexual persons. There were more disparities in the prevalence of disorders based on sexual attraction than based on sexual behavior. Comparing these results with a previous study, showed that no significant changes over time have occurred in the pattern of health disparities. Conclusions Sexual orientation continues to be a risk factor for psychiatric disorders, stressing the need for understanding the origins of these disparities. PMID:26609539

  6. Women and Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health & Education > Mental Health Information Women and Mental Health Mental illnesses affect women and men differently — some ... nih.gov Share Science News About Women’s Mental Health Soldiers at High Suicide Risk after Hospitalization NIMH ...

  7. Multidisciplinary mental health teams.

    PubMed

    Slade, M; Rosen, A; Shankar, R

    1995-01-01

    This study surveyed current practice amongst 91 Indian and Australian staff working within multidisciplinary mental health teams, looking at leadership skills, conflict resolution and therapeutic abilities. Length of training was associated with management skills, though these skill were more developed by psychiatric nurses and occupational therapists working in community settings. Hospital settings involved less consensual decision-making than community teams. Psychiatric nurses spent most time in clinical work, and occupational therapists were rated as less skilled in the therapeutic activities assessed than any other profession. Psychiatrists and clinical psychologists undertook most research. The activities assessed in this study could be undertaken by a team comprising psychiatrists, psychiatric nurses and social workers, with clinical psychologists employed where possible, especially for research or service evaluation. PMID:8847199

  8. WAR & Military Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Pols, Hans; Oak, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Involvement in warfare can have dramatic consequences for the mental health and well-being of military personnel. During the 20th century, US military psychiatrists tried to deal with these consequences while contributing to the military goal of preserving manpower and reducing the debilitating impact of psychiatric syndromes by implementing screening programs to detect factors that predispose individuals to mental disorders, providing early intervention strategies for acute war-related syndromes, and treating long-term psychiatric disability after deployment. The success of screening has proven disappointing, the effects of treatment near the front lines are unclear, and the results of treatment for chronic postwar syndromes are mixed. After the Persian Gulf War, a number of military physicians made innovative proposals for a population-based approach, anchored in primary care instead of specialty-based care. This approach appears to hold the most promise for the future. PMID:17971561

  9. Diabetes and mental health.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Chris; Doherty, Anne

    2014-12-01

    Diabetes is an increasingly common health problem, and accounts for one-tenth of NHS spending, chiefly managing avoidable complications. Approximately one-third of people with diabetes have psychological and/or social problems which impede their ability to self-manage their diabetes. Identifying certain indicators which suggest high risk of co-morbid mental health problems will allow these to be identified and treated early. Ensuring that any mental health problems are treated and social needs are met, will be valuable in improving the individuals health. Addressing the psychiatric and psychological barriers to good glucose control can help to reduce the burden of diabetes and its complications, on both the individual and the wider health service. PMID:25468856

  10. Elderly Mental Health: Needs*

    PubMed Central

    Parkar, Shubhangi R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper highlights the mental health needs of the elderly. It tackles the issues of their institutionalisation and community care. Rapid urbanisation in Indian society throws up special problems in elderly care. There is great evidence of a raise in morbidity, mortality, hospitalisation and loss of functional status related to common mental disorders in the elderly patients. Overlap of depression and anxiety is very common with up to almost half of the elderly patients reporting significant depressive and anxiety symptoms. Also, depression is the most common psychiatric disorder in late life. Growth in the elderly population means a direct increase in age related diseases such as dementia and poor mental health outcomes such as depression, anxiety, suicide and serious constraints on the quality of life among elderly individuals. The need to identify new and unmet problem areas and develop efficient therapeutic outcomes for this special population is stressed. PMID:25838727

  11. Delivering the choice agenda as a framework to manage adverse effects: a mental health nurse perspective on prescribing psychiatric medication.

    PubMed

    Jones, M; Jones, A

    2007-06-01

    The article describes the clinical management of a patient referred, with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, who experienced adverse effects associated with an elevated prolactin level. A reflective model was adopted to inform the new learning which emerged from the clinical scenario. It highlights that Mental Health Nurse Supplementary Prescribers need to develop a prescribing value base underpinned by choice in addition to advanced technical skills to manage unhelpful effects of medication. PMID:17517033

  12. Indian Psychiatric Society multicentric study on assessment of health-care needs of patients with severe mental illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep; Avasthi, Ajit; Shah, Sandip; Lakdawala, Bhavesh; Chakraborty, Kaustav; Nebhinani, Naresh; Kallivayalil, Roy Abraham; Dalal, Pranob K.; Sinha, Vishal; Khairkar, Praveen; Mukerjee, Divya G.; Thara, R.; Behere, Prakash; Chauhan, Nidhi; Thirunavukarasu, M.; Malhotra, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To assess the health-care needs of the patients with severe mental disorders. Materials and Methods: Patients with the diagnosis of a severe mental disorder (schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder, recurrent depressive disorder, major depressive disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder) were assessed using Camberwell Assessment of Need-Research version (CAN-R) Scale and indigenously designed Supplementary Needs Assessment Scale (SNAS). Results: The study included 1494 patients recruited from 15 centers. The most common diagnostic group was that of affective disorders (55.3%), followed by psychotic disorders (37.6%). The mean number of total needs as perceived by the patients was 7.6 on the CAN-R. About two-third of the needs as assessed on CAN-R were met, and one-third were unmet. On CAN-R, main domains of needs as reported by patients were those of money, welfare benefits, transport, information about the illness and treatment, relief of psychological distress, company, household skills and intimate relationships. On SNAS, the mean number of total needs as perceived by the patients was 7.6 of which 4.1 were met needs. The most common domains of needs as assessed on SNAS were those of financial help, medical reimbursement, psychoeducation, free treatment, certification of mental illness, flexible work/job timings, addressing the caregiver stress and legal aid. Conclusion: About two-third of the needs, of the patients with severe mental disorders are met as assessed using CAN-R. However, higher percentages of unmet needs are identified on SNAS. In view of the commonly reported needs, a change in the orientation of services offered to people with mental disorders is very much called for. At the government level, desired policies must be formulated to support the patients with mental disorders. PMID:25657456

  13. [Psychiatric hospitalization for mental illness: past, present and future].

    PubMed

    Martínez Ferretti, José María

    2011-01-01

    The use of psychiatric hospitalization for mental illness has evolved through Modernity. In the last century, indefinite and involuntary committal was a widespread practice but has now become an extraordinary and short-term therapeutic recourse. Even though law experts, doctors and other mental health professionals agree on the benefits of this shift, in practice there are disagreements rooted in the shortcomings of health service providers. The current medical and legal criteria for hospitalization of patients with mental disorders should move away from the concept of endangerment and embrace therapeutic procedures and social care. New contemporary challenges, such as drugs and violence, require the implementation of a social strategy that is more comprehensive than medical treatment. This article presents a series of case studies describing the circumstances that led to the hospitalization of mental health patients, mostly in the city of Buenos Aires. PMID:22091456

  14. Atheism and mental health.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Rob

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of the impact of religiosity on mental health is an enduring, if somewhat quiet, tradition. There has been virtually no exploration, however, of the influence of atheism on mental health. Though not a "religion," atheism can be an orienting worldview that is often consciously chosen by its adherents, who firmly believe in the "truth" of atheism-a phenomenon known as "positive atheism." Atheism, especially positive atheism, is currently enjoying something of a renaissance in the Western liberal democracies-a trend often referred to as the "new atheism." I argue that atheism, especially positive atheism, should be treated as a meaningful sociocultural variable in the study of mental health. I argue that atheism (just like theism) is an appropriate domain of study for social and cultural psychiatrists (and allied social scientists) interested in exploring socio-environmental stressors and buffers relating to mental health. Specifically, I argue that (1) atheism needs to be accurately measured as an individual-level exposure variable, with the aim of relating that variable to psychiatric outcomes, (2) there needs to be greater systematic investigation into the influence of atheism on psychiatry as an institution, and (3) the relation of atheism to mental health needs to be explored by examining atheistic theory and its practical application, especially as it relates to the human condition, suffering, and concepts of personhood. PMID:20415634

  15. Staff Roles For Mental Health Personnel: A History and Rationale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    Historical issues and the development of the mental health personnel system are examined. The four core professions (psychiatry, clinical psychology, psychiatric social work, and psychiatric nursing) evolved into the medical-psychiatric model of the state mental hospitals, institutions for the mentally retarded, and child guidance clinics. This…

  16. The Role of a Psychiatric Pharmacist in College Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caley, Charles F.; Webber, Donna; Kurland, Michael; Holmes, Paula

    2010-01-01

    Published evidence indicates there is a growing prevalence of psychiatric illnesses on college campuses, and that approximately one quarter of students may be taking psychotropic medications. But attracting and retaining experienced mental health care professionals to college health settings is a challenging task. The psychiatric pharmacist is one…

  17. No personalization without participation: on the active contribution of psychiatric patients to the development of a mobile application for mental health

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the increasing pervasiveness of mobile computational technologies, knowledge about psychiatric patients’ preferences regarding the design and utility of mobile applications is very poor. This paper reports on a pilot-study that involved 120 psychiatric patients in the development of a mobile application (app) that is being used for data entry into the Signature Project data bank at the Institut universitaire en santé mentale de Montréal (IUSMM), Canada. Participants were invited to comment on the ‘look and feel’ of the Signature App. Their input also extended the procedures for data collection. These suggestions may contribute to increased mental health literacy and empowerment of persons with mental illness receiving services at the IUSMM. Methods Participants were recruited to fill out a questionnaire on a tablet computer while waiting at the Emergency Room (ER, n = 40), Psychotic Disorders outpatient clinic (n = 40) or Anxiety and Mood Disorders outpatient clinic (n = 40) of IUSMM. Nine patients from each of these sub-groups participated in a focus group to review the results and to discuss how the design and use of the Signature App could be improved to better meet the needs of patients. Results This study (n = 120) indicated that psychiatric patients are clearly capable of using a tablet computer to fill out questionnaires for quantitative data entry, and that they enjoyed this experience. Results from the focus groups (n = 27) highlight that the app could also be used by patients to communicate some personal and contextual qualitative information. This would support a holistic and person-centered approach, especially at the ER where people acutely need to describe their recent history and receive emotional support. Conclusions This pilot-study has confirmed the necessity of involving patients not only in the testing of a new mobile application, but also as active contributors in the entire research and development process of a person-centered information and communication technology infrastructure. The input of participants was essential in designing the Signature Project computational procedure and making use of the app a positive and empowering experience. Participants also gave critical feedback remarks that went beyond the initial scope of the pilot-study, for example they suggested the addition of a client-clinician component. PMID:23890085

  18. Teen Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... worthless could be warning signs of a mental health problem. Mental health problems are real, painful, and sometimes severe. You ... things that could harm you or others Mental health problems can be treated. To find help, talk ...

  19. Ethnic and gender differences in mental health utilization: the case of Muslim Jordanian and Moroccan Jewish Israeli out-patient psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Al-Krenawi, A; Graham, J R; Ophir, M; Kandah, J

    2001-01-01

    A sample of 148 (87 Jordanian [61 male, 26 female] and 61 Israeli [26 male, 35 female]) was selected from a psychiatric clinic in Ashdod Israel and Zarka Jordan, using convenience sampling methodology over a 12 month period in late 1997 and early 1998. A revised Hopkins Symptom Checklist: A Self-Report Symptom Inventory (HSCL) was translated into Arabic and Hebrew and distributed to subjects; additional questions explored demographic characteristics, forms of received treatment, patient perceptions of treatment efficacy, patient use of traditional healers, and patient explanation of etiology. Data revealed that there were differences in dimensions between the 2 groups based on nationality and gender. More Jordanians than Israelis expected medications as the main treatment, and unlike Israelis, no Jordanian patients received individual psychotherapy. Israelis expected medications, advice, directions, and instructions from psychiatrists. Both ethnic groups consulted a wide array of traditional healers, although precise types of healers varied according to gender and ethnicity. Israeli subjects gave more diverse explanations of mental health etiologies: physical, family, divorce, economic, unemployment; whereas Jordanians tended to emphasize divine and spiritual sources. Implications for psychiatric practice are discussed. PMID:11589335

  20. Chile mental health country profile.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Carmen López

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes main facts about Chile starting with key socio-demographic, socio-economic, political, environmental, epidemiological, social support and social pathology aspects that characterize the context in which current mental and neurological policy and programmes have been put in place since 2000, as part of the National Health Plan and Health Sector Strategy Plan. The 'National Plan for Mental Health and Psychiatry', using a community psychiatry approach, has been partially implemented for people covered by the Public Health Insurance, which comprises 62% of the Chilean population (people with lower income). This paper also describes: the management, population needs and demands, financial resources, human resources in primary care, mental health specialist care and community-based care, physical capital, social capital, provision and processes, and outcomes of the plan. Strengths are analyzed, like the health reform, including its values and principles, the active participation of consumer and family groups as well as mental health NGOs, access to mental health services through primary care, quality assurance of the mental health services delivered to the population and progressive development of a culture of respect for human rights, including those of people with mental illnesses. Finally, difficulties for the advance of mental health care are also enumerated: the low priority still given to mental health compared with physical health by the country's leaders, the insufficient emphasis on mental health in both undergraduate and postgraduate professional training, the strong stigma and discrimination associated with mental illness in the general population and the advocacy by some mental health professionals of the traditional model of care (role of the psychiatric hospital). PMID:15276940

  1. [Mental health services in Australia].

    PubMed

    Kisely, Steve; Lesage, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Canada is 1.5 times the size of Australia. Australia's population of 20 million is located principally on the east coast. Like Canada, the Australia has a federal system of Government with 5 States and two territories. Each State and territory has its own legislation on mental health. The federal (Commonwealth) Government is responsible for health care planning. In addition, the federal Government subsidizes an insurance program (Medicare) that covers visits to specialists and family physicians, while provincial governments are involved in the provision of hospital care and community mental health services. The Commonwealth government also subsidises the cost of medication through the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. These funds are supplemented by private health insurance. Mental health costs account for 6.5 per cent of all health care costs. Primary care treats the majority of common psychological disorders such as anxiety or depression, while specialist mental health services concentrate on those with severe mental illness. There have been 4 national mental health plans since 1992 with the long term aims of promoting mental health, increasing the quality and responsiveness of services, and creating a consistent approach to mental health service system reform among Australian states and territories. These systematic cycles of planning have first allowed a shift from psychiatric hospitals to community services, from reliance on psychiatric hospitals as pivotal to psychiatric care system. Community care budgets have increased, but overall have decreased with money not following patients; but recent deployment of federally funded through Medicare access to psychotherapy by psychologists for common mental disorders in primary care have increased overall budget. Concerns remain that shift to youth first onset psychosis clinics may come from older long-term psychotic patients, a form of discrimination whilst evidence amount of excess mortality by cardio-vascular diseases and cancers, and due to poverty, poor health prevention and primary health care for these patients. From a system perspective, Australia has been inspired by Canada and created in 2012 its own mental health commission with a similar leading role for patients and families, aboriginal people representatives, but also a surveillance of the system with its own yearly report, like the Quebec Health Commissioner 2012 mental health system performance report. PMID:25120122

  2. Left alone--Swedish nurses' and mental health workers' experiences of being care providers in a social psychiatric dwelling context in the post-health-care-restructuring era. A focus-group interview study.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, Lisbeth; Hellzén, Ove; Asplund, Kenneth

    2010-09-01

    The professional role of nurses and mental health workers in social psychiatry is being re-defined towards a recovery, client-focused perspective. Approximately 0.7 percent of the adult population in Sweden suffers from severe mental illness leading to a need for community services. The primary aims of the Mental Health Reform in 1995 in Sweden were to improve the quality of life for people with severe, long-term mental illness and, through normalization and integration, enhancing their opportunities to communicate with and participate in society. This study examines nurses' and mental health workers' views and experiences of being care providers in a municipal psychiatric group dwelling context when caring for clients suffering from severe mental illness. Three focus group interviews were made and thematic content analysis was conducted. Four themes were formulated: 'Being a general human factotum not unlike the role of parents', 'Having a complex and ambiguous view of clients', 'Working in a mainly 'strangled' situation', and 'Feeling overwhelming frustration'. The staff, for instance, experienced a heavy workload that highly involved themselves as persons and restricted organization. The individual relational aspects of the nursing role, the risk of instrumentalizing the staff due to an organizational economical teleopathy (meaning a pathological desire to react goals), and the high societal demands on accomplishing the Mental Health Reform goals are discussed. To redefine the professional role of nurses and mental health workers in the community, in Sweden known as municipality, they need support in the form of continuously education, supervision, and dialogue with politicians as well as the public in general. PMID:20070597

  3. Hispanic Mental Health Research: A Case for Cultural Psychiatry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabrega, Horacio, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Critically examines contemporary Hispanic mental health research. Develops idea that "establishment psychiatry" dominates methods, research, reimbursement, and treatment. Suggests need to broaden paradigms with culturally sensitive insight and contemporary psychiatric theory. Analyzes issues using frameworks of mental health research, social…

  4. Mental health emergencies.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Anita

    I gained experience of psychiatric assessment in previous roles when working in a secure psychiatric ward and within the prison service. Although I have often performed mental state assessments and assessments of suicidal intent as part of my work, I read the CPD article to refresh my knowledge in this area. PMID:24593111

  5. Why mental health matters to global health.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vikram

    2014-12-01

    Global health has been defined as an area of study, research, and practice that places a priority on improving health and achieving equity in health for all people worldwide. This article provides an overview of some central issues in global mental health in three parts. The first part demonstrates why mental health is relevant to global health by examining three key principles of global health: priority setting based on the burden of health problems, health inequalities and its global scope in particular in relation to the determinants and solutions for health problems. The second part considers and addresses the key critiques of global mental health: (a) that the "diagnoses" of mental disorders are not valid because there are no biological markers for these conditions; (b) that the strong association of social determinants undermines the use of biomedical interventions; (c) that the field is a proxy for the expansion of the pharmaceutical industry; and (d) that the actions of global mental health are equivalent to "medical imperialism" and it is a "psychiatric export." The final part discusses the opportunities for the field, piggybacking on the surge of interest in global health more broadly and on the growing acknowledgment of mental disorders as a key target for global health action. PMID:24595266

  6. Changes in mental health outcomes with the intensive in-home child and adolescent psychiatric service: a multi-informant, latent consensus approach.

    PubMed

    Barbot, Baptiste; Bick, Johanna; Bentley, Mary Jane; Balestracci, Kathleen M B; Woolston, Joseph L; Adnopoz, Jean A; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the Intensive In-home Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Service (IICAPS), a large-scale home-based intervention that collaboratively engages the family, school, and various other service providers (e.g. health practitioners or judicial systems) to prevent the hospitalization, institutionalization or out-of-home placement of children and adolescents with serious emotional disturbance. Multi-informant data (youth, parents and clinician) on the level of youth problem severity and functioning was gathered from 7169 youth and their families served by the IICAPS network, pre- and post-intervention. A newly developed "Multi-informant Latent Consensus" (MILC) approach was employed to measure mental health "baseline levels" and change, within a Structural Equation Modeling framework. The MILC approach demonstrated promise integrating information from multiple informants involved in the therapeutic process to yield a more accurate and systemic view of a child's level of functioning and problem severity than each report taken individually. Results indicated that the IICAPS family and community based intervention model led to a reduction of problem severity and improved functioning in children and adolescents with severe emotional disturbance. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26173903

  7. Diagnosing Job Satisfaction in Mental Health Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buffum, William E.; Konick, Andrew

    Job satisfaction in mental health organizations has been a neglected research topic, in spite of the fact that mental health organizations themselves are concerned with quality of life issues. To study job satisfaction at three long-term public psychiatric hospitals, the Job Satisfaction Index was administered to 44 direct service employees. In…

  8. Correlates of Stress and Coping among Jordanian Nursing Students during Clinical Practice in Psychiatric/Mental Health Course.

    PubMed

    Alzayyat, Abdulkarim; Al-Gamal, Ekhlas

    2014-10-13

    Training in psychiatric settings is stressful for nursing students. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlations between the students' characteristics, their stress degrees, stressors and types of coping strategies they experience during training in psychiatric course. A descriptive, correlational, longitudinal design was used. Sixty-five undergraduate nursing students were recruited randomly from five Jordanian universities. Self-report questionnaires were administered at the second semester of the 2012-2013 academic year. The findings showed that students who utilized avoidance or transference strategies reported high stress degrees. Moreover, the results showed that those students who were in the fourth year, with a low family income, who avoid extracurricular activities, with a low academic grade or who registered in other clinical course(s) reported high stress degrees. These findings present a worthy data for the clinical instructors that facilitate students training in psychiatric settings and promote their psychosocial well-being. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25308304

  9. New Research into General Psychiatric Services for Adults with Intellectual Disability and Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There are a variety of models for the mental health care of adults with comorbid intellectual disability (ID) and mental illness. There has been a long-running debate as to whether this should be provided by general psychiatric or specialised ID services. A previous review concluded that there was no clear evidence to support either…

  10. Psychiatric Issues in Palliative Care: Assessing Mental Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Udo, Itoro; Mohammed, Zeid; Gash, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Issues surrounding capacity to consent to or refuse treatment are increasingly receiving clinical and legal attention. Through the use of 3 case vignettes that involve different aspects of mental health care in palliative care settings, mental capacity issues are discussed. The vignettes tackle capacity in a patient with newly developed mental illness consequent to physical illness, capacity in a patient with mental illness but without delirium and capacity in a patient with known impairment of the mind. These discussions give credence to best practice position where physicians act in the best interests of their patients at all times. It is important to emphasize that capacity decisions have to be made on a case by case basis, within the remit of legal protection. This is a fundamental requirement of the Mental Capacity Act 2005, England & Wales (MCA). The later is used as the legal basis for these discussions. The psychiatric liaison service is a useful resource to provide consultation, advice and or joint assessment to clinicians encountering complex dilemmas involving decision-making capacity. PMID:25278761

  11. Do biometric parameters of the hand differentiate schizophrenia from other psychiatric disorders? A comparative evaluation using three mental health modules.

    PubMed

    Zvi Shamir, Eyal; Levy, Anat; Morris Cassan, Stanley; Lifshitz, Tova; Shefler, Gaby; Tarrasch, Ricardo

    2015-08-30

    The link between schizophrenia and anomalies in the distal upper limb is well documented. Preliminary studies have identified a number of biometric parameters of the hand by which schizophrenics can be distinguished from matched controls. The current study seeks to determine whether patients with schizophrenia can be singled out from a disparate group of other mental disorders by using the same parameters. We studied three groups, totaling 134 men: 51 diagnosed with schizophrenia, 29 with anxiety and mood disorders, and 54 comprising a control group. Seven parameters were studied: the proximal interphalangeal joint, the eponychia of the middle and ring digits, two dermatoglyphic features, and two constitutional factors. Examiners evaluated the parameters based on photographs and prints. An initial Mann Whitney comparison showed no significant difference between the control group and those identified with anxiety and mood disorders. We therefore accounted for them as a single group. In a discriminant analysis, an overall accuracy of 78.4% was established with a sensitivity of 80.4% (schizophrenics identified correctly) and a specificity of 77.1% (controls identified correctly). These results suggest that the biometric parameters employed may be useful in identifying patients with schizophrenia from a disparate group of other mental disorders. PMID:26160199

  12. Sleep and Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Email Print Share Sleep Tips for Children's Mental Health Page Content ​​​Sleep has become a casualty ... MPH, FAAP Last Updated 5/23/2016 Source Mental Health, Naturally: The Family Guide to Holistic Care ...

  13. India mental health country profile.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Sudhir K; Jhingan, Harsh P; Ramesh, S; Gupta, Rajesh K; Srivastava, Vinay K

    2004-01-01

    India, the second most populated country of the world with a population of 1.027 billion, is a country of contrasts. It is characterized as one of the world's largest industrial nations, yet most of the negative characteristics of poor and developing countries define India too. The population is predominantly rural, and 36% of people still live below poverty line. There is a continuous migration of rural people into urban slums creating major health and economic problems. India is one of the pioneer countries in health services planning with a focus on primary health care. Improvement in the health status of the population has been one of the major thrust areas for social development programmes in the country. However, only a small percentage of the total annual budget is spent on health. Mental health is part of the general health services, and carries no separate budget. The National Mental Health Programme serves practically as the mental health policy. Recently, there was an eight-fold increase in budget allocation for the National Mental Health Programme for the Tenth Five-Year Plan (2002-2007). India is a multicultural traditional society where people visit religious and traditional healers for general and mental health related problems. However, wherever modern health services are available, people do come forward. India has a number of public policy and judicial enactments, which may impact on mental health. These have tried to address the issues of stigma attached to the mental illnesses and the rights of mentally ill people in society. A large number of epidemiological surveys done in India on mental disorders have demonstrated the prevalence of mental morbidity in rural and urban areas of the country; these rates are comparable to global rates. Although India is well placed as far as trained manpower in general health services is concerned, the mental health trained personnel are quite limited, and these are mostly based in urban areas. Considering this, development of mental health services has been linked with general health services and primary health care. Training opportunities for various kinds of mental health personnel are gradually increasing in various academic institutions in the country and recently, there has been a major initiative in the growth of private psychiatric services to fill a vacuum that the public mental health services have been slow to address. A number of non-governmental organizations have also initiated activities related to rehabilitation programmes, human rights of mentally ill people, and school mental health programmes. Despite all these efforts and progress, a lot has still to be done towards all aspects of mental health care in India in respect of training, research, and provision of clinical services to promote mental health in all sections of society. PMID:15276945

  14. Mental health services in the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Orotaloa, Paul; Blignault, Ilse

    2012-06-01

    The Solomon Islands comprise an archipelago of nearly 1,000 islands and coral atolls and have an estimated population of 549,574 people. Formal mental health services date back to 1950 when an asylum was established. Since then the process of mental health service development has been largely one of incremental change, with a major boost to community services in the last two decades. During the 1990s a mental health outpatient clinic was established in Honiara, together with attempts to recruit nursing staff as psychiatric coordinators in the provinces. In 1996, the Ministry commenced sending registered nurses for psychiatric training in Papua New Guinea. By 2010, there were 13 psychiatric nurses and one psychiatrist, with a second psychiatrist in training. A National Mental Health Policy was drafted in 2009 but is yet to be endorsed by Cabinet. A significant portion of the population still turns to traditional healers or church leaders for purposes of healing, seeking help from Western medicine only after all other alternatives in the community have been exhausted. There is still a long way to go before mental health services are available, affordable and accessible to the whole population, including people living in geographically remote areas. Realization of this vision requires increased resourcing for mental health services; improved communication and collaboration between the centrally-based, national mental health services and the provincial health services; and closer, ongoing relationships between all stakeholders and partners, both locally and internationally. PMID:26767360

  15. Sufism and mental health

    PubMed Central

    Nizamie, S. Haque; Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq; Uvais, N. A.

    2013-01-01

    Human experience in, health and disease, always has a spiritual dimension. pirituality is accepted as one of the defining determinants of health and it no more remains a sole preserve of religion and mysticism. In recent years, pirituality has been an area of research in neurosciences and both in the nderstanding of psychiatric morbidity and extending therapeutic interventions it seems to be full of promises. Sufism has been a prominent spiritual tradition in Islam deriving influences from major world religions, such as, Christianity and Hinduism and contributing substantially toward spiritual well-being of a large number of people within and outside Muslim world. Though Sufism started in early days of Islam and had many prominent Sufis, it is in the medieval period it achieved great height culminating in many Sufi orders and their major proponents. The Sufism aims communion with God through spiritual realization; soul being the agency of this communion, and propounding the God to be not only the cause of all existence but the only real existence. It may provide a vital link to understand the source of religious experience and its impact on mental health. PMID:23858257

  16. Sufism and mental health.

    PubMed

    Nizamie, S Haque; Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq; Uvais, N A

    2013-01-01

    Human experience in, health and disease, always has a spiritual dimension. pirituality is accepted as one of the defining determinants of health and it no more remains a sole preserve of religion and mysticism. In recent years, pirituality has been an area of research in neurosciences and both in the nderstanding of psychiatric morbidity and extending therapeutic interventions it seems to be full of promises. Sufism has been a prominent spiritual tradition in Islam deriving influences from major world religions, such as, Christianity and Hinduism and contributing substantially toward spiritual well-being of a large number of people within and outside Muslim world. Though Sufism started in early days of Islam and had many prominent Sufis, it is in the medieval period it achieved great height culminating in many Sufi orders and their major proponents. The Sufism aims communion with God through spiritual realization; soul being the agency of this communion, and propounding the God to be not only the cause of all existence but the only real existence. It may provide a vital link to understand the source of religious experience and its impact on mental health. PMID:23858257

  17. Program Models for Mental Health Treatment of Refugees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaranson, James M.; Bamford, Pauline

    This paper presents the approach used by the Technical Assistance Center (TAC) of the University of Minnesota's Refugee Assistance Program in Mental Health for identifying successful and culturally sensitive mental health service delivery models. It divides these into four categories: the psychiatric model; the community mental health model; the…

  18. Good Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... by suggesting food substitutions, giving tips on portion control, supermarket shopping guidelines, and recommendations for a healthy diet. Healthy Aging: Keeping Mentally Fit as You Age (Copyright © Geriatric Mental Health Foundation) - This publication gives tips on how ...

  19. Behavioral Patterns in Mental Health and Mental Illness--Adults: PT IIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Lori

    A description is provided of "Behavioral Patterns in Mental Health and Mental Illness--Adults," a course for nursing and psychiatric technician students on psychopathology, the dynamics of psychiatric disorders, and the behavioral patterns associated with these disorders. A glossary of instruction-related terms is followed by a course description,…

  20. American Christian Engagement With Mental Health and Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Kinghorn, Warren A

    2016-01-01

    Although religious belief and practice are relevant to mental health outcomes, many clinicians lack knowledge of particular religious traditions required to make informed judgments about referral to and collaboration with faith-based organizations and clinicians. This Open Forum examines five diverse American Christian approaches to mental health and mental illness-pastoral care and counseling, biblical counseling, integrationism, Christian psychology, and the work of the Institute for the Psychological Sciences--that are relevant for contemporary mental health service delivery. Each of these movements is briefly described and placed in historical, conceptual, and organizational context. Knowledge of the diverse and varied terrain of American Christian engagement with mental health care can inform clinicians' interactions with faith-based providers, clarify opportunities for responsible collaboration, and provide important insight into religious subcultures with faith-based concerns about contemporary psychiatric care. PMID:26369885

  1. "Chartering" the limits of involuntary psychiatric treatment in Victoria: interpreting the Mental Health Act 1986 (Vic) in the age of the Charter of Human Rights and Responsibilities Act 2006 (Vic).

    PubMed

    Bradfield, Owen

    2010-09-01

    The Mental Health Act 1986 (Vic) allows for individuals with a serious mental illness to be treated on an involuntary basis either in a psychiatric hospital (on an involuntary treatment order) or in the community (on a community treatment order). The Act also establishes the Mental Health Review Board with the authority to review these orders within eight weeks of those orders being made and at least once every 12 months thereafter. This article analyses a recent decision of the board, Re Appeal of 09-085 [2009] VMHRB 1, in which the appellant challenged a decision of a psychiatrist to extend his community treatment order for a further 12 months. The appellant argued that aspects of his involuntary treatment under the Act amounted to "cruel, inhuman or degrading" treatment and therefore breached his right to freedom from "cruel, inhuman or degrading" treatment under s 10(b) of Victoria's recently enacted Charter of Human Rights and Responsibilities Act 2006 (Vic). Thus, the board was asked to consider whether the definition of "treatment" under the Act was compatible with the rights and freedoms enacted by the Charter. This was the first time that a Victorian court or tribunal had considered the impact of the Charter on involuntary psychiatric treatment. The decision was also a prelude to the Victorian Government's announcement that it would comprehensively review its mental health legislation, now the oldest in Australia. As this case highlights, in determining the future direction of mental health legislation and policy in Victoria, the Charter has been crucial. PMID:20977167

  2. Brazil's mental health adventure.

    PubMed

    Weingarten, Richard

    2003-01-01

    This is an account of my trips to Brazil in 2001 where I worked on a series of mental health projects with Brazilian colleagues. I first got interested in Brazil after I graduated from college when I was a Peace Corps volunteer in Northeast Brazil (Bahia state). After I got out of the Peace Corps I moved to Rio de Janeiro and went to work for United Press International (UPI) in their Rio bureau. I was UPI foreign news correspondent for a year and a half. Those years in Brazil were probably the happiest years of my life. Later on, after I became ill in the U.S., my Brazilian connection played an important role in my recovery. Raised in a Victorian family in a small town in the Midwest, and schooled in a traditional boarding school for boys and then at an all men's college, Brazil's lively Latino culture served as a healthy antidote for my tendency to be reserved and often depressed. My contact with Brazilians and Brazilian culture always beckoned me on. I maintained contact with my friends in Brazil and they stuck by me through my illness years. What seemed like my emotional and intellectual "excess" to me, was easily accepted by my Brazilian friends. I felt much more myself interacting with Brazilians and connected to a larger sense of self I developed in Brazil. I traveled to Brazil at every opportunity and made friends with Brazilians I met in the States. I initiated Portuguese classes at John Carroll University in Cleveland, Ohio in the early 1990s and then was invited to teach Brazilian culture to undergraduates. These appointments and my own resilience moved me past one depression and a dysthymia condition and into the wider community. I regained my confidence as a teacher, a role I had before and during the years of my illness. From this position, I organized a club for Brazilian students studying in the Cleveland area. After this teaching stint, I felt ready to pursue full time employment and began a job search that would eventually land me in New Haven at the Connecticut Mental Health Center. Since 1997, I've spent my vacations traveling and working in Brazil as an Outside Consultant on mental health projects with colleagues in Rio and Sao Paulo. In my travels I've been befriended and supported by adherents of a social movement, not unlike the U.S. Civil Rights Movement, that has struggled for many years to close Brazil's long-term psychiatric hospitals, create community-based services and expand the rights of mental patients. Now I see my Brazilian connection as part of my ongoing recovery. I see myself as having the opportunity to be a link between the mental health worlds of the U.S. and Brazil. I believe the two countries have much to offer each other when it comes to mental health. PMID:12653451

  3. Malaysia mental health country profile.

    PubMed

    Parameshvara Deva, M

    2004-01-01

    Malaysia is a tropical country in the heart of south east Asia with a population of 24 million people of diverse ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds living in harmony in 330,000 km(2) of land on the Asian mainland and Borneo. Malaysia, which lies on the crossroads of trade between east and west Asia, has an ancient history as a centre of trading attracting commerce between Europe, west Asia, India and China. It has had influences from major powers that dominated the region throughout its history. Today the country, after independence in 1957, has embarked on an ambitious development project to make it a developed country by 2020. In this effort the economy has changed from one producing raw material to one manufacturing consumer goods and services and the colonial health system has been overhauled and social systems strengthened to provide better services for its people. The per capita income, which was under 1,000 US dollars at independence, has now passed 4,000 US dollars and continues to grow, with the economy largely based on strong exports that amount to over 100 billion US dollars. The mental health system that was based on institutional care in four mental hospitals at independence from British colonial rule in 1957 with no Malaysian psychiatrists is today largely based on over 30 general hospital psychiatric units spread throughout the country. With three local postgraduate training programmes in psychiatry and 12 undergraduate departments of psychiatry in the country--all started after independence--there is now a healthy development of mental health services. This is being supplemented by a newly established primary care mental health service that covers community mental health by integrating mental health into primary health care. Mental health care at the level of psychiatrists rests with about 140 psychiatrists most of whom had undertaken a four-year masters course in postgraduate psychiatry in Malaysia since 1973. However, there continues to be severe shortages of other professionals such as clinical psychologists and social workers in mental health services. There are a few specialists, and specialized services in child, adolescent, forensic, rehabilitative, liaison or research fields of mental health. In the area of services for women and children, as well as the disabled in the community, there are strong efforts to improve the care and provide services that are in keeping with a caring society. New legislation on these are being passed every year and the setting up of a Ministry for Women's Affairs is one such move in recent years. Mental health in Malaysia has been slow in developing but has in the past decade seen important strides to bring it on par with other branches of medicine. PMID:15276949

  4. Mental Health for Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse Anxiety disorders and PTSD Body image and eating disorders Depression Sexual health for men Urinary health for ... abuse Anxiety disorders and PTSD Body image and eating disorders Depression Other mental health conditions include bipolar disorder , ...

  5. Interface of Women's Mental and Reproductive Health.

    PubMed

    Lolak, Sermsak; Rashid, Navid; Wise, Thomas N

    2005-06-01

    The interface of women's reproductive and mental health is an evolving area of psychiatric practice, necessitating familiarity with psychobiological factors unique to women. The role of estrogen in particular has profound implications for the etiology and treatment of women's psychiatric illness, and has been reviewed along with the role of other hormones. Additionally, the stress of specific life events such as miscarriage, abortion, and menopause affects female mental health from a biological and psychosocial standpoint with the potential for secondary mood and anxiety disorders. Psychiatric issues during pregnancy and the postpartum period present special diagnostic and treatment challenges to the clinician. Biological and psychosocial treatments of these conditions have been reviewed. Management of psychiatric conditions during pregnancy and the postpartum period should include the obstetrician, pediatrician, and involved family members. Treatment decisions should involve careful assessment of the risks and benefits of any intervention including the risk of no treatment. PMID:15935137

  6. Obesity and mental health.

    PubMed

    Talen, Mary R; Mann, Misty M

    2009-06-01

    Mental health factors contribute to the onset and maintenance of overweight and obese status in children, adolescents, and adults. Binge eating disorder (BED), body image, self-esteem, mood disorders, and social and family factors affect individuals in different ways and contribute to weight gain and failure in weight loss management. Assessment of these mental health factors and treatment by 1 of several mental health treatment models may not only improve self-worth but also weight loss and maintenance. PMID:19501244

  7. Review of psychiatric services to mentally disordered offenders around the Pacific Rim.

    PubMed

    Every-Palmer, Susanna; Brink, Johann; Chern, Tor P; Choi, Wing-Kit; Hern-Yee, Jerome Goh; Green, Bob; Heffernan, Ed; Johnson, Sarah B; Kachaeva, Margarita; Shiina, Akihiro; Walker, David; Wu, Kevin; Wang, Xiaoping; Mellsop, Graham

    2014-03-01

    This article was commissioned to collate and review forensic psychiatric services provided in a number of key Pacific Rim locations in the hope that it will assist in future dialogue about service development. The Board of the Pacific Rim College of Psychiatrists identified experts in forensic psychiatry from Australia, Canada, China, Hong Kong, Japan, Russia, Singapore, Taiwan, and the US. Each contributor provided an account of issues in their jurisdiction, including mental health services to mentally disordered offenders in prison, competence or fitness to stand trial, legal insanity as a defense at trial, diminished responsibility, and special forensic services available, including forensic hospitals and community forensic mental health services. Responses have been collated and are presented topic by topic and country by country within the body of this review. The availability of mental health screening and psychiatric in-reach or forensic liaison services within prisons differed considerably between countries, as did provisioning of community forensic mental health and rehabilitation services. Diversion of mentally disordered offenders to forensic, state, or hybrid hospitals was common. Legal constructs of criminal responsibility (insanity defense) and fitness to stand trial ("disability") are almost universally recognized, although variably used. Disparities between unmet needs and resourcing available were common themes. The legislative differences between contributing countries with respect to the mental health law and criminal law relating to mentally disordered offenders are relatively subtle. The major differences lie in operationalizing and resourcing forensic services. PMID:24249353

  8. Zambia mental health country profile.

    PubMed

    Mayeya, John; Chazulwa, Roy; Mayeya, Petronella Ntambo; Mbewe, Edward; Magolo, Lonia Mwape; Kasisi, Friday; Bowa, Annel Chishimba

    2004-01-01

    This country profile for Zambia was compiled between 1998 and 2002. The objectives of the exercise were to first of all avail policymakers, other key decision makers and leaders in Zambia, information about mental health in Zambia in order to assist policy and services development. Secondly, to facilitate comparative analyses of mental health services between countries. The work involved formation of a core group of experts who coordinated the collection of information from the various organizations in Zambia. The information was later shared to a broad spectrum of stakeholders for consensus. A series of focus group discussions (FGDs) supplemented the information collected. There are various factors that contribute to mental health in Zambia. It is clear from the Zambian perspective that social, demographic, economic, political, environmental, cultural and religious influences affect the mental health of the people. With a population of 10.3 million and annual growth rate of 2.9%, Zambia is one of the most urbanized countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Poverty levels stood at 72.9% in 1998. In terms of unemployment, the most urbanized provinces, Lusaka (the capital city), and the copper-belt are the most affected. The gross domestic product (GDP) is US$3.09 billion dollars while per capita income is US$300. The total budget allocation for health in the year 2002 was 15% while the proportion of the GDP per capita expenditure for health was 5.6%. The HIV/AIDS prevalence rates stand at 20% among the reproductive age group 15-49 years. Political instability and wars in neighbouring states has resulted in an influx of refugees. Environmental factors affecting the country include natural and man-made disasters such as floods and drought, mine accidents, and deforestation. To a large extent in Zambia, people who are mentally ill are stigmatized, feared, scorned at, humiliated and condemned. However, caring for mental ill health in old age is positively perceived. It is traditionally the duty and responsibility of the extended family to look after the aged. Gender based violence (GBV) is another issue. Women, who are totally dependent on their spouses economically, are forced by circumstances to continue living in abusive relationships to the detriment of their mental well-being. In Zambia, the family is considered sacrosanct and the affairs of the family members, private. It is within this context that GBV is regarded as a family affair and therefore a private affair, yet spouse beating has led to depression and in some cases death. In terms of psychiatric services, there are close to 560 beds for psychiatric patients across the country. Common mental disorders found in Zambia are acute psychotic episodes, schizophrenia, affective disorders, alcohol related problems and organic brain syndromes. About 70-80% of people with mental health problems consult traditional health practitioners before they seek help from conventional health practitioners. Over time the number of frontline mental health workers and professional staff has been declining. This is due to the 'brain drain', retirement, death and low output from training institutions. For practicing psychiatrists, only one is available for the whole country. Other key mental health workers such as psychologists, social workers and occupational therapists are also in short supply. All in all, the mental health services situation in Zambia could be described as critical, requiring urgent attention. PMID:15276939

  9. Mixed methods research in mental health nursing.

    PubMed

    Kettles, A M; Creswell, J W; Zhang, W

    2011-08-01

    Mixed methods research is becoming more widely used in order to answer research questions and to investigate research problems in mental health and psychiatric nursing. However, two separate literature searches, one in Scotland and one in the USA, revealed that few mental health nursing studies identified mixed methods research in their titles. Many studies used the term 'embedded' but few studies identified in the literature were mixed methods embedded studies. The history, philosophical underpinnings, definition, types of mixed methods research and associated pragmatism are discussed, as well as the need for mixed methods research. Examples of mental health nursing mixed methods research are used to illustrate the different types of mixed methods: convergent parallel, embedded, explanatory and exploratory in their sequential and concurrent combinations. Implementing mixed methods research is also discussed briefly and the problem of identifying mixed methods research in mental and psychiatric nursing are discussed with some possible solutions to the problem proposed. PMID:21749560

  10. Mental health performance measurement in corrections.

    PubMed

    Hoge, Steven K; Greifinger, Robert B; Lundquist, Thomas; Mellow, Jeff

    2009-12-01

    Correctional facilities have become, by default, one of the largest providers of mental health care for patients with serious mental illness. In its 2002 Report to Congress, the National Commission on Correctional Health Care has reported that most facilities do not provide quality mental health care, nor do they conform to nationally accepted guidelines for mental health screening and treatment. This article describes the product of a consensus panel of correctional health care experts, charged to develop performance measures, based on nationally accepted standards, for selected elements of psychiatric treatment behind bars, aimed to improve the quality of care. Performance measures were developed for medication adherence, suicide prevention, mental health treatment planning, and sleep medication usage. PMID:18697916

  11. Religion and mental health

    PubMed Central

    Behere, Prakash B.; Das, Anweshak; Yadav, Richa; Behere, Aniruddh P.

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, the relation between religion and mental health and vice versa has been described. From primitive times different religions have different beliefs and systems of worshipping. Every religion with their belief system has implications on mental health and illness. We described how Hindu system of beliefs and rituals may have an effect in causation of various mental illnesses. It is also described how religion can help an individual to sustain one's life in various domains. The relationship between different religion and symptomatology is described. The impact and outcome of religion on mental health have been highlighted. PMID:23858253

  12. Mental Health and Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadows, Michelle, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This newsletter includes 12 brief articles or news items concerning mental health among minority groups. These address: (1) cultural considerations in treating Asians (reasons why Asians tend not to use mental health services); (2) coping with racial stress (responses to a questionnaire on dealing with racial stress); (3) minority health…

  13. Nutrition and Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... to keep you feeling better physically and emotionally. Omega-3 fatty acids improve heart health by reducing “bad” cholesterol in your body and increasing “good” cholesterol. Omega-3 has also shown promise for improving mental health. ...

  14. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma among Youth in Psychiatric Outpatient Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the experiences of mental illness stigma in 24 youth (58.3% male, 13-24 years, 75% Latino) in psychiatric outpatient treatment. Using Link and Phelan's (2001) model of stigmatization, we conducted thematic analysis of the interview texts, examining experiences of stigma at individual and structural levels, in addition to the…

  15. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma among Youth in Psychiatric Outpatient Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the experiences of mental illness stigma in 24 youth (58.3% male, 13-24 years, 75% Latino) in psychiatric outpatient treatment. Using Link and Phelan's (2001) model of stigmatization, we conducted thematic analysis of the interview texts, examining experiences of stigma at individual and structural levels, in addition to the

  16. Mental Health and the TC. Chapter 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acampora, Alfonso P., Ed.; Nebelkopf, Ethan, Ed.

    This document contains 19 papers from the ninth World Conference of Therapeutic Communities (TCs) that deal with the interface between the mental health establishments and the TC. Papers include: (1) "Psychiatry and the TC" (Jerome Jaffe); (2) "The Chemical Brain" (Sidney Cohen); (3) "Where Does the TC Fail?" (Ab Koster); (4) "Psychiatric Severity…

  17. Quality and cost-effective management of mental health care.

    PubMed

    Burton, W N; Hoy, D A; Bonin, R L; Gladstone, L

    1989-04-01

    Corporations have reduced their mental health care benefits by limits on coverage for such services. We report on a comprehensive mental health care program, including prevention and early intervention, hospital utilization review, and consulting psychiatrist, which has improved the quality and has significantly reduced inpatient insurance psychiatric hospitalization costs. Mental health service coverage was actually enhanced. Inpatient psychiatric hospitalization costs 12 months before and after the implementation of a concurrent psychiatric hospital utilization review program were reviewed for a major corporation. Total hospital days and average length of stay decreased by 43% whereas total inpatient psychiatric hospital charges decreased by $309,518. Total inpatient days decreased by 1045. Quality and cost-effective comprehensive psychiatric health care services can be offered by major corporations providing that such benefits are carefully designed and managed. PMID:2715844

  18. Mental Health of Dubai Medical College Students

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Jamshid; Galal Ahmed, Mohammed; Ali Bayoumi, Fatehia; Abdul Moneenum, Abeer; Alshawa, Haya

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Considering the association between medical school dropout and psychiatric distress, we aimed to assess the prevalence of psychiatric distress among medical students at Dubai Medical College. Methods: One hundred and three medical students were chosen randomly and were assessed by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Results: The mean age for the students was 18.85 year (Minimum: 17, Maximum: 22), and 90.3% were between 18 and 20 years old. The mean of GHQ score was 16.46. Of the participants, 47 (45.6%) were found to be in normal range (GHQ mean < 16). A total of 33 (32.1%) of the students reported evidence of psychiatric distress. Only 23 (22.3%) were found to have severe psychiatric distress. Conclusions: Early detection of psychiatric distress is important to prevent psychiatric morbidity and its unwanted effects on medical students and young doctors. Our results reveals that although a low percentage of Dubai Medical College students reported a significant level of psychiatric distress, however, it should not be underestimated, and actions should be taken to encourage Dubai Medical College students to get help from for psychiatric services for their emotional problems. The risk factors as well as the protective factors must be identified in nation-wide studies to promote mental health of medical students. PMID:24644486

  19. Mental Health Literacy, Attitudes to Help Seeking, and Perceived Need as Predictors of Mental Health Service Use: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Bonabi, Herdis; Müller, Mario; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Eisele, Jochen; Rodgers, Stephanie; Seifritz, Erich; Rössler, Wulf; Rüsch, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Many people with mental health problems do not use mental health care, resulting in poorer clinical and social outcomes. Reasons for low service use rates are still incompletely understood. In this longitudinal, population-based study, we investigated the influence of mental health literacy, attitudes toward mental health services, and perceived need for treatment at baseline on actual service use during a 6-month follow-up period, controlling for sociodemographic variables, symptom level, and a history of lifetime mental health service use. Positive attitudes to mental health care, higher mental health literacy, and more perceived need at baseline significantly predicted use of psychotherapy during the follow-up period. Greater perceived need for treatment and better literacy at baseline were predictive of taking psychiatric medication during the following 6 months. Our findings suggest that mental health literacy, attitudes to treatment, and perceived need may be targets for interventions to increase mental health service use. PMID:27015396

  20. What Is Mental Health?

    MedlinePlus

    ... our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel, and act. It also helps determine how we handle stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...

  1. Rural Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mental Health Services for Veterans & Families How do suicide rates in rural areas compare to urban areas? ... How can our community take action to prevent suicides? The Suicide Prevention Resource Center (SPRC) is a ...

  2. Positive mental health and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, Heather

    2014-09-17

    Based on the Mental Health Continuum Short Form administered in the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey - Mental Health (CCHS-MH), the percentages of Canadians aged 15 or older classified as having flourishing, moderate or languishing mental health were 76.9%, 21.6% and 1.5%, respectively. Compared with estimates for other countries, a higher percentage of Canadians were flourishing. In accordance with the complete mental health model, mental health was also assessed in combination with the presence or absence of mental illness (depression; bipolar disorder; generalized anxiety disorder; alcohol, cannabis or other drug abuse or dependence). An estimated 72.5% of Canadians (19.8 million) were classified as having complete mental health; that is they were flourishing and did not meet the criteria for any of the six past 12-month mental or substance use disorders included in the CCHS-MH. Age, marital status, socio-economic status, spirituality and physical health were associated with complete mental health. Men and women were equally likely to be in complete mental health. PMID:25229895

  3. Mental Health, United States 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taube, Carl A., Ed.; Barrett, Sally A., Ed.

    This document contains statistics on mental illness and organized mental health service delivery systems. Data sources cited include the National Institute of Mental Health, state mental health agencies, universities in the Epidemiological Catchment Area program, the National Center for Health Statistics, and the National Association of State…

  4. Correlates of Mental Health among Latino Farmworkers in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Crain, Rebecca; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Schwantes, Melody; Isom, Scott; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Latino farmworkers are a vulnerable population who confront multiple threats to their mental health. Informed by the stress-process model of psychiatric disorder, the goal of this paper is to determine personal and situational correlates of poor mental health among Latino farmworkers. Structured interview data were obtained from farmworkers (N=69) in six counties in eastern and western North Carolina. Results indicated that a substantial number of farmworkers have poor mental health, as indicated by elevated depressive symptoms (52.2%) and anxiety (16.4%). Results also indicated that each mental health outcome had different predictors. Addressing the mental health issues of farmworkers requires a comprehensive, multifaceted approach. PMID:22757952

  5. Harm reduction in community mental health settings.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Michael A; Linhorst, Donald M

    2010-01-01

    Harm reduction is a conceptual framework and set of practices that focus on the minimization of the physical, social, and legal harms substance users do to themselves and to society as a whole. Its application to community mental health settings is relatively new, and can create controversies and ethical dilemmas if not properly designed, implemented, and evaluated. Building on the harm reduction literature, the community mental health literature, and the authors' experiences with a community mental health program that uses a harm reduction approach, the authors offer five guidelines for its successful implementation. The authors conclude that when properly integrated with other recovery-based services, and when appropriately applied to the individual client's stage of change, harm reduction can effectively be used, and should be used, in community mental health settings with clients with co-occurring substance use and psychiatric disorders. PMID:20730672

  6. Psychiatric components of a Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) on Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, Patricia A.

    1987-01-01

    The operational psychiatric requirements for a comprehensive Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) on a permanently manned Space Station are examined. Consideration is given to the psychological health maintenance program designed for the diagnosis of mental distress in astronauts during flight and for prevention of mental breakdown. The types of mental disorders that can possibly affect the astronauts in flight are discussed, including various organic, psychotic, and affective mental disorders, as well as anxiety, adjustment, and somatoform/dissociative disorders. Special attention is given to therapeutic considerations for psychiatric operations on Space Station, such as restraints, psychopharmacology, psychotherapy, and psychosocial support.

  7. Politics of mental health: circles or spirals.

    PubMed

    Lipton, G L

    1983-03-01

    A brief reference to history suggests that there is a recurrent alternation of providing service to the indigent disturbed through asylum, general hospital and community. Despite modern knowledge about mental health, public attitudes remain seriously prejudiced against this group of mentally ill, and political decisions reflect these attitudes. Many developments for the emotionally disturbed deny the needs of the most disturbed. This paper considers the alienation of the severely mentally ill, the fear about the mentally ill, the guilt about their care, community education about the mentally ill, the development of advocacy on their own behalf by the mentally ill, and therapeutic advances in their care. The paper, although pessimistic about the future, concludes with the hope that the combination of modern humanism, modern communication technology and therapeutic advances may lead to an improvement in the lives of 'hard core' chronically ill psychiatric patients. PMID:6575768

  8. Correlates of Mental Health among Latino Farmworkers in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, Rebecca; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Schwantes, Melody; Isom, Scott; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Latino farmworkers are a vulnerable population who confront multiple threats to their mental health. Informed by the stress-process model of psychiatric disorder, the goal of this paper is to determine primary and context-specific stressors of poor mental health among Latino farmworkers. Methods: Structured interview data were obtained

  9. Correlates of Mental Health among Latino Farmworkers in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, Rebecca; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Schwantes, Melody; Isom, Scott; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Latino farmworkers are a vulnerable population who confront multiple threats to their mental health. Informed by the stress-process model of psychiatric disorder, the goal of this paper is to determine primary and context-specific stressors of poor mental health among Latino farmworkers. Methods: Structured interview data were obtained…

  10. Clinically Sensitive Peer-Assisted Mediation in Mental Health Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Susan; Stone, James L.; Holbrook, Terry

    2002-01-01

    Describes a pilot mediation program that offers an empowering alternative to problem resolution used by mental health consumers receiving treatment at an inpatient psychiatric center. The training program uses mental health clinicians and consumers (peer advocates) to act as assistants in mediating disputes between consumers and between consumers…

  11. Taking the Role of the Family Seriously in Treating Chinese Psychiatric Patients: A Confucian Familist Review of China's First Mental Health Act.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ruiping; Wang, Mingxu

    2015-08-01

    This essay argues that the Chinese Mental Health Act of 2013 is overly individualistic and fails to give proper moral weight to the role of Chinese families in directing the process of decision-making for hospitalizing and treating the mentally ill patients. We present three types of reactions within the medical community to the Act, each illustrated with a case and discussion. In the first two types of cases, we argue that these reactions are problematic either because they comply with the law but undermine the patient's interests by refusing the family's request to have the patient hospitalized, or violate the law by hospitalizing patients in response to the real concerns of their families. In the third type of situation, psychiatrists inappropriately encourage families to produce evidence of the patient's behavior that is harmful to self or others in order legally to commit the patient. Each of these problems, we conclude, should be tackled by supplementing Article 30 of the Act with the stipulation that a psychiatrist may authorize the involuntary hospitalization of a patient, who is not at risk of causing physical harm to self or others, with the consent of all major family members. Drawing on the deeply culturally embedded moral traditions of Confucian medical familism, this proposal would facilitate the proper treatment of a significant number of Chinese mentally ill patients under the care of their families. PMID:26049082

  12. Workplace Literacy for Psychiatric Health Care Workers. Final Performance Report [and] External Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perin, Dolores; And Others

    This report documents the Workplace Literacy for Psychiatric Health Care Workers project, a partnership between a labor union and the City University of New York through which workplace literacy instruction was provided to mental hygiene therapy aides (MHTAs) employed in five state-operated psychiatric hospitals in New York City. Among the…

  13. Contextualizing mental health: gendered experiences in a Mumbai slum.

    PubMed

    Parkar, Shubhangi R; Fernandes, Johnson; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2003-12-01

    Urban mental health programmes in developing countries remain in their infancy. To serve low-income communities, research needs to consider the impact of common life experience in slums, including poverty, bad living conditions, unemployment, and crowding. Our study in the Malavani slum of Mumbai examines afflictions of the city affecting the emotional well-being and mental health of women and men with respect to gender. This is a topic for which mental health studies have been lacking, and for which psychiatric assumptions based on middle-class clinical experience may be most tenuous. This study employs ethnographic methods to show how environmental and social contexts interact in shaping local experience with reference to common mental health problems. Focusing on the social and environmental context of the mental health of communities, rather than psychiatric disorders affecting individuals, findings are broadly applicable and sorely needed to guide the development of locally appropriate community mental health programmes. Identified afflictions affecting mental health include not only access to health care, but also sanitation, addictions, criminality, domestic violence, and the so-called bar-girl culture. Although effective clinical interventions are required for mental health services to treat psychiatric disorders, they cannot directly affect the conditions of urban slums that impair mental health. PMID:26954984

  14. Mental Health Stigma among Adolescents: Implications for School Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kranke, Derrick; Floersch, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated adolescents with a mental health diagnosis and their experience of stigma in schools. Forty adolescents between the ages of twelve and seventeen who met DSM-IV criteria for a psychiatric illness and who were prescribed psychiatric medication were selected. The Teen Subjective Experience of Medication Interview was used to…

  15. The interface of child mental health and juvenile diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Sandra L; Overton, Mark W; Robbins, Douglas R

    2015-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common childhood illness, and its management is often complicated by mental health challenges. Psychiatric comorbidities are common, including anxiety, depression, and eating disorders. The illness can profoundly affect the developing brain and family functioning and have lifelong consequences. The child mental health provider can provide valuable assistance to support the child and family and assessment and treatment of comorbid mental health problems and to promote positive family functioning and normal developmental progress. PMID:25725569

  16. Health Care Reform and the Federal Transformation Initiatives: Capitalizing on the Potential of Advanced Practice Psychiatric Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Hanrahan, Nancy P.; Delaney, Kathleen; Merwin, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade the US federal government proposed a transformation vision of mental health service delivery; patient-centered, evidence-based and recovery oriented treatment models. Health care reform brings additional expectations for innovation in mental/substance use service delivery, particularly the idea of creating systems where physical health, mental health and substance use treatment is fully integrated. Psychiatric nurses, as one of the four core US mental health professions, have the potential to play a significant role in the both the transformation initiative and health care reform vision. However, psychiatric nurses, particularly advanced practice psychiatric nurses, are an untapped resource due in part to significant state regulatory barriers that limit their scope of practice in many states. The purpose of this paper is to document what is currently known about advanced practice psychiatric nurses and discuss policy implications for tapping into the strengths of this workforce. Strategies for facilitating utilization of advanced practice psychiatric nurses discussed. PMID:21233135

  17. Mental Health, Racism, and Sexism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willie, Charles V., Ed.; And Others

    This volume, successor to the 1973 volume "Racism and Mental Health," presents a range of perspectives on mental health, prejudice, and discrimination. Contributors are of multiracial, multiethnic, and gender-diverse backgrounds. They use their existential experiences to analyze pressing mental health and mental illness issues. Contributions…

  18. Religiosity and mental health.

    PubMed

    Pajević, Izet; Sinanović, Osman; Hasanović, Mevludin

    2005-06-01

    Mental health is not considered only as absence of mental disorders, but rather as the achievement of higher standards of available psychical potentials. True devotion and obedience to The God give the one a huge and incredible strength, constant source of spiritual emotional and moral energy, which is of help in resisting destructive and slavery attacks of the environment and its materialistic-consuming tendencies, as well as social and mental disruption. According to the opinion of numerous worldwide recognized mental health experts, humankind of today is confronted with a number of problems, which are the consequence of spiritual and moral-ethical degradation of human being. Therefore, religiosity became the field of interest of mental health researchers. The results of new studies undoubtedly indicate beneficial effects of religion on life and mental health in humans. Religiosity reduces tendencies for risky behaviour, impulsive reactions and aggression; it corrects tendencies towards psychopathic and paranoid behaviour, reduces converse, depressive and schizoid tendency, and provides successful overcome of emotional conflicts. In comparison to low-religious adolescents, the factors such as inner conflicts, frustration, fear, anxiety, psychological trauma, low self-esteem, unbalance of psychical homeostasis, emotional instability, and negative psychical energy are less present in highly religious adolescents and neutralized in a healthier and more efficient way. Beneficial impact of religion on mental health derives from precise cognitive-behavioural patterns, which provide a clear life orientation, solid basis and safe frames for personality development, assuring human to be continually on the way to achieve its own generic essence and reach its own maturity and self-actualization. PMID:16395848

  19. FastStats: Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Mental Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... Health, United States trend tables with data on mental health Identifying Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Children Aged ...

  20. Older Adults and Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Home > Health & Education > Mental Health Information Older Adults and Mental Health Depression Depression is not a ... risk for suicide . Share Science News About Older Adults Antipsychotics Use Goes Up Among Elderly October 21, ...

  1. Selected Mental Health Audiovisuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    Presented are approximately 2,300 abstracts on audio-visual Materials--films, filmstrips, audiotapes, and videotapes--related to mental health. Each citation includes material title; name, address, and phone number of film distributor; rental and purchase prices; technical information; and a description of the contents. Abstracts are listed in…

  2. Audiovisuals in Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Brigitte L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes major uses of film, television, and video in mental health field and discusses problems in selection, acquisition, cataloging, indexing, storage, transfer, care of tapes, patients' rights, and copyright. A sample patient consent form for media recording, borrower's evaluation sheet, sources of audiovisuals and reviews, and 35 references…

  3. Pennsylvania Women's Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towns, Kathryn; And Others

    Women have undergone a revolution in their self-perception and their traditional relationships to work, money, marriage, and family. These social changes have implications for every aspect of women's lives, including their mental health. Because of the special problems and conflicts confronting women today, data need to be analyzed on policies,…

  4. Lifestyle and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Mental health professionals have significantly underestimated the importance of lifestyle factors (a) as contributors to and treatments for multiple psychopathologies, (b) for fostering individual and social well-being, and (c) for preserving and optimizing cognitive function. Consequently, therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLCs) are underutilized…

  5. Latina Mothers' Perceptions of Mental Health and Mental Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Elizabeth M.; Conner, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    Latina mothers' perceptions of mental health and factors that promote/restore mental health were explored in this qualitative study. Participants discussed the importance of community, safety, and financial stability in addition to conventional factors that are related to mental health. Implications for working with urban Latinas and their…

  6. [Burn injuries and mental health].

    PubMed

    Palmu, Raimo; Vuola, Jyrki

    2016-01-01

    Currently a large proportion of patients with severe burn injuries survive. This gives increasing challenges also for psychological recovery after the trauma. More than half of burn patients have mental disorders already before the burn injury but also patients who previously had no mental disorders may suffer from them. Some of the hospitalize burn patients have injuries due to suicidal attempts. Only a small proportion of burn patients receive appropriate psychiatric care although psychosocial interventions specifically planned for burn victims exist. More frequent screening of symtoms of mental disorders and psychiatric consultation, also after acute care in hospital, could lead to better management of post-burn psychiatric care as well as better management of the burn treatment and rehabilitation itself. PMID:27089616

  7. Mental capacity in patients involuntarily or voluntarily receiving psychiatric treatment for an acute mental disorder.

    PubMed

    Mandarelli, Gabriele; Tarsitani, Lorenzo; Parmigiani, Giovanna; Polselli, Gian M; Frati, Paola; Biondi, Massimo; Ferracuti, Stefano

    2014-07-01

    Despite the growing amount of data, much information is needed on patients' mental capacity to consent to psychiatric treatment for acute mental disorders. The present study was undertaken to compare differences in capacity to consent to psychiatric treatment in patients treated voluntarily and involuntarily and to investigate the role of psychiatric symptoms, competency, and cognitive functioning in determining voluntariness of hospital admission. Involuntary patients were interviewed with the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Treatment (MacCAT-T), the 24-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices, and their data were compared with those for age- and sex-matched voluntary patients. Involuntary patients performed worse in all MacCAT-T subscales. Capacity to consent to treatment varied widely within each group. Overall, involuntary patients have worse consent-related mental capacity than those treated voluntarily, despite capacity to consent to treatment showing a significant variability in both groups. PMID:24502678

  8. Mental Health Treatment Program Locator

    MedlinePlus

    ... County or Zip By Name Other Links State Mental Health Agencies Frequently Asked Questions Links Comments or Questions ... a Facility in Your State To locate the mental health treatment programs nearest you, find your State on ...

  9. Epidemiology of Suicidal Risk in Rural Community Mental Health Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Bruce E.; And Others

    While the popular literature frequently makes mention of the suicide risk of mentally ill persons, few studies have actually focused on the suicide risk of persons under psychiatric treatment. This study collected data regarding the suicidal risk of persons served by rural community mental health centers from records of 181 outpatients and 218…

  10. Mental Health and Immigration

    PubMed Central

    Misri, Shaila

    1986-01-01

    The author reviews the psychosocial implications of immigration. Immigration is a complex, emotionally charged process which involves leaving behind old values, relationships, security, and resettling in an unknown culture with a new set of norms and boundaries. Some studies report a higher incidence of psychiatric illness in a migrant population than among the native born. Preventive and early therapeutic intervention is mandatory. In order to facilitate acculturation and eventual adaptation, the host society should promote easy access to the health-care systems, educational facilities, housing requirements and community organizations. PMID:21267172

  11. From Mental Disorder to Iatrogenic Hypogonadism - Dilemmas in Conceptualizing Gender Identity Variants as Psychiatric Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F. L.

    2009-01-01

    The categorization of gender identity variants (GIVs) as “mental disorders” in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) is highly controversial among professionals as well as among persons with GIV. After providing a brief history of GIV categorizations in the DSM, this paper presents some of the major issues of the ongoing debate: GIV as psychopathology versus natural variation; definition of “impairment” and “distress” for GID; associated psychopathology and its relation to stigma; the stigma impact of the mental-disorder label itself; the unusual character of “sex reassignment surgery” as a psychiatric treatment; and the consequences for health and mental-health services if the disorder label is removed. Finally, several categorization options are examined: Retaining the GID category, but possibly modifying its grouping with other syndromes; narrowing the definition to dysphoria and taking “disorder” out of the label; categorizing GID as a neurological or medical rather than a psychiatric disorder; removing GID from both the DSM and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD); and creating a special category for GIV in the DSM. I conclude that--as also evident in other DSM categories--the decision on the categorization of GIVs cannot be achieved on a purely scientific basis, and that a consensus for a pragmatic compromise needs to be arrived at that accommodates both scientific considerations and the service needs of persons with GIVs. PMID:19851856

  12. Improving Mental Health in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossen, Eric; Cowan, Katherine C.

    2015-01-01

    Students do not leave their mental health at the front door when they come to school. From wellness to serious illness, a student's mental health status is integral to how they think, feel, interact, behave, and learn. Decades of research and experience have laid a solid foundation and framework for effectively providing mental health

  13. Mental Health Program Reports - 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Julius, Ed.

    The volume is reported to reflect the broad range of National Institute of Mental Health activities in areas of research, development of mental health manpower, and delivery of mental health services. Twenty papers examine, respectively, relationship of life histories and biochemistry of siblings and twins to schizophrenia, training of Navaho…

  14. Inside the hidden mental health network. Examining mental health care delivery of primary care physicians.

    PubMed

    Jones, L R; Badger, L W; Ficken, R P; Leeper, J D; Anderson, R L

    1987-07-01

    Mental disorder diagnoses among 51 patients, made by a group of 20 family physicians, were compared with diagnoses generated by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS). Processes of diagnosis, decision making, and treatment planning were then examined through structured physician interviews and chart audits. In this study, 75 of 94 DIS diagnoses (79%) were undetected. During interview and chart audit, the physicians were found to have consistently underestimated, misinterpreted, or neglected psychiatric aspects of care among a majority of patients in the study. These physicians had all satisfactorily completed a psychiatry curriculum designed for family physicians. Analysis of these results suggests that a mental health role is often not integrated into primary care practice, regardless of physician performance during psychiatric training experiences. Assumption of this role appears to be state dependent on involvement with a psychiatric treatment setting. Primary care practice patterns do not seem to result in application of appropriate skills and therapeutic attitudes to detect, diagnose, and correctly manage the majority of mental disorders that occur. The need is reaffirmed for active collaboration between mental health professional and primary care providers in training and in incorporation of psychiatric skills into primary care practice. PMID:3609735

  15. Mental health care use in adolescents with and without mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Jörg, Frederike; Visser, Ellen; Ormel, Johan; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Hartman, Catharina A; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the proportion of adolescents with and without a psychiatric diagnosis receiving specialist mental health care and investigate their problem levels as well as utilization of other types of mental health care to detect possible over- and undertreatment. Care utilization data were linked to psychiatric diagnostic data of 2230 adolescents participating in the TRAILS cohort study, who were assessed biannually starting at age 11. Psychiatric diagnoses were established at the fourth wave by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Self-, parent- and teacher-reported emotional and behavioral problems and self-reported mental health care use were assessed at all four waves. Of all diagnosed adolescents, 35.3 % received specialist mental health care. This rate increased to 54.5 % when three or more disorders were diagnosed. Almost a third (28.5 %) of specialist care users had no psychiatric diagnosis; teachers gave them relatively high ratings on attention and impulsivity subscales. Diagnosed adolescents without specialist mental health care also reported low rates of other care use. We found no indication of overtreatment. Half of the adolescents with three or more disorders do not receive specialist mental health care nor any other type of care, which might indicate unmet needs. PMID:26275772

  16. [Cytogenetic study of 257 mentally deficient patients in psychiatric hospitals].

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, M; Bénézech, M; Tournier-Zerbid, N; Constant-Boy, M; Benazet-Rissou, J

    1975-11-01

    Cytogenetic survey of 257 mentally retarded individuals. A cytogenetic inquiry was undertaken among 257 patients with mental retardation of two psychiatric hospitals. 25 patients show chromosomes anomalies (10%). We found: --18 trisomy 21 (Down's syndrome); --3 sexual chromosome anomalies: 47, XYY syndrome; 47, XYY/46, XY mosaïcism; 47, XXY, or Klinefelter syndrom; --1 partial delection of long arm of chromosome number 18 (46, XX, 18 q--); --3 translocations; 45, XX, t (1, 13) (p 36, q 11); 46, XX, t (5 p--, 18 p+) (p 12, p 11); 46, XY, t (9, 19) (q 21, p 18). We also found 9 large Y chromosomes (46, XY q+), 8 cases of variant chromosomes, 1 case with chromosomes associations..., we report a case of masculine Turner phenotype or Noonan syndrom. PMID:135524

  17. School Mental Health Resources and Adolescent Mental Health Service Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to…

  18. The built environment and mental health.

    PubMed

    Evans, Gary W

    2003-12-01

    The built environment has direct and indirect effects on mental health. High-rise housing is inimical to the psychological well-being of women with young children. Poor-quality housing appears to increase psychological distress, but methodological issues make it difficult to draw clear conclusions. Mental health of psychiatric patients has been linked to design elements that affect their ability to regulate social interaction (e.g., furniture configuration, privacy). Alzheimer's patients adjust better to small-scale, homier facilities that also have lower levels of stimulation. They are also better adjusted in buildings that accommodate physical wandering. Residential crowding (number of people per room) and loud exterior noise sources (e.g., airports) elevate psychological distress but do not produce serious mental illness. Malodorous air pollutants heighten negative affect, and some toxins (e.g., lead, solvents) cause behavioral disturbances (e.g., self-regulatory ability, aggression). Insufficient daylight is reliably associated with increased depressive symptoms. Indirectly, the physical environment may influence mental health by altering psychosocial processes with known mental health sequelae. Personal control, socially supportive relationships, and restoration from stress and fatigue are all affected by properties of the built environment. More prospective, longitudinal studies and, where feasible, randomized experiments are needed to examine the potential role of the physical environment in mental health. Even more challenging is the task of developing underlying models of how the built environment can affect mental health. It is also likely that some individuals may be more vulnerable to mental health impacts of the built environment. Because exposure to poor environmental conditions is not randomly distributed and tends to concentrate among the poor and ethnic minorities, we also need to focus more attention on the health implications of multiple environmental risk exposure. PMID:14709704

  19. Sexual Health Education: A Psychiatric Resident's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waineo, Eva; Arfken, Cynthia L.; Morreale, Mary K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This report discusses psychiatric residents' perceptions of sexual health education and their opinions regarding curricular improvements. Methods: An anonymous, web-based survey was sent to residents in one general psychiatry program (N = 33). The response rate was 69.7%. Results: Residents reported inadequate experience in multiple…

  20. Mental health and abortion: review and analysis.

    PubMed

    Ney, P G; Wickett, A R

    1989-11-01

    This survey of studies which relate to the emotional sequelae of induced abortion, draws attention to the need for more long-term, in-depth prospective studies. The literature to this point finds no psychiatric indications for abortion, and no satisfactory evidence that abortion improves the psychological state of those not mentally ill; abortion is contra-indicated when psychiatric disease is present, as mental ill-health has been shown to be worsened by abortion. Recent studies are turning up an alarming rate of post-abortion complications such as P.I.D., and subsequent infertility. The emotional impact of these complications needs to be studied. Other considerations looked at are the long-term demographic implications of abortion on demand and the effect on the medical professions. PMID:2682716

  1. Positioning mental health nursing practice within a positive health paradigm.

    PubMed

    Wand, Timothy

    2013-04-01

    Mental health service provision has traditionally been dominated by biomedical models of illness and disorder, a problem-based orientation, and the assessment and management of risk. While psychotherapeutic approaches are numerous and have been widely utilized, psychotropic medications, either as monotherapy or in conjunction with psychological therapies, remain the mainstay for the 'treatment' of mental health problems. This is despite growing uncertainty over the effectiveness of psychotropic medications (particularly antidepressants), as well as their potential for enduring and debilitating side-effects. This discussion paper outlines the emerging field of positive health, which eschews a psychiatric disorder and illness focus, and is instead oriented towards the identification of strengths, abilities, hopes, and the individual's preferred future. The shift in positive health, from illness towards wellness, aims to build health literacy and the capacity of individuals to make decisions conducive to health, and thereby make more effective the use of health-care services. A positioning of mental health nursing practice within a positive health paradigm is promoted. By illustration, a number of solution-focused mental health assessment questions are tabled to contrast the current format for mental health assessment, which rather than being 'comprehensive', is predominantly concerned only with problem and risk identification, and the search for pathology in the individual. PMID:23020848

  2. Health Policy Considerations in Treating Mental and Behavioral Health Emergencies in the United States.

    PubMed

    Halmer, Thiago C; Beall, Rakel C; Shah, Asim A; Dark, Cedric

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, health care providers have sounded the call that the US mental health system is in crisis. With decreases in funding and eroding access to care, the availability of psychiatric services has become increasingly limited, failing to meet growing needs. This article provides a brief history of mental health services in the United States and describes the current landscape of US psychiatric care; it touches upon some of the most important policy considerations, describing some of the glaring issues in US mental health care today. Last, it offers some potential remedies to improve care in acute behavioral emergencies. PMID:26493530

  3. World psychiatric association section of old age psychiatry consensus statement on ethics and capacity in older people with mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Katona, C; Chiu, E; Adelman, S; Baloyannis, S; Camus, V; Firmino, H; Gove, D; Graham, N; Ghebrehiwet, T; Icelli, I; Ihl, R; Kalasic, A; Leszek, L; Kim, S; Lima, C de M; Peisah, C; Tataru, N; Warner, J

    2009-12-01

    The World Psychiatric Association (WPA) Section of Old Age Psychiatry, since 1997, has developed Consensus Statements relevant to the practice of Old Age Psychiatry. Since 2006 the Section has worked to develop a Consensus Statement on Ethics and Capacity in older people with mental disorders, which was completed in Prague, September 2008, prior to the World Congress in Psychiatry. This Consensus meets one of the goals of the WPA Action Plan 2008-2011, "to promote the highest ethical standards in psychiatric practice and advocate the rights of persons with mental disorders in all regions of the world". This Consensus Statement offers to mental health clinicians caring for older people with mental disorders, caregivers, other health professionals and the general public the setting out of and discourse in ethical principles which can often be complex and challenging, supported by practical guidance in meeting such ethical needs and standards, and to encouraged good clinical practice. PMID:19472302

  4. 76 FR 68198 - Lists of Designated Primary Medical Care, Mental Health, and Dental Health Professional Shortage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... (54 FR 8735). The criteria for psychiatric HPSAs were expanded to mental health HPSAs on January 22, 1992 (57 FR 2473). Currently funded PHS Act programs use only the primary medical care, mental health... designated HPSAs and supersedes the HPSA lists published in the Federal Register on February 20, 2002 (67...

  5. [Psychiatry and mental health in Morocco].

    PubMed

    Moussaoui, Driss

    2007-01-01

    Morocco has a population of some thirty million inhabitants, a very large proportion of whom are young. Mental health and psychiatry are dealt with jointly by the university, public, private, and military sectors. Despite significant progress in the last twenty years, there are still no more than 350 psychiatrists in Morocco (thirty years ago there were fewer than ten...), plus about 60 clinical psychologists, about 400 nurses specializing in psychiatry, and social workers. There are about 1900 psychiatric beds in both specialized hospitals and general hospital psychiatry units located in the main cities. In the teaching sector there are currently four university psychiatry departments, with a total of five full professors, six associate professors and five assistant professors. The National Mental Health Program, launched in 1974 and revised in 1994, was not properly implemented. Several NGOs also work in psychiatry and mental health, including the League for Mental Health and five patient associations. A national survey of the prevalence of mental disorders, completed in 2003 but only made public in 2007, represented a watershed for psychiatry in Morocco: 48.9% of a sample of 5600 persons representative of the general population were found to have a mental disorder, and 26.5% of respondents were depressed. This survey is an invaluable reference for years to come, helping to match mental healthcare provision with real needs. Research activity has also progressed since the early 1980s, as reflected by the number and quality of publications in the different fields, including epidemiology, biological psychiatry, social psychiatry, psychopharmacology and clinical psychopathology. Cultural aspects are a special research focus (suicide and religion, cannabis use, traditional treatments, etc.). International university collaboration has been especially important for Moroccan research. However, despite major progress over the last three decades in the fields of psychiatry and mental health, much remains to be done, notably to bolster child and adolescent psychiatry, and to manage mental illness in small towns and villages, including in the remotest regions. PMID:18225431

  6. Disparities in the Geography of Mental Health: Implications for Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews recent theory and research on geographic disparities in mental health and their implications for social work. It focuses on work emerging from the fields of mental health geography, psychiatric epidemiology, and social work, arguing that a wide range of spatial disparities in mental health are important to understand but that…

  7. Disparities in the Geography of Mental Health: Implications for Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews recent theory and research on geographic disparities in mental health and their implications for social work. It focuses on work emerging from the fields of mental health geography, psychiatric epidemiology, and social work, arguing that a wide range of spatial disparities in mental health are important to understand but that

  8. Attitudes of college students toward mental illness stigma and the misuse of psychiatric medications

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Amanda M.; Merlo, Lisa J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Mental illness stigma remains a significant barrier to treatment. However, the recent increase in the medical and non-medical use of prescription psychiatric medications among college students seems to contradict this phenomenon. This study explored students’ attitudes and experiences related to psychiatric medications, as well as correlates of psychiatric medication misuse (i.e., attitudes towards mental illness and beliefs about the efficacy of psychiatric medications). METHOD Data were collected anonymously via self-report questionnaires from April 2008 to February 2009. Measures included the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test, Drug Abuse Screening Test, Day’s Mental Illness Stigma Scale, Attitudes Toward Psychiatric Medication Scale, and the Psychiatric Medication Attitudes Scale. Participants included 383 university students (59.2% female), recruited on campus or through online classes. RESULTS Results showed high rates of psychiatric medication misuse when compared to rates of medical use. Participants reported believing that the majority of students who use prescription psychotropics do so non-medically. In addition, less-stigmatized attitudes toward mental illness were correlated with both increased beliefs about the treatability of mental illness and increased misuse of psychiatric medications. Conversely, more stigmatized beliefs were associated with negative views toward psychiatric medication, as well as decreased likelihood of abuse. CONCLUSION Results suggest the need for improved education regarding the nature of mental illness, the appropriate use of psychiatric medications, and the potential consequences associated with abuse of these potent drugs. PMID:21208582

  9. Chicano Aging and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Manuel, Ed.; Ruiz, Rene A., Ed.

    Focusing on the direction future research on the Chicano elderly should take, the 10 papers address theory development, methodological approach, social policy and problems, mental health service delivery, and issues of mental illness. The first seven papers discuss: the theoretical perspectives of research pertaining to mental health and the…

  10. Improving Mental Health in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossen, Eric; Cowan, Katherine C.

    2015-01-01

    Students do not leave their mental health at the front door when they come to school. From wellness to serious illness, a student's mental health status is integral to how they think, feel, interact, behave, and learn. Decades of research and experience have laid a solid foundation and framework for effectively providing mental health…

  11. What Is Infant Mental Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osofsky, Joy D.; Thomas, Kandace

    2012-01-01

    Unfortunately, the term "infant mental health" can be confusing for some people because it may be understood as translating into "mental illness." Others may not appreciate that babies and toddlers have the capacity to experience complex emotions. The Guest Editors of this issue of the Journal explore the meaning of infant mental health.

  12. The Cuban immigration of 1980: a special mental health challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Silver, L B; Silver, B J; Silverman, M M; Prescott, W; del Pollard, L

    1985-01-01

    The 124,769 Cubans who entered the United States from Cuba in a boatlift in 1980 included a small minority of people who needed mental health care. Some had been taken involuntarily from psychiatric hospitals, mental retardation facilities, jails, and prisons. The National Institute of Mental Health, Public Health Service (PHS), was responsible for mental health screening, evaluation, and treatment of the Cuban Entrants. Bilingual psychiatrists and psychologists found that many Entrants given preliminary evaluations showed evidence of transient situational stress reactions, not psychiatric illnesses. Entrants who had not yet been sponsored were consolidated into one facility in October 1980, and about 100 of those with severe problems were transferred to an Immigration and Naturalization Service-PHS evaluation facility in Washington, DC. Between March 1, 1981, and March 1, 1982, a total of 3,035 Entrants were evaluated at both facilities. Among the 1,307 persons who presented symptoms, there was a primary diagnosis of personality disorders for 26 percent, schizophrenic disorders for 15 percent, adjustment disorders for 14.5 percent, mental retardation for 8.6 percent, chronic alcohol abuse for 8.6 percent, and major depression for 7.2 percent. Only 459 Cubans with symptoms were found to be in need of further psychiatric care. As of October 1984, many Entrants with psychiatric illnesses remained under inpatient or community-based halfway house psychiatric care as a direct Federal responsibility. A PHS program for further placement in community-based facilities is underway. PMID:3918322

  13. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Idealized: Multi-Setting Uses and Strategies over the Course of Severe Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corry, Rodney; Jewell, Thomas C.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a fictional case study that illustrates the usefulness of various psychiatric rehabilitation strategies over the long course of treatment for a consumer with chronic mental illness. Reviews the literature on specific psychiatric rehabilitation strategies as a way to introduce and clarify the use of psychiatric rehabilitation

  14. Prevalence of Psychiatric Symptoms in Adults with Mental Retardation and Challenging Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Borge; Gitlesen, Jens Petter

    2003-01-01

    A sample of 165 adults with mental retardation was surveyed for the presence of psychiatric symptoms, mental retardation level, and challenging behavior. Challenging behavior was associated with increased prevalence of psychiatric symptoms, especially anxiety and psychosis, and not with depression. No association was found between anxiety and

  15. European strategies for mental health.

    PubMed

    Di Fiandra, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The most recent developments of strategies and policies in the mental health field in Europe are related to the World Health Organization (WHO) Declaration and Action Plan on Mental Health signed by all the Ministers of Health of all Member States in the European Region (2005). The Action Plan proposes ways and means of developing comprehensive mental health policies, listing 12 areas in which challenges are indicated and detailed actions are required. Afterwards the Green Paper on Mental Health has been launched by the European Commission for the definition of an European strategy. The more precise European Pact for Mental Health and Well-being has been presented in 2008. Many other international bodies (OECD, Council of Europe, etc.) have actively worked to stress the mental health issue. All are clearly referring to the Italian model, started 30 years ago. PMID:19567979

  16. Psychedelics and Mental Health: A Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Teri S.; Johansen, Pål-Ørjan

    2013-01-01

    Background The classical serotonergic psychedelics LSD, psilocybin, mescaline are not known to cause brain damage and are regarded as non-addictive. Clinical studies do not suggest that psychedelics cause long-term mental health problems. Psychedelics have been used in the Americas for thousands of years. Over 30 million people currently living in the US have used LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline. Objective To evaluate the association between the lifetime use of psychedelics and current mental health in the adult population. Method Data drawn from years 2001 to 2004 of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health consisted of 130,152 respondents, randomly selected to be representative of the adult population in the United States. Standardized screening measures for past year mental health included serious psychological distress (K6 scale), mental health treatment (inpatient, outpatient, medication, needed but did not receive), symptoms of eight psychiatric disorders (panic disorder, major depressive episode, mania, social phobia, general anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and non-affective psychosis), and seven specific symptoms of non-affective psychosis. We calculated weighted odds ratios by multivariate logistic regression controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, use of illicit drugs, risk taking behavior, and exposure to traumatic events. Results 21,967 respondents (13.4% weighted) reported lifetime psychedelic use. There were no significant associations between lifetime use of any psychedelics, lifetime use of specific psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, peyote), or past year use of LSD and increased rate of any of the mental health outcomes. Rather, in several cases psychedelic use was associated with lower rate of mental health problems. Conclusion We did not find use of psychedelics to be an independent risk factor for mental health problems. PMID:23976938

  17. Rethinking mental health: a European WHO perspective.

    PubMed

    Rutz, Wolfgang

    2003-06-01

    In spite of recent clinical and research advances, an increased burden of mortality and morbidity related to stress and mental ill health can be noted, especially in European societies and populations undergoing stressful transitions and dramatic changes. A societal syndrome, consisting of depression, suicide, abuse, risk-taking and violent behaviour as well as vascular morbidity and mortality, can be observed, reflecting individual psychopathology related to disturbances of the serotonin metabolism as one of the oldest, most basic cerebral instruments of mankind to survive, to socialize, to cope with stress and danger. In a time where mental health professionals look for new and challenging identities, they have a tendency to abdicate from social psychiatric and public health activities in favour of more prestigious positions in brain research, genetics or advanced psychotherapy. A redefinition, reconceptualization and renaissance of social psychiatry seems timely and necessary, responding to the burden, advances and possibilities related to mental health we find today. It should proceed from the reductionism which often has characterized earlier psychosocial and social psychiatric approaches, utilize modern knowledge about neuroplasticity, psychoimmunology, neuropsychology and neurophilosophy, reflect the interaction between environment and structure, nature and nurture, and integrate different areas of knowledge in a holistic public mental health approach. Political decisions and societal solutions can be more or less in line with basic human preconditions. Consequences of failure to respect this already can be seen. A new awareness and responsibility-taking with regard to basic human ethological, physiological, psychological and existential conditions is needed and has to be concretized in innovative public mental health approaches. PMID:16946915

  18. Economic recession and mental health: an overview.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Effects of the current global economic downturn on population mental health will emerge in the years ahead. Judging from earlier experience of financial crises in various parts of the world, stresses associated with rising unemployment, poverty and social insecurity will lead to upward trends in many national suicide rates, as well as to less readily charted increase in the prevalence of psychiatric illness, alcohol-related disorders and illicit drug use. At the same time, mental health services are being cut back as part of government austerity programs. Budget cuts will thus affect psychiatric services adversely just when economic stressors are raising the levels of need and demand in affected populations. Proactive fiscal and social policies could, however, help to mitigate the health consequences of recession. Evidence- based preventive measures include active labor market and family support programs, regulation of alcohol prices and availability, community care for known high-risk groups, and debt relief projects. Economic mental health care could best be achieved, not by decimating services but by planning and deploying these to meet the needs of defined area populations. PMID:21968374

  19. Global Mental Health: concepts, conflicts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Rob

    2015-08-01

    This paper introduces, describes and analyses the emerging concept of Global Mental Health (GMH). The birth of GMH can be traced to London, 2007, with the publication of a series of high-profile papers in The Lancet. Since then, GMH has developed into a movement with proponents, adherents, opponents, an ideology and core activities. The stated aims of the Movement for GMH are 'to improve services for people living with mental health problems and psychosocial disabilities worldwide, especially in low- and middle-income countries where effective services are often scarce'. GMH could be considered an attempt to right a historic wrong. During the colonial and post-colonial eras, the mental health of subject populations was accorded a very low priority. This was fuelled by scientific racism, which alleged that mental illness was uncommon in places such as Africa. As developing nations have made the epidemiological transition, the burden of mental illness has proportionately increased, with research suggesting a massive 'treatment gap' between those in need and those actually receiving formal mental health care. As such, much GMH research and action has been devoted to: (i) the identification and scale-up of cost-effective evidence-supported interventions that could be made more widely available; (ii) task-shifting of such intervention delivery to mental-health trained non-specialist Lay Health Workers. GMH has come under sustained critique. Critics suggest that GMH is colonial medicine come full circle, involving the top-down imposition of Western psychiatric models and solutions by Western-educated elites. These critiques suggest that GMH ignores the various indigenous modalities of healing present in non-Western cultures, which may be psychologically adaptive and curative. Relatedly, critics argue that GMH could be an unwitting Trojan horse for the mass medicalisation of people in developing countries, paving the way for exploitation by Big Pharma, while ignoring social determinants of health. PMID:26027857

  20. Global Health Training in U.S. Graduate Psychiatric Education

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Alexander; Fricchione, Gregory; Walensky, Rochelle; Ng, Courtney; Bangsberg, David; Kerry, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Objective Global health training opportunities have figured prominently into medical students’ residency program choices across a range of clinical specialties. To date, however, the national scope of global mental health education has not heretofore been systematically assessed. We therefore sought to characterize the distribution of global health training opportunities in U.S. graduate psychiatric education. Methods We examined the web pages of all U.S. psychiatry residency training programs, along with search results from a systematic Google query designed to identify global health training opportunities. Results Of the 183 accredited U.S. psychiatry residency programs, we identified 17 programs (9.3%) offering 28 global health training opportunities in 64 countries. Ten psychiatry residency programs offered their residents opportunities to participate in one or more elective-based rotations, eight offered research activities, and six offered extended field-based training. Most global health training opportunities occurred within the context of externally administered, institution-wide initiatives generally available to residents from a range of clinical specialties, rather than within internally administered departmental initiatives specifically tailored for psychiatry residents. Conclusions There are relatively few global health training opportunities in U.S. graduate psychiatric education. These activities have a clear role in enhancing mastery of Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies, but important challenges related to program funding and evaluation remain. PMID:24664609

  1. Mental health services in Army primary care: the need for a collaborative health care agenda.

    PubMed

    Engel, C C; Kroenke, K; Katon, W J

    1994-03-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that more than half of mentally ill patients in the United States receive their psychiatric care exclusively in primary care settings. This fraction may be even higher in the military due to concern over possible occupational repercussions resulting from use of specialty psychiatric care and specialist shortages. Collaboration between generalists and mental health care specialists could potentially improve mental health care delivery and reduce psychiatric disability for a large segment of the Army population who have a psychiatric disorder but may not seek specialty care. Collaborative efforts can reinforce military generalists' essential gate-keeping function, thereby decreasing unnecessary medical utilization and health care costs. The authors review the problems associated with mental health care delivery in primary care and provide examples of collaborative models previously studied or currently being explored. A four-part Army Primary Care-Mental Health Services Agenda is proposed, consisting of: (1) coordinated research including primary care-mental health services research and community-based epidemiologic studies; (2) formation of a primary care-mental health services advisory committee for aiding with policy and program development; (3) graduate and continuing medical education in primary care-mental health services emphasizing interdisciplinary collaborative skills; and (4) clinical implementation of feasible collaborative interdisciplinary mental health care models adapted to the range of unique Army primary care settings. The main goal of the Army Primary Care-Mental Health Services Agenda is to improve access to Army mental health care in the most efficacious and cost-effective way and to help minimize the organizational impact of disability related to psychosocial distress. PMID:8041464

  2. Value-managed mental health benefits.

    PubMed

    Burton, W N; Conti, D J

    1991-03-01

    The First National Bank of Chicago's comprehensive program for mental health services has been shown to be an effective response to the rising demand and cost of mental health care. By assertively managing a benefit plan rather than capriciously cutting it, employees are afforded quality care while the corporation is able to handle the costs of a worthwhile benefit. The plan represented a collaboration of the Benefits and Medical Units, which brought together philosophies of benefit plan management and research regarding primary prevention and early intervention. Employees are afforded education and early intervention while at the work site and appropriate referrals to cost-efficient providers outside the bank. Should they need time away from the work site for treatment, this along with their reentry is also managed to increase the probability of successful recovery. In this way continuity of care is assured so that recurrent disability (eg, rehospitalization, further STD) may be reduced. The 4-year follow-up investigation of the program reveals management of overall mental health care costs, reduction in inpatient psychiatric hospitalization costs, and reduction in the average length of psychiatric short-term disability episodes for employees. PMID:1903154

  3. Paternal age and mental health of offspring.

    PubMed

    Malaspina, Dolores; Gilman, Caitlin; Kranz, Thorsten Manfred

    2015-06-01

    The influence of paternal age on the risk for sporadic forms of Mendelian disorders is well known, but a burgeoning recent literature demonstrates, in addition, a paternal age effect for complex neuropsychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia, autism, bipolar disorder, and even for learning potential, expressed as intelligence. Mental illness is costly to patients, their family, and the public health system, accounting for the largest portion of disability costs in our economy. The delayed onset of neuropsychiatric conditions and lack of physical manifestations at birth are common frequencies in the population that have obscured the recognition that a portion of the risks for mental conditions is associated with paternal age. Identification of these risk pathways may be leveraged for knowledge about mental function and for future screening tests. However, only a small minority of at-risk offspring are likely to have such a psychiatric or learning disorder attributable to paternal age, including the children of older fathers. PMID:25956369

  4. Costing mental health services.

    PubMed

    Knapp, M; Beecham, J

    1990-11-01

    In this paper four principal topics are addressed: (a) the policy and political contexts in which demands arise for cost information; (b) the nature and phasing of those demands; (c) the basic rules of empirical costs research for meeting those demands; and (d) concomitant implications for the design, execution and interpretation of their research. Mental health care policy or practice changes which ignore costs, or which embody cost information without obeying or recognizing the four basic rules, can only be of dubious validity, or can only be used to answer a limited range of questions. But, as the illustrative studies show, it need not be an horrendous, or ideologically compromising or scientifically complex task to add a cost dimension to the evaluation of mental health services. There are enough examples in the literature of bad costs research to demonstrate that it is not as simple as some people think, but there are also enough examples of good research to encourage further attempts. PMID:2126630

  5. Mental Health of Indian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapur, Malavika

    Children constitute nearly 40% of India's population, a significant portion of whom suffer mental ailments. Ways to sensitize those who work with children to various aspects associated with child mental health are explored in this book. The focus is not on mental handicap but on the internal or external distress which warps the psychosocial…

  6. Clustering of minor psychiatric disorders and burden among family caregivers of individuals with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Treichel, Carlos Alberto Dos Santos; Jardim, Vanda Maria da Rosa; Kantorski, Luciane Prado; Vasem, Mariana Luchese; Neutzling, Aline Dos Santos

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study is to analyze the relationship between minor psychiatric disorders, burden and other associated factors among family caregivers of people with mental disorders. The study was conducted with 1164 relatives of users of the Centers for Psychosocial Care in southern Brazil, and for screening of minor psychiatric disorders, the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ20) scale was used, based on its Brazilian validation with an adopted cutoff point of 6/8. Even though previous studies have appointed the burden arising from care as protagonist in the presentation of minor psychiatric disorders, a clustering based on log-likelihood by Bayesian Information Criterion conducted in this study found that burden is not the only possible predictor for emotional/mental illness, suggesting that other factors permeate this relationship. Thus, bivariate analyzes were conducted, in which the influence of variables such as health problems, work issues, among others, can be observed in different groups arranged by the cluster. PMID:26910165

  7. Patterns of mental health utilization among island Puerto Rican poor.

    PubMed Central

    Alegría, M; Robles, R; Freeman, D H; Vera, M; Jiménez, A L; Ríos, C; Ríos, R

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper describes utilization of mental health services by poor Puerto Ricans living on the island. It examines the utilization rates, within health sectors, and settings for the provision of mental health services. METHODS: Data are based on an islandwide probability sample of 18- to 64-year-old respondents living in low socioeconomic areas. We assessed need with the Psychiatric Symptom and Dysfunction Scales. RESULTS: Approximately one-third of our study population (31.5%) met criteria for need. Of these, only 32% had received any mental health care in the past year. Need was significantly associated with use of physical or mental health services for mental health problems. We found those who needed services to be five times more likely than those who did not need services to have used one or both sectors of care at least once in the past year. Among the first group 21.8% used the physical health sector to deal with mental health problems in contrast with 17.9% who sought care in the mental health sector. In the physical health sector, subjects used the public and private settings equally. In the mental health sector, 70% of subjects used the public setting. CONCLUSIONS: This suggests the nonpsychiatric physician as a main provider for mental health treatment. PMID:2053664

  8. Mental health of deaf people.

    PubMed

    Fellinger, Johannes; Holzinger, Daniel; Pollard, Robert

    2012-03-17

    Deafness is a heterogeneous condition with far-reaching effects on social, emotional, and cognitive development. Onset before language has been established happens in about seven per 10,000 people. Increased rates of mental health problems are reported in deaf people. Many regard themselves as members of a cultural minority who use sign language. In this Review, we describe discrepancies between a high burden of common mental health disorders and barriers to health care. About a quarter of deaf individuals have additional disabilities and a high probability of complex mental health needs. Research into factors affecting mental health of deaf children shows that early access to effective communication with family members and peers is desirable. Improved access to health and mental health care can be achieved by provision of specialist services with professionals trained to directly communicate with deaf people and with sign-language interpreters. PMID:22423884

  9. Observation of influences of mental health promotion and mental intervention on mental health status of professionals

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shu-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To observe the influences of mental health promotion and mental intervention on mental health status of professionals. Method: 2878 professionals for physical examination were selected and randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 1443 professionals and 1435 professionals, respectively. Then, the difference of mental health status before and after mental intervention between two groups was compared. Results: In treatment group, the proportion of people with healthy mental and modest pressure after mental intervention was higher than that before mental intervention and that in control group after mental intervention (P<0.01); the proportion of people with psychological sub-heath and moderate pressure after mental intervention was significantly lower than that before mental intervention and that in control group after mental intervention (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in mental health status in control group before and after mental intervention (P>0.05). Mental health consciousness, health status, self pressure-relief capability, job satisfaction, and happiness index of professionals were up to 63.3%~78.8%. Conclusions: Mental health promotion and mental intervention may significantly improve mental health status of professionals. PMID:26221385

  10. Low serum vitamin B12 levels among psychiatric patients admitted in Butabika mental hospital in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychiatric manifestations have been noted in patients with low serum vitamin B12 levels even in the absence of other neurologic and/or haematologic abnormalities. There is no literature on low serum B12 prevalence among Ugandans with psychiatric illnesses. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence, risk factors, and clinical manifestations of low serum vitamin B12 among psychiatric patients admitted in a Mental Health Hospital in Uganda. Method Using a cross sectional descriptive study design, 280 in-patients selected by systematic sampling were studied using a standardized protocol. Low serum vitamin B12 was defined as a level < 240 pg /mL. Results We found a prevalence of low serum B12 in 28.6% of the participants. Absent vibration sense which was significantly associated (58.3% Vs. 26.7%: OR = 3.84 (95% C.I. 1.18, 12.49); p-value = 0.025) with low vitamin B12 was observed among 12 participants. Macro-ovalocytes present among 23 participants on peripheral film were significantly associated with low serum levels (73.9% Vs. 26.2%: OR = 7.99 (95% C.I. 3.01, 21.19) p-value < 0.0001). Factors significantly associated with low serum B12 levels included psychiatric diagnosis of schizophrenia (AOR 1.74 (95% C.I. 1.00, 3.02); p-value = 0.049), duration of psychiatric illness > or = 3 years (AOR 2.27 (95% C.I. 1.29, 3.98); p-value = 0.004), and hospitalization < 3 weeks (AOR 4.01 (95% C.I. 1.02, 15.79); p-value = 0.047). Female participants were associated with protection from low serum levels (AOR 0.4 (95% C.I. 0.22, 0.73); p-value = 0.003). Conclusion Low serum B12 is common among hospitalized psychiatric patients with the majority having no haematological findings. Associated risk factors included having a psychiatric diagnosis of schizophrenia, a shorter duration of hospitalization and longer duration of psychiatric illness. Female participants were less likely to have low serum vitamin B12 levels. Routine screening for serum vitamin B12 levels should be adopted by all hospitals for admitted psychiatric patients. PMID:24533701

  11. Characteristics of mentally ill offenders from 100 psychiatric court reports

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is an increasing probability that the psychiatrist will, willingly or not, come into contact with mentally ill offenders in the course of their practice. There are increasing rates of violence, substance abuse and other psychiatric disorders that are of legal importance. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the rates of different mental disorders in 100 court reports and to investigate the characteristics of mentally ill offenders. Methods All cases referred from different departments of the legal system to the forensic committee for assessment of legal accountability over 13-months duration were included. A specially designed form was prepared for data collection. Cases were classified into five groups: murder, robbery, financial offences, violent and simple offences and a group for other offences. Data were subjected to statistical analysis and comparisons between different groups of subjects were performed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results Men constituted 93% of cases. In all, 73% of offenders were younger than 40 years old. Schizophrenia cases made up 13% of the total, substance related cases constituted 56% and amphetamine cases alone made up 21%; 10% of cases were antisocial personality disorders, and 51% of cases were classified as having a low education level. Unemployment was found in 34% of cases. The final decision of the forensic committee was full responsibility in 46% of cases and partial responsibility in 11% of cases, with 33% considered non-responsible. A total of 58% of cases had had contact with psychiatric healthcare prior to the offence and in 9% of cases contact had been in the previous 12 weeks. A history of similar offences was found in 32% of cases. In all, 14% of the offences were murders, 8% were sexual crimes, and 31% were violent/simple crimes. Conclusions The ability of the legal system to detect cases was good, while the ability of the healthcare system to predict crimes and offences was weak, as 58% of cases had had previous contact with the healthcare system previously. Substance abuse, especially amphetamine abuse, played an important role. PMID:20148107

  12. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster.

    PubMed

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2012-03-01

    The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental health problems like depression in Fukushima patients. PMID:22394694

  13. Child and adolescent mental health in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Flisher, Alan J; Dawes, Andrew; Kafaar, Zuhayr; Lund, Crick; Sorsdahl, Katherine; Myers, Bronwyn; Thom, Rita; Seedat, Soraya

    2012-10-01

    Mental health problems in childhood and adolescence pose a major threat to public health. Epidemiological studies in high, middle and low income countries indicate that approximately one in five children and adolescents suffer from a mental disorder. In many instances these persist into adulthood. In South Africa, HIV infection, substance use, and exposure to violence increase vulnerability to mental disorders. Child and adolescent mental health services play a key role in reducing the burden of mental disorders in childhood and later in adulthood. This paper focuses on service needs for children and adolescents in South Africa. It commences with a discussion of the prevalence of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders after which the legal and policy context of child and adolescent psychiatric services is described. A framework for child and adolescent mental health service provision is presented, following which steps for reducing the extent of unmet service need are considered. The paper concludes with a call to scale up child and adolescent mental health services in South Africa, based on the stark realities of unmet need and the constitutional rights of children and adolescents to appropriate mental health care. PMID:25860182

  14. Mental health service utilization for psychiatric disorders among Latinos living in the United States: the role of ethnic subgroup, ethnic identity, and language/social preferences

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, K. M.; Martins, S. S.; Hatzenbuehler, M. L.; Blanco, C.; Bates, L. M.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine aspects of Latino experience in the US as predicting service utilization for mood, anxiety, and substance disorders. Methods Latino participants 18 and older in the NESARC (N = 6,359), a US national face to face survey. Outcomes were lifetime service utilization for DSM-IV lifetime mood/anxiety or substance disorders, diagnosed via structured interview (AUDADIS-IV). Main predictors were ethnic subgroup, ethnic identity, linguistic/social preferences, nativity/years in the US, and age at immigration. Results Higher levels of Latino ethnic identity and Spanish language/Latino social preferences predicted lower service utilization for mood disorders [ethnic identity OR = 0.52, language/social OR = 0.44] and anxiety disorders [ethnic identity OR = 0.67, language/social OR = 0.47], controlling for ethnic subgroup, disorder severity, time spent in the US, and economic and practical barriers Service utilization for alcohol/drug disorders was low across all Latino subgroups, without variation by examined predictors. Conclusion Ethnic/cultural factors are strong determinants of service utilization for mood/anxiety, but not substance use disorders among Latinos in the US strategies to increase service utilization among Latinos with psychiatric disorders should be disorder specific, and recognize the role of ethnicity and identity as important components of a help-seeking model. PMID:21290097

  15. Creative Strategies to Enhance Students' Classroom Learning in Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Lehr, Sally; Schlenger, Alison

    2016-05-01

    Creative strategies to enhance students' classroom learning are important in today's nursing education environment. In an attempt to provide students with meaningful learning experiences in mental health, faculty initiated three innovative classroom activities. Following each activity, students completed an anonymous survey evaluating their experience. Findings indicated students valued these learning strategies personally and professionally. In addition, students believed their nursing practice would be enhanced as a result of the classes. Some students expressed a possible interest in psychiatric/mental health nursing as a future career. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(5), 41-48.]. PMID:27135893

  16. Italian quality assurance in mental health.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Giovanni; Agnetti, Germana; Bosio, Roberto; De Luca, Pasquale; Erlicher, Arcadio; Morganti, Carla; Neri, Giovanni; Re, Edoardo; Semisa, Domenico; Fioritti, Angelo

    2014-06-01

    Since the radical changes in Italian mental health law in the 1970s, quality assurance models have gained consensus as the most suitable service assessment tool. In the 1990s, the whole Italian National Health System changed into a corporate model, and an accreditation system was implemented.The Italian Association for Quality and Accreditation in Mental Health (Associazione Italiana per la Qualità e l'Accreditamento in Salute Mentale [QUASM]) was founded in 1984, and since then, it offers consultation and support for Mental Health Departments and Regional Governments to help them to develop psychiatric programs, self-evaluation, educational programs, and professional peer-model accreditation. The QUASM accreditation manual has now gone through several revisions, the last in 2008. Until 2008, QUASM was successful in promoting quality and facilitating both institutional and professional accreditation. However, radical changes triggered by financial crisis have jeopardized quality assurance implementation. Nowadays, the challenge for QUASM is to maintain quality and accreditation geared to excellence against prevailing leveling trends. PMID:24840086

  17. The Impact of Organizational Factors and Government Policy on Psychiatric Nurses' Family-Focused Practice With Parents Who Have Mental Illness, Their Dependent Children, and Families in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Grant, Anne; Reupert, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Government policy and organizational factors influence family-focused practice (FFP) in adult mental health services. However, how these aspects shape psychiatric nurses' practice with parents who have mental illness, their dependent children, and families is less well understood. Drawing on the findings of a qualitative study, this article explores the way in which Irish policy and organizational factors might influence psychiatric nurses' FFP, and whether (and how) FFP might be further promoted. A purposive sample of 14 psychiatric nurses from eight mental health services completed semi-structured interviews. The analysis was inductive and presented as thematic networks. Both groups described how policies and organizational culture enabled and/or hindered FFP, with differences between community and acute participants seen. This study indicates a need for policies and organizational supports, including child and family skills training, to promote a whole family approach in adult mental health services. PMID:27090512

  18. Mental Health, United States, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manderscheid, Ronald W., Ed.; Henderson, Marilyn J., Ed.

    In recent years, the mental health community has made great strides in understanding more about the delivery of mental health services, improving efficiency and quality in services, and also about how to build strengths and resilience in the face of lifes stresses. This volume adds to the knowledge base so that the important task of system change…

  19. International Collaboration in Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Bertram S., Ed.; Torrey, E. Fuller, Ed.

    Presented in five parts on research, services, training, drug abuse, and alcohol abuse are 31 reports of mental health studies and programs supported by the U.S. and other countries. Explained in the introduction are reasons the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) has supported international collaboration. The following are among subjects

  20. Tips for Mental Health Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitsett, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers tips for working with interpreters in mental health settings. These tips include: (1) Using trained interpreters, not bilingual staff or community members; (2) Explaining "interpreting procedures" to the providers and clients; (3) Addressing the stigma associated with mental health that may influence interpreters; (4) Defining…

  1. International Students and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Sawyer, Anne-Maree

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, reports of increased rates of mental ill health among young people worldwide have received much attention. Several studies indicate a greater incidence of mental health problems among tertiary students, compared with the general population, and higher levels of anxiety, in particular, among international students compared…

  2. Mental Health Screening in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weist, Mark D.; Rubin, Marcia; Moore, Elizabeth; Adelsheim, Steven; Wrobel, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    Background: This article discusses the importance of screening students in schools for emotional/behavioral problems. Methods: Elements relevant to planning and implementing effective mental health screening in schools are considered. Screening in schools is linked to a broader national agenda to improve the mental health of children and…

  3. International Collaboration in Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Bertram S., Ed.; Torrey, E. Fuller, Ed.

    Presented in five parts on research, services, training, drug abuse, and alcohol abuse are 31 reports of mental health studies and programs supported by the U.S. and other countries. Explained in the introduction are reasons the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) has supported international collaboration. The following are among subjects…

  4. Dystonia: Emotional and Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Emotional & Mental Health Although dystonia is a movement disorder that impacts ... body, it can also impact emotional and psychological health. Not only is the very nature of dystonia ( ...

  5. Plans for mental health discharge.

    PubMed

    2016-03-23

    People being discharged from inpatient mental health settings should be given a recovery plan that provides information on support networks and crisis management, according to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. PMID:27008118

  6. Palestinian mothers' perceptions of child mental health problems and services

    PubMed Central

    THABET, ABDEL AZIZ; EL GAMMAL, HOSSAM; VOSTANIS, PANOS

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore Palestinian mothers' perceptions of child mental health problems and their understanding of their causes; to determine Palestinian mothers' awareness of existing services and sources of help and support; to identify professionals in the community whom Palestinian mothers would consult if their child had mental health problems; and to establish their views on ways of increasing awareness of child mental health issues and services. Checklists exploring the above issues were completed by 249 Palestinian mothers living in refugee camps in the Gaza Strip. Palestinian mothers equally perceived emotional, behavioural and psychotic symptoms as suggestive of mental ill health in childhood. Mothers perceived multiple causes of child mental health problems, including family problems, parental psychiatric illness and social adversity. A substantial proportion (42.6%) had knowledge of local child mental health care services. Overall, mothers preferred Western over traditional types of treatment, and were keen to increase mental health awareness within their society. Despite a different cultural tradition, Palestinian mothers appear open to a range of services and interventions for child mental health problems. As in other non-Western societies, child mental health service provision should be integrated with existing primary health care, schools, and community structures. PMID:16946953

  7. Users' satisfaction with mental health services.

    PubMed

    Vicente, B; Vielma, M; Jenner, F A; Mezzina, R; Lliapas, I

    1993-01-01

    The opinion and level of satisfaction of the users of three different mental health services are presented as a way of evaluating the outcome of institutional and community approaches to psychiatric services. The information was collected in the cities of Concepcion (Chile), Sheffield (England) and Trieste (Italy) interviewing a sample of the users of the psychiatric services using a questionnaire specifically designed to suit the study's aims. The patients in Sheffield tended to support an eventual move towards a more community based service while the relatives appeared more interested in a general improvement of the traditional institutional facilities. In Trieste, patients as well as relatives are fully supportive of the community based services and reasonably aware of the difficulties. They want to improve things in the community. Finally, Chilean users show a considerable adherence to the more traditional and institutionalised ways of offering services and the levels of satisfaction were very high considering the conditions in which the help was delivered. PMID:8340212

  8. Adolescent mental health: Challenges with maternal noncompliance.

    PubMed

    Nejtek, Vicki A; Hardy, Sarah; Winter, Scott

    2010-01-01

    The leading cause of suicide ideation, attempts, and completion in adolescents is persistent and unresolved parental conflict. National statistics show extremely high rates of childhood neglect and abuse are perpetrated most often by single mothers. Psychiatric disorders arising from maternal-child dysfunction are well-documented. However, resources to prevent offspring victimization are lacking. Here, we report maternal neglect of a 15-year-old male brought to the psychiatric emergency room for suicidal ideation. An inpatient treatment plan including pharmacotherapy, family therapy and psychological testing was initiated. The patient's mother failed to attend clinic appointments or family therapy sessions. Clinician attempts to engage the mother in the treatment plan was met with verbal assaults, aggression, and threatening behavior. The patient decompensated in relation to the mother's actions. Child Protective Services were contacted and a follow-up assessment with the patient and mother is pending. Psychiatric treatment of the mother may be a necessary intervention and prevention regimen for both the adolescent and the mother. Without consistent Child Protective Services oversight, medical and psychosocial follow-up, the prognosis and quality of life for this adolescent is considered very poor. Stringent mental health law and institutional policies are needed to adequately intercede and protect adolescents with mental illness. PMID:20396638

  9. Children's Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Compartir New Study The impact of having ADHD and other mental disorders on affected children. More ... emotions. Some examples of childhood mental disorders are: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Behavior disorders Mood and anxiety disorders Substance ...

  10. An Elective Psychiatric Course to Reduce Pharmacy Students’ Social Distance Toward People With Severe Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jingjing; Mehdizadegan, Niki; Simoni-Wastila, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether an elective course on mental health could reduce pharmacy students’ social distance toward people with severe mental illness. Design Course activities included assigned readings, class discussions, student presentations, review of video and other media for examples of social distance, presentations by patients with mental illness, and visits to hospitalized patients in a variety of psychiatric settings. Assessment The Social Distance Scale (SDS) was administered at the beginning and end of the semester to students enrolled in the elective and to a comparator group of students not enrolled in the course. Pharmacy students who did not complete the elective had significantly higher SDS scores than students who completed the elective (18.7 vs. 15.6, p < 0.001). Students enrolled in the course had lower precourse SDS scores, were more likely than their peers to have a personal association with mental illness, and had a decrease in precourse to postcourse scores. Conclusion A course designed to reduce stigma towards the mentally ill can reduce pharmacy students' social distance. PMID:21769148

  11. Economic Stress and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Butts, Hugh F.

    1979-01-01

    This paper correlates economic stress with minority status, resource allocations for mental health programs, and vulnerability to mental disability. Several hypotheses are advanced: 1. A major and recurring psychological pattern of the American national character is prowhite, antiblack paranoia. 2. Mental health fiscal allocations and programmatic determinations in ghetto, lower socioeconomic, minority-populated urban areas are predicated on political and racist considerations, the underlying motivation being to keep minorities at greater risk of mental disability. 3. Economic privation and stress increase vulnerability to mental illness, especially in a minority population for whom health, mental health, educational, and social services are grossly inadequate. 4. Poverty and economic stress combine with health systems that are unresponsive to the needs of blacks and other minorities, resulting in the perpetuation of disabilities and other conditions in blacks that are potentially preventable. 5. Health and mental health resources should be increased rather than diminished during periods of economic stress, especially in the public sector. 6. In order to provide each citizen with access to quality health and mental health care regardless of race and/or economic status, there must be enacted a national health insurance program based on tax-levy monies that will cover all aspects of health and mental health care. 7. Racism and social status will continue to be powerful determinants of the quality of service that white professionals render to black patients and to poor white patients, unless our training institutions mount a massive campaign to train appropriately and to include significant numbers of minority candidates and trainees in the effort. To date this effort is virtually nonexistent. PMID:439171

  12. Health visitors' role in family mental health.

    PubMed

    Adams, Cheryll

    2007-01-01

    Evidence and current mental health policy point to the importance of promoting mental health in families and to the role of the health visitor in this work. Health visitors are key practitioners in the mental and emotional well-being of families of young children. Their remit needs to extend beyond postnatal depression to holistic assessments of child and family mental health and interventions where necessary. This work is likely to benefit the longer-term health of the children and other family members and reduce their future demands on health and social services. The importance of this preventive work must be brought to the attention of health commissioners, especially during the present cutbacks in the health visiting service. PMID:17476975

  13. Support System for Mental Health Professionals*

    PubMed Central

    Dandekar, Ajit

    2015-01-01

    This paper talks of support systems for mental health professionals wherein the Bombay Psychiatric Society (BPS) should devote some meetings exclusively to problems pertaining to the profession, e.g., long and odd working hours leading to potentially hazardous practice schedules, unhealthy competitive attitudes and culture. A crash course in self-defence against potentially psychotic patients and drug addicts is advocated as also awareness of the potential hazards in dealing with the litigious paranoid patients, erotomaniacs and some of the difficult hysterical patients. Potential medicolegal problems arise in treating an uncooperative patient without his knowledge and consent on an outpatient department basis, admitting such an uncooperative patient to a nursing home or a hospital, administering electroconvulsive therapies, maintaining detailed clinical records of patients, and legal issues involving smaller psychiatric private nursing homes. This paper stresses on the use of Yoga as a recognised psycho-physiological therapy. Furthermore, it suggests on the need for BPS, as a professional body, to have a cell to guide and help aspiring young professionals in setting up private practice. It points out the need to evolve some concrete programmes that in the long run should help alleviate stresses and strains and promote positive comprehensive health amongst mental health professionals. PMID:25838730

  14. Disaster Management: Mental Health Perspective.

    PubMed

    Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C

    2015-01-01

    Disaster mental health is based on the principles of 'preventive medicine' This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six 'R's such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health. PMID:26664073

  15. Disaster Management: Mental Health Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C.

    2015-01-01

    Disaster mental health is based on the principles of ‘preventive medicine’ This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six ‘R’s such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health. PMID:26664073

  16. Utilization Review and Evaluation in a Community Mental Health Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riedel, Donald C.; And Others

    The paper presents the conceptual framework and research strategy of the psychiatric utilization review and evaluation (PURE) project at the Connecticut Mental Health Center. Review by structure, by outcome and by process are considered briefly. The Basic Utilization Review Program was developed to provide a more sophisticated and economical

  17. Medicare Prospective Reimbursement for Mental Health Services: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, William R.; Thompson, Warren A.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews literature evaluating appropriateness of Medicare's prospective payment system (PPS) through Diagnostic-Related Groups (DRGs), since its implementation in 1983, for psychiatric care. Cites shortcomings that make the system untenable for mental health care, including lack of homogeneity of DRGs, inability to predict length of stay, and…

  18. Mental Health Issues on Campus: A Resource Kit for Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Jana; McLean, Patricia

    This resource kit provides information intended to assist Australian disability liaison officers (DLO) and others who work with college students with psychiatric disabilities to understand the effects of mental health issues on learning in the context of post-secondary education. The guide suggests a range of compensatory strategies that aim to…

  19. Mental Health Problems in Adults with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinton, Chris; Elison, Sarah; Howlin, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Although many researchers have investigated emotional and behavioral difficulties in individuals with Williams syndrome, few have used standardized diagnostic assessments. We examined mental health problems in 92 adults with Williams syndrome using the Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with Developmental Disabilities--PAS-ADD (Moss,…

  20. Intellectual Disabilities and Mental Health: United States-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlot, Lauren; Beasley, Joan B.

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, research directed specifically at improving our understanding of the psychiatric assessment and treatment of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) has grown, yet lags far behind efforts for typically developing children and adults. In the United States, a lack of a national approach to the mental health problems of…

  1. Perceived Barriers to Mental Health Services among Youths in Detention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abram, Karen M.; Paskar, Leah D.; Washburn, Jason J.; Teplin, Linda A.

    2008-01-01

    The psychiatric disorder in juvenile systems is on the increase and this study examines the detained youth's perceived barriers and attitudes towards the mental health service use. Results concluded that experiences with past services contributed to negative perceptions, which need to be solved by providing educational outreach programs that helps

  2. Psychiatric Symptoms in Alzheimer's Disease: Mental Status Examination versus Caregiver Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Benjamin; Buswell, Arthur

    1994-01-01

    To examine possible reasons for conflicting prevalence data on psychiatric features of Alzheimer's disease, compared results of mental status examination by physician with questionnaire completed by caregivers in eliciting 12 different psychiatric symptoms. Found agreement only on categories suggesting agitation. Formal examination showed more…

  3. Interface between Intellectual Disability and Mental Health: hermeneutic review

    PubMed Central

    Surjus, Luciana Togni de Lima e Silva; Campos, Rosana Teresa Onocko

    2014-01-01

    A literature review was conducted aiming to understand the interface between the Intellectual Disability and Mental Health fields and to contribute to mitigating the path of institutionalizing individuals with intellectual deficiencies. The so-called dual diagnosis phenomenon remains underestimated in Brazil but is the object of research and specific public policy internationally. This phenomenon alerts us to the prevalence of mental health problems in those with intellectual disabilities, limiting their social inclusion. The findings reinforce the importance of this theme and indicate possible diagnostic invisibility of the development of mental illness in those with intellectual disabilities in Brazil, which may contribute to sustaining psychiatric institutionalization of this population.  PMID:25119948

  4. Suicide Ideation in Older Adults: Relationship to Mental Health Problems and Service Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corna, Laurie M.; Cairney, John; Streiner, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the prevalence of suicide ideation among community-dwelling older adults and the relationship between suicide ideation, major psychiatric disorder, and mental health service use. Design and Methods: We use data from the Canadian Community Health Survey 1.2: Mental Health and Well-being (CCHS 1.2). We estimate the prevalence of…

  5. Online Social Networking and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract During the past decade, online social networking has caused profound changes in the way people communicate and interact. It is unclear, however, whether some of these changes may affect certain normal aspects of human behavior and cause psychiatric disorders. Several studies have indicated that the prolonged use of social networking sites (SNS), such as Facebook, may be related to signs and symptoms of depression. In addition, some authors have indicated that certain SNS activities might be associated with low self-esteem, especially in children and adolescents. Other studies have presented opposite results in terms of positive impact of social networking on self-esteem. The relationship between SNS use and mental problems to this day remains controversial, and research on this issue is faced with numerous challenges. This concise review focuses on the recent findings regarding the suggested connection between SNS and mental health issues such as depressive symptoms, changes in self-esteem, and Internet addiction. PMID:25192305

  6. Online social networking and mental health.

    PubMed

    Pantic, Igor

    2014-10-01

    During the past decade, online social networking has caused profound changes in the way people communicate and interact. It is unclear, however, whether some of these changes may affect certain normal aspects of human behavior and cause psychiatric disorders. Several studies have indicated that the prolonged use of social networking sites (SNS), such as Facebook, may be related to signs and symptoms of depression. In addition, some authors have indicated that certain SNS activities might be associated with low self-esteem, especially in children and adolescents. Other studies have presented opposite results in terms of positive impact of social networking on self-esteem. The relationship between SNS use and mental problems to this day remains controversial, and research on this issue is faced with numerous challenges. This concise review focuses on the recent findings regarding the suggested connection between SNS and mental health issues such as depressive symptoms, changes in self-esteem, and Internet addiction. PMID:25192305

  7. The Mental Health Care Bill 2013: A Critical Appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Choudhary Laxmi; Shekhar, Shivendra

    2015-01-01

    The Mental Health Care Bill – 2013 has been introduced in Rajya Sabha and is now waiting for enactment. The Bill entails unprecedented measures to be undertaken by the Government ensuring everyone right to access mental health care and treatment from services run or funded by the Government. The Government is to meet the man-power requirement of mental health professionals according to international standard within a period of ten years. Various rights of persons with mental illness have been ensured. All the places where psychiatric patients are admitted and treated including the general hospital psychiatry units (GHPU) are to be registered as mental health establishments. Unmodified ECT has been banned and ECT to minors can be given only after approval from the Mental Health Review Board. This article advocates for exemption of GHPU from the purview of the Bill, taking into consideration impediment created in the treatment of vast majority of psychiatric patients who retain their insight into the illness and seldom require involuntary admissions. It is also advocated to reconsider ban on unmodified ECT and restriction placed on ECT to minor which are very effective treatment methods based on scientific evidence. In our country, family is an important asset in management of mental illness. But requirement of seeking approval from the Board in many of the mental health care decision may discourage the families to be proactive in taking care of their wards. The Board and Mental Health Authorities at the central and the state levels are authorized to take many crucial decisions, but these panels have very few experts in the field of mental health. PMID:25969610

  8. Addressing Risks to Advance Mental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Iltis, Ana S.; Misra, Sahana; Dunn, Laura B.; Brown, Gregory K.; Campbell, Amy; Earll, Sarah A.; Glowinski, Anne; Hadley, Whitney B.; Pies, Ronald; DuBois, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Risk communication and management are essential to the ethical conduct of research, yet addressing risks may be time consuming for investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) may reject study designs that appear too risky. This can discourage needed research, particularly in higher risk protocols or those enrolling potentially vulnerable individuals, such as those with some level of suicidality. Improved mechanisms for addressing research risks may facilitate much needed psychiatric research. This article provides mental health researchers with practical approaches to: 1) identify and define various intrinsic research risks; 2) communicate these risks to others (e.g., potential participants, regulatory bodies, society); 3) manage these risks during the course of a study; and 4) justify the risks. Methods As part of a National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded scientific meeting series, a public conference and a closed-session expert panel meeting were held on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. The expert panel reviewed the literature with a focus on empirical studies and developed recommendations for best practices and further research on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. IRB review was not required because there were no human subjects. The NIMH played no role in developing or reviewing the manuscript. Results Challenges, current data, practical strategies, and topics for future research are addressed for each of four key areas pertaining to management and disclosure of risks in clinical trials: identifying and defining risks, communicating risks, managing risks during studies, and justifying research risks. Conclusions Empirical data on risk communication, managing risks, and the benefits of research can support the ethical conduct of mental health research and may help investigators better conceptualize and confront risks and to gain IRB approval. PMID:24173618

  9. The mental health of veterans.

    PubMed

    Murphy, D; Iversen, A; Greenberg, N

    2008-06-01

    For the majority service in the Armed Forces is beneficial and, in the main, military veterans have successful lives. However, a minority have a bleaker outlook as a result of on-going ill health and social exclusion. Whilst the media focuses on Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, in reality the most frequent mental health problems for veterans are alcohol problems, depression and anxiety disorders. These difficulties are difficult to manage as veterans, particularly those who are unwell, demonstrate a reticence to seek help for mental health problems. Another issue is that many veterans are now reserve personnel who have been found to be at greater risk of developing mental health problems than their regular counterparts. Steps to improve the knowledge and expertise of primary care services about veteran's mental health issues and increasing the availability of treatment options are important and are underway. PMID:19043996

  10. Attitudes of Psychiatric Nurses about the Request for Euthanasia on the Basis of Unbearable Mental Suffering(UMS)

    PubMed Central

    Wampers, Martien; De Lepeleire, Jan; Correll, Christophe U.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction When psychiatric patients express a wish for euthanasia, this should first and foremost be interpreted as a cry for help. Due to their close day-to-day relationship, psychiatric nurses may play an important and central role in responding to such requests. However, little is known about nurses’ attitudes towards euthanasia motivated by unbearable mental suffering. Objectives The aim of this study was to provide insight into the attitudes and actions taken by psychiatric nurses when confronted with a patient’s euthanasia request based on unbearable mental suffering (UMS). Method A questionnaire was sent to 11 psychiatric hospitals in the Flemish part of Belgium. Results The overall response rate was 70% (N = 627). Psychiatric nurses were frequently confronted with a request for euthanasia, either directly (N = 329, 53%) or through a colleague (N = 427, 69%). A majority (N = 536, 84%) did not object to euthanasia in a psychiatrically ill population with UMS. Confounding factors were the psychiatric diagnosis and the type of ward where the nurses were working. Most participants acknowledged a lack of knowledge and skills to adequately address the euthanasia request (N = 434, 71%). Nearly unanimously (N = 618, 99%), study participants indicated that dealing with euthanasia requests and other end-of-life issues should be part of the formal training of nurses. Conclusion The results highlight the need for ethically sound and comprehensive provision of care. Psychiatric nurses play an important role in dealing with the complex issue of requests for euthanasia. There is also a need for education, training and clear guidelines on the level of health care organizations. PMID:26700007

  11. Islamic Values and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassir, Balkis

    Mental well-being is as important as physical well-being for sound life of man, and perhaps even more important, since physical illnesses are related in varying degrees to psychological problems. Modern psychology emphasizes essential criteria for mental health and well-being. These include positive relationships with others, productivity and…

  12. Islamic Values and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassir, Balkis

    Mental well-being is as important as physical well-being for sound life of man, and perhaps even more important, since physical illnesses are related in varying degrees to psychological problems. Modern psychology emphasizes essential criteria for mental health and well-being. These include positive relationships with others, productivity and

  13. Mapping mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, Sri Lanka, India and Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Limited evidence about mental health finances in low and middle-income countries is a key challenge to mental health care policy initiatives. This study aimed to map mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, India (Kerala state), Sri Lanka and Lao PDR focusing on how much money is available for mental health, how it is spent, and how this impacts mental health services. Methods A researcher in each region reviewed public mental health-related budgets and interviewed key informants on government mental health financing. A total of 43 key informant interviews were conducted. Quantitative data was analyzed in an excel matrix using descriptive statistics. Key informant interviews were coded a priori against research questions. Results National ring-fenced budgets for mental health as a percentage of national health spending for 2007-08 is 1.7% in Sri Lanka, 3.7% in Ghana, 2.0% in Kerala (India) and 6.6% in Uganda. Budgets were not available in Lao PDR. The majority of ring-fenced budgets (76% to 100%) is spent on psychiatric hospitals. Mental health spending could not be tracked beyond the psychiatric hospital level due to limited information at the health centre and community levels. Conclusions Mental health budget information should be tracked and made publically accessible. Governments can adapt WHO AIMS indicators for reviewing national mental health finances. Funding allocations work more effectively through decentralization. Mental health financing should reflect new ideas emerging from community based practice in LMICs. PMID:20507558

  14. The treatment gap in mental health care.

    PubMed Central

    Kohn, Robert; Saxena, Shekhar; Levav, Itzhak; Saraceno, Benedetto

    2004-01-01

    Mental disorders are highly prevalent and cause considerable suffering and disease burden. To compound this public health problem, many individuals with psychiatric disorders remain untreated although effective treatments exist. We examine the extent of this treatment gap. We reviewed community-based psychiatric epidemiology studies that used standardized diagnostic instruments and included data on the percentage of individuals receiving care for schizophrenia and other non-affective psychotic disorders, major depression, dysthymia, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and alcohol abuse or dependence. The median rates of untreated cases of these disorders were calculated across the studies. Examples of the estimation of the treatment gap for WHO regions are also presented. Thirty-seven studies had information on service utilization. The median treatment gap for schizophrenia, including other non-affective psychosis, was 32.2%. For other disorders the gap was: depression, 56.3%; dysthymia, 56.0%; bipolar disorder, 50.2%; panic disorder, 55.9%; GAD, 57.5%; and OCD, 57.3%. Alcohol abuse and dependence had the widest treatment gap at 78.1%. The treatment gap for mental disorders is universally large, though it varies across regions. It is likely that the gap reported here is an underestimate due to the unavailability of community-based data from developing countries where services are scarcer. To address this major public health challenge, WHO has adopted in 2002 a global action programme that has been endorsed by the Member States. PMID:15640922

  15. Partnerships for promoting dissemination of mental health research globally.

    PubMed

    Herrman, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Low-and middle-income countries (LAMIC), with more than 80% of the global population, bear the greatest burden of mental disorders. Yet these countries are very under-represented in published psychiatric research. There are barriers to publication of mental health research from LAMIC and to the representation of research from these countries in the main literature databases worldwide. The World Psychiatric Association (WPA) aimed to help investigate the reasons for the under-representation of LAMIC in published psychiatric research and consider how to support improved research dissemination, relevant for better mental health and mental health care in all countries. As part of its work plan for the years 2008 to 2011, WPA developed a project to encourage efforts to offer support to psychiatric journals in LAMIC. A WPA publications taskforce was appointed in 2008 to promote the dissemination of research from LAMIC. The taskforce began work together with journal editors to strengthen their chances of being indexed in international databases. Among the first journals participating in the project was the IJP, which is now an inspiration and source of support for other journals. PMID:21836714

  16. Competency of Psychiatric Residents in the Treatment of People with Severe Mental Illness before and after a Community Psychiatry Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Melinda; Romero-Gonzalez, Mauricio; Gonzalez, Gerardo; Klee, Anne; Kirwin, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Psychiatric rehabilitation is an evidence-based service with the goal of recovery for people with severe mental illness. Psychiatric residents should understand the services and learn the principles of psychiatric rehabilitation. This study assessed whether a 3-month rotation in a psychiatric rehabilitation center changes the competency…

  17. Competency of Psychiatric Residents in the Treatment of People with Severe Mental Illness before and after a Community Psychiatry Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Melinda; Romero-Gonzalez, Mauricio; Gonzalez, Gerardo; Klee, Anne; Kirwin, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Psychiatric rehabilitation is an evidence-based service with the goal of recovery for people with severe mental illness. Psychiatric residents should understand the services and learn the principles of psychiatric rehabilitation. This study assessed whether a 3-month rotation in a psychiatric rehabilitation center changes the competency

  18. The Italian SEME Surveillance System of Severe Mental Disorders Presenting to Community Mental Health Services.

    PubMed

    Gigantesco, Antonella; Lega, Ilaria; Picardi, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    Mental health is recognized worldwide as a major public health priority for the twenty-first century. Different actions are needed, including developing or strengthening national mental health information systems, based on standardized indicators that allow national and international monitoring. In 2008, the national Centre for Disease prevention and Control of the Italian Ministry of Health and the Mental Health Unit of the Italian National Institute of Health (INIH) jointly launched a mental health information system named SEME (an Italian acronym meaning 'mental health epidemiological surveillance') based upon data collected from trained psychiatrists working in 22 selected sentinel community mental health centers distributed across Italy and covering a total population of 1,941,853 inhabitants, in order to collect and report site-level information on first-contact patients suffering from specific severe mental disorders (schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder, bipolar I disorder, anorexia nervosa, major depressive episode with psychotic symptoms or suicide attempt). Strengths of the system are the high reliability of diagnoses and the use of a web-based technique for data collection with data entry forms designed for ease of completion. During the first year of implementation of this system, a total of 343 first-contact patients met criteria for one of the severe mental disorders under surveillance. As the system includes standardized instruments to measure psychiatric symptoms and psychosocial functioning, it may facilitate health services research based on longitudinal measurements aimed at evaluating the continuity of psychiatric care and the effectiveness of innovative therapeutic and rehabilitative programs. PMID:22435071

  19. Migration and mental health in Europe (the state of the mental health in Europe working group: appendix 1)

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Background This paper is a part of the work of the group that carried out the report "The state of the mental health in Europe" (European Commission, DG Health and Consumer Protection, 2004) and deals with the mental health issues related to the migration in Europe. Methods The paper tries to describe the social, demographical and political context of the emigration in Europe and tries to indicate the needs and (mental) health problems of immigrants. A review of the literature concerning mental health risk in immigrant is also carried out. The work also faces the problem of the health policy toward immigrants and the access to health care services in Europe. Results Migration during the 1990s has been high and characterised by new migrations. Some countries in Europe, that have been traditionally exporters of migrants have shifted to become importers. Migration has been a key force in the demographic changes of the European population. The policy of closed borders do not stop migration, but rather seems to set up a new underclass of so-called "illegals" who are suppressed and highly exploited. In 2000 there were also 392.200 asylum applications. The reviewed literature among mental health risk in some immigrant groups in Europe concerns: 1) highest rate of schizophrenia; suicide; alcohol and drug abuse; access of psychiatric facilities; risk of anxiety and depression; mental health of EU immigrants once they returned to their country; early EU immigrants in today disadvantaged countries; refugees and mental health Due to the different condition of migration concerning variables as: motivation to migrations (e.g. settler, refugees, gastarbeiters); distance for the host culture; ability to develop mediating structures; legal residential status it is impossible to consider "migrants" as a homogeneous group concerning the risk for mental illness. In this sense, psychosocial studies should be undertaken to identify those factors which may under given conditions, imply an increased risk of psychiatric disorders and influence seeking for psychiatric care. Comments and Remarks Despite in the migrants some vulnerable groups were identified with respect to health problems, in many European countries there are migrants who fall outside the existing health and social services, something which is particularly true for asylum seekers and undocumented immigrants. In order to address these deficiencies, it is necessary to provide with an adequate financing and a continuity of the grants for research into the multicultural health demand. Finally, there is to highlight the importance of adopting an integrated approach to mental health care that moves away from psychiatric care only. PMID:16135246

  20. Ethnicity, Aging and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelfand, Donald E.

    1979-01-01

    What is the relationship between ethnicity and the mental health problems of the elderly in American society? This paper offers some suggestions and reviews some data that might encourage further efforts in this area. (Author)

  1. Mental health service use by the elderly in nursing homes.

    PubMed Central

    Burns, B J; Wagner, H R; Taube, J E; Magaziner, J; Permutt, T; Landerman, L R

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Because current Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act regulations influence the disposition of US nursing home residents who have mental illness, National Nursing Home Survey (1985) data are analyzed for predictors of mental health service use. METHODS. Elderly residents' rates of mental health service use are presented. Logistic regression yielded odds ratios for treatment by both mental health specialists and general practitioners for client and service system variables. RESULTS. Among the two thirds of elderly residents with a mental disorder (including dementia), only 4.5% receive any mental health treatment in a 1-month period. The ratio of specialist to general practitioner care is approximately 1:1. Patients seen by a specialist are likely to be younger (aged 65 to 74); live in the Northeast; and have a diagnosis of schizophrenia (13:1), dementia (3:1), or other mental disorders (5:1). Prior residence in a psychiatric hospital predicts care by both health professional types. Rural location, nonproprietary ownership of the nursing home, and aggressive behavior point to general physician care. CONCLUSIONS. Our findings indicate significant neglect of the mental health needs of older nursing home residents and underscore the importance of monitoring the regulations for screening and treatment of mental disorders under the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act. PMID:8438968

  2. WHEN PARENTS WITH SEVERE MENTAL ILLNESS LOSE CONTACT WITH THEIR CHILDREN: ARE PSYCHIATRIC SYMPTOMS OR SUBSTANCE USE TO BLAME?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Danson; Macias, Rosemarie Lillianne; Gold, Paul B.; Barreira, Paul; Fisher, William

    2009-01-01

    This study compared parental psychiatric symptom severity, and the absence or presence of severe substance abuse, as predictors of contact with minor children for a representative sample of adults with diagnoses of serious mental illness (N = 45). Child contact and psychiatric symptom severity were measured during regularly scheduled 6-month research interviews over a total 30-month period following each participant’s entry into the project. Severe substance abuse was documented as present or absent for the 6-month interval preceding each interview. Results revealed that incidence of severe substance abuse was repeatedly associated with less frequent parent-child contact, even after controlling for psychiatric symptoms, diagnosis, gender, age, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Neither psychiatric diagnosis nor symptom severity predicted frequency of child contact when substance abuse was taken into account. Mental health agencies offering parenting classes for adults with serious mental illness should incorporate substance use interventions to reduce loss of child custody and strengthen parent-child relationships. PMID:20011665

  3. Mental Health Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse or a mental disorder such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or very severe depression (also known as “ ... symptoms of schizophrenia and the manic phase of bipolar disorder. Several atypical antipsychotics have a “broader spectrum” ...

  4. Welfare reform, substance use, and mental health.

    PubMed

    Jayakody, R; Danziger, S; Pollack, H

    2000-08-01

    Reform has transformed traditional entitlement to cash welfare under Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) into a transitional program known as Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF). Because of the new work requirements and the time-limited nature of assistance, policy makers are increasingly confronted with what to do when welfare recipients do not effectively make the transition from welfare to work. Increasingly, the language of public health is being used to determine who is "employable" and who is not. Thus renewed attention is being focused on the individual characteristics of participants themselves, particularly specific diagnoses that might reduce employability. This article focuses on substance abuse and mental health problems among single mothers and examines their relationship to welfare receipt. We analyze data from the 1994 and 1995 National Household Survey of Drug Abuse (NHSDA) and find that 19 percent of welfare recipients meet the criteria for a DSM-III-R (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, third edition revised) psychiatric diagnosis. About the same percentage have used illicit drugs during the previous year. Logistic regression results indicate that mental and behavioral health problems that are significant barriers to self-sufficiency are increasingly important in this era of time-limited benefits. PMID:10979515

  5. Developmental Differences in the Symptomatology of Psychiatric Inpatients with and without Mild Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Marion; Zigler, Edward

    1995-01-01

    The symptomatology of 93 psychiatric inpatients with mild mental retardation was compared with that of a matched sample of inpatients without mental retardation. Patients with retardation displayed more outwardly directed and less inwardly directed symptoms; more symptoms involving action than thought; and psychotic symptom pictures which more…

  6. Children's and Adolescents' Mental Health. Factsheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Mental Health Services.

    This fact sheet addresses the mental health needs of children and adolescents. It emphasizes that children and adolescents can have mental health problems, that these mental health problems can be severe, and that these problems are common in young people. Some causes of mental health problems are identified, such as exposure to environmental…

  7. An overview of mental health services for the elderly.

    PubMed

    Raue, P J; Meyers, B S

    1997-01-01

    Psychiatric distress is substantially prevalent among elderly individuals, particularly in the primary care and institutional settings, where most older persons receive mental health care. Barriers to care from providers include negative attitudes and stigmatization and poor recognition by general health care professionals. When psychiatric disorders are recognized, the intensity and duration of treatment provided is generally below standards for adequacy. Further research can determine the impact of patient, caregiver, and provider factors on treatment provision and on patient adherence to treatment. Assessment of factors influencing the treatment process are needed to ensure that treatments provided in the real world approximate the efficacy established in controlled clinical trials. PMID:9520522

  8. Mental Health Issues of Women After Release From Jail and Prison: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Ann E; Kako, Peninnah; Sawin, Kathleen J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this review article is to gain an understanding of the mental health issues of women released from jail or prison. Thirty-six studies were synthesized using the biopsychosocial model. Results indicate that released women's mental health issues include psychiatric diagnoses, psychological trauma, substance use disorders; access to psychological medications and services; and motherhood challenges, support, access to basic needs, and criminalized behaviors. Nurses can promote released women's mental health through pre-release assessment and treatment of mental health issues and ensuring access to post-release resources.  Future research should examine released women's mental health experiences. PMID:27100407

  9. Social determinants of mental health.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jessica; Balfour, Reuben; Bell, Ruth; Marmot, Michael

    2014-08-01

    A person's mental health and many common mental disorders are shaped by various social, economic, and physical environments operating at different stages of life. Risk factors for many common mental disorders are heavily associated with social inequalities, whereby the greater the inequality the higher the inequality in risk. The poor and disadvantaged suffer disproportionately, but those in the middle of the social gradient are also affected. It is of major importance that action is taken to improve the conditions of everyday life, beginning before birth and progressing into early childhood, older childhood and adolescence, during family building and working ages, and through to older age. Action throughout these life stages would provide opportunities for both improving population mental health, and for reducing risk of those mental disorders that are associated with social inequalities. As mental disorders are fundamentally linked to a number of other physical health conditions, these actions would also reduce inequalities in physical health and improve health overall. Action needs to be universal: across the whole of society and proportionate to need. Policy-making at all levels of governance and across sectors can make a positive difference. PMID:25137105

  10. Substance abuse as a risk factor for violence in mental illness: some implications for forensic psychiatric practice and clinical ethics

    PubMed Central

    Pickard, Hanna; Fazel, Seena

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To review recent research on the relationship between substance abuse, crime, violence and mental illness, and suggest how this research could aid forensic psychiatrists, psychologists and other mental health professionals in assessing and managing risk, and balancing patient care and public protection. Recent findings Substance abuse in mentally ill forensic psychiatric patients should be considered an important risk factor for violence and re-offending. Summary Improved treatment for substance abuse in forensic psychiatric patients and other mentally disordered offenders together with the offer of monitored abstinence as a condition of leave or discharge could be usefully considered as a means of reducing and managing risk. This may improve patient care by addressing mental health needs and increasing opportunity and likelihood of successful re-integration into the community and better life prospects; protect the public by reducing risk of re-offending and offering real time monitoring and potential intervention when risk is heightened; and help forensic psychiatrists strike a balance between patient care and public protection, potentially alleviating some of the difficulty and anxiety that decisions to grant leave or discharge can create. PMID:23722099

  11. Promoting resilience and recovery in a Buddhist mental health support group.

    PubMed

    Phoenix, Bethany

    2014-04-01

    Communities of faith are important arenas for psychiatric mental health nurses to promote emotional well-being and support recovery for persons with mental health problems. This article describes an innovative faith-based mental health group, based on Buddhist philosophy and practice and established by an advanced practice psychiatric nurse, that uses psychoeducation, peer support, and faith encouragement to help participants find hope and meaning in the experience of mental health problems. A brief overview of Buddhism and selected concepts relevant to the philosophical framework of the Buddhist mental health support group is followed by a review of the common themes of the group discussions. These include: finding value in the illness experience; differentiating the proper role of treatment from that of Buddhist practice in optimizing mental health; and experiencing a deeper sense of joy, despite current suffering. PMID:24702210

  12. Predisposition to seek mental health care among Black males transitioning from foster care

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Lionel D.; Munson, Michelle R.; McMillen, J. Curtis; Snowden, Lonnie R.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the predisposition to seek mental health care in the future for personal and mental health problems among Black males transitioning from the foster care system (n=74). Results of simultaneous multiple regression analysis showed that custody status, diagnosis of a DSM-IV psychiatric disorder, and emotional control contributed significantly to the prediction of Black male's predisposition to seek mental health care. Specifically, Black males who were still in foster care were more predisposed to seek mental health care, whereas those diagnosed with a DSM-IV psychiatric disorder and who adhered more to the norm of emotional control were less predisposed to seek mental health care. Implications for mental health service delivery are discussed. PMID:17710190

  13. Patient-Centered Mental Health Care for Female Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Kimerling, Rachel; Bastian, Lori A.; Bean-Mayberry, Bevanne A.; Bucossi, Meggan M.; Carney, Diane V.; Goldstein, Karen M.; Phibbs, Ciaran S.; Pomernacki, Alyssa; Sadler, Anne G.; Yano, Elizabeth M.; Frayne, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Mental health services for women vary widely across the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) system, without consensus on the need for, or organization of, specialized services for women. Understanding women’s needs and priorities is essential to guide the implementation of patient-centered behavioral health services. Methods In a cross-sectional, multisite survey of female veterans using primary care, potential stakeholders were identified for VHA mental health services by assessing perceived or observed need for mental health services. These stakeholders (N=484) ranked priorities for mental health care among a wide range of possible services. The investigators then quantified the importance of having designated women’s mental health services for each of the mental health services that emerged as key priorities. Results Treatment for depression, pain management, coping with chronic general medical conditions, sleep problems, weight management, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) emerged as women’s key priorities. Having mental health services specialized for women was rated as extremely important to substantial proportions of women for each of the six prioritized services. Preference for primary care colocation was strongly associated with higher importance ratings for designated women’s mental health services. For specific types of services, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, PTSD symptoms, and psychiatric comorbidity were also associated with higher importance ratings for designated women’s services. Conclusions Female veterans are a diverse population whose needs and preferences for mental health services vary along demographic and clinical factors. These stakeholder perspectives can help prioritize structural and clinical aspects of designated women’s mental health care in the VHA. PMID:25642611

  14. Mental Health Practitioners' Reflections on Psychological Work in Uganda: Exploring Perspectives from Different Professions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jennifer; d'Ardenne, Patricia; Nsereko, James; Kasujja, Rosco; Baillie, Dave; Mpango, Richard; Birabwa, Harriet; Hunter, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    The Butabika-East London Link collaborated with Ugandan mental health services to train mental health professionals (psychiatric clinical officers, "PCOs", and clinical psychologists and psychiatrists, "Core Group") in psychological therapies. The aims of this research were to investigate how professionals were applying and…

  15. Characteristics of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Who Received Services through Community Mental Health Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, Stephanie A.; Corrigan, Susan K.; McDonald, Thomas P.; Holmes, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    Despite the presence of significant psychiatric comorbidity among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), little research exists on those who receive community-based mental health services. This project examined one year (2004) of data from the database maintained by 26 community mental health centers (CMHCs) in the Midwestern US state of…

  16. Caregiver Factors Predicting Service Utilization among Youth Participating in a School-Based Mental Health Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett-Zeigler, Inger; Lyons, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Large numbers of children and adolescents experience diagnosable psychiatric disturbances; however, the majority of those with need do not utilize mental health services. Characteristics of caregivers are important predictors of which youth will access and continue to use services over time. In recent years school-based mental health intervention…

  17. The Relationship between Academic Achievement and School-Based Mental Health Services for Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lisa O.

    2012-01-01

    Mental health issues among American adolescents and children can negatively impact their potential for school success. As many as 10% of students among the general education population suffer from psychiatric disorders, yet only between 1% and 5% of those students are being served. The effects of mental health difficulties are problematic for…

  18. Mental Health Status, Drug Treatment Use, and Needle Sharing among Injection Drug Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundgren, Lena M.; Amodeo, Maryann; Chassler, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among mental health symptoms, drug treatment use, and needle sharing in a sample of 507 injection drug users (IDUs). Mental health symptoms were measured through the ASI psychiatric scale. A logistic regression model identified that some of the ASI items were associated with needle sharing in an opposing

  19. Community mental health nursing: keeping pace with care delivery?

    PubMed

    Henderson, Julie; Willis, Eileen; Walter, Bonnie; Toffoli, Luisa

    2008-06-01

    The National Mental Health Strategy has been associated with the movement of service delivery into the community, creating greater demand for community services. The literature suggests that the closure of psychiatric beds and earlier discharge from inpatient services, have contributed to an intensification of the workload of community mental health nurses. This paper reports findings from the first stage of an action research project to develop a workload equalization tool for community mental health nurses. The study presents data from focus groups conducted with South Australian community mental health nurses to identify issues that impact upon their workload. Four themes were identified, relating to staffing and workforce issues, clients' characteristics or needs, regional issues, and the impact of the health-care system. The data show that the workload of community mental health nurses is increased by the greater complexity of needs of community mental health clients. Service change has also resulted in poor integration between inpatient and community services and tension between generic case management and specialist roles resulting in nurses undertaking tasks for other case managers. These issues, along with difficulties in recruiting and retaining staff, have led to the intensification of community mental health work and a crisis response to care with less time for targeted interventions. PMID:18460077

  20. Student mental health and funding constraints: a delicate balance.

    PubMed

    Lore, C J

    1997-07-01

    A wide range of serious psychiatric disorders that would be progressive if untreated was observed during the first 9 months of a 1-year psychotherapy fellowship at the student health center of a major New England university. This finding underscores the cost benefits, in both human and financial terms, of having a multidisciplinary mental health center staff on campus to provide timely, intensive, and comprehensive interventions. PMID:9248242

  1. Children's Mental Health Surveillance

    MedlinePlus

    ... how the child handles their emotions. Symptoms often start in early childhood, although some disorders may develop throughout the teenage years. The diagnosis is often made in the school years and sometimes earlier. However, some children with a mental disorder may ...

  2. Transcultural Psychiatry: An Hispanic Perspective. Spanish Speaking Mental Health Research Center Monograph Number Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Eligio R., Ed.; Padilla, Amado M., Ed.

    Presenting multi-ethnic views about the delivery of mental health services to the Hispanic population, this monograph contains 18 papers presented at the joint meeting of the Puerto Rican Medical Association's Psychiatry, Neurology and Neurosurgery Section, the Caribbean Psychiatric Association, and the American Psychiatric Association held in May…

  3. Health sciences librarians and mental health laws.

    PubMed Central

    Hartz, F R

    1978-01-01

    Two U.S. Supreme Court decisions, O'Connor v. Donaldson and Bounds v. Smith, hold important implications for health sciences librarians serving in mental health facilities. The first, O'Connor, with its many ancillary holdings, puts mental health personnel on notice that patients have certain basic rights, which courts all over the country will now be required to enforce. In Bounds the court has ruled that prison authorities must assist prison inmates in preparing and filing legal papers. The ruling will most likely benefit all mentally disabled prisoners, and future litigation may expand this category to include: (1) persons committed under the criminal code, (2) persons under involuntary commitment not related to the criminal code, and (3) persons voluntarily committed. A selective annotated bibliography, consisting of background readings in mental health and the law, basic rights, law library materials, and mental health legal services, has been compiled to help librarians establish and develop legal collections in anticipation of court decisions that will expand the conditions of Bounds to include all mentally disabled patients. PMID:361117

  4. Mental health and illness in traditional India and China.

    PubMed

    Fàbrega, H

    2001-09-01

    Biomedical knowledge underlies the science of all national systems of psychiatry and is integral to international psychiatry. It is grounded in Western systems of thought, values, and world views. In assessing the cultural and national presuppositions of contemporary psychiatry, it is desirable to analyze other systems of practice. In this article, some of the characteristics of ancient, non-Western traditions of mental health and approaches to mental illness are discussed. In reviewing salient characteristics of the approach to mental health and illness of India and China, one is provided with a vivid illustration of the interplay between culture and a system of psychiatric practice. The secular and essentially impersonal features of modern biomedical psychiatry contrast with the spiritual, value-laden, but also naturalistic basis of ancient traditions and approaches to mental health and illness. PMID:11593863

  5. District nurses' involvement in mental health: an exploratory survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo; Knight, Denise

    2006-04-01

    This article reports on a survey of district nurses' involvement in mental health interventions in one county. Seventy-nine questionnaires were sent and 46 were returned. Descriptive analysis was carried out using statistical software. The DNs reported encountering a wide range of mental health issues and interventions in practice: dementia, anxiety and depression featured highly. Over half (55%) of the respondents reported involvement in bereavement counselling, and 28% and 23% of respondents reported encountering anxiety management, and problem solving and alcohol advice respectively. A large proportion, however, reported no involvement in mental health interventions. Among the psychiatric professionals, district nurses tended to have most frequent contacts with social workers. GPs were the most likely person to whom DNs made referrals, followed by community psychiatric nurses. Despite the apparent awareness of the values of psychosocial interventions, DNs were equally influenced by the medical model of treatment. In order to realize the potential contribution of district nurses in mental health interventions, there is a need for primary care teams to foster a closer working relationship with mental health specialist services. PMID:16723902

  6. Correctional Officers and the Incarcerated Mentally Ill: Responses to Psychiatric Illness in Prison

    PubMed Central

    Galanek, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    Based on ethnographic fieldwork in a U.S. men’s prison, I investigate how this social and cultural context structures relations between correctional officers and inmates with severe mental illness. Utilizing interpretivist perspectives, I explore how these relations are structured by trust, respect, and meanings associated with mental illness. Officers’ discretionary responses to mentally ill inmates included observations to ensure psychiatric stability and flexibility in rule enforcement and were embedded within their role to ensure staff and inmate safety. Officers identified housing, employment, and social support as important for inmates’ psychiatric stability as medications. Inmates identified officers’ observation and responsiveness to help seeking as assisting in institutional functioning. These findings demonstrate that this prison’s structures and values enable officers’ discretion with mentally ill inmates, rather than solely fostering custodial responses to these inmates’ behaviors. These officers’ responses to inmates with mental illness concurrently support custodial control and the prison’s order. PMID:25219680

  7. Leadership and mental health nursing.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Michelle; Horsfall, Jan; Deacon, Maureen; Jackson, Debra

    2011-01-01

    This discussion paper argues for the critical importance of successful leadership for effective mental health nursing, observing that nursing leadership has long been regarded problematically by the profession. Using empirical and theoretical evidence we debate what leadership styles and strategies are most likely to result in effective, recovery-orientated mental health nursing. Models of transformational and distributed leadership are found to be highly congruent with mental health nursing values, yet the literature suggests it is a type of leadership more often desired than experienced. We note how the scholarly literature tends to ignore the "elephant in the room" that is organizational power, and we question whether transformational leadership pursued within a specific clinical context can influence beyond those confines. Nevertheless it is within these contexts that consumers experience nursing, effective or otherwise, thus we should advocate what is known about effective leadership wherever it is required. PMID:21932925

  8. Community Mental Health Services in Latin America for People with Severe Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Minoletti, Alberto; Galea, Sandro; Susser, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    Mental disorders are highly prevalent in Latin American countries and exact a serious emotional toll, yet investment in public mental health remains insufficient. Most countries of the region have developed national and local initiatives to improve delivery of mental health services over the last 22 years, following the technical leadership of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO). It is especially notable that PAHO/WHO facilitated the development of national policies and plans, as well as local programs, to deliver specialized community care for persons with severe mental disorders. Nevertheless, at present, the majority of Latin American countries maintain a model of services for severe mental disorders based primarily on psychiatric hospitals that consume most of the national mental health budget. To accelerate the pace of change, this article emphasizes the need to develop cross-country regional initiatives that promote mental health service development, focusing on severe mental disorders. As one specific example, the authors describe work with RedeAmericas, which has brought together an interdisciplinary group of international investigators to research regional approaches and train a new generation of leaders in public mental health. More generally, four regional strategies are proposed to complement the work of PAHO/ WHO in Latin America: 1) to develop multi-country studies on community services, 2) to study new strategies and interventions in countries with more advanced mental health services, 3) to strengthen advocacy groups by cross-country interchange, and 4) to develop a network of well-trained leaders to catalyze progress across the region. PMID:25339792

  9. [Changing Forensic Mental Health in France: A Review].

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Yoji; Hasuzawa, Suguru

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the background and recent changes in French forensic mental health. The literature suggests that three law reforms have been crucial to changes in the mental health system. First, the Penal Code of 1992 redefined the provisions of criminal responsibility and introduced the category of diminished responsibility. Second, a controversial law for preventive detention (rétention de sûretê) was enacted in 2008, according to which criminals with severe personality disorders are subject to incarceration even after the completion of their prison sentences if they are still considered to pose a danger to the public. Third, the revision of mental health laws in 2011 altered the forms of involuntary psychiatric treatments, stipulating a judge's authority to decide treatment. In parallel with these legal reforms, the psychiatric treatment system for offenders with mental disorders has been reconstructed. The number of difficult patient units (unités pour malades difficiles) has increased from four to ten across the nation in order to meet the needs of patients transferred from general psychiatric institutions for the reason of being unmanageable. In the penitentiary system, new facilities have been established to cope with the growing number of inmates with mental disorders. As background to these changes, it is pointed out that the current psychiatric system has undergone deinstitutionalization and become less tolerant of aggressive behavior in patients. In the broader context, public sensitivity towards severe crime, as shown by the sensation triggered by serious crimes conducted by pedophiles, seems to urge tough policies. In the 2000 s, several homicides committed by psychiatric patients had a great impact on the public, which led President Sarkozy to issue a statement calling for stronger security in psychiatric institutions. The harsh attitude of courts towards psychiatric practices is illustrated by a 2012 ruling; after a patient escaped from the hospital and hacked an elderly man to death, his psychiatrist was sentenced to a one-year suspended prison sentence for failing to recognize the danger that the patient posed to the public. Another lawsuit was raised against a psychiatrist following this case. Apparently, a sense of crisis is growing among psychiatric professionals. Their concerns are based on several points. Introduction of diminished responsibility may narrow the possibility of acquittal by reason of insanity, and lead to the criminalization of those with mental disorders. Dangerousness (dangerosité), pivotal in the procedure of preventive detention, is not a medical concept, but is instead based on the erroneous identification of criminality and mental disorders. Therefore, it is unreasonable to entrust the evaluation of dangerousness to psychiatric expertise. Court intervention in the process of deciding appropriate treatment may intensify judicialization (judiciarisation) of psychiatry. Establishment of facilities for prisoners within the mental health system would create a new segregating function of psychiatry. Thus, French experience seems to be figuring out all the challenges that contemporary metal health is facing. Above all, effective measures should be taken to prevent patients from entering the criminal justice system. Following this recommendation would be helpful in Japan, where a new forensic mental health system has just started. PMID:26552314

  10. Video Surveillance in Mental Health Facilities: Is it Ethical?

    PubMed

    Stolovy, Tali; Melamed, Yuval; Afek, Arnon

    2015-05-01

    Video surveillance is a tool for managing safety and security within public spaces. In mental health facilities, the major benefit of video surveillance is that it enables 24 hour monitoring of patients, which has the potential to reduce violent and aggressive behavior. The major disadvantage is that such observation is by nature intrusive. It diminishes privacy, a factor of huge importance for psychiatric inpatients. Thus, an ongoing debate has developed following the increasing use of cameras in this setting. This article presents the experience of a medium-large academic state hospital that uses video surveillance, and explores the various ethical and administrative aspects of video surveillance in mental health facilities. PMID:26137651

  11. Medical Student Mental Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Medical school is a stressful and challenging time in the academic career of physicians. Because of the psychological pressure inherent to this process, all medical schools should have easily accessible medical student mental health services. Some schools of medicine provide these services through departments of psychiatry or other associated training programs. Since this stressful lifestyle often continues through residency training and life as a physician, this is a critical period in which to develop and utilize functional and effective coping strategies. When psychiatrists provide the mental health treatment to medical students, it is important to consider transference and countertransference issues, over intellectualization, and instances of strong idealization and identification. PMID:19724734

  12. Culture and urban mental health.

    PubMed

    Caracci, G; Mezzich, J E

    2001-09-01

    The previous panoramic view provides sufficient evidence that cultural understanding of urban realities and expressions of their impact on mental health are necessary for a successful approach to mental health in cities. The issues go beyond understanding how urban realties and cultural issues differ in New York from Jakarta; every city has a variety of unwritten cultural norms that permeate every aspect of its mental health. Unless these norms are understood within the dynamic structure of city living, any attempt to intervene on mental health programs will be doomed to failure. Understanding the cultural blueprint of a city, however, is only the first step, as we need to shed our cultural assumptions while we consider contextual socioeconomic and political factors for each city. Finally we need to adapt our western view of cultural values and how citizens function or do not function within the urban environments. Because each city in is its own culturally specific entity, the three steps outlined previously can help create an accurate portrait of what is needed to implement culturally sensitive changes. A paradigm shift, laid on a bicurcated foundation, on the one hand a locally attuned awareness of urban cultural dimensions and on the other educational programs based on extensive knowledge of worldwide problems such as stigma, gender-specific issues, disability, and the plight of vulnerable populations can potentially have far reaching implications on mental health policy changes addressing the cultural needs of cities. Urban mental health is poised to be one of the central issues for the next few decades, because of the size of the world urban population and because of the protean nature of its problems. Cultural factors interplay with urban dynamics in a unique, at times creative, other times destructive, fashion. Under conditions of socioeconomic disadvantage vulnerable individuals who lack adaptive mechanisms may become mentally ill or experience an exacerbation of their mental illness. Understanding how cultural dynamics articulate with adaptation to urban life may greatly enhance our ability to properly assess and treat mental disorders in cities. In the assessment and treatment of patients living in urban areas contextual cultural factors rather than being merely complementary assume a preeminent if not crucial role. PMID:11593865

  13. Mental health issues in unaccompanied refugee minors

    PubMed Central

    Huemer, Julia; Karnik, Niranjan S; Voelkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Granditsch, Elisabeth; Dervic, Kanita; Friedrich, Max H; Steiner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies about unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) showed that they are a highly vulnerable group who have greater psychiatric morbidity than the general population. This review focuses on mental health issues among URMs. Articles in databases PsycINFO, Medline and PubMed from 1998 to 2008 addressing this topic were reviewed. The literature had a considerable emphasis on the assessment of PTSD symptoms. Results revealed higher levels of PTSD symptoms in comparison to the norm populations and accompanied refugee minors. In several studies, age and female gender predicted or influenced PTSD symptoms. The existing literature only permits limited conclusions on this very hard to reach population. Future research should include the analysis of long-term outcomes, stress management and a more thorough analysis of the whole range of psychopathology. Additionally, the development of culturally sensitive norms and standardized measures for diverse ethnic groups is of great importance. PMID:19341468

  14. J. KRISHNAMURTI'S TEACHINGS - RELEVANCE TO MENTAL HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Rao, A. Venkoba

    1995-01-01

    The technique of J.Krishnamurti's communication marked by a dyadic style, ‘pariprasna’, a sense of togetherness, absence of persuasion and authoritativeness could be incorporated into psychotherapeutic sessions. Self-reliance and a genuine feeling of psychological oneness with others and to see things ‘as they are’ are discussed. The need for desirelessness to avoid conflicts and psychologically dying moment to moment to overcome fears e.g. of death and resolving chronic resentment is explained. A new way of ending sorrow has been pointed out. Krishnamurti's ideas on meditation have been dealt with briefly. Many of these concepts could be assimilated into psychiatric practice and towards promotion of mental health. Krishnamurti's call for a ‘total transformation’ of instant nature within the individual's psyche to effect a societal change is highlighted. Finally, a brief evaluation of Krishnamurti's contribution has been offered. PMID:21743741

  15. Predictors of Criminal Justice Outcomes Among Mental Health Courts Participants: The Role of Perceived Coercion and Subjective Mental Health Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Yanos, Philip T.; Kopelovich, Sarah L.; Koerner, Joshua; Alexander, Mary Jane

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, one effort to reduce the number of people with serious mental illness (SMI) in jails and prisons is the development of Mental Health Courts (MHC). Research on MHCs to date has been disproportionately focused on the study of recidivism and re-incarceration over the potential of these problem-solving courts to facilitate mental health recovery and affect the slope or gradient of opportunity for recovery. Despite the strong conceptual links between the MHC approach and the recovery-orientation in mental health, the capacity for MHCs to facilitate recovery has not been explored. This user-informed mental health and criminal justice (MH/CJ) community based participatory (CBPR) study assesses the extent to which MHC practices align with recovery-oriented principles and may subsequently affect criminal justice outcomes. We report on the experiences and perceptions of 51 MHC participants across four metropolitan Mental Health Courts. Specifically, the current study assesses: 1) how defendants’ perceptions of court practices, particularly with regard to procedural justice and coercion, relate to perceptions of mental health recovery and psychiatric symptoms, and, 2) how perceptions of procedural justice and mental health recovery relate to subsequent criminal justice outcomes. The authors hypothesized that perceived coercion and mental health recovery would be inversely related, that perceived coercion would be associated with worse criminal justice outcomes, and perceptions of mental health recovery would be associated with better criminal justice outcomes. Results suggest that perceived coercion in the MHC experience was negatively associated with perceptions of recovery among MHC participants. Perceptions of “negative pressures,” a component of coercion, were important predictors of criminal justice involvement in the 12 month period following MHC admission, even when controlling for other factors that were related to criminal justice outcomes, and that an increase in procedural justice was associated with a decrease in symptoms but curiously not to an increase in attitudes toward recovery. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:24039547

  16. Mental Health. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This comprehensive course from the Practical Nursing series of competency-based curricula is designed to prepare students for employment by systematically guiding the students' learning activities from the simple to the complex. These materials prepare health care practitioners to function effectively in the rapidly changing health care industry.…

  17. 77 FR 38838 - Lists of Designated Primary Medical Care, Mental Health, and Dental Health Professional Shortage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... HPSAs were revised and published on March 2, 1989, in Federal Register (54 FR 8735). The criteria for psychiatric HPSAs were expanded to mental health HPSAs on January 22, 1992 (57 FR 2473). Currently-funded PHS... lists published in the Federal Register on November 3, 2011 (76 FR 68198). The lists include...

  18. 78 FR 38718 - Lists of Designated Primary Medical Care, Mental Health, and Dental Health Professional Shortage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... criteria for correctional facility HPSAs were revised and published on March 2, 1989 (54 FR 8735). The criteria for psychiatric HPSAs were expanded to mental health HPSAs on January 22, 1992 (57 FR 2473... on June 29, 2012 (77 FR 38838). The lists also include automatic facility HPSAs, designated as...

  19. Determinants of mental illness stigma for adolescents discharged from psychiatric hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Moses, Tally

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about the factors that increase the risk for enacted mental illness stigma (i.e. rejection, devaluation and exclusion) as perceived by the stigmatized person. This is particularly true for the population of adolescents diagnosed with a mental illness. The aim of this study was to address this question and examine select social and clinical factors that predict enacted stigma (self-reported) with research that follows eighty American adolescents for 6 months following a first psychiatric hospitalization. Drawing on social identity theory, and research on stigma-threatening environments, social group identification and social support, this study tested four hypotheses: affiliation or identification with higher status and lower status peers predicts more and less stigma respectively (H1); a greater and more supportive social network, and more perceived family support predict less stigma (H2); greater severity of internalizing and externalizing symptoms predicts more stigma (H3); and poorer school functioning predicts more stigma (H4). Results indicated that about 70% of adolescents reported experiencing enacted stigma (at 6 months); disrespect or devaluation was more common than outright social rejection. Using OLS regression analyses, the results provided partial support for H1, H3 and H4, while H2 was not supported. The baseline factors found to be most predictive of enacted stigma ratings at 6-months were: affiliating with more friends with mental health problems, identifying with the 'populars' peer group, higher internalizing symptom ratings, and self-reported disciplinary problems at school. These four factors remained significant when controlling for initial enacted stigma ratings, pointing to their importance in determining changes in social stigma experiences in the follow-up period. They also remained significant when controlling for perceived public stigma ratings at follow-up, indicating that the findings were not due to generalized perceptions of stigma of youth with mental illness. PMID:24695363

  20. Indices of Community Mental Health. A Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Martin K.

    One of the major problems in measuring community mental health status is the lack of consensus among mental health workers in psychiatry, psychology, sociology, and epidemiology as to what constitutes mental illness. Additionally, changing social mores preclude a definition of mental illness in behavioral terms. An operational definition of mental…

  1. Mental health training of primary care physicians: an outcome study.

    PubMed

    Jones, L R; Badger, L W; Ficken, R P; Leeper, J D; Anderson, R L

    1988-01-01

    It is well documented that primary care physicians encounter many patients in their practices who suffer psychiatric morbidity, especially affective, anxiety and substance abuse disorders. These physicians have been unable to effectively address the needs of these patients, over half of whom receive care exclusively in the primary care sector. Five years after implementing a curriculum to train family practice physicians to assume a comprehensive psychiatric role with patients in their practices, the authors undertook an outcome evaluation. The focus was on psychiatric disorder recognition, diagnosis, documentation, and management, including referral. It was hoped that biopsychosocial and community mental health orientations emphasized during training would be incorporated into the subsequent primary care practices of physicians in the study. In the research design, physician-generated diagnoses were compared with DIS/DSM-III diagnoses; physician interviews and chart audits enabled processes of care delivery to be evaluated. Unexpectedly, physicians were not found to assume an appropriately active or comprehensive mental health role in their practices following the training intervention. Of ninety-four DIS-generated diagnoses in the study population of fifty-one patients, 79 percent were unrecognized. Patients were assumed to function well emotionally, and psychiatric dimensions of patient complaints were not examined in the majority of cases. The physicians did diagnose and treat a number of patients with mental symptoms who were not identified by the DIS. These patients had high, but sub-diagnostic, DIS symptom counts. Most received a diagnosis of adjustment disorder in response to medical illness. Though this finding underscores shortcomings of present psychiatric nosology when applied in the general medical setting, the foremost consideration was the large number of DIS-identified patients with serious psychopathology, needing active assessment and intervention, who were unrecognized, undiagnosed or untreated. Implications of these findings for the psychiatric training of primary care physicians are examined. PMID:3170078

  2. Affiliative and prosocial motives and emotions in mental health.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Paul

    2015-12-01

    This paper argues that studies of mental health and wellbeing can be contextualized within an evolutionary approach that highlights the coregulating processes of emotions and motives. In particular, it suggests that, although many mental health symptoms are commonly linked to threat processing, attention also needs to be directed to the major regulators of threat processing, ie, prosocial and affiliative interactions with self and others. Given that human sociality has been a central driver for a whole range of human adaptations, a better understanding of the effects of prosocial interactions on health is required, and should be integrated into psychiatric formulations and interventions. Insight into the coregulating processes of motives and emotions, especially prosocial ones, offers improved ways of understanding mental health difficulties and their prevention and relief. PMID:26869839

  3. [Mental health care technologies for treating crack users].

    PubMed

    Nasi, Cintia; de Oliveira, Gustavo Costa; Lacchini, Annie Jeanninne Bisso; Schneider, Jacó Fernando; de Pinho, Leandro Barbosa

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify mental health care technologies for treating crack users in a Psychosocial Care Center for Alcohol and other Drugs (CAPsad, as per its acronym in Portuguese). A qualitative, evaluative case study was developed in a CAPSad, using fourth generation evaluation. Data collection occurred from January to March 2013 by means of semi-structured interviews applied to 36 subjects, these being health care professionals, patients, patients' relatives and managers. Data analysis identified the category strategies in mental health work. Results showed that recovery programs should provide spaces for dialogue, aiming to clarify the process of psychiatric internment to the user and family, and involve these in the therapy, implementing educational practices and ongoing consideration of mental health activities. In conclusion, it is important to discuss the technologies used in everyday care services, in light of the complexity of crack use. PMID:26098808

  4. Affiliative and prosocial motives and emotions in mental health

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that studies of mental health and wellbeing can be contextualized within an evolutionary approach that highlights the coregulating processes of emotions and motives. In particular, it suggests that, although many mental health symptoms are commonly linked to threat processing, attention also needs to be directed to the major regulators of threat processing, ie, prosocial and affiliative interactions with self and others. Given that human sociality has been a central driver for a whole range of human adaptations, a better understanding of the effects of prosocial interactions on health is required, and should be integrated into psychiatric formulations and interventions. Insight into the coregulating processes of motives and emotions, especially prosocial ones, offers improved ways of understanding mental health difficulties and their prevention and relief. PMID:26869839

  5. Mental Health Service Delivery Systems and Perceived Qualifications of Mental Health Service Providers in School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Decia Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Latest research on the mental health status of children indicates that schools are key providers of mental health services (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003). The push for school mental health services has only increased as stakeholders have begun to recognize the significance of sound mental health as an essential part of…

  6. Mental health care in Cambodia.

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, D. J.; van de Put, W. A.

    1999-01-01

    An effort is being made in Cambodia to involve grass-roots personnel in the integration of the care of the mentally ill into a broad framework of health services. This undertaking is examined with particular reference to the work of the Transcultural Psychosocial Organization. PMID:10212521

  7. Mental Health Care: Who's Who

    MedlinePlus

    ... degree in social work (M.S.W.); Licensed Clinical Social Workers (L.C.S.W.) have additional supervised training and clinical work experience. Licensed Professional Counselor: Master’s degree in psychology, counseling or a related field. Mental Health Counselor: ...

  8. Ethnic Lifestyles and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia-Weber, Gloria, Ed.

    This document presents two overview essays (one on the ethnic history of the United States and one on multicultural society) and seven articles on various aspects of the relationship between ethnic values and mental health. Articles were originally presented as papers at a series of seminars convened to encourage humanists from four ethnic groups…

  9. Guilt Feelings and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Harold A.

    After initially defining both mental health and guilt feelings, the author examined their relationship, primarily from the perspective of the crippling effects of unwarranted feelings of guilt. Admitting the varied pressures of modern society, he nevertheless believes it is the individual's fault when he fails to glean as much from lif e as he…

  10. Poverty and Women's Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belle, Deborah

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the prevalence and rise of poverty in the United States, which is found particularly among women, children, and those from minority groups. Discusses the positive association between poverty and mental health problems. Describes the impact of poverty on women, and the need for research to discover the psychological impact of poverty. (JS)

  11. Volunteers in Community Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    This booklet gives detailed accounts of mental health programs in operation around the nation. A total of nine different types of activities is included. "Helping Children" describes a program whereby students from nearby colleges give troubled children, at home, an experience in friendship by serving as big brothers or sisters. "Helping the…

  12. Children's Mental Health. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plattner, Ilse Elisabeth; Haugen, Kirsten; Cohen, Alan; Levin, Diane E.

    2003-01-01

    Presents four articles discussing mental health issues that pertain to early childhood education: "Granting Children Their Emotions" (Ilse Elisabeth Plattner); "Double Vision: Parent and Professional Perspectives on Our Family's Year in Crisis" (Kirsten Haugen); "Coping with Stress and Surviving Challenging Times" (Alan Cohen); and "When the World…

  13. [Learning to construct a clinical case in mental health].

    PubMed

    Pergola, Aline Maino; Garcia, Ana Paula Rigon Francischetti

    2008-06-01

    This study describes the experience of an undergraduate Nursing student in the construction of a clinical case in mental health for the disciplines Mental Health Nursing II and Psychiatrics Nursing at the State University of Campinas (Unicamp). In those disciplines case construction is understood as the coordination of the psychiatric interview and a number of concepts from the theory of psychoanalysis, learned in classes, supervision and books, with the aim of structuring a nursing care that is coherent with the psychoanalytical referential's conception of human being: a subject divided by the unconscious, structured as speech The report was based on the student's experience while taking the disciplines, producing reports and constructing the case as a final paper. The student was able to develop a comprehension of the case and build a supporting theory for caring through the demands that came up in the dialogue with the patient that pointed out the points in which intervention was possible. PMID:18642753

  14. EPA guidance on mental health and economic crises in Europe.

    PubMed

    Martin-Carrasco, M; Evans-Lacko, S; Dom, G; Christodoulou, N G; Samochowiec, J; González-Fraile, E; Bienkowski, P; Gómez-Beneyto, M; Dos Santos, M J H; Wasserman, D

    2016-03-01

    This European Psychiatric Association (EPA) guidance paper is a result of the Working Group on Mental Health Consequences of Economic Crises of the EPA Council of National Psychiatric Associations. Its purpose is to identify the impact on mental health in Europe of the economic downturn and the measures that may be taken to respond to it. We performed a review of the existing literature that yields 350 articles on which our conclusions and recommendations are based. Evidence-based tables and recommendations were developed through an expert consensus process. Literature dealing with the consequences of economic turmoil on the health and health behaviours of the population is heterogeneous, and the results are not completely unequivocal. However, there is a broad consensus about the deleterious consequences of economic crises on mental health, particularly on psychological well-being, depression, anxiety disorders, insomnia, alcohol abuse, and suicidal behaviour. Unemployment, indebtedness, precarious working conditions, inequalities, lack of social connectedness, and housing instability emerge as main risk factors. Men at working age could be particularly at risk, together with previous low SES or stigmatized populations. Generalized austerity measures and poor developed welfare systems trend to increase the harmful effects of economic crises on mental health. Although many articles suggest limitations of existing research and provide suggestions for future research, there is relatively little discussion of policy approaches to address the negative impact of economic crises on mental health. The few studies that addressed policy questions suggested that the development of social protection programs such as active labour programs, social support systems, protection for housing instability, and better access to mental health care, particularly at primary care level, is strongly needed. PMID:26874960

  15. Does gender matter? Exploring mental health recovery court legal and health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Catherine L; Butkiewicz, Robert; Williams, Emily R; Jacobson, Caron; Morse, Diane S; Cerulli, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background Based upon therapeutic justice principles, mental health courts use legal leverage to improve access and compliance to treatment for defendants who are mentally ill. Justice-involved women have a higher prevalence of mental illness than men, and it plays a greater role in their criminal behavior. Despite this, studies examining whether women respond differently than men to mental health courts are lacking. Study goals were to examine gender-related differences in mental health court participation, and in criminal justice, psychiatric and health-related outcomes. Methods This study utilized a quasi-experimental pre-posttest design without a control group. The data were abstracted from administrative records of Kalamazoo Community Mental Health and Substance Abuse agency, the county jail and both county hospitals, 2008 through 2011. Generalized estimating equation regression was used to assess gender-differences in pre-post program outcomes (jail days, psychiatric and medical hospitalization days, emergency department visits) for the 30 women and 63 men with a final mental health court disposition. Results Program-eligible females were more likely than males to become enrolled in mental health court. Otherwise they were similar on all measured program-participation characteristics: treatment compliance, WRAP participation and graduation rate. All participants showed significant reductions in emergency department visits, but women-completers had significantly steeper drops than males: from 6.7 emergency department visits to 1.3 for women, and from 4.1 to 2.4 for men. A similar gender pattern emerged with medical-hospitalization-days: from 2.2 medical hospital days down to 0.1 for women, and from 0.9 days up to 1.8 for men. While women had fewer psychiatric hospitalization days than men regardless of program involvement (2.5 and 4.6, respectively), both genders experienced fewer days after MHRC compared to before. Women and men showed equal gains from successful program completion in reduced jail days. Conclusions Despite similar participation characteristics, findings point to greater health gains by female compared to male participants, and to lower overall psychiatric acuity. Mental-health-court participation was associated with decreased psychiatric hospitalization days and emergency department visits. Successful program completion correlated to fewer jail days for both women and men. PMID:25530934

  16. Systems development of child mental health services in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Fayyad, J A; Jahshan, C S; Karam, E G

    2001-10-01

    This article reviews recent findings in the epidemiology of childhood psychiatric disorders in the developing world and the relationship of epidemiology to system development. Examples of systems developed in the Third World are discussed. The experience with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and the development of a comprehensive system of care around it in Lebanon are described. Cultural factors that affect special populations in childhood mental health are examined. The article concludes with recommendations for systems development in Third World countries. PMID:11588801

  17. The American Psychiatric Association's resource document on mental retardation and capital sentencing: implementing Atkins v. Virginia.

    PubMed

    Bonnie, Richard J

    2004-01-01

    State legislatures need guidance in implementing the United States Supreme Court's decision in Atkins v. Virginia barring execution of mentally retarded offenders. In this Resource Document, the American Psychiatric Association's Council on Psychiatry and Law, the component charged with developing policies and positions relating to forensic psychiatry, recommends statutory language addressing the definition of mental retardation, procedures relating to its assessment, and qualifications of testifying experts. PMID:15515919

  18. [Reform in mental health services--from whence and to where].

    PubMed

    Haver, Eitan; Shani, Mordechai; Kotler, Moshe; Fast, Dov; Elizur, Avner; Baruch, Yehuda

    2005-05-01

    For years the subject of mental health has been neglected in Israel, and reform of mental health services is now of paramount importance. Psychiatric medicine has altered considerably over the years, and emphasis is shifting from treatment in mental health institutions to treatment at the community level. This transition is the result of the awakening of groups in our society advocating civil rights for the mentally ill and their integration into the community. This process is also bolstered by the advent of new anti-psychotic drugs. However, the social and medical infrastructure set up to deal with these issues has been found lacking. Over the past few years the Minister of Health has appointed a number of committees to address this issue, and they have all recommended extensive reform of mental health services in Israel. The recommendations handed down by the committees are for: (1) Restructure of mental health services, with emphasis on community services and gradual reduction of psychiatric beds; (2) Allocation of additional funding specifically ear-marked for the mentally challenged, enabling transfer of stabilized patients out of the hospital setting and often lengthy and unnecessary hospitalization, into community rehabilitation centers; (3) Transfer of responsibility for health insurance for mentally ill people from the State to the Health Funds, enabling integration of psychiatric treatment into the general treatment framework. The reform has already been initiated. This body of work will review the stages, processes and the difficulties that preceded the reform. PMID:15931895

  19. Mental health issues of muslim americans.

    PubMed

    Basit, Abdul; Hamid, Mohammad

    2010-11-01

    The underpinning of all research leading to various schools of thought in the field of psychiatry and psychology is without doubt a product of Western professionals who represent the religio-cultural traditions, historical symbols, and narratives of Western society. Also, the major schools of psychotherapy emerged during an era of individualism and logical positivism reflecting the religious, ethical, and cultural heritage that has shaped the modern Western society. Consequently, the methods and techniques developed in the West may not be always suitable and effective for Muslim Americans. To respond to the growing needs of psychiatric problems encountered by Muslim Americans, many community social service centers have been established in the United States during the past two decades. We now have a growing body of research data suggesting how to tailor our field to the specific needs of this population. We will discuss what kind of emotional and psychiatric problems are most prevalent in Muslim Americans and explain the therapeutic approaches mental health professionals have used and the treatment strategies which have been found effective in the psychosocial rehabilitation of Muslim Americans. PMID:23864761

  20. Mental Health Issues of Muslim Americans

    PubMed Central

    Basit, Abdul; Hamid, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    The underpinning of all research leading to various schools of thought in the field of psychiatry and psychology is without doubt a product of Western professionals who represent the religio-cultural traditions, historical symbols, and narratives of Western society. Also, the major schools of psychotherapy emerged during an era of individualism and logical positivism reflecting the religious, ethical, and cultural heritage that has shaped the modern Western society. Consequently, the methods and techniques developed in the West may not be always suitable and effective for Muslim Americans. To respond to the growing needs of psychiatric problems encountered by Muslim Americans, many community social service centers have been established in the United States during the past two decades. We now have a growing body of research data suggesting how to tailor our field to the specific needs of this population. We will discuss what kind of emotional and psychiatric problems are most prevalent in Muslim Americans and explain the therapeutic approaches mental health professionals have used and the treatment strategies which have been found effective in the psychosocial rehabilitation of Muslim Americans. PMID:23864761

  1. Traditional concepts of mental disorder among Indian psychiatric patients: preliminary report of work in progress.

    PubMed

    Weiss, M G; Sharma, S D; Gaur, R K; Sharma, J S; Desai, A; Doongaji, D R

    1986-01-01

    In a medically pluralistic setting a range of health care providers offer not only different forms of treatment, but different ways of understanding illness. Even within a single tradition, these concepts evolve over time. Chapters in the classical texts of Ayurveda describe varieties of severe mental disorder (unmada) arising from a particular humoral imbalance (dosa) or arising in association with specific demons and deities (bhuta) that produce distinct character changes and symptom patterns. Patients currently presenting for treatment of mental disorder may describe their illness with reference to these concepts, but they also rely on other indigenous traditional concepts such as astrology, karma, the effects of other humoral relationships, such as semen loss and so forth; or they may rely on ideas derived from cosmopolitan medicine or both. Patients presenting to allopathic psychiatric centers in India were studied to determine whether patterns of help seeking could be predicted from the conceptual model by which they understood their illness. We elicited explanatory models from patients and obtained a history of prior consultations to other types of healer. Preliminary findings were notable for the pervasiveness of prior use of folk healers and the prominence of somatic symptoms among patients presenting to these allopathic physicians. Hypotheses regarding the impact of explanatory models on patterns of medical help seeking require further study from a larger and more diverse data base. PMID:3749981

  2. Is Graduate Social Work Education Promoting a Critical Approach to Mental Health Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacasse, Jeffrey R.; Gomory, Tomi

    2003-01-01

    A sample of 71 psychopathology course syllabi from 58 different graduate schools of social work was analyzed to determine whether different viewpoints and the concomitant empirical evidence were presented regarding 4 significant mental health topics: concepts of mental disorder, reliability and validity of psychiatric diagnoses, biological…

  3. Underutilization of Mental Health Services Among Bereaved Caregivers With Prolonged Grief Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenthal, Wendy G.; Nilsson, Matthew; Kissane, David W.; Breitbart, William; Kacel, Elizabeth; Jones, Eric C.; Prigerson, Holly G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined grief and mental health service use among 86 bereaved caregivers of advanced cancer patients. Methods Caregivers were assessed before (median=3.1 months) and after (median=6.6 months) patients’ deaths for prolonged grief disorder, axis I psychiatric disorders, mental health service use, suicidality, and health-related quality of life. Results Sixteen percent of the bereaved sample met criteria for prolonged grief disorder, which was significantly associated with suicidality and poorer health-related quality of life, but not with mental health service use. The majority of bereaved caregivers with prolonged grief disorder did not access mental health services. In multivariable analyses, having discussed psychological concerns with a health care professional when the patient was ill was the only significant predictor of mental health service use during bereavement. Conclusions Because bereaved caregivers with prolonged grief disorder underutilize mental health services, connecting them with services while the patient is still alive may be beneficial. PMID:21969652

  4. Mental Health and Mental Retardation Services in Nevada. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakalik, J. S.; And Others

    Summarized are the findings and recommendations of a 2-year study of all major services and service delivery systems in Nevada for persons with mental health disorders, mentally retarded persons, and abusers of alcohol and other drugs. Considered are the following areas of basic service needs: prevention of the mentally handicapping conditions,…

  5. Promoting Teen Mothers' Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Freed, Patricia; SmithBattle, Lee

    2016-01-01

    In this second article in a two-part series, we call for the integration of strengths-based and trauma-informed care into services for teen mothers. Nurses working with teen mothers in health clinics, schools and home visiting programs can play a pivotal role in promoting their mental health. Many teen mothers have high levels of psychological distress and histories of adverse experiences that cannot be ignored, and cannot solely be addressed by referral to mental health services. Nurses must be prepared to assess for trauma and be open to listening to teen mothers' experiences. Principles of strengths-based and trauma-informed care are complementary and can be integrated in clinical services so that teen mothers' distress is addressed and their strengths and aspirations are supported. Potential screening tools, interviewing skills and basic strategies to alleviate teen mothers' distress are discussed. PMID:26909721

  6. Families, Managed Care, & Children's Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, Marilyn C., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This theme issue of a bulletin on family support and children's mental health focuses on managed care and the impact on children who are in need of mental health services. Articles include: "Private Sector Managed Care and Children's Mental Health" (Ira S. Lourie and others); "Just What Is Managed Care?" (Chris Koyanagi); "Managed Behavioral…

  7. Hispanics and Culturally Sensitive Mental Health Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hispanic Research Center Research Bulletin, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The objective of improving mental health care for Hispanics has been reviewed, most often, as dependent upon the provision of culturally sensitive mental health services. "Cultural sensitivity," however, is an imprecise term, especially when efforts are made to put it into operation when providing mental health services to Hispanic clients.…

  8. Handbook of Infant Mental Health. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeanah, Charles H., Jr., Ed.

    This revised edition offers an interdisciplinary analysis of the developmental, clinical, and social aspects of mental health from birth to age 3. Chapters are organized into five areas, covering the context of mental health, risk and protective factors, assessment, psychopathology, intervention, and applications of infant mental health. The

  9. Perceived Age Discrimination and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Anastasia S. Vogt

    2007-01-01

    Although perceived discrimination (especially due to race-ethnicity) decreases mental health, the influence of perceived discrimination due to other reasons on mental health needs to be explored. This study examines the relationship between perceived age discrimination and mental health and determines whether psychosocial resources explain or…

  10. Thirty Years in Infant Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    In the late 1960s and early 1970s, psychiatrists, psychoanalysts, and developmental psychologists pioneered the study of infant mental health. The author, a clinician who helped to develop the field of infant mental health, uses an anecdote-enriched account of his 30-year career to describe the origins and evolution of the infant mental health

  11. The ABCs of Children's Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelley, Pete; Cash, Gene; Bryson, Dixie

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Surgeon General's 2000 Report on Children's Mental Health estimates that one in five children and adolescents will experience a significant mental-health problem during their school years. While the family is the primary source of support for a child's mental health, the increased stress and fracturing of today's life make it imperative…

  12. Ethnic Issues in Adolescent Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiffman, Arlene Rubin, Ed.; Davis, Larry E., Ed.

    The essays collected in this book examine the effects of ethnicity on the mental health of adolescents. A dual set of issues emerges throughout the volume: the importance of adolescent mental health in contributing to adult well-being, and the necessity of understanding ethnicity in studying and treating mental health problems. The book is divided…

  13. Perceived Age Discrimination and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Anastasia S. Vogt

    2007-01-01

    Although perceived discrimination (especially due to race-ethnicity) decreases mental health, the influence of perceived discrimination due to other reasons on mental health needs to be explored. This study examines the relationship between perceived age discrimination and mental health and determines whether psychosocial resources explain or

  14. Handbook of Infant Mental Health. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeanah, Charles H., Jr., Ed.

    This revised edition offers an interdisciplinary analysis of the developmental, clinical, and social aspects of mental health from birth to age 3. Chapters are organized into five areas, covering the context of mental health, risk and protective factors, assessment, psychopathology, intervention, and applications of infant mental health. The…

  15. Indian Adolescent Mental Health. OTA Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    The Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs is considering legislation to improve mental health services to American Indians and Alaska Natives. This report is in response to the Committee's request for information on the mental health needs of Indian adolescents and the services available to them. The section on mental health problems among

  16. The Role of Bilingual Workers without Professional Mental Health Training in Mental Health Services for Refugees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egli, Eric

    This paper discusses the use of bilingual workers who do not have formal mental health training as mediators and providers of mental health care for refugees. The introduction provides a background discussion of the need for refugee mental health services, the characteristics of bilingual mental health workers, and the work places and expectations

  17. General Psychiatric Services for Adults with Intellectual Disability and Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, R.

    2004-01-01

    Adults with intellectual disability (ID) and mental illness may use general or specialist psychiatric services. This review aims to assess if there is evidence for a difference in outcome between them. A literature review was conducted using a variety of electronic databases and hand-search strategies to identify all studies evaluating the outcome…

  18. Interpretation and knowledge of human rights in mental health practice.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Geoffrey; Sugarman, Philip

    The Human Rights Act is sometimes misunderstood as being an obstruction to the provision of safe and effective mental health care, allowing patients to cry 'human rights abuse' too easily. In reality, however, little is known about how human rights are protected and promoted in psychiatric care. This article provides an overview, for nurses, of how human rights are currently understood to be protected in mental health care and steps that could improve the protection of rights. Additionally, an overview of the relevant case law is presented to enable nurses to understand how human rights law is ever-evolving, how cases may be interpreted, and the implications that this has for mental health nursing practice. PMID:18563009

  19. Mental health and the workplace: issues for developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Prem

    2009-01-01

    The capacity to work productively is a key component of health and emotional well-being. Common Mental Disorders (CMDs) are associated with reduced workplace productivity. It is anticipated that this impact is greatest in developing countries. Furthermore, workplace stress is associated with a significant adverse impact on emotional wellbeing and is linked with an increased risk of CMDs. This review will elaborate on the relationship between workplace environment and psychiatric morbidity. The evidence for mental health promotion and intervention studies will be discussed. A case will be developed to advocate for workplace reform and research to improve mental health in workplaces in developing countries in order to improve the wellbeing of employees and workplace productivity. PMID:19232117

  20. Psychiatric impairment, social contact, and violent behavior: evidence from a study of outpatient-committed persons with severe mental disorder.

    PubMed

    Swanson, J; Swartz, M; Estroff, S; Borum, R; Wagner, R; Hiday, V

    1998-12-01

    The need to better understand and manage risk of violent behavior among people with severe mental illness in community care settings is increasingly being recognized, as public-sector mental health systems face mandates to provide more cost-effective services in less restrictive environments. The potential for serious violence in a small proportion of severely mentally ill (SMI) individuals has emerged as a key factor that increases cost and limits continuity and normalization of community-based services for populations with psychiatric disabilities. A major challenge to developing better strategies for risk assessment and management in community care settings involves specifying complex interactions between psychiatric impairment and the conditions of social life--including the quality and frequency of contact with others at close quarters. This is a study of the determinants of violent behavior in a sample of 331 adults with severe mental disorders in community-based treatment. An interaction between severity of functional impairment and frequency of social contact was found to be significantly associated with risk of violence. Among respondents with Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scores in the lowest 20%, more frequent contact with family and friends was linked to a higher probability of violent events. However, among better functioning respondents, frequent social contact was associated with lower risk of violence and greater satisfaction with relationships. These findings suggest that, where violence risk is concerned, the most salient feature of psychiatric impairment is the impairment of social relationships--the ways in which disorders of thought and mood not only distort one's subjective appraisal of experience and threat, but impair the ability to relate meaningfully to others, to resolve conflict and derive necessary support from family and friends. Thus, social contact may be a mixed blessing for SMI individuals. For some, it signals a positive quality of life, but for others--particularly those with extreme psychiatric impairment--frequent contact may add to conflict, stress, and increased potential and opportunity for physical violence. The impact of psychiatric impairment on violent behavior cannot be known in isolation, but must be considered in a social context. Effective community-based strategies to anticipate and prevent violence in the lives of persons with severe mental illness must take into account such interactions between social and clinical variables. PMID:9857785

  1. Religion, Senescence, and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Van Ness, Peter H.; Larson, David B.

    2015-01-01

    The authors review epidemiological and survey research relevant to the relationships between religiousness/spirituality and mental health in people at the end of life, with the end of helping psychiatrists, psychologists, and other mental health professionals dealing with older Americans. They give special attention to well-being, religious coping, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety, depression, and suicide, and consider the extent to which hope is a mediator of the purported salutary effects of religiousness. Studies were selected from the comprehensive and systematic review of 20th-century scientific literature concerning religion and health. Authors also review current studies relevant to religion and end-of-life issues. Religious persons reported generally higher levels of well-being. The review also found fairly consistent inverse associations of religiousness with rates of depression and suicide. There was some negative association between religious participation and cognitive dysfunction, but the association with anxiety was inconsistent, with some studies showing a correlation between higher levels of religion and anxiety. Religion’s effects on mental health are generally protective in direction but modest in strength. PMID:12095898

  2. Oral Health Status of Psychiatric In-patients in Serbia and Implications for Their Dental Care

    PubMed Central

    Jovanović, Svetlana; Milovanović, Srđan D.; Gajić, Ivanka; Mandić, Jelena; Latas, Milan; Janković, Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Aim To determine oral health status and identify predictors of oral health in a representative sample of psychiatric in-patients in Serbia. Methods The study included 186 psychiatric in-patients and 186 control participants without psychiatric illness matched to the study group by age, sex, marital status, education level, employment, and monthly income. Dental examinations were done in both groups to measure the following indices of oral health: decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index; community periodontal index; and plaque index. Participants were also interviewed about their dental health behavior and their medical records were examined. Results Psychiatric in-patients had higher caries prevalence, poorer periodontal health, and poorer oral hygiene than controls. The average DMFT score in the patient group was 24.4 and 16.1 in the control group (P < 0.001). Periodontal diseases were significantly more prevalent among psychiatric in-patients than among controls (P < 0.001). The average plaque index for patients was 2.78 and 1.40 for controls (P < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that 1) DMFT index was associated with age, male sex, duration of mental illness, use of antidepressants, time since the last visit to the dentist, and snacking frequency; 2) community periodontal index was associated with male sex; and 3) plaque index was associated with age, male sex, education level, employment, monthly income, tooth brushing technique, and snacking frequency. Conclusion Psychiatric in-patients in Serbia have poorer oral health than healthy controls. It is necessary to intensify preventive dental care in this vulnerable population. PMID:20960594

  3. Integrating mental health into public health: The community mental health development project in India.

    PubMed

    Ng, Chee; Chauhan, Ajay P; Chavan, Bir Singh; Ramasubramanian, Chellamuthu; Singh, Amool R; Sagar, Rajesh; Fraser, Julia; Ryan, Brigid; Prasad, Jagdish; Singh, Sujeet; Das, Jayanta; Isaac, Mohan

    2014-07-01

    The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and its public health institutes are collaborating with Asia Australia Mental Health on an innovative community mental health development project designed to enhance initiatives under the District Mental Health Program and increase accessibility of essential community mental health services. The project is an exciting opportunity to create positive change in meeting the challenges of community mental health care in India. It recognizes that no one single model of care can be applied to all the community in the country and that locally appropriate models working in close partnership with local communities is required. Targeted and skill-based training programs are useful to build local leadership capacity in implementing quality and culturally appropriate community mental health services. PMID:25316931

  4. Integrating mental health into public health: The community mental health development project in India

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Chee; Chauhan, Ajay P.; Chavan, Bir Singh; Ramasubramanian, Chellamuthu; Singh, Amool R.; Sagar, Rajesh; Fraser, Julia; Ryan, Brigid; Prasad, Jagdish; Singh, Sujeet; Das, Jayanta; Isaac, Mohan

    2014-01-01

    The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and its public health institutes are collaborating with Asia Australia Mental Health on an innovative community mental health development project designed to enhance initiatives under the District Mental Health Program and increase accessibility of essential community mental health services. The project is an exciting opportunity to create positive change in meeting the challenges of community mental health care in India. It recognizes that no one single model of care can be applied to all the community in the country and that locally appropriate models working in close partnership with local communities is required. Targeted and skill-based training programs are useful to build local leadership capacity in implementing quality and culturally appropriate community mental health services. PMID:25316931

  5. Terrorism, suicide bombing, fear and mental health.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Ian

    2007-06-01

    This paper is based on the Bruce Burns Memorial Trust Lecture, Terrorism and Mental Health, presented in October 2005, in Birmingham. In addition to written sources, it is informed by the author's experience and contact with military and police experts in this arena over 28 years as a member of the British Army. The diagnosis and treatment of post traumatic mental disorders are not addressed in this paper. The author explores the general phenomenon of terrorism, in an endeavour to inform understanding of terrorist acts. He stresses the need for contextualisation of acts of terror, their perpetrators, their effects on populations and individuals, and attention to the psychology of groups. The author aims to invite and inform further thought and debate on the subject by raising a wide range of issues which do not sit comfortably within a strict psychiatric, research-based paradigm. The author covers a brief history of terrorism; organisational requirements of terror groups and the process of recruiting personnel to them; the means, motives and opportunities terrorists exploit in their work; the need for communication with terror groups; sacrificial death; governmental responses to terrorist acts and fear and mental health. The author proposes that terrorist organisations perform some of the functions of a family; that acts of terror are 'propaganda by deed'; that terrorism, or more precisely the media's treatment of it, breeds 'formless fears' which may directly lead to the development of fear-based symptoms and illness within societies. He notes that terrorism is an enterprise from which many players ('experts', media, politicians, etc.) benefit; that terrorism has its shadow in counter-terrorism, which may range from benign to malignant and that psychiatry could, in this context, acknowledge its bias towards individual psychologies and rectify its lack of understanding of groups and the behaviours of individuals within them. PMID:17566906

  6. Assessing parenting capacity: are mental health nurses prepared for this role?

    PubMed

    Rutherford, S J; Keeley, P

    2009-05-01

    Mental health nurses in the UK are involved in the assessment of the parenting capacity of mothers with a serious mental illness in psychiatric facilities. There is evidence that child and family social workers, as the frontline professionals in safeguarding children, rely heavily on the mental health parenting assessment. Parenting assessments have potentially major implications for mother and baby and can lead to the separation of mother and baby. However, there is little or no provision for mental health nurses to undertake this role. In the UK, as in many other countries, there is currently no data as to which psychiatric facilities are conducting parenting assessments nor about the quality of the assessment. There are significant tensions for mental health nurses undertaking parenting assessments and there is no specific training for the role. This paper challenges existing practice, highlights the need for an audit of the current services and recommends the development of a recognized training programme. PMID:19383015

  7. State propaganda and mental disorders: the issue of psychiatric casualties among Japanese soldiers during the Asia-Pacific War.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Janice

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the politics of Japanese wartime medical policy, demonstrating how state propaganda about the people and their armed forces influenced authoritative views on health and what might endanger it. By focusing on the obstacles faced by psychiatrists trying to promote more official concern for mental health issues, it challenges the validity of figures indicating a low incidence of psychological trauma among the country's soldiers. Civilian psychiatrists had to contend with the threat of censorship and arrest for even discussing war-induced mental disorders; at the same time, army psychiatrists as military insiders were pressured to convince their patients that their conditions were not serious and did not merit compensation. While discussing the neglected topic of Japanese psychiatric casualties, an attempt is made to provide a comparative approach by referring to the state of military psychiatry in other national settings. PMID:15591696

  8. Barriers to Mental Health Care Utilization in Parkinsons Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dobkin, Roseanne D.; Rubino, Jade Tiu; Friedman, Jill; Allen, Lesley A.; Gara, Michael A.; Menza, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Background Parkinsons disease (PD) is frequently complicated by co-occurring psychiatric problems, such as depression and anxiety, that negatively affect the course and management of the illness. Yet, in the majority of cases, these psychiatric comorbidities are neither recognized nor treated to remission. The primary purpose of this study was to identify and describe barriers to mental health care utilization for people with PD. Secondary objectives included the assessment of attitudes and preferences regarding the need for mental health services in the PD community and the acceptability of tele-health interventions as a method for improving access and quality of care. Methods Seven hundred sixty-nine people with PD completed an anonymous cross-sectional questionnaire assessing barriers to mental health care utilization in this medical population. Respondents were drawn from a national sample. Results Commonly endorsed barriers to mental health care utilization in PD reflect the patients incomplete understanding of mental health problems, access issues, and illness-specific concerns, as well as the inadequate screening and detection of psychiatric complications by medical providers, and the need for more effective treatments in this medical population. Several demographic, medical, and psychiatric variables also influenced the likelihood of accessing mental health care. Interest in tele-health approaches to mental health treatment was high and, in several instances, correlated with perceived barriers to mental health care utilization. Conclusions People with PD may encounter a multitude of barriers that impede their pursuit of mental health care. Clinical implications are discussed and further research is needed to replicate and extend these findings. PMID:23589410

  9. Improving Quality of Emergency Care Through Integration of Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Martha; Wrenn, Glenda; Ede, Victor; Wilson, Nana; Custer, William; Risby, Emile; Claeys, Michael; Shelp, Frank E; Atallah, Hany; Mattox, Gail; Satcher, David

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study was to better integrate emergency medical and psychiatric care at a large urban public hospital, identify impact on quality improvement metrics, and reduce healthcare cost. A psychiatric fast track service was implemented as a quality improvement initiative. Data on disposition from the emergency department from January 2011 to May 2012 for patients impacted by the pilot were analyzed. 4329 patients from January 2011 to August 2011 (pre-intervention) were compared with 4867 patients from September 2011 to May 2012 (intervention). There was a trend of decline on overall quality metrics of time to triage and time from disposition to discharge. The trend analysis of the psychiatric length of stay and use of restraints showed significant reductions. Integrated emergency care models are evidence-based approach to ensuring that patients with mental health needs receive proper and efficient treatment. Results suggest that this may also improve overall emergency department's throughput. PMID:26711094

  10. Mental disorders and request for psychiatric intervention in an Italian local jail.

    PubMed

    Zoccali, R; Muscatello, M R A; Bruno, A; Cambria, R; Cavallaro, L; D'Amico, G; Isgrò, S; Romeo, V; Meduri, M

    2008-01-01

    The issue of the prevalence of psychiatric illnesses in Italian prison samples has not received the same attention paid at an international level. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders diagnosed according to DSM-III-R criteria among an Italian prisoner population, and to examine prisoners' requests for psychiatric intervention in relationship to the presence or absence of different psychiatric disorders. One hundred forty-two Italian male subjects from the Casa Circondariale of Messina, Italy, were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Non-Patient Version - SCID I and SCID II. A very high rate of disorders was found among inmates: 85.2% (n=121) of the sample were affected by a psychiatric disorder. Of the total sample, 51.4% (n=73) had requested psychiatric treatment during detention. The detection, diagnosis and treatment of the mentally ill prisoners is a primary goal for a better organization of services and prison settings; screening procedures for evaluating the presence of psychiatric disorders, with the aim to promote differential strategies for the care and rehabilitation of inmates, are needed. PMID:18799217

  11. Institutions, Politics, and Mental Health Parity

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Elaine M.; Uggen, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Mental health parity laws require insurers to extend comparable benefits for mental and physical health care. Proponents argue that by placing mental health services alongside physical health services, such laws can help ensure needed treatment and destigmatize mental illness. Opponents counter that such mandates are costly or unnecessary. The authors offer a sociological account of the diffusion and spatial distribution of state mental health parity laws. An event history analysis identifies four factors as especially important: diffusion of law, political ideology, the stability of mental health advocacy organizations and the relative health of state economies. Mental health parity is least likely to be established during times of high state unemployment and under the leadership of conservative state legislatures. PMID:24353902

  12. Smoking Behaviour and Mental Health Disorders—Mutual Influences and Implications for Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Minichino, Amedeo; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Calò, Wanda Katharina; Spagnoli, Francesco; Francesconi, Marta; Vicinanza, Roberto; Delle Chiaie, Roberto; Biondi, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco use is strongly associated with a variety of psychiatric disorders. Smokers are more likely than non-smokers to meet current criteria for mental health conditions, such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders and psychosis. Evidence also suggest that smokers with psychiatric disorders may have more difficulty quitting, offering at least a partial explanation for why smoking rates are higher in this population. The mechanisms linking mental health conditions and cigarette smoking are complex and likely differ across each of the various disorders. The most commonly held view is that patients with mental health conditions smoke in an effort to regulate the symptoms associated with their disorder. However some recent evidence suggests that quitting smoking may actually improve mental health symptoms. This is particularly true if the tobacco cessation intervention is integrated into the context of ongoing mental health treatment. In this paper we reviewed and summarized the most relevant knowledge about the relationship between tobacco use and dependence and psychiatric disorders. We also reviewed the most effective smoking cessation strategies available for patients with psychiatric comorbidity and the impact of smoking behavior on psychiatric medication. PMID:24157506

  13. Integrating Mental Health Promotion and Substance Abuse Prevention on College Campuses. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    According to the American Psychiatric Association, college can be an exciting time, though for some it can be overwhelming and stressful. Depression, anxiety, substance use, and eating disorders are common mental health issues on college campuses. The 2010 American College Health Association National College Health Assessment found that 28 percent…

  14. Neuroscience and the future for mental health?

    PubMed

    Rose, N

    2016-04-01

    Psychiatry is in one of its regular crises. It is a crisis of its diagnostic systems despite - perhaps because - of the recurrent claims about the extent of diagnosable 'brain disorders'. It is a crisis of its explanatory systems despite - perhaps because - of its current wager on the brain as the ultimate locus for explanations of mental disorders. It is a crisis of its therapeutic capacities despite - perhaps because - more and more people are making use of its primary mode of intervention focussed on the brain - psychiatric drugs. In this editorial, I will suggest that this triple crisis of diagnosis, explanation and therapeutics arises from the dominant reductionist approaches to the role of neurobiology in psychiatry that priorities the analysis of brain mechanisms, at the expense of an understanding of the whole living organism in its milieu, and the processes which social experience shapes neurobiology from the moment of conception if not before. I shall suggest a different approach that starts from the experience of persons coping with adversity in their forms of life. This approach does not require giving up on our search for plausible explanations of mental health problems that engage neurobiological mechanisms, but it begins from a commitment to understanding, and hence intervening in, the ways in which social adversity shapes and blights the lives of so many of our fellow citizens. PMID:26234570

  15. Tsunami and mental health in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Visanuyothin, Taweesin; Somchai Chakrabhand, M L; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2006-06-01

    Over 5000 people lost their lives when the Asian tsunami hit the Andaman coast of southern Thailand. The delivery of services was complicated because a large number of tourists were in the area. The setting up of the Mental Health Centre for the Thai Tsunami disaster within the Department of Mental Health produced prompt mental health response. Regular contact using a variety of means provided supervision and mentoring. The Thai response built on the existing volunteer network. A Mobile Mental Health Team provided on the spot needs assessment and help. Thai experience provides a culturally acceptable way of delivering mental health services and normalization was the most appropriate response. PMID:16753665

  16. Rural mental health: neither romanticism nor despair.

    PubMed

    Wainer, J; Chesters, J

    2000-06-01

    This paper explores the relationship between rural places and mental health. It begins with a definition of mental health and an outline of the data that have led to the current concern with promoting positive mental health. We then consider aspects of rural life and place that contribute to positive mental health or increase the likelihood of mental health problems. Issues identified include environment, place, gender identity, violence and dispossession and the influence of the effects of structural changes in rural communities. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the determinants of resilience in rural places, including social connectedness, valuing diversity and economic participation. PMID:11249401

  17. Overview of mental health services provided by state adult correctional facilities: United States, 1988.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, J P; Swanson, J W; Goldstrom, I; Rudolph, L; Manderscheid, R W

    1993-05-01

    State-by-State data concerning the administrative auspices, volume of use, and sources of funding and expenditures for mental health services in adult correctional facilities are reported for 1988 from the first national survey of prison mental health services conducted by the Center for Mental Health Services. In all States reporting, a total of 11,546 State prison inmates--about 25 per 1,000--were receiving 24-hour psychiatric inpatient or residential treatment care for a psychiatric disorder on September 30, 1988. During the month of September 1988, nearly 10 percent of State prison inmates (95.6 per thousand) received some form of mental health counseling or psychotherapy from a physician, nurse, psychologist, or social worker; about 5 percent (49.7 per thousand inmates) received monitoring or evaluation of a psychotropic medications regimen; and about 4 percent (41.7 per thousand inmates) received psychiatric assessment or psychological testing to determine their mental health or emotional status. In the majority of States, 24-hour mental health care was provided in a mix of psychiatric and prison hospital settings, both on and off prison grounds, through interagency agreements, or through a mix of interagency and contractual arrangements. Individual State figures vary widely on these characteristics, as well as on length of stay for 24-hour hospital and residential treatment care, both within and among auspice types. PMID:8332075

  18. Mental health problems in youths committed to juvenile institutions: prevalences and treatment needs

    PubMed Central

    Anckarsäter, Henrik; Nilsson, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Many international studies show that adolescents in coercive institutional care display high prevalences of mental disorders, especially in the form of disruptive behavior disorders [including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder], anxiety disorders, and mood disorders. High degrees of overlap across mental disorders have also been reported. In addition, institutionalized adolescents are often traumatized. Despite this well-documented psychiatric morbidity, the mental health care needs of detained adolescents are often overlooked. The main objective of this study is to assess prevalences of psychiatric disorders, results of intelligence tests, and previous contacts with child and adolescent psychiatric services among adolescents in institutional care. DSM-IV diagnoses, mental health contacts, substance abuse, neurocognitive abilities, and school performance were registered in 100 adolescents (92 boys, 8 girls) aged 12–19 years (mean age 16.0; SD ± 1.5) consecutively committed to Swedish juvenile institutions between 2004 and 2007. At least one psychiatric disorder was diagnosed in 73% of the subjects: 48% met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for AD/HD, 17% for an autism spectrum disorder, and 10% for a mental retardation. The collapsed prevalence for psychiatric disorders requiring specialist attention was 63%. Our data indicate that systematic diagnostic procedures are crucial in the treatment planning for institutionalized adolescents. Adequate treatment strategies need to be designed and implemented to meet the extensive mental health care needs of this vulnerable population. PMID:20949366

  19. Relationship Between Palpitation and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Alijaniha, Fatemeh; Noorbala, Ahmadali; Afsharypuor, Suleiman; Naseri, Mohsen; Fallahi, Faramarz; Mosaddegh, Mahmood; Faghih Zadeh, Soghrat; Sadrai, Sima

    2016-01-01

    Background: ‘Palpitation’ is one of the most common complaints in patients referring to cardiologists. In modern medicine era, these patients suffer from much distress and some cases are known to be difficult to treat. Although the clinician’s first duty is obviously to search for an organic basis for this symptom, the diagnostic evaluation is frequently unrevealing. However, clinical experience suggests that psychiatric causes are relatively common. Objectives: This research aimed to screen for mental disorders in patients complaining of palpitation and healthy persons in order to perform a preliminary comparison between them. Patients and Methods: This is a case-control study to screen mental disorders. The target population consisted of adult volunteers with benign palpitation and their matched healthy persons. They were referred during a 10-month-period to the cardiology outpatient’s clinic of Mostafa Khomeini hospital in Tehran, Iran. Sampling was accidental and eventually 110 participants comprised the sample size. The measuring tool was GHQ-28 (28-item general health questionnaire) and the main variable was the questionnaire score obtained from the Likert scoring method. Results: Comparing two groups showed that the number of participants with the scores more than cut-off point in palpitation group was significantly more than healthy person group (85.4% vs. 43.6% with P < 0.001). Also the total score of GHQ-28 and scores of its subscale (somatization, anxiety, and social dysfunction) in patients complaining of palpitation were significantly more than those of the healthy participants (34.2 vs. 25.7, 8.9 vs. 6.4, 9.4 vs. 6.4, and 12.3 vs. 10.8, respectively with P < 0.001, P = 0.001, P < 0.001, and P < 0.007, respectively). Conclusions: Palpitation is the most common symptom in psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and somatization disorders. According to the results of this study, psychiatric causes have an important role in Iranian patients complaining of palpitations (benign form). Considering this fact may lead to a more effective treatment of benign palpitations.

  20. Mental health policy developments in Latin America.

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón, R. D.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S. A.

    2000-01-01

    New assessment guidelines for measuring the overall impact of mental health problems in Latin America have served as a catalyst for countries to review their mental health policies. Latin American countries have taken various steps to address long-standing problems such as structural difficulties, scarce financial and human resources, and social, political, and cultural obstacles in the implementation of mental health policies and legislation. These policy developments, however, have had uneven results. Policies must reflect the desire, determination, and commitment of policy-makers to take mental health seriously and look after people's mental health needs. This paper describes the development of mental health policies in Latin American countries, focusing on published data in peer-reviewed journals, and legislative change and its implementation. It presents a brief history of mental health policy developments, and analyzes the basis and practicalities of current practice. PMID:10885167

  1. The Relationship between Parental Psychiatric Disorder and Child Physical and Sexual Abuse: Findings from the Ontario Health Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Christine; MacMillan, Harriet; Jamieson, Ellen

    2002-01-01

    A study interviewed 8,548 participants in the Ontario Mental Health Supplement about parental psychiatric history and childhood physical and sexual abuse. Respondents reporting a parental history of depression, mania, or schizophrenia had a two to threefold increase in the rates of physical, sexual, or any abuse. (Contains references.) (CR)

  2. Defendants with Intellectual Disabilities and Mental Health Diagnoses: Faring in a Mental Health Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, M. M.; Griggs, M.; Dykens, E. M.; Hodapp, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Begun in the late 1990s, mental health courts are specialty criminal courts developed to address the needs of persons with mental illness. Methods: As many persons with intellectual disabilities (IDs) may overlap in the mental health court system, we used mental health court records to examine the phenomenology and outcomes of 224…

  3. States Pass Diverse Slate of Mental Health Legislation in 2013. Mental Health: 2013 Legislative Session

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Recent violence in schools and on college campuses has brought into sharp focus the need to address mental health issues in educational settings. Getting students with mental health problems the help they need, without stigmatizing mental illness, may help prevent future tragedies. Children with mental health problems face a host of challenges,…

  4. Mental Health Counseling: A Stakeholder's Manifesto.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Edward S.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the original dreams of the founders of the American Mental Health Counselors Association; looks at history and comments on the state of mental health counseling as it has struggled to evolve as a profession. Urges those in the counseling profession to consider an acquisitions and mergers corporate mentality to ensure and enhance the…

  5. Thirty Years in Infant Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    In the late 1960s and early 1970s, psychiatrists, psychoanalysts, and developmental psychologists pioneered the study of infant mental health. The author, a clinician who helped to develop the field of infant mental health, uses an anecdote-enriched account of his 30-year career to describe the origins and evolution of the infant mental health…

  6. Issues in Children's Mental Health. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimmo, Margaret L.

    This Kids Count report examines issues related to children's mental health in Virginia. The report discusses the effects of children's mental illness, presents risk and protective factors, and describes the incidence of children's mental health problems. Information specific to Virginia is presented, including the prevalence of youth suicide,…

  7. Smartphone Ownership and Interest in Mobile Applications to Monitor Symptoms of Mental Health Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Rohn; Keshavan, Matcheri

    2014-01-01

    Background Patient retrospective recollection is a mainstay of assessing symptoms in mental health and psychiatry. However, evidence suggests that these retrospective recollections may not be as accurate as data collection though the experience sampling method (ESM), which captures patient data in “real time” and “real life.” However, the difficulties in practical implementation of ESM data collection have limited its impact in psychiatry and mental health. Smartphones with the capability to run mobile applications may offer a novel method of collecting ESM data that may represent a practical and feasible tool for mental health and psychiatry. Objective This paper aims to provide data on psychiatric patients’ prevalence of smartphone ownership, patterns of use, and interest in utilizing mobile applications to monitor their mental health conditions. Methods One hundred psychiatric outpatients at a large urban teaching hospital completed a paper-and-pencil survey regarding smartphone ownership, use, and interest in utilizing mobile applications to monitor their mental health condition. Results Ninety-seven percent of patients reported owning a phone and 72% reported that their phone was a smartphone. Patients in all age groups indicated greater than 50% interest in using a mobile application on a daily basis to monitor their mental health condition. Conclusions Smartphone and mobile applications represent a practical opportunity to explore new modalities of monitoring, treatment, and research of psychiatric and mental health conditions. PMID:25098314

  8. Policy perspectives and attitudes towards mental health treatment in rural Senegal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mental health is often given low priority in health policy planning, particularly in developing countries. Several international health bodies, including the World Health Organization, recommend integrating mental health into primary care settings to reduce mortality and morbidity associated with mental illness, particularly in low-resource settings. Objective This study explores health care workers' and policy stakeholders’ knowledge and attitudes regarding mental illness, interactions with patients in the community, and perceived training needs at a health clinic in rural southeastern Senegal. Interviews were conducted with eight key informant medical staff members and community health workers. Methods Interview data were analyzed and interpreted using a qualitative content analysis based on the grounded theory approach. Results The findings indicate that staff members encounter many patients with emotional/psychological problems or mental illnesses, and they employ various strategies in treating these patients. Respondents also highlighted the need for more training to address and diagnose mental health problems, especially severe psychiatric illnesses. Conclusions Findings are used to discuss recommendations for developing a comprehensive mental health primary care treatment approach that includes screening patients for mental health problems screening, incorporating rural villagers' attitudes and beliefs about mental illness into treatment, and utilizing community health workers—who are often a first health contact for many—to work with the medical staff to identify mental health problems. PMID:24646335

  9. Mental Health Mobile Apps: From Infusion to Diffusion in the Mental Health Social System

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The roles of mental health educators and professionals in the diffusion of mental health mobile apps are addressed in this viewpoint article. Mental health mobile apps are emerging technologies that fit under the broad heading of mobile health (mHealth). mHealth, encompassed within electronic health (eHealth), reflects the use of mobile devices for the practice of public health. Well-designed mental health mobile apps that present content in interactive, engaging, and stimulating ways can promote cognitive learning, personal growth, and mental health enhancement. As key influencers in the mental health social system, counselor educators and professional associations may either help or hinder diffusion of beneficial mHealth technologies. As mental health mobile apps move towards ubiquity, research will continue to be conducted. The studies published thus far, combined with the potential of mental health mobile apps for learning and personal growth, offer enough evidence to compel mental health professionals to infuse these technologies into education and practice. Counselor educators and professional associations must use their influential leadership roles to train students and practitioners in how to research, evaluate, and integrate mental health mobile apps into practice. The objectives of this article are to (1) increase awareness of mHealth and mental health mobile apps, (2) demonstrate the potential for continued growth in mental health mobile apps based on technology use and acceptance theory, mHealth organizational initiatives, and evidence about how humans learn, (3) discuss evidence-based benefits of mental health mobile apps, (4) examine the current state of mHealth diffusion in the mental health profession, and (5) offer solutions for impelling innovation diffusion by infusing mental health mobile apps into education, training, and clinical settings. This discussion has implications for counselor educators, mental health practitioners, associations, continuing education providers, and app developers. PMID:26543907

  10. Mental Health Mobile Apps: From Infusion to Diffusion in the Mental Health Social System.

    PubMed

    East, Marlene Lynette; Havard, Byron C

    2015-01-01

    The roles of mental health educators and professionals in the diffusion of mental health mobile apps are addressed in this viewpoint article. Mental health mobile apps are emerging technologies that fit under the broad heading of mobile health (mHealth). mHealth, encompassed within electronic health (eHealth), reflects the use of mobile devices for the practice of public health. Well-designed mental health mobile apps that present content in interactive, engaging, and stimulating ways can promote cognitive learning, personal growth, and mental health enhancement. As key influencers in the mental health social system, counselor educators and professional associations may either help or hinder diffusion of beneficial mHealth technologies. As mental health mobile apps move towards ubiquity, research will continue to be conducted. The studies published thus far, combined with the potential of mental health mobile apps for learning and personal growth, offer enough evidence to compel mental health professionals to infuse these technologies into education and practice. Counselor educators and professional associations must use their influential leadership roles to train students and practitioners in how to research, evaluate, and integrate mental health mobile apps into practice. The objectives of this article are to (1) increase awareness of mHealth and mental health mobile apps, (2) demonstrate the potential for continued growth in mental health mobile apps based on technology use and acceptance theory, mHealth organizational initiatives, and evidence about how humans learn, (3) discuss evidence-based benefits of mental health mobile apps, (4) examine the current state of mHealth diffusion in the mental health profession, and (5) offer solutions for impelling innovation diffusion by infusing mental health mobile apps into education, training, and clinical settings. This discussion has implications for counselor educators, mental health practitioners, associations, continuing education providers, and app developers. PMID:26543907

  11. Contemporary Perspectives on Spirituality and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pulkit; Charak, Ruby; Sharma, Vibha

    2009-01-01

    The paper strives to elucidate the complex yet intimate relation between spirituality and mental health from contemporary perspectives. The diverse and constantly evolving views that spiritualists and mental health professionals have held toward each other over last century are discussed with special accent on the transpersonal spiritual framework within psychology. The role of spirituality in promoting mental health and alleviating mental illness is highlighted. The paper is concluded with an increasing need to integrate spirituality within the mental health field albeit there are several impediments in achieving the same, which need to be worked through circumspectly. PMID:21938086

  12. Contemporary perspectives on spirituality and mental health.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pulkit; Charak, Ruby; Sharma, Vibha

    2009-01-01

    The paper strives to elucidate the complex yet intimate relation between spirituality and mental health from contemporary perspectives. The diverse and constantly evolving views that spiritualists and mental health professionals have held toward each other over last century are discussed with special accent on the transpersonal spiritual framework within psychology. The role of spirituality in promoting mental health and alleviating mental illness is highlighted. The paper is concluded with an increasing need to integrate spirituality within the mental health field albeit there are several impediments in achieving the same, which need to be worked through circumspectly. PMID:21938086

  13. Psychiatric and Medical Health Care Policies in Juvenile Detention Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajer, Kathleen A.; Kelleher, Kelly; Gupta, Ravindra A.; Rolls, Jennifer; Gardner, William

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to examine the existing health care policies in U.S. juvenile detention centres. The results conclude that juvenile detention facilities have many shortfalls in providing care for adolescents, particularly mental health care.

  14. Mental Health under National Health Care Reform: The Empirical Foundations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Christopher G.; DeVito, Jo Anne

    1994-01-01

    Reviews research pertinent to mental health services under health care reform proposals. Examines redistributional impact of inclusion of outpatient mental health benefits, optimal benefit packages, and findings that mental health services lower medical utilization costs. Argues that extending minimalist model of time-limited benefits to national…

  15. Mental Health and Mental Illness in Maryland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Health and Mental Hygiene, Baltimore.

    Statistics of mental illness in Maryland are provided in the areas of diagnostic distribution of admissions and resident patients, size and nature of patient population, percentage change in daily cost per patient, employee-patient ratios, length of hospitalization, diagnostic treatment trends, patient mortality, and Baltimore's specific problems…

  16. Farmers' suicide in India: implications for public mental health.

    PubMed

    Das, Anindya

    2011-01-01

    Farmers' suicide in India is a cause of concern and government figures, though conservative, predict an impending epidemic. Various measures to curb this calamity are being made in a piecemeal manner. Considering it as an issue of social and mental health concern, this article attempts to evaluate the situation based on the tenet that health and illness are the result of a complex interplay between biological, psychological, social, environmental, economic and political factors. Thus in India the agrarian crisis, among other causes, has been largely debated as the major reason for the current state of farmers. It is important that (psychiatric) epidemiology and public mental health try to evolve mechanisms to understand and implement measures, and take this into consideration when attempting health promotion and prevention. PMID:21252353

  17. Religion, evolution, and mental health: attachment theory and ETAS theory.

    PubMed

    Flannelly, Kevin J; Galek, Kathleen

    2010-09-01

    This article reviews the historical origins of Attachment Theory and Evolutionary Threat Assessment Systems Theory (ETAS Theory), their evolutionary basis and their application in research on religion and mental health. Attachment Theory has been most commonly applied to religion and mental health in research on God as an attachment figure, which has shown that secure attachment to God is positively associated with psychological well-being. Its broader application to religion and mental health is comprehensively discussed by Kirkpatrick (2005). ETAS Theory explains why certain religious beliefs--including beliefs about God and life-after-death--should have an adverse association, an advantageous association, or no association at all with mental health. Moreover, it makes specific predictions to this effect, which have been confirmed, in part. The authors advocate the application of ETAS Theory in research on religion and mental health because it explains how religious and other beliefs related to the dangerousness of the world can directly affect psychiatric symptoms through their affects on specific brain structures. PMID:19291405

  18. Mental health professionals’ attitudes toward patients with PTSD and depression

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Thomas; Moergeli, Hanspeter; Kohler, Michaela; Carraro, Giovanni E.; Schnyder, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Background To date, mental health professionals’ attitudes toward posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), compared to other psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia or depression, have rarely been studied. Objective We assessed mental health professionals’ attitudes toward patients with PTSD compared to patients suffering from depression. Method Case vignettes of a patient with either PTSD or depression were presented to two samples of mental health professionals: attendees of a conference on posttraumatic stress (N=226) or of a lecture for psychiatry residents (N=112). Participants subsequently completed a questionnaire that assessed their attitude reactions to the presented case. Results Participants showed similarly positive attitudes toward depression and PTSD. PTSD elicited a more favorable attitude with regard to prosocial reactions, estimated dependency, attributed responsibility, and interest in the case, particularly in mental health professionals specializing in psychotraumatology. Across diagnoses, higher age and longer professional experience were associated with more positive attitudes toward patients. Conclusions Mental health professionals’ positive attitudes toward patients with depression and PTSD correlate with their specific knowledge about the disorder, their level of professional training, and their years of professional experience. Limitations The instruments used, although based on established theoretical concepts in attitude research, were not validated in their present versions. PMID:26507340

  19. Assault experiences: Lessons learned from mental health nurses in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng-I; Hsieh, Wen-Po; Lee, Li-Hung; Chen, Shu-Ling

    2016-06-01

    Mental health nurse are frequently subjected to patients' violent and aggressive behaviour. These assault experiences have given rise to mental health nurses' physical and psychological trauma, and negatively impact the quality of patient care. The purpose of the present qualitative study was to understand mental health nurses' experiences of being assaulted, the influences on their patient care, and their perspectives of the effectiveness of in-service, violence-prevention education. Ten mental health nurses from two different inpatient mental health facilities were interviewed using a semistructured interview guide. Thematic analysis of interview data found six themes: (i) violence is unpredictable; (ii) violence is normal; (iii) lasting psychological trauma; (iv) limited support from peers and the administrator; (v) violence prevention requires team cooperation; and (vi) doubting the effectiveness of in-service education on violence prevention. Psychiatric ward administrators should assess nurses' learning and skill needs to determine whether these needs are met by existing in-service training programmes. A culture of safety should also be promoted by building a warm and supportive ward climate for both staff and patients, which would include team cooperation and support for colleagues who suffer a violent incident. PMID:27170463

  20. Stress, burnout, and job dissatisfaction in mental health workers.

    PubMed

    Rössler, Wulf

    2012-11-01

    As the industrial world has transformed toward a service economy, a particular interest has developed in mental health problems at the workplace. The risk for burnout is significantly increased in certain occupations, notably for health care workers. Beyond the effects of an extensive workload, many working hours, or long night shifts, the medical field has specific stressors. Physicians work in emotionally demanding environments with patients, families, or other medical staff. They must make quick decisions while faced with a quite frequent information overload. All of these stressors have to be weighed against a rapidly changing organizational context within medicine. Today, economics objectives have priority over medical values in health care. In principal, mental health workers should experience similar work stressors and the same contextual factors as health professionals from other medical disciplines. However, several studies have identified stressors that are unique to the psychiatric profession. These challenges range from the stigma of this profession, to particularly demanding relationships with patients and difficult interactions with other mental health professionals as part of multidisciplinary teams to personal threats from violent patients. Other sources of stress are a lack of positive feedback, low pay, and a poor work environment. Finally, patient suicide is a major stressor, upon which a majority of mental health workers report post-traumatic stress symptoms. PMID:22926058

  1. Recruitment and Retention of Mental Health Workers in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Helen; Canavan, Maureen; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Taylor, Lauren; Bradley, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The lack of trained mental health workers is a primary contributor to the mental health treatment gap worldwide. Despite the great need to recruit and retain mental health workers in low-income countries, little is known about how these workers perceive their jobs and what drives them to work in mental health care. Using qualitative interviews, we aimed to explore factors motivating mental health workers in order to inform interventions to increase recruitment and retention. Methods We conducted 28 in-depth, open-ended interviews with staff in Ghana’s three public psychiatric hospitals. We used the snowballing method to recruit participants and the constant comparative method for qualitative data analysis, with multiple members of the research team participating in data coding to enhance the validity and reliability of the analysis. The use of qualitative methods allowed us to understand the range and depth of motivating and demotivating factors. Results Respondents described many factors that influenced their choice to enter and remain in mental health care. Motivating factors included 1) desire to help patients who are vulnerable and in need, 2) positive day-to-day interactions with patients, 3) intellectual or academic interest in psychiatry or behavior, and 4) good relationships with colleagues. Demotivating factors included 1) lack of resources at the hospital, 2) a rigid supervisory hierarchy, 3) lack of positive or negative feedback on work performance, and 4) few opportunities for career advancement within mental health. Conclusions Because many of the factors are related to relationships, these findings suggest that strengthening the interpersonal and team dynamics may be a critical and relatively low cost way to increase worker motivation. The data also allowed us to highlight key areas for resource allocation to improve both recruitment and retention, including risk pay, adequate tools for patient care, improved hospital work environment, and stigma reduction efforts. PMID:23469111

  2. Mental health nurses and qualitative research methods: a mutual attraction?

    PubMed

    Cutcliffe, J R; Goward, P

    2000-03-01

    Mental health nurses and qualitative research methods: a mutual attraction? In response to issues arising out of curriculum developments, the authors wished to examine more closely the potential reasons why psychiatric/mental health (P/MH) nurses appear to gravitate towards certain research methodologies. This paper therefore briefly examines the essential differences between qualitative and quantitative research paradigms, focusing on philosophical, epistemological and methodological issues. It then proceeds to examine some of the essential characteristics and attributes of P/MH nurses and suggests some differences in emphasis between these and other disciplines of nursing. The authors posit that psychiatric/mental health nurses are drawn to the qualitative paradigm as a result of the potential synchronicity and linkage that appears to exist between the practice of mental health nursing and qualitative research. This apparent synchronicity appears to centre around the three themes of: (a) the purposeful use of self; (b) the creation of an interpersonal relationship; and (c) the ability to accept and embrace ambiguity and uncertainty. Given this alleged synchronicity the authors argue that there are implications for nurse education and nursing research. Further it is possible that each nursing situation where the mental health nurse forms a relationship and attempts to gain an empathic sense of the individual's world is akin to an informal phenomenological study, the product of which would be a wealth of qualitative data. However, as this would be a subconscious, implicit process, the data would remain predominantly unprocessed. The authors conclude that perhaps these data are the knowledge that expert practitioners draw upon when making intuition-based clinical judgements. PMID:10718878

  3. Limitations of the Patient Health Questionnaire in Identifying Anxiety and Depression in Community Mental Health: Many Cases Are Undetected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eack, Shaun M.; Greeno, Catherine G.; Lee, Bong-Jae

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the concordance between the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) in diagnosing anxiety and depressive disorders. Method: Fifty women seeking psychiatric services for their children at two mental health centers in western Pennsylvania were assessed for anxiety and…

  4. Oregon's Gun Relief Program for Adjudicated Mentally Ill Persons: The Psychiatric Security Review Board.

    PubMed

    Britton, Juliet; Bloom, Joseph D

    2015-06-01

    This article describes the State of Oregon's implementation of two programs designed to comply with federal gun laws regarding reporting individuals who have received mental health adjudications in criminal and civil courts. One mandate requires that states submit names of adjudicated individuals to the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) while the second requires that the state establish a qualifying gun restoration program for those disqualified from gun ownership. In 2009, Oregon's Legislature developed an administrative approach to gun restoration and assigned the responsibility for conducting these hearing to the Oregon Psychiatric Security Review Board (PSRB). The PSRB is a state administrative board that has existed since 1977 and has been primarily focused on the supervision and treatment of adult and juvenile insanity acquittees. The gun restoration program began in 2010, but to date has only received three completed petitions requesting restoration of firearm rights. The article concludes with a discussion that surmises why very few of the Oregonians who are listed in NICS have submitted petitions for relief. PMID:25728522

  5. Recognition rights, mental health consumers and reconstructive cultural semantics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Those in mental health-related consumer movements have made clear their demands for humane treatment and basic civil rights, an end to stigma and discrimination, and a chance to participate in their own recovery. But theorizing about the politics of recognition, 'recognition rights' and epistemic justice, suggests that they also have a stake in the broad cultural meanings associated with conceptions of mental health and illness. Results First person accounts of psychiatric diagnosis and mental health care (shown here to represent 'counter stories' to the powerful 'master narrative' of biomedical psychiatry), offer indications about how experiences of mental disorder might be reframed and redefined as part of efforts to acknowledge and honor recognition rights and epistemic justice. However, the task of cultural semantics is one for the entire culture, not merely consumers. These new meanings must be negotiated. When they are not the result of negotiation, group-wrought definitions risk imposing a revision no less constraining than the mis-recognizing one it aims to replace. Contested realities make this a challenging task when it comes to cultural meanings about mental disorder. Examples from mental illness memoirs about two contested realities related to psychosis are examined here: the meaninglessness of symptoms, and the role of insight into illness. They show the magnitude of the challenge involved - for consumers, practitioners, and the general public - in the reconstruction of these new meanings and realities. Conclusion To honor recognition rights and epistemic justice acknowledgement must be made of the heterogeneity of the effects of, and of responses to, psychiatric diagnosis and care, and the extent of the challenge of the reconstructive cultural semantics involved. PMID:22244148

  6. Promoting and Protecting Mental Health as Flourishing: A Complementary Strategy for Improving National Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Corey L. M.

    2007-01-01

    This article summarizes the conception and diagnosis of the mental health continuum, the findings supporting the two continua model of mental health and illness, and the benefits of flourishing to individuals and society. Completely mentally healthy adults--individuals free of a 12-month mental disorder and flourishing--reported the fewest missed

  7. Promoting and Protecting Mental Health as Flourishing: A Complementary Strategy for Improving National Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Corey L. M.

    2007-01-01

    This article summarizes the conception and diagnosis of the mental health continuum, the findings supporting the two continua model of mental health and illness, and the benefits of flourishing to individuals and society. Completely mentally healthy adults--individuals free of a 12-month mental disorder and flourishing--reported the fewest missed…

  8. [Adverse perinatal and infant outcomes among children born to mothers with major mental disorders in a psychiatric hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Priscila Krauss; Vieira, Cludia Lima; Santos, Jacqueline Fernandes de Cintra; Lima, Lcia Abelha; Legay, Letcia Fortes; Lovisi, Giovanni Marcos

    2014-08-01

    Adverse perinatal and infant outcomes are the leading causes of infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries like Brazil. Among the risk factors are maternal mental disorders. A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted based on passive follow-up using probabilistic record linkage to estimate the prevalence of adverse perinatal and infant outcomes in children of women admitted to a public psychiatric hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and who gave birth from 1999 to 2009. Prevalence rates were: low birth weight (27.6%), prematurity (17.4%), malformations (2.5%), stillbirths (4.8%), and neonatal deaths (3.7%). Associated factors were deficient prenatal care, schizophrenia, and low income. The results corroborate the high prevalence of adverse perinatal and infant outcomes in mothers with major mental disorders, and that screening of psychiatric symptoms and specialized care by mental health professionals are essential throughout prenatal and postpartum care. PMID:25210906

  9. Mental Health and Mental Retardation Services in Nevada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakalik, J. S.; And Others

    Summarized are the findings and recommendations of a 2-year study of all major mental health, and mental retardation, alcohol, and drug abuse services and programs in Nevada. Fourteen chapters are given to the following topics (sample subtopics are in parentheses): description of the survey (scope of the project); summary and recommendations…

  10. Factors for success in mental health advocacy

    PubMed Central

    Hann, Katrina; Pearson, Heather; Campbell, Doris; Sesay, Daniel; Eaton, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Background Mental health advocacy groups are an effective way of pushing the mental health agenda and putting pressure on national governments to observe the right to health; however, there is limited research that highlights best practices for such groups in low-resource settings. In an effort to improve the scaling up of mental health in Sierra Leone, stakeholders came together to form the country's first mental health advocacy group: the Mental Health Coalition – Sierra Leone. Since its inception, the group has worked towards raising the profile of mental health in Sierra Leone and developing as an advocacy organisation. Design The study's aim was to investigate views on enabling factors and barriers associated with mental health advocacy in a low-income country using a community-based participatory approach and qualitative methodology. Focus groups (N=9) were held with mental health stakeholders, and key informant interviews (N=15) were conducted with advocacy targets. Investigators analysed the data collaboratively using coding techniques informed by grounded theory. Results Investigators reveal viewpoints on key factors in networking, interacting with government actors, and awareness raising that enabled mental health advocacy aims of supporting policy, service delivery, service user rights, training for service delivery, and awareness raising. The investigators outline viewpoints on barriers for advocacy aims in framing the issue of mental health, networking, interacting with government actors, resource mobilization, and awareness raising. Conclusions The findings outline enabling factors, such as networking with key stakeholders, and barriers, such as lack of political will, for achieving mental health advocacy aims within a low-resource setting, Sierra Leone. Stakeholder coalitions can further key policy development aims that are essential to strengthen mental health systems in low-resource settings. PMID:26689456

  11. An overview of Ghana’s mental health system: results from an assessment using the World Health Organization’s Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This survey provides data on the Mental Health System in Ghana for the year 2011. It supplies essential planning information for the implementation of Ghana’s new Mental Health Act 846 of 2012, a renewal of the Ghana 5 year plan for mental health and it contributes to international knowledge base on mental health. It provides a baseline from which to measure future progress in Ghana and comparison data for use in other countries. In addition to reporting our findings we describe and analyse deficiencies and strengths of the Ghana mental health system. Methods We used the World Health Organization’s Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS) to collect, analyse, and report data on the mental health system and services for all districts of the ten regions of Ghana. Data was collected in 2012, based on the year 2011. Results In 2011, Ghana was a lower middle income country with a population of approximately 25 million. A mental health policy, plan and legislation were in place. Mental health legislation was outdated and no longer in line with best practice standards. Services were significantly underfunded with only 1.4% of the health expenditure going to mental health, and spending very much skewed towards urban areas. There were 123 mental health outpatient facilities, 3 psychiatric hospitals, 7 community based psychiatric inpatient units, 4 community residential facilities and 1 day treatment centre, which is well below what would be expected for Ghana’s economic status. The majority of patients were treated in outpatient facilities and psychiatric hospitals and most of the inpatient beds were provided by the latter. There were an estimated 2.4 million people with mental health problems of which 67,780 (ie 2.8%) received treatment in 2011. The were 18 psychiatrists, 1,068 Registered Mental Nurses, 19 psychologists, 72 Community Mental Health Officers and 21 social workers working in mental health which is unbalanced with an unbalanced emphasis on nurses compared to what would be expected. Conclusions The main strength of the mental health system was the presence of a long established service with staff working across the country in outpatients departments and hospitals. The main weakness was that government spending on mental health was very low and the bulk of services, albeit very sparse, were centred around the capital city leaving much of the rest of the country with almost no provision. Service provision was dominated by nurses with few other professions groups present. PMID:24817908

  12. Mental Health and Self-Directed Violence among Student Service Members/Veterans in Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blosnich, John R.; Kopacz, Marek S.; McCarten, Janet; Bossarte, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Using a sample of student service members/veterans, the current study aimed to examine the prevalence of psychiatric diagnoses and suicide-related outcomes and the association of hazardous duty with mental health. Participants: Data are from the Fall 2011 National College Health Assessment (N = 27,774). Methods: Logistic regression was

  13. Using Decision Support to Address Racial Disparities in Mental Health Service Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawal, Purva H.; Anderson, Tanya R.; Romansky, Jill R.; Lyons, John S.

    2008-01-01

    Unfortunately, racial disparities are well documented in the delivery of behavioral health services. This study examines the effects of implementing a decision support process, integrating clinical information into the administration of mental health services, on racial disparities in psychiatric hospital admissions for children in state custody.…

  14. Mental Health and Self-Directed Violence among Student Service Members/Veterans in Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blosnich, John R.; Kopacz, Marek S.; McCarten, Janet; Bossarte, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Using a sample of student service members/veterans, the current study aimed to examine the prevalence of psychiatric diagnoses and suicide-related outcomes and the association of hazardous duty with mental health. Participants: Data are from the Fall 2011 National College Health Assessment (N = 27,774). Methods: Logistic regression was…

  15. Capacity-Building for African American Mental Health Training and Research: Lessons from the Howard-Dartmouth Collaborative Summer School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipolito, Maria M. S.; Malik, Mansoor; Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth; Whitley, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many psychiatric residents have traditionally received little-or-no training in cross cultural approaches to psychiatric training and research. Method: The Dartmouth-Howard Collaboration summer school training program had a 5-year grant to explore approaches to enhancing understanding of cultural factors in mental health treatment and…

  16. Indian health care professionals' attitude towards spiritual healing and its role in alleviating stigma of psychiatric services.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, P; Rane, A; Dias, A; Bhat, J; Shukla, A; Lakshmi, S; Ansari, B K; Ramaswamy, R S; Reddy, R A; Tribulato, A; Agarwal, A K; SatyaPrasad, N; Mushtaq, A; Rao, P H; Murthy, P; Koenig, H G

    2014-12-01

    Persons with mental illnesses in India and rest of developing world continue to consult religious/spiritual (R/S) healers or traditional, complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM) professionals prior to seeking psychiatric services that are devoid of spiritual components of care. We aim to understand TCAM and allopathic professionals' perspectives on patients' R/S needs within mental health services, cross-sectional study was conducted at five TCAM and two allopathic tertiary care hospitals in three different Indian states; 393 participants completed RSMPP, a self-administered, semi-structured survey questionnaire. Perspectives of TCAM and allopathic health professionals on role of spirituality in mental health care were compared. Substantial percentage, 43.7 % TCAM and 41.3 % allopathic, of participants believe that their patients approach R/S or TCAM practitioners for severe mental illness; 91.2 % of TCAM and 69.7 % of allopaths were satisfied with R/S healers (p = 0.0019). Furthermore, 91.1 % TCAM and 73.1 % allopaths (p = 0.000) believe that mental health stigma can be minimized by integrating with spiritual care services. Overall, 87 % of TCAM and 73 % of allopaths agreed to primary criterion variable: 'spiritual healing is beneficial and complementary to psychiatric care.' A quarter of allopaths (24.4 %) and 38 % of TCAM physicians reportedly cross-refer their grieving patients to religious/TCAM healer and psychiatrist/psychologist, respectively; on logistic regression, significant (p < 0.05) predictors were clinical interactions/references to r/s healers. Providing spiritual care within the setup of psychiatric institution will not only complement psychiatric care but also alleviate stigma against mental health services. Implications on developing spiritual care services like clinical chaplaincy are discussed. PMID:24430129

  17. Influence of Criminal Justice Involvement and Psychiatric Diagnoses on Treatment Costs Among Adults With Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Allison G.; Swanson, Jeffrey W.; Lin, Hsiuju; Easter, Michele M.; Frisman, Linda K.; Swartz, Marvin S.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of criminal justice involvement and clinical characteristics on the cost of public treatment services for adults with serious mental illnesses is unknown. The authors examined differential effects of justice involvement on behavioral health treatment costs by primary psychiatric diagnosis (schizophrenia or bipolar disorder) and also by substance use diagnosis among 25,133 adult clients of Connecticut’s public behavioral health system in fiscal years 2006 and 2007. Justice-involved adults with schizophrenia had the highest costs, strongly driven by forensic hospitalizations. Addressing the cross-system burdens of forensic hospitalizations may be a sensible starting point in the effort to reduce costs in both the public behavioral health and justice systems. PMID:25975893

  18. [Influence of physical activity on mental well-being and psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Knechtle, B

    2004-08-25

    It has been shown that endurance as well as resistance training improves mental well-being in the athlete. In patients with psychiatric disorders, physical exercise diminishes clinical symptoms. Especially in patients with depression, endurance exercise improves mood. Physical training has to be integrated in a concept due to the fact the physical exercise can not replace medicinal therapy. It has to be postulated that improved mood is a result of increased endogenous opioids. PMID:15468581

  19. Findings from mental health screening of newly arrived refugees in Colorado.

    PubMed Central

    Savin, Daniel; Seymour, Deborah J.; Littleford, Linh Nguyen; Bettridge, Juli; Giese, Alexis

    2005-01-01

    States are required to provide a public health screening for all newly arrived refugees in the United States. In 1997, a comprehensive program was created to include both a physical examination and a mental health screening. This article provides a complete description of the mental health screening process, including two illustrative cases, and reports information about the refugees who participated in the program. Ten percent of screened refugees were offered mental health referrals; of those, 37% followed up. Refugees who presented for treatment reported a higher number of symptoms upon screening compared with those who were offered referrals but did not follow up. Psychiatric evaluation confirmed that those who screened positive and presented for treatment were experiencing a high level of suffering and qualified for mental health diagnoses. The findings support inclusion of a mental health screening as part of the public health screening. PMID:16134561

  20. Mental health consequences of chemical and radiologic emergencies: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    MCCormick, Lisa C; Tajeu, Gabriel S; Klapow, Joshua

    2015-02-01

    This article reviews the literature pertaining to psychological impacts in the aftermath of technological disasters, focusing on the immediate psychological and mental health consequences emergency department physicians and first responders may encounter in the aftermath of such disasters. First receivers see a wide spectrum of psychological distress, including acute onset of psychiatric disorders, the exacerbation of existing psychological and psychiatric conditions, and widespread symptomatology even in the absence of a diagnosable disorder. The informal community support systems that exist after a natural disaster may not be available to communities affected by a technological disaster leading to a need for more formal mental health supportive services. PMID:25455669

  1. The 1978 Italian mental health law--a personal evaluation: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, G B

    1991-01-01

    The author discusses the sociopsychiatric consequences of the 1978 Italian mental health law. He also reviews the international scientific ideas that led up to it. The sociopolitical psychiatric views of the late Franco Basaglia, pioneer of the change in the mental health system of the Italian Republic, are described. Statistical reports and critical analyses are reported. Objective data, based on the author's personal experience as a practising psychiatrist in Rome, Italy, from 1969 to 1987, are given. PMID:1999825

  2. When Parents with Severe Mental Illness Lose Contact with Their Children: Are Psychiatric Symptoms or Substance Use to Blame?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Danson; Macias, Rosemarie Lillianne; Gold, Paul B.; Barreira, Paul; Fisher, William

    2008-01-01

    This study compared parental psychiatric symptom severity, and the absence or presence of severe substance abuse, as predictors of contact with minor children for a representative sample of adults with diagnoses of serious mental illness (N = 45). Child contact and psychiatric symptom severity were measured during regularly scheduled 6-month…

  3. Women and mental health in India: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Savita; Shah, Ruchita

    2015-01-01

    Gender is a critical determinant of mental health and mental illness. The patterns of psychological distress and psychiatric disorder among women are different from those seen among men. Women have a higher mean level of internalizing disorders while men show a higher mean level of externalizing disorders. Gender differences occur particularly in the rates of common mental disorders wherein women predominate. Differences between genders have been reported in the age of onset of symptoms, clinical features, frequency of psychotic symptoms, course, social adjustment, and long-term outcome of severe mental disorders. Women who abuse alcohol or drugs are more likely to attribute their drinking to a traumatic event or a stressor and are more likely to have been sexually or physically abused than other women. Girls from nuclear families and women married at a very young age are at a higher risk for attempted suicide and self-harm. Social factors and gender specific factors determine the prevalence and course of mental disorders in female sufferers. Low attendance in hospital settings is partly explained by the lack of availability of resources for women. Around two-thirds of married women in India were victims of domestic violence. Concerted efforts at social, political, economic, and legal levels can bring change in the lives of Indian women and contribute to the improvement of the mental health of these women. PMID:26330636

  4. Psychiatric disorders and leukocyte telomere length: Underlying mechanisms linking mental illness with cellular aging.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, Daniel; Epel, Elissa S; Mellon, Synthia H; Penninx, Brenda W; Révész, Dóra; Verhoeven, Josine E; Reus, Victor I; Lin, Jue; Mahan, Laura; Hough, Christina M; Rosser, Rebecca; Bersani, F Saverio; Blackburn, Elizabeth H; Wolkowitz, Owen M

    2015-08-01

    Many psychiatric illnesses are associated with early mortality and with an increased risk of developing physical diseases that are more typically seen in the elderly. Moreover, certain psychiatric illnesses may be associated with accelerated cellular aging, evidenced by shortened leukocyte telomere length (LTL), which could underlie this association. Shortened LTL reflects a cell's mitotic history and cumulative exposure to inflammation and oxidation as well as the availability of telomerase, a telomere-lengthening enzyme. Critically short telomeres can cause cells to undergo senescence, apoptosis or genomic instability, and shorter LTL correlates with poorer health and predicts mortality. Emerging data suggest that LTL may be reduced in certain psychiatric illnesses, perhaps in proportion to exposure to the psychiatric illnesses, although conflicting data exist. Telomerase has been less well characterized in psychiatric illnesses, but a role in depression and in antidepressant and neurotrophic effects has been suggested by preclinical and clinical studies. In this article, studies on LTL and telomerase activity in psychiatric illnesses are critically reviewed, potential mediators are discussed, and future directions are suggested. A deeper understanding of cellular aging in psychiatric illnesses could lead to re-conceptualizing them as systemic illnesses with manifestations inside and outside the brain and could identify new treatment targets. PMID:25999120

  5. Quebec child mental health survey: prevalence of DSM-III-R mental health disorders.

    PubMed

    Breton, J J; Bergeron, L; Valla, J P; Berthiaume, C; Gaudet, N; Lambert, J; St-Georges, M; Houde, L; Lépine, S

    1999-03-01

    The Quebec Child Mental Health Survey (QCMHS) was conducted in 1992 on a representative sample of 2400 children and adolescents aged 6 to 14 years from throughout Quebec. Prevalences of nine Axis-I DSM-III-R (American Psychiatric Association, 1987) mental health disorders were calculated based on each informant (for 6-11-year-olds: child, parent, and teacher; for 12-14-year-olds: child and parent). Informant parallelism allows the classification of results of the demographic variables associated with disorders in the logistic regression models. This strategy applies to group variables (correlates of disorders) whereas informant agreement applies to individual diagnoses. Informant parallelism implies that results for two informants or more are in the same direction and significant. In the QCMHS, informant parallelism exists for disruptive disorders, i.e. in two ADHD regression models (child and parent) higher rates among boys and young children, and in three oppositional/conduct disorders regression models (child, parent, and teacher) higher rates among boys. No informant parallelism is observed in the logistic regression models for internalizing disorders, i.e. the patterns of association of demographic variables with anxiety and depressive disorders vary across informants. Urban-rural residence does not emerge as a significant variable in any of the logistic regression models. The overall 6-month prevalences reach 19.9% according to the parent and 15.8% according to the child. The implications of the results for policy makers and clinicians are discussed. PMID:10190339

  6. Mental Health: An Interdisciplinary and International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klineberg, Otto

    The World Federation for Mental Health was founded as an international apolitical organization concerned with quality of life rather than merely the absence or prevention of mental illness. An examination of the manner and extent to which mental problems arise in different cultural settings can provide data needed to understand the relationship…

  7. Student Mental Health Services in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Facts about mental and emotional illness and implications for student mental health services in higher education are reviewed. Psychoses, which are types of mental illness that are usually quite severe, are discussed in terms of symptoms, as are neuroses, which cause severe distress and impair coping with living conditions but are not as…

  8. Older immigrants: language competencies and mental health.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Laura E; Taylor-Henley, Sharon; Doan, Lan

    2005-01-01

    Later-life immigration and a lack of dominant language competency present many challenges to mental health for older adults. English as a Second Language (ESL) classes for seniors, often regarded as the sole domain of ESL teachers, offer mental health professionals opportunities for mental health promotion and education. This paper examines some of the mental health issues that emerged from stories written by older adults in an ESL for Seniors program. The program is presented as an example of best practices in an ESL for Seniors program because of its specific development to meet the needs of ESL older persons. PMID:16774133

  9. Mental health policy development in Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Gureje, O.; Alem, A.

    2000-01-01

    Mental health issues are usually given very low priority in health service policies. Although this is changing, African countries are still confronted with so many problems caused by communicable diseases and malnutrition that they have not waken up to the impact of mental disorders. Every country must formulate a mental health policy based on its own social and cultural realities. Such policies must take into account the scope of mental health problems, provide proven and affordable interventions, safeguard patients' rights, and ensure equity. PMID:10885166

  10. Social disorder and diagnostic order: the US Mental Hygiene Movement, the Midtown Manhattan study and the development of psychiatric epidemiology in the 20th century

    PubMed Central

    March, Dana; Oppenheimer, Gerald M

    2014-01-01

    Recent scholarship regarding psychiatric epidemiology has focused on shifting notions of mental disorders. In psychiatric epidemiology in the last decades of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century, mental disorders have been perceived and treated largely as discrete categories denoting an individual’s mental functioning as either pathological or normal. In the USA, this grew partly out of evolving modern epidemiological work responding to the State’s commitment to measure the national social and economic burdens of psychiatric disorders and subsequently to determine the need for mental health services and to survey these needs over time. Notably absent in these decades have been environmentally oriented approaches to cultivating normal, healthy mental states, approaches initially present after World War II. We focus here on a set of community studies conducted in the 1950s, particularly the Midtown Manhattan study, which grew out of a holistic conception of mental health that depended on social context and had a strong historical affiliation with: the Mental Hygiene Movement and the philosophy of its founder, Adolf Meyer; the epidemiological formation of field studies and population surveys beginning early in the 20th century, often with a health policy agenda; the recognition of increasing chronic disease in the USA; and the radical change in orientation within psychiatry around World War II. We place the Midtown Manhattan study in historical context—a complex narrative of social institutions, professional formation and scientific norms in psychiatry and epidemiology, and social welfare theory that begins during the Progressive era (1890-1920) in the USA. PMID:25031047

  11. Social disorder and diagnostic order: the US Mental Hygiene Movement, the Midtown Manhattan study and the development of psychiatric epidemiology in the 20th century.

    PubMed

    March, Dana; Oppenheimer, Gerald M

    2014-08-01

    Recent scholarship regarding psychiatric epidemiology has focused on shifting notions of mental disorders. In psychiatric epidemiology in the last decades of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century, mental disorders have been perceived and treated largely as discrete categories denoting an individual's mental functioning as either pathological or normal. In the USA, this grew partly out of evolving modern epidemiological work responding to the State's commitment to measure the national social and economic burdens of psychiatric disorders and subsequently to determine the need for mental health services and to survey these needs over time. Notably absent in these decades have been environmentally oriented approaches to cultivating normal, healthy mental states, approaches initially present after World War II. We focus here on a set of community studies conducted in the 1950s, particularly the Midtown Manhattan study, which grew out of a holistic conception of mental health that depended on social context and had a strong historical affiliation with: the Mental Hygiene Movement and the philosophy of its founder, Adolf Meyer; the epidemiological formation of field studies and population surveys beginning early in the 20th century, often with a health policy agenda; the recognition of increasing chronic disease in the USA; and the radical change in orientation within psychiatry around World War II. We place the Midtown Manhattan study in historical context--a complex narrative of social institutions, professional formation and scientific norms in psychiatry and epidemiology, and social welfare theory that begins during the Progressive era (1890-1920) in the USA. PMID:25031047

  12. Recent developments in the use of online resources and mobile technologies to support mental health care.

    PubMed

    Turvey, Carolyn L; Roberts, Lisa J

    2015-01-01

    This review describes recent developments in online and mobile mental health applications, including a discussion of patient portals to support mental health care. These technologies are rapidly evolving, often before there is systematic investigation of their effectiveness. Though there are some reviews of the effectiveness of mental health mobile apps, perhaps the more significant development is innovation in technology evaluation as well as new models of interprofessional collaboration in developing behavioural health technologies. Online mental health programs have a strong evidence base. Their role in population health strategies needs further exploration, including the most effective use of limited clinical staff resources. Patient portals and personal health records serve to enhance mental health treatment also, though concerns specific to mental health must be addressed to support broader adoption of portals. Provider concerns about sharing psychiatric notes with patients hinder support for portals. Health information exchange for mental health information requires thoughtful consent management strategies so mental health patients can benefit. Finally, the broad array of health information technologies may overwhelm patients. User-friendly, well-designed, patient-centred health information technology homes may integrate these functions to promote a holistic approach to care plans and overall wellness. Such technology homes have special security needs and require providers and patients to be well informed about how best to use these technologies to support behavioural health interventions. PMID:26523397

  13. Status and requirements of geriatric mental health services in India: An evidence-based commentary

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, S. C.; Pandey, Nisha M.

    2012-01-01

    In view of appreciable improvements in health care services in India, the longevity and life expectancy have almost doubled. As a result, there is significant demographic transition, and the population of older adults in the country is growing rapidly. Epidemiological surveys have revealed enormous mental health morbidity in older adults (aged 60 years and above) and have necessitated immediate need for the development of mental health services in India. The present population of older adults was used to calculate psychiatric morbidity based on the reported epidemiological data. The demographic and social changes, health care planning, available mental health care services and morbidity data were critically examined and analyzed. The service gap was calculated on the basis of available norms for the country vis-à-vis average mental health morbidity. Data from a recent epidemiological study indicated an average of 20.5% mental health morbidity in older adults. Accordingly, it was found that, at present, 17.13 million older adults (total population, 83.58 millions) are suffering from mental health problems in India. A differing, but in many aspects similar, picture emerged with regard to human resource and infrastructural requirements based on the two norms for the country to meet the challenges posed by psychiatrically ill older adults. A running commentary has been provided based on the available evidences and strategic options have been outlined to meet the requirements and minimize the gap. There is an urgent need to develop the subject and geriatric mental health care services in India. PMID:22556431

  14. Holistic health: does it really include mental health?

    PubMed

    McClanahan, Kimberly K; Huff, Marlene B; Omar, Hatim A

    2006-01-01

    Holistic health, incorporating mind and body as equally important and unified components of health, is a concept utilized in some health care arenas in the United States (U.S.) over the past 30 years. However, in the U.S., mental health is not seen as conceptually integral to physical health and, thus, holistic health cannot be realized until the historical concept of mind-body dualism, continuing stigma regarding mental illness, lack of mental health parity in insurance, and inaccurate public perceptions regarding mental illness are adequately addressed and resolved. Until then, mental and physical health will continue to be viewed as disparate entities rather than parts of a unified whole. We conclude that the U.S. currently does not generally incorporate the tenets of holistic health in its view of the mental and physical health of its citizens, and provide some suggestions for changing that viewpoint. PMID:17370005

  15. Contribution of the Nordic School of Public Health to the public mental health research field: a selection of research initiatives, 2007-2014.

    PubMed

    Forsman, Anna K; Fredén, Lars; Lindqvist, Rafael; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2015-08-01

    The field of public mental health has been defined by an expert group convened by the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) as encompassing the experience, occurrence, distribution and trajectories of positive mental health and mental health problems and their determinants; mental health promotion and prevention of mental disorders; as well as mental health system policies, governance and organization. The mental health priorities of the Nordic Council of Ministers in 2010 signalled a mutual Nordic exchange of knowledge in the following thematic areas: child and adolescent mental health; working life and mental health; mental health in older people; strengthening the role of primary care in mental health service provision; stronger involvement of users and carers; and reduction of use of coercion in psychiatric care. Efforts to realize these priorities included commissioning the Nordic Research Academy for Mental Health, an NHV-based network of research institutions with a common interest in mental health research across the Nordic countries, to develop, organize and follow-up projects on public mental health. The research initiatives included mental health policy analysis, register-based research and research focused on the users' perspective in a Nordic context, as well as EU-level research policy analysis. The public mental health research conducted at the NHV highlighted the complexity of mental health and emphasized that the broad determinants of mental health need to be increasingly addressed in both public health research and practice. For example, health promotion actions, improved access to health care, a healthy alcohol policy and prevention of suicides and violence are all needed to reduce the life expectancy gap - a red flag indicator of public health inequalities. By exchanging knowledge and best practice, the collaboration between the Nordic countries contributes to the welfare of the region. The expertise and traditions developed at the NHV are of significant importance in this work. PMID:26311802

  16. Global mental health: from science to action.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vikram

    2012-01-01

    This article charts the historical development of the discipline of global mental health, whose goal is to improve access to mental health care and reduce inequalities in mental health outcomes between and within nations. The article begins with an overview of the contribution of four scientific foundations toward the discipline's core agenda: to scale up services for people with mental disorders and to promote their human rights. Next, the article highlights four recent, key events that are indicative of the actions shaping the discipline: the Mental Health Gap Action Programme to synthesize evidence on what treatments are effective for a range of mental disorders; the evidence on task shifting to nonspecialist health workers to deliver these treatments; the Movement for Global Mental Health's efforts to build a common platform for professionals and civil society to advocate for their shared goal; and the Grand Challenges in Global Mental Health, which has identified the research priorities that, within the next decade, can lead to substantial improvements in the lives of people living with mental disorders. The article ends by examining the major challenges for the field, and the opportunities for addressing them in the future. PMID:22335178

  17. Global Mental Health: From Science to Action

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vikram

    2012-01-01

    This article charts the historical development of the discipline of global mental health, whose goal is to improve access to mental health care and reduce inequalities in mental health outcomes between and within nations. The article begins with an overview of the contribution of four scientific foundations toward the discipline's core agenda: to scale up services for people with mental disorders and to promote their human rights. Next, the article highlights four recent, key events that are indicative of the actions shaping the discipline: the Mental Health Gap Action Programme to synthesize evidence on what treatments are effective for a range of mental disorders; the evidence on task shifting to nonspecialist health workers to deliver these treatments; the Movement for Global Mental Health's efforts to build a common platform for professionals and civil society to advocate for their shared goal; and the Grand Challenges in Global Mental Health, which has identified the research priorities that, within the next decade, can lead to substantial improvements in the lives of people living with mental disorders. The article ends by examining the major challenges for the field, and the opportunities for addressing them in the future. (harv rev psychiatry 2012;20:6–12.) PMID:22335178

  18. Psychotherapy and mental health teams.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Ian B; Dent-Brown, Kim; Parry, Glenys D

    2007-02-01

    Mental health teams in different configurations and settings are under increasing pressure to offer formal psychotherapies as well as psychologically informed management to large numbers of 'difficult' patients with severe and complex presentations. This pressure has arisen variously from consumers, governmental agencies and commissioning bodies. Although these teams are an important resource, they receive limited training, supervision or support in models of psychotherapy, especially those incorporating a relational dimension and offering a coherent 'common language'. This commonly results in impairment of collective team function, including the quality and consistency of assessments, and may result in stress, splitting and 'burn out' for team members. This situation is due in part to their burden of casework and responsibility but also to prevailing, largely symptom-based and biomedical, models of mental disorder which tend to minimize the importance of psychosocial dimensions in either aetiology or treatment. Formulating and delivering appropriate, evidence-based and robust models of psychotherapy in generic team settings represents a significantly different challenge from that posed by delivery of psychotherapy in specialist settings. Approaches to this important challenge are discussed and summarized drawing on general considerations and the limited direct research evidence, and are illustrated by a cognitive analytic therapy (CAT)-based training project. PMID:17365159

  19. Mental health of students: position statement.

    PubMed

    Blackborow, May; Tuck, Christine; Lambert, Patrice; Disney, Jody; Porter, Jessica; Jordan, Alicia

    2014-11-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that mental health is as critical to academic success as physical well-being. Registered professional school nurses (hereinafter referred to as school nurses) serve a vital role in the school community by promoting positive mental health outcomes in students through school/community evidence-based programs and curricula. As members of interdisciplinary teams, school nurses collaborate with school personnel, community health care professionals, students, and families, in the assessment, identification, intervention, referral, and follow-up of children in need of mental health services. School nurses are uniquely qualified to identify students with potential mental health problems. In addition, school nurses serve as advocates, facilitators, and counselors of mental health services both within the school environment and in the community. PMID:25417334

  20. Mental health of students: position statement.

    PubMed

    Blackborow, May; Tuck, Christine; Lambert, Patrice; Disney, Jody; Porter, Jessica; Jordan, Alicia

    2014-11-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that mental health is as critical to academic success as physical well-being. Registered professional school nurses (hereinafter referred to as school nurses) serve a vital role in the school community by promoting positive mental health outcomes in students through school/community evidence-based programs and curricula. As members of interdisciplinary teams, school nurses collaborate with school personnel, community health care professionals, students, and families, in the assessment, identification, intervention, referral, and follow-up of children in need of mental health services. School nurses are uniquely qualified to identify students with potential mental health problems. In addition, school nurses serve as advocates, facilitators, and counselors of mental health services both within the school environment and in the community. PMID:25507062

  1. Recovery in Serious Mental Illnesses: Trajectories, Characteristics and the Role of Mental Health Care in the STARS Study

    PubMed Central

    Green, Carla A.; Perrin, Nancy A.; Leo, Michael C.; Janoff, Shannon L.; Yarborough, Bobbi Jo H.; Paulson, Robert I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective was to identify trajectories of recovery from serious mental illnesses. Methods 177 members (92 women, 85 men) of a not-for-profit integrated health plan participated in a 2-year mixed methods study of recovery. Diagnoses included: schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, or affective psychosis. Data sources included: self-reported standardized measures, interviewer-ratings, qualitative interviews, and health plan data. Recovery was conceptualized as a latent construct, factor analyses computed and factor scores saved to calculate trajectories. Cluster analyses were used to identify individuals with similar trajectories. Results Four trajectories were identified—two stable (high and low) and two fluctuating (higher and lower). Few demographic or diagnostic factors differentiated clusters at baseline. Discriminant analyses for trajectories found differences in mental health symptoms, physical health, satisfaction with mental heath clinicians, resources and strains, satisfaction with medications, and service use. Those with higher scores on recovery factors had fewer mental heath symptoms, better physical health, greater satisfaction with mental health clinicians, fewer strains/greater resources, less service use, better quality care, and greater medication satisfaction. Consistent predictors of trajectories included: mental health symptoms, physical health, resources and strains, and use of psychiatric medications. Conclusions Having access to good quality mental health care—defined as including satisfying relationships with clinicians, responsiveness to needs, satisfaction with psychiatric medications, services at levels that are needed, support that can help manage deficits in resources and strains, and care for medical conditions—may facilitate recovery. Providing such care may alter recovery trajectories. PMID:23999823

  2. Priorities for mental health research in Europe: A survey among national stakeholders' associations within the ROAMER project

    PubMed Central

    Fiorillo, Andrea; Luciano, Mario; Del Vecchio, Valeria; Sampogna, Gaia; Obradors-Tarragó, Carla; Maj, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Within the ROAMER project, funded by the European Commission, a survey was conducted with national associations/organizations of psychiatrists, other mental health professionals, users and/or carers, and psychiatric trainees in the 27 countries of the European Union, aiming to explore their views about priorities for mental health research in Europe. One hundred and eight associations/organizations returned the questionnaire. The five most frequently selected research priorities were early detection and management of mental disorders, quality of mental health services, prevention of mental disorders, rehabilitation and social inclusion, and new medications for mental disorders. All these areas, except the last one, were among the top ten research priorities according to all categories of stakeholders, along with stigma and discrimination. These results seem to support the recent argument that some rebalancing in favor of psychosocial and health service studies may be needed in psychiatric research. PMID:23737426

  3. Mental Health Nursing, Mechanical Restraint Measures and Patients’ Legal Rights

    PubMed Central

    Birkeland, Soren; Gildberg, Frederik A.

    2016-01-01

    Coercive mechanical restraint (MR) in psychiatry constitutes the perhaps most extensive exception from the common health law requirement for involving patients in health care decisions and achieving their informed consent prior to treatment. Coercive measures and particularly MR seriously collide with patient autonomy principles, pose a particular challenge to psychiatric patients’ legal rights, and put intensified demands on health professional performance. Legal rights principles require rationale for coercive measure use be thoroughly considered and rigorously documented. This article presents an in-principle Danish Psychiatric Complaint Board decision concerning MR use initiated by untrained staff. The case illustrates that, judicially, weight must be put on the patient perspective on course of happenings and especially when health professional documentation is scant, patients’ rights call for taking notice of patient evaluations. Consequently, if it comes out that psychiatric staff failed to pay appropriate consideration for the patient’s mental state, perspective, and expressions, patient response deviations are to be judicially interpreted in this light potentially rendering MR use illegitimated. While specification of law criteria might possibly improve law use and promote patients’ rights, education of psychiatry professionals must address the need for, as far as possible, paying due regard to meeting patient perspectives and participation principles as well as formal law and documentation requirements. PMID:27123152

  4. Mental health, alcohol and drug use, and criminal history among homeless adults.

    PubMed

    Gelberg, L; Linn, L S; Leake, B D

    1988-02-01

    As part of a community-based survey of 529 homeless adults, the authors analyzed factors associated with their use of mental health services. Homeless persons who had had a previous psychiatric hospitalization were the least likely to sleep in an emergency shelter, had been homeless nearly twice as long as the rest of the sample, had the worst mental health status, used alcohol and drugs the most, and were the most involved in criminal activities. The majority had not made an outpatient mental health visit in 5 years. It is suggested that diverse systems of care are needed for homeless persons. PMID:3341464

  5. Women's mental health in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Niaz, Unaiza

    2004-01-01

    In Pakistan, societal attitudes and norms, as well as cultural practices (Karo Kari, exchange marriages, dowry, etc.), play a vital role in women's mental health. The religious and ethnic conflicts, along with the dehumanizing attitudes towards women, the extended family system, role of in-laws in daily lives of women, represent major issues and stressors. Such practices in Pakistan have created the extreme marginalisation of women in numerous spheres of life, which has had an adverse psychological impact. Violence against women has become one of the acceptable means whereby men exercise their culturally constructed right to control women. Still, compared to other South Asian countries, Pakistani women are relatively better off than their counterparts. PMID:16633458

  6. Integrating Children's Mental Health into Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Wissow, Lawrence S; van Ginneken, Nadja; Chandna, Jaya; Rahman, Atif

    2016-02-01

    Children's mental health problems are among global health advocates' highest priorities. Nearly three-quarters of adult disorders have their onset or origins during childhood, becoming progressively harder to treat over time. Integrating mental health with primary care and other more widely available health services has the potential to increase treatment access during childhood, but requires re-design of currently-available evidence-based practices to fit the context of primary care and place a greater emphasis on promoting positive mental health. While some of this re-design has yet to be accomplished, several components are currently well-defined and show promise of effectiveness and practicality. PMID:26613691

  7. The crisis in mental health research.

    PubMed

    Brown, B S

    1977-02-01

    The author states that the mental health research program of the United States is facing a threat to its survival as a force for public health. He describes the antecedents of this crisis, which include the separation of the National Institute of Mental Health from the National Institutes of Health and other organizational changes, the public's disappointment that overly great expectations were not met, and monetary inflation coupled with budgetary cutbacks. He concludes that, because research cannot be separated from the goals of service and training, the success of the total mental health program in the United States depends on resolving the research support crisis. PMID:319690

  8. College Mental Health at the Cutting Edge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Victor

    2013-01-01

    As someone who has been involved in college mental health in three different roles, the author would say those who work in this field inhabit a strange space. College mental health centers are generally seen as somewhat peripheral to the core mission of universities by upper administration. Counseling centers do not reside within academic…

  9. Young People's Perceptions of Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Claire; Hill, Malcolm; Secker, Jenny

    2000-01-01

    Examined 12- to 14-year-olds' understanding of mental health and illness, responses to negative feelings, and perceived differences between themselves and adults. Found that the term "mental health" was little understood. Relationships with family and friends were considered a positive influence. Youth, especially boys, reported unsophisticated…

  10. Explorations in Mental Health Training: Project Summaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Ralph, Ed.; And Others

    The report contains summaries of 176 pilot projects demonstrating new and innovative approaches for training mental health personnel. Projects were conducted under grants awarded by the Experimental and Special Training Branch of the Division of Manpower and Training Programs, National Institute of Mental Health. The projects have been developed…

  11. Children's Mental Health and School Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSocio, Janiece; Hootman, Janis

    2004-01-01

    An integrative review of literature was undertaken to examine the impact of children's mental health on their school success. The literature confirmed a confluence of problems associated with school performance and child and adolescent mental health. Poor academic functioning and inconsistent school attendance were identified as early signs of…

  12. Migrant Farmworker Stress: Mental Health Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiott, Ann E.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Davis, Stephen W.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    Context: The number of Latinos in rural regions of the United States is increasing. Little is known about factors that undermine the mental health of this segment of the rural population. Purpose: The goal of this study is to determine which stressors inherent in farmwork and the farmworker lifestyle contribute to poor mental health. Methods: An

  13. Physical and Mental Health Among Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Naughton, Michelle J.; Weaver, Kathryn E.

    2015-01-01

    The physical and mental health of cancer patients needs to be addressed not only during active treatment but also throughout the continuum of survivorship care. This commentary provides an overview of issues pertinent to cancer survivors, with an emphasis on mental health issues and recommendations for annual clinical screening and monitoring using recently published guidelines from the American Society of Clinical Oncology. PMID:25046097

  14. Spirituality and Mental Health among Homeless Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David R.; Moser, Stephanie E.; Shafer, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Mothers are one of the fastest growing segments of the homeless population in the United States. Although mental health problems often contribute to homelessness, little is known about the factors that affect mothers' mental health. To help identify protective factors, this longitudinal study examined the relationship between spirituality and…

  15. Funding Early Childhood Mental Health Services & Supports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishmann, Amy; Kates, Donald; Kaufmann, Roxane

    This paper is the first of a two-part series on financing early childhood mental health services. It discusses the need for a systemic approach to financing early childhood mental health services and supports and presents a matrix to assist states and communities in the design of comprehensive financing systems. The vertical axis of the matrix…

  16. Minnesota Infant Mental Health Services Feasibility Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Early Education and Development.

    Noting that Minnesota has developed many innovative services for parents and infants, but does not yet have an organized way to attend to infants' emotional development and mental health needs, this report details a study to ascertain the need for infant mental health services and examined the current level and types of services available. Data…

  17. Marketing and Community Mental Health Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferniany, Isaac W.; Garove, William E.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that a marketing approach can be applied to community mental health centers. Marketing is a management orientation of providing services for, not to, patients in a systematic manner, which can help mental health centers improve services, strengthen community image, achieve financial independence and aid in staff recruitment. (Author)

  18. Unemployment Impairs Mental Health: Meta-Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Karsten I.; Moser, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    The effect of unemployment on mental health was examined with meta-analytic methods across 237 cross-sectional and 87 longitudinal studies. The average overall effect size was d = 0.51 with unemployed persons showing more distress than employed persons. A significant difference was found for several indicator variables of mental health (mixed…

  19. College Mental Health at the Cutting Edge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Victor

    2013-01-01

    As someone who has been involved in college mental health in three different roles, the author would say those who work in this field inhabit a strange space. College mental health centers are generally seen as somewhat peripheral to the core mission of universities by upper administration. Counseling centers do not reside within academic

  20. A Call to Arms: Children's Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Morton

    2008-01-01

    The author, a superintendent of schools, discusses a rising tide of social and emotional needs among school children as educators struggle with the issue of whether to deal with students' mental health issues. Readers are asked to consider this statement from "Children's Mental Health: Developing a National Action Agenda," a report prepared by the

  1. Mental Health of Students. Position Statement. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of School Nurses (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that mental health is as critical to academic success as physical well-being. School nurses play a vital role in the school community by promoting positive mental health development in students through school/community-based programs and curricula. As members of…

  2. Student Mental Health: Reframing the "Problem"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertram, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author contends that to understand the concern over student mental health, one must first consider what students are reporting about themselves. Students with mental health issues are intellectually capable; rising numbers of accepted students with diagnosed psychological conditions confirm this. However, many conditions…

  3. The Crisis in Mental Health Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Bertram S.

    Presented is a speech by Bertram Brown, director of the National Institute of Mental Health, on the effects of decreased federal funding of mental health research. Brown notes that there has been a 56% slash in the purchasing power of the research grant program when inflation is accounted for. It is suggested that causes of the dwindling support…

  4. Effect of Dynamic Meditation on Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Naved; Singh, Archana; Aleem, Sheema

    2016-02-01

    Although traditional meditation has been found to be effective in improving physical and mental health of subjects, there was a paucity of research of the effect of active or dynamic meditation on these variables. Therefore, the present study was aimed at studying the effect of dynamic meditation on mental health of the subjects. Total sample of the present study comprised 60 subjects, 30 each in experimental and control group. Subjects in experimental group were given 21-day training in dynamic meditation. Mental health of the experimental and control group subjects was measured in pre- and post-condition with the help of Mental Health Inventory developed by Jagadish and Srivastava (Mental Health inventory, Manovaigyanik Parikshan Sansthan, Varanasi, 1983). Obtained data were analyzed with the help of ANCOVA. In post-condition, experimental group scored better than control group on integration of personality, autonomy and environmental mastery. Effect sizes of dynamic meditation on these dimensions of mental health were large. However, experimental group and control group did not differ significantly on positive self-evaluation, perception of reality and group-oriented attitude dimensions of mental health in post-condition. Overall, dynamic meditation training was effective in improving mental health of the subjects. PMID:26179581

  5. Migrant Farmworker Stress: Mental Health Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiott, Ann E.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Davis, Stephen W.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    Context: The number of Latinos in rural regions of the United States is increasing. Little is known about factors that undermine the mental health of this segment of the rural population. Purpose: The goal of this study is to determine which stressors inherent in farmwork and the farmworker lifestyle contribute to poor mental health. Methods: An…

  6. Global mental health and neuroscience: potential synergies.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J; He, Yanling; Phillips, Anthony; Sahakian, Barbara J; Williams, John; Patel, Vikram

    2015-02-01

    Global mental health has emerged as an important specialty. It has drawn attention to the burden of mental illness and to the relative gap in mental health research and services around the world. Global mental health has raised the question of whether this gap is a developmental issue, a health issue, a human rights issue, or a combination of these issues-and it has raised awareness of the need to develop new approaches for building capacity, mobilising resources, and closing the research and treatment gap. Translational neuroscience has also advanced. It comprises an important conceptual approach to understanding the neurocircuitry and molecular basis of mental disorders, to rethinking how best to undertake research on the aetiology, assessment, and treatment of these disorders, with the ultimate aim to develop entirely new approaches to prevention and intervention. Some apparent contrasts exist between these fields; global mental health emphasises knowledge translation, moving away from the bedside to a focus on health systems, whereas translational neuroscience emphasises molecular neuroscience, focusing on transitions between the bench and bedside. Meanwhile, important opportunities exist for synergy between the two paradigms, to ensure that present opportunities in mental health research and services are maximised. Here, we review the approaches of global mental health and clinical neuroscience to diagnosis, pathogenesis, and intervention, and make recommendations for facilitating an integration of these two perspectives. PMID:26359754

  7. Synergy, 2003. Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network, Parramatta.

    Each issue in the 2002 edition of the Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network (ATMHN) newsletter represents a theme critical to mental health practitioners. The Winter 2002 issue features articles on the psychological consequences of interpreters in relation to working with torture and trauma clients, addressing language issues on mental…

  8. A Call to Arms: Children's Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Morton

    2008-01-01

    The author, a superintendent of schools, discusses a rising tide of social and emotional needs among school children as educators struggle with the issue of whether to deal with students' mental health issues. Readers are asked to consider this statement from "Children's Mental Health: Developing a National Action Agenda," a report prepared by the…

  9. Disclosure of domestic violence in mental health settings: A qualitative meta-synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Trevillion, Kylee; Hughes, Bryony; Feder, Gene; Borschmann, Rohan; Oram, Siân

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about how psychiatric services respond to service users’ experiences of domestic violence. This qualitative meta-synthesis examined the healthcare experiences and expectations of mental health service users experiencing domestic violence. Twenty-two biomedical, social science, grey literature databases and websites were searched, supplemented by citation tracking and expert recommendations. Qualitative studies which included mental health service users (aged ≥ 16 years) with experiences of domestic violence were eligible for inclusion. Two reviewers independently extracted data from included papers and assessed quality. Findings from primary studies were combined using meta-synthesis techniques. Twelve studies provided data on 140 female and four male mental health service users. Themes were generally consistent across studies. Overarching theoretical constructs included the role of professionals in identifying domestic violence and facilitating disclosures, implementing personalized care and referring appropriately. Mental health services often failed to identify and facilitate disclosures of domestic violence, and to develop responses that prioritized service users’ safety. Mental health services were reported to give little consideration to the role of domestic violence in precipitating or exacerbating mental illness and the dominance of the biomedical model and stigma of mental illness were found to inhibit effective responses. Mental health services often fail to adequately address the violence experienced by mental health service users. This meta-synthesis highlights the need for mental health services to establish appropriate strategies and responses to domestic violence to ensure optimal care of this vulnerable population. PMID:25137109

  10. Management of Frontotemporal Dementia in Mental Health and Multidisciplinary Settings

    PubMed Central

    Wylie, Mary Anne; Shnall, Adriana; Onyike, Chiadi U.; Huey, Edward D.

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in the mental health setting and issues pertaining to longitudinal care of this population in a specialty clinic are reviewed. FTD is often misdiagnosed as a psychiatric disorder, most commonly as a mood disorder. FTD has features that overlap with those of major depression, mania, obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia. We describe these features and how to differentiate FTD from these psychiatric disorders. This paper also describes practical issues in the management of FTD, specifically the issues that clinicians, patients and their families face in managing this disease. Areas of clinical care along the continuum are explored; FTD care involves collaborative management of symptoms and disability, and assisting patients and families in adapting to the disease. PMID:23611352

  11. Mental Health Literacy of Depression: Gender Differences and Attitudinal Antecedents in a Representative British Sample

    PubMed Central

    Swami, Viren

    2012-01-01

    Background Poor mental health literacy and negative attitudes toward individuals with mental health disorders may impede optimal help-seeking for symptoms of mental ill-health. The present study examined the ability to recognize cases of depression as a function of respondent and target gender, as well as individual psychological differences in attitudes toward persons with depression. Methods In a representative British general population survey, the ability to correctly recognize vignettes of depression was assessed among 1,218 adults. Respondents also rated the vignettes along a number of attitudinal dimensions and completed measures of attitudes toward seeking psychological help, psychiatric skepticism, and anti-scientific attitudes. Results There were significant differences in the ability to correctly identify cases of depression as a function of respondent and target gender. Respondents were more likely to indicate that a male vignette did not suffer from a mental health disorder compared to a female vignette, and women were more likely than men to indicate that the male vignette suffered from a mental health disorder. Attitudes toward persons with depression were associated with attitudes toward seeking psychological help, psychiatric skepticism, and anti-scientific attitudes. Conclusion Initiatives that consider the impact of gender stereotypes as well as individual differences may enhance mental health literacy, which in turn is associated with improved help-seeking behaviors for symptoms of mental ill-health. PMID:23166769

  12. Opportunities in Reform: Bioethics and Mental Health Ethics.

    PubMed

    Williams, Arthur Robin

    2016-05-01

    Last year marks the first year of implementation for both the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act in the United States. As a result, healthcare reform is moving in the direction of integrating care for physical and mental illness, nudging clinicians to consider medical and psychiatric comorbidity as the expectation rather than the exception. Understanding the intersections of physical and mental illness with autonomy and self-determination in a system realigning its values so fundamentally therefore becomes a top priority for clinicians. Yet Bioethics has missed opportunities to help guide clinicians through one of medicine's most ethically rich and challenging fields. Bioethics' distancing from mental illness is perhaps best explained by two overarching themes: 1) An intrinsic opposition between approaches to personhood rooted in Bioethics' early efforts to protect the competent individual from abuses in the research setting; and 2) Structural forces, such as deinstitutionalization, the Patient Rights Movement, and managed care. These two themes help explain Bioethics' relationship to mental health ethics and may also guide opportunities for rapprochement. The potential role for Bioethics may have the greatest implications for international human rights if bioethicists can re-energize an understanding of autonomy as not only free from abusive intrusions but also with rights to treatment and other fundamental necessities for restoring freedom of choice and self-determination. Bioethics thus has a great opportunity amid healthcare reform to strengthen the important role of the virtuous and humanistic care provider. PMID:26424211

  13. OPPORTUNITIES IN REFORM: BIOETHICS AND MENTAL HEALTH ETHICS

    PubMed Central

    WILLIAMS, ARTHUR ROBINSON

    2015-01-01

    This year marks the first year of implementation for both the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act in the United States. Resultantly healthcare reform is moving in the direction of integrating care for physical and mental illness, nudging clinicians to consider medical and psychiatric comorbidity as the expectation rather than the exception. Understanding the intersections of physical and mental illness with autonomy and self-determination in a system realigning its values so fundamentally therefore becomes a top priority for clinicians. Yet Bioethics has missed opportunities to help guide clinicians through one of medicine’s most ethically rich and challenging fields. Bioethics’ distancing from mental illness is perhaps best explained by two overarching themes: 1) an intrinsic opposition between approaches to personhood rooted in Bioethics’ early efforts to protect the competent individual from abuses in the research setting; and 2) structural forces, such as deinstitutionalization, the Patient Rights Movement, and managed care. These two themes help explain Bioethics’ relationship to mental health ethics and may also guide opportunities for rapprochement. The potential role for Bioethics may have the greatest implications for international human rights if bioethicists can re-energize an understanding of autonomy as not only free from abusive intrusions but also with rights to treatment and other fundamental necessities for restoring freedom of choice and self-determination. Bioethics thus has a great opportunity amid healthcare reform to strengthen the important role of the virtuous and humanistic care provider. PMID:26424211

  14. Payment by results in forensic mental health

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Luke; McCarthy, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Forensic mental health services are low-volume, high-cost services. Payment by results (PbR) is the UK s latest attempt to improve efficiency and controls pending behaviours within the secure services. This article discusses the utility of the PbR mechanic in forensic mental health. It explores PbR implementation in non-forensic mental health settings, similar funding processes internationally, and early PbR implementation work in the UK's secure services. Finally, the article discusses the challenges faced when implementing PbR in forensic mental health services and puts forward possible next steps in determining the utility of PbR in forensic mental health. PMID:26755962

  15. Development and validation of a mental health subscale from the Quality of Well-Being Self-Administered

    PubMed Central

    Groessl, Erik J.; Carlson, Jordan A.; Tally, Steven R.; Kaplan, Robert M.; Sieber, William J.; Ganiats, Theodore G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to create and validate a mental health subscale for the Quality of Well-Being Self-Administered (QWB-SA). Methods The QWB-SA and other measures such as the Profile of Mood States (POMS), Medical Outcomes Study 36 Item Short Form (SF-36), EuroQOL 5D (EQ-5D), and Health Utilities Index Mark 2 (HUI) were administered to three samples: a general population (N = 3,844), a non-psychiatric medical population (N = 535), and a psychiatric population (N = 915). Independent expert ratings of which items represented the construct of mental health were used along with psychometric methods to develop and validate a 10-item QWB-SA mental health scale. Results The mental health scale demonstrated high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.827–0.842) and strong correlations with other measures of mental health, such as the POMS (r = −0.77), mental health scale from the SF-36 (r = 0.72), EQ-5D mood item (r = 0.61), and HUI Emotion Scale (r = 0.59). It was not highly correlated with measures of physical health. Among the psychiatric population, the new mental health scale was moderately correlated with indicators of psychiatric problem severity. Conclusions It is now possible to report outcomes and relationships with mental health in studies that use the QWB-SA. This new mental health subscale can also be used with the large volume of previously collected data using the QWB-SA to examine the impact of illnesses and interventions on mental health-related quality of life. PMID:23104088

  16. Latino adults' access to mental health care: a review of epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Zayas, Luis H; Hansen, Marissa C

    2006-05-01

    Since the early 1980s, epidemiological studies using state-of-the-art methodologies have documented the unmet mental health needs of Latinos adults in the U.S. and Puerto Rico. This paper reviews 16 articles based on seven epidemiological studies, examines studies methodologies, and summarizes findings about how Latino adults access mental health services. Studies consistently report that, compared to non-Latino Whites, Latinos underutilize mental health services, are less likely to receive guideline congruent care, and rely more often on primary care for services. Structural, economic, psychiatric, and cultural factors influence Latinos' service access. In spite of the valuable information these studies provide, methodological limitations (e.g., reliance on cross-sectional designs, scarcity of mixed Latino group samples) constrict knowledge about Latinos access to mental health services. Areas for future research and development needed to improve Latinos' access and quality of mental health care are discussed. PMID:16598658

  17. Can clinical use of Social Media improve quality of care in mental Health? A Health Technology Assessment approach in an Italian mental health service.

    PubMed

    Di Napoli, Wilma Angela; Nollo, Giandomenico; Pace, Nicola; Torri, Emanuele

    2015-09-01

    Clinical use of modern Information and Communication Technologies such as Social Media (SM) can easily reach and empower groups of population at risk or affected by chronic diseases, and promote improvement of quality of care. In the paper we present an assessment of SM (i.e. e-mails, websites, on line social networks, apps) in the management of mental disorders, carried out in the Mental Health Service of Trento (Italy) according to Health Technology Assessment criteria. A systematic review of literature was performed to evaluate technical features, safety and effectiveness of SM. To understand usage rate and attitude towards new social technologies of patients and professionals, we performed a context analysis by a survey conducted over a group of 88 psychiatric patients and a group of 35 professionals. At last, we made recommendations for decision makers in order to promote SM for the management of mental disorders in a context of prioritization of investments in health care. PMID:26417743

  18. Managed Mental Health Care: Intentional Misdiagnosis of Mental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Sharon A.; Cox, Jane A.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide an overview of the effectiveness of managed health care systems and their impact on mental health counselors. They review ethical and legal dilemmas involving informed consent, confidentiality, client autonomy, competence, treatment plans, and termination that had not existed prior to the introduction of…

  19. Mental health system historians: adults with schizophrenia describe changes in community mental health care over time.

    PubMed

    Stein, Catherine H; Leith, Jaclyn E; Osborn, Lawrence A; Greenberg, Sarah; Petrowski, Catherine E; Jesse, Samantha; Kraus, Shane W; May, Michael C

    2015-03-01

    This qualitative study examined changes in community mental health care as described by adults diagnosed with schizophrenia with long-term involvement in the mental health system to situate their experiences within the context of mental health reform movements in the United States. A sample of 14 adults with schizophrenia who had been consumers of mental health services from 12 to 40 years completed interviews about their hospital and outpatient experiences over time and factors that contributed most to their mental health. Overall, adults noted gradual changes in mental health care over time that included higher quality of care, more humane treatment, increased partnership with providers, shorter hospital stays, and better conditions in inpatient settings. Regardless of the mental health reform era in which they were hospitalized, participants described negative hospitalization experiences resulting in considerable personal distress, powerlessness, and trauma. Adults with less than 27 years involvement in the system reported relationships with friends and family as most important to their mental health, while adults with more than 27 years involvement reported mental health services and relationships with professionals as the most important factors in their mental health. The sample did not differ in self-reported use of services during their initial and most recent hospitalization experiences, but differences were found in participants' reported use of outpatient services over time. Findings underscore the importance of the lived experience of adults with schizophrenia in grounding current discourse on mental health care reform. PMID:25274147

  20. Transformation of children's mental health services: the role of school mental health.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Sharon Hoover; Weist, Mark; Kataoka, Sheryl; Adelsheim, Steven; Mills, Carrie

    2007-10-01

    The New Freedom Commission has called for a transformation in the delivery of mental health services in this country. The commission's report and recommendations have highlighted the role of school mental health services in transforming mental health care for children and adolescents. This article examines the intersection of school mental health programs and the commission's recommendations in order to highlight the role of school mental health in the transformation of the child and adolescent mental health system. Schools are uniquely positioned to play a central role in improving access to child mental health services and in supporting mental health and wellness as well as academic functioning of youths. The New Freedom Commission report articulated several goals related to school mental health: reducing stigma, preventing suicide, improving screening and treating co-occurring disorders, and expanding school mental health programs. The authors suggest strategies for change, including demonstrating relevance to schools, developing consensus among stakeholders, enhancing community mental health-school connections, building quality assessment and improvement, and considering the organizational context of schools. PMID:17914011

  1. Mental health policy in Eastern Europe: a comparative analysis of seven mental health systems

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this international comparative study is to describe and compare the mental health policies in seven countries of Eastern Europe that share their common communist history: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Moldova, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia. Methods The health policy questionnaire was developed and the country-specific information was gathered by local experts. The questionnaire includes both qualitative and quantitative information on various aspects of mental health policy: (1) basic country information (demography, health, and economic indicators), (2) health care financing, (3) mental health services (capacities and utilisation, ownership), (4) health service purchasing (purchasing organisations, contracting, reimbursement of services), and (5) mental health policy (policy documents, legislation, civic society). Results The social and economic transition in the 1990s initiated the process of new mental health policy formulation, adoption of mental health legislation stressing human rights of patients, and a strong call for a pragmatic balance of community and hospital services. In contrast to the development in the Western Europe, the civic society was suppressed and NGOs and similar organizations were practically non-existent or under governmental control. Mental health services are financed from the public health insurance as any other health services. There is no separate budget for mental health. We can observe that the know-how about modern mental health care and about direction of needed reforms is available in documents, policies and programmes. However, this does not mean real implementation. Conclusions The burden of totalitarian history still influences many areas of social and economic life, which also has to be taken into account in mental health policy. We may observe that after twenty years of health reforms and reforms of health reforms, the transition of the mental health systems still continues. In spite of many reform efforts in the past, a balance of community and hospital mental health services has not been achieved in this part of the world yet. PMID:24467832

  2. The Effects of Income on Mental Health: Evidence from the Social Security Notch

    PubMed Central

    Golberstein, Ezra

    2015-01-01

    Background Mental health is a key component of overall wellbeing and mental disorders are relatively common, including among older adults. Yet the causal effect of income on mental health status among older adults is poorly understood. Aims This paper considers the effects of a major source of transfer income, Social Security retirement benefits, on the mental health of older adults. Methods The Social Security benefit “Notch” is as a large, permanent, and exogenous shock to Social Security income in retirement. The “Notch” is used to identify the causal effect of Social Security income on mental health among older ages using data from the AHEAD cohort of the Health and Retirement Study. Results We find that increases in Social Security income significantly improve mental health status and the likelihood of a psychiatric diagnosis for women, but not for men. Discussion The effects of income on mental health for older women are statistically significant and meaningful in magnitude. While this is one of the only studies to use plausibly exogenous variation in household income to identify the effect of income on mental health, a limitation of this work is that the results only directly pertain to lower-education households. Implications Public policy proposals that alter retirement benefits for the elderly may have important effects on the mental health of older adults. PMID:25862202

  3. Racial/ethnic disparities in children's emergency mental health after economic downturns.

    PubMed

    Bruckner, Tim; Kim, Yonsu; Snowden, Lonnie

    2014-05-01

    African American children-more than other race/ethnicities-rely on emergency psychiatric care. One hypothesized cause of this overrepresentation involves heightened sensitivity to economic downturns. We test whether the African American/white difference in psychiatric emergency visits increases in months when the regional economy contracts. We applied time-series methods to California Medicaid claims (1999-2008; N = 7.1 million visits). One month following mass layoffs, African American youths use more emergency mental health services than do non-Hispanic whites. Economic downturns may provoke or uncover mental disorder especially among African American youth who by and large do not participate in the labor force. PMID:23397232

  4. Social Tie Characteristics and Psychiatric Rehabilitation Outcomes among Adults with Serious Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Chih-Chin; Chronister, Julie Ann

    2012-01-01

    Social support has achieved national attention as a key component of the mental health recovery paradigm for persons with serious mental illness (SMI). The aim of this study was to investigate the amount of variance accounted for by four social tie characteristics (social network orientation, emotional support, tangible support, and negative…

  5. Transitions: A Mental Health Literacy Program for Postsecondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potvin-Boucher, Jacqueline; Szumilas, Magdalena; Sheikh, Tabinda; Kutcher, Stan

    2010-01-01

    Enhancement of mental health literacy is a mental health promotion strategy that may be effective at destigmatizing mental illness and increasing self-seeking behavior. Transitions is a mental health literacy program intended to heighten students' awareness and discussion of mental health problems and promote help-seeking behaviors. Transitions

  6. Transitions: A Mental Health Literacy Program for Postsecondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potvin-Boucher, Jacqueline; Szumilas, Magdalena; Sheikh, Tabinda; Kutcher, Stan

    2010-01-01

    Enhancement of mental health literacy is a mental health promotion strategy that may be effective at destigmatizing mental illness and increasing self-seeking behavior. Transitions is a mental health literacy program intended to heighten students' awareness and discussion of mental health problems and promote help-seeking behaviors. Transitions…

  7. New directions for community mental health centers.

    PubMed

    Kipp, M F

    1987-01-01

    Community Mental Health Centers and other quasi-public authorities are operating within a larger health market characterized by the rapid unfolding of a number of key trends in consumer behavior, provider supply, and financing. Each of these trends, though not readily apparent, is strongly reflected in the specialty mental health sector. Mental health managers are faced with fundamental choices about the direction of their respective organizations and the adequacy of their resources to proceed. Mr. Kipp outlines the market dynamics at issue, describes three basic alternatives, and offers some guidelines for management in charting a course. PMID:10287206

  8. [Mental health care for immigrants in Germany].

    PubMed

    Schouler-Ocak, M

    2015-11-01

    Immigrants represent a very heterogeneous population, with various stress factors for mental disorders. These individuals are confronted with numerous access barriers within the health care system, which are reflected in limited utilization of the mental health system and psychotherapy services. A particularly large gap in health service provision exists among refugees and asylum-seekers. There is an urgent need for action in terms of opening up of the mental health system, improving and simplifying routes of access, and facilitating treatment options. PMID:26385118

  9. Correspondence of perceptions about centenarians' mental health

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Maurice; Martin, Peter; Margrett, Jennifer; Poon, Leonard W.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The goals of this study were to uncover the criteria by which centenarians, proxy/caregivers, and interviewers rated centenarians' mental health. Often proxy and interviewer reports are obtained in studies of the oldest-old and become a primary source of information. Methods Data were from a population-based sample of mentally competent US centenarians in northern Georgia. The dependent variables were based on alternative reports for the centenarians' mental or emotional health. Regression analysis was used to predict each source's rating of mental health separately with the same set of variables. These variables included information obtained from the centenarians and proxies about their distal experiences, demographics, and proximal resources including Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), health, personality, socioeconomic resources, and coping behaviors. Results Examination of mean-level differences between sources revealed similarity across mental health ratings. For centenarians and proxies, perceived economic status was a very important predictor of mental health. For centenarians and interviewers, personality (neuroticism and extraversion) was an important common predictor. The interviewer and proxy mental health ratings were strongly associated with MMSE, but that was not the case for centenarians. Conclusion Mean-level findings and the comparative regression results provide corroborating evidence that centenarians' self-reports of mental health are similar based on average ratings and presence of common associations with other raters (i.e., perceived economic status and personality). Implications of differences across rater pairs are discussed as guidance about the comparative value of substitution of proxies as informants for addressing specific influences on mental health. PMID:19888703

  10. Analysis of referrals of mental health problems by general practitioners.

    PubMed Central

    Verhaak, P F

    1993-01-01

    The majority of people in the community who have a psychiatric disorder will consult their general practitioner. Referrals from general practice to specialist services are, however, relatively rare. The filter between primary care and specialist care has been characterized by Goldberg and Huxley as the least permeable of the filters separating psychiatrists and other specialists from the populations they serve. These referrals form the subject of this study in the Netherlands. Using a large database of doctor-patient contacts, the proportion of mental health disorders resulting in a referral and the characteristics of the patient and general practitioner that are involved in such a referral have been determined. In addition, the type of mental health institution or specialist to which referrals were directed and the characteristics influencing this choice were examined. Only 6% of patients presenting with a psychiatric disorder during surgery hours were referred to specialist care. Younger patients, male patients and patients with severe diagnoses had a greater probability of being referred. The percentage of patients referred was higher in urban areas than in rural areas. Doctors with a limited task perception regarding mental treatment tended to refer more often. Although the diagnosis did have some relationship with the institutions to which patients were referred (psychotic conditions to psychiatric services and social/material problems to social workers), the most prevalent diagnoses (neurotic conditions and relationship problems) seemed to be more or less randomly distributed over the various possibilities. Preferences appeared to be related to the existence of regular meetings between general practitioners and specialists and a positive evaluation by general practitioners of the institution concerned. PMID:8347388

  11. Stigma and Mental Illness: Investigating Attitudes of Mental Health and Non-Mental-Health Professionals and Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Allison L.; Cashwell, Craig S.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored attitudes toward adults with mental illness. Results suggest that mental health trainees and professionals had less stigmatizing attitudes than did non-mental-health trainees and professionals. Professionals receiving supervision had higher mean scores on the Benevolence subscale than did professionals who were not receiving

  12. Stigma and Mental Illness: Investigating Attitudes of Mental Health and Non-Mental-Health Professionals and Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Allison L.; Cashwell, Craig S.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored attitudes toward adults with mental illness. Results suggest that mental health trainees and professionals had less stigmatizing attitudes than did non-mental-health trainees and professionals. Professionals receiving supervision had higher mean scores on the Benevolence subscale than did professionals who were not receiving…

  13. An Investigation of the Mental Health Needs of Children Looked after by Craigavon and Banbridge Health and Social Services Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teggart, Tom; Menary, Joanne

    2005-01-01

    Rates of mental health difficulties were investigated among children in substitute care across five childcare teams in Craigavon and Banbridge H+SS Trust. A total of 64 children were assessed using a behavioural screening instrument. Results indicate that more than 60% of 4-10 year olds assessed may have a diagnosable psychiatric disorder. The…

  14. Using psychiatric symptomatology to assess risk for HIV infection in individuals with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Wu, Evan S; Rothbard, Aileen; Blank, Michael B

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we use the Colorado Symptom Index, a measure of psychiatric symptomatology, to identify vulnerable subgroups within the severely mentally ill population at elevated risk for HIV infection. Baseline data on 228 HIV positive and 281 HIV negative participants from two clinical trials were used. With years to HIV diagnosis as our primary endpoint, Kaplan-Meier estimates were calculated to find a CSI cut-off score, and a Cox proportional hazards model was used to obtain relative risks of infection for the two CSI categories created by the cut point. We found that a CSI score ≥ 30 was associated with a 47% increased risk for HIV infection (P < 0.01). While this study establishes the foundation for using CSI scores to identify a vulnerable subgroup within the SMI community, further studies should develop effective approaches to mitigate psychiatric symptomatology in order to examine the impact on HIV transmission risky behaviors. PMID:21479681

  15. A Multisite Study of the Prevalence of HIV With Rapid Testing in Mental Health Settings

    PubMed Central

    Blank, Michael B.; Himelhoch, Seth S.; Balaji, Alexandra B.; Metzger, David S.; Dixon, Lisa B.; Rose, Charles E.; Oraka, Emeka; Davis-Vogel, Annet; Thompson, William W.; Heffelfinger, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated HIV prevalence and risk factors among persons receiving mental health treatment in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Baltimore, Maryland, January 2009 to August 2011. Methods. We used a multisite, cross-sectional design stratified by clinical setting. We tested 1061 individuals for HIV in university-based inpatient psychiatric units (n = 287), intensive case-management programs (n = 273), and community mental health centers (n = 501). Results. Fifty-one individuals (4.8%) were HIV-infected. Confirmed positive HIV tests were 5.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.7%, 9.4%) for inpatient units, 5.1% (95% CI = 3.1%, 8.5%) for intensive case-management programs, and 4.0% (95% CI = 2.6%, 6.1%) for community mental health centers. Characteristics associated with HIV included Black race, homosexual or bisexual identity, and HCV infection. Conclusions. HIV prevalence for individuals receiving mental health services was about 4 times as high as in the general population. We found a positive association between psychiatric symptom severity and HIV infection, indicating that engaging persons with mental illness in appropriate mental health treatment may be important to HIV prevention. These findings reinforce recommendations for routine HIV testing in all clinical settings to ensure that HIV-infected persons receiving mental health services are identified and referred to timely infectious disease care. PMID:24524493

  16. The predictors of psychiatric disorders among people living with epilepsy as seen in a Nigerian Tertiary Health Institution

    PubMed Central

    Ayanda, Kazeem Ayinde; Sulyman, Dauda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mental disorders may complicate epilepsy which can further impair the quality of life of people living with this chronic neurological condition. The aim of this study was to determine the types of psychiatric disorders in patients with epilepsy and to determine the sociodemographic and clinical factors that may predict these psychiatric illnesses. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out over a period of 6 months at Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Teaching Hospital, Bauchi, Nigeria. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to determine the psychological health of 74 consecutively recruited adult patients with epilepsy attending the psychiatric outpatients' clinic of the hospital. Psychiatric diagnoses were based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, 4th Edition criteria, and logistic regression analysis was done to determine variables that predict psychiatric disorder. Results: Majority of the participants were male (67.6%) with their age ranging from 18 to 68 years and the mean age of 30.55 ± 10.91 years. Thirty-three (44.6%) of our study respondents had psychiatric diagnoses that included major depressive disorder (21.6%), schizophrenia (17.6%), generalized anxiety disorder (4.1%), and hypomania (1.4%). Being unemployed (odds ratio [OR] = 3.24. 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15–9.10, P = 0.026) and short-term seizure free period (OR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.04–0.78, P = 0.022) were the variables found to be predictive of psychiatric diagnoses. Conclusions: The study revealed that a large percentage of people living with epilepsy develop mental disorders which can further increase the burden and worsen the quality of life of patients with this chronic debilitating condition. PMID:27185975

  17. Mental health surveillance and information systems.

    PubMed

    Gater, R; Chisholm, D; Dowrick, C

    2015-07-01

    Routine information systems for mental health in many Eastern Mediterranean Region countries are rudimentary or absent, making it difficult to understand the needs of local populations and to plan accordingly. Key components for mental health surveillance and information systems are: national commitment and leadership to ensure that relevant high quality information is collected and reported; a minimum data set of key mental health indicators; intersectoral collaboration with appropriate data sharing; routine data collection supplemented with periodic surveys; quality control and confidentiality; and technology and skills to support data collection, sharing and dissemination. Priority strategic interventions include: (1) periodically assessing and reporting the mental health resources and capacities available using standardized methodologies; (2) routine collection of information and reporting on service availability, coverage and continuity, for priority mental disorders disaggregated by age, sex and diagnosis; and (3) mandatory recording and reporting of suicides at the national level (using relevant ICD codes). PMID:26442892

  18. The mental health of informal caregivers in Ontario: an epidemiological survey.

    PubMed Central

    Cochrane, J J; Goering, P N; Rogers, J M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study describes the mental health status, disability, physical health, and mental health service utilization of informal care-givers under the age of 65 in the province of Ontario. METHODS: The study analyzed data collected in the 1991 province-wide, population-based mental health supplement to the Ontario Health Survey. Diagnoses from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edition, revised, were generated on the basis of a structured diagnostic interview. Caregivers and noncaregivers are compared here on past-year prevalence of psychiatric disorder, physical illness, disability, and utilization of mental health services. The possible confounding effects of age, sex, employment status, and economic disadvantage are explored. RESULTS: Informal caregivers (n = 1219) constituted 15.0% of the sample. Caregivers had higher rates of affective (6.3% vs 4.2%) and anxiety (17.5% vs 10.9%) disorders than noncaregivers and used health services for mental health problems at nearly twice the rate. CONCLUSIONS: Documentation of the prevalence of caregiving and the increased prevalence of psychiatric disorders, disability, and service utilization among caregivers is of critical importance as governments continue to move toward community-based care. To accomplish this goal, the needs of caregivers must be acknowledged and met by the establishment of appropriate and readily accessible support services. PMID:9431291

  19. Adverse Childhood Experiences and the Mental Health of Veterans.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, Teena M; Waldrop, Jessica R

    2015-06-01

    Many U.S. Veterans have experienced the burdens of mental illness and suicide. The current article focuses on Veterans who served from 2001-2015. Although combat exposure and suicidal ideation are linked, approximately one half of all suicides among Active Duty service members (who have served since 2001) occurred among those who never deployed. Researchers who sought additional risks for suicide found that Veterans have greater odds of adversities in childhood than the general population. Adverse childhood experiences are stressful and traumatic experiences, including abuse and neglect, as well as witnessing household dysfunction, or growing up with individuals with mental illness or substance abuse. Further, childhood physical abuse has been shown to be a significant predictor for posttraumatic stress disorder and suicide. Adverse childhood experiences confer additional risk for the mental health of service members. Psychiatric nursing implications include the importance of assessing early childhood adversity during psychosocial assessments. Providing trauma-informed strategies for treatment is an essential element of psychiatric nursing care. PMID:26091547

  20. The microbiome of the built environment and mental health.

    PubMed

    Hoisington, Andrew J; Brenner, Lisa A; Kinney, Kerry A; Postolache, Teodor T; Lowry, Christopher A

    2015-01-01

    The microbiome of the built environment (MoBE) is a relatively new area of study. While some knowledge has been gained regarding impacts of the MoBE on the human microbiome and disease vulnerability, there is little knowledge of the impacts of the MoBE on mental health. Depending on the specific microbial species involved, the transfer of microorganisms from the built environment to occupant's cutaneous or mucosal membranes has the potential to increase or disrupt immunoregulation and/or exaggerate or suppress inflammation. Preclinical evidence highlighting the influence of the microbiota on systemic inflammation supports the assertion that microorganisms, including those originating from the built environment, have the potential to either increase or decrease the risk of inflammation-induced psychiatric conditions and their symptom severity. With advanced understanding of both the ecology of the built environment, and its influence on the human microbiome, it may be possible to develop bioinformed strategies for management of the built environment to promote mental health. Here we present a brief summary of microbiome research in both areas and highlight two interdependencies including the following: (1) effects of the MoBE on the human microbiome and (2) potential opportunities for manipulation of the MoBE in order to improve mental health. In addition, we propose future research directions including strategies for assessment of changes in the microbiome of common areas of built environments shared by multiple human occupants, and associated cohort-level changes in the mental health of those who spend time in the buildings. Overall, our understanding of the fields of both the MoBE and influence of host-associated microorganisms on mental health are advancing at a rapid pace and, if linked, could offer considerable benefit to health and wellness. PMID:26674771