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Psychiatricmentalhealth is critical to ensuring the health and wellbeing of individuals, families, and communities. While psychiatricmentalhealth work continues to become increasingly complex and challenging, the demand for psychiatric nurses with evidence-based skills continues to grow. Psychiatricmentalhealth nurses (PMHNs) are the primary providers of professional psychiatricmentalhealth care services. PMFNs emphasize humanistic values and focus on servicing patient and family needs. In Taiwan, the PsychiatricMentalHealth Nursing Association constructs the competence-credentialing model for psychiatricmentalhealth nursing that underpins the values, attitudes, and beliefs of PMHNs and ensures that the mentalhealth nursing practice promotes public health and wellbeing. In addition, this association promotes advanced psychiatric nursing education, research, and practice, influences the national health agenda, and discusses and disseminates information on psychiatricmentalhealth care issues in order to influence the direction, nature, and quality of psychiatric and mentalhealth care. PMID:24519338
In sociocultural perspective, this paper traces the impact of deinstitutionalization and the community mentalhealth movement on the mentalhealth service delivery system and subsequent effects on psychiatric training. Examples are given of changes at the national, state, and local levels. The current need is for new initiatives to interest residents in public sector psychiatry and in work with the
Psychiatric diagnosis: some implications for mentalhealth nursing care This article explores some of the functions of psychiatric diagnosis and the implications this has for the mentalhealth nursing care that service users receive. It proposes that because a psychiatric diagnosis often fails to describe the individual's experience of mental distress it can be regarded as a categorization process that, while not necessarily intentionally, serves to maintain oppressive power relations within society. It does this by establishing and maintaining the parameters of normality and abnormality in a manner that reflects particular gender, culture and class biases. The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders will be used to illustrate some of the inherent biases in the diagnostic process. Mentalhealth nursing practice needs to demonstrate an awareness of the power relations inherent in any diagnostic process and make attempts to redress these at both the individual and sociopolitical levels. If mentalhealth nursing practice is a patient-centred partnership, as many of our nursing standards suggest, then nursing's focus should be on the patient's experience rather than the psychiatric diagnosis with which the experience is attributed. Mentalhealth nurses need to turn to service users to learn how best to help. PMID:10718877
The connections between human communication and mentalhealth were first noted 50 to 60 years ago by such early psychiatrists as Alfred Adler, Harry Stack Sullivan, and Karen Horney. They were concerned with understanding those communication processes and skills that make for effective, fully functioning human beings. Adler emphasized faulty…
Nurses are in a unique position to treat survivors of human trafficking and are most likely to encounter patients who have been involved in the sex trade. In particular, psychiatric-mentalhealth nurses can be effective because they are educated to think of clients holistically and can provide both short-term medical intervention and long-term psychotherapy. Additionally, they can recognize and refer these individuals for medical treatment. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of sex trafficking and what psychiatric-mentalhealth nurses can do to treat survivors. PMID:24274246
The National Association of Psychiatric Technology (NAPT), a non-profit organization, is the outgrowth of local and state organizations of psychiatric attendants, aides, and technicians who had banded together to improve their knowledge and skills and to demonstrate their competence to assume greater responsibilities in the care and treatment of…
National Association of Psychiatric Technology, Sacramento, CA.
TOPIC Juvenile mentalhealth courts for adjudicated youth. PURPOSE To describe the role of psychiatric nurses in reducing mentalhealth disparities for adjudicated youth via juvenile mentalhealth courts. SOURCES ISI Web of Knowledge; Sage Journals Online; HighWire; PubMed; Google Scholar and Wiley Online Library and websites for psychiatric nursing organizations. Years included: 2000–2010. CONCLUSIONS Juvenile mentalhealth courts may provide a positive and effective alternative to incarceration for youth with mentalhealth problems with psychiatric nurses playing a key role in program implementation.
Burriss, F. Antoinette; Breland-Noble, Alfiee M.; Webster, Joe L.; Soto, Jose A.
Racial disparities in mentalhealth outcomes have been widely documented in noninstitutionalized community psychiatric samples, but few studies have specifically examined the effects of race among individuals with the most severe mental illnesses. A sample of 925 individuals hospitalized for severe mental illness was followed for a year after…
At Ville-Evrard psychiatric hospital, sports activities are used as one of several therapeutic tools. The day-long multi-sport sessions, led notably by a nurse, form part of the care programme. Sport not only enables the patients to exert themselves, it is above all a form of therapeutic mediation which encourages verbal and non-verbal communication. PMID:24654330
For some time it has been known through the results of family, twin, and adoption studies that hereditary appears to play a significant casual role in many mental disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other mood disorders, Alzheimer`s Disease, panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, autism, dyslexia, and Tourette`s syndrome. The precise patterns of inheritance of these complex disorders have not been determined, nor have the relevant genes been localized or cloned. Because the genetics are complex and because there is also clearly an environmental contribution to behavior, we expect the analysis of the genetics of mental illness to be arduous and not quickly resolved. There are several compelling reasons to continue to focus our attention on uncovering the genetic factors for severe mental illness. Prominent among these are the implications for better treatment of mental disorders. The National Institute of MentalHealth supports a wide range of studies on psychiatric genetic research. 16 refs.
The practice of mindfulness is increasingly being integrated into Western clinical practice within the context of psychotherapy and stress management. Although it is based in ancient Buddhist philosophy, there remains confusion about the definition, antecedents, processes, and outcomes of mindfulness practice. This article reviews the literature on mindfulness, with a focus upon a clearer definition and understanding of the processes and integration into psychiatricmentalhealth nursing practice. PMID:19766927
Background & objectives: Mentalhealth professionals have varied attitudes and views regarding informed consent and confidentiality protections in psychiatric research and clinical care. The present study was designed to understand the knowledge and views of mentalhealth professionals (MHPs) regarding informed consent and confidentiality protection practices. Methods: Mentalhealth professionals (n=121) who were members of the Delhi Psychiatric Society, were invited to participate in this questionnaire-based study of their knowledge and attitudes regarding informed consent and confidentiality. Half of them expressed willingness to discuss participation and gave initial oral consent (n=62); of these, 31 gave written informed consent to participate and completed the questionnaires. The questionnaires included both forced choice (yes / no / do not know) and open-ended questions. Questionnaires content reflected prominent guidelines on informed consent and confidentiality protection. Results: Attitudes of the majority of the participants towards informed consent and confidentiality were in line with ethical principles and guidelines. All expressed the opinion that confidentiality should generally be respected and that if confidentiality was breached, there could be mistrust of the professional by the patient/participant. The mean knowledge scores regarding informed consent and confidentiality were 8.55 ± 1.46 and 8.16 ± 1.29, respectively. Interpretation & conclusions: The participating mentalhealth professionals appeared to have adequate knowledge of basic ethical guidelines concerning informed consent and confidentiality. Most respondents were aware of ethical issues in research. Given the small sample size and low response rate, the significance of the quantitative analysis must be regarded with modesty, and qualitative analysis of open-ended questions may be more valuable for development of future research. Increased efforts to involve mentalhealth professionals in research on ethical concerns pertinent to their work must be made, and the actual practices of these professionals with regard to ethical guidelines need to be studied.
Mishra, N.N.; Bhatia, Triptish; Kumar, Nandini; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L.; Parker, Lisa S.; Deshpande, Smita N.
The purpose of this article is to discuss the development of the psychiatric–mentalhealth nurse practitioner(PMHNP) competencies. The historical context and controversy regarding the role of advanced practice psychiatricmentalhealth nursing as well as the consensus process of a national panel charged with the development of these competencies are described. Also, implications for education, practice, research, and policy are
Part of a three-volume document, this volume is concerned with providing source data about the activities of mentalhealth nursing personnel as the activities relate to patient care and contains abstracts of more than 4,000 critical behaviors of psychiatric attendants in 50 psychiatric hospitals, general hospitals with psychiatric units, and…
Objective: To examine the relationship between psychiatric disorders and sexual behaviors among adolescents receiving mentalhealth treatment. Adolescents in mentalhealth treatment have been found to have higher rates of HIV risk behavior than their peers, but data concerning the relationship between psychopathology and risk are inconsistent and…
Brown, Larry K.; Hadley, Wendy; Stewart, Angela; Lescano, Celia; Whiteley, Laura; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph
Examines the concept of social network as a mediating construct linking psychiatric epidemiology and community mentalhealth. Presents a selective review of studies investigating the structural and interactional features of the social networks of psychiatrically impaired persons. Implications of results are discussed. (Author)
A study was begun in the Fall of 1965 concerning the need for psychiatric treatment and mentalhealth counselling among Finnish university students. The project comprises psychiatric, somatico-medical, psychological and sociological investigations. Students who had started their studies in four universities or technical and commercial colleges at the university level in Helsinki at the beginning of the Fall semester 1965,
Yrjö O. Alanen; Reijo Holmström; Vilja Hägglund; Klaus W. Karlsson; Pekka Tienari; Kauko Vauhkonen; Kari Savonen; Juhani Hirvas; Marjatta Marin
Psychiatric reasons are among the most common causes of hospitalization for adolescents. A Consensual Qualitative Research approach was used to explore mentalhealth professionals' perceptions of the needs of adolescents as they transition from psychiatric hospital to school. Academic, social, and emotional domains emerged as important areas of…
Clemens, Elysia V.; Welfare, Laura E.; Williams, Amy M.
This paper examines the concept of social network as a mediating construct linking psychiatric epidemiology and community mentalhealth. A selective review of studies investigating the structural and interactional features of the social networks of psychiatrically impaired persons is presented and the implications of their results are discussed. It is concluded that social networks provide a unifying framework potentially capable
Background Recently Bolivia has implemented a universal health system, but their mentalhealth policy is still emerging. Objectives To investigate the current state of the mentalhealth care system in Bolivia and discuss challenges for structuring a coordinated network of services that can effectively meet the needs of the Bolivian population. Methods This review was conducted by searching for scholarly articles through the databases Lilacs, Medline OPS, HISA and IBECS REPIDISCA via the search portal in the Virtual Health Library - NLM (http://www.bireme.br). Results Bolivia has a National MentalHealth Plan that is intended to guide mentalhealth promotion, prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of mental illness, but the resources for this area of health are limited. There are 1.06 psychiatrists and 0.46 psychologists per 100, 000 inhabitants. Information on psychiatric morbidity in Bolivia and the impact of mental disorders on the global burden of disease is scarce. Admission statistics reported by psychiatric hospitals in the country show that the main cause of hospitalization is substance abuse (30%). Alcohol consumption is responsible for 90% of these admissions, in addition to being a major cause of deaths in traffic and one of the main risk factors for domestic violence. Almost one in two women in Bolivia (47%) experienced some form of violence from their partner in the last year. Nineteen percent of women living with a partner reported being physically abused, while 7% were sexually abused by their partners. Isolated studies report that suicide rates are disproportionately high in Bolivia. Conclusions Although there is a shortage of epidemiological data in Bolivia, it is clear the impact of alcohol addiction in psychiatric admissions, domestic violence and traffic accidents. Violence against women and suicides are important issues to be tackled. Among the proposed strategies to afford human resources for mentalhealth in Bolivia, “task shifting”, the delegation of tasks to non-specialists should be extensively adopted in the country to improve mentalhealth care.
THE DESCRIPTION OF THE NUMBER AND KIND OF MENTALHEALTH CLINIC SERVICES IN RURAL AREAS WAS BASED ON REPORTS RECEIVED FROM 1,537 OUTPATIENT PSYCHIATRIC CLINICS IN THE UNITED STATES AS OF APRIL 1961. ASPECTS OF CLINIC SERVICES FOR CHILDREN AND YOUTH EXAMINED WERE GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION, CLINIC CHARACTERISTICS, PROFESSIONAL MAN-HOURS AVAILABLE PER WEEK,…
Background In England and Wales mentalhealth services need to take account of the Mental Capacity Act 2005 and the MentalHealth Act 1983. The overlap between these two causes dilemmas for clinicians. Aims To describe the frequency and characteristics of patients who fall into two potentially anomalous groups: those who are not detained but lack mental capacity; and those who are detained but have mental capacity. Method Cross-sectional study of 200 patients admitted to psychiatric wards. We assessed mental capacity using a semi-structured interview, the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Treatment (MacCAT–T). Results Of the in-patient sample, 24% were informal but lacked capacity: these patients felt more coerced and had greater levels of treatment refusal than informal participants with capacity. People detained under the MentalHealth Act with capacity comprised a small group (6%) that was hard to characterise. Conclusions Our data suggest that psychiatrists in England and Wales need to take account of the Mental Capacity Act, and in particular best interests judgments and deprivation of liberty safeguards, more explicitly than is perhaps currently the case.
Owen, Gareth S.; Szmukler, George; Richardson, Genevra; David, Anthony S.; Hayward, Peter; Rucker, James; Harding, Duncan; Hotopf, Matthew
A survey was sent to all PsychiatricMentalHealth (PMH) Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (APRNs) who had a registered e-mail address with the American Nurses Credentialing Center, resulting in 1,899 usable surveys. The practice of two groups of APRNs was examined and contrasted: those certified to treat children and adolescents and PMH-APRNs certified only to treat adults. Our findings raise
Aims: The study investigates differences in dual diagnosis disorders among patients in psychiatric and in substance use treatment services.Method: The sample (n = 159) comprised patients from four treatment settings: community mentalhealth service, inpatient psychiatric ward, drug treatment service, alcohol treatment service. Patients who screened positive for dual diagnosis received a detailed multi-axial assessment of substance use and mentalhealth problems.Results:
Victoria Manning; Geraldine Strathdee; David Best; Francis Keaney; Kamuldeep Bhui; Michael Gossop
There is increasing recognition that parity of esteem between mental and physical health disorders is essential to improve the course, outcome and quality of life of individuals within different populations. Achieving this parity now underpins the objectives of several nations. Here, we argue that parity of esteem between mental and physical health can only be realized when parity of esteem also exists across mentalhealth disorders, particularly in terms of service commissioning and planning. Using first-episode psychosis and early intervention in psychosis services as a motivating example, we demonstrate how carefully conducted psychiatric epidemiology can be translated to develop precise forecasts of the anticipated incidence of first-episode psychosis in different populations, based on an understanding of underlying local needs and inequalities. Open-access prediction tools such as PsyMaptic will allow commissioners of mentalhealth services to more effectively allocate resources across services, based on empirical evidence and local need, thus reducing inequalities in access to mentalhealth care. PMID:23931735
Introduction: Only a limited proportion of patients with psychiatric disorders attend the healthcare facilities, and that too when the condition becomes severe. Treatment from unqualified medical practitioners and faith healers is a common practice, and is attributable to the delay in proper treatment. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to understand the pathway of care adopted by psychiatric patients and its relationship with the socio-demographic determinants in the study population. The subjects were selected from urban specialty psychiatric hospitals and interviewed using a pre-tested, semi-structured interview schedule. The data was analyzed using SPSS v10.0 software. The Chi square test, T test, and Kruskall Wallis Test were used, as needed. Results: A total of 295 patients (203 males) were included in this study. The majority of the patients (45%) were suffering from Bipolar affective disorders (45%), followed by schizophrenia (36%). The majority, 203 (68%), were from the rural area, with 94 patients being illiterate. The mean distance traveled for treatment was 249 km. The majority of these (69%) had first contacted faith healers and a qualified psychiatrist was the first contacted person for only 9.2% of the patients. Conclusion: A large proportion of psychiatric patients do not attend any health facility due to a lack of awareness about treatment services, the distance, and due to the fear of the stigma associated with treatment. The psychiatric patients first seek the help of various sources prior to attending a psychiatrichealth facility. The pathway adopted by these patients need to be kept in mind at the time of preparation of the mentalhealth program.
With the popularity of accelerated pre-licensure nursing programmes and the growth in nursing student enrolments, traditional clinical education continues to be a challenge to deliver. Nursing faculty members are required to develop and implement educational innovations that achieve effective learning outcomes, while using fewer resources. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the effectiveness of a constructivism-based learning project to achieve specific learning outcomes and to supplement approximately 30 clinical hours in a psychiatric-mentalhealth nursing course. Students participated in a 10-week, multistage project that examined life histories, treatment resources, and evidence-based practice, as applied to a single individual with a mental illness. Students reported increased understanding of mentalhealth and illness, developed personal relevance associated with the knowledge gained, and learned to problem solve with regard to nursing care of individuals diagnosed with mental illness. For many students, there also appeared to be a reduction in stigmatized attitudes towards mental illness. Constructivism-based learning is a promising alternative to supplement clinical hours, while effectively achieving learning outcomes. Future research is needed to further validate the use of this method for the learning of course content, as well as the reduction of stigma. PMID:21676137
Objective People living in rural areas have the same incidence of mental illness but far less access to mentalhealth services compared with people living in urban areas. This brief report describes the workforce of advanced-practice psychiatric nurses (APPNs) and explores their potential to ease the rural mentalhealth workforce shortage. Methods National certification data were used to describe workforce characteristics and the rural distribution of APPNs. All nationally certified APPNs in 2003 were included (N=8,751). Results APPNs were more likely than psychiatrists to live in rural areas. The ratio of APPNs to state rural populations ranged from .06 to 14.9. The mean±SD ratio of APPNs per 100,000 in the rural population was 3.0±3.0. Conclusions APPNs have great potential to be a solution to the rural mentalhealth workforce shortage. Even so, the number of APPNs must increase and barriers to their full scope of practice must be removed.
Tobacco use and dependence is a serious public health issue that disproportionately affects the mentally ill client population. Mentalhealth professionals, including psychiatric/mentalhealth advanced practice nurses (PMHAPNs), are disinclined to integrate tobacco cessation interventions into their practice, due in part, to a general lack of tobacco-related knowledge (C. Essenmacher, C. Karvonen-Gutierrez, J. Lynch-Sauer, & S. A., Duffy, 2008; A. J. Molina, T. Fernandez, D. Fernandez, M. Delgado, S. de Abajo, & V. Martin, 2012; L. Sarna, L. L. Danao, S. Chan, S. Shin, L. Baldago, E. Endo, & M. E. Wewers, 2006); D. Sharp, S. Blaakman, R. Cole, & J. Evinger, 2009). This paper provides an in-depth literature review of tobacco education in nursing curricula and proposes the systematic integration of theory-based tobacco content into psychiatric/mentalhealth graduate nursing programs. PMID:23915693
Within the nursing profession stress and burnout are considered to be widely present and problematic. These factors tend to impact negatively on job satisfaction and ultimately affect the retention of nurses. Psychiatric/mentalhealth nursing as a specialty is considered to be a highly stressful environment; however, there is a paucity of research in this area. The current study adopted a survey design to compare forensic psychiatric nurses (n = 51) with psychiatric nurses from a mainstreamed mentalhealth service (n = 78) in relation to burnout and job satisfaction. Forensic nurses displayed lower burnout and higher job satisfaction than their counterparts from the mainstreamed services. These findings are surprising in light of the image of forensic psychiatric nursing as dangerous and unpredictable. PMID:14685958
This article discusses the effects of sociodemographics and the presence of psychiatric disorders diagnosed in the 12 months before the first interview by using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-III-R, third edition, revised, on three types of attrition (failure to locate, refusal to participate, morbidity\\/mortality) in the second wave (1997-1998) of the Netherlands MentalHealth Survey and
Ron de Graaf; Rob V. Bijl; Filip Smit; Anneloes Ravelli; Wilma A. M. Vollebergh
Objective: To study the differences in children's psychiatric symptoms and child mentalhealth service use at two time points: 1989 and 1999. Method: Two cross-sectional representative samples of 8- to 9-year-old children from southern Finland were compared. The 1989 sample consisted of 985 children, of whom 95% participated, and the 1999 sample…
Background: Dual diagnosis (DD) refers to the coexistence of intellectual disability and psychiatric disorder. In order to provide individuals with DD with adequate care, it is essential for mentalhealth workers to have adequate knowledge and positive attitudes. These may be achieved through proper training. Aims: To summarise the available…
Rapid changes in societal and environmental conditions mean that many health issues remain unresolved, especially in the realms of childhood social-emotional and mental problems. These problems threaten to affect the future development of affected children. Therefore, this article introduces the new perspective on gene-environment interactions and epigenetics in neuroscience, the definition of resilience, and current developments in related research. This article further integrates the literature to identify the association of resilience in children's emotional and behavioral adjustment. These evidence-based studies demonstrate the significance of resilience intervention and assessment in psychiatric nursing. These developments hold the potential to upgrade clinical applications and enhance the development of individuals. PMID:24519339
This paper provides an interpretation, based on the social systems theory of German sociologist Niklas Luhmann, of the recent paradigmatic shift of mentalhealth care from an asylum-based model to a community-oriented network of services. The observed shift is described as the development of psychiatry as a function system of modern society and whose operative goal has moved from the medical and social management of a lower and marginalized group to the specialized medical and psychological care of the whole population. From this theoretical viewpoint, the wider deployment of the modern social order as a functionally differentiated system may be considered to be a consistent driving force for this process; it has made asylum psychiatry overly incompatible with prevailing social values (particularly with the normative and regulative principle of inclusion of all individuals in the different functional spheres of society and with the common patterns of participation in modern function systems) and has, in turn, required the availability of psychiatric care for a growing number of individuals. After presenting this account, some major challenges for the future of mentalhealth care provision, such as the overburdening of services or the overt exclusion of a significant group of potential users, are identified and briefly discussed. PMID:20711755
The authors believe that literature and music as an adjunct in teaching psychiatric-mentalhealth nursing are enriching for students and faculty. Although a systematic evaluation process has not yet been completed, anecdotal evidence suggests that more interesting classes and greater learning results from a variety of teaching methods (Bloom, 1976; Shipman & Shipman, 1985). The students learn from the life experiences of others portrayed by the characters in literary and musical form. Insights into the psychodynamics of human behavior are gleaned through the study of the reality of the total person rather than a focus on mental disorders. Moreover, students take a more active role in learning since they problem-solve in class rather than the more passive role that usually accompanies the lecture format. Through the increased use of reflection, analysis, and self-discovery, students hopefully will continue to utilize these processes, thereby increasing their awareness of the psychological aspects of everyday media, valuing human behavior, and perceiving the world in a more integral whole. PMID:2852230
The aim of this study was to measure expert consensus on the implementation of Psychiatric Advance Directives (PADs) within\\u000a the Veterans Health Administration. We conducted a two-round Delphi study with 55 panelists including consumers, caregivers,\\u000a mentalhealth providers and researchers. For a number of items where no positive or negative consensus was reached we found\\u000a differences between the views of
Claire Henderson; Carlos Jackson; Mike Slade; Alexander S. Young; Jennifer L. Strauss
Community Psychiatric Practice is a special section within Community MentalHealth Journal devoted to issues relating to psychiatrists who practice in community mentalhealth centers and similar settings. The intent of the section is to stimulate interaction and involve community psychiatrists and other community mentalhealth professionals in a dialogue analogous to the collaborative situation in the community men- tal
This project will examine the feasibility of implementing Medicare's mentalhealth prospective payment system (PPS) for Tricare beneficiaries treated in inpatient psychiatric facilities. Background information will be presented on both Tricare's...
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the fit between practice and graduate education from the perspective of psychiatricmentalhealth advanced practice registered nurses (PMH APRNs).OBJECTIVE: With the purpose of addressing this gap in our knowledge, an e-mail survey that was sent to certified PMH APRNs included a query “Did your program prepare you for your role?” and an open-ended follow-up
This study examined the relationship between quality of mentalhealth care provided by community mentalhealth centers (CMHCs) and the poverty and racial mix of neighborhoods. Indicators of quality of care were constructed by examining service mix and prescription patterns for adult patients with schizophrenia during fiscal year 1996. CMHCs in high income, Caucasian areas were found to have higher
Background Mentalhealth policies throughout the world are being subjected to several changes due to increased pressure from the public\\u000a and from health administrators. Mentalhealth policies in the developing world experienced changes following advice and consultation\\u000a from the World Health Organization (WHO). This was the case with Brazil, which enacted several laws and policies affecting\\u000a community care and the closure
Rafael Henriques Candiago; Sergio da Silva Saraiva; Veralice Gonçalves; Paulo Belmonte-de-Abreu
Almost everyone, at some point in life, experiences emotional and behavioural problems or psychiatric symptoms, but mentalhealth services reflect only an orthodox medical model which emphasizes cure to the detriment of humanistic focus. Partnership in Coping is an emerging concept, based on recovery alliance theory, which emphasizes partnership to overcome such problems and symptoms. It is a collaboratively-integrated system that provides opportunity for own problem solving, while one's coping strategies are being empowered. This study was designed to ascertain how Partnership in Coping impacts mentalhealth recovery. It paves the way for remedying problems inherent in the orthodox medical model approach which provide pathological perspective to the detriment of humanistic focus. The participants were 56 service users at the Federal Neuro-Psychiatric Hospital, Kaduna. The Professional Quality of Life Scale helped in selecting research assistants, while the MentalHealth Recovery Measure was used in assessing the post-treatment behaviour of participants. The experimental group had Partnership in Coping during a 3-month clinical intervention period, while the control group only had medical treatment. The finding revealed that F (1, 56)?= 2268.750, P < 001. Thus, partnership enhances complete recovery from mental illness. This reality changes perception and frees people from stigmatization and hopelessness, thereby influencing service systems. PMID:20887606
The combined effects of minority status, specific ethnic group experiences (political, economic, trauma and immigration history), poverty, and illegal status pose a set of unique psychiatric risks for undocumented Latinos in the United States. Restrictive legislation and policy measures have limited access to health care, and other basic human services to undocumented immigrants and their children throughout the nation. However,
Mental and behavioral disorders are common, affecting more than 25% of all people at some time during their lives. Mental disorders and their burden on society have increased dramatically. This scenario can be an opportunity for psychiatric/mentalhealth (P/MH) nurses. Some literature shows gratifying experiences of care delivered by P/MH nurses, but that can also be a threat if, in a world with an economic dominance such as ours, we are not able to clarify our identity and effectiveness. One implication of this is that we need to identify the contribution of nursing to patient outcomes through nurses' independent, dependent, and interdependent roles. The authors stressed the importance of improving our accountability and fighting against invisibility to policy makers to prioritize the nurse-client relationship and identify our effectiveness. Based on some literature, the authors argue that clinical nurse specialists are in a better position than nurse practitioners to produce nursing-sensitive outcomes. PMID:21978801
Santos, José Carlos; Amaral, António Fernando Salgueiro
Despite the perception that few people are served by public psychiatric hospitals, they play a critical role in the continuum of care for people with mental illness. Although the capacity of these hospitals has diminished as a result of deinstitutionalization, they continue to serve people with severe and chronic mental illness who do not have the resources to seek care
Debra Draper; Megan McHugh; Lori Achman; Sylvia Kuo
Before psychiatry emerged as a medical discipline, hospitalizing individuals with mental disorders was more of a social stigmatizing act than a therapeutic act. After the birth of the mentalhealth disciplines, psychiatric hospitalization was legitimized and has proven to be indispensable, preventing suicides and helping individuals in need. However, despite more than a century passing since this legitimization occurred, psychiatric hospitalization remains a controversial issue. There is the question of possible negative outcomes after a psychiatric admission ceases to take its protective effect, and even of whether the psychiatric admission itself is related to a negative setback after discharge. This review aims to summarize some of the most important negative outcomes after discharge from a psychiatric institution. These experiences were organized into two groups: those after a brief psychiatric hospitalization, and those after a long-stay admission. The author further suggests possible ways to minimize these adversities, emphasizing the need of awareness related to this important issue.
This study examined characteristics and profiles of youth receiving services in 1 of Florida's Medicaid-funded residential mentalhealth treatment programs--State Inpatient Psychiatric Program (SIPP)--between July 1, 2004, and June 30, 2008 (N=1,432). Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to classify youth, and 3 classes were identified: Children With Multiple Needs, Children With No Caregivers, and Abused Children With Substantial Maltreatment History. The results of LCA showed that Children With Multiple Needs experienced the greatest risk for adverse outcomes. Compared with youth in the other 2 classes, these children were more likely to get readmitted to SIPP, more likely to become involved with the juvenile justice system, and more likely to experience involuntary mentalhealth assessments. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:24827018
Advanced practice nurses (APNs) play a key role in delivering health care and increasingly include prescriptive authority in their practices. To date, few systematic studies have investigated APN prescribing patterns. The purpose of this investigation was to explore the prescriptive practice of APNs, assess differences in prescriptive patterns by specialty, and determine barriers to prescriptive practice. Fifty-one percent (n = 1352) of 2,651 nurse practitioners (NPs) and psychiatric clinical nurse specialists (CNSs) in Massachusetts responded to a self-administered survey; 59% had incorporated prescriptive authority. Identified barriers included fees, the process of obtaining prescriptive authority, and lack of physician supervision. Significantly more psychiatric CNSs than NPs had difficulty obtaining physician supervisors. Prescriptive authority is integral to advanced practice, but differences in ability to implement this in practice exist among specialties. PMID:11858292
Research suggests that Asian Americans underutilize mentalhealth services but an understanding of the multiple factors involved in utilization has not been examined in a nationally representative sample. The current study analyzed data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) and examined 368 individuals with disorders to…
Le Meyer, Oanh; Zane, Nolan; Cho, Young Il; Takeuchi, David T.
In many European welfare states the reform of mentalhealth services has been accompanied by the implementation of new forms of governance, including the introduction of managerial audit systems. While such systems have been developed for ‘good causes’, such as quality assurance, financial management and monitoring staff performance, they may simultaneously produce diverse and contradictory effects on practice. The aim
The present study examined the general public’s ability to recognise mentalhealth disorders and this ability’s association\\u000a with psychiatric scepticism, knowledge of psychiatry, and the Big Five personality factors. A total of 477 members of the\\u000a British general public completed an overclaiming scale, in which they were asked to rate the degree to which they believed\\u000a 20 mentalhealth disorders
This paper provides an interpretation, based on the social systems theory of German sociologist Niklas Luhmann, of the recent\\u000a paradigmatic shift of mentalhealth care from an asylum-based model to a community-oriented network of services. The observed\\u000a shift is described as the development of psychiatry as a function system of modern society and whose operative goal has moved\\u000a from the
Mentalhealth includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mentalhealth is important at every stage of life, from ...
Data are presented concerning the total number of children served in psychiatric facilities and the utilization of specific facilities, including outpatient psychiatric clinics, state and county mental hospitals, private mental hospitals, inpatient psychiatric services of general hospitals, psychiatric day-night services, private psychiatric…
The physical health of people with severe mental illness is often neglected. Patients are more likely to smoke and have a poor diet, while psychiatric medication is known to affect physical health adversely. Yet these patients are less likely to be offered a physical health check. PMID:24802485
Little research can be found on nursing practice for populations needing non-traditional mentalhealth care. A descriptive study was done with the nurses on the Community Link Service (CLS), an intensive psychiatric community follow-up program, to identify nursing interventions and the types of situations encountered. These nurses use the guiding principles of two current treatment modalities, Assertive Community Treatment and
Thérèse Wallace; Shelley O’Connell; Sara R. Frisch
The prevalence of mentalhealth and suicidal behavior was examined 8 to 10 years after an adolescent suicide attempt. Of 71 persons, 79% had at least one psychiatric disorder (mean 1.7) at follow-up, most commonly depression (46%), personality disorder (46%), and anxiety disorder (42%). The stability of diagnoses was moderate. The suicide…
Pscychiatric wills are advance directives for an eventual involuntary treatment in psychiatry. We attempted to determine\\u000a psychiatric professionals' knowledge and opinion about this legal option and obtain their formulations of advance directives\\u000a for themselves. A total of 101 psychiatric nurses and psychiatrists at the Department of Psychiatry of the University of Vienna\\u000a responded to a questionnaire about psychiatric wills and
M. Amering; E. Denk; H. Griengl; I. Sibitz; P. Stastny
... MentalHealth Adolescent Health Topics MentalHealth States Adolescent MentalHealth Facts Click a state below to ... Care Positive MentalHealth: Resilience In the States Adolescent Health Topics Reproductive HealthMentalHealth Physical Health ...
This article discusses the effects of sociodemographics and the presence of psychiatric disorders diagnosed in the 12 months before the first interview by using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-III-R, third edition, revised, on three types of attrition (failure to locate, refusal to participate, morbidity/mortality) in the second wave (1997-1998) of the Netherlands MentalHealth Survey and Incidence Study, a longitudinal, general population survey of psychopathology among 7,076 subjects aged 18-64 years. Compared with those reinterviewed successfully, persons not located at the 1-year follow-up (n = 219) were more often younger, poorly educated, urban, not cohabiting with a steady partner, and born outside the Netherlands. Refusers (n = 923) had a lower educational level. Morbidity/mortality (n = 72) was associated with higher age, lower educational level, not being employed, and somatic disorders. After adjustment for sociodemographics, none of the disorders was positively associated with refusal. Failure to locate was linked to agoraphobia, alcohol abuse, and the categories of mood, substance use, and eating disorders. Morbidity/mortality was linked to dysthymia, agoraphobia, simple phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and the category of anxiety disorders. Overall attrition was only slightly higher among respondents with one or more disorders (odds ratio = 1.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.38). Thus, psychopathology has only weak-to-moderate effects on attrition and is mainly related to failure to locate and morbidity/mortality but not to refusal. PMID:11117613
de Graaf, R; Bijl, R V; Smit, F; Ravelli, A; Vollebergh, W A
Psychological trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are prevalent among adults with severe mental illness, but their impact on the psychosocial and physical health-related impairment of women with major mental illnesses is not known. A sample of 35 low-income urban women receiving community mentalhealth services for severe and chronic mental illness was assessed with psychometrically validated structured interview instruments
Background Victimization among people with a Severe Mental Illness is a common phenomenon. The objectives of this study proposal are: to delineate the extent and kind of victimization in a representative sample of chronic psychiatric patients; to contribute to the development and validation of a set of instruments registering victimization of psychiatric patients; to determine risk factors and protective factors; and to gain insight into the possible consequences of victimization. Methods/Design An extensive data set of 323 patients with Sever Mental Illness (assessed 4 years ago) is used. In 2010 a second measurement will be performed, enabling longitudinal research on the predictors and consequences of victimization. Discussion The consequences of (re)victimization have barely been subjected to analysis, partially due to the lack of a comprehensive, conceptual model for victimization. This research project will contribute significantly to the scientific development of the conceptual model of victimization in chronic psychiatric patients.
Objective: This paper considers mentalhealth services resource distribution under the Australian second national mentalhealth plan, with its direction to mentalhealth services to be more inclusive of people with higher prevalence psychiatric disorders. We consider inequalities in mentalhealth in Australia, and describe the performance of the composite census variable employed in the Victorian mentalhealth funding distribution
Purpose – This paper seeks to report upon psychiatric trainees' experience of providing psychodynamic therapy for the first time and their experience of group supervision. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of five trainees, undertaking training in psychodynamic therapies, were interviewed on multiple occasions over an 18-month period – before, during, and after undertaking their first case of psychodynamic therapy. A semi-structured,
This study surveyed current practice amongst 91 Indian and Australian staff working within multidisciplinary mentalhealth teams, looking at leadership skills, conflict resolution and therapeutic abilities. Length of training was asso ciated with management skills, though these skills were more developed by psychiatric nurses and occupational therapists working in community settings. Hospital settings involved less consensual decision-making than community teams.
Introduction The aim of this study was to assess how the caseload and the utilisation of community-based mentalhealth services is influenced\\u000a by distance and to socioeconomic characteristics.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Spatial and statistical analyses were conducted with a sample of 12,347 patients, with ICD-10 psychiatric diagnosis, who had\\u000a at least one contact with psychiatric services in Verona, Italy, between 2000 and 2006. Three
... Myths and Facts Recovery is Possible What Is MentalHealth? Mentalhealth includes our emotional, psychological, and social ... mentalhealth problems and where to find help . MentalHealth and Wellness Positive mentalhealth allows people to: ...
Clinical practice in the psychiatric/mentalhealth nursing (PMHN) field is considered a highly-stressful experience for nursing students. The purpose of the present study was to identify the degrees of stress, the types of stressors, and coping strategies perceived by undergraduate nursing students during their clinical practice in PMHN courses. A descriptive, longitudinal design was used. Sixty-five students registered in PMHN clinical courses were recruited from five Jordanian universities using a systematic random-sampling method. Data collection was conducted in the second semester of the 2012-2013 academic year at two points of time: pre-PMHN clinical training and post-PMHN training. The Basic Information Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale, and Coping Behavior Inventory were administered. Students' ages ranged from 20 to 25 years. The findings illustrate that the highest reported types of stressors at both data-collection times were taking care of patients, stress related to teachers and nursing staff, and from assignments and workloads. The most utilized coping strategy at both data-collection times was problem solving. The findings of the present study are useful for clinical educators in identifying nursing students' stressors, easing their learning in the clinical setting, and establishing an efficient PMHN course programme. PMID:24372812
Background Obtaining accurate estimates of mentalhealth problems among youth perinatally infected with HIV (PHIV) helps clinicians develop targeted interventions, but requires enrollment and retention of representative youth into research studies. Methods We describe the study design for IMPAACT P1055, a US-based multisite, prospective study of psychiatric symptoms among PHIV youth and uninfected Controls aged 6–17 years old. We compared participants to non-participants by demographic characteristics and summarized reasons for study refusal. We used adjusted logistic regression models to evaluate the association of psychiatric symptoms and other factors with loss to follow-up (LTFU). Results Among 2281 youth screened between 2005–2006 at 29 IMPAACT research sites, 580 (25%) refused to participate, primarily due to time constraints. Among 1162 eligible youth approached, 582 (50%) enrolled (323 PHIV and 259 Control), with higher participation rates for Hispanic youth. Retention at 2 years was significantly higher for PHIV than Controls (84% vs 77%, p=0.03). In logistic regression models adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics and HIV status, youth with any self-assessed psychiatric condition had higher odds of LTFU compared to those with no disorder (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=1.56, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00,2.43). Among PHIV youth, those with any psychiatric condition had 3-fold higher odds of LTFU (aOR=3.11, 95%CI: 1.61,6.01). Conclusions Enrollment and retention of PHIV youth into mentalhealth research studies is challenging for those with psychiatric conditions, and may lead to underestimated risks for mentalhealth problems. Creative approaches for engaging HIV-infected youth and their families are required for ensuring representative study populations.
As a component of an undergraduate nursing program evaluation, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the psychiatric clinical learning site on students' attitudes toward mental illness and psychiatric nursing. A pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design was utilized. The dependent measures included an Environmental Rating Scale, an Attitude Toward Mental Illness Scale, and an Attitude Toward Psychiatric Nursing Scale. The non-probability sample of convenience included 45 students enrolled in the senior level psychiatric nursing module of a baccalaureate nursing program at a midwest, metropolitan liberal arts college. The subjects were randomly assigned to a Veterans Administration (VA) Medical Center and a private hospital. The results indicated that after controlling for students' attitudes toward mental illness and psychiatric nursing prior to the psychiatric nursing module, clinical site location did not account for any significant variance in students' attitudes after the module. However, correlation analysis of the specific components of the Environmental Rating Scale did demonstrate statistically significant associations with a decrease in authoritative, restrictive attitudes toward mental illness, and an increase in the milieu therapy and community mentalhealth orientations to psychiatric nursing. PMID:2156976
This article presents an overview of an online education offering to improve standards of practice for nurses intervening with tobacco-dependent mentally ill populations. Designed as a pilot study and guided by the theory of reasoned action framework, the pretest-posttest educational program was conducted to examine attitudes and beliefs, knowledge, and intentions to integrate tobacco cessation interventions into practice. Although positive attitudes and beliefs were demonstrated, knowledge gaps continued to exist after the online program. Strengths and challenges of the online education offering are presented with recommendations for future research. PMID:22289399
Amole, Jacques; Heath, Janie; Joshua, Thomas V; McLear, Beth
Previous research suggests that community violence impacts mentalhealth outcomes, but much of this research has not (a) distinguished between different types of community violence, (b) examined gender differences, and (c) focused on youth living in urban poverty. The current study addresses these questions. Participants were 306 youth (23 % girls) and one parent/guardian receiving outpatient psychiatric services for disruptive behavior disorders in a large urban city. Youth and parents reported on youth's experience of different types of community violence (being a direct victim, hearing reports, and witnessing violence), and whether violence was directed toward a stranger or familiar. Outcomes included youth externalizing, internalizing, and posttraumatic stress symptoms assessed via parent and youth reports. Being a direct victim of violence accords risk for all mentalhealth outcomes similarly for both boys and girls. However, gender differences emerged with respect to indirect violence, such that girls who hear reports of violence against people they know are at increased risk for all assessed mentalhealth outcomes, and girls who witness violence against familiars are at increased risk for externalizing mentalhealth symptoms in particular. There are gender differences in violence-related mentalhealth etiology, with implications for intervention assessment and design. PMID:24496719
Javdani, Shabnam; Abdul-Adil, Jaleel; Suarez, Liza; Nichols, Sara R; Farmer, A David
... Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Good mentalhealth Nutrition and mentalhealth Exercise and mentalhealth ... work to keep your mind healthy. Nutrition and mentalhealth Visit choosemyplate.gov to help find personalized eating ...
The report examines data from three sample surveys of admissions during 1980 to the inpatient psychiatric services of state and mental hospitals and private psychiatric hospitals and the separate inpatient psychiatric services of non-federal general hospitals. Findings revealed that an estimated 81,532 persons under 18 years were admitted to…
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Florida MentalHealth Institute, dedicated to research, training and program development for improving psychological wellbeing, has four main divisions: Aging and MentalHealth, Child and Family Studies, Community MentalHealth, and MentalHealth Law and Policy.
U.S. Veterans who have served in the Afghanistan and Iraq wars have combat-related medical and mentalhealth issues, notably posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury, but underuse health care resources. To better understand their health care needs, resource use, and facilitators and barriers to seeking health care, a literature review was conducted. The results suggest high prevalence of mental and medical health issues and disproportionate use of quantitative research design that lacked approaches to understanding the psychosocial, cultural, and contextual factors that affect help-seeking by Veterans. Strategies to increase the likelihood that Veterans will seek needed health care, gaps in the literature, and the need for further research are discussed. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and MentalHealth Services, 52(6), 42-49.]. PMID:24530219
Nworah, Uchenna; Symes, Lene; Young, Anne; Langford, Rae
The MentalHealth Act in Japan was enacted in 1987. This study aims to determine whether the act has been effective in protecting patient rights by delineating the content and trends of patient rights violations at psychiatric hospitals through an analysis of newspaper reports. An analysis of 924 newspaper articles found 39 hospitals involved in patient rights violations. The results show that violations of patient rights have continued to occur after the implementation of the act. The reasons: for-profit policy of hospitals, a defective oversight system, and a lack of knowledge about the act by medical staff. PMID:19052946
The prestige of occupational therapy in mentalhealth was studied in relationship to the prestige held by other mentalhealth professions. One hundred fifty four mentalhealth professionals, representing members of a psychiatric treatment team, were surveyed. Although all professionals agreed that occupational therapists held a moderate amount of prestige when considered apart from other disciplines, occupational therapists received the
Involvement in warfare can have dramatic consequences for the mentalhealth and well-being of military personnel. During the 20th century, US military psychiatrists tried to deal with these consequences while contributing to the military goal of preserving manpower and reducing the debilitating impact of psychiatric syndromes by implementing screening programs to detect factors that predispose individuals to mental disorders, providing early intervention strategies for acute war-related syndromes, and treating long-term psychiatric disability after deployment. The success of screening has proven disappointing, the effects of treatment near the front lines are unclear, and the results of treatment for chronic postwar syndromes are mixed. After the Persian Gulf War, a number of military physicians made innovative proposals for a population-based approach, anchored in primary care instead of specialty-based care. This approach appears to hold the most promise for the future.
Objective: To describe the documented adherence to quality indicators for the outpatient care of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and major depression for children in public mentalhealth clinics and to explore how adherence varies by child and clinic characteristics. Method: A statewide, longitudinal cohort study of 813…
... development, and these problems can continue into adulthood. Public health includes mentalhealth A new report from the ... impact of childhood mental disorders and developing a public health approach to address childrenâ€™s mentalhealth. Research on ...
The use of psychiatric hospitalization for mental illness has evolved through Modernity. In the last century, indefinite and involuntary committal was a widespread practice but has now become an extraordinary and short-term therapeutic recourse. Even though law experts, doctors and other mentalhealth professionals agree on the benefits of this shift, in practice there are disagreements rooted in the shortcomings of health service providers. The current medical and legal criteria for hospitalization of patients with mental disorders should move away from the concept of endangerment and embrace therapeutic procedures and social care. New contemporary challenges, such as drugs and violence, require the implementation of a social strategy that is more comprehensive than medical treatment. This article presents a series of case studies describing the circumstances that led to the hospitalization of mentalhealth patients, mostly in the city of Buenos Aires. PMID:22091456
Published evidence indicates there is a growing prevalence of psychiatric illnesses on college campuses, and that approximately one quarter of students may be taking psychotropic medications. But attracting and retaining experienced mentalhealth care professionals to college health settings is a challenging task. The psychiatric pharmacist is one…
Caley, Charles F.; Webber, Donna; Kurland, Michael; Holmes, Paula
... worthless could be warning signs of a mentalhealth problem. Mentalhealth problems are real, painful, and sometimes severe. You ... things that could harm you or others Mentalhealth problems can be treated. To find help, talk ...
Patterns of reinstitutionalization following psychiatric hospitalization for individuals with serious mental illnesses (SMI)\\u000a vary by medical and psychiatrichealth care settings. This report presents rates of reinstitutionalization across care settings\\u000a for 35,527 patients following psychiatric discharge in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health system, a national health\\u000a care system. Over a 7-year follow-up period, 30,417 patients (86%) were reinstitutionalized.
Cheryl Irmiter; John F. McCarthy; Kristen L. Barry; Soheil Soliman; Frederic C. Blow
Background While a number of studies have looked at life on service users' experiences of life on psychiatric wards, no research exists that have approached these experiences from the user perspective since the introduction of community care. Methods This user-led study uses a participatory approach to develop an understanding of the processes and themes which define the user experience of hospitalisation. Nineteen service users who had all had inpatient stays in psychiatric hospitals in London were interviewed in the community. Results Relationships formed the core of service users' experiences. Three further codes, treatment, freedom and environment defined the role of hospital and its physical aspects. Themes of communication, safety, trust, coercion, and cultural competency contributed to the concept of relationships. Conclusion Relationships with an individual which comprised effective communication, cultural sensitivity, and the absence of coercion resulted in that person being attributed with a sense of trust. This resulted in the patient experiencing the hospital as a place of safety in terms of risk from other patients and staff. Barriers to positive relationships included ineffective and negative communication, a lack of trust, a lack of safety in terms of staff as ineffective in preventing violence, and as perpetrators themselves, and the use of coercion by staff. This unique perspective both acts as a source of triangulation with previous studies and highlights the importance of the therapeutic relationship in providing a safe and therapeutic milieu for the treatment of people with acute mentalhealth problems.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the mentalhealth literacy of students. This study is part of the growing interest in mentalhealth literacy among young people. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Over 400 university students indicated their knowledge of over 90 psychiatric illnesses labels derived from DSM:IV. They rated disorders on six questions concerning whether they had heard
Adrian Furnham; Richard Cook; Neil Martin; Mark Batey
WEST VIRGINIA IS A RURAL STATE HAVING A LARGE POVERTY STRICKEN POPULATION. SINCE THIS GROUP HAD NO ACCESS TO MENTALHEALTH SERVICES, THE STATE DEPARTMENT OF MENTALHEALTH SPONSORED A VISTA PROGRAM IN MENTALHEALTH AND MENTAL RETARDATION, AND ENCOURAGED THE VOLUNTEERS TO USE THEIR OWN CREATIVITY AND INGENUITY IN PROVIDING SUCH SERVICES AS--(1)…
Disaster preparations and responses are incomplete without addressing the mentalhealth aspects of disasters. Unpleasant mental states can be a natural and even adaptive human response following a disaster; however, disasters also can contribute to the development of mental illnesses and substance use disorders or exacerbate existing disorders for disaster survivors, response personnel, and even families and close contacts of survivors and responders. Disaster-related psychopathology can mimic or negatively affect other disaster-related illnesses and can impair health professionals and others who must respond to catastrophic events; however, disasters also can encourage tremendous human coping, perseverance, and resilience and can even enhance personal and collective feelings of purpose, connection, and meaning. Integrating mentalhealth promotion and care into disaster planning and response has the potential to mitigate psychiatric and medical consequences of a disaster and may preserve the mission readiness of disaster response personnel and promote healing among communities traumatized by disaster. PMID:23263326
. Abstract: Objective: The wave of immigration from the countries of the former Soviet Union from 1990 to 2006 brought to Israel over 1,000,000 people. Many of them suffer from different diseases including mental disorders. Al- though the majority of older persons are free of serious psychopathology, 15-20% of the elderly people may be in need of psychiatric services. The
Vladimir Lerner; Michael Kanevsky; Eliezer Witztum
... If you are in crisis, call the National Suicide Prevention Hotline at 800-273-TALK (8255). You can ... National MentalHealth Consumers' Self-Help Clearinghouse National Suicide Prevention Lifeline Substance Abuse and MentalHealth Services Administration ...
... service abroad can also play a role in mentalhealth issues, including anxiety , posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and substance abuse . In addition to these mentalhealth issues, many soldiers have experienced traumatic brain injury ...
This article reports the initial results of a prospective study on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the Dutch population\\u000a aged 18–64. The objectives and the design of the study are described elsewhere in this issue. A total of 7076 people were\\u000a interviewed in person in 1996. The presence of the following disorders was determined by means of the CIDI:
This presentation outlines the implications of psychiatric disability recovery for mentalhealth systems and programs. Schizophrenia and other serious psychiatric disabilities have been viewed as irreversible illnesses with increasing disability over time. Mentalhealth program planning, policies, and practices have been developed and implemented…
Background: There are a variety of models for the mentalhealth care of adults with comorbid intellectual disability (ID) and mental illness. There has been a long-running debate as to whether this should be provided by general psychiatric or specialised ID services. A previous review concluded that there was no clear evidence to support either…
Background: Since the 1978 Italian reform, an integrated network of community mentalhealth services has been introduced. With few exceptions, research on determinants of mentalhealth service use at the district level has focused on inpatient activities and social deprivation indicators. The European Psychiatric Care Assessment Team (EPCAT) standardized methodology allows for an evidence- based comparison of mentalhealth systems
Giuseppe Tibaldi; Carmine Munizza; Sherri Pasian; Sonia Johnson; Luis Salvador-Carulla; Serena Zucchi; Simona Cesano; Cristina Testa; Elena Scala; Luca Pinciaroli
This paper presents the approach used by the Technical Assistance Center (TAC) of the University of Minnesota's Refugee Assistance Program in MentalHealth for identifying successful and culturally sensitive mentalhealth service delivery models. It divides these into four categories: the psychiatric model; the community mentalhealth model; the…
We examined how community attitudes towards traditional Chinese conceptions of health and Western dichotomization of illness might affect perceptions of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) efficacy to examine factors underlying psychiatric service underutilization among Chinese-Americans. We administered an experimental vignette to assess perceived illness severity and beliefs of TCM efficacy for physical and psychiatric disorders among 90 Chinese-Americans ascertained through a national telephone survey. Perceived illness severity was unrelated to assessment of TCM effectiveness. However, psychiatric conditions tended to be viewed as distinct from physical disorders, and TCM use was endorsed as less effective for psychiatric illnesses when compared with physical illnesses. Furthermore, differences in perceived TCM efficacy appeared to be magnified among U.S.-born respondents, with U.S.-born respondents endorsing lower efficacy for psychiatric disorders than foreign-born respondents. These findings suggest that TCM use for psychiatric disorders may decrease with Westernization, but might yet delay access to psychiatric services among first-generation immigrants.
Yang, Lawrence H.; Corsini-Munt, Serena; Phelan, Jo C.; Link, Bruce G.
This lesson, from Science NetLinks, examines how mental illness has been portrayed in the arts while highlighting for students a more insightful way to further develop their ideas about human behavior. This lesson is the third of three lessons on mentalhealth and human behavior.
This is the second of three lessons from Science NetLinks on mentalhealth and human behavior. This lesson gives students an up-close, personal look at Bedlam, the world's first mentalhealth asylum, and the kind of life and treatment that mentally ill people received before the 20th century.
Burnout specific to human service workers has been reported in the U.S. in the 1970s. Since then, such burnout has become widely known and the mentalhealth of nurses has attracted attention. Stressors in the work environment and complexity have increased with advancement in increasingly complicated medical care. One of the major roles of a psychiatric liaison nurse is to provide support to improve the mentalhealth of nurses. In our hospital, a psychiatric liaison nurse has a staff position under the direct supervision of the director of the nursing department but operates outside the chain of command. A psychiatric liaison nurse is not involved in the performance review of nurses. Thus, the nursing staff and the nursing manager can discuss their problems with the psychiatric liaison nurse without risks. Psychiatric liaison nurses provide support as counselors through individual and group interviews so that nurses can become re-energized about their work. In addition, psychiatric liaison nurses provide consultations and education. They perform coordination function to organize an environment to promote consultations regarding nurse support to the staff nurses and the nursing manager and to promote support by supervisors. For support after reinstatement of a nurse following a medical leave, it is particularly important to work with not only the individual nurse but also the entire nursing team. In our hospital, newly graduated nurses are given the GHQ-28 after one month of employment to assess the support they might need. In our study, nurses with high risks were divided into a group with a score of at least 6 points but less than 10 points and a group with a score of at least 10 points. The group with at least 10 points had significantly higher rates of leave of absence and resignation. Thus, early intervention was thought to be necessary in newly graduated nurses with a score of at least 10 points in the GHQ. PMID:22712205
Mentalhealth needs are expressed well beyond the doors of the psychiatric hospital. The health and social sectors are also confronted with situations of psychological suffering. The local mentalhealth council offers solutions to professionals faced with this issue. The creation of the local mentalhealth council and the collaborative way of working which it promotes give rise to projects aimed at improving mentalhealth care. PMID:23951738
Following a March 27, 2012, incident in which a pilot of a major commercial airline experienced a serious disturbance in his mentalhealth, the Aerospace Medical Association formed an Ad Hoc Working Group on Pilot MentalHealth. The working group met several times and analyzed current medical standards for evaluating pilot mentalhealth. The result of the working group was a letter sent to the FAA and other organizations worldwide interested in medical standards. The Committee found that it is neither productive nor cost effective to perform extensive psychiatric evaluations as part of the routine pilot aeromedical assessment. However it did recommend greater attention be given to mentalhealth issues by aeromedical examiners, especially to the more common and detectable mentalhealth conditions and life stressors that can affect pilots and flight performance. They encouraged this through increased education and global recognition of the importance of mentalhealth in aviation safety. PMID:23316549
Malaysia is a tropical country in the heart of south east Asia with a population of 24 million people of diverse ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds living in harmony in 330,000 km(2) of land on the Asian mainland and Borneo. Malaysia, which lies on the crossroads of trade between east and west Asia, has an ancient history as a centre of trading attracting commerce between Europe, west Asia, India and China. It has had influences from major powers that dominated the region throughout its history. Today the country, after independence in 1957, has embarked on an ambitious development project to make it a developed country by 2020. In this effort the economy has changed from one producing raw material to one manufacturing consumer goods and services and the colonial health system has been overhauled and social systems strengthened to provide better services for its people. The per capita income, which was under 1,000 US dollars at independence, has now passed 4,000 US dollars and continues to grow, with the economy largely based on strong exports that amount to over 100 billion US dollars. The mentalhealth system that was based on institutional care in four mental hospitals at independence from British colonial rule in 1957 with no Malaysian psychiatrists is today largely based on over 30 general hospital psychiatric units spread throughout the country. With three local postgraduate training programmes in psychiatry and 12 undergraduate departments of psychiatry in the country--all started after independence--there is now a healthy development of mentalhealth services. This is being supplemented by a newly established primary care mentalhealth service that covers community mentalhealth by integrating mentalhealth into primary health care. Mentalhealth care at the level of psychiatrists rests with about 140 psychiatrists most of whom had undertaken a four-year masters course in postgraduate psychiatry in Malaysia since 1973. However, there continues to be severe shortages of other professionals such as clinical psychologists and social workers in mentalhealth services. There are a few specialists, and specialized services in child, adolescent, forensic, rehabilitative, liaison or research fields of mentalhealth. In the area of services for women and children, as well as the disabled in the community, there are strong efforts to improve the care and provide services that are in keeping with a caring society. New legislation on these are being passed every year and the setting up of a Ministry for Women's Affairs is one such move in recent years. Mentalhealth in Malaysia has been slow in developing but has in the past decade seen important strides to bring it on par with other branches of medicine. PMID:15276949
About 14% of the global burden of disease has been attributed to neuropsychiatric disorders, mostly due to the chronically disabling nature of depression and other common mental disorders, alcohol-use and substance-use disorders, and psychoses. Such estimates have drawn attention to the importance of mental disorders for public health. However, because they stress the separate contributions of mental and physical disorders to disability and mortality, they might have entrenched the alienation of mentalhealth from mainstream efforts to improve health and reduce poverty. The burden of mental disorders is likely to have been underestimated because of inadequate appreciation of the connectedness between mental illness and other health conditions. Because these interactions are protean, there can be no health without mentalhealth. Mental disorders increase risk for communicable and non-communicable diseases, and contribute to unintentional and intentional injury. Conversely, many health conditions increase the risk for mental disorder, and comorbidity complicates help-seeking, diagnosis, and treatment, and influences prognosis. Health services are not provided equitably to people with mental disorders, and the quality of care for both mental and physical health conditions for these people could be improved. We need to develop and evaluate psychosocial interventions that can be integrated into management of communicable and non-communicable diseases. Health-care systems should be strengthened to improve delivery of mentalhealth care, by focusing on existing programmes and activities, such as those which address the prevention and treatment of HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria; gender-based violence; antenatal care; integrated management of childhood illnesses and child nutrition; and innovative management of chronic disease. An explicit mentalhealth budget might need to be allocated for such activities. Mentalhealth affects progress towards the achievement of several Millennium Development Goals, such as promotion of gender equality and empowerment of women, reduction of child mortality, improvement of maternal health, and reversal of the spread of HIV/AIDS. Mentalhealth awareness needs to be integrated into all aspects of health and social policy, health-system planning, and delivery of primary and secondary general health care. PMID:17804063
This study examined Medicaid beneficiaries using mentalhealth or substance abuse services in fee-for-service plans in 13 states in 2003, concluding that they entered general hospitals and visited emergency rooms far more frequently than other beneficiaries.
Henry T. Ireys; Allison L. Barrett; Jeffrey A. Buck; Thomas W. Croghan; Melanie Au; Judith L. Teich
... the teen gets help: • The teen’s parents • A mentalhealth professional at school or in the community • A health professional (doctor, ... old, approximately 4 million people, have a major mentalhealth disorder that ... at home, school or with peers. (Surgeon General, 2000) Suicide is ...
This contribution describes current and future prison mentalhealth service provision in England and Wales. There is a need for the development of multidisciplinary prison health care services, including greater coordination of care, continuity of care between the community and prison, improved information-sharing between agencies and developed care planning for prisoners with mentalhealth problems. Recently, a formal partnership between
The United States federal government has a vested interest in the mentalhealth of children and adolescents. It considers\\u000a the current state of mentalhealth care for children a public crisis (U.S. Public Health Service, 2000). Approximately 21%\\u000a of children and adolescents between the ages of 9 and 17 have a diagnosable mental or addictive disorder that causes at least
The advent of deinstitutionalization and consumer health advocacy has spelled changes in mentalhealth information seeking by general public, by families of mentally ill, and by the mentally ill themselves. Their information needs have implications for academic and public libraries and libraries in psychiatric facilities and general hospitals. (14…
The public treatment of seriously mental ill patients continues to be frustrated by the lack of administrative and financial integration of state and community mentalhealth services. Several states have initiated attempts to improve the costeffectiveness of public mentalhealth services through mechanisms that create financial incentives fostering community-based alternatives to psychiatric hospitalization. Examples of such mechanisms include capitation financing
... About Us Home > Health & Education > MentalHealth Information Child and Adolescent MentalHealth Publications Anxiety Disorders in Children and ... of development. More What Goes on in the Adolescent Brain? In recognition of National Children’s MentalHealth ...
This study examined the effect of maternal depression and anxiety on child treatment outcome. Psychiatric assessments were conducted on 180 mother–child pairs when the child entered treatment in a community mentalhealth center and six months later. Children whose mothers were depressed or anxious were significantly more impaired than children of mentally healthy mothers at both time points. Both groups
Carrie W. Rishel; Catherine G. Greeno; Steven C. Marcus; Esther Sales; M. Katherine. Shear; Holly A. Swartz; Carol Anderson
A random sample of college sophomores was studied regarding their mentalhealth status, mentalhealth service use, and attitudes toward mentalhealth professionals. Data were collected through home interviews and a search of the students' service records at the university. Mentalhealth status was measured by the 22-item Midtown MentalHealth Scale.Religious affiliation and performance satisfaction were both found to
Mixed methods research is becoming more widely used in order to answer research questions and to investigate research problems in mentalhealth and psychiatric nursing. However, two separate literature searches, one in Scotland and one in the USA, revealed that few mentalhealth nursing studies identified mixed methods research in their titles. Many studies used the term 'embedded' but few studies identified in the literature were mixed methods embedded studies. The history, philosophical underpinnings, definition, types of mixed methods research and associated pragmatism are discussed, as well as the need for mixed methods research. Examples of mentalhealth nursing mixed methods research are used to illustrate the different types of mixed methods: convergent parallel, embedded, explanatory and exploratory in their sequential and concurrent combinations. Implementing mixed methods research is also discussed briefly and the problem of identifying mixed methods research in mental and psychiatric nursing are discussed with some possible solutions to the problem proposed. PMID:21749560
In this chapter, the relation between religion and mentalhealth and vice versa has been described. From primitive times different religions have different beliefs and systems of worshipping. Every religion with their belief system has implications on mentalhealth and illness. We described how Hindu system of beliefs and rituals may have an effect in causation of various mental illnesses. It is also described how religion can help an individual to sustain one's life in various domains. The relationship between different religion and symptomatology is described. The impact and outcome of religion on mentalhealth have been highlighted.
Behere, Prakash B.; Das, Anweshak; Yadav, Richa; Behere, Aniruddh P.
Background\\/Aim: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is often complicated by psychiatric comorbidity, which is likely to lead to a higher use of mentalhealth care facilities. In addition, psychiatric symptomatology and associated mentalhealth care use may be present even before motor symptoms and PD are diagnosed, as the pathophysiology of PD and its psychiatric consequences are likely to overlap to a
A. F. G. Leentjens; G. Driessen; W. Weber; M. Drukker; J. van Os
THE DIRECTORY IS INTENDED AS A REFERENCE GUIDE TO MENTALHEALTH PROGRAMS AND SERVICES THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES. IT IS ORGANIZED INTO A FEDERAL SECTION AND A STATE AND COMMUNITY SECTION, EACH OF WHICH IS PRECEDED BY AN INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT CONCERNING THE LISTINGS IN THAT SECTION. ADDRESSES AND SHORT DESCRIPTIONS OF THE MAJOR MENTALHEALTH…
... ignity and S ocial Inclusion Associated with MentalHealth (ADS Center) Home >> Publications Myths & Facts About MentalHealth ... attention, and mentalhealth services. By Post: SAMHSA ADS Center 4350 East West Highway, Suite 1100 Bethesda, ...
\\u000a Approximately 20% of the population – more than 40 million people in the U.S. – live with psychiatric disorders (United States\\u000a Department of Health and Human Services 1999; National Institute of MentalHealth 2003), and face significant barriers to\\u000a employment, including discrimination, harassment, job loss, and unemployment (President’s New Freedom Commission on Mental\\u000a Health 2003 ).Among people with severe psychiatric
Background: There is dearth of information about psychiatric morbidity at secondary level health facility in India. Aim: To study psychiatric morbidity amongst patients attending psychiatry clinic in secondary level health facility. Settings and Design: Present study is based on hospital record review of psychiatry clinic at secondary care hospital in Ballabgarh, Haryana. Materials and Methods: Service record of psychiatry clinic at civil hospital Ballabgarh was reviewed. Diagnosis of psychiatric morbidity was done according to DSM IV and ICD 10 classification. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive analysis of data was carried out. Results: A total of 724 (0.7%) new OPD patients consulted psychiatry clinic. Common Mental Disorders comprising of mood disorders, neurotic stress –related and somatoform disorders were the most commonly diagnosed disorders (60.5%) amongst reported psychiatric morbidity in the hospital. Conclusion: Substantial burden of psychiatry morbidity highlights necessity of psychiatry clinic at secondary care hospital in India.
A THREE YEAR PILOT PROJECT DESIGNED TO DEMONSTRATE THE VALUE AND FEASIBILITY OF PROVIDING COMPREHENSIVE MENTALHEALTH (PSYCHIATRIC) SERVICES FOR THE DEAF ESTABLISHED A CLINICAL UNIT FOR THE DEAF WITH INPATIENT, OUTPATIENT, AND AFTERCARE SERVICES. THE CLINIC SERVED 50 PATIENTS (MINIMUM AGE 16) IN THE WARDS AND 96 PATIENTS (ALL AGES) IN THE…
OBJECTIVES. This study examined the costs of psychiatric treatment for seriously mentally ill people with comorbid substance abuse as compared with mentally ill people not abusing substances. METHODS. Three different sources of data were used to construct client-level files to compare the patterns of care and expenditures of 16,395 psychiatrically disabled Medicaid beneficiaries with and without substance abuse: Massachusetts Medicaid paid claims; Department of MentalHealth state hospital inpatient record files; and community support service client tracking files. RESULTS. Psychiatrically disabled substance abusers had psychiatric treatment costs that were almost 60% higher than those of nonabusers. Most of the cost difference was the result of more acute psychiatric inpatient treatment. CONCLUSIONS. Although the public health and financial costs of high rates of comorbidity are obvious, the solutions to these problems are not. Numerous bureaucratic and social obstacles must be overcome before programs for those with dual diagnoses can be tested for clinical effectiveness.
Twenty patients, receiving group based psychiatric outpatient occupational therapy, were assessed at admission and discharge regarding psychiatric symptoms (SCL-90-R), global mentalhealth (HSRS), quality of life (SQoL), and occupational performance (AOF). The patients were in treatment from 4 to 30 months. There were statistically significant improvements from admission to discharge on all variables except quality of life. Thirteen of the
The United States mentalhealth care system has a legacy of inadequate care that has consistently resulted in the lack of societal participation for persons with mental illnesses. Recent judicial decisions and executive actions offer the promise of community participation for persons with psychiatric disabilities. Most significant are the recommendations resulting from the New Freedom Initiative to transform the mental
This site is an excellent resource for anyone seeking the latest issues surrounding mentalhealth topics. It is designed and maintained by Clinical Psychologists and is "dedicated to educating the public about mentalhealth, wellness, and family and relationship issues and concerns." In existence since 1995, the site provides featured topics, essays and articles, as well as latest news sections. In addition to these tools, weblogs, podcasts, and a questions and answers section are available. This site will be a valuable resource for any student, instructor or professional in the mentalhealth field.
... problems.” Depression and Other Issues Many forms of mentalhealth issues can affect heart disease. There’s the temporary state of depression or a more severe, clinical case. You can also have varying levels of anxiety ...
The article discusses two stages of de-centralization of psychiatric hospitals: the first consists in further division into sub-districts, the second one includes successive establishment of psychiatric wards in general hospitals. With the growth of their number these wards are to take over more and more general psychiatric tasks from the specialized psychiatric hospitals. These wards will not substitute psychiatric hospitals completely. The hospitals, though decreasing in size and number, will be a necessary element of the de-centralized and versatile psychiatric care for a long time to come. PMID:8975255
... development of more effective treatment and prevention of mentalhealth disorders in children, youth, and families, including programs targeting expectant mothers, children in school settings, and youth transitioning into adulthood and programs ...
... you eat affects your body. Cutting back on junk food and choosing healthier options helps you maintain a ... Adolescent MentalHealth 14.3 (2009): 148-155 ) Junk Food Blues: Are Depression and Diet Related? by Zeratsky, ...
Latino farmworkers are a vulnerable population who confront multiple threats to their mentalhealth. Informed by the stress-process model of psychiatric disorder, the goal of this paper is to determine personal and situational correlates of poor mentalhealth among Latino farmworkers. Structured interview data were obtained from farmworkers (N=69) in six counties in eastern and western North Carolina. Results indicated that a substantial number of farmworkers have poor mentalhealth, as indicated by elevated depressive symptoms (52.2%) and anxiety (16.4%). Results also indicated that each mentalhealth outcome had different predictors. Addressing the mentalhealth issues of farmworkers requires a comprehensive, multifaceted approach.
Crain, Rebecca; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Schwantes, Melody; Isom, Scott; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.
\\u000a The effects of stigmatisation upon people with mental illness are common and profoundly socially excluding, and so constitute\\u000a unethical barriers to full social participation. This chapter will therefore discuss the ethical dimension of stigma by defining\\u000a terms, discussing the existing literature on stigma related to mental illness, considering global patterns of stigma, and\\u000a examining stigma and human rights within psychiatric
MentalHealth Matters is a collection of various mentalhealth articles which cover topics such as psychological disorders and treatments for mental illnesses. The site is easy to navigate and users can choose from disorders, symptoms, medications, and treatments. Once a visitor chooses a subfield from the homepage, they are provided with another set of choices which contain more specific information on the various main topics. The site is also designed so that users can search by disorder or category to find the appropriate information to answer their queries.
This handbook describes the ways in which society shapes the mentalhealth of its mem bers and further shapes the hves of those who have been identified as mentally ill. The terms mentalhealth and mental illness encompass a broad collection of cognitive, emo tional, and behavioral phenomena. Mental illness includes, for example, the experiences of a person who speaks
To determine which of alcohol, nicotine and cannabis is most closely linked nicotine and cannabis is most closely linked to psychiatric disorders in early to psychiatric disorders in early adolescence. adolescence. Method Method Data from 2624 adolescents Data from 2624 adolescents aged13^15 years were drawn from a aged13^15 years were drawn from a national mentalhealth survey of children. national
A. BOYS; M. FARRELL; C. TAYLOR; J. MARSDEN; R. GOODMAN; T. BRUGHA; P. BEBBINGTON; R. JENKINS; H. MELTZER
The organizational profile of the mentalhealth care delivery system in Greece is mainly characterized by centralization which is reflected in various functional parts of the system (uneven distribution of psychiatric beds and manpower, absence of psychiatric units in general hospitals serving a certain catchment area, lack of community-based psychiatric services, etc.) As a result of this centralized structure there is a centrifugal flow of the mentally ill patients toward Athens and Thessaloniki and consequently the existing possibilities for community-based care as an alternative to inpatient treatment are rather limited. Future immediate objectives of the national social policy planning should be based on decentralization and reorganization of the psychiatric services in order for the mentalhealth delivery system to respond more effectively to the mentalhealth needs of the Greek population. PMID:7458890
This research explores the experiences of mental illness stigma in 24 youth (58.3% male, 13-24 years, 75% Latino) in psychiatric outpatient treatment. Using Link and Phelan's (2001) model of stigmatization, we conducted thematic analysis of the interview texts, examining experiences of stigma at individual and structural levels, in addition to the…
Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.
Deinstitutionalization accompanied by the growth in community-based psychiatric care resulted in a fragmented public system of mentalhealth care with diverse, partial and often inconsistent sources of patient information. This paper describes the problems associated with integrating hospital and community data sources and outlines procedures for the construction of integrated mentalhealth data systems.
A. B. Rothbard; A. P. Schinnar; T. R. Hadley; J. I. Rovi
The arguments for and against mentalhealth professionals' participation in death penalty proceedings are presented against the background of U.S. Supreme Court decisions which have had a bearing on this issue. It is concluded that the possibility of presenting mitigating psychologic testimony in such proceedings necessitates the possibility of exacerbating psychiatric testimony and that hence, mentalhealth professionals who testify
There is growing awareness of the mentalhealth impact of all types of mass violence. The exposure of large population groups, mostly having no mentalhealth problems prior to the exposure, and the subsequent development, in a significant proportion of the population, of a variety of psychiatric symptoms and disorders represent both a challenge and an opportunity for psychiatrists. There
Purpose: Latino farmworkers are a vulnerable population who confront multiple threats to their mentalhealth. Informed by the stress-process model of psychiatric disorder, the goal of this paper is to determine primary and context-specific stressors of poor mentalhealth among Latino farmworkers. Methods: Structured interview data were obtained…
Crain, Rebecca; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Schwantes, Melody; Isom, Scott; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.
Using a quasi-experimental design, changes in the numbers of mentalhealth facilities between 1964 and 1974 were examined for a sample of 50 nonmetropolitan catchment areas that established a Community MentalHealth Center (CMHC) before January 1973 and a sample that did not. Compared to non-CMHC areas, CMHC areas had a slightly greater number of general hospital psychiatric units in
Purpose of Review To review the background of current ethical standards for the conduct of perinatal mentalhealth research and describe the ethical challenges in this research domain. Recent Findings Current literature reflects a growing sentiment in the scientific community that having no information regarding the impact of psychiatric treatment on the mother and developing fetus/infant poses dangers that may exceed the risks involved in research. However, without sufficient consensus across the scientific community, both regulatory bodies and perinatal researchers find themselves without a framework for decision making that satisfactorily limits the risks and facilitates the benefits of participation of pregnant and lactating women in clinical research. Summary Psychiatric research in perinatal mentalhealth is critically important as it enables clinicians and patients to participate in informed decision-making concerning treatment for psychiatric disorders. Specific areas of concern include fetal safety, maternal risk, the therapeutic misconception, commercial interests, forensic/legal issues, the informed consent process, and study design. Developing guidelines that address ethical challenges and include the views and concerns of multiple stakeholders could improve the access of perinatal women to the benefits of participation in mentalhealth research in addition to providing evidence-based mentalhealth care for this subpopulation.
Brandon, Anna R.; Shivakumar, Geetha; Lee, Simon Craddock; Inrig, Stephen J.; Sadler, John Z.
As evidenced by the European Commission's recent MentalHealth Pact, mentalhealth has moved up the policy agenda in many countries. There is much more attention now on promoting general mental wellbeing in the population, and addressing the needs of people with mentalhealth problems. Particular concerns are: human rights abuses; rebalancing community and institutional care; coordinating action across multiple
Martin Knapp; David McDaid; Jennifer Beecham; Derek King; Roshni Mangalore; A-La Park; Andres Roman; Monique Smith; Cicely Thomas; Fayaz Aziz
This study investigated adolescents with a mentalhealth diagnosis and their experience of stigma in schools. Forty adolescents between the ages of twelve and seventeen who met DSM-IV criteria for a psychiatric illness and who were prescribed psychiatric medication were selected. The Teen Subjective Experience of Medication Interview was used to…
Objective: Counselor detection of co-occurring disorders is critical to ensuring that clients with mental disorders entering substance abuse treatment receive appropriate care. This study sought to: (1) examine correspondence between client-reported psychiatric symptoms and client and counselor ratings of need for mentalhealth treatment, and (2) explore client- and program-level characteristics associated with client and counselor underrating. Methods: Psychiatric symptoms
Amy A. Mericle; Cherie Martin; Deni Carise; Meghan Love
The need to help the emotionally disturbed is discussed with a focus on community mentalhealth centers. Psychiatric services described are diagnosis, inpatient care, day care, outpatient care, emergency care, continuity of care and services, and care adjusted to age groupings ranging from infancy to adolescence. Aspects of the community goal of…
National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Rockville, MD. Center for Studies of Child and Family Mental Health.
This project was designed to present a method of identifying children (ages less than 21) with mentalhealth conditions in the United States and to use those definitions to understand the utilization and expenditure patterns of children with mentalhealth...
Mentalhealth problems are the most significant cause of morbidity in prisons. Over 90% of prisoners have a mental disorder. The prison environment and the rules and regimes governing daily life inside prison can be seriously detrimental to mentalhealth. Prisoners have received very poor health care and, until recently, the National Health Service (NHS) had no obligations to service
Latina mothers' perceptions of mentalhealth and factors that promote/restore mentalhealth were explored in this qualitative study. Participants discussed the importance of community, safety, and financial stability in addition to conventional factors that are related to mentalhealth. Implications for working with urban Latinas and their…
The article deals with the previous use of psychiatrichealth services and self-perceived mentalhealth in Finnish prisoners. It forms part of the health survey of Finnish prisoners (the WATTU project). The project dealt with a sample of 1,099 Finnish prisoners. An analysis of cases not included showed that the results can be generalized to all Finnish prisoners.Psychiatric outpatient services
Background Relationships within acute psychiatric units between patient-level experiences and events and fluctuations in mental state\\u000a have rarely been examined.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim Data from a multi-centre service evaluation (11 units, 5,546 admissions) were used to examine mental state patterns and associations\\u000a with clinical characteristics, events and adverse incidents.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method During the 12-month evaluation period, nursing staff completed shift-level ratings using a new rating scale,
Ketrina A. Sly; Terry J. Lewin; Vaughan J. Carr; Agatha M. Conrad; Martin Cohen; Srinivasan Tirupati; Philip B. Ward; Tim Coombs
... of the scarcity of mentalhealth care providers, primary care doctors, who may not be adequately prepared in ... integration of mental, or rather, behavioral health and primary care services, for rural areas. It is assumed that ...
... Resources Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Emotional & MentalHealth Although dystonia is a movement disorder that impacts ... emotion as well as muscle movement. For years, mentalhealth professionals have recognized that coping with a chronic ...
Outlines some of the main issues and areas of debate at the first international Congress on Audio-Visual Communication and MentalHealth, which was held in Helsinki in June 1983. The issues discussed include the connection between violent actions and violence on television and censorship. The declared congress objectives are listed. (Author/MBR)
This article briefly reviews the history of ideas and practice in psychosocial occupational therapy. It then reports the results of two studies which examined present-day perspectives as reflected in occupational therapy literature and the actural practices of psychosocial therapists. The first study was based on a review of mentalhealth-related articles in AJOT and OTMH; the second represented secondary analyses
Presented are approximately 2,300 abstracts on audio-visual Materials--films, filmstrips, audiotapes, and videotapes--related to mentalhealth. Each citation includes material title; name, address, and phone number of film distributor; rental and purchase prices; technical information; and a description of the contents. Abstracts are listed in…
National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Rockville, MD.
This study compared parental psychiatric symptom severity, and the absence or presence of severe substance abuse, as predictors of contact with minor children for a representative sample of adults with diagnoses of serious mental illness (N = 45). Child contact and psychiatric symptom severity were measured during regularly scheduled 6-month research interviews over a total 30-month period following each participant’s entry into the project. Severe substance abuse was documented as present or absent for the 6-month interval preceding each interview. Results revealed that incidence of severe substance abuse was repeatedly associated with less frequent parent-child contact, even after controlling for psychiatric symptoms, diagnosis, gender, age, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Neither psychiatric diagnosis nor symptom severity predicted frequency of child contact when substance abuse was taken into account. Mentalhealth agencies offering parenting classes for adults with serious mental illness should incorporate substance use interventions to reduce loss of child custody and strengthen parent-child relationships.
Jones, Danson; Macias, Rosemarie Lillianne; Gold, Paul B.; Barreira, Paul; Fisher, William
This paper discusses the integration of educational and mentalhealth services for children and adolescents within a psychiatric day treatment setting at the Bradley School housed in a private psychiatric hospital affiliated with Brown University in Rhode Island. A full range of mentalhealth services are used, and therapies are delivered in the…
The burden of mental illness is profound and growing. Coupled with large gaps in extant psychiatric services, this mentalhealth burden has often forced emergency departments (EDs) to become the de facto primary and acute care provider of mentalhealth care in the United States. An expanded emergency medical and mentalhealth research agenda is required to meet the need for improved education, screening, surveillance, and ED-initiated interventions for mentalhealth problems. As an increasing fraction of undiagnosed and untreated psychiatric patients passes through the revolving doors of U.S. EDs, the opportunities for improving the art and science of acute mentalhealth care have never been greater. These opportunities span macroepidemiologic surveillance research to intervention studies with individual patients. Feasible screening, intervention, and referral programs for mentalhealth patients presenting to general EDs are needed. Additional research is needed to improve the quality of care, including the attitudes, abilities, interests, and virtues of ED providers. Research that optimizes provider education and training can help academic settings validate psychosocial issues as core components and responsibilities of emergency medicine. Transdisciplinary research with federal partners and investigators in neuropsychiatry and related fields can improve the mechanistic understanding of acute mentalhealth problems. To have lasting impact, however, advances in ED mentalhealth care must be translated into real-world policies and sustainable program enhancements to assure the uptake of best practices for ED screening, treatment, and management of mental disorders and psychosocial problems.
Larkin, Gregory Luke; Beautrais, Annette L.; Spirito, Anthony; Kirrane, Barbara M.; Lippmann, Melanie J.; Milzman, David P.
The burden of mental illness is profound and growing. Coupled with large gaps in extant psychiatric services, this mentalhealth burden has often forced emergency departments (EDs) to become the de facto primary and acute care provider of mentalhealth care in the United States. An expanded emergency medical and mentalhealth research agenda is required to meet the need for improved education, screening, surveillance, and ED-initiated interventions for mentalhealth problems. As an increasing fraction of undiagnosed and untreated psychiatric patients passes through the revolving doors of U.S. EDs, the opportunities for improving the art and science of acute mentalhealth care have never been greater. These opportunities span macroepidemiologic surveillance research to intervention studies with individual patients. Feasible screening, intervention, and referral programs for mentalhealth patients presenting to general EDs are needed. Additional research is needed to improve the quality of care, including the attitudes, abilities, interests, and virtues of ED providers. Research that optimizes provider education and training can help academic settings validate psychosocial issues as core components and responsibilities of emergency medicine. Transdisciplinary research with federal partners and investigators in neuropsychiatry and related fields can improve the mechanistic understanding of acute mentalhealth problems. To have lasting impact, however, advances in ED mentalhealth care must be translated into real-world policies and sustainable program enhancements to assure the uptake of best practices for ED screening, treatment, and management of mental disorders and psychosocial problems. PMID:20053230
Larkin, Gregory Luke; Beautrais, Annette L; Spirito, Anthony; Kirrane, Barbara M; Lippmann, Melanie J; Milzman, David P
Background Parkinson’s disease (PD) is frequently complicated by co-occurring psychiatric problems, such as depression and anxiety, that negatively affect the course and management of the illness. Yet, in the majority of cases, these psychiatric comorbidities are neither recognized nor treated to remission. The primary purpose of this study was to identify and describe barriers to mentalhealth care utilization for people with PD. Secondary objectives included the assessment of attitudes and preferences regarding the need for mentalhealth services in the PD community and the acceptability of tele-health interventions as a method for improving access and quality of care. Methods Seven hundred sixty-nine people with PD completed an anonymous cross-sectional questionnaire assessing barriers to mentalhealth care utilization in this medical population. Respondents were drawn from a national sample. Results Commonly endorsed barriers to mentalhealth care utilization in PD reflect the patients’ incomplete understanding of mentalhealth problems, access issues, and illness-specific concerns, as well as the inadequate screening and detection of psychiatric complications by medical providers, and the need for more effective treatments in this medical population. Several demographic, medical, and psychiatric variables also influenced the likelihood of accessing mentalhealth care. Interest in tele-health approaches to mentalhealth treatment was high and, in several instances, correlated with perceived barriers to mentalhealth care utilization. Conclusions People with PD may encounter a multitude of barriers that impede their pursuit of mentalhealth care. Clinical implications are discussed and further research is needed to replicate and extend these findings.
Dobkin, Roseanne D.; Rubino, Jade Tiu; Friedman, Jill; Allen, Lesley A.; Gara, Michael A.; Menza, Matthew
Following psychiatric deinstitutionalization and changes in involuntary civil commitment laws, many individuals with severe mental disorders have been receiving mentalhealth services through the back door, that is, the criminal justice system. Significant changes to the section of Criminal Code of Canada dealing with individuals with mental disorders have led to significant annual increases in the number of individuals declared
Objective: Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mentalhealth providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mentalhealth service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to…
Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.
This article reviews recent theory and research on geographic disparities in mentalhealth and their implications for social work. It focuses on work emerging from the fields of mentalhealth geography, psychiatric epidemiology, and social work, arguing that a wide range of spatial disparities in mentalhealth are important to understand but that…
Prisoners are at greater risk of developing mentalhealth problems compared with people of a similar age and gender in the community. They are less likely to have their mentalhealth needs recognised, are less likely to receive psychiatric help or treatment, and are at an increased risk of suicide. Prison mentalhealth in-reach services have been developed in the
Although various surveys on job satisfaction have been performed in mentalhealth care settings, no studies have investigated in-depth the level of satisfaction with the various aspects of work in Italian mentalhealth services. In the present study, all clinical mentalhealth staff working in a large psychiatric catchment area in Rome were invited to anonymously complete a previously validated
Antonella Gigantesco; Angelo Picardi; Elvira Chiaia; Andrea Balbi; Pierluigi Morosini
Background: Few studies in Nigeria have investigated HIV risk behavior among persons with severe mental disorders. This study examined HIV risk behavior and associated factors among patients receiving treatment at a Nigerian psychiatric hospital. Aim: To determine the HIV risk behavior in persons with severe mental disorders in a psychiatric hospital. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey involving 102 persons with serious mental disorders receiving treatment at a major psychiatric facility in Southwestern Nigeria. HIV risk screening instrument was self-administered to assess HIV risk behavior. A questionnaire was used to elicit socio-demographic variables while alcohol use was assessed with the alcohol use disorder identification test. Differences in HIV risk levels were examined for statistical significance using Chi square test. Results: Forty eight percent of the respondents engaged in HIV risk behavior. This study revealed that 10.8% (11/102) gave a history of sexually transmitted disease, 5.9% (6/102) reported sex trading and no reports of intravenous drug use was obtained. A single risk factor was reported by 19.6% (20/102), 12.7% (13/102) reported two risk factors and 15.7% (16/102) reported three or more risk factors. HIV risk behavior was significantly related to alcohol use (P = 0.03). Conclusion: Mentalhealth services provide an important context for HIV/AIDS interventions in resource-constrained countries like Nigeria.
Abayomi, O; Adelufosi, A; Adebayo, P; Ighoroje, M; Ajogbon, D; Ogunwale, A
This project collects resources for studying mentalhealth and stress issues with middle schoolers. Teens and stress Science NetLinks: The Laughing Brain 2: A Good Laugh Dealing with anger Stress-o-meter Look at each of the above sites. Choose one and read the content. Write a one-paragraph summary. Play interactive games and take quizzes. Keep a log of what you do. Tell which site you liked best and why. ...
This document presents timely statistical information on the nation's organized mentalhealth service delivery system. Included are: (1) "Chronic Mental Disorder in the United States" (Howard H. Goldman and Ronald W. Manderscheid); (2) "Specialty MentalHealth System Characteristics" (Michael J. Witkin, Joanne E. Atay, Adele S. Fell, and Ronald W.…
National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD.
A computerised algorithm was developed to predict child psychiatric diagnoses on the basis of the symptom and impact scores derived from Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires (SDQs) completed by parents, teachers and young people. The predictive algorithm generates \\
Objective: To examine the concept and evidence for mentalhealth promotion, within an understanding of mentalhealth and mental illness and their determinants.Method: Aselective review of literature and opinion in the fields of public health and mentalhealth.Results: Mentalhealth and mental illness are often given a low priority, despite growing evidence of the burden of disease and costs to
Mentalhealth care epidemiology seeks to investigate the practical situation of the health care system and services for individuals with mental disorders. In the past decades, mentalhealth care structures in Germany were successively transformed from long-term inpatient treatment capacities to decentralized outpatient and day clinic services. Currently, the proportional relation between treatment facilities in different settings has been stabilized and the strategy of mentalhealth care development focuses on innovative and integrative models of care provision. The aim is to integrate fragmented services by the introduction of network structures to overcome rigid sector boundaries. The need for health care services is associated with multiple factors such as population-based epidemiological data, usage behavior, and health politics. Due to scarce data and poor standards of care it is difficult to determine if current structures of mentalhealth services cover the actual needs. Therefore, a substantial increase of mentalhealth service research is needed. PMID:22371103
Background The classical serotonergic psychedelics LSD, psilocybin, mescaline are not known to cause brain damage and are regarded as non-addictive. Clinical studies do not suggest that psychedelics cause long-term mentalhealth problems. Psychedelics have been used in the Americas for thousands of years. Over 30 million people currently living in the US have used LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline. Objective To evaluate the association between the lifetime use of psychedelics and current mentalhealth in the adult population. Method Data drawn from years 2001 to 2004 of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health consisted of 130,152 respondents, randomly selected to be representative of the adult population in the United States. Standardized screening measures for past year mentalhealth included serious psychological distress (K6 scale), mentalhealth treatment (inpatient, outpatient, medication, needed but did not receive), symptoms of eight psychiatric disorders (panic disorder, major depressive episode, mania, social phobia, general anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and non-affective psychosis), and seven specific symptoms of non-affective psychosis. We calculated weighted odds ratios by multivariate logistic regression controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, use of illicit drugs, risk taking behavior, and exposure to traumatic events. Results 21,967 respondents (13.4% weighted) reported lifetime psychedelic use. There were no significant associations between lifetime use of any psychedelics, lifetime use of specific psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, peyote), or past year use of LSD and increased rate of any of the mentalhealth outcomes. Rather, in several cases psychedelic use was associated with lower rate of mentalhealth problems. Conclusion We did not find use of psychedelics to be an independent risk factor for mentalhealth problems.
Data presented in the fifth edition of 'MentalHealth, United States' derive principally from national surveys. For the first time, the volume includes a chapter that highlights the characteristics of seriously mentally ill persons in the household popula...
... or natural disasters such as hurricanes, are at risk of developing mentalhealth issues. Dr. Sandro Galea : But we also know that people who are isolated- socially isolated- are at great risk of mental illness after these events. We know ...
Purpose Rural individuals utilize specialty mentalhealth services (eg, psychiatrists, psychologists, counselors, and social workers) at lower rates than their urban counterparts. This study explores whether cognitive appraisals (ie, individual perceptions of need for services, outcome expectancies, and value of a positive therapeutic outcome) of help-seeking for depression symptoms are related to the utilization of specialty mentalhealth services in a rural sample. Methods Demographic and environmental characteristics, cultural barriers, cognitive appraisals, and depression symptoms were assessed in one model predicting specialty mentalhealth service utilization (MHSU) in a rural sample. Three hypotheses were proposed: (1) a higher number of environmental barriers (eg, lack of insurance or transportation) would predict lower specialty mentalhealth service utilization; (2) an increase in cultural barriers (stigma, stoicism, and lack of anonymity) would predict lower specialty mentalhealth utilization; and (3) higher cognitive appraisals of mentalhealth services would predict specialty mentalhealth care utilization beyond the predictive capacities of psychiatric symptoms, demographic variables, environmental barriers, and cultural barriers. Findings Current depression symptoms significantly predicted lifetime specialty mentalhealth service utilization. Hypotheses 1 and 2 were not supported: more environmental barriers predicted higher levels of specialty MHSU while cultural barriers did not predict specialty mentalhealth service utilization. Hypothesis 3 was supported: cognitive appraisals significantly predicted specialty mentalhealth service utilization. Conclusions It will be important to target perceptions and attitudes about mentalhealth services to reduce disparities in specialty MHSU for the rural population.
Deen, Tisha L.; Bridges, Ana J.; McGahan, Tara C.; Andrews, Arthur R.
The development of mentalhealth services in Australia and internationally is entering a new era. Due to landmark reports by the World Health Organisation (1996) and the Office of the Surgeon General of the United States, Dr David Satcher (1999) the area of mental illness has been given a much higher priority within health generally. In Australia the National Health
The present qualitative study examined the personal accounts, elicited via semi-structured interview, of nine United States military veterans with serious mental illness to describe their knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about psychiatric genetics, genetic testing and counseling for mental illness. The aim of the research was to elucidate issues from the perspective of adults with mental illness that may inform the education and training of mentalhealth providers on basic genetic counseling. Findings suggest that participants had some basic knowledge about genetics, were interested in psychiatric genetic testing, and had an awareness of both positive and negative aspects of genetic test results. Participants tended to have overly optimistic ideas about current advances in psychiatric genetics and were motivated to undergo genetic testing for the good of their families and to benefit society. Implications of findings for research and practice are discussed. PMID:21394471
Potokar, Danielle N; Stein, Catherine H; Darrah, Olivia A; Taylor, Brent C; Sponheim, Scott R
Consumer participation has been a major focus in mentalhealth services in recent years, but the attitudes of mentalhealth professionals towards this initiative remain variable. The purpose of this study was to describe mentalhealth professionals' attitudes towards mentalhealth consumer participation in inpatient psychiatric units. The Consumer Participation and Consultant Questionnaire was used with a non-probability sample of 47 mentalhealth professionals from two adult inpatient psychiatric units situated in a large Australian public general hospital. Ethics approval was obtained from a university and a hospital ethics committee. Data were analysed using SPSS, Version 12. Overall, respondents had favourable attitudes towards consumer participation in management, care and treatment, and mentalhealth planning. They were less supportive about matters that directly or indirectly related to their spheres of responsibility. The type of unit that the respondents worked in was not a factor in their beliefs about consumer participation. Recommendations are made about the development of guidelines for consumer participation in inpatient units, the educational preparation of mentalhealth clinicians, and the need for mentalhealth professionals to reflect on, and discuss their own beliefs and practices about, consumer participation. PMID:18186824
The reform of psychiatric services in Austria started during the second half of the seventies of the 20th century. During the early phase the reform focussed on dehospitalization and principles of community psychiatry. About 60% of psychiatric hospital beds were closed and the size of psychiatric hospitals was reduced. One of the psychiatric hospitals was closed and psychiatric departments were opened as part of district general hospitals. During this time the number of psychiatric hospital admissions increased markedly and a large proportion of mentally ill are treated as inpatients in non-psychiatric wards. Only about a fifth of self-employed psychiatrists working in their own office have a contract with health insurances. In Austria, the number of psychotherapists is much higher than the number of psychiatrist. A variety of different types of community services provide social and vocational rehabilitation, focussing on consultation, housing, daily structure and employment. Psychiatric services are nowadays fragmented into a number of sub-disciplines such as psychosomatics or child and adolescent psychiatry. This fragmentation and the missing coordination of psychiatric services hamper the enhancements of psychiatric care. This complicates the development of integrated services, i.e. the structured and planned cooperation of the different types of services. Since there are no binding rules for the organisation and planning in entire Austria, financing and organisation of services is fragmented. For establishing an integrated health care, coordination and cooperation between providers, sponsors of health care as well as policy makers are essential. PMID:19080994
The systematic, population-wide application of preventive measures based on what is known about the causes and outcomes of psychiatric disorders can markedly reduce morbidity from mental ill health among children in the Americas. The actions proposed here rely partly upon increasing access for all women and their children to thoroughly tested obstetric and pediatric care; in part they depend on improving nutrition and opportunities for cognitive stimulation; and in part they call for enhancing the mentalhealth skills of primary care practitioners by appropriate in-service training. There are limits to our knowledge and to the effectiveness of some of our interventions; nonetheless, the greatest barrier to better child mentalhealth is failure to muster the political will to apply what is known to the care of mothers and children in all sectors of society. PMID:1382773
This report describes a study of physical health problems and their relation to psychiatric morbidity in a community sample of 105 people with severe mental handicap and over the age of 50 years from a Metropolitan Borough. An extensive outreach exercise ensured that almost 100% of people fulfilling the age and ability criteria were included in the study. All the
Mentalhealth efforts in prisons and jails most often ignore the mental illness prevention capabilities of main-line correctional personnel. By focusing on inmates with drug dependencies or severe psychiatric disorders, traditional mentalhealth services have failed to come to grips with the problems created for “normal inmates” by the conditions of confinement. This article argues that indigenous correctional personnel might
The study on the impact of disasters on the mentalhealth is a relatively recent research field. Despite this, there are a significant number of studies showing the epidemiological data of the psychiatric pathology present in survivors and those affected by disasters This review attempts to summarize current knowledge and give an integrated vision of the effects of the disasters on the mentalhealth, either natural or manmade disasters, as well as identify the effects prevalence and differences in each type of disaster. Post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety disorders, suicidal ideation or suicide attempts are some of the pathologies observed in people affected by disasters and with an ineffective adaptation, jointly with an increase in the consumption of toxic substances, generating an additional public health problem within another problem. The consequences will be different depending on the type of population and its cultural pattern, sex and gender of the affected people and type of disasters. PMID:24547635
Cernuda Martínez, José Antonio; Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael
This paper applied the ecology model of general medical care by White et al. to analysis of mentalhealth services utilization within the National Health Insurance in Taiwan. The ambulatory and inpatient claims of a 200,000-person cohort in 2001 were analyzed. The yearly and monthly prevalence estimates included psychotropic drug prescription, diagnosis of mental disorders, psychiatric ambulatory visit and admission, community psychiatric rehabilitation, and certificate of chronic psychosis. The results revealed one-fourth of people had received psychotropic drugs during the year, mostly from non-psychiatrists. Besides, the elderly might be excessively exposed to psychotropic drugs, and community rehabilitation programs were underutilized. PMID:16625305
Perspectives, provided by MentalHealth Net, is a quarterly online magazine devoted to mentalhealth. It features short (usually less than 2,000 word) articles about all aspects of its topic. The Vol. 1, No. 4 issue contains articles on Prozac, loneliness, and managed care, among others. It also includes a regular column on "Being Human." Archives are available at the site, as are submission guidelines. MentalHealth Net is a well known "comprehensive guide to mentalhealth online," with pointers to resources in the field, arranged by topic and resource type.
Children constitute nearly 40% of India's population, a significant portion of whom suffer mental ailments. Ways to sensitize those who work with children to various aspects associated with child mentalhealth are explored in this book. The focus is not on mental handicap but on the internal or external distress which warps the psychosocial…
OBJECTIVE Mental illness stigma remains a significant barrier to treatment. However, the recent increase in the medical and non-medical use of prescription psychiatric medications among college students seems to contradict this phenomenon. This study explored students’ attitudes and experiences related to psychiatric medications, as well as correlates of psychiatric medication misuse (i.e., attitudes towards mental illness and beliefs about the efficacy of psychiatric medications). METHOD Data were collected anonymously via self-report questionnaires from April 2008 to February 2009. Measures included the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test, Drug Abuse Screening Test, Day’s Mental Illness Stigma Scale, Attitudes Toward Psychiatric Medication Scale, and the Psychiatric Medication Attitudes Scale. Participants included 383 university students (59.2% female), recruited on campus or through online classes. RESULTS Results showed high rates of psychiatric medication misuse when compared to rates of medical use. Participants reported believing that the majority of students who use prescription psychotropics do so non-medically. In addition, less-stigmatized attitudes toward mental illness were correlated with both increased beliefs about the treatability of mental illness and increased misuse of psychiatric medications. Conversely, more stigmatized beliefs were associated with negative views toward psychiatric medication, as well as decreased likelihood of abuse. CONCLUSION Results suggest the need for improved education regarding the nature of mental illness, the appropriate use of psychiatric medications, and the potential consequences associated with abuse of these potent drugs.
Objective Limited data are available on how older adults access public mentalhealth systems. This study examines how uninsured or publicly insured older adults with severe mental illness in San Diego County initially accessed the public mentalhealth system, as well as their subsequent use of public mentalhealth services, as compared to younger adults. Methods Data from San Diego County, 2002–2006, was used to examine how older adults initially accessed the public mentalhealth system, and their utilization over the subsequent 90 days. Multivariate regression models were used to control for demographic and clinical characteristics. Results Older adults (age 60+) were more likely to access the public mentalhealth system through the Psychiatric Emergency Response Team (PERT), a combined law-enforcement and psychiatric service that responds to psychiatric related 911 calls. Older adults were also less likely to receive follow-up care. This lower rate of follow-up was due to both the initial site of service – and an associated lower rate of follow-up among PERT clients – as well as a lower rate of follow-up among older adult clients initiating services in other sectors. Conclusions This paper suggests two areas for intervention that would improve access to care for older adults: improving linkages and referrals between PERT and outpatient providers; and additional efforts to retain older adults at outpatient programs.
This annotated bibliography of cooperative projects in mentalhealth and behavioral sciences includes major projects, drug screening studies, physiological concomitants of psychiatric drug therapy, psychological studies, methodological studies, studies of...
A sample of 165 adults with mental retardation was surveyed for the presence of psychiatric symptoms, mental retardation level, and challenging behavior. Challenging behavior was associated with increased prevalence of psychiatric symptoms, especially anxiety and psychosis, and not with depression. No association was found between anxiety and…
Investigated Quick Test prediction of WAIS Full Scale IQs for a psychiatric population (N = 19) who were also mentally retarded. One- and two-variable regression equations produced nonsignificant results and accounted for only 11% and 15% of the variance. Caution is advised when the Quick Test is used as an estimate of IQ for mentally retarded psychiatric individuals. PMID:7263891
The interface of women’s reproductive and mentalhealth is an evolving area of psychiatric practice, necessitating familiarity\\u000a with psychobiological factors unique to women. The role of estrogen in particular has profound implications for the etiology\\u000a and treatment of women’s psychiatric illness, and has been reviewed along with the role of other hormones. Additionally, the\\u000a stress of specific life events such
The purpose of this review of the literature is to present a contemporary perspective related to the nursing care of hospitalized mentalhealth patients who have risk of developing oral health issues. Mental illness is a major health concern worldwide. Compounding this health issue, mentalhealth patients/clients demonstrate avoidant behaviours related to oral health, and the symptoms of mental illness can be a compounding factor. Oral health and oral inflammatory disease are the result of lifestyle and behaviour and mental disorders affect both lifestyle and behaviour. The search used the search terms oral health AND nursing AND mental illness AND Published Date 2005 to 2010. For those who experience mental illness oral health assessment is not routinely practised by clinicians. The importance of special attention to dental problems for people with mental disorders has also been stressed by researchers since the lifespan of people with serious mental disorders is shortened compared to the general population. Oral health care is an important part of treatment. Routine oral care for hospitalized patients is imperative, and this is usually the responsibility of nurses without sufficient knowledge in oral care or comprehensive protocols to follow. PMID:22070464
Background: The literature review shows that treatment compliance in child psychiatric practice is a multifactorial issue that includes parameters such as the type of problem presented by the child, the family’s functioning and the therapeutic team’s organization and functioning. Methods: In order to examine these parameters and their inter-relationship, epidemiological data from the files of 455 cases, representing the total
The aim of this study was to explore Palestinian mothers' perceptions of child mentalhealth problems and their understanding of their causes; to determine Palestinian mothers' awareness of existing services and sources of help and support; to identify professionals in the community whom Palestinian mothers would consult if their child had mentalhealth problems; and to establish their views on ways of increasing awareness of child mentalhealth issues and services. Checklists exploring the above issues were completed by 249 Palestinian mothers living in refugee camps in the Gaza Strip. Palestinian mothers equally perceived emotional, behavioural and psychotic symptoms as suggestive of mental ill health in childhood. Mothers perceived multiple causes of child mentalhealth problems, including family problems, parental psychiatric illness and social adversity. A substantial proportion (42.6%) had knowledge of local child mentalhealth care services. Overall, mothers preferred Western over traditional types of treatment, and were keen to increase mentalhealth awareness within their society. Despite a different cultural tradition, Palestinian mothers appear open to a range of services and interventions for child mentalhealth problems. As in other non-Western societies, child mentalhealth service provision should be integrated with existing primary health care, schools, and community structures. PMID:16946953
Thabet, Abdel Aziz; El Gammal, Hossam; Vostanis, Panos
The aim of this study was to explore Palestinian mothers' perceptions of child mentalhealth problems and their understanding of their causes; to determine Palestinian mothers' awareness of existing services and sources of help and support; to identify professionals in the community whom Palestinian mothers would consult if their child had mentalhealth problems; and to establish their views on ways of increasing awareness of child mentalhealth issues and services. Checklists exploring the above issues were completed by 249 Palestinian mothers living in refugee camps in the Gaza Strip. Palestinian mothers equally perceived emotional, behavioural and psychotic symptoms as suggestive of mental ill health in childhood. Mothers perceived multiple causes of child mentalhealth problems, including family problems, parental psychiatric illness and social adversity. A substantial proportion (42.6%) had knowledge of local child mentalhealth care services. Overall, mothers preferred Western over traditional types of treatment, and were keen to increase mentalhealth awareness within their society. Despite a different cultural tradition, Palestinian mothers appear open to a range of services and interventions for child mentalhealth problems. As in other non-Western societies, child mentalhealth service provision should be integrated with existing primary health care, schools, and community structures.
THABET, ABDEL AZIZ; EL GAMMAL, HOSSAM; VOSTANIS, PANOS
This overview focuses on a provision of current mentalhealth services in New Zealand and might help professionals from other countries to become familiar with its community based model of care. New Zealand mentalhealth services have undergone significant changes over the last 40 years. These include the closure of old psychiatric hospitals and the development of community based treatment facilities. The New Zealand government has been closely involved with the organisation of mentalhealth services providing strategic directions and financial support. So far much has been accomplished, however some gaps still remain. PMID:17603412
Since the radical changes in Italian mentalhealth law in the 1970s, quality assurance models have gained consensus as the most suitable service assessment tool. In the 1990s, the whole Italian National Health System changed into a corporate model, and an accreditation system was implemented.The Italian Association for Quality and Accreditation in MentalHealth (Associazione Italiana per la Qualità e l'Accreditamento in Salute Mentale [QUASM]) was founded in 1984, and since then, it offers consultation and support for MentalHealth Departments and Regional Governments to help them to develop psychiatric programs, self-evaluation, educational programs, and professional peer-model accreditation. The QUASM accreditation manual has now gone through several revisions, the last in 2008. Until 2008, QUASM was successful in promoting quality and facilitating both institutional and professional accreditation. However, radical changes triggered by financial crisis have jeopardized quality assurance implementation. Nowadays, the challenge for QUASM is to maintain quality and accreditation geared to excellence against prevailing leveling trends. PMID:24840086
This paper offers tips for working with interpreters in mentalhealth settings. These tips include: (1) Using trained interpreters, not bilingual staff or community members; (2) Explaining "interpreting procedures" to the providers and clients; (3) Addressing the stigma associated with mentalhealth that may influence interpreters; (4) Defining…
Presented in five parts on research, services, training, drug abuse, and alcohol abuse are 31 reports of mentalhealth studies and programs supported by the U.S. and other countries. Explained in the introduction are reasons the National Institute of MentalHealth (NIMH) has supported international collaboration. The following are among subjects…
Background: This article discusses the importance of screening students in schools for emotional/behavioral problems. Methods: Elements relevant to planning and implementing effective mentalhealth screening in schools are considered. Screening in schools is linked to a broader national agenda to improve the mentalhealth of children and…
Weist, Mark D.; Rubin, Marcia; Moore, Elizabeth; Adelsheim, Steven; Wrobel, Gordon
Previous studies have identified a low preference for mentalhealth careers among students and practitioners in occupational therapy. Factors implicated include the social stigma of mentalhealth in the community, fieldwork experience, academic preparation, and work setting factors such as role ambiguity and chronicity of clients. Of these factors, fieldwork may be the most important influence. A survey was administered
The recruitment of students in health professions into the area of mentalhealth has been shown to be influenced by their attitudes towards the area, with such attitudes possibly shaped in the same way as many of the attitudes towards mental illness are by the general community. The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of occupational therapy
Lorna Jean King is interviewed concerning the present status of sensory integration as a treatment modality in the area of mentalhealth. Topics covered are: use of sensory integration techniques with adults and adolescents in both chronic and acute mentalhealth settings; goals and expected outcomes of using sensory integration techniques; cost-effectiveness of these techniques; differences between occupational therapy and
It is not possible to work on alternatives to chronic institutionalization without taking into account a reform of the mentalhealth care system. A great deal of experience has been accumulated and a lot of unsolved problems have arisen since the beginning of the deinstitutionalization in USA and Europe in the 60s. The aim was the closing of psychiatric hospitals, and so the accent was put on the physical place of treatment instead on the quality of the treatment or on the actual needs of the people involved. A review of the experiences is made and some clues are given to avoid the major problems and errors that have presented. Political decisions, experienced professionals, a stable and sufficient budget, modification of some laws, the creation of community institutions that fulfill the patient's needs before moving them, postgraduate training in rehabilitation, flexibility and creativity with empirical and scientific grounds are needed for a successful reform of the mentalhealth care system. PMID:19812794
Background The MentalHealth Country Profile is a tool that was generated by the International MentalHealth Policy and Services Project to inform policy makers, professionals and other key stakeholders about important issues which need to be considered in mentalhealth policy development. The MentalHealth Country Profile contains four domains, which include the mentalhealth context, resources, provision and outcomes. We have aimed to generate a MentalHealth Country Profile for Vietnam, in order to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the Vietnamese mentalhealth situation, in order to inform future reform efforts and decision-making. Methods This study used snowball sampling to identify informants for generating a MentalHealth Country Profile for Vietnam, and the data gathering was done through semi-structured interviews and collection of relevant reports and documents. The material from the interviews and documents was analysed according to qualitative content analysis. Results Marked strengths of the Vietnam mentalhealth system are the aims to move toward community management and detection of mental illness, and the active involvement of several multilateral organizations and NGOs. However, there are a number of shortages still found, including the lack of treatment interventions apart from medications, the high proportion of treatments to be paid out-of-pocket, prominence of large tertiary psychiatric hospitals, and a lack of preventative measures or mentalhealth information to the public. Conclusions At the end of this decade, mentalhealth care in Vietnam is still characterised by unclear policy and poor critical mass especially within the governmental sector. This initial attempt to map the mentalhealth situation of Vietnam suffers from a number of limitations and should be seen as a first step towards a comprehensive profile.
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Mass shootings, such as the 2012 Newtown massacre, have repeatedly led to political discourse about limiting access to guns for individuals with serious mental illness. Although the political climate after such tragic events poses a considerable challenge to mentalhealth advocates who wish to minimize unsympathetic portrayals of those with mental illness, such media attention may be a rare opportunity to focus attention on risks of victimization of those with serious mental illness and barriers to obtaining psychiatric care. Current federal gun control laws may discourage individuals from seeking psychiatric treatment and describe individuals with mental illness using anachronistic, imprecise, and gratuitously stigmatizing language. This article lays out potential talking points that may be useful after future gun violence. PMID:24042247
Objective To evaluate the impact of a mentalhealth elective on pharmacy students' perceptions and stigmatizing views of mental illness. Design An elective was designed that featured an advanced overview of psychopharmacology; student training in motivational interviewing; a presentation by the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) local chapter; introduction to pharmacy collaborations with peer support specialists, social workers, and psychiatrists; mock patient counseling sessions; and a required psychiatric patient interview at a local community mentalhealth center. Assessment A survey instrument with 17 Likert-scale items was constructed to measure 2 distinct areas: social distance and stigmatizing views. The survey instrument was administered at the beginning and end of the spring 2010 semester to pharmacy students enrolled in the mentalhealth elective course and to a control group of pharmacy students enrolled in an unrelated clinical elective. The course had a positive impact on pharmacy students' perceptions of mental illnesses. Students' social distance and stigmatizing views of mental illnesses improved, while no significant change in views occurred among students in the control group. Conclusion Advanced training in psychiatric medicine and exposure to mentalhealth care are vital to prepare pharmacy students to provide unbiased, patient-centered care to this population.
Background This survey provides data on the MentalHealth System in Ghana for the year 2011. It supplies essential planning information for the implementation of Ghana’s new MentalHealth Act 846 of 2012, a renewal of the Ghana 5 year plan for mentalhealth and it contributes to international knowledge base on mentalhealth. It provides a baseline from which to measure future progress in Ghana and comparison data for use in other countries. In addition to reporting our findings we describe and analyse deficiencies and strengths of the Ghana mentalhealth system. Methods We used the World Health Organization’s Assessment Instrument for MentalHealth Systems (WHO-AIMS) to collect, analyse, and report data on the mentalhealth system and services for all districts of the ten regions of Ghana. Data was collected in 2012, based on the year 2011. Results In 2011, Ghana was a lower middle income country with a population of approximately 25 million. A mentalhealth policy, plan and legislation were in place. Mentalhealth legislation was outdated and no longer in line with best practice standards. Services were significantly underfunded with only 1.4% of the health expenditure going to mentalhealth, and spending very much skewed towards urban areas. There were 123 mentalhealth outpatient facilities, 3 psychiatric hospitals, 7 community based psychiatric inpatient units, 4 community residential facilities and 1 day treatment centre, which is well below what would be expected for Ghana’s economic status. The majority of patients were treated in outpatient facilities and psychiatric hospitals and most of the inpatient beds were provided by the latter. There were an estimated 2.4 million people with mentalhealth problems of which 67,780 (ie 2.8%) received treatment in 2011. The were 18 psychiatrists, 1,068 Registered Mental Nurses, 19 psychologists, 72 Community MentalHealth Officers and 21 social workers working in mentalhealth which is unbalanced with an unbalanced emphasis on nurses compared to what would be expected. Conclusions The main strength of the mentalhealth system was the presence of a long established service with staff working across the country in outpatients departments and hospitals. The main weakness was that government spending on mentalhealth was very low and the bulk of services, albeit very sparse, were centred around the capital city leaving much of the rest of the country with almost no provision. Service provision was dominated by nurses with few other professions groups present.
Background Although the promotion of mentalhealth (MHP) through education and training is widely accepted, there is scarce evidence for its effectiveness in the literature from outcome studies worldwide. The present study aimed to assess the effect of a three-semester MHP educational program on the recipients' opinions towards mental illness and on their own self-assessed health. Methods Respondents were 78 attendees who completed the assessment battery at the first (baseline) and the last session (end) of the training course. They were primary care physicians or other professionals, or key community agents, working in the greater Athens area. The course consisted of 44 sessions (4 h each), over a 3-semester period, focusing on the principles and methods of mentalhealth promotion, the main aspects of major psychiatric disorders, and on relevant to health skills. Assessment instruments included the Opinion about Mental Illness (OMI) scale and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Results The mean scores of three OMI factors, that is, social discrimination, social restriction and social integration, and the two GHQ-28 subscales, that is, anxiety/insomnia and social dysfunction, were significantly improved by the end of the training course. Conclusions The results of this study provide evidence, with limitations, for the short-term effectiveness of the implemented educational MHP program on an adult group of recipients-key agents in their community. Because interventions for strengthening positive opinions about mental illness and enhancing self-assessed health constitute priority aims of mentalhealth promotion, it would be beneficial to further investigate the sustainability of the observed positive changes. In addition it would be useful to examine (a) the possible interplay between the two outcome measures, that is, the effect of opinions of recipients about mentalhealth on their perceived health, and (b) the applicability of this intervention in individuals with different sociodemographic profiles.
This paper correlates economic stress with minority status, resource allocations for mentalhealth programs, and vulnerability to mental disability. Several hypotheses are advanced: 1. A major and recurring psychological pattern of the American national character is prowhite, antiblack paranoia. 2. Mentalhealth fiscal allocations and programmatic determinations in ghetto, lower socioeconomic, minority-populated urban areas are predicated on political and racist considerations, the underlying motivation being to keep minorities at greater risk of mental disability. 3. Economic privation and stress increase vulnerability to mental illness, especially in a minority population for whom health, mentalhealth, educational, and social services are grossly inadequate. 4. Poverty and economic stress combine with health systems that are unresponsive to the needs of blacks and other minorities, resulting in the perpetuation of disabilities and other conditions in blacks that are potentially preventable. 5. Health and mentalhealth resources should be increased rather than diminished during periods of economic stress, especially in the public sector. 6. In order to provide each citizen with access to quality health and mentalhealth care regardless of race and/or economic status, there must be enacted a national health insurance program based on tax-levy monies that will cover all aspects of health and mentalhealth care. 7. Racism and social status will continue to be powerful determinants of the quality of service that white professionals render to black patients and to poor white patients, unless our training institutions mount a massive campaign to train appropriately and to include significant numbers of minority candidates and trainees in the effort. To date this effort is virtually nonexistent.
The leading cause of suicide ideation, attempts, and completion in adolescents is persistent and unresolved parental conflict. National statistics show extremely high rates of childhood neglect and abuse are perpetrated most often by single mothers. Psychiatric disorders arising from maternal–child dysfunction are well-documented. However, resources to prevent offspring victimization are lacking. Here, we report maternal neglect of a 15-year-old male brought to the psychiatric emergency room for suicidal ideation. An inpatient treatment plan including pharmacotherapy, family therapy and psychological testing was initiated. The patient’s mother failed to attend clinic appointments or family therapy sessions. Clinician attempts to engage the mother in the treatment plan was met with verbal assaults, aggression, and threatening behavior. The patient decompensated in relation to the mother’s actions. Child Protective Services were contacted and a follow-up assessment with the patient and mother is pending. Psychiatric treatment of the mother may be a necessary intervention and prevention regimen for both the adolescent and the mother. Without consistent Child Protective Services oversight, medical and psychosocial follow-up, the prognosis and quality of life for this adolescent is considered very poor. Stringent mentalhealth law and institutional policies are needed to adequately intercede and protect adolescents with mental illness.
There has been considerable concern over disturbances to the public-private equilibrium in local health care provision. We investigated the situation among mental patients. Only 11.5% of new patients presenting to a public general hospital psychiatric unit had consulted a private sector psychiatrist previously. Of these, 60% had moved to the public sector for financial reasons and the same proportion had had their last contact with private care within the previous three months. There were no dominant reasons for choosing the private sector initially. No particular privately practising psychiatrist's patients were more likely to seek public treatment subsequently. The results are analysed and the implications discussed. PMID:11847380
Stigma and discrimination have been identified as important obstacles to the integration of people with mental illness in society. In efforts to reduce stigma and discrimination, health professionals play an important role as they have frequent contact with and responsibility for treatment and rehabilitation of consumers. The aim of the present study was to investigate attitudes towards mental illness and people with mental illness among nursing staff working in psychiatric or somatic care. The sample consisted of 120 registered or assistant nurses who were interviewed about intimacy with mental illness and attitudes about seven different mental illnesses. The results showed that nursing staff in somatic care, to a higher degree than nursing staff in mentalhealth, reported more negative attitudes with regard to people with schizophrenia as being more dangerous and unpredictable. In contrast, professional experience, intimacy with mental illness and type of care organization were found to be more associated with attitudes to specific mental illnesses concerning the prospect of improvement with treatment and the prospect of recovery. In conclusion, attitudes among nursing staff are in several respects comparable with public opinions about mental illness and mentally ill persons. In order to elucidate if negative attitudes about dangerousness and unpredictability of persons with specific mental illnesses are associated with realistic experiences or with prejudices further studies with a qualitative design are suggested. PMID:18489686
In Japan, although the locus of care is still predominantly in psychiatric hospitals, a growing number of mentalhealth service providers have become engaged in promoting community integration of people with severe mental illness. This paper describes an ongoing initiative to build a mentalhealth and social services system, which is viewed as a model for other Japanese communities in
JUNICHIRO ITO; IWAO OSHIMA; MASAAKI NISHIO; ERI KUNO
Purpose: To assess the prevalence of suicide ideation among community-dwelling older adults and the relationship between suicide ideation, major psychiatric disorder, and mentalhealth service use. Design and Methods: We use data from the Canadian Community Health Survey 1.2: MentalHealth and Well-being (CCHS 1.2). We estimate the prevalence of…
Corna, Laurie M.; Cairney, John; Streiner, David L.
\\u000a There are a number of barriers that contribute to the low employment rates of people with mentalhealth disabilities; these\\u000a barriers exist at the individual level, the programs and services level, and the systems, policy, and societal level (Anthony\\u000a et al. 2002). One issue that intersects with all three is disclosure of psychiatric disability in the workplace. Individuals\\u000a with mental
Kim L. MacDonald-Wilson; Zlatka Russinova; E. Sally Rogers; Chia Huei Lin; Terri Ferguson; Shengli Dong; Megan Kash MacDonald
The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of children and adolescents admitted to the psychiatric emergency department (ED) of a French public teaching hospital over a six-year study period (2001–2006). Data for all episodes of care in the psychiatric ED from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2006, delivered to adolescents aged less than 18 years were retrospectively analyzed. During the six-year study period, 335 episodes of care in the psychiatric ED were experienced by 264 different adolescents. They accounted for 2.0% of the 16,754 care episodes of the ED; 164 patients (62.1) were female and the average age was 16.5 (SD = 1.6). The neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform disorders were the most frequent (25.4%) and concerned mainly anxiety disorders (15.2%). The frequency of the absence of psychiatric diagnosis (22.7%) was high. A total of 48 children and adolescents (18.2%) benefited from more than one episode of care. Several factors were associated to a higher number of visits to the ED: substance use, schizophrenia, disorders of adult personality and behaviour, disorders occurring in childhood and adolescence, and dual diagnosis. In conclusion, mentalhealth disorders in children and adolescents are a serious problem associated with several potentially modifiable factors.
Boyer, Laurent; Henry, Jean-Marc; Samuelian, Jean-Claude; Belzeaux, Raoul; Auquier, Pascal; Lancon, Christophe; Da Fonseca, David
The mentalhealth system has realized significant metamorphoses in the standards and practices of quality care for people with psychiatric disability during the past decade. Now change agents are wrestling with effective strategies that help real-world systems to adopt programs reflecting these metamorphoses. Two fundamental approaches to systems change are compared and contrasted here: evolution and revolution. First, the authors
This study uses data from a household survey (Mexican American Prevalence and Services Study; MAPSS) of 3,000 respondents in Fresno County, California, to 1) contrast use across multiple sectors of care among immigrant and U.S. born Mexican Americans with recent psychiatric disorders, 2) contrast multiple provider utilization patterns, and 3) identify specific factors associated with the use of mentalhealth
William A. Vega; Bohdan Kolody; Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola
Although many researchers have investigated emotional and behavioral difficulties in individuals with Williams syndrome, few have used standardized diagnostic assessments. We examined mentalhealth problems in 92 adults with Williams syndrome using the Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with Developmental Disabilities--PAS-ADD (Moss,…
In the United States, research directed specifically at improving our understanding of the psychiatric assessment and treatment of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) has grown, yet lags far behind efforts for typically developing children and adults. In the United States, a lack of a national approach to the mentalhealth problems of…
Reviews literature evaluating appropriateness of Medicare's prospective payment system (PPS) through Diagnostic-Related Groups (DRGs), since its implementation in 1983, for psychiatric care. Cites shortcomings that make the system untenable for mentalhealth care, including lack of homogeneity of DRGs, inability to predict length of stay, and…
j Abstract Background Individuals who experience work stress or heavy family demands are at elevated risk of poor mentalhealth. Yet, the cumulative effects of multiple work and family demands are not well known, particularly in men. Methods We studied the association between multiple work and family de- mands and sickness absence due to non-psychotic psychiatric disorders in a longitudinal
Maria Melchior; Lisa F. Berkman; Isabelle Niedhammer; Marie Zins; Marcel Goldberg
Delivery of mentalhealth care is changing dramatically at the state and county levels in Wisconsin. These new trends are affecting psychiatric institutions and rehabilitation personnel in reference to staffing patterns, the roles of occupational therapists, certified occupational therapy assistants, patient population and level of acute care and the type and site of intervention. Therapists are moving to more community-based
The psychiatric disorder in juvenile systems is on the increase and this study examines the detained youth's perceived barriers and attitudes towards the mentalhealth service use. Results concluded that experiences with past services contributed to negative perceptions, which need to be solved by providing educational outreach programs that helps…
Abram, Karen M.; Paskar, Leah D.; Washburn, Jason J.; Teplin, Linda A.
This sourcebook contains 19 papers which discuss the mentalhealth service needs of Southeast Asian refugees in the United States. The volume is divided into five sections: Treatment; Prevention; Services; Training; and Research. The papers (and their authors) are: (1) "Psychiatric Care for Southeast Asians: How Different Is Different?" (Tran Minh…
Background: Few studies have investigated whether elderly people of particular religious affiliations were more or less likely to seek treatment for mental illness, and whether it was related to their health beliefs.Method: In the National Mental Survey of Elderly Singaporeans in 2004, data were collected on reported religious affiliations, and 1-year prevalence of mental disorders (DSM-IV diagnoses of psychiatric disorders)
Tze Pin Ng; Ma Shwe Zin Nyunt; Peak Chiang Chiam; Ee Heok Kua
Global mentalhealth challenges sit at the frontiers of health care worldwide. The frequency of mentalhealth disorders is increasing, and represents a large portion of the global burden of human disease (DALYs). There are many impeding forces in delivering mentalhealth care globally. The knowledge of what mentalhealth and its diseased states are limits the ability to seek
This paper examines the South African MentalHealth Care Act, focussing on its ideological and theoretical underpinnings. It argues that the Act is flawed not only through clear textual inconsistencies, but further, as a consequence of its view of mental illness resting on contestable psychiatric dogma. Specifically, the disease model of mental illness reproduced in the policy allows the desires,
The roles that mentalhealth professionals must play to facilitate the prevention of mental illness and the introduction of mentally healthy attitudes in our society is discussed. Mentalhealth professionals must re-examine the meaning of mentalhealth in the context of the current world situation and ask themselves to what extent they are…
As Iraq faces the challenge of securing a sustainable resolution to the current violence, the burden of mental illness is likely to increase dramatically. The impact of Saddam Hussein's dictatorship, the Iran-Iraq war, U.S.-led economic sanctions, the Persian Gulf wars, and the U.S. invasion and subsequent violent insurgency have devastated Iraq's governmental and social infrastructure. Health care delivery across sectors has suffered greatly. During the reconstruction phase, the United States and coalition forces allocated resources to restructure Iraq's health care system. Many multinational organizations, governments, and policy makers had the political will as well as the financial and human resources to greatly influence Iraq's mentalhealth program. However, the lack of an existing mentalhealth plan stifled these efforts. Applying Kingdon's model for policy development, which includes political analysis, problem defining, and proposal drafting, the authors describe the development of Iraq's current mentalhealth policy. PMID:17914016
As it approaches its 100th anniversary in 2009, the National MentalHealth Association (NMHA) remains the countryÃ¢ÂÂs oldest and largest nonprofit organization that deals with all aspects of mentalhealth and mental illness. First-time users of their site will find that their homepage contains copious amounts of material related to their advocacy efforts, along with materials that deal with helping a loved one who may be suffering the effects of mental illness. The Ã¢ÂÂNeed Info?Ã¢ÂÂ area is a good place to start for these types of materials, as it provides access to information on treatment resources, support groups, and fact sheets. Visitors can also elect to sign up for one (or several) of their helpful email updates, which include work on related legislation, and mentalhealth news coverage.
Background There is an increasing probability that the psychiatrist will, willingly or not, come into contact with mentally ill offenders in the course of their practice. There are increasing rates of violence, substance abuse and other psychiatric disorders that are of legal importance. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the rates of different mental disorders in 100 court reports and to investigate the characteristics of mentally ill offenders. Methods All cases referred from different departments of the legal system to the forensic committee for assessment of legal accountability over 13-months duration were included. A specially designed form was prepared for data collection. Cases were classified into five groups: murder, robbery, financial offences, violent and simple offences and a group for other offences. Data were subjected to statistical analysis and comparisons between different groups of subjects were performed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results Men constituted 93% of cases. In all, 73% of offenders were younger than 40 years old. Schizophrenia cases made up 13% of the total, substance related cases constituted 56% and amphetamine cases alone made up 21%; 10% of cases were antisocial personality disorders, and 51% of cases were classified as having a low education level. Unemployment was found in 34% of cases. The final decision of the forensic committee was full responsibility in 46% of cases and partial responsibility in 11% of cases, with 33% considered non-responsible. A total of 58% of cases had had contact with psychiatric healthcare prior to the offence and in 9% of cases contact had been in the previous 12 weeks. A history of similar offences was found in 32% of cases. In all, 14% of the offences were murders, 8% were sexual crimes, and 31% were violent/simple crimes. Conclusions The ability of the legal system to detect cases was good, while the ability of the healthcare system to predict crimes and offences was weak, as 58% of cases had had previous contact with the healthcare system previously. Substance abuse, especially amphetamine abuse, played an important role.
Objective To determine whether an elective course on mentalhealth could reduce pharmacy students’ social distance toward people with severe mental illness. Design Course activities included assigned readings, class discussions, student presentations, review of video and other media for examples of social distance, presentations by patients with mental illness, and visits to hospitalized patients in a variety of psychiatric settings. Assessment The Social Distance Scale (SDS) was administered at the beginning and end of the semester to students enrolled in the elective and to a comparator group of students not enrolled in the course. Pharmacy students who did not complete the elective had significantly higher SDS scores than students who completed the elective (18.7 vs. 15.6, p < 0.001). Students enrolled in the course had lower precourse SDS scores, were more likely than their peers to have a personal association with mental illness, and had a decrease in precourse to postcourse scores. Conclusion A course designed to reduce stigma towards the mentally ill can reduce pharmacy students' social distance.
Qian, Jingjing; Mehdizadegan, Niki; Simoni-Wastila, Linda
British government proposals for community care of psychiatric patients require a response from adult educators about the need for learning opportunities both inside and outside institutions for people with mentalhealth problems. (SK)
Discusses assessment studies related to quality of care in the mentalhealth field. Quality assessment involves defining quality of care, choosing an appropriate focus of quality-of-care studies, identifying applicable and feasible methods, and guaranteeing the reliability and validity of the data used in the assessment. It is concluded that (a) dogmatic statements about methods to assess the quality of mental
Robert H. Brook; Caren J. Kamberg; Kathleen N. Lohr
Facts about college mentalhealth are presented in response to frequently asked questions. Areas of concern include common conditions interfering with student effectiveness, why students seek help and where they can get it, the frequency of severe mental illness in college students, the suicide problem, the limitations of nonprofessional help, the…
National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Rockville, MD.
Background This paper is a part of the work of the group that carried out the report "The state of the mentalhealth in Europe" (European Commission, DG Health and Consumer Protection, 2004) and deals with the mentalhealth issues related to the migration in Europe. Methods The paper tries to describe the social, demographical and political context of the emigration in Europe and tries to indicate the needs and (mental) health problems of immigrants. A review of the literature concerning mentalhealth risk in immigrant is also carried out. The work also faces the problem of the health policy toward immigrants and the access to health care services in Europe. Results Migration during the 1990s has been high and characterised by new migrations. Some countries in Europe, that have been traditionally exporters of migrants have shifted to become importers. Migration has been a key force in the demographic changes of the European population. The policy of closed borders do not stop migration, but rather seems to set up a new underclass of so-called "illegals" who are suppressed and highly exploited. In 2000 there were also 392.200 asylum applications. The reviewed literature among mentalhealth risk in some immigrant groups in Europe concerns: 1) highest rate of schizophrenia; suicide; alcohol and drug abuse; access of psychiatric facilities; risk of anxiety and depression; mentalhealth of EU immigrants once they returned to their country; early EU immigrants in today disadvantaged countries; refugees and mentalhealth Due to the different condition of migration concerning variables as: motivation to migrations (e.g. settler, refugees, gastarbeiters); distance for the host culture; ability to develop mediating structures; legal residential status it is impossible to consider "migrants" as a homogeneous group concerning the risk for mental illness. In this sense, psychosocial studies should be undertaken to identify those factors which may under given conditions, imply an increased risk of psychiatric disorders and influence seeking for psychiatric care. Comments and Remarks Despite in the migrants some vulnerable groups were identified with respect to health problems, in many European countries there are migrants who fall outside the existing health and social services, something which is particularly true for asylum seekers and undocumented immigrants. In order to address these deficiencies, it is necessary to provide with an adequate financing and a continuity of the grants for research into the multicultural health demand. Finally, there is to highlight the importance of adopting an integrated approach to mentalhealth care that moves away from psychiatric care only.
Background The Ugandan government recognizes mentalhealth as a serious public health and development concern, and has of recent implemented a number of reforms aimed at strengthening the country's mentalhealth system. The aim of this study was to provide a profile of the current mentalhealth policy, legislation and services in Uganda. Methods A survey was conducted of public sector mentalhealth policy and legislation, and service resources and utilisation in Uganda, in the year 2005, using the World Health Organization's Assessment Instrument for MentalHealth Systems (WHO-AIMS) Version 2.2. Results Uganda's draft mentalhealth policy encompasses many positive reforms, including decentralization and integration of mentalhealth services into Primary Health Care (PHC). The mentalhealth legislation is however outdated and offensive. Services are still significantly underfunded (with only 1% of the health expenditure going to mentalhealth), and skewed towards urban areas. Per 100,000 population, there were 1.83 beds in mental hospitals, 1.4 beds in community based psychiatric inpatient units, and 0.42 beds in forensic facilities. The total personnel working in mentalhealth facilities were 310 (1.13 per 100,000 population). Only 0.8% of the medical doctors and 4% of the nurses had specialized in psychiatry. Conclusion Although there have been important developments in Uganda's mentalhealth policy and services, there remains a number of shortcomings, especially in terms of resources and service delivery. There is an urgent need for more research on the current burden of mental disorders and the functioning of mentalhealth programs and services in Uganda.
Mental disorders are highly prevalent and cause considerable suffering and disease burden. To compound this public health problem, many individuals with psychiatric disorders remain untreated although effective treatments exist. We examine the extent of this treatment gap. We reviewed community-based psychiatric epidemiology studies that used standardized diagnostic instruments and included data on the percentage of individuals receiving care for schizophrenia and other non-affective psychotic disorders, major depression, dysthymia, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and alcohol abuse or dependence. The median rates of untreated cases of these disorders were calculated across the studies. Examples of the estimation of the treatment gap for WHO regions are also presented. Thirty-seven studies had information on service utilization. The median treatment gap for schizophrenia, including other non-affective psychosis, was 32.2%. For other disorders the gap was: depression, 56.3%; dysthymia, 56.0%; bipolar disorder, 50.2%; panic disorder, 55.9%; GAD, 57.5%; and OCD, 57.3%. Alcohol abuse and dependence had the widest treatment gap at 78.1%. The treatment gap for mental disorders is universally large, though it varies across regions. It is likely that the gap reported here is an underestimate due to the unavailability of community-based data from developing countries where services are scarcer. To address this major public health challenge, WHO has adopted in 2002 a global action programme that has been endorsed by the Member States.
Recommendations of a task force charged with examining conditions of mentalhealth operatios in western Massachusetts are contained in this report. The greatest needs in the region were found to be crisis intervention, childrens' services, community-parti...
This fact sheet addresses the mentalhealth needs of children and adolescents. It emphasizes that children and adolescents can have mentalhealth problems, that these mentalhealth problems can be severe, and that these problems are common in young people. Some causes of mentalhealth problems are identified, such as exposure to environmental…
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Mental Health Services.
Explored mentalhealth counselors' and counselor educators' perceptions of the training mentalhealth counselors receive. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 12 mentalhealth counselors or counselor educators. Key issues that emerged from interviews concerned licensure movement, what distinguishes mentalhealth counseling, variability of…
A learning needs assessment focused on psychiatric/mentalhealth nursing competency development is a central component of nursing education in specialty mentalhealth nursing practice. The provision of education for mentalhealth nursing relies on the underlying assumption that the learning needs of experienced mentalhealth nurses have been assessed and educational programs implemented to address educational needs for competency in professional practice. Few professional learning needs assessments have been developed to identify learning needs in mentalhealth nursing practice. The majority of available professional learning needs assessments focus on medical nursing practice applications rather than the psychosocial aspects of a mentalhealth assessment. The mentalhealth field addresses very different assessment criteria such as knowledge of suicide assessment and therapeutic interventions. The purpose of this article is to present and describe the process of developing a learning needs assessment focused on competency development for the specialty practice of mentalhealth nursing that addresses and resolves complex learning needs. PMID:23805931
One of the major problems in measuring community mentalhealth status is the lack of consensus among mentalhealth workers in psychiatry, psychology, sociology, and epidemiology as to what constitutes mental illness. Additionally, changing social mores preclude a definition of mental illness in behavioral terms. An operational definition of mental…
Are many prisoners in jail or prison because of their mental illness? And if so, is mentalhealth treatment a cost-effective way to reduce crime and lower criminal justice costs? This paper reviews and evaluates the evidence assessing the potential of expansion of mentalhealth services for reducing crime. Mental illness and symptoms of mental illness are highly prevalent among
Describes the Southwest Denver Community MentalHealth Center, an innovative program with documented success in keeping chronic psychiatrically disabled clients out of the hospital. Future merging of rehabilitation and mentalhealth systems could further benefit the people of southwest Denver. (Author)
Despite the presence of significant psychiatric comorbidity among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), little research exists on those who receive community-based mentalhealth services. This project examined one year (2004) of data from the database maintained by 26 community mentalhealth centers (CMHCs) in the Midwestern US state of…
Bryson, Stephanie A.; Corrigan, Susan K.; McDonald, Thomas P.; Holmes, Cheryl
Objective: The paper describes a shared care programme developed by mentalhealth services and general practitioners for shifting patients with chronic psychiatric disorders to the care of a general practitioner. The programme is characterized by: (i) a dedicated mentalhealth service general practitioner liaison position to manage the programme and provide support to both patients and doctors; (ii) a multidisciplinary
Large numbers of children and adolescents experience diagnosable psychiatric disturbances; however, the majority of those with need do not utilize mentalhealth services. Characteristics of caregivers are important predictors of which youth will access and continue to use services over time. In recent years school-based mentalhealth intervention…
Introduction. Children with cerebral palsy (CP), one of the most common childhood neurological disorders, often have associated medical and psychological symptoms. This study assesses mentalhealth problems compared to population controls and the ability of a mentalhealth screening tool to predict psychiatric disorders and to capture the complexity of coexisting symptoms. Methods. Children with CP (N = 47) were assessed according to DSM-IV criteria using a psychiatric diagnostic instrument (Kiddie-SADS) and a mentalhealth screening questionnaire (SDQ). Participants from the Bergen Child Study, a large epidemiological study, served as controls. Results. Children with CP had significantly higher means on all problem scores including impact scores. Two in three children scored above 90th percentile cutoff on Total Difficulties Score (TDS), and 57% met criteria for a psychiatric disorder, yielding a sensitivity of 0.85 and a specificity of 0.55. Mentalhealth problems coexisted across symptom scales, and peer problems were highly prevalent in all groups of psychiatric disorders. Conclusion. A high prevalence of mentalhealth problems and cooccurrence of symptoms were found in children with CP compared to controls. Screening with SDQ detects mentalhealth problems, but does not predict specific disorders in children with CP. ADHD is common, but difficult to diagnose due to complexity of symptoms. Mentalhealth services integrated in regular followup of children with CP are recommended due to high prevalence and considerable overlap of mentalhealth symptoms.
The National MentalHealth Strategy has been associated with the movement of service delivery into the community, creating greater demand for community services. The literature suggests that the closure of psychiatric beds and earlier discharge from inpatient services, have contributed to an intensification of the workload of community mentalhealth nurses. This paper reports findings from the first stage of an action research project to develop a workload equalization tool for community mentalhealth nurses. The study presents data from focus groups conducted with South Australian community mentalhealth nurses to identify issues that impact upon their workload. Four themes were identified, relating to staffing and workforce issues, clients' characteristics or needs, regional issues, and the impact of the health-care system. The data show that the workload of community mentalhealth nurses is increased by the greater complexity of needs of community mentalhealth clients. Service change has also resulted in poor integration between inpatient and community services and tension between generic case management and specialist roles resulting in nurses undertaking tasks for other case managers. These issues, along with difficulties in recruiting and retaining staff, have led to the intensification of community mentalhealth work and a crisis response to care with less time for targeted interventions. PMID:18460077
Mentalhealth problems are highly prevalent among individuals with HIV and are consistently associated with negative health outcomes. However, mental illness often remains untreated due to significant psychosocial and physical barriers to treatment participation. The Collaborative HIV/AIDS MentalHealth Program (CHAMP) assessed the outcomes associated with providing 9 months of in-home mentalhealth counseling for 40 individuals with HIV and a Major Axis I mental disorder. The evidence-based Illness Management and Recovery Model was adapted for use with HIV-positive individuals for the study using a community-based participatory research approach. Study participants were surveyed at baseline, 5 and 9 months to assess for changes in health outcomes. Thirty-five percent of study participants were female, 80% African American, 33% self-identified as MSM and the average participant age was 43. Forty percent of participants were on psychotropic medication at baseline. Participants had an average of 8 counseling visits (median 9). Statistically significant decreases in the global Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) score and a number of BSI symptoms dimensions including anxiety, depression, obsessive compulsive, phobic anxiety and hostility were detected, indicating a reduction of psychiatric symptoms. Statistically significant improvement was also identified for the SF-12 mentalhealth scale, adaptive coping, overall social support and emotional support. No differences in psychiatric outcomes were identified by gender, race/ethnicity, or sexual preference. Findings from the CHAMP Study suggest that the use of in-home mentalhealth treatment may be beneficial in engaging and treating HIV-positive individuals with comorbid mentalhealth disorders. PMID:23050767
Reif, Susan S; Pence, Brian W; LeGrand, Sara; Wilson, Elena S; Swartz, Marvin; Ellington, Terry; Whetten, Kathryn
Aims: (1) To examine whether prevalence of burnout is higher among community psychiatric nurses working under recently introduced job specific work systems than among public health nurses (PHNs) engaged in other public health services. (2) To identify work environment factors potentially contributing to burnout. Methods: Two groups were examined. The psychiatric group comprised 525 PHNs primarily engaged in public mentalhealth services at public health centres (PHCs) that had adopted the job specific work system. The control group comprised 525 PHNs primarily engaged in other health services. Pines' Burnout Scale was used to measure burnout. Respondents were classified by burnout score into three groups: A (mentally stable, no burnout); B (positive signs, risk of burnout); and C (burnout present, action required). Groups B and C were considered representative of "burnout". A questionnaire was also prepared to investigate systems for supporting PHNs working at PHCs and to define emergency mentalhealth service factors contributing to burnout. Results: Final respondents comprised 785 PHNs. Prevalence of burnout was significantly higher in the psychiatric group (59.2%) than in the control group (51.5%). Responses indicating lack of job control and increased annual frequency of emergency overtime services were significantly correlated with prevalence of burnout in the psychiatric group, but not in the control group. Conclusions: Prevalence of burnout is significantly higher for community psychiatric nurses than for PHNs engaged in other services. Overwork in emergency services and lack of job control appear to represent work environment factors contributing to burnout.
Imai, H; Nakao, H; Tsuchiya, M; Kuroda, Y; Katoh, T
Objective: Psychiatric rehabilitation is an evidence-based service with the goal of recovery for people with severe mental illness. Psychiatric residents should understand the services and learn the principles of psychiatric rehabilitation. This study assessed whether a 3-month rotation in a psychiatric rehabilitation center changes the competency…
Randall, Melinda; Romero-Gonzalez, Mauricio; Gonzalez, Gerardo; Klee, Anne; Kirwin, Paul
This paper draws upon a review of the relevant literature and the results of the recent MentalHealth Awareness in Action (MHAA) programme in England to discuss the current evidence base on the active ingredients in effective anti-stigma interventions in mentalhealth. The MHAA Programme delivered educational interventions to 109 police officers, 78 adults from different community groups whose working lives involved supporting people with mentalhealth problems but who had received no mentalhealth training and 472 schools students aged 14-15. Each adult target group received two intervention sessions lasting two hours. The two school lessons were 50 minutes each. Knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intent were assessed at baseline and follow-up. In addition focus groups were held with mentalhealth service users to explore the impact of stigma on their lives and facilitators of educational workshops were interviewed to provide expert opinion on 'what works' to reduce psychiatric stigma. Personal contact was predictive of positive changes in knowledge and attitudes for the school students but not the police officers or community adult group. The key active ingredient identified by all intervention groups and workshop facilitators were the testimonies of service users. The statements of service users (consumers) about their experience of mentalhealth problems and of their contact with a range of services had the greatest and most lasting impact on the target audiences in terms of reducing mentalhealth stigma. PMID:16194782
Pinfold, Vanessa; Thornicroft, Graham; Huxley, Peter; Farmer, Paul
Psychiatric illness is overrepresented among the homeless, but mentalhealth services are underutilized in this population in proportion to their needs. The current study was concerned with 900 homeless men and women randomly sampled and systematically interviewed with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule; it focuses on psychiatric and substance abuse rehabilitation service patterns and stated needs of this population in relation
Specialized transitional shelters are available in various cities to provide assistance to homeless individuals with serious mental illness. Little is known about the population using such shelters. The authors conducted a retrospective chart review to collect demographic, social, and clinical data of residents in a state-operated mentalhealth transitional shelter in Massachusetts. A total of 74 subjects were included. Schizophrenia-spectrum disorders were present in 67.6 % of the sample and mood disorders in 35.1 %. Substance use disorders were documented in 44.6 %. Chronic medical illness (mostly hypertension, dyslipidemia, asthma, and diabetes) was found in 82.4 %. The co-occurrence of a psychiatric and substance use disorder and chronic medical illness was found in 36.5 %. The majority (75.7 %) of patients had a history of legal charges. Homeless individuals with serious mental illness served by specialized transitional shelters represent a population with complex psychiatric, medical and social needs. PMID:23703373
The myriad of community problems created by the deinstitutionalization of psychiatric hospitals can be attributed to inadequate administrative planning rather than any lack of technical expertise in working with the mentally ill. In planning, administrative goals were emphasized over treatment concerns, community systems and environments were poorly conceived, and the difficult realities of treating chronic mental patients in the community
Purpose The psychiatric reform in Italy devolved to the regions the responsibility of implementing community psychiatric care. The\\u000a aim of this paper is to evaluate the mentalhealth system in Lombardy by assessing changes in accessibility and patterns of\\u000a care occurred between 1999 and 2009.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Data on mentalhealth services were collected through the regional mentalhealth information system and analyzed
Antonio Lora; Angelo Barbato; Giorgio Cerati; Arcadio Erlicher; Mauro Percudani
Purpose of review To review recent research on the relationship between substance abuse, crime, violence and mental illness, and suggest how this research could aid forensic psychiatrists, psychologists and other mentalhealth professionals in assessing and managing risk, and balancing patient care and public protection. Recent findings Substance abuse in mentally ill forensic psychiatric patients should be considered an important risk factor for violence and re-offending. Summary Improved treatment for substance abuse in forensic psychiatric patients and other mentally disordered offenders together with the offer of monitored abstinence as a condition of leave or discharge could be usefully considered as a means of reducing and managing risk. This may improve patient care by addressing mentalhealth needs and increasing opportunity and likelihood of successful re-integration into the community and better life prospects; protect the public by reducing risk of re-offending and offering real time monitoring and potential intervention when risk is heightened; and help forensic psychiatrists strike a balance between patient care and public protection, potentially alleviating some of the difficulty and anxiety that decisions to grant leave or discharge can create.
The symptomatology of 93 psychiatric inpatients with mild mental retardation was compared with that of a matched sample of inpatients without mental retardation. Patients with retardation displayed more outwardly directed and less inwardly directed symptoms; more symptoms involving action than thought; and psychotic symptom pictures which more…
Statutes on psychiatric advance directives (PADs) allow competent individuals to document instructions for future mentalhealth treatment in the event of an incapacitating crisis. PADs are aimed at promoting a stronger sense of patient self-determination, considered a central tenet of psychosocial rehabilitation and recovery; however, it is unknown what factors (if any) lead psychiatric patients with PADs to experience this benefit long term. The current study involves examination of 1 year effects on perceived treatment self-determination among 125 people with mental disorders who completed PADs via a 1-on-1 facilitated PAD intervention. Descriptive analyses showed participants documented medically relevant information that would assist doctors in a crisis and participants reported a high level of satisfaction with the facilitated PAD intervention. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that increased sense of autonomy at 1 year was predicted by race, understanding PADs, and verbal memory. Results provide useful guidance for administrators and clinicians, suggesting that PADs show promise in helping empower people with mental illness, especially African-American clients. Further, findings indicate that optimal implementation of PADs will be achieved when facilitated intervention assists people with mental illness to better understand what PADs are and to remember they have a PAD at the time they are experiencing a psychiatric crisis.
Elbogen, Eric B.; Van Dorn, Richard; Swanson, Jeffrey W.; Swartz, Marvin S.; Ferron, Joelle; Wagner, H. Ryan; Wilder, Christine
Following psychiatric deinstitutionalization and changes in involuntary civil commitment laws, many individuals with severe mental disorders have been receiving mentalhealth services through the back door, that is, the criminal justice system. Significant changes to the section of Criminal Code of Canada dealing with individuals with mental disorders have led to significant annual increases in the number of individuals declared Not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder (NCRMD), many of whom are directed to civil psychiatric settings. The goal of the present study was to describe the psychosociocriminological and risk characteristics of individuals found NCRMD remanded to civil psychiatric hospitals (CPH) compared to a forensic psychiatric hospital (FPH). This study was conducted between October 2004 and August 2006 in the sole FPH of the province of Québec and two large CPH in the Montréal metropolitan area. The final sample for the current study consisted of 96 men: 60 from the FPH and 36 from the two CPH. Results indicate that individuals in both settings have similar psychosociocriminal profiles, including PCL-R scores, but that individuals in CPH have higher scores in the Risk subscale of the HCR-20 than do their counterparts in the FPH. This difference is due to a higher score on two items: exposure to destabilizing factors and noncompliance with remediation attempts. Results are discussed in terms of the need for civil psychiatric settings to implement risk assessment and management programs into their services, and the need for further research into forensic mentalhealth services. PMID:19720502
SUMMARY This paper advocates that mentalhealth promotion receive appropriate attention within health promotion. It is of great concern that, in practice, mentalhealth pro- motion is frequently overlooked in health promotion pro- grammes although the WHO definitions of health and the Ottawa Charter describe mentalhealth as an integral part of health. It is suggested that more attention be
Internationally, one effort to reduce the number of people with serious mental illness (SMI) in jails and prisons is the development of MentalHealth Courts (MHC). Research on MHCs to date has been disproportionately focused on the study of recidivism and re-incarceration over the potential of these problem-solving courts to facilitate mentalhealth recovery and affect the slope or gradient of opportunity for recovery. Despite the strong conceptual links between the MHC approach and the recovery-orientation in mentalhealth, the capacity for MHCs to facilitate recovery has not been explored. This user-informed mentalhealth and criminal justice (MH/CJ) community based participatory (CBPR) study assesses the extent to which MHC practices align with recovery-oriented principles and may subsequently affect criminal justice outcomes. We report on the experiences and perceptions of 51 MHC participants across four metropolitan MentalHealth Courts. Specifically, the current study assesses: 1) how defendants’ perceptions of court practices, particularly with regard to procedural justice and coercion, relate to perceptions of mentalhealth recovery and psychiatric symptoms, and, 2) how perceptions of procedural justice and mentalhealth recovery relate to subsequent criminal justice outcomes. The authors hypothesized that perceived coercion and mentalhealth recovery would be inversely related, that perceived coercion would be associated with worse criminal justice outcomes, and perceptions of mentalhealth recovery would be associated with better criminal justice outcomes. Results suggest that perceived coercion in the MHC experience was negatively associated with perceptions of recovery among MHC participants. Perceptions of “negative pressures,” a component of coercion, were important predictors of criminal justice involvement in the 12 month period following MHC admission, even when controlling for other factors that were related to criminal justice outcomes, and that an increase in procedural justice was associated with a decrease in symptoms but curiously not to an increase in attitudes toward recovery. Implications and future directions are discussed.
Yanos, Philip T.; Kopelovich, Sarah L.; Koerner, Joshua; Alexander, Mary Jane
Five papers cover recent developments in rural mentalhealth nursing. "Rural MentalHealth Care: A Survey of the Research" (Karen Babich) chronicles recent interest in understanding the rural population's character and the nature of mentalhealth services needed by and provided to rural America. Lauren Aaronson ("Using Health Beliefs in a Nursing…
Emergency psychology and psychotraumatology deal with the psychological sequelae of traumatic experiences, i.e., the prevention and early intervention of posttraumatic mentalhealth disorders. Accidents are the most prevalent traumatic events in the general population that may result in a range of severe trauma and adjustment disorders. Accidents happen suddenly, unexpectedly, and can gravely threaten health, personal integrity, and life. The prevalence of intermittent and chronic psychiatric disorders in the aftermath of severe accidents varies between 5 and 30?%. Victims suffer from unknown and frightening posttraumatic symptoms, often irreversible handicaps as a consequence of their injuries, impairments in everyday functioning, and negative impact on the quality of life. The direct and indirect burden for society is high. Comprehensive secondary prevention, starting with early detection and early intervention of post-accident disorders, is not well established in clinical care. In case of severe accidental injuries, emergency and medical treatment has absolute priority. But all too often, severe mentalhealth problems remain undetected in later treatment phases and therefore cannot be addressed adequately. In primary care, knowledge of specific psychodiagnostic and treatment options is still insufficient. Prejudices, denial, and fear of stigmatization in traumatized victims as well as practical constraints (availability, waiting time) in the referral to special evidence-based interventions limit the access to adequate and effective support. This overview presents the objectives, concepts, and therapeutic tools of a stepped-care model for psychological symptoms after accidental trauma, with reference to clinical guidelines. PMID:24863709
Latest research on the mentalhealth status of children indicates that schools are key providers of mentalhealth services (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003). The push for school mentalhealth services has only increased as stakeholders have begun to recognize the significance of sound mentalhealth as an essential part of academic success (Adelman & Taylor, 2002).
Latest research on the mentalhealth status of children indicates that schools are key providers of mentalhealth services (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003). The push for school mentalhealth services has only increased as stakeholders have begun to recognize the significance of sound mentalhealth as an essential part of…
Discussions of aging and mentalhealth widely assume that ageism among mentalhealth providers is an important factor limiting access to mentalhealth services for older adults. Given the widespread citation of ageism as a problem, we critically review the history of the ageism construct, and evidence for its existence in both mentalhealth and medical professionals. There is surprisingly
Background Community care of the chronic mentally ill has always been prevalent in India, largely due to family involvement and unavailability of institutions. In the 80s, a few mentalhealth clinics became operational in some parts of the country. The Schizophrenia Research Foundation (SCARF), an NGO in Chennai had established a community clinic in 1989 in Thiruporur, which was functional till 1999. During this period various programmes such as training of the primary health center staff, setting up a referral system, setting up of a Citizen's Group, and self-employment schemes were initiated. It was decided to begin a follow up in 2005 to determine the present status of the schemes as well as the current status of the patients registered at the clinic. This we believed would lead to pointers to help evolve future community based programmes. Methods One hundred and eighty five patients with chronic mental illness were followed up and their present treatment status determined using a modified version of the Psychiatric and Personal History Schedule (PPHS). The resources created earlier were assessed and qualitative information was gathered during interviews with patient and families and other stakeholders to identify the reasons behind the sustenance or failure of these initiatives. Results Of the 185 patients followed up, 15% had continued treatment, 35% had stopped treatment, 21% had died, 12% had wandered away from home and 17% were untraceable. Of the patients who had discontinued treatment 25% were asymptomatic while 75% were acutely psychotic. The referral service was used by only 15% of the patients and mentalhealth services provided by the PHC stopped within a year. The Citizen's group was functional for only a year and apart from chicken rearing, all other self-employment schemes were discontinued within a period of 6 months to 3 years. There were multiple factors contributing to the failure, the primary reasons being the limited access and associated expenses entailed in seeking treatment, inadequate knowledge about the illness, lack of support from the family and community and continued dependence by the family on the service provider to provide solutions. Conclusion Community based initiatives in the management of mental disorders however well intentioned will not be sustainable unless the family and the community are involved in the intervention program with support being provided regularly by mentalhealth professionals.
For the first time in history, China has a mentalhealth legal framework. People in China can now expect a better life and more accessible, better-quality health care services for their loved ones. Development of a community mentalhealth service (CMHS) is at a crossroads. In this new column on mentalhealth reforms in Asia, the authors review the current state of the CMHS in China and propose four strategic directions for future development: building on the strengths of the "686 Project," the 2004 initiative that launched China's mentalhealth reform; improving professional skills of the mentalhealth workforce, especially for a recovery approach; empowering families and caregivers to support individuals with severe mental illness; and using information and communications technology to promote self-help and reduce the stigma associated with psychiatric disorders. PMID:23821168
After initially defining both mentalhealth and guilt feelings, the author examined their relationship, primarily from the perspective of the crippling effects of unwarranted feelings of guilt. Admitting the varied pressures of modern society, he nevertheless believes it is the individual's fault when he fails to glean as much from lif e as he…
... of relationship challenges can build on already existing mentalhealth problems or lead to them. Are you thinking of suicide? If yes, please do the following – Dial: 911 Dial: 800-273-TALK (8255) Check yourself into the emergency room. Tell someone who can help you find help ...
MentalHealth and Asian Americans Suicide was the 10th leading cause of death for Asian Americans, and also was the 10th leading cause of death for White ... 1 Older Asian American women have the highest suicide rate of all women over age 65 in ...
This lesson, from Science NetLinks, provides students with a sound introduction and historical overview of the important figures and discoveries that have greatly advanced the study of human behavior since the early 1900s. This lesson is the first of three lessons on mentalhealth and human behavior.
Mentalhealth disparities refer to the disproportionate amount of psychopathology found among persons of disadvantageous social standing, such as persons of low socioeconomic status (SES). Although social and self selection cannot entirely be ruled out as explanations for these differences, the accumulation of evidence supports a social causation…
Presents four articles discussing mentalhealth issues that pertain to early childhood education: "Granting Children Their Emotions" (Ilse Elisabeth Plattner); "Double Vision: Parent and Professional Perspectives on Our Family's Year in Crisis" (Kirsten Haugen); "Coping with Stress and Surviving Challenging Times" (Alan Cohen); and "When the World…
Plattner, Ilse Elisabeth; Haugen, Kirsten; Cohen, Alan; Levin, Diane E.
This comprehensive course from the Practical Nursing series of competency-based curricula is designed to prepare students for employment by systematically guiding the students' learning activities from the simple to the complex. These materials prepare health care practitioners to function effectively in the rapidly changing health care industry.…
Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.
\\u000a Social capital is a compound and complex construct, an umbrella term under which social cohesion, social support, social integration\\u000a and\\/or participation are often lumped together. Beyond its growing appeal to policy makers, practitioners and researchers\\u000a in public health in general and mentalhealth in particular, social capital is now also an integral part of broad-based discussions\\u000a on social-ecological resilience, ecosystem
Asian and Pacific Islander Americans (APIAs) are a diverse group, representing many cultures of origin, a range of immigration experiences, and varying access to economic and other resources. Despite stereotypes such as the “model minority” and cultural values that stigmatize mental illness and complicate mentalhealth help-seeking, APIAs' psychiatric rehabilitation and recovery needs are significant. These needs are inadequately treated
Rebecca P. Cameron; Hendry Ton; Cynthia Yang; Marya C. Endriga; Mei-Fang Lan; Alan K. Koike
A study sponsored by the American Psychiatric Association and the National Association for MentalHealth, in which an average of five professionals each visited seven college campuses during the year 1971-1972 is reviewed. A rich catalogue of mental healt...
This research evaluates accessing of community-based mentalhealth services in relation to the ongoing process of deinstitutionalization of mentalhealth services in Canada. From 1998/1999 to 2002/2003, the process of deinstitutionalization decreased in intensity among the provinces that implemented deinstitutionalization earlier and increased in intensity among the provinces that implemented deinstitutionalization later. By 2002/2003, average days of care per 1,000 population in psychiatric units in general hospitals exceeded days of care in psychiatric hospitals (transinstitutionalization). Accessing of community-based mentalhealth services by individuals with higher levels of psychological distress increased in all provinces from 1998/1999 to 2002/2003. PMID:22486428
The study evaluated a status congruency model in relationship to effective military performance after psychiatric contact and compared the status congruency score distributions of psychiatric outpatients with those of non-psychiatric controls. The congrue...
Patients with schizophrenia in the Suffolk County MentalHealth Project were categorized into groups with (n=32) and without (n=52) the deficit syndrome, using a case identification method based on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. The deficit group had a lower level of function at both index admission and 24-month follow-up; these differences could not be attributed to group differences in
This study estimates the prevalence and correlates of two components of problem recognition among parents and assesses their relative effects on child mentalhealth service use in several settings. Analyses were based on data from a population-based sample of 1,420 youth-parent pairs. Child psychopathology and impairment were assessed using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment. Problem perception was defined as
This paper discusses the use of bilingual workers who do not have formal mentalhealth training as mediators and providers of mentalhealth care for refugees. The introduction provides a background discussion of the need for refugee mentalhealth services, the characteristics of bilingual mentalhealth workers, and the work places and expectations…
Reforming mentalhealth care is a focus of many ongoing initiatives in the United States, both at the national and state levels. Access to adequate mentalhealth care services is one of the identified problems. Telepsychiatry and e-mentalhealth services could improve access to mentalhealth care in rural, remote and underserved areas. The authors discuss the required technology, common
Kaye L. McGinty; Sy Atezaz Saeed; Scott C. Simmons; Yilmaz Yildirim
Proposes 4 principles for community mentalhealth programing that are consistent with an ecological thesis: (1) Assessment methods are focused on the total population rather than on those persons who presently receive a mentalhealth service. (2) Mentalhealth services are designed to reduce a high risk for community service. (3) Professional and research services are created as local community
This revised edition offers an interdisciplinary analysis of the developmental, clinical, and social aspects of mentalhealth from birth to age 3. Chapters are organized into five areas, covering the context of mentalhealth, risk and protective factors, assessment, psychopathology, intervention, and applications of infant mentalhealth. The…
By addressing common reasons that schools and mentalhealth partners often cannot sustain sufficient school-based mentalhealth services, Connecting With Care (CWC)--a mentalhealth collaboration that places full-time clinicians in schools in Boston's most under-served urban neighborhood--is demonstrating how schools and districts can leverage…
The author discusses a comprehensive literature review on the mentalhealth effects of marriage denial on lesbians and gay men and the role of mentalhealth arguments in advocacy for marriage equality. The review, by Gil Herdt and Robert Kertzner, studied more than 150 reports on how marriage is related to mentalhealth and the psychological effects of discrimination as
The essays collected in this book examine the effects of ethnicity on the mentalhealth of adolescents. A dual set of issues emerges throughout the volume: the importance of adolescent mentalhealth in contributing to adult well-being, and the necessity of understanding ethnicity in studying and treating mentalhealth problems. The book is divided…
Examines reports written in mentalhealth hospitals and community mentalhealth centers. Analyzes a total of 150 randomly selected samples of 5 basic mentalhealth records, and evaluates the rhetorical contexts for each with regard to author, purpose, audience and use. (KEH)
The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of the problems confronting minority administrators of mentalhealth agencies. Twenty-five minority directors of Community MentalHealth Centers were given questionnaires asking for information about their backgrounds and the design, structure, and operation of their respective mentalhealth…
Howard Univ., Washington, DC. Mental Health Research and Development Center.
This theme issue of a bulletin on family support and children's mentalhealth focuses on managed care and the impact on children who are in need of mentalhealth services. Articles include: "Private Sector Managed Care and Children's MentalHealth" (Ira S. Lourie and others); "Just What Is Managed Care?" (Chris Koyanagi); "Managed Behavioral…
Several studies reveal that positive attitudes towards individuals with a mental illness are correlated with knowledge about mental illness. The aim of this study was to explore and describe psychiatric nurses' experiences of living next to people with mentalhealth problems. In addition, it sought to identify and describe how they handle situations arising in a neighbourhood where people with a mental illness live. Two men and seven women participated in the study. The constant comparative method of grounded theory was used for data collection and analysis. The process of 'behaving as a nurse or not' was identified as a core category. Four subcategories were identified: 'receiving involuntary information', 'to take action or not', 'behaving as a mediator in the neighbourhood' and 'the freedom of choice'. The findings show that psychiatric nurses with professional knowledge about mental illness have moral concerns about their role as nurses during their leisure time. In conclusion, it is not obvious that psychiatric nurses want to live in the same neighbourhood as persons with a mental illness. However, this study shows that their knowledge about mental illness creates for them a moral dilemma consisting of a conflict between whether to care for these mentally ill persons or to preserve their own leisure time. PMID:16178343
Högberg, Torbjörn; Magnusson, Annabella; Lützén, Kim
Objective: Persons with serious mental illness have increased rates of chronic medical conditions, have limited access to primary care, and incur significant health care expenditures. Few studies have explored providing medical care for these patients in the ambulatory mentalhealth setting. This study describes a real-world population of mentalhealth patients receiving primary care services in a community mentalhealth clinic to better understand how limited primary care resources are being utilized. Method:Chart review was performed on patients receiving colocated primary care (colocation group, N = 143) and randomly chosen patients receiving mentalhealth care only (mental-health group, N = 156) from January 2006 through June 2011. Demographic and mental and physical health variables were assessed. Results: Compared to the mental-health group, the colocation patients had more psychiatric hospitalizations (mean = 1.07 vs 0.23, P < .01), were more likely to be homeless (P < .01), and were more likely to require intensive case management (P < .01). Interestingly, the colocation group was not more medically ill than the mental-health group on key metabolic measures, including mean body mass index (colocation = 27.8 vs mental-health = 28.7, P = .392), low-density liprotein (colocation = 110.0 vs mental-health = 104.4, P = .480), and glucose (colocation = 94.1 vs mental-health = 109.2, P = .059). The most common medical disorders in the colocation group were related to metabolic syndrome. Conclusions: Colocated primary care services were allocated on the basis of severity of psychiatric impairment rather than severity of medical illness. This program serves as a model for other systems to employ for integrated primary and behavioral health services for patients with serious mental illness.
Sirna, Megan; Mangurian, Christina; Dilley, James W.; Shumway, Martha
BACKGROUND: Common mentalhealth problems are mainly treated in primary care settings and collaboration with mentalhealth services is needed. Prior to re-organisation of the mentalhealth care offer in a geographical area, a study was organized: 1) to evaluate GPs' opinions on their day-to-day practice with Patients with MentalHealth Problems (PMHP) and on relationships with MentalHealth Professionals
Nadia Younes; Isabelle Gasquet; Pierre Gaudebout; Marie-Pierre Chaillet; Viviane Kovess; Bruno Falissard; Marie-Christine Hardy Bayle
The second in a series of bibliographies lists approximately 350 instructional materials for use in mentalhealth education. It is noted that all of the materials listed were suggested by teachers after careful screening, including evaluation with handicapped children. Materials are grouped according to the following media forms: books (the major…
Tested the hypothesis that intelligence is related to the risk of mental illness by linking childhood mental ability data to registers of psychiatric contact in a stable population of 4,199 adults in Scotland. Findings show intelligence to be an independent predictor of psychiatric contact, with each standard deviation decrease in IQ resulting in…
Walker, Nicholas P.; McConville, Pauline M; Hunter, David; Deary, Ian J.; Whalley, Lawrence J.
Little is known about the factors that increase the risk for enacted mental illness stigma (i.e. rejection, devaluation and exclusion) as perceived by the stigmatized person. This is particularly true for the population of adolescents diagnosed with a mental illness. The aim of this study was to address this question and examine select social and clinical factors that predict enacted stigma (self-reported) with research that follows eighty American adolescents for 6 months following a first psychiatric hospitalization. Drawing on social identity theory, and research on stigma-threatening environments, social group identification and social support, this study tested four hypotheses: affiliation or identification with higher status and lower status peers predicts more and less stigma respectively (H1); a greater and more supportive social network, and more perceived family support predict less stigma (H2); greater severity of internalizing and externalizing symptoms predicts more stigma (H3); and poorer school functioning predicts more stigma (H4). Results indicated that about 70% of adolescents reported experiencing enacted stigma (at 6 months); disrespect or devaluation was more common than outright social rejection. Using OLS regression analyses, the results provided partial support for H1, H3 and H4, while H2 was not supported. The baseline factors found to be most predictive of enacted stigma ratings at 6-months were: affiliating with more friends with mentalhealth problems, identifying with the 'populars' peer group, higher internalizing symptom ratings, and self-reported disciplinary problems at school. These four factors remained significant when controlling for initial enacted stigma ratings, pointing to their importance in determining changes in social stigma experiences in the follow-up period. They also remained significant when controlling for perceived public stigma ratings at follow-up, indicating that the findings were not due to generalized perceptions of stigma of youth with mental illness. PMID:24695363
According to the American Psychiatric Association, college can be an exciting time, though for some it can be overwhelming and stressful. Depression, anxiety, substance use, and eating disorders are common mentalhealth issues on college campuses. The 2010 American College Health Association National College Health Assessment found that 28 percent…
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011
Advantages of providing primary health and mentalhealth services in the same location are argued from a standpoint of the author's experience and a review of the relevant literature. Alternatives to current national mentalhealth policy are suggested to ...
J. F. Borus, B. J. Burns, A. M. Jacobson, L. B. Macht, R. G. Morrill
Many international studies show that adolescents in coercive institutional care display high prevalences of mental disorders, especially in the form of disruptive behavior disorders [including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder], anxiety disorders, and mood disorders. High degrees of overlap across mental disorders have also been reported. In addition, institutionalized adolescents are often traumatized. Despite this well-documented psychiatric morbidity, the mentalhealth care needs of detained adolescents are often overlooked. The main objective of this study is to assess prevalences of psychiatric disorders, results of intelligence tests, and previous contacts with child and adolescent psychiatric services among adolescents in institutional care. DSM-IV diagnoses, mentalhealth contacts, substance abuse, neurocognitive abilities, and school performance were registered in 100 adolescents (92 boys, 8 girls) aged 12–19 years (mean age 16.0; SD ± 1.5) consecutively committed to Swedish juvenile institutions between 2004 and 2007. At least one psychiatric disorder was diagnosed in 73% of the subjects: 48% met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for AD/HD, 17% for an autism spectrum disorder, and 10% for a mental retardation. The collapsed prevalence for psychiatric disorders requiring specialist attention was 63%. Our data indicate that systematic diagnostic procedures are crucial in the treatment planning for institutionalized adolescents. Adequate treatment strategies need to be designed and implemented to meet the extensive mentalhealth care needs of this vulnerable population.
Background: Begun in the late 1990s, mentalhealth courts are specialty criminal courts developed to address the needs of persons with mental illness. Methods: As many persons with intellectual disabilities (IDs) may overlap in the mentalhealth court system, we used mentalhealth court records to examine the phenomenology and outcomes of 224…
Burke, M. M.; Griggs, M.; Dykens, E. M.; Hodapp, R. M.
Purpose of review To describe community engaged research (CEnR) and how it may improve the quality of a research study while addressing ethical concerns that communities may have with mentalhealth and substance abuse research. This article includes a review of the literature as well as recommendations from an expert panel convened with funding from the US National Institute of MentalHealth. Recent findings CEnR represents a broad spectrum of practices including representation on institutional ethics committees, attitude research with individuals from the study population, engaging community advisory boards, forming research partnerships with community organizations, and including community members as co-investigators. Summary CEnR poses some challenges; for example, it requires funding and training for researchers and community members. However, it offers many benefits to researchers and communities and some form of CEnR is appropriate and feasible in nearly every study involving human participants.
DuBois, James; Bailey-Burch, Brendolyn; Bustillos, Dan; Campbell, Jean; Cottler, Linda; Fisher, Celia; Hadley, Whitney B.; Hoop, Jinger G.; Roberts, Laura; Salter, Erica K.; Sieber, Joan E.; Stevenson, Richard D.
SummaryBackground Burnout and psychiatric morbidity among gastroenterologists, surgeons, radiologists, and oncologists in the UK have been estimated by means of a questionnaire-based survey. The relationship between consultants' mentalhealth and their job stress and satisfaction, as well as their job and demographic characteristics, were also examined.Methods Psychiatric morbidity was estimated using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. The three components of
A. J Ramirez; J Graham; M. A Richards; W. M Gregory; A Cull
With the increasingly close relationship between the pharmaceutical industry and the American Psychiatric Association (APA) there has been a growing tendency in the mentalhealth professions to interpret everyday emotional suffering and behavior as a medical condition that can be treated with a particular drug. In this paper, I suggest that hermeneutic phenomenology is uniquely suited to challenge the core assumptions of medicalization by expanding psychiatry's narrow conception of the self as an enclosed, biological individual and recognizing the ways in which our experience of things--including mental illness--is shaped by the socio-historical situation in which we grow. Informed by hermeneutic phenomenology, psychiatry's first priority is to suspend the prejudices that come with being a medical doctor in order to hear what the patient is saying. To this end, psychiatry can begin to understand the patient not as a static, material body with a clearly defined brain dysfunction but as an unfolding, situated existence already involved in an irreducibly complex social world, an involvement that allows the patient to experience, feel, and make sense of their emotional suffering. PMID:18633696
It is generally agreed that social ties play a beneficial role in the maintenance of psychological well-being. In this targeted\\u000a review, we highlight four sets of insights that emerge from the literature on social ties and mentalhealth outcomes (defined\\u000a as stress reactions, psychological well-being, and psychological distress, including depressive symptoms and anxiety). First,\\u000a the pathways by which social networks
Part of a much larger meta-resource, this site contains annotated, rated resources in over 25 subject categories, as well as associations, academic departments, employment, mailing lists, and newsgroups, among other resources. MHN has a rating system (one to four stars), based on content, presentation, ease of use, and overall experience. Interestingly, users are also allowed to interactively vote thumbs up or down on annotated resources. MentalHealth Net and CMHC Systems maintain this site.
Background: Although mortality rates are elevated in psychiatric patients relative to their healthy counterparts, little is known about the impact of mentalhealth on survival in people with cancer. Methods and results: Among 16?498 Swedish men with cancer, survival was worse in those with a history of psychiatric hospital admissions: multiply-adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) comparing cancer mortality in men with and without psychiatric admissions: 1.59 (1.39, 1.83). Conclusion: Survival in cancer patients is worse among those with a history of psychiatric disease. The mechanisms underlying this association should be further explored.
Batty, G D; Whitley, E; Gale, C R; Osborn, D; Tynelius, P; Rasmussen, F
A series of recommendations with respect to health and mentalhealth priorities for the Caribbean are presented. The recommendations are the result of a Caribbean Conference on Health/MentalHealth held in St. Ann, Jamaica in April 1983. Because mental he...
Mental illness affects the majority of prisoners. Mentalhealth issues are beginning to take a central position in the development of prison health services, reflecting this burden of disease. This change in focus is not before time. But prison mentalhealth services cannot exist in isolation. Public health systems should lead provision of care for patients with acute and severe
Reviews research pertinent to mentalhealth services under health care reform proposals. Examines redistributional impact of inclusion of outpatient mentalhealth benefits, optimal benefit packages, and findings that mentalhealth services lower medical utilization costs. Argues that extending minimalist model of time-limited benefits to national…
This Kids Count report examines issues related to children's mentalhealth in Virginia. The report discusses the effects of children's mental illness, presents risk and protective factors, and describes the incidence of children's mentalhealth problems. Information specific to Virginia is presented, including the prevalence of youth suicide,…
Reviews two articles contained in December 1987 issue of "Sante Mentale au Quebec" on the subject of mentalhealth and unemployment. Articles reviewed present results of a qualitative study of the problems experienced and the mentalhealth practices used by unemployed people. Claims articles reveal complexity of the issue while organizing it. (ABL)
The National Institute of MentalHealth (NIMH) aims to improve mentalhealth services by funding research projects and research centers. NIMH also supports state planning, protection of and advocacy for the mentally ill, disaster relief, professional training, and public information programs. (DM)
Each issue in the 2002 edition of the Australian Transcultural MentalHealth Network (ATMHN) newsletter represents a theme critical to mentalhealth practitioners. The Winter 2002 issue features articles on the psychological consequences of interpreters in relation to working with torture and trauma clients, addressing language issues on mental…
Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network, Parramatta.
Mental illness is an issue for a number of families reported to child protection agencies. Parents with mentalhealth problems are more vulnerable, as are their children, to having parenting and child welfare concerns. A recent study undertaken in the Melbourne Children's Court (Victoria, Australia) found that the children of parents with mentalhealth problems comprised just under thirty percent
Summary • MentalHealth First Aid is a training program for members of the public in how to support someone in a mentalhealth crisis situation or who is developing a mental disorder. • The program has solid evidence for its effectiveness from randomized controlled trials and qualitative studies. It increases knowledge, reduces stigma and, most importantly, increases supportive actions.
Mental and substance use disorders are leading contributors to the burden of disease among young people in Australia, but young people experience a range of barriers to accessing appropriate treatment for their mentalhealth concerns. The development of early intervention services that provide accessible and effective mentalhealth care has the…
The original intent of community mentalhealth centers was that they would treat the mentally ill. The more than 750 centers now operating are drifting away from that health service, however, toward a social service model offering counseling and crisis intervention for predictable problems of living. One result of the shift has been a marked decrease in medical involvement in the centers that has led to neglect of the mentally ill, especially chronic and deinstitutionalized patients. The author advocates a return to fulfilling the original mandate by giving centers clear responsibility for dealing with professionally diagnosed psychiatric illness, and by requiring that centers remain integrally involved with hospitals and hire staff that include an adequate number of psychiatrists. He also believes that scientific evaluations of community programs can and must be made in order to justify their expenditures and to attract support from funding agencies. PMID:7203401
This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mentalhealth. Data were derived from the 2000-2001 and 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child physical abuse and adult psychiatric disorders adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, other childhood adversities, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Child physical abuse was reported by 8% of the sample and was frequently accompanied by other childhood adversities. Child physical abuse was associated with significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a broad range of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.16-2.28), especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship was observed between frequency of abuse and several adult psychiatric disorder groups; higher frequencies of assault were significantly associated with increasing adjusted odds. The long-lasting deleterious effects of child physical abuse underscore the urgency of developing public health policies aimed at early recognition and prevention. PMID:22806701
... Child mentalhealth. 1304.24...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...DELEGATE AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services Â§ 1304.24 Child mentalhealth. (a...mentalhealth interventions. (2)...
... Child mentalhealth. 1304.24...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...DELEGATE AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services Â§ 1304.24 Child mentalhealth. (a...mentalhealth interventions. (2)...
Background: The adult population often suffers from a number of physical and mental problems. This study was conducted to determine the proportion of mental illnesses in adult population visiting the outpatient departments at Dr. TMA Pai Rotary Hospital, Karkala and to study the socio-demographic correlates of psychiatric disorders. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during March 2004 among 193 adult individuals of 18 years and above at Dr. TMA Pai Rotary Hospital, Karkala, Karnataka. Data was analyzed by the statistical package for social sciences version 10.0 for windows and results were expressed in terms of proportions and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Chi-square test, multiple logistic regression with adjusted odds ratio and its 95% CI. Results: The proportion of psychiatric disorders in adult population was determined to be 39.9%. Proportion of psychiatric morbidity among males and females were 36.2 and 42.2%, respectively. Conclusion: This study revealed that socio-demographic correlates like age group of 50 years and above, unemployed or housewives, living alone, and a history of psychiatric illness in the family were independently associated with psychiatric disorders in adult population.
Barua, Ankur; Jacob, George P.; Mahmood, Syed Safvi
In responding to high levels of psychiatric morbidity amongst prisoners and recognising earlier poor quality prison mentalhealth care, prison mentalhealth in-reach teams have been established in England and Wales over the last decade. They are mostly provided by the National Health Service (NHS), which provides the majority of UK healthcare services. Over the same period, the prison population has grown to record levels, such that prisons in England and Wales now contain almost 90,000 of the world's overall prison population of over 10 million people (roughly the size of Paris or Istanbul). This study provides an overview of mentalhealth in-reach services in prisons in England and Wales, including variations between them, through a telephone survey of senior staff in all prisons and young offender institutions in England and Wales. 73% of prisons took part; of them 13% had no in-reach team at all (usually low security establishments) and the majority of services were run by NHS teams, usually according to a generic community mentalhealth team (CMHT) model rather than other specialist models. Team size was unrelated to prison size. Each nurse covered around 500 prisoners, each doctor over 3700. Many provided few or no healthcare cells and 24-h psychiatric cover (including on-call cover) was uncommon. Despite developments in recent years, mentalhealth in-reach services still fall short of community equivalence and there is wide variation in service arrangements that cannot be explained by prison size or function. The aim of community equivalence has not yet been reached in prison healthcare and a more sophisticated measure of service improvement and standardisation would now be useful to drive and monitor future development. PMID:23669592
Despite the fact that blacks are disproportionately exposed to social conditions considered to be antecedents of psychiatric disorder, epidemiologic studies have not conclusively demonstrated that blacks exhibit higher rates of mental illness than whites. The present paper employed a research approach which considered not only rates of psychological distress, but also the stressors that blacks face and thc various coping
Harold W. Neighbors; James S. Jackson; Phillip J. Bowman; Gerald Gurin
India has a huge child and adolescent population. Psychiatric disorders are widely prevalent and the mentalhealth needs of\\u000a these children are well recognized. Nonetheless, there are no country-centric and child specific mentalhealth policies, plans\\u000a or programs. There is also a significant lack of human resources for child and adolescent mentalhealth in India. This combination\\u000a of factors makes
P. S. Russell; P. Mammen; M. K. C. Nair; Sushila Russell; S. R. Shankar
Background: Today, substance dependence and illegal trading of narcotics is considered as a global issue. Since mental disorder has been reported in about 90% of the substance dependents, this study aimed at determining the rate of mentalhealth in the substance dependents in Sari Township in 2011. Materials and Methods: In this study, 500 substance-dependent patients were selected using convenience sampling method. To collect data, SCL-90-R was used for the evaluation of their mentalhealth and a demographic questionnaire was employed for identifying their personal information. The obtained data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics using the SPSS software. Results: It was found that 90.4% of the participants were susceptible to mental disorder. Most of them suffered from depression, psychoticism, interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety, and paranoia. Also, there was significant relationship between the mentalhealth of single, divorced and married addicts (P < 0.21). Conclusion: Due to the presence of mental disorder in the substance-dependent patients, it is recommended to help treat them by providing them with education, psychotherapy, and psychiatric medication. PMID:24923370
Fard, Jabbar Heydari; Gorji, Mohammad Ali Heidari; Jannati, Yadollah; Golikhatir, Iraj; Bozorgi, Farzad; Mohammadpour, Rezaali; Gorji, Ali Morad Heidari
There are over 3 million truck drivers employed in the commercial transportation and material moving occupations, one of the largest occupational groups in the United States. Workers in this large and growing occupational segment are at risk for a range of occupational health-induced conditions, including mentalhealth and psychiatric disorders due to high occupational stress, low access and use of health care, and limited social support. The purpose of this study was to explore male truck drivers' mentalhealth risks and associated comorbidities, using a cross-sectional and quantitative design. Data were collected from a random sample of 316 male truckers between the ages of 23 and 76 at a large truck stop located within a 100-mile radius of Greensboro, North Carolina, USA, using a self-administered 82-item questionnaire. Surveyed truckers were found to have significant issues affecting their mentalhealth, such as loneliness (27.9%), depression (26.9%), chronic sleep disturbances (20.6%), anxiety (14.5%), and other emotional problems (13%). Findings have potential to help researchers develop interventions to improve the emotional and occupational health of truck drivers, a highly underserved population. Mentalhealth promotion, assessment, and treatment must become a priority to improve the overall trucking environment for truckers, the transportation industry, and safety on US highways. PMID:22757596
As the industrial world has transformed toward a service economy, a particular interest has developed in mentalhealth problems at the workplace. The risk for burnout is significantly increased in certain occupations, notably for health care workers. Beyond the effects of an extensive workload, many working hours, or long night shifts, the medical field has specific stressors. Physicians work in emotionally demanding environments with patients, families, or other medical staff. They must make quick decisions while faced with a quite frequent information overload. All of these stressors have to be weighed against a rapidly changing organizational context within medicine. Today, economics objectives have priority over medical values in health care. In principal, mentalhealth workers should experience similar work stressors and the same contextual factors as health professionals from other medical disciplines. However, several studies have identified stressors that are unique to the psychiatric profession. These challenges range from the stigma of this profession, to particularly demanding relationships with patients and difficult interactions with other mentalhealth professionals as part of multidisciplinary teams to personal threats from violent patients. Other sources of stress are a lack of positive feedback, low pay, and a poor work environment. Finally, patient suicide is a major stressor, upon which a majority of mentalhealth workers report post-traumatic stress symptoms. PMID:22926058
This study examines the relationship between childhood trauma and the psychiatric symptoms and psychosocial functioning of adults with severe mentalhealth problems. Participants (n?=?31) were recruited from the caseloads of community mentalhealth services in Northern Ireland and assessed at baseline, 9 months, and 18 months. More than half had a history of childhood trauma (n?=?17). There were no differences
Gavin Davidson; Ciaran Shannon; Ciaran Mulholland; Jim Campbell
BACKGROUND: we know very little about mentalhealth practitioners' views on treatments to change sexual orientation. Our aim was to survey a representative sample of professional members of the main United Kingdom psychotherapy and psychiatric organisations about their views and practices concerning such treatments. METHODS: We sent postal questions to mentalhealth professionals who were members of British Psychological Society,
Background A&E departments are key points of contact for many people with mentalhealth problems. Various models of care have been developed in A&E departments for delivering mentalhealth services, but few have been assessed for effectiveness. The present study aimed to assess the impact of a dedicated A&E psychiatric nurse service on several outcomes relevant to patients and clinicians. Methods A crossover design was used to introduce a dedicated psychiatric nurse service (comprising four experienced community psychiatric nurses) into two busy UK A&E departments. Standardised assessments were completed for each patient, and a random sample of these independently assessed for quality. Data were also collected on the number of patients assessed, psychiatric nurse time employed, waiting times, onward referrals, repeat attendances, patient satisfaction, and staff views. Results A&E staff referred about a third of patients judged to have mentalhealth problems to the psychiatric nurse service; approximately half of those assessed had a psychiatric history. On average, assessments took 60?min and over 90% of the formulated management plans were judged appropriate by independent assessors. The psychiatric nurse intervention had little impact on waiting times or satisfaction levels for mentalhealth patients, although there was evidence of a change in onward referral patterns. Comment Psychiatric nurse assessment services have been introduced in many A&E departments, although the evidence base for the effectiveness of this development is not well established. This study presents evidence that psychiatric nurses can provide an accurate assessment and referral service with advantages for patient care.
Introduction The lack of trained mentalhealth workers is a primary contributor to the mentalhealth treatment gap worldwide. Despite the great need to recruit and retain mentalhealth workers in low-income countries, little is known about how these workers perceive their jobs and what drives them to work in mentalhealth care. Using qualitative interviews, we aimed to explore factors motivating mentalhealth workers in order to inform interventions to increase recruitment and retention. Methods We conducted 28 in-depth, open-ended interviews with staff in Ghana’s three public psychiatric hospitals. We used the snowballing method to recruit participants and the constant comparative method for qualitative data analysis, with multiple members of the research team participating in data coding to enhance the validity and reliability of the analysis. The use of qualitative methods allowed us to understand the range and depth of motivating and demotivating factors. Results Respondents described many factors that influenced their choice to enter and remain in mentalhealth care. Motivating factors included 1) desire to help patients who are vulnerable and in need, 2) positive day-to-day interactions with patients, 3) intellectual or academic interest in psychiatry or behavior, and 4) good relationships with colleagues. Demotivating factors included 1) lack of resources at the hospital, 2) a rigid supervisory hierarchy, 3) lack of positive or negative feedback on work performance, and 4) few opportunities for career advancement within mentalhealth. Conclusions Because many of the factors are related to relationships, these findings suggest that strengthening the interpersonal and team dynamics may be a critical and relatively low cost way to increase worker motivation. The data also allowed us to highlight key areas for resource allocation to improve both recruitment and retention, including risk pay, adequate tools for patient care, improved hospital work environment, and stigma reduction efforts.
Jack, Helen; Canavan, Maureen; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Taylor, Lauren; Bradley, Elizabeth
Three revolutions in the history of mentalhealth were identified by Nicholas Hobbs: the humane revolution, the scientific and therapeutic revolution, and the public health revolution. The shift of responsibilities for mentalhealth and substance abuse services from the public to the private sector may constitute a fourth mentalhealth revolution.…
We examine adequate mentalhealth treatment, emergency room (ER) use, and early treatment dropout for Haitian, African American and White youth with a psychiatric diagnosis treated in community health centers in the United States. We present associations with possible socioeconomic determinants of care. Adequate treatment was less likely among Haitian youth from areas with greater poverty and among all youth
:We examine adequate mentalhealth treatment, emergency room (ER) use, and early treatment dropout for Haitian, African American and White youth with a psychiatric diagnosis treated in community health centers in the United States. We present associations with possible socioeconomic determinants of care. Adequate treatment was less likely among Haitian youth from areas with greater poverty and among all youth
Objective Children whose parents have psychiatric disorders experience an increased risk of developing psychiatric disorders, and have higher rates of developmental problems and mortality. Assessing the size of this population is important for planning of preventive strategies which target these children. Methods National survey data (CCHS 1.2) was used to estimate the number of children exposed to parental psychiatric disorders. Disorders were diagnosed using the World PsychiatricHealth Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI) (12 month prevalence). Data on the number of children below 12 years of age in the home, and the relationship of the respondents with the children, was used to estimate exposure. Parent-child relations were identified, as was single parenthood. Using a design-based analysis, the number of children exposed to parental psychiatric disorders was calculated. Results Almost 570,000 children under 12 live in households where the survey respondent met criteria for one or more mood, anxiety or substance use disorders in the previous 12 months, corresponding to 12.1% of Canadian children under the age of 12. Almost 3/4 of these children have parents that report receiving no mentalhealth care in the 12 months preceding the survey. For 17% of all Canadian children under age 12, the individual experiencing a psychiatric disorder is the only parent in the household. Conclusion The high number of children exposed causes major concern and has important implications. Although these children will not necessarily experience adversities, they possess an elevated risk of accidents, mortality, and of developing psychiatric disorders. We expect these estimates will promote further research and stimulate discussion at both health policy and planning tables.
Bassani, Diego G; Padoin, Cintia V; Philipp, Diane; Veldhuizen, Scott
This paper explores the decontextualization of mental illness in psychiatric drug advertisements. Taking the portrayal of work in several drug advertisements which appeared in the American Journal of Psychiatry* as the object of our analysis, we show how these ads tend to individualize mental illness and its treatment by failing to consider the social realities that contribute to or, in some way, affect mental illness. We conclude with a discussion of how such ads distort debate over treatment options and legitimize existing social relations and attitudes. PMID:2031203
While researchers have documented the significant issue of moral distress among nurses, few have explored moral distress among mentalhealth nurses. In addition, no research to date has explored nursing students' experiences of moral distress during mentalhealth clinical rotations, despite nursing students typically reporting negative attitudes towards mentalhealth nursing. This manuscript reports on a qualitative study involving seven Canadian baccalaureate nursing students, who reported on their experiences of moral distress during a 13-week clinical rotation on inpatient psychiatric units. Overall, nursing students reported significant moral distress related to the perceived lack of nurses talking meaningfully to patients on the unit, a hierarchical power structure for physicians, a lack of information given to patients about their psychiatric medications, and an inability of their nursing instructors to advocate for ethical change on the units. Several students made a specific connection between their moral distress and not wanting to pursue a career in mentalhealth nursing. PMID:23980930
Wojtowicz, Bernadine; Hagen, Brad; Van Daalen-Smith, Cheryl
This article summarizes the conception and diagnosis of the mentalhealth continuum, the findings supporting the two continua model of mentalhealth and illness, and the benefits of flourishing to individuals and society. Completely mentally healthy adults--individuals free of a 12-month mental disorder and flourishing--reported the fewest missed…
Examined use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs in university psychiatrichealth service and patterns of comorbidity with other psychiatric problems. Psychiatric service students (n=110) tended to drink less than did undergraduate comparison group and to report similar frequencies of adverse consequences. Alcohol disorders were significantly…
Background The aim of this paper is to assess the mentalhealth system in Brazil in relation to the human resources and the services available to the population. Methods The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for MentalHealth Systems (WHO AIMS) was recently applied in Brazil. This paper will analyse data on the following sections of the WHO-AIMS: a) mentalhealth services; and b) human resources. In addition, two more national datasets will be used to complete the information provided by the WHO questionnaire: a) the Executive Bureau of the Department of Health (Datasus); and b) the National Register of Health Institutions (CNS). Results There are 6003 psychiatrists, 18,763 psychologists, 1985 social workers, 3119 nurses and 3589 occupational therapists working for the Unified Health System (SUS). At primary care level, there are 104,789 doctors, 184, 437 nurses and nurse technicians and 210,887 health agents. The number of psychiatrists is roughly 5 per 100,000 inhabitants in the Southeast region, and the Northeast region has less than 1 psychiatrist per 100,000 inhabitants. The number of psychiatric nurses is insufficient in all geographical areas, and psychologists outnumber other mentalhealth professionals in all regions of the country. The rate of beds in psychiatric hospitals in the country is 27.17 beds per 100,000 inhabitants. The rate of patients in psychiatric hospitals is 119 per 100,000 inhabitants. The average length of stay in mental hospitals is 65.29 days. In June 2006, there were 848 Community Psychosocial Centers (CAPS) registered in Brazil, a ratio of 0.9 CAPS per 200,000 inhabitants, unequally distributed in the different geographical areas: the Northeast and the North regions having lower figures than the South and Southeast regions. Conclusion The country has opted for innovative services and programs, such as the expansion of Psychosocial Community Centers and the Return Home program to deinstitutionalize long-stay patients. However, services are unequally distributed across the regions of the country, and the growth of the elderly population, combined with an existing treatment gap is increasing the burden on mentalhealth care. This gap may get even wider if funding does not increase and mentalhealth services are not expanded in the country. There is not yet a good degree of integration between primary care and the mentalhealth teams working at CAPS level, and it is necessary to train professionals to act as mentalhealth planners and as managers. Research on service organization, policy and mentalhealth systems evaluation are strongly recommended in the country. There are no firm data to show the impact of such policies in terms of community service cost-effectiveness and no tangible indicators to assess the results of these policies.
States are required to provide a public health screening for all newly arrived refugees in the United States. In 1997, a comprehensive program was created to include both a physical examination and a mentalhealth screening. This article provides a complete description of the mentalhealth screening process, including two illustrative cases, and reports information about the refugees who participated in the program. Ten percent of screened refugees were offered mentalhealth referrals; of those, 37% followed up. Refugees who presented for treatment reported a higher number of symptoms upon screening compared with those who were offered referrals but did not follow up. Psychiatric evaluation confirmed that those who screened positive and presented for treatment were experiencing a high level of suffering and qualified for mentalhealth diagnoses. The findings support inclusion of a mentalhealth screening as part of the public health screening.
... 2013-10-01 false Agreement with State mentalhealth authority or mental institutions. 431.620 Section 431.620...Other Agencies Â§ 431.620 Agreement with State mentalhealth authority or mental institutions....
Introduction Those in mentalhealth-related consumer movements have made clear their demands for humane treatment and basic civil rights, an end to stigma and discrimination, and a chance to participate in their own recovery. But theorizing about the politics of recognition, 'recognition rights' and epistemic justice, suggests that they also have a stake in the broad cultural meanings associated with conceptions of mentalhealth and illness. Results First person accounts of psychiatric diagnosis and mentalhealth care (shown here to represent 'counter stories' to the powerful 'master narrative' of biomedical psychiatry), offer indications about how experiences of mental disorder might be reframed and redefined as part of efforts to acknowledge and honor recognition rights and epistemic justice. However, the task of cultural semantics is one for the entire culture, not merely consumers. These new meanings must be negotiated. When they are not the result of negotiation, group-wrought definitions risk imposing a revision no less constraining than the mis-recognizing one it aims to replace. Contested realities make this a challenging task when it comes to cultural meanings about mental disorder. Examples from mental illness memoirs about two contested realities related to psychosis are examined here: the meaninglessness of symptoms, and the role of insight into illness. They show the magnitude of the challenge involved - for consumers, practitioners, and the general public - in the reconstruction of these new meanings and realities. Conclusion To honor recognition rights and epistemic justice acknowledgement must be made of the heterogeneity of the effects of, and of responses to, psychiatric diagnosis and care, and the extent of the challenge of the reconstructive cultural semantics involved.
This monograph examines issues in the field of psychosocial/psychiatric rehabilitation (PSR) services for people with serious mental illness, placed in the context of a debate within the field about trends toward managed behavioral health care companies. Four main issues are addressed: (1) the degree to which managed behavioral health care…
Rutman, Irvin D.; Baron, Richard C.; Hadley, Trevor R.
Mentalhealth is an integral and essential component of health. The World Health Organization (WHO) constitution states: “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” More than 450 million people suffer from mental disorders worldwide. In India, mentalhealth services, especially for children and adolescents, are limited both in terms of number of facilities as well as trained professionals. The majority of mentalhealth services are restricted to urban areas, that is, medical colleges or regional mentalhealth institutes. Mere presence of a treatment facility does not guarantee that all children/adolescents suffering from mental illness will utilize such services. In fact, most of the time there is a significant delay from the patient side in accessing mentalhealth services either because of lack of awareness or associated stigma. It is high time to promote positive mentalhealth in children, adolescents and their parents through health education. Parental counseling is of utmost importance in order to avoid the delay in treatment seeking.
Objective To measure the effects of a mentalhealth benefit design change on treatment initiation for psychiatric disorders of employees of a large U.S.-based company. Data Sources Mentalhealth treatment administrative claims data plus eligibility information provided by the company for the years 1995–1998. Study Design We measure the effect of a change in mentalhealth benefits consisting of three major elements: a company-wide effort to destigmatize mental illness; reduced copayments for mentalhealth treatment; and an effort to increase access to specialty mentalhealth providers. Data Extraction Methods We identified the subsample of employees that were continuously enrolled in the company's health plan over the period 1995–1998, were between the ages of 18 and 65, and were actively employed. Principal Findings Our results suggest that the combined effect of destigmatization and reduced copayments led to an 18 percent increase (p<.01) in the probability of initiating mentalhealth treatment. The results suggest that the effort to increase access to specialty providers was effective, but only for nonphysician providers: initiation at nonphysician mentalhealth providers increased nearly 90 percent (p<.01) relative to nonspecialty providers, while use of psychiatrists declined by nearly 40 percent (p<.01). Conclusions Our results suggest that the benefit change increased initiation for mentalhealth treatment overall and encouraged the use of nonphysician specialty mentalhealth providers.
Lindrooth, Richard C; Lo Sasso, Anthony T; Lurie, Ithai Z
A study aims to examine the existing health care policies in U.S. juvenile detention centres. The results conclude that juvenile detention facilities have many shortfalls in providing care for adolescents, particularly mentalhealth care.
The mentalhealth histories of the 448 children 15 and 16 years of age who were admitted to state-operated children's psychiatric inpatient services in New York during 1982 were reviewed for the 11 year period through April 1993, Thirty-three percent were served as adults (after age 18) in the state-operated adult civil mentalhealth system; 42% of these individuals were
C. Terence McCormick; Mary E. Evans; Steven Banks; Randall Fasnacht; Michael Bigley
Schools across the country are increasingly utilizing the expertise of multiple disciplines to enhance the mentalhealth of\\u000a their students and address barriers to learning through the provision of a range of services in schools. School mentalhealth\\u000a providers, including nurses, counselors, school psychologists, school social workers, special educators, and their clinical\\u000a Partners—psychologists, psychiatrists, and psychiatric nurses—have a unique opportunity
Nancy Rappaport; David Osher; Ellen Greenberg Garrison; Corinne Anderson-Ketchmark; Kevin Dwyer
Objective. It is widely believed that only a minority of vulnerable children and adolescents receive any mentalhealth services. Although health care dispar- ities associated with sociodemographic characteristics are well known, almost no information exists about another potentially important source of disparity for children: How does state of residence affect mentalhealth service use? Methods. Observational analysis was conducted us-
Because health is not the primary business of schools, a school’s response to mentalhealth and psychosocial concerns usually is limited to targeted problems seen as direct barriers to learning. And because resources are sparse, priority is given to problems defined in legislative mandates. As a result, school-based mentalhealth services are available only to a small proportion of the
A mentalhealth promotion perspective provides a system-based understanding of relationships between culture and health. Educating nurses for multicultural practice should adopt an interdisciplinary approach that fosters critical awareness of diverse influences on mentalhealth and their intersections. (Contains 38 references.) (SK)
This article discusses the precarious relationship of humanistic psychology to the mentalhealth worker in our current managed care, empirically based, behaviorally focused, excessively medication-oriented mentalhealth system. Some of the challenges, frustrations, and potential successes of bringing real and nurturing human relationships in the context of humanistic psychology into the day-to-day involvements with clients for the mentalhealth worker
Research examining the relationships among Maori cultural identification, drinking behaviour, drinking motivation and mental\\u000a health is almost non-existent. A review of literature suggests that stronger Maori identification could be associated with\\u000a lower alcohol consumption on a typical occasion, less frequent drinking, drinking to enhance mood or sociability (positive\\u000a reinforcement) and better mentalhealth. Maori identification and mentalhealth would be
The ratings of 70 medical student therapists in their psychiatric clerkships were matched with the consumers of their services-70 parents obtaining a psychiatric evaluation for their children in an outpatient clinic. The pairs were asked to rate factors which influenced the mentalhealth services provided, including the economic and socio-cultural backgrounds of the child and therapist. Parents were found to
Gail E. Wyatt; Barbara A. Bass; Gloria J. Powell; Perry Lira
The World Federation for MentalHealth was founded as an international apolitical organization concerned with quality of life rather than merely the absence or prevention of mental illness. An examination of the manner and extent to which mental problems arise in different cultural settings can provide data needed to understand the relationship…
This dialog suggests that mentalhealth services in Head Start should be more broadly defined than they currently are in many programs. Specifically, these services should emphasize the important role prevention (e.g., prereferral/identification) plays in promoting mental wellness. Additionally, this dialog briefly addresses the role of the mental…
The Department of Health is undertaking a review of the MentalHealth Act 1983 code of practice and as part of that review has opened a consultation on what changes should be made. One key area for change is a chapter that provides clearer information about the interface between the MentalHealth Act 1983 and the Mental Capacity Act 2005. Both the House of Commons Health Select Committee and the House of Lords Mental Capacity Act Committee have argued that poor understanding of the interface has led to flawed decision making by doctors and nurses. In the first of a short series of articles, Richard Griffith considers the interface between these two important statutes, beginning with advance decisions to refuse treatment (ADRT). PMID:25062320
Holistic health, incorporating mind and body as equally important and unified components of health, is a concept utilized in some health care arenas in the United States (U.S.) over the past 30 years. However, in the U.S., mentalhealth is not seen as conceptually integral to physical health and, thus, holistic health cannot be realized until the historical concept of mind-body dualism, continuing stigma regarding mental illness, lack of mentalhealth parity in insurance, and inaccurate public perceptions regarding mental illness are adequately addressed and resolved. Until then, mental and physical health will continue to be viewed as disparate entities rather than parts of a unified whole. We conclude that the U.S. currently does not generally incorporate the tenets of holistic health in its view of the mental and physical health of its citizens, and provide some suggestions for changing that viewpoint. PMID:17370005
McClanahan, Kimberly K; Huff, Marlene B; Omar, Hatim A
Objective. We examined trends in delivery of mentalhealth and substance abuse services at the nation’s community health centers. Methods. Analyses used data from the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Bureau of Primary Care’s (BPHC) 1998 and 2003 Uniform Data System, merged with county-level data. Results. Between 1998 and 2003, the number of patients diagnosed with a mentalhealth/substance abuse disorder in community health centers increased from 210 000 to 800 000. There was an increase in the number of patients per specialty mentalhealth/substance abuse treatment provider and a decline in the mean number of patient visits, from 7.3 visits per patient to 3.5 by 2003. Although most community health centers had some on-site mentalhealth/substance abuse services, centers without on-site services were more likely to be located in counties with fewer mentalhealth/substance abuse clinicians, psychiatric emergency rooms, and inpatient hospitals. Conclusions. Community health centers are playing an increasingly central role in providing mentalhealth/substance abuse treatment services in the United States. It is critical both to ensure that these centers have adequate resources for providing mentalhealth/substance abuse care and that they develop effective linkages with mentalhealth/substance abuse clinicians in the communities they serve.
Druss, Benjamin G.; Bornemann, Thomas; Fry-Johnson, Yvonne W.; McCombs, Harriet G.; Politzer, Robert M.; Rust, George
This paper focuses on the relatively late emergence of psychiatric epidemiology as an international discipline, through local-global exchanges during the first 15 years of the World Health Organization (WHO). Building an epidemiological canon within WHO's MentalHealth Programme faced numerous obstacles. First, an idealist notion of mentalhealth inherent in WHO's own definition of health contributed to tensions around the object of psychiatric epidemiology. Second, the transfer of methods from medical epidemiology to research on mental disorders required mobilizing conceptual justifications, including a 'contagion argument'. Third, epidemiological research at WHO was stymied by other public health needs, resource scarcity and cultural barriers. This history partly recapitulates the development of psychiatric epidemiology in North America and Europe, but is also shaped by concerns in the developing world, translated through first-world 'experts'. Resolving the tensions arising from these obstacles allowed WHO to establish its international schizophrenia research, which in turn provided proof of concept for psychiatric epidemiology in the place of scepticism within and without psychiatry. PMID:25031048
It is estimated that approximately 10% of children and young people in Scotland have mentalhealth problems (Scottish Government, 2008), resulting in a rapidly increasing need for child and adolescent mentalhealth services (CAMHS). Primary mentalhealth workers (PMHW) have been identified as one of the key professional groups within a multidisciplinary CAMHS team to progress the agenda of early
There is a critical need for research to examine the changing mentalhealth services system, to evaluate major innovations in the provision of mentalhealth treatment, and to remove existing barriers to comprehensive and cost-effective care. To achieve these aims, collaboration is needed among government agencies, mentalhealth services programs, academic institutions, and the private sector. The National Institute of MentalHealth supports research and research training on the mentalhealth services system primarily through the Division of Biometry and Applied Sciences. This article focuses on the division's three priority research areas of the mentalhealth services system: the provision of mentalhealth care in the primary care sector, the organization and delivery of care for the chronically mentally ill, and financing and reimbursement of care. The various mechanisms of research support are also highlighted.
Background The size and increasing burden of disease due to mental disorders in Europe poses substantial challenges to its population and to the health policy of the European Union. This warrants a specific research agenda concerning clinical mentalhealth research as one of the cornerstones of sustainable mentalhealth research and health policy in Europe. The aim of this research was to identify the top priorities needed to address the main challenges in clinical research for mental disorders. Methods The research was conducted as an expert survey and expert panel discussion during a scientific workshop. Results Eighty-nine experts in clinical research and representing most European countries participated in this survey. Identified top priorities were the need for new intervention studies, understanding the diagnostic and therapeutic implications of mechanisms of disease, and research in the field of somatic-psychiatric comorbidity. The “subjectivity gap” between basic neuroscience research and clinical reality for patients with mental disorders is considered the main challenge in psychiatric research, suggesting that a shift in research paradigms is required. Conclusion Innovations in clinical mentalhealth research should bridge the gap between mechanisms underlying novel therapeutic interventions and the patient experience of mental disorder and, if present, somatic comorbidity. Clinical mentalhealth research is relatively underfunded and should receive specific attention in Horizon 2020 funding programs.
van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M; van Os, Jim; Knappe, Susanne; Schumann, Gunter; Vieta, Eduard; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lewis, Shon W; Elfeddali, Iman; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Linszen, Donald; Obradors-Tarrago, Carla; Haro, Josep Maria
MentalHealth Service Users (MHSU) are becoming increasingly recognized as very valuable contributors to the research process. The current study originated from the idea of a group of MHSU within a service user and carer research group. They wanted to investigate the attitudes of mentalhealth staff towards clients in an acute mentalhealth setting, as well as their attitudes towards certain aspects of service. An amended version of the 'Attitudes Towards Acute MentalHealth Scale' was sent to nursing and allied staff at an acute psychiatric unit within the Gloucestershire 2gether NHS Foundation Trust. Fifty-seven of the 200 anonymous questionnaires were returned. Generally positive opinions of MHSU were obtained, but there were divided opinions on questions regarding the aetiology of mentalhealth problems (e.g. social vs. genetic determinants). Opinions on aspects of the admissions process, therapeutic aspects of care, the use of medication and the use of control and restraint techniques were also obtained. Demographic variables of staff age, status and years of experience in mentalhealth were found to be associated with attitudes and opinions. This MHSU-initiated study has extended the literature on mentalhealth staff attitudes towards clients and services in an acute mentalhealth setting. This study is split into two parts, Part A is focused on the process of involving MHSU in this project, Part B is concerned with the empirical investigation. PMID:22591380
This paper advocates that mentalhealth promotion receive appropriate attention within health promotion. It is of great concern that, in practice, mentalhealth promotion is frequently overlooked in health promotion programmes although the WHO definitions of health and the Ottawa Charter describe mentalhealth as an integral part of health. It is suggested that more attention be given to addressing the determinants of mentalhealth in terms of protective and risk factors for both physical and mental conditions, particularly in developing countries. Examples of evidence-based mentalhealth programmes operating in widely diverse settings are presented to demonstrate that well designed interventions can contribute to the well-being of populations. It is advocated that particular attention be given to the intersectorial cooperation needed for this work. PMID:17307955
MentalHealth First Aid is a relatively new concept conceived in Australia about 10 years ago and by 2010 it has spread to 15 other countries including Nepal. It is designed to deal with mentalhealth emergencies as well as to help people with developing mentalhealth problems to get to appropriate help before a crisis occurs. This programme was launched in Kathmandu by SAF-Nepal in November 2010 when the Australian experts ran a workshop for over 22 delegates from various mentalhealth organisations. The MHFA Nepal course is being evaluated and adapted to suit Nepalese context. New conditions including hysteria and epilepsy have been added in the Nepalese version. The programme is expected to raise mentalhealth awareness and reduce stigmatising attitudes amongst the selected members of the general public and health professionals. PMID:23281463
Jha, A; Kitchener, B A; Pradhan, P K; Shyangwa, P; Nakarmi, B
Recent scholarship regarding psychiatric epidemiology has focused on shifting notions of mental disorders. In psychiatric epidemiology in the last decades of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century, mental disorders have been perceived and treated largely as discrete categories denoting an individual's mental functioning as either pathological or normal. In the USA, this grew partly out of evolving modern epidemiological work responding to the State's commitment to measure the national social and economic burdens of psychiatric disorders and subsequently to determine the need for mentalhealth services and to survey these needs over time. Notably absent in these decades have been environmentally oriented approaches to cultivating normal, healthy mental states, approaches initially present after World War II. We focus here on a set of community studies conducted in the 1950s, particularly the Midtown Manhattan study, which grew out of a holistic conception of mentalhealth that depended on social context and had a strong historical affiliation with: the Mental Hygiene Movement and the philosophy of its founder, Adolf Meyer; the epidemiological formation of field studies and population surveys beginning early in the 20th century, often with a health policy agenda; the recognition of increasing chronic disease in the USA; and the radical change in orientation within psychiatry around World War II. We place the Midtown Manhattan study in historical context-a complex narrative of social institutions, professional formation and scientific norms in psychiatry and epidemiology, and social welfare theory that begins during the Progressive era (1890-1920) in the USA. PMID:25031047
Since psychiatric community services were legalised by the promulgation of the MentalHealth Act no 18 of 1973 shift to primary mentalHealth Care has occurred. This change resulted in an increase in psychiatric patients within the community, and because of this increase the workload of the psychiatric community nurse became heavier. This higher expectation might cause pressure for the psychiatric community nurse and therefore influence her therapeutic relationship with her patient negatively. It was therefore important that the work experience of the psychiatric community nurse should be explored and described in order to formulate guidelines to mobilise resources to promote, maintain and restore the mentalhealth of the psychiatric community nurse. A exploratory, descriptive contextual study was done with the aim of achieving insight into the internal environment experiences of the psychiatric community nurse working in the psychiatric community. In depth exploration was achieved by way of the phenomological method of interviewing to obtain data. PMID:9257604
Papers delivered during a symposium on the definition and measurement of mentalhealth, organized by the National Center for Health Statistics, DHEW, are presented. The symposium was conducted as a series of lectures, each followed by group discussion and...
Borderline personality disorder is a complex psychiatric syndrome that is characterized by a number of pathological interpersonal and behavioral symptoms. Because of these symptoms, individuals with borderline personality disorder tend to have difficulties in their relationships with others, including mentalhealth clinicians. Through a literature review, we examined the perceptions and reactions of mentalhealth clinicians toward patients with borderline personality disorder. Our findings indicate that psychiatric nurses are the most studied group of mentalhealth clinicians in this regard, followed by samples of mixed mentalhealth clinicians, and then psychologists. Interestingly, there is no study of psychiatrists only. While sample sizes have been generally small and methodologies have varied, the overwhelming majority of these studies indicate negative perceptions of and emotional responses toward patients with borderline personality disorder. Some researchers have interpreted such findings to suggest that mentalhealth clinicians are more judgmental or prejudicial toward patients with borderline personality disorder, in contrast to other types of mentalhealth patients. However, patients with borderline personality disorder have very complex interpersonal behaviors that tend to illicit negative responses from those around them. Perhaps these data simply reflect a very human reaction to the complex and pathological behaviors of these patients—a conclusion that is relevant to clinicians practicing in either mentalhealth or primary care settings.
Presented is a speech by Bertram Brown, director of the National Institute of MentalHealth, on the effects of decreased federal funding of mentalhealth research. Brown notes that there has been a 56% slash in the purchasing power of the research grant program when inflation is accounted for. It is suggested that causes of the dwindling support…
This paper is the first of a two-part series on financing early childhood mentalhealth services. It discusses the need for a systemic approach to financing early childhood mentalhealth services and supports and presents a matrix to assist states and communities in the design of comprehensive financing systems. The vertical axis of the matrix…
Context: The number of Latinos in rural regions of the United States is increasing. Little is known about factors that undermine the mentalhealth of this segment of the rural population. Purpose: The goal of this study is to determine which stressors inherent in farmwork and the farmworker lifestyle contribute to poor mentalhealth. Methods: An…
Hiott, Ann E.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Davis, Stephen W.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.
Expanded school mentalhealth programs provide a full range of mentalhealth services (assessment, treatment, case management, prevention) to youth in regular and special education, and typically involve close collaboration between schools and community agencies. A major challenge for these programs is documenting that provided services are of high quality and leading to enhanced outcomes for the youth and schools
Mark D. Weist; Laura A. Nabors; C. Patrick Myers; Paula Armbruster
It is often difficult to interpret the clinical or policy significance of findings from mentalhealth research when results are presented only in terms of statistical significance. Results expressed in terms of p values or as a metric corresponding to a mentalhealth status scale are seldom intuitively meaningful. To help interpret the significance of research results, we demonstrate a
Jeffrey S. Harman; Willard G. Manning; Nicole Lurie; Chuan-Fen Liu
In this article, the author contends that to understand the concern over student mentalhealth, one must first consider what students are reporting about themselves. Students with mentalhealth issues are intellectually capable; rising numbers of accepted students with diagnosed psychological conditions confirm this. However, many conditions…
As someone who has been involved in college mentalhealth in three different roles, the author would say those who work in this field inhabit a strange space. College mentalhealth centers are generally seen as somewhat peripheral to the core mission of universities by upper administration. Counseling centers do not reside within academic…
From first contact with the police to release from prison, people with mental ill health who come into conflict with the law often find that their mentalhealth needs are neglected while they are under the authority of the criminal justice system. In 2008, the Prison Reform Trust surveyed independent monitoring boards in England and Wales, asking them to comment
The community mentalhealth centre affords an opportunity for psychodynamic practice that is both challenging and rewarding. The experience of psychoanalytic education and supervision at a suburban mentalhealth centre is described in terms of its transformative effect on the participants and the clinical setting. A parallel clinical transformative process is illustrated through an extended vignette of one client's experience
Advance directives are designed to establish a person's preferences for treatment if the person becomes incompetent in the future or unable to communicate those preferences to treatment providers. Mentalhealth advance directives are similar to the more commonly used directives for end-of-life medical decisions. A patient must be competent to execute a mentalhealth advance directive, and the directive must
Mothers are one of the fastest growing segments of the homeless population in the United States. Although mentalhealth problems often contribute to homelessness, little is known about the factors that affect mothers' mentalhealth. To help identify protective factors, this longitudinal study examined the relationship between spirituality and…
Hodge, David R.; Moser, Stephanie E.; Shafer, Michael S.
Expanded school mental-health (ESMH) programs address the limitations of traditional mental-health agencies in meeting childrens' needs by offering a full range of services in school. Family involvement in ESMHs can enhance their effectiveness. This paper describes challenges of involving families, guidelines for determining program goals for…
Bickham, Nicole L.; Pizarro, L. Josefina; Warner, Beth S.; Rosenthal, Bernice; Weist, Mark D.
Although schools are not traditionally designed to provide intensive mentalhealth services to children, they are in a position to create systems that foster mentalhealth. By creating school-wide systems in which students are academically, behaviorally and socially successful, schools can integrate those essential protective factors shown to…
Objective: This paper describes the informational and treatment opportunities offered by the Worldwide Web (WWW) and comments on the advantages, disadvantages and potential dangers of its role in mentalhealth and mentalhealth research.Method: Two perspectives are taken: (i) the impact of the Web from the point of view of the clinician (the practitioner view) and (ii) the impact of
As the evidence base for the study of mentalhealth problems develops, there is a need for increasingly rigorous and systematic research methodologies. Complex questions require complex methodological approaches. Recognising this, the MRC guidelines for developing and testing complex interventions place qualitative methods as integral to each stage of intervention development and implementation. However, mentalhealth research has lagged behind
In Australia, there is increasing attention being paid to the promotion of mentalhealth and the prevention of serious mental disorder by policymakers, funders, academics and service providers. This has required a shift in thinking to focus on health and well being, not just on illness and treatment. The National Action Plan for Promotion,…
It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that mentalhealth is as critical to academic success as physical well-being. School nurses play a vital role in the school community by promoting positive mentalhealth development in students through school/community-based programs and curricula. As members of…
An integrative review of literature was undertaken to examine the impact of children's mentalhealth on their school success. The literature confirmed a confluence of problems associated with school performance and child and adolescent mentalhealth. Poor academic functioning and inconsistent school attendance were identified as early signs of…
The mentalhealth component of the countywide human services planning program of the Johnson County Regional Planning Commission in Iowa is described. The report on mentalhealth is one in a series of eight reports outlining the program. The overall goal ...
Background Psychological distress in healthcare workers may vary across different specialties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in the rate of anxiety and depression between medical and mental healthcare workers. Methods The sample was randomly selected and consisted of 229 workers from the medical health sector and 212 from the mentalhealth sector, aged 39.8 ± 7.9 years old. Health workers from University and General Hospitals from all over Greece participated in the study. The Greek version of the Symptoms Rating Scale For Depression and Anxiety (SRSDA) was used. Statistics were processed with SPSS v. 17.0. Results The medical health professionals showed statistically significantly higher scores in all the subscales in comparison with the mentalhealth sector workers, independently of years serving in the department. The rates of a possible psychiatric disorder (score over cutoff points) were significantly elevated on the Beck-21, melancholy and asthenia subscales. Conclusions Medical healthcare workers appear to suffer from psychological distress more than their colleagues in the mental sector.
Active consumer participation is critical in contemporary mentalhealth care and treatment planning and has been a staple of the field of psychiatric rehabilitation for the last three decades. Providing the opportunity for consumers to chose interventions that fit personal preferences and recovery increase the likelihood that these interventions will enhance personal meaning, satisfaction and quality of life (Improving the Quality of Health Care for Mental and Substance Use Conditions, 2006). Similarly, self-determination and shared decision-making are critical components of recovery. As stated in the President's New Freedom Commission on MentalHealth Final Report, recovery from mental illnesses should be the expectation in mentalhealth care with services and treatments that are consumer and family-driven. Mentalhealth care should be planned and delivered to ensure that consumers and families with children with mentalhealth problems receive real and meaningful choices about treatment options and providers. The purpose of this paper is to explore the value and use of shared decision-making in health and mentalhealth care, briefly examine the advantages and disadvantages of shared decision making and propose next steps in advancing use of shared decision-making in mentalhealth care. PMID:17694716
Schauer, Carole; Everett, Anita; del Vecchio, Paolo; Anderson, Leigh
...RIN 0720-AB55] TRICARE: Certified MentalHealth Counselors AGENCY: Office of the...that would allow licensed or certified mentalhealth counselors to be able to independently...Under current TRICARE requirements, mentalhealth counselors (MHCs) are...
The collaborative sharing of knowledge about training among Indiana mentalhealth agencies to strengthen the individual efforts of each separate agency was defined. The mentalhealth worker is referred to as a generalist mentalhealth practitioner, demons...
This paper describes an approach utilized by Margaret Dumas MentalHealth Center to produce an effective preventive mentalhealth program with the school incorporating the concept of clear communication and consultation between the school and mentalhealth personnel. (Author)
Enhancement of mentalhealth literacy is a mentalhealth promotion strategy that may be effective at destigmatizing mental illness and increasing self-seeking behavior. Transitions is a mentalhealth literacy program intended to heighten students' awareness and discussion of mentalhealth problems and promote help-seeking behaviors. Transitions…
Potvin-Boucher, Jacqueline; Szumilas, Magdalena; Sheikh, Tabinda; Kutcher, Stan
In Pakistan, societal attitudes and norms, as well as cultural practices (Karo Kari, exchange marriages, dowry, etc.), play a vital role in women's mentalhealth. The religious and ethnic conflicts, along with the dehumanizing attitudes towards women, the extended family system, role of in-laws in daily lives of women, represent major issues and stressors. Such practices in Pakistan have created the extreme marginalisation of women in numerous spheres of life, which has had an adverse psychological impact. Violence against women has become one of the acceptable means whereby men exercise their culturally constructed right to control women. Still, compared to other South Asian countries, Pakistani women are relatively better off than their counterparts.
This article provides an overview of current psychological research on mentalhealth and sexual orientation, as well as clinical practice with sexual minorities. The historical context for current research questions and controversies is described, and the findings of recent empirical research on psychological well-being and distress among nonheterosexuals are summarized. The minority stress model is used to frame a discussion of stressors unique to sexual minorities and to consider their possible effects on psychological well-being. The possible ameliorative effects of adopting a sexual orientation identity are examined, followed by a discussion of how these ideas translate into contemporary clinical work with sexual minority clients. The review concludes with a brief discussion of priority areas for empirical research and clinical practice. PMID:17716060
Objective: To compare the perceptions of aged care services, adult mentalhealth services and mentalhealth services for older people regarding aspects of mentalhealth service delivery for older people in New South Wales, Australia.Method: The NSW Branch of the Faculty of Psychiatry of Old Age in association with the NSW Centre for MentalHealth, sent a postal survey to
Brian Draper; Tanya Jochelson; David Kitching; John Snowdon; Henry Brodaty; Bob Russell
Mentalhealth surveillance in infancy was studied in an existing child health surveillance programme with child psychiatric\\u000a disorder at 1½ year as the outcome. Methods Children considered of concern by community health nurses were cases in a case control study nested in the Copenhagen Child\\u000a Cohort (CCC 2000). Outcome was mentalhealth status at 1½ year assessed by clinical and
Anne Mette Skovgaard; Tine Houmann; Eva Christiansen; Else Marie Olsen; Susanne Lassen Landorph; Anne Lichtenberg; Torben Jørgensen
Background Individuals who experience work stress or heavy family demands are at elevated risk of poor mentalhealth. Yet, the cumulative\\u000a effects of multiple work and family demands are not well known, particularly in men.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods We studied the association between multiple work and family demands and sickness absence due to non-psychotic psychiatric\\u000a disorders in a longitudinal study conducted among members of
Maria Melchior; Lisa F. Berkman; Isabelle Niedhammer; Marie Zins; Marcel Goldberg
Psychiatric disorders or drug addiction are often regarded as contraindications against the use of interferon alfa (IFN-) in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Our aim was to obtain prospective data on adherence to as well as efficacy and mental side effects of treatment with IFN- in different psychiatric risk groups compared with controls. In a prospective trial, 81 patients with
Martin Schaefer; Folkhard Schmidt; Christian Folwaczny; Reinhard Lorenz; Gaby Martin; Norbert Schindlbeck; Walter Heldwein; Michael Soyka; Heinz Grunze; August Koenig; Klaus Loeschke
This study compared parental psychiatric symptom severity, and the absence or presence of severe substance abuse, as predictors of contact with minor children for a representative sample of adults with diagnoses of serious mental illness (N = 45). Child contact and psychiatric symptom severity were measured during regularly scheduled 6-month research interviews over a total 30-month period following each participant's entry into
Danson Jones; Rosemarie Lillianne Macias; Paul B. Gold; Paul Barreira; William Fisher
Diagnosis of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in the mentalhealth setting and issues pertaining to longitudinal care of this population in a specialty clinic are reviewed. FTD is often misdiagnosed as a psychiatric disorder, most commonly as a mood disorder. FTD has features that overlap with those of major depression, mania, obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia. We describe these features and how to differentiate FTD from these psychiatric disorders. This paper also describes practical issues in the management of FTD, specifically the issues that clinicians, patients and their families face in managing this disease. Areas of clinical care along the continuum are explored; FTD care involves collaborative management of symptoms and disability, and assisting patients and families in adapting to the disease.
Wylie, Mary Anne; Shnall, Adriana; Onyike, Chiadi U.; Huey, Edward D.
In this article, the authors provide an overview of the effectiveness of managed health care systems and their impact on mentalhealth counselors. They review ethical and legal dilemmas involving informed consent, confidentiality, client autonomy, competence, treatment plans, and termination that had not existed prior to the introduction of…
Objective Studies show a high potential demand for psychiatric advance directives but low completion rates. The authors conducted a randomized study of a structured, manualized intervention to facilitate completion of psychiatric advance directives. Method A total of 469 patients with severe mental illness were randomly assigned to a facilitated psychiatric advance directive session or a control group that received written information about psychiatric advance directives and referral to resources in the public mentalhealth system. Completion of an advance directive, its structure and content, and its short-term effects on working alliance and treatment satisfaction were recorded. Results Sixty-one percent of participants in the facilitated session completed an advance directive or authorized a proxy decision maker, compared with only 3% of control group participants. Psychiatrists rated the advance directives as highly consistent with standards of community practice. Most participants used the advance directive to refuse some medications and to express preferences for admission to specific hospitals and not others, although none used an advance directive to refuse all treatment. At 1-month follow-up, participants in the facilitated session had a greater working alliance with their clinicians and were more likely than those in the control group to report receiving the mentalhealth services they believed they needed. Conclusions The facilitation session is an effective method of helping patients complete psychiatric advance directives and ensuring that the documents contain useful information about patients’ treatment preferences. Achieving the promise of psychiatric advance directives may require system-level policies to embed facilitation of these instruments in usual-care care settings.
Swanson, Jeffrey W.; Swartz, Marvin S.; Elbogen, Eric B.; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Ferron, Joelle; Wagner, H. Ryan; McCauley, Barbara J.; Kim, Mimi
The Governor's Task Force on the MentalHealth of Juvenile Offenders in the state of Pennsylvania conducted a statewide survey of facilities for the care, treatment, and rehabilitation of adolescents between 12 and 18 years of age. The Task Force surveyed mental hospitals, community-based services, private psychiatric treatment centers, youth…
Pennsylvania State Dept. of Public Welfare, Harrisburg.
Reports on surveys of attendees (N=77) at MentalHealth Promotion Conference in Yorkshire, England. There was agreement among respondents that a sense of self-worth is the most important attribute of being mentally healthy. Concludes there is a need to educate about enablement strategies to help develop concepts of positive mentalhealth.…
The authors explored attitudes toward adults with mental illness. Results suggest that mentalhealth trainees and professionals had less stigmatizing attitudes than did non-mental-health trainees and professionals. Professionals receiving supervision had higher mean scores on the Benevolence subscale than did professionals who were not receiving…
Since 1997, the Center for MentalHealth Services (CMHS), within the Substance Abuse and MentalHealth Services Administration (SAMHSA), has sponsored a series of participatory dialogues that offer mentalhealth consumers and representatives from other gr...
Background Previous mentalhealth care disparities studies predominantly compare mean mentalhealth care use across racial/ethnic groups, leaving policymakers with little information on disparities among those with a higher level of expenditures. Aims of the Study To identify racial/ethnic disparities among individuals at varying quantiles of mentalhealth care expenditures. To assess whether disparities in the upper quantiles of expenditure differ by insurance status, income and education. Methods Data were analyzed from a nationally representative sample of white, black and Latino adults 18 years and older (n=83,878). Our dependent variable was total mentalhealth care expenditure. We measured disparities in any mentalhealth care expenditures, disparities in mentalhealth care expenditure at the 95th, 97.5th, and 99th expenditure quantiles of the full population using quantile regression, and at the 50th, 75th, and 95th quantiles for positive users. In the full population, we tested interaction coefficients between race/ethnicity and income, insurance, and education levels to determine whether racial/ethnic disparities in the upper quantiles differed by income, insurance and education. Results Significant Black-white and Latino-white disparities were identified in any mentalhealth care expenditures. In the full population, moving up the quantiles of mentalhealth care expenditures, Black-White and Latino-White disparities were reduced but remained statistically significant. No statistically significant disparities were found in analyses of positive users only. The magnitude of black-white disparities was smaller among those enrolled in public insurance programs compared to the privately insured and uninsured in the 97.5th and 99th quantiles. Disparities persist in the upper quantiles among those in higher income categories and after excluding psychiatric inpatient and emergency department (ED) visits. Discussion Disparities exist in any mentalhealth care and among those that use the most mentalhealth care resources, but much of disparities seem to be driven by lack of access. The data do not allow us to disentangle whether disparities were related to white respondent’s overuse or underuse as compared to minority groups. The cross-sectional data allow us to make only associational claims about the role of insurance, income, and education in disparities. With these limitations in mind, we identified a persistence of disparities in overall expenditures even among those in the highest income categories, after controlling for mentalhealth status and observable sociodemographic characteristics. Implications for Health Care Provision and Use Interventions are needed to equalize resource allocation to racial/ethnic minority patients regardless of their income, with emphasis on outreach interventions to address the disparities in access that are responsible for the no/low expenditures for even Latinos at higher levels of illness severity. Implications for Health Policies Increased policy efforts are needed to reduce the gap in health insurance for Latinos and improve outreach programs to enroll those in need into mentalhealth care services. Implications for Further Research Future studies that conclusively disentangle overuse and appropriate use in these populations are warranted.
Cook, Benjamin Le; Manning, Willard; Alegria, Margarita
Although mental disorders are a major public health problem, the development of mentalhealth services has been a low priority everywhere, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Recent years have seen a growing understanding of the importance of population mentalhealth and increased attention to the need to develop mentalhealth systems for responding to population mentalhealth service needs. In countries and regions where mentalhealth services are all but nonexistent, and in postconflict and postdisaster settings, there are many impediments to establishing or scaling up mentalhealth services. It is frequently necessary to act simultaneously on multiple fronts: generating local evidence that will inform decision makers; developing a policy framework; securing investment; determining the most appropriate service model for the context; training and supporting mentalhealth workers; establishing or expanding existing services; putting in place systems for monitoring and evaluation; and strengthening leadership and governance capabilities. This article presents the approach of the Centre for International MentalHealth in the Melbourne School of Population Health to mentalhealth system development, and illustrates the way in which the elements of the program are integrated by giving a brief case example from Sri Lanka. PMID:22335181
Integrating family nursing into a busy mentalhealth urgent care setting is a challenge given the high acuity of patients and the demands of delivering service 7 days/week, 14 hours/day. In this article, the authors describe the development of a MentalHealth Urgent Care Practice Framework that incorporates four elements: mentalhealth/psychiatric assessment, physical health assessment, family nursing, and integrated behavioral health care. Sample family nursing skills and ladders for mentalhealth urgent care practice are highlighted.The framework and ladders have implications for recruitment and hiring, orientation, peer mentoring, performance appraisals, and continuing education and supervision. A clinical vignette illustrates sample conceptual/ perceptual and executive skills used to apply the framework and ladders in practice. Family nursing is conceptualized as an integral component of nursing care provided to individual and families in this unique setting. PMID:20407001
ObjectiveTo describe the relationship between psychiatric status and the use of alcohol, drug, and mentalhealth (ADM) services among a sample of American Indian (AI) juvenile detainees. Method A structured diagnostic and service use interview was administered to 150 Al youths detained in a juvenile detention center located on a Northern Plains reservation.
DOUGLAS K. NOVINS; CHRISTINE WILSON DUCLOS; CHERYL MARTIN; CHASTITY S. JEWETT; SPERO M. MANSON
The aim was to investigate the knowledge and the attitude regarding recovery among practitioners working in the Swedish mentalhealth system, Personligt Ombud (PO), Supported Housing Team (SHT) and Psychiatric Out Patient Service (POPS), to determine whether and how knowledge and attitude regarding recovery differ between the three services. A…
Defined as a set of distinct processes that included the declining use of large psychiatric institutions and the increasing use of outpatient services and general hospitals, deinstitutionalization occurred earlier in Saskatchewan than other provinces in Canada. It was led by a CCF government dedicated to major change across a number of sectors including mentalhealth, assisted by one of the
This qualitative study sought to center the personal experiences of Black American women affected by Sickle Cell disease (SCD) within the broader policy discussion of mentalhealth disparities. Previous research suggests that stress may serve as a trigger for painful episodes which may contribute to increased rates of psychiatric morbidity in this population. The sample consisted of 10 women who
A new program was developed for the delivery of mentalhealth services in Cali, Colombia utilizing auxiliary nurses who were given special training and supervision. In order to evaluate this program, equivalent groups of 30 patients each, who came to the psychiatric emergency room, were treated over a three-month period by the auxiliary nurses or by the “traditional” service which
C. E. Climent; M. V. de Arango; R. Plutchik; C. A. León
... Provides day treatment, partial hospitalization...State mentalhealth facilities to determine the...individual would require inpatient psychiatric care...individualized plan of treatment that is periodically...program benefit was first enacted, CMHCs...can terminate a facility based on the...
Several epidemiological studies have reported that large numbers of children and adolescents suffer from diagnosable psychiatric conditions, however most of them do not receive treatment. The schools are a key setting where youth with mentalhealth problems are identified and linked to treatment. In this study we examine the demographic and…
There is increasing convergence of defining mentalhealth recovery as the ongoing, interactional process\\/personal journey and outcome of restoring a positive sense of self and meaningful sense of belonging while actively self-managing psychiatric disorder and rebuilding a life within the community. Recovery is facilitated or impeded through the complex, synergistic and dynamic interplay of the characteristics of the individual, the
Steven J. Onken; Jeanne M. Dumont; Wellbeing Project; Priscilla Ridgway; Douglas H. Dornan; Ruth O. Ralph; Edmund S. Muskie
This study looked at the average length of hospital stay for inpatients in a specialist deaf mentalhealth service over a 10-year period, in comparison to that of a general psychiatric hearing cohort. In addition, two case studies of deaf inpatients were carried out looking specifically at the prerequisite factors governing discharge. Finally, a…
The literature concerning geographical mobility, psychiatric disturbances and mentalhealth among children of professional and executive level migrants is reviewed. Most studies were found to be conceptually and methodologically flawed, tending to find whatever they set out to look for. Various problems that might be experienced by geographically mobile children, both in the short and the long term are reviewed.
Background: While there is considerable literature on adults with Down syndrome who have dementia, there is little published on the epidemiology of other types of mental ill-health in this population. Method: Longitudinal cohort study of adults with Down syndrome who received detailed psychiatric assessment (n = 186 at the first time point; n =…
Mantry, D.; Cooper, S. -A.; Smiley, E.; Morrison, J.; Allan, L.; Williamson, A.; Finlayson, J.; Jackson, A.
Controversy over potential mentalhealth effects of the Three Mile Island Unit-1 restart led the authors to examine prospectively the pattern of psychiatric symptoms in a sample of Three Mile Island area mothers of young children. Symptom levels after restart were elevated over previous levels; a sizable subcohort of the sample reported relatively serious degrees of postrestart distress. History of
M. A. Dew; E. J. Bromet; H. C. Schulberg; L. O. Dunn; D. K. Parkinson
Based on a sample of 1747 from the Chinese American Psychiatric Epidemiological Study, this report examined perceived barriers to mentalhealth treatment. Two factors emerged, namely "practical barriers", which included cost of treatment, time, knowledge of access, and language, and "cultural barriers" consisting of credibility of treatment,…
The community mentalhealth (CMH) system provides treatment for behavioral and psychiatric problems in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Although parent stakeholder perspectives are important to improving care, these perspectives have not been systematically examined for this population in the CMH sector. Twenty-one semi-structured…
Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Baker-Ericzen, Mary; Stadnick, Nicole; Taylor, Robin
U TILIZATION by Mexican Americans of Mental Facilities of a Barrio area neighborhood health center, and demographic and symptom characteristicts of this population were investigated. The findings suggest that contrary to other studies this program was able to reach a high risk Mexican American population frequently missed by mentalhealth programs. The barrio location, the relationship to a neighborhood health
Objective: We examined the capacity of the disaster mentalhealth workforce in Victoria, Australia, to provide the three evidence-supported intervention types of psychological first aid, skills for psychological recovery, and intensive mentalhealth treatments. Method: Utilizing data from a cross-professional, state-level disaster mentalhealth workforce survey (n = 791), we developed composite capacity indicators (CCI) for each intervention and performed logistic regression analyses to examine key predictors of disaster mentalhealth workforce capacity. Results: CCI profiles highlighted significant gaps in the disaster mentalhealth capacity of Victorian providers, with only 32-42% able to deliver current best practice interventions. Key predictors of workforce capacity common and unique to interventions were highlighted. Conclusions: Key strategies to raise Victoria's disaster mentalhealth workforce capacity should focus on targeted multilevel training in best practice interventions, creation of practice opportunities, and structural provider support/engagement. CCIs focused on best practice interventions provide a methodology for rapid workforce capacity assessment that can facilitate disaster preparedness planning, capacity building, and delivery of quality disaster mentalhealth services. PMID:24865201
Reifels, Lennart; Naccarella, Lucio; Blashki, Grant; Pirkis, Jane
This article summarizes the conception and diagnosis of the mentalhealth continuum, the findings supporting the two continua model of mentalhealth and illness, and the benefits of flourishing to individuals and society. Completely mentally healthy adults—individuals free of a 12-month mental disorder and flourishing—reported the fewest missed days of work, the fewest half-day or greater work cutbacks, the healthiest
Compulsory admission to psychiatric inpatient treatment can be experienced as disempowering and stigmatizing by people with serious mental illness. However, quantitative studies of stigma-related emotional and cognitive reactions to involuntary hospitalization and their impact on people with mental illness are scarce. Among 186 individuals with serious mental illness and a history of recent involuntary hospitalization, shame and self-contempt as emotional reactions to involuntary hospitalization, the cognitive appraisal of stigma as a stressor, self-stigma, empowerment as well as quality of life and self-esteem were assessed by self-report. Psychiatric symptoms were rated by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. In multiple linear regressions, more self-stigma was predicted independently by higher levels of shame, self-contempt and stigma stress. A greater sense of empowerment was related to lower levels of stigma stress and self-contempt. These findings remained significant after controlling for psychiatric symptoms, diagnosis, age, gender and the number of lifetime involuntary hospitalizations. Increased self-stigma and reduced empowerment in turn predicted poorer quality of life and reduced self-esteem. The negative effect of emotional reactions and stigma stress on quality of life and self-esteem was largely mediated by increased self-stigma and reduced empowerment. Shame and self-contempt as reactions to involuntary hospitalization as well as stigma stress may lead to self-stigma, reduced empowerment and poor quality of life. Emotional and cognitive reactions to coercion may determine its impact more than the quantity of coercive experiences. Interventions to reduce the negative effects of compulsory admissions should address emotional reactions and stigma as a stressor. PMID:23689838
This narrative study describes the substance of nursing students' learning in the area of mentalhealth and their responses to the challenges of working in the psychiatric field. The data consisted of 39 critical incidents written by 20 Finnish second-year nursing students during their 5-week mentalhealth placement. The narrative analysis method was used in the data analysis and the configuration of three consistent learning storylines: self-awareness and self-esteem, the nurse-patient relationship and mentalhealth care methods. The three storylines characterized the essence of the students' learning and their responses to the challenges of the psychiatric field during the placement. The students were actively exposed to complicated care situations and patient encounters in which they had to face their own emotions and test coping skills. It seems that the critical incident technique stimulated students' narrative skills and possibly sensitized them for listening at the stories of their future patients. PMID:21848597
Background Urban parks have received attention in recent years as a possible environmental factor that could encourage physical activity, prevent obesity, and reduce the incidence of chronic conditions. Despite long hypothesized benefits of parks for mentalhealth, few park studies incorporate mentalhealth measures. Aims of the Study To test the association between proximity to urban parks and psychological distress. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of individual health survey responses. Data were collected for a study of capital improvements of neighborhood parks in Los Angeles. A survey was fielded on a sample of residential addresses, stratified by distance from the park (within 400m, 800m, 1.6 km, and 3.2km; N=1070). We used multiple regression to estimate the relationship between the psychological distress as measured by the MHI-5 (outcome variable) and distance to parks (main explanatory variable), controlling for observed individual characteristics. Results Mentalhealth is significantly related to residential distance from parks, with the highest MHI-5 scores among residents within short walking distance from the park (400m) and decreasing significantly over the next distances. The number of visits and physical activity minutes are significantly and independently related to distance, although controlling for them does not reduce the association between distance and mentalhealth. Discussion and Limitations This paper provides a new data point for an arguably very old question, but for which empirical data are sparse for the US. A nearby urban park is associated with the same mentalhealth benefits as decreasing local unemployment rates by 2 percentage points, suggesting at least the potential of environmental interventions to improve mentalhealth. The analysis is cross-sectional, making it impossible to control for important confounders, including residential selection. Implications for Health Policy Mentalhealth policy has traditionally focused on individual-centered interventions. Just as health policy for preventable chronic illnesses has shifted attention to modifiable environmental determinants, population mentalhealth may benefit substantially from environmental interventions. Implications for Future Research Policy evaluations should incorporate mentalhealth measures when assessing neighborhood improvement programs and physical environments. Many recent and ongoing studies have excluded mentalhealth measure in the belief that they are too burdensome for respondents or irrelevant. If a causal relationship is confirmed, then ameliorating neighborhood conditions and physical environments could represent a scalable way to improve mentalhealth issues for large populations.
Introduction. The economic crisis has negative effects on the population’s physical and mentalhealth. Our objective has been to study the association between socioeconomic status and number of people demanding mentalhealth services. Methods. We performed a correlation analysis of administrative morbidity data (incidence and prevalence) of mental illness (obtained from the Asturias Cumulative Psychiatric Case Register) and three economic indicators (unemployment, consumer price index and gross domestic product). Results. The increase in the unemployment rate is associated with a clear decrease in both new and prevalent mentalhealth demand. CPI has a minor weak positive correlation with the administrative incidence of some mental disorders (Neurotic disorders, Schizophrenia and addictions). GDP does not show a significant correlation with the administrative incidence and it is strongly associated with an increased administrative prevalence that is more intense in the case of alcoholism, neurotic disorders, mental retardation and Z codes (ICD-10). Conclusion. The variation of the socioeconomic indicated observed in the economic crisis period in Asturias was not associated with increased care demand for any mental disorders. There is a negative correlation of unemployment rate with care demand. PMID:24844810
Iglesias, Celso García; Sáiz, Pilar Martinez; García-Portilla, M Paz González; Bousoño, Manuel García; Jiménez, Luis Treviño; Sánchez, Fernando Lasheras; Bobes, Julio
Psychiatric nurses' experience in milieu therapy, home treatment, community aftercare, and psychotherapy can be the basis for new roles in mentalhealth. This study used psychiatric nurses as consultants to general physicians in a general hospital emergency room. Psychiatric nurses successfully managed 66% of the psychiatric referrals in the emergency room and required only telephone consultation in a majority of
Many people who would benefit from mentalhealth services opt not to pursue them or fail to fully participate once they have begun. One of the reasons for this disconnect is stigma; namely, to avoid the label of mental illness and the harm it brings, people decide not to seek or fully participate in care. Stigma yields 2 kinds of harm that may…
This report, based on a survey conducted during the summer and fall of 1986, identifies culturally sensitive training programs for professionals, paraprofessionals, and others who provide mentalhealth services to refugees. An introductory section discusses the language, cultural, racial, experiential, and socioeconomic factors of refugee mental…
Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Refugees Assistance Program - Mental Health Technical Assistance Center.
Background The recent adoption of China's new national mentalhealth law provides a good opportunity to obtain baseline information about community mentalhealth literacy in the country. Aim Assess knowledge and attitudes about mental disorders among residents in Shanghai. Methods A total of 1953 residents aged 15 or above selected from all 19 districts in Shanghai completed two self-report questionnaires – the MentalHealth Knowledge Questionnaire (MHKQ) and the Case Assessment Questionnaire (CAQ). MHKQ total scores range from 0 to 20 (higher scores indicate better mentalhealth literacy). The CAQ presents respondents with five case vignettes and possesses nine questions after each vignette measuring respondents' knowledge and attitudes towards these mental illnesses. Results Correct response rates for the 20 MHKQ items ranged from 26 to 98%, with a mean rate of 72%. The internal consistency (alpha) of the 20 items on the MHKQ was 0.69, but this decreased to 0.59 after removing four items about mentalhealth promotion. A 5-factor model for the 20 items in the MHKQ was identified using exploratory factor analysis on one-half of the surveys, but the model was only partially validated in the confirmatory factor analysis using the second half of the surveys. On the CAQ, rates of correct recognition of mania, depression, schizophrenia with positive symptoms, schizophrenia with negative symptoms and anxiety were 42%, 35%, 30%, 19% and 21%, respectively. Work stress (37.3%), problems with thinking (30.0%) and negative life events (24.4%) were reported to be the three main causes of mental disorders. Seeing a counselor (34.2%) or a psychiatrist (33.3%) were the two most common suggestions for help-seeking. Higher education and younger age were related with better mentalhealth literacy and higher rates of recognition of common mental disorders. Conclusions Mentalhealth literacy in Shanghai appears to be increasing, but the reliability and validity of the instruments used to assess mentalhealth literacy (MHKQ and CAQ) have not been adequately assessed so this result must be considered preliminary. Further work, preferably including both qualitative and quantitative components, is needed to revise these instruments before they can be used to assess the effectiveness of mentalhealth promotion campaigns.
A number of researchers have observed that response biases, defined as when subjects respond to items in research instruments in ways that do not coincide with the intent or content of the instrument, suffuse measurements and assessments of mental disorders. They cautioned that the response bias problem has been neglected in mentalhealth research at the price of substantial error. Have the cautions been heeded? Or does the neglect of response bias continue? Articles published in 1998 in three major psychiatric journals were examined: Archives of General Psychiatry, American Journal of Psychiatry, and the Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. The articles were examined to determine whether response biases were mentioned and whether systematic efforts were made to attend to their influence on the findings of the study. Each article was assessed twice by independent raters. The examination indicates that a very small minority of the articles reviewed mentioned response bias and that among those mentioning it, a minority attempted to control for bias effects. Cautions offered about response bias have not been heeded. Accordingly, the issue is one of how to incorporate concerns about response bias into the institutional structures that influence the culture of mentalhealth research. PMID:11277355
Rogler, L H; Mroczek, D K; Fellows, M; Loftus, S T
The role of community consultation and education in the prevention of mental illness and the promotion of mentalhealth is discussed. Mentalhealth consultation is defined as the provision of technical assistance by an expert to individual and agency care...