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Sample records for psychological distress screening

  1. Effects of Screening for Psychological Distress on Patient Outcomes in Cancer: a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Meijer, Anna; Roseman, Michelle; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Milette, Katherine; Levis, Brooke; Syamchandra, Achyuth; Stefanek, Michael E.; Stewart, Donna E.; de Jonge, Peter; Coyne, James C.; Thombs, Brett D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Several practice guidelines recommend routine screening for psychological distress in cancer care. The objective was to evaluate the effect of screening cancer patients for psychological distress by assessing the (1) effectiveness of interventions to reduce distress among patients identified as distressed; and (2) effects of screening for distress on distress outcomes. Methods CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, ISI, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS databases were searched through April 6, 2011 with manual searches of 45 relevant journals, reference list review, citation tracking of included articles, and trial registry reviews through June 30, 2012. Articles in any language on cancer patients were included if they (1) compared treatment for patients with psychological distress to placebo or usual care in a randomized controlled trial (RCT); or (2) assessed the effect of screening on psychological distress in a RCT. Results There were 14 eligible RCTs for treatment of distress, and 1 RCT on the effects of screening on patient distress. Pharmacological, psychotherapy and collaborative care interventions generally reduced distress with small to moderate effects. One study investigated effects of screening for distress on psychological outcomes, and it found no improvement. Conclusion Treatment studies reported modest improvement in distress symptoms, but only a single eligible study was found on the effects of screening cancer patients for distress, and distress did not improve in screened patients versus those receiving usual care. Because of the lack of evidence of beneficial effects of screening cancer patients for distress, it is premature to recommend or mandate implementation of routine screening. PMID:23751231

  2. The Utility of the Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6) in Two American Indian Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Christina M.; Beals, Janette

    2011-01-01

    The Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6; Kessler et al., 2002) has been used widely as a screener for mental health problems and as a measure of severity of impact of mental health problems. However, the applicability and utility of this measure for assessments within American Indian communities has not been explored. Data were…

  3. Reducing psychological distress in patients undergoing chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Milanti, Ariesta; Metsälä, Eija; Hannula, Leena

    Psychological distress is a common problem among patients with cancer, yet it mostly goes unreported and untreated. This study examined the association of a psycho-educational intervention with the psychological distress levels of breast cancer and cervical cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The design of the study was quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design with a comparison group. One hundred patients at a cancer hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia, completed Distress Thermometer screening before and after chemotherapy. Fifty patients in the intervention group were given a psycho-educational video with positive reappraisal, education and relaxation contents, while receiving chemotherapy. Patients who received the psycho-educational intervention had significantly lower distress levels compared with those in the control group. Routine distress screening, followed by distress management and outcome assessment, is needed to improve the wellbeing of cancer patients. PMID:26911178

  4. Psychological distress among homeless adults.

    PubMed

    Gelberg, L; Linn, L S

    1989-05-01

    Recent studies have reported a high prevalence of mental illness among the homeless. As part of a community-based survey of 529 homeless adults, we developed and tested a model to increase our understanding of the factors related to their psychological distress. Using a previously validated and reliable scale of perceived psychological distress, we found that homeless adults were more likely to report psychological distress than the general population (80% vs. 49%). Distress levels were not associated with most demographic or homeless characteristics or general appearance. However, distress was related to unemployment, greater cigarette and alcohol use, worse physical health, fewer social supports, and perceived barriers to obtaining needed medical care. Since mental, physical, and social health are strongly related among homeless adults, alleviating distress among them may be most effectively done by implementing a broad-based health services package coupled with employment programs provided in an accessible service delivery setting. PMID:2785158

  5. Assessment of psychological distress in prospective bone marrow transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Trask, P C; Paterson, A; Riba, M; Brines, B; Griffith, K; Parker, P; Weick, J; Steele, P; Kyro, K; Ferrara, J

    2002-06-01

    Patient psychological distress is associated with many aspects of the bone marrow transplantation (BMT) process and has been linked with poor treatment outcomes. We assessed psychological distress in potential BMT candidates, and compared patient and nurse coordinator ratings of emotional distress at the time of initial BMT consultation. Fifty patients self-reported psychological distress using both the NCCN Distress Thermometer (DT) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Coordinators rated patient emotional distress using the DT and Coordinator Rating Scales that measure anxiety and depression. Fifty and 51% of patients self-reported clinically significant levels of emotional distress and anxiety, respectively, but only 20% self-reported clinically significant levels of depression. There was good correlation between ratings using the brief DT and the more comprehensive HADS. There was significant but only moderate agreement between patient and coordinator ratings of emotional distress and anxiety, with coordinators underestimating the number of patients with high levels of emotional distress. In addition, coordinator ratings of patient emotional distress primarily reflected anxiety, whereas anxiety and depression together only minimally accounted for patient self-reports of psychological distress. These findings suggest that: (1) the DT can be a useful screening device; (2) approximately half of patients at the time of initial consultation for BMT already experience significant levels of psychological distress; and (3) coordinators observe emotional distress primarily as anxiety, but patients experience psychological distress as something more than anxiety and depression. PMID:12080358

  6. A rapid screening tool for psychological distress in children 3–6years old: results of a validation study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The mental health needs of young children in humanitarian contexts often remain unaddressed. The lack of a validated, rapid and simple tool for screening combined with few mental health professionals able to accurately diagnose and provide appropriate care mean that young children remain without care. Here, we present the results of the principle cross-cultural validation of the “Psychological Screening for Young Children aged 3 to 6” (PSYCAa3-6). The PSYCa 3–6 is a simple scale for children 3 to 6 years old administered by non-specialists, to screen young children in crises and thereby refer them to care if needed. Methods This study was conducted in Maradi, Niger. The scale was translated into Hausa, using corroboration of independent translations. A cross-cultural validation was implemented using quantitative and qualitative methods. A random sample of 580 mothers or caregivers of children 3 to 6 years old were included. The tool was psychometrically examined and diagnostic properties were assessed comparing the PSYCa 3–6 against a clinical interview as the gold standard. Results The PSYCa 3–6 Hausa version demonstrated good concurrent validity, as scores correlated with the gold standard and the Clinical Global Impression Severity Scale (CGI-S) [rho = 0.41, p-value = 0.00]. A reduction procedure was used to reduce the scale from 40 to 22 items. The test-retest reliability of the PSYCa 3–6 was found to be high (ICC 0.81, CI95% [0.68; 0.89]). In our sample, although not the purpose of this study, approximately 54 of 580 children required subsequent follow-up with a psychologist. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first validation of a screening scale for children 3 to 6 years old with a cross-cultural validation component, for use in humanitarian contexts. The Hausa version of the PSYCa 3–6 is a reliable and a valuable screening tool for psychological distress. Further studies to replicate our findings and additional

  7. Perfectionism, procrastination, and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Rice, Kenneth G; Richardson, Clarissa M E; Clark, Dustin

    2012-04-01

    Using a cross-panel design and data from 2 successive cohorts of college students (N = 357), we examined the stability of maladaptive perfectionism, procrastination, and psychological distress across 3 time points within a college semester. Each construct was substantially stable over time, with procrastination being especially stable. We also tested, but failed to support, a mediational model with Time 2 (mid-semester) procrastination as a hypothesized mechanism through which Time 1 (early-semester) perfectionism would affect Time 3 (end-semester) psychological distress. An alternative model with Time 2 perfectionism as a mediator of the procrastination-distress association also was not supported. Within-time analyses revealed generally consistent strength of effects in the correlations between the 3 constructs over the course of the semester. A significant interaction effect also emerged. Time 1 procrastination had no effect on otherwise high levels of psychological distress at the end of the semester for highly perfectionistic students, but at low levels of Time 1 perfectionism, the most distressed students by the end of the term were those who were more likely to have procrastinated earlier in the semester. Implications of the stability of the constructs and their association over time, as well as the moderating effects of procrastination, are discussed in the context of maladaptive perfectionism and problematic procrastination. PMID:22352949

  8. Screening of Psychological Distress in Cancer Patients During Chemotherapy: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Raja Paramjeet Banipal; Singh, Harminder; Singh, Chiranjeev Jhajj; Kaur, Kanwardeep Tiwana

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this prospective, noninterventional, 8-months, observational study was to analyze and compare depression, anxiety, and stress (DAS) levels and their impacting factors in homogenous surviving cancer patients receiving chemotherapy as compared to normal control. Materials and Methods: A prospective and descriptive study was carried out jointly by Pharmacology and Oncology departments of a tertiary care center in Malwa region of Punjab. The data was collected by administering the validated questionnaire/response (21-item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21)) after taking ethical approval and informed consent. Results: All eligible 300 subjects participated in the study and they were compared with 300 matched control. The mean age of the cases (cancer patients) and controls was 50.58 ± 13.64 and 46.1 ± 11.78 (mean (M) ± standard deviation (SD)) years. Statistical significant difference was observed in mean ‘scoring of DAS’ in cancer patients when compared with control groups. Anxiety mean scoring showed a statistical significant difference in groups (according to chemotherapy cycles given and duration of disease). Stress was more observed in breast cancer patients. Conclusion: Holistic approach in cancer management including psychological evaluation and its solution at appropriate time/stage signifies the need of time as the present study revealed that the percentage of DAS as per the DASS scale was 90, 56, and 28%, respectively. A judicious diagnosis with an apposite intercession including psychological consultation with social support at appropriate time may alleviate the extra burden of psychological disorder, rather enhance the quality of life of cancer-affected rural population. PMID:26600699

  9. Perfectionism, Procrastination, and Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Richardson, Clarissa M. E.; Clark, Dustin

    2012-01-01

    Using a cross-panel design and data from 2 successive cohorts of college students ( N = 357), we examined the stability of maladaptive perfectionism, procrastination, and psychological distress across 3 time points within a college semester. Each construct was substantially stable over time, with procrastination being especially stable. We also…

  10. Adult Children of Alcoholics and Psychological Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kashubeck, Susan

    1994-01-01

    Describes investigation of relationship between parental alcoholism and psychological distress and mediating effects of social support and hardiness among undergraduates. Suggests parental alcoholism is positively related to psychological distress and higher levels of social support and hardiness are associated with lower levels of psychological…

  11. Psychological Distress and Problem Drinking.

    PubMed

    Mentzakis, Emmanouil; Roberts, Bayard; Suhrcke, Marc; McKee, Martin

    2016-03-01

    We examine the influence of harmful alcohol use on mental health using a flexible two-step instrumental variables approach and household survey data from nine countries of the former Soviet Union. Using alcohol advertisements to instrument for alcohol, we show that problem drinking has a large detrimental effect on psychological distress, with problem drinkers exhibiting a 42% increase in the number of mental health problems reported and a 15% higher chance of reporting very poor mental health. Ignoring endogeneity leads to an underestimation of the damaging effect of excessive drinking. Findings suggest that more effective alcohol policies and treatment services in the former Soviet Union may have added benefits in terms of reducing poor mental health. PMID:25640167

  12. Psychological distress, hopelessness and welfare.

    PubMed

    Petterson, S M; Friel, L V

    2001-01-01

    This article assesses the validity of the claim that welfare in itself has deleterious psychological consequences for single mothers. The analysis compares single mothers who are recipients of AFDC with single mothers who are not recipients in terms of their depressive symptoms (as measured by the CES-D) and hopelessness (as measured by Pearlin Mastery Scale). The analysis uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the National Survey of Families and Households. The authors find that higher levels of both depression and hopelessness among welfare recipients can be explained by their material hardship rather than the stigma attached to welfare. They show that AFDC recipients report similar levels of depression and hopelessness as jobless non-recipients as well as low-wage non-recipients. An additional finding is that long-term welfare recipients do not experience greater emotional problems than short-term welfare recipients. Finally, the paper shows that feelings of hopelessness mediate the relationship between material deprivation and psychological distress for both recipients and non-recipients. PMID:11463067

  13. Screening instruments for a population of older adults: The 10-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7).

    PubMed

    Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Chudzinski, Veronica; Gontijo-Guerra, Samantha; Préville, Michel

    2015-07-30

    Screening tools that appropriately detect older adults' mental disorders are of great public health importance. The present study aimed to establish cutoff scores for the 10-item Kessler Psychological Distress (K10) and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scales when screening for depression and anxiety. We used data from participants (n = 1811) in the Enquête sur la Santé des Aînés-Service study. Depression and anxiety were measured using DSM-V and DSM-IV criteria. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis provided an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.767 and 0.833 for minor and for major depression when using K10. A cutoff of 19 was found to balance sensitivity (0.794) and specificity (0.664) for minor depression, whereas a cutoff of 23 was found to balance sensitivity (0.692) and specificity (0.811) for major depression. When screening for an anxiety with GAD-7, ROC analysis yielded an AUC of 0.695; a cutoff of 5 was found to balance sensitivity (0.709) and specificity (0.568). No significant differences were found between subgroups of age and gender. Both K10 and GAD-7 were able to discriminate between cases and non-cases when screening for depression and anxiety in an older adult population of primary care service users. PMID:25956759

  14. Experiences of Psychological and Physical Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Links to Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Garrido, Edward; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This research examined links between adolescents' experiences of psychological and physical relationship aggression and their psychological distress. Experiences of psychological and physical aggression were expected to correlate positively with symptoms of psychological distress, but experiences of psychological aggression were…

  15. Women's Feminist Consciousness, Anger, and Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Ann R.; Good, Glenn E.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to bring together several lines of research and theory on women's feminist consciousness from psychology, sociology, and philosophy. Past literatures had suggested bivariate links between feminist identity development and psychological distress, feminist identity and anger, feminist identity and interpersonal conflict,…

  16. Disordered Eating and Psychological Distress among Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Julie Hicks; Stahl, Sarah T.; Sundaram, Murali

    2011-01-01

    The majority of our knowledge about eating disorders derives from adolescent and young adult samples; knowledge regarding disordered eating in middle and later adulthood is limited. We examined the associations among known predictors of eating disorders for younger adults in an age-diverse sample and within the context of psychological distress.…

  17. Predictors of Psychological Distress among Infertility Clinic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Kelly A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated predictors of psychological distress among infertility clinic patients. Analyses indicated that infertile men and women reported greater psychological distress than the general population. Self-blame and avoidance coping significantly predicted psychological distress among men and women. Increased age and childlessness added to…

  18. Trauma and Psychological Distress among Ethnically Diverse Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edman, Jeanne L.; Watson, Susan B.; Patron, David J.

    2016-01-01

    An association has been found between traumatic experiences and psychological distress; however, the impact of ethnicity on psychological distress is less clear. The present study examined the relationship between traumatic experiences and measures of psychological distress among a multiethnic sample of community college students. A total of 389…

  19. Emotional Reactivity and Psychological Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Rosen, Karen H.; Stith, Sandra M.

    2002-01-01

    This article reports on an empirical test of Bowen's hypothesized relationships between differentiation of self and psychological symptoms, and examines further evidence for the construct validity of a newly developed instrument, the Behavioral and Emotional Reactivity Index (BERI). Finds an indirect relationship between emotional reactivity…

  20. Psychological distress: precursor or consequence of dating infidelity?

    PubMed

    Hall, Julie H; Fincham, Frank D

    2009-02-01

    Research on infidelity-related distress has focused on victims with little attention to perpetrators. Two studies therefore explore the psychological functioning of individuals who have engaged in dating infidelity. Study 1 showed that, compared to faithful partners, individuals who had engaged in infidelity showed more psychological distress. Study 2 investigated the interrelationships among infidelity, psychological distress, and relationship satisfaction over time. Results suggested that initial levels of psychological distress predicted later infidelity but infidelity did not predict subsequent psychological distress. Findings are interpreted in light of the broader infidelity literature, potential mechanisms are suggested, and avenues for future research are recommended. PMID:19060221

  1. Psychological distress of marital and cohabitation breakups.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Lara Patrício; Aassve, Arnstein

    2013-11-01

    Using data from a large survey, the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS), this paper explores the extent to which marital and cohabiting unions differ with respect to the short-term effects of union dissolution on mental health. We compare married individuals who divorced or separated with cohabitors whose first union ended and test the hypothesis that married individuals experience larger negative effects. Results show that initial differences are not statistically significant once the presence of children is controlled for, suggesting that the presence of children is a particularly significant source of increased psychological distress in union dissolutions. However, parenthood does not explain serious psychological distress, which appears to be associated with enduring traits (the personality trait neuroticism). PMID:24090854

  2. Psychological Distress Among Elderly Mexican Americans and Anglos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markides, Kyriakos S.; And Others

    Psychological distress is investigated in a sample of elderly Mexican Americans and Anglos residing in a four-census tract area in southwest San Antonio. Comparisons of the two ethnic groups using the Computer Derived Mental Health Rating as the measure of psychological distress show that Mexican Americans exhibit more distress than Anglos. This…

  3. Patterns of psychological distress in mothers of preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Holditch-Davis, Diane; Santos, Hudson; Levy, Janet; White-Traut, Rosemary; O'Shea, T Michael; Geraldo, Victoria; David, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Mothers of preterm infants experience significant psychological distress, with elevated levels of inter-correlated depressive, stress, anxiety and post-traumatic stress symptoms. In a sample of racially and ethnically diverse mothers of preterm infants, we identified differing patterns of psychological distress during infant hospitalization and examined the effect of these psychological distress patterns on longitudinal trajectories of each psychological distress measure and on maternal perceptions of the child over the first year of the infant's life. Mothers of preterm infants (N=232) completed five questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms, anxiety, post-traumatic stress symptoms, stress due to infant appearance, and stress due to parental role alteration during enrollment during the neonatal hospitalization, discharge, and at 2, 6, and 12 months of age adjusted for prematurity. Latent class analysis on the enrollment psychological distress variables allowed us to identify five sub-groups of mothers exhibiting similar patterns of psychological distress, differing primarily in degree and type: low distress, moderate distress, high NICU-related distress, high depressive and anxiety symptoms, and extreme distress. These classes continued to show different longitudinal trajectories for the psychological distress measures through 12 months corrected age. Mothers in the extreme distress class and, to a lesser degree, mothers in the high depressive and anxiety symptom class remained at risk of significant psychological distress one year after discharge and had less positive perceptions of their child (greater worry and higher perceptions of child vulnerability). In conclusion, distinctive sub-groups of mothers during hospitalization had different patterns of psychological distress throughout the 12-month period and may require different interventions in the NICU. PMID:26495909

  4. Psychological distress among dancers seeking outpatient treatment for musculoskeletal injury.

    PubMed

    Air, Mary Elizabeth

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and magnitude of clinically significant psychological symptoms among outpatient injured dancers presenting for musculoskeletal issues and to identify features of "at risk" dancer-patients who might require additional psychological support when injured. The Brief Symptom Inventory® (BSI), a highly reliable and valid screening tool for psychological distress, was administered to first- and last-visit injured dancers at an orthopedic clinic in the Netherlands from February to May 2008. In all, 153 BSI surveys were completed, including 82 among first-visit patients and 71 among end-treatment patients. Scores were examined for the influence of age, gender, dance level, style, pain, perceived level of artistic compromise, and anatomic location of injury. Dancers' scores were compared to normative values for adult non-psychiatric patient community members. Ninety-two dancers (60.1%) met requirements for clinical referral to a psychologist or psychiatrist, having scored two or more standard deviations (SD) above the norm in at least one of nine psychopathological symptoms. Across first- and last-visit groups, dancers met referral criteria for an average of four psychopathological symptoms. First-visit dancers demonstrated higher distress than the general population on 90% of BSI dimensional symptoms and last-visit dancers on 50%. On the Global Symptom Index, a summary score for overall distress and the best measure of psychological discomfort, 46.6% of dancers demonstrated "above average" distress (≥ 1 SD) compared to the general population, and 19.6% demonstrated "high" (≥ 2 SD) or "very high" (≥ 2.5 SD) distress. Compared to academy level pre-professional students, professionals showed reduction in BSI scores on somatic, cognitive, interpersonal sensitivity, anxious, hostile, phobic, and global scores following resolution of injury, particularly among those greater than 25 years of age. Students and

  5. Psychological screening program overview.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kathleen M; Huffman, Ann H; Adler, Amy B; Castro, Carl A

    2002-10-01

    This article reviews the literature on health surveillance conducted during military deployments, focusing on models for assessing the impact of operational deployments on peacekeepers. A discussion of the stressors and potential mental health consequences of peacekeeping operations follows with relevant examples of findings from U.S. and international military forces. Psychological screening in different peacekeeping operations conducted in U.S. Army-Europe is reviewed. The review begins with the redeployment screening of military personnel deployed to Bosnia mandated under the Joint Medical Surveillance Program, and continues through the present screening of units deployed to Kosovo. The detailed description of the screening program includes a discussion of procedures and measures and demonstrates the evolution of the program. A summary of key findings from the screening program and a discussion of future research directions are provided. PMID:12392255

  6. Predictors of psychological distress and interest in mental health services in individuals with cancer.

    PubMed

    O'Hea, Erin L; Monahan, Brigitte R; Cutillo, Alexandra; Person, Sharina D; Grissom, Grant; Boudreaux, Edwin D

    2016-06-01

    Identifying risk factors for psychological distress in patients with cancer may help providers more efficiently screen, identify, and manage distress. This article presents predictors of psychological distress in a large heterogeneous sample of cancer patients. In total, 836 patients were enrolled in a large randomized control trial and completed computerized psychosocial assessments Mental Health Assessment and Dynamic Referral for Oncology. Multivariate regressions examined predictors of distress and interest in mental health services. Final models suggest that psychological distress was related to six variables, and interest in mental health services was related to previous history of mental health counseling, total number of cancer-related symptoms, and race/ethnicity. Results may be used to identify high-risk patients who may benefit from proactive psychosocial interventions. PMID:25205777

  7. The association between malnutrition and psychological distress in patients with advanced head-and-neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ma, L.; Poulin, P.; Feldstain, A.; Chasen, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Malnutrition and psychological distress are often seen in patients with head-and-neck cancer, but little is known about the interrelationships between those two symptoms. The present study examined the relationship between malnutrition and psychological distress in patients with advanced head-and-neck cancer. Methods Using the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment, 99 patients with advanced-stage head-and-neck cancer were screened for nutrition status. The patients were also screened for psychosocial distress (using the Distress Thermometer) and for psychosocial issues (using the Problem Checklist). Any relationship between malnutrition and psychosocial distress was determined by regression and correlation analysis. We also used t-tests to compare distress levels for patients with and without specific nutrition-related symptoms. Results The study group included 80 men and 19 women [mean age: 58.4 ± 10.9 years (range: 23–85 years)]. The correlation between poorer nutrition status and level of psychological distress was significant r = 0.37 (p < 0.001). Specifically, reduced food intake and symptoms were both positively associated with distress: r = 0.27 and r = 0.29 respectively, both significant at p < 0.01. After controlling for the effects of psychosocial problems and pain, nutrition status remained a significant predictor of distress, explaining 3.8% of the variance in the distress scores of the patients (p < 0.05). Conclusions Malnutrition and symptoms were strongly related to distress in patients with advanced head-and-neck cancer. Our results suggest the need for further research into the complex relationship between nutrition status and distress and into the management of both nutrition and distress in cancer care. PMID:24311956

  8. Psychological Distress of Caregivers: The Mediator Effect of Caregiving Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pot, A. M.; Deeg, D. J. H.; van Dyck, R.; Jonker, C.

    1998-01-01

    Examines whether the role of caregiving appraisal explains why stressors in the caregiving situation affect caregivers' psychological distress. Results show that for spouse caregivers, perceived pressure explains the association between their caregiving tasks and psychological distress. Results also show clear mediator effects of perceived…

  9. Parental Attachments and Psychological Distress among African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Keisha McGhee

    2008-01-01

    African American college students attending predominately White institutions often encounter stressors that their Caucasian peers do not experience. Because of these unique stressors, African American students are more prone to experience psychological distress. Identifying factors that counteract psychological distress among these students is…

  10. Understanding psychological distress among mothers in rural Nepal: a qualitative grounded theory exploration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a large burden of psychological distress in low and middle-income countries, and culturally relevant interventions must be developed to address it. This requires an understanding of how distress is experienced. We conducted a qualitative grounded theory study to understand how mothers experience and manage distress in Dhanusha, a low-resource setting in rural Nepal. We also explored how distressed mothers interact with their families and the wider community. Methods Participants were identified during a cluster-randomised controlled trial in which mothers were screened for psychological distress using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We conducted 22 semi-structured interviews with distressed mothers (GHQ-12 score ≥5) and one with a traditional healer (dhami), as well as 12 focus group discussions with community members. Data were analysed using grounded theory methods and a model was developed to explain psychological distress in this setting. Results We found that distress was termed tension by participants and mainly described in terms of physical symptoms. Key perceived causes of distress were poor health, lack of sons, and fertility problems. Tension developed in a context of limited autonomy for women and perceived duty towards the family. Distressed mothers discussed several strategies to alleviate tension, including seeking treatment for perceived physical health problems and tension from doctors or dhamis, having repeated pregnancies until a son was delivered, manipulating social circumstances in the household, and deciding to accept their fate. Their ability to implement these strategies depended on whether they were able to negotiate with their in-laws or husbands for resources. Conclusions Vulnerability, as a consequence of gender and social disadvantage, manifests as psychological distress among mothers in Dhanusha. Screening tools incorporating physical symptoms of tension should be envisaged, along with

  11. Psychological Distress in Chimpanzees Rescued From Laboratories.

    PubMed

    Lopresti-Goodman, Stacy M; Bezner, Jocelyn; Ritter, Chelsea

    2015-01-01

    The United States is one of the last countries allowing invasive research on chimpanzees. Biomedical research on chimpanzees commonly involves maternal deprivation, social isolation, intensive confinement, and repetitive invasive procedures. These physically harmful and psychologically traumatic experiences cause many chimpanzees to develop symptoms of psychopathology that persist even after relocation from laboratories to sanctuaries. Through semistructured interviews with chimpanzee caregivers, direct behavioral observations, and consultation of laboratory records, we were interested in qualitatively analyzing symptoms of psychological distress in a sample of 253 chimpanzees rescued from biomedical research now residing at an accredited chimpanzee sanctuary. We present the results of this analysis and include an illustrative case study of one rescued chimpanzee who engages in self-injurious behaviors and meets modified Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder. We discuss our results in light of recent policy changes regarding the use of chimpanzees in biomedical research in the United States and their implications for those involved in the rescue and rehabilitation of chimpanzees from biomedical research. PMID:25893315

  12. The relationship between psychological distress and adolescent polydrug use.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Adrian B; Chan, Gary C K; Mason, W Alex; Williams, Joanne W

    2015-09-01

    Polydrug use is relatively common among adolescents. Psychological distress is associated with the use of specific drugs, and may be uniquely associated with polydrug use. The purpose of this study was to test the association of psychological distress with polydrug use using a large adolescent sample. The sample consisted of 10,273 students aged 12-17 years from the State of Victoria, Australia. Participants completed frequency measures of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, inhalant, and other drug use in the past 30 days, and psychological distress. Control variables included age, gender, family socioeconomic status, school suspensions, academic failure, cultural background, and peer drug use. Drug-use classes were derived using latent-class analysis, then the association of psychological distress and controls with drug-use classes was modeled using multinomial ordinal regression. There were 3 distinct classes of drug use: no drug use (47.7%), mainly alcohol use (44.1%), and polydrug use (8.2%). Independent of all controls, psychological distress was higher in polydrug users and alcohol users, relative to nondrug users, and polydrug users reported more psychological distress than alcohol users. Psychological distress was most characteristic of polydrug users, and targeted prevention outcomes may be enhanced by a collateral focus on polydrug use and depression and/or anxiety. PMID:26415064

  13. Family-based associations in measures of psychological distress and quality of life in a cardiac screening clinic for inheritable cardiac diseases: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Family-based cardiac screening programmes for persons at risk for genetic cardiac diseases are now recommended. However, the psychological wellbeing and health related quality of life (QoL) of such screened patients is poorly understood, especially in younger patients. We sought to examine wellbeing and QoL in a representative group of adults aged 16 and over in a dedicated family cardiac screening clinic. Methods Prospective survey of consecutive consenting patients attending a cardiac screening clinic, over a 12 month period. Data were collected using two health measurement tools: the Short Form 12 (version 2) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), along with baseline demographic and screening visit-related data. The HADS and SF-12v.2 outcomes were compared by age group. Associations with a higher HADS score were examined using logistic regression, with multi-level modelling used to account for the family-based structure of the data. Results There was a study response rate of 86.6%, with n=334 patients providing valid HADS data (valid response rate 79.5%), and data on n=316 retained for analysis. One-fifth of patients were aged under 25 (n=61). Younger patients were less likely than older to describe significant depression on their HADS scale (p<0.0001), although there were overall no difference between the prevalence of a significant HADS score between the younger and older age groups (18.0% vs 20.0%, p=0.73). Significant positive associates of a higher HADS score were having lower educational attainment, being single or separated, and being closely related to the family proband. Between-family variance in anxiety and depression scores was greater than within-family variance. Conclusions High levels of anxiety were seen amongst patients attending a family-based cardiac screening clinic.Younger patients also had high rates of clinically significant anxiety. Higher levels of anxiety and depression tends to run in families, and this has

  14. Frustrated Fertility: Infertility and Psychological Distress among Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuillan, Julia; Greil, Arthur L.; White, Lynn; Jacob, Mary Casey

    2003-01-01

    Tests the hypothesis that women who have experienced infertility report higher psychological distress. Examines whether roles or resources condition the effects of infertility or whether its effects are limited to childless women. Infertility combined with involuntary childlessness is associated with significantly greater distress. For women in…

  15. Examining Victimization and Psychological Distress in Transgender College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Effrig, Jessica C.; Bieschke, Kathleen J.; Locke, Benjamin D.

    2011-01-01

    Treatment-seeking and non-treatment-seeking transgender college students were examined with regard to victimization and psychological distress. Findings showed that transgender college students had elevated rates of distress as compared with college students who identified as men or women. Results indicated that treatment-seeking and non-treatment…

  16. Psychological Distress and Mortality: Are Women More Vulnerable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Nuriddin, Tariqah A.

    2006-01-01

    Does psychological distress increase mortality risk? If it does, are women more vulnerable than men to the effect of distress on mortality? Drawing from cumulative disadvantage theory, these questions are addressed with data from a 20-year follow-up of a national sample of adults ages 25-74. Event history analyses were performed to examine…

  17. Psychologic Distress and Natural Menopause: A Multiethnic Community Study

    PubMed Central

    Bromberger, Joyce T.; Meyer, Peter M.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Sommer, Barbara; Cordal, Adriana; Powell, Lynda; Ganz, Patricia A.; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

    2001-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the association between psychologic distress and natural menopause in a community sample of African American, White, Chinese, Hispanic, and Japanese women participating in a national women's health study. Methods. A cohort of 16 065 women aged 40 to 55 years provided information on menstrual regularity in the previous year, psychosocial factors, health, and somatic–psychologic symptoms. Psychologic distress was defined as feeling tense, depressed, and irritable in the previous 2 weeks. Results. Rates of psychologic distress were highest in early perimenopause (28.9%) and lowest in premenopause (20.9%) and postmenopause (22%). In comparison with premenopausal women, early perimenopausal women were at a greater risk of distress, with and without adjustment for vasomotor and sleep symptoms and covariates. Odds of distress were significantly higher for Whites than for the other racial/ethnic groups. Conclusions. Psychologic distress is associated with irregular menses in midlife. It is important to determine whether distress is linked to alterations in hormone levels and to what extent a mood–hormone relationship may be influenced by socioeconomic and cultural factors. PMID:11527777

  18. Dual Minority Stress and Asian American Gay Men's Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yung-Chi; Tryon, Georgiana Shick

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the direct and additive effects of racial minority stress and sexual minority stress on the psychological well-being among a community sample of 139 Asian American gay men. Self-esteem was tested to see whether it moderated or mediated the effects of perceived dual minority stress on psychological distress. Results…

  19. Psychological distress and alcohol use among fire fighters.

    PubMed

    Boxer, P A; Wild, D

    1993-04-01

    Few studies have investigated stressors to which fire fighters are subjected and the potential psychological consequences. One hundred and forty-five fire fighters were studied to enumerate potential occupational stressors, assess psychological distress and problems with alcohol use, and determine whether a relationship exists between these measures and self-reported stressors. Hearing that children are in a burning building was the highest ranked stressor. According to three self-report instruments, between 33 and 41% of the fire fighters were experiencing significant psychological distress, and 29% had possible or probable problems with alcohol use. These figures are significantly higher than would be expected in a typical community or working population. In a logistic regression analysis, no relationship was found between measures of psychological distress and alcohol use and the 10 most highly ranked work stressors. PMID:8316779

  20. Predictors of psychological distress among southeast Asian refugees.

    PubMed

    Chung, R C; Kagawa-Singer, M

    1993-03-01

    This paper analyzed data from one of the first needs assessment projects on a representative non-clinical population of Southeast Asian refugees in the United States in order to test two hypotheses: (1) whether or not premigration experiences still have an effect on psychological distress beyond the initial resettlement period and (2) whether or not interethnic group differences existed in the predictors of psychological distress between three Southeast Asian refugee groups, the Vietnamese, Cambodians and Lao. The results of the analysis of 2180 subjects supported both hypotheses. Regardless of ethnicity and the number of years in the U.S., premigration trauma events and refugee camp experiences were significant predictors of psychological distress even 5 years or more after migration and significant group differences in the types of postmigration distress predictors were also found. Acculturation concerns for the Vietnamese and Lao were influenced by both premigration and postmigration variables. In contrast, the primary concerns of the Cambodians were still related to premigration issues. The results also indicated that Vietnamese and Lao women were more likely to experience distress than their male counterparts, but no gender differences emerged for the Cambodians. Age predicted distress for Vietnamese and Cambodians, but not Lao. Similar to previous findings in the literature, Cambodians reported the highest levels of distress, followed by Lao and then Vietnamese. Interpretations of these results for this community sample are proposed. PMID:8456333

  1. Psychological Distress and Pain Reporting in Australian Coal Miners

    PubMed Central

    Carlisle, Kristy N.; Parker, Anthony W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Coal mining is of significant economic importance to the Australian economy. Despite this fact, the related workforce is subjected to a number of psychosocial risks and musculoskeletal injury, and various psychological disorders are common among this population group. Because only limited research has been conducted in this population group, we sought to examine the relationship between physical (pain) and psychological (distress) factors, as well as the effects of various demographic, lifestyle, and fatigue indicators on this relationship. Methods Coal miners (N = 231) participated in a survey of musculoskeletal pain and distress on-site during their work shifts. Participants also provided demographic information (job type, age, experience in the industry, and body mass index) and responded to questions about exercise and sleep quality (on- and off-shift) as well as physical and mental tiredness after work. Results A total of 177 workers (80.5%) reported experiencing pain in at least one region of their body. The majority of the sample population (61.9%) was classified as having low-level distress, 28.4% had scores indicating mild to moderate distress, and 9.6% had scores indicating high levels of distress. Both number of pain regions and job type (being an operator) significantly predicted distress. Higher distress score was also associated with greater absenteeism in workers who reported lower back pain. In addition, perceived sleep quality during work periods partially mediated the relationship between pain and distress. Conclusion The study findings support the existence of widespread musculoskeletal pain among the coal-mining workforce, and this pain is associated with increased psychological distress. Operators (truck drivers) and workers reporting poor sleep quality during work periods are most likely to report increased distress, which highlights the importance of supporting the mining workforce for sustained productivity. PMID:25516813

  2. Distress Screening in a Multidisciplinary Lung Cancer Clinic: Prevalence and Predictors of Clinically-Significant Distress

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Kristi D.; Arnold, Susanne M.; Love, Celia L.; Kirsh, Kenneth L.; Moore, Pamela G.; Passik, Steven D.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Screening for distress in cancer patients is recommended by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, and a Distress Thermometer has previously been developed and empirically-validated for this purpose. The present study sought to determine the rates and predictors of distress in a sample of patients being seen in a multidisciplinary lung cancer clinic. Consecutive patients (N = 333) were recruited from an outpatient multidisciplinary lung cancer clinic to complete the Distress Thermometer, an associated Problem Symptom List, and two questions about interest in receiving help for symptoms. Over half (61.6%) of patients reported distress at a clinically significant level, and 22.5% of patients indicated interest in receiving help with their distress and/or symptoms. Problems in the areas of family relationships, emotional functioning, lack of information about diagnosis/treatment, physical functioning, and cognitive functioning were associated with higher reports of distress. Specific symptoms of depression, anxiety, pain and fatigue were most predictive of distress. Younger age was also associated with higher levels of distress. Distress was not associated with other clinical variables, including stage of illness or medical treatment approach. Similar results were obtained when individuals who had not yet received a definitive diagnosis of lung cancer (n = 134) were excluded from analyses; however, family problems and anxiety were no longer predictive of distress. Screening for distress in a multidisciplinary lung cancer clinic is feasible and a significant number of patients can be expected to meet clinical criteria for distress. Results also highlight younger age and specific physical and psychosocial symptoms as predictive of clinically-significant distress. Identification of the presence and predictors of distress are the first steps toward appropriate referral and treatment of symptoms and problems that contribute to cancer patients’ distress. PMID

  3. Prison Experiences and Psychological Distress among Older Inmates.

    PubMed

    Baidawi, Susan; Trotter, Christopher; Flynn, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates relationships between older prisoners' social experiences and their levels of distress. One hundred and seventy-three older prisoners (aged ≥ 50 years) from 8 Australian prisons were administered the Kessler Psychological Distress (K10) Scale, with additional information collected via individual interviews. Psychological distress scores were significantly associated with measures of self-reported safety (p < .001), prison victimization (p < .05), perceived social support from staff (p < .01) and inmates (p < .001), current employment (p < .05), and level of exercise (p < .001) among older inmates. Findings suggest that strategies for improving sense of safety, social support and level of exercise may ameliorate distress among older prisoners. PMID:27276386

  4. Psychological distress and milk volume in lactating mothers.

    PubMed

    Hill, Pamela D; Aldag, Jean C; Chatterton, Robert T; Zinaman, Michael

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold: (a) to compare psychological distress as measured via self-reported perceived stress, sleep, and fatigue levels in lactating mothers of a term infant and mothers of a preterm infant and(b) to determine whether the addition of psychological distress to a previous model predicts milk volume at Postpartum Week 6 by gestation group. The convenience sample of 95 mothers of a preterm infant (31 weeks) and 98 mothers of a term infant completed the Perceived Stress Visual Analogue Scale, Richards-Campbell Sleep Questionnaire, and the Fatigue Visual Analog Scale. Stress, sleep difficulty, and fatigue levels decreased during the 6-week study period for mothers of a term but not for mothers of a preterm infant. Perceived stress, sleep difficulty, and fatigue during the first 6 weeks postpartum were not related to milk volume; thus, the mother's perceived psychological distress had no apparent effect on lactation. PMID:16157942

  5. Discrimination and Psychological Distress among Recently Released Male Prisoners

    PubMed Central

    Turney, Kristin; Lee, Hedwig; Comfort, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Though theoretical perspectives suggest experiences of stigma and discrimination after release may be one pathway through which incarceration leads to poor mental health, little research considers the relationship between discrimination and mental health among former inmates. In this paper, data from a sample of men recently released from prison to Oakland or San Francisco, California (N = 172), is used to consider how criminal record discrimination and racial/ethnic discrimination are independently and cumulatively associated with psychological distress. Results indicate (1) the frequency of criminal record discrimination and racial/ethnic discrimination are similar; (2) both forms of discrimination are independently, negatively associated with psychological distress; and (3) the level of racial/ethnic discrimination does not alter the association between criminal record discrimination and psychological distress. The results highlight that criminal record discrimination is an important social stressor with negative implications for the mental health of previously incarcerated individuals. PMID:23553444

  6. Does intergenerational mobility shape psychological distress? Sorokin revisited

    PubMed Central

    Houle, Jason N.; Martin, Molly A.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from Sorokin's hypothesis that socially mobile individuals are at greater risk of experiencing psychological distress than their non-mobile counterparts, we investigate whether intergenerational occupational mobility influences psychological distress, as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. Using data for men from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) and Sobel's Diagonal Mobility Models, we find little evidence for Sorokin's hypothesis; mobile individuals are no more likely to be psychologically distressed than their non-mobile counterparts. In fact, one group of mobile men – those who left their farming origins – are actually less distressed than the sons who remain as farmers and non-mobile men in higher-ranked social classes. We speculate that this reflects the fact that farming became very arduous during the late 20th century and these mobile sons of farmers appreciate their improved life chances. Our findings suggest that the association between mobility and psychological distress varies across specific class backgrounds and is contingent upon the broader social and economic context. PMID:25152556

  7. Patterns of gender equality at workplaces and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Elwér, Sofia; Harryson, Lisa; Bolin, Malin; Hammarström, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Research in the field of occupational health often uses a risk factor approach which has been criticized by feminist researchers for not considering the combination of many different variables that are at play simultaneously. To overcome this shortcoming this study aims to identify patterns of gender equality at workplaces and to investigate how these patterns are associated with psychological distress. Questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 715) have been analysed and supplemented with register data about the participants' workplaces. The register data were used to create gender equality indicators of women/men ratios of number of employees, educational level, salary and parental leave. Cluster analysis was used to identify patterns of gender equality at the workplaces. Differences in psychological distress between the clusters were analysed by chi-square test and logistic regression analyses, adjusting for individual socio-demographics and previous psychological distress. The cluster analysis resulted in six distinctive clusters with different patterns of gender equality at the workplaces that were associated to psychological distress for women but not for men. For women the highest odds of psychological distress was found on traditionally gender unequal workplaces. The lowest overall occurrence of psychological distress as well as same occurrence for women and men was found on the most gender equal workplaces. The results from this study support the convergence hypothesis as gender equality at the workplace does not only relate to better mental health for women, but also more similar occurrence of mental ill-health between women and men. This study highlights the importance of utilizing a multidimensional view of gender equality to understand its association to health outcomes. Health policies need to consider gender equality at the workplace level as a social determinant of health that is of importance for reducing differences in health

  8. Religion and Psychological Distress in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roemer, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces data from a new random sample of Japanese adults. Findings show that reporting of distress symptoms are: (1. positively associated with a religious coping index (i.e., beliefs that religion or supernatural beings provide comfort, support or protection), (2. associated in different directions with ownership of different…

  9. Stress and Psychological Distress among Trainee Secondary Teachers in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplain, Roland P.

    2008-01-01

    The relationships between stress and psychological distress were investigated among a cohort of trainee secondary school teachers in England. Specifically, the study examined the structure of a Teacher Stress Scale and its relationship to mental health as measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Three factors were identified:…

  10. Stress, Coping, Social Support, and Psychological Distress among MSW Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addonizio, Frank Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship among sources and levels of stress, coping patterns, sources and levels of social support, and psychological distress for MSW students. Stress is a common feeling experienced by people throughout life and it is important to understand the way they cope with their stressors. Most of the…

  11. Psychological Distress in Refugee Children: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronstein, Israel; Montgomery, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Nearly one-quarter of the refugees worldwide are children. There have been numerous studies reporting their levels of psychological distress. The aim of this paper is to review systematically and synthesize the epidemiological research concerning the mental health of refugee children residing in Western countries. A Cochrane Collaboration style…

  12. Life-course pathways to psychological distress: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    von Stumm, Sophie; Deary, Ian J; Hagger-Johnson, Gareth

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Early life factors, like intelligence and socioeconomic status (SES), are associated with health outcomes in adulthood. Fitting comprehensive life-course models, we tested (1) the effect of childhood intelligence and SES, education and adulthood SES on psychological distress at midlife, and (2) compared alternative measurement specifications (reflective and formative) of SES. Design Prospective cohort study (the Aberdeen Children of the 1950s). Setting Aberdeen, Scotland. Participants 12 500 live-births (6282 boys) between 1950 and 1956, who were followed up in the years 2001–2003 at age 46–51 with a postal questionnaire achieving a response rate of 64% (7183). Outcome measures Psychological distress at age 46–51 (questionnaire). Results Childhood intelligence and SES and education had indirect effects on psychological distress at midlife, mediated by adult SES. Adult SES was the only variable to have a significant direct effect on psychological distress at midlife; the effect was stronger in men than in women. Alternative measurement specifications of SES (reflective and formative) resulted in greatly different model parameters and fits. Conclusions Even though formative operationalisations of SES are theoretically appropriate, SES is better specified as reflective than as a formative latent variable in the context of life-course modelling. PMID:23667162

  13. Psychological Distress and Related Factors in Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazquez, Fernando L.; Otero, Patricia; Diaz, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the psychological distress in Spanish college women and analyzed it in relation to sociodemographic and academic factors. Participants and Methods: The authors selected a stratified random sampling of 1,043 college women (average age of 22.2 years). Sociodemographic and academic information were collected, and…

  14. Seeking Help for Psychological Distress in Urban China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Based on data gathered through a household survey of 1,474 urban residents in Beijing, this study examines Chinese help-seeking behaviors in times of psychological distress and perceived barriers to seeking professional help. The results demonstrate that most respondents rely on informal means of seeking help whereas mental health and medical…

  15. Physical Symptoms and Psychological Distress among Inhalant Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joe, George W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Among 110 Mexican-American adolescents with varying drug use histories, self-reported physical health problems were not related to inhalant use history, but blood analyses indicated a relationship between extensive inhalant use and liver problems. Psychological distress symptoms were related to inhalant use and physical symptoms. Contains 23…

  16. Student Psychological Distress: A Psychometric Study of 1750 Norwegian 1st-Year Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nerdrum, Per; Rustoen, Tone; Ronnestad, Michael H.

    2006-01-01

    Evidence which suggests that university and college students are more vulnerable to psychological distress than the general population has generated increasing public concern. This study presents psychometric data on Norwegian undergraduate students' psychological distress (N= 1750). Psychological distress was assessed by applying the 12-item…

  17. Psychological distress and lifestyle of students: implications for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Deasy, Christine; Coughlan, Barry; Pironom, Julie; Jourdan, Didier; Mcnamara, Patricia Mannix

    2015-03-01

    Poor diet, physical inactivity, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption are major risk factors for chronic disease and premature mortality. These behaviours are of concern among higher education students and may be linked to psychological distress which is problematic particularly for students on programmes with practicum components such as nursing and teaching. Understanding how risk behaviours aggregate and relate to psychological distress and coping among this population is important for health promotion. This research examined, via a comprehensive survey undergraduate nursing/midwifery and teacher education students' (n = 1557) lifestyle behaviour (Lifestyle Behaviour Questionnaire), self-reported psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire) and coping processes (Ways of Coping Questionnaire). The results showed that health- risk behaviours were common, including alcohol consumption (93.2%), unhealthy diet (26.3%), physical inactivity (26%), tobacco smoking (17%), cannabis use (11.6%) and high levels of stress (41.9%). Students tended to cluster into two groups: those with risk behaviours (n = 733) and those with positive health behaviours (n = 379). The group with risk behaviours had high psychological distress and used mostly passive coping strategies such as escape avoidance. The potential impact on student health and academic achievement is of concern and suggests the need for comprehensive health promotion programmes to tackle multiple behaviours. As these students are the nurses and teachers of the future, their risk behaviours, elevated psychological distress and poor coping also raise concerns regarding their roles as future health educators/promoters. Attention to promotion of health and well-being among this population is essential. PMID:25315646

  18. The five steps of comprehensive psychosocial distress screening

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hui; Pasacreta, Nick; Ercolano, Elizabeth; McCorkle, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing recognition of the impact psychosocial distress has on the quality of life of patients with cancer, the implementation of the NCCN Distress Management Guidelines and the mandate of evidence-based policy for routine distress screening continue to lag. To speed adoption of the guideline, The American Psychosocial Oncology Society (APOS) and Yale School of Nursing (YSN) launched the Screening for Psychosocial Distress Program in 2014. The program resulted in the development of five steps necessary to carry out routine psychosocial distress screening. The steps are consistent with the NCCN Distress Management Guidelines and the new criterion for accreditation by the American College of Surgeons (ACS) Commission on Cancer as of 2015. These five steps are: (1) screen, (2) evaluation, (3) referral, (4) follow-up and (5) documentation & quality improvement. The purpose of this article is to summarize the detailed procedure of the five steps for cancer care professionals-including oncologists, nurses, psychiatrists, psychologists, and social workers-so they can manage psychosocial distress efficiently in their own clinical environments. PMID:25824699

  19. Psychological distress and its effect on tuberculosis treatment outcomes in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tola, Habteyes Hailu; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Garmaroudi, Gholamreza; Tol, Azar; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Ejeta, Luche Tadesse; Kebede, Abebaw; Karimi, Mehrdad; Kassa, Desta

    2015-01-01

    : 1.17–7.75) and having low economic status (AOR: 3.75; 95% CI: 2.08–6.74) were able to predict psychological distress significantly. Past TB treatment history (AOR: 2.13; 95% CI: 1.10–4.12), employment status (AOR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.06–7.00), and existence of psychological distress symptoms at 6 months after treatment initiation (AOR: 2.87; 95% CI: 1.05–7.81) were found to be associated with treatment outcome. Conclusions The overall magnitude of psychological distress was high across the follow-up period; this was more pronounced at baseline. At baseline, past TB treatment history, being on anti-TB and anti-HIV treatments, being unmarried, and having symptoms of alcohol use disorder were associated with psychological distress. However, both at baseline and end point, low economic status was associated with psychological distress. Screening and treatment of psychological distress among TB patients across the whole treatment period is needed, and focusing more on patients who have been economically deprived, previously treated for TB, and on MDR-TB treatment are important. PMID:26610316

  20. Psychological distress and coping in military cadre candidates

    PubMed Central

    Nakkas, Can; Annen, Hubert; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background Soldiers must cope with stressors during both military operations and training if they are to accomplish their missions successfully and stay mentally stable. This holds true particularly for military superiors, as they bear greater responsibilities and must meet greater demands during both deployment and training. Accordingly, in the present study, we investigated whether recruits chosen for further promotion at the end of basic training differed with regard to psychological distress and coping strategies from those not chosen for promotion, and whether recruits’ coping styles and distress levels were associated. Methods A total of 675 Swiss recruits took part in the study. At the beginning of basic training, recruits filled out self-rating questionnaires covering demographic data, psychological distress (depression, somatization, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, and hostility), and coping styles. Results were compared between those recruits who received a recommendation for further promotion at the end of basic training and those who did not. Results Recruits selected for promotion had lower scores for depressive symptoms and hostility, engaged more in active coping, and considered their coping to be more effective. Dysfunctional and functional coping were associated with higher and lower distress levels, respectively. Conclusion Recruits recommended for promotion exhibited less psychological distress during basic training and exhibited a socially more conducive profile of distress. They also endorsed more efficient and more prosocial coping strategies than those recruits not recommended for promotion. These cognitive–emotional features not only contribute to resilience but are also consistent with leadership research, indicating the importance of emotional stability and prosocial behavior in successful leaders. PMID:27621634

  1. Barriers to health-care and psychological distress among mothers living with HIV in Quebec (Canada).

    PubMed

    Blais, Martin; Fernet, Mylène; Proulx-Boucher, Karène; Lebouché, Bertrand; Rodrigue, Carl; Lapointe, Normand; Otis, Joanne; Samson, Johanne

    2015-01-01

    Health-care providers play a major role in providing good quality care and in preventing psychological distress among mothers living with HIV (MLHIV). The objectives of this study are to explore the impact of health-care services and satisfaction with care providers on psychological distress in MLHIV. One hundred MLHIV were recruited from community and clinical settings in the province of Quebec (Canada). Prevalence estimation of clinical psychological distress and univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were performed to predict clinical psychological distress. Forty-five percent of the participants reported clinical psychological distress. In the multivariable regression, the following variables were significantly associated with psychological distress while controlling for sociodemographic variables: resilience, quality of communication with the care providers, resources, and HIV disclosure concerns. The multivariate results support the key role of personal, structural, and medical resources in understanding psychological distress among MLHIV. Interventions that can support the psychological health of MLHIV are discussed. PMID:25587793

  2. General practitioners' 'lived experience' of assessing psychological distress in cancer patients: an exploratory qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Carolan, C M; Campbell, K

    2016-05-01

    While psychological distress in cancer patients is common, little is known about how general practitioners (GPs) assess distress. Using semi-structured interviews, a phenomenological study of seven GPs was conducted to explore GPs' experiences of assessing distress. Findings revealed five themes: (1) Being in the Relay Team - receiving and passing the baton: where the assessment of distress was conceptualised as a relay baton passed between a team of health care professionals, with GPs most involved at diagnosis and in the palliative phase. (2) Being in a Relationship: where the doctor-patient relationship was described as a powerful facilitator to assessment. (3) Being Skilled: where GPs perceive they are skilled at assessment adopting a patient-centred approach. (4) Being Challenged - encountering barriers: challenges with assessment were identified regarding the GPs' own emotions, patient related factors and time; the duality of family as both barrier and facilitator was voiced. (5) The Intruder in the Room: where GPs did not use validated screening tools which were viewed as an intruder in the doctor-patient relationship. Further research to objectively assess GPs' skills in distress assessment and attitudes towards the use of screening tools within the cancer care context are merited. PMID:26148909

  3. Predictors of psychological distress in Lebanese hostages of war.

    PubMed

    Saab, Basem Roberto; Chaaya, Monique; Doumit, Myrna; Farhood, Laila

    2003-10-01

    A cross-sectional study addressed the experience of Lebanese hostages of war in Lebanon. It specifically assessed the prevalence of general distress and its relationship to captivity-related factors and selected psychosocial variables. Trained field researchers using standard measurements interviewed 118 Lebanese hostages released from Khiam prison, an Israeli detention center in Lebanon. Questionnaires administered included the GHQ-12 and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. Individuals were detained for 3.4 years on average, and 86% were tortured. Psychological distress was present in 42.1% of the sample compared to 27.8% among the control group. In the multivariate analysis, the significant predictors for distress were: years of education and increase in religiosity after release. In conclusion, even after 2 years of release, more than one-third of the Lebanese hostages released from Khiam prison were found to have psychological distress. Caregivers need to pay special attention to the mental health of hostages of war. The paper discusses the meaning and implications of the factors predicting resilience and vulnerability in this particular population. PMID:12899908

  4. Psychological Distress and Arrhythmia: Risk Prediction and Potential Modifiers

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, James; Whang, William

    2014-01-01

    The connection between the heart and the brain has long been anecdotally recognized but systematically studied only relatively recently. Cardiac arrhythmias, especially sudden cardiac death, remain a major public health concern and there is mounting evidence that psychological distress plays a critical role as both a predictor of high-risk cardiac substrate and as an inciting trigger. The transient, unpredictable nature of emotions and cardiac arrhythmias have made their study challenging, but evolving technologies in monitoring and imaging along with larger epidemiological data sets have encouraged more sophisticated studies examining this relationship. Here we review the research on psychological distress including anger, depression and anxiety on cardiac arrhythmias, insights into proposed mechanisms, and potential avenues for future research. PMID:23621968

  5. Sharing, liking, commenting, and distressed? The pathway between Facebook interaction and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenhong; Lee, Kye-Hyoung

    2013-10-01

    Studies on the mental health implications of social media have generated mixed results. Drawing on a survey of college students (N=513), this research uses structural equation modeling to assess the relationship between Facebook interaction and psychological distress and two underlying mechanisms: communication overload and self-esteem. It is the first study, to our knowledge, that examines how communication overload mediates the mental health implications of social media. Frequent Facebook interaction is associated with greater distress directly and indirectly via a two-step pathway that increases communication overload and reduces self-esteem. The research sheds light on new directions for understanding psychological well-being in an increasingly mediated social world as users share, like, and comment more and more. PMID:23745614

  6. Consequences of psychological distress in adolescents with acne.

    PubMed

    Misery, Laurent

    2011-02-01

    Acne may cause psychological distress that is associated with many psychiatric disorders. In this issue, Halvorsen et al. report suicidal ideation, mental health problems, and affective isolation to be relatively frequent in adolescents with acne. This report suggests that adverse events that have been attributed to therapies for acne, including suicidal ideation and depression, may reflect the burden of substantial acne rather than the effect of medications. PMID:21228811

  7. Psychological distress and salivary secretory immunity.

    PubMed

    Engeland, C G; Hugo, F N; Hilgert, J B; Nascimento, G G; Junges, R; Lim, H-J; Marucha, P T; Bosch, J A

    2016-02-01

    Stress-induced impairments of mucosal immunity may increase susceptibility to infectious diseases. The present study investigated the association of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and loneliness with salivary levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA), the subclasses S-IgA1, S-IgA2, and their transporter molecule Secretory Component (SC). S-IgA/SC, IgA1/SC and IgA2/SC ratios were calculated to assess the differential effects of stress on immunoglobulin transport versus availability. This study involved 113 university students, in part selected on high scores on the UCLA Loneliness Scale and/or the Beck Depression Inventory. Stress levels were assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale. Unstimulated saliva was collected and analysed for total S-IgA and its subclasses, as well as SC and total salivary protein. Multiple linear regression analyses, adjusted for gender, age, health behaviours, and concentration effects (total protein) revealed that higher perceived stress was associated with lower levels of IgA1 but not IgA2. Perceived stress, loneliness and depressive symptoms were all associated with lower IgA1/SC ratios. Surprisingly, higher SC levels were associated with loneliness and depressive symptoms, indicative of enhanced transport activity, which explained a lower IgA1/SC ratio (loneliness and depression) and IgA2/SC ratio (depression). This is the first study to investigate the effects of protracted psychological stress across S-IgA subclasses and its transporter SC. Psychological stress was negatively associated with secretory immunity, specifically IgA1. The lower immunoglobulin/transporter ratio that was associated with higher loneliness and depression suggested a relative immunoglobulin depletion, whereby availability was not keeping up with enhanced transport demand. PMID:26318411

  8. [Psychological distress among civilian police: A gender-based analysis].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Franco, Letícia Gastão; Meireles, Camila de Carvalho; Ferreira, Vanessa Tokunaga; Dos Santos, Nilton César

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate potential psychological distress among members of the civilian police force, based on gender differences. It analyzes data from previous research on work, health conditions, and quality of life in the civilian police using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The study included and tested data from the questionnaire applied to a statistically representative sample of 2,746 civilian police (80.8% males and 19.2% females) from the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, according to gender variables and position in the police force (administrative, technical, and operational law enforcement). The study presents an overview of social and economic characteristics, job conditions, health problems, and quality of life, highlighting the areas of information where gender appears as an important factor. The Self-Reported Questionnaire (SRQ-20) was used to investigate psychological distress comparing males and females. The results did not show gender differences in psychological distress, but did identify significant differences in some items in the scale. Female police, especially in technical positions, showed a higher proportion than males. The conclusions corroborate some previous research. PMID:17187109

  9. Lifestyle and Mental Health Correlates of Psychological Distress in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlden, Adam P.; Hackman, Christine L.; Sharma, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Objective: College students are at an increased risk of mental distress. The purpose of this study was to determine whether mental and lifestyle factors differed according to self-reported levels of psychological distress. Design and setting: A self-report questionnaire comprising the Kessler-6 Psychological Distress Scale, Revised Life…

  10. Psychological Distress among Nursing, Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy Students: A Longitudinal and Predictive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nerdrum, Per; Rustoen, Tone; Helge Ronnestad, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we present longitudinal data on changes in psychological distress among 232 Norwegian undergraduate students of nursing, physiotherapy, and occupational therapy. Psychological distress was assessed by applying the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire. Nursing students became substantially more distressed during the…

  11. Infertility and psychological distress: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Greil, A L

    1997-12-01

    This essay reviews the literature on the social psychological impact of infertility, paying special attention to the relationship between gender and the infertility experience. It is convenient to divide the literature into articles which explore the possibility that infertility may have psychological causes (Psychogenic Hypothesis) and those which examine the psychological consequences of infertility (Psychological Consequences Hypothesis). The psychogenic hypothesis is now rejected by most researchers, but a related hypothesis, which states that stress may be a causal factor in infertility, is worthy of exploration. The descriptive literature on the psychological consequences of infertility presents infertility as a devastating experience, especially for women. Attempts to test the psychological consequences hypothesis have produced more equivocal results. In general, studies which look for psychopathology have not found significant differences between the infertile and others. Studies which employ measures of stress and self-esteem have found significant differences. The psychological consequences literature is characterized by a number of flaws, including over sampling of women, small sample size, non-representative samples, failure to study those who have not sought treatment, primitive statistical techniques, and an over-reliance on self-reports. Studies on infertility and psychological distress need to take into consideration both the duration of infertility and the duration of treatment. Finding an appropriate set of "controls" is a particularly intractable problem for this area of research. In general, the psychological distress literature shows little regard for the social construction of infertility. By taking what should be understood as a characteristic of a social situation and transforming it into an individual trait, the literature presents what is essentially a medical model of the psycho-social impact of infertility. Most researchers conclude that

  12. Identifying expectant parents at risk for psychological distress in response to a confirmed fetal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Cole, Joanna C M; Moldenhauer, Julie S; Berger, Kelsey; Cary, Mark S; Smith, Haley; Martino, Victoria; Rendon, Norma; Howell, Lori J

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of psychological distress among expectant women carrying fetuses with prenatal diagnosed abnormalities and their partners. A 2-year retrospective medical chart review was completed of 1032 expectant mothers carrying fetuses with a confirmed anomaly, and 788 expectant fathers, who completed the CFDT Mental Health Screening Tool. Furthermore, 19.3 % of women and 13.1 % of men reported significant post-traumatic stress symptoms, and 14 % of men and 23 % of women scored positive for a major depressive disorder. Higher risk was noted among expectant parents of younger age and minority racial/ethnic status, and women with post-college level education and current or prior use of antidepressant medications. Heightened distress was noted within fetal diagnostic subgroups including neck masses, sacrococcygeal teratomas, neurological defects, and miscellaneous diagnoses. Incorporating screening tools into prenatal practice can help clinicians better identify the potential risk for psychological distress among expectant parents within high-risk fetal settings. PMID:26392365

  13. The influence of tinnitus acceptance on the quality of life and psychological distress in patients with chronic tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Riedl, David; Rumpold, Gerhard; Schmidt, Annette; Zorowka, Patrick G.; Bliem, Harald R.; Moschen, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings show the importance of acceptance in the treatment of chronic tinnitus. So far, very limited research investigating the different levels of tinnitus acceptance has been conducted. The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of life (QoL) and psychological distress in patients with chronic tinnitus who reported different levels of tinnitus acceptance. The sample consisted of outpatients taking part in a tinnitus coping group (n = 97). Correlations between tinnitus acceptance, psychological distress, and QoL were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to calculate a cutoff score for the German “Tinnitus Acceptance Questionnaire” (CTAQ-G) and to evaluate the screening abilities of the CTAQ-G. Independent sample t-tests were conducted to compare QoL and psychological distress in patients with low tinnitus acceptance and high tinnitus acceptance. A cutoff point for CTAQ-G of 62.5 was defined, differentiating between patients with “low-to-mild tinnitus acceptance” and “moderate-to-high tinnitus acceptance.” Patients with higher levels of tinnitus acceptance reported a significantly higher QoL and lower psychological distress. Tinnitus acceptance plays an important role for patients with chronic tinnitus. Increased levels of acceptance are related to better QoL and less psychological distress. PMID:26356381

  14. Assessment of work intensification by managers and psychological distressed and non-distressed employees: a multilevel comparison

    PubMed Central

    BAMBERGER, Simon Grandjean; LARSEN, Anelia; VINDING, Anker Lund; NIELSEN, Peter; FONAGER, Kirsten; NIELSEN, René Nesgaard; RYOM, Pia; OMLAND, Øyvind

    2015-01-01

    Work intensification is a popular management strategy to increase productivity, but at the possible expense of employee mental stress. This study examines associations between ratings of work intensification and psychological distress, and the level of agreement between compared employee-rated and manager-rated work intensification. Multi-source survey data were collected from 3,064 employees and 573 company managers from the private sector in 2010. Multilevel regression models were used to compare different work intensification ratings across psychological distress strata. Distressed employees rated higher degree of total work intensification compared to non-distressed employees, and on three out of five sub ratings there were an increased prevalence of work intensification in the case group. In general, there was poor agreement between employee and company work intensification rating. Neither manager-rated work intensification nor employee/manager discrepancy in work intensification ratings was associated with psychological distress. Distressed employees had a higher total score of employee/manager agreed work intensification, and a higher prevalence of increased demands of labour productivity. This study demonstrates higher ratings of employee/manager agreed work intensification in distressed employees compared to non-distressed employees, challenging previous findings of reporting bias in distressed employees’ assessment of work environment. PMID:25752252

  15. Money or mental health: the cost of alleviating psychological distress with monetary compensation versus psychological therapy.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Christopher J; Wood, Alex M

    2010-10-01

    AbstractMoney is the default way in which intangible losses, such as pain and suffering, are currently valued and compensated in law courts. Economists have suggested that subjective well-being regressions can be used to guide compensation payouts for psychological distress following traumatic life events. We bring together studies from law, economic, psychology and medical journals to show that alleviating psychological distress through psychological therapy could be at least 32 times more cost effective than financial compensation. This result is not only important for law courts but has important implications for public health. Mental health is deteriorating across the world - improvements to mental health care might be a more efficient way to increase the health and happiness of our nations than pure income growth. PMID:19919728

  16. Work-family conflict in Japan: how job and home demands affect psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Shimazu, Akihito; Bakker, Arnold B; Demerouti, Evangelia; Peeters, Maria C W

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine how job and home demands are related to psychological distress in a sample of Japanese working parents with preschool children (n=196). We expected that job and home demands are partially related to psychological distress through work-to-family conflict (WFC) and family-to-work conflict (FWC), respectively. Structural equation modeling showed that, as expected, home demands were partially related to psychological distress, both directly and indirectly through FWC. In contrast, job demands were only directly related to psychological distress. The differences between the roles of FWC and WFC are discussed using identity theory. PMID:20616471

  17. Psychological and physical distress of sheltered battered women.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, J; Lee, K; Neylan, T; Marmar, C

    2001-06-01

    We explored the physical and psychological distress of sheltered battered women. A convenience sample of 50 ethnically diverse women was obtained from women who had resided in two shelters for at least 21 days. Participants had experienced multiple traumatic events (8.1+/-4.6); however, only 19 (38.8%) of the participants were diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). When we analyzed biopsychosocial variables, we saw beneficial effects of support (financial, social, spiritual). These findings reinforce the need to enhance the resources of battered women, to help them identify existing opportunities, and to fortify self-caring strategies that give them strength. PMID:11813787

  18. Novel Surveillance of Psychological Distress during the Great Recession

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, John W.; Althouse, Benjamin M.; Allem, Jon-Patrick; Childers, Matthew A.; Zafar, Waleed; Latkin, Carl; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Brownstein, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Economic stressors have been retrospectively associated with net population increases in nonspecific psychological distress (PD). However, no sentinels exist to evaluate contemporaneous associations. Aggregate Internet search query surveillance was used to monitor population changes in PD around the United States’ Great Recession. Methods Monthly PD query trends were compared with unemployment, underemployment, homes in delinquency and foreclosure, median home value or sale prices, and S&P 500 trends for 2004–2010. Time series analyses, where economic indicators predicted PD one to seven months into the future, were performed in 2011. Results PD queries surpassed 1,000,000 per month, of which 300,000 may be attributable to the Great Recession. A one percentage point increase in mortgage delinquencies and foreclosures was associated with a 16% (95%CI, 9–24) increase in PD queries one-month, and 11% (95%CI, 3–18) four months later, in reference to a pre-Great Recession mean. Unemployment and underemployment had similar associations half and one-quarter the intensity. “Anxiety disorder,” “what is depression,” “signs of depression,” “depression symptoms,” and “symptoms of depression” were the queries exhibiting the strongest associations with mortgage delinquencies and foreclosures, unemployment or underemployment. Housing prices and S&P 500 trends were not associated with PD queries. Limitations A non-traditional measure of PD was used. It is unclear if actual clinically significant depression or anxiety increased during the Great Recession. Alternative explanations for strong associations between the Great Recession and PD queries, such as media, were explored and rejected. Conclusions Because the economy is constantly changing, this work not only provides a snapshot of recent associations between the economy and PD queries but also a framework and toolkit for real-time surveillance going forward. Health resources, clinician

  19. Detecting psychological distress among patients attending secondary health care clinics. Self-report and physician rating.

    PubMed

    Feldman, D; Rabinowitz, J; Ben Yehuda, Y

    1995-11-01

    A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of psychological distress, as reported by patients and their physicians, in orthopedic, neurology, dermatology, and ophthalmology clinics; to study their accuracy in detecting psychological distress; and to determine if there is any connection among psychological distress, accuracy of detecting distress, and use of mental health and primary health care physicians' prognosis for the somatic complaints. Five hundred and fifty-six patients, ages 18-21, responded to the Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Interview Demoralization Scale (PERI-D), a measure of psychological distress, and to questions about their mental health and use of mental health and primary health services. Physicians, who were blind to patients' responses, were asked to what extent they thought the cause of patients' complaints was physical and to what extent they thought it was psychological in nature, and to prognosticate. Based on the PERI-D, about 25% of patients were distressed, this was less for females than males and varied between clinics. Based on self-reporting, about 14% of patients (males and females) were distressed. Based on physician reporting, about 17% (males less) were distressed. Physicians identified 35% of the PERI-D-distressed cases and 79% of nondistressed cases. About 66% of patients identified their distress and 83% their lack of distress. Increased use of primary health care and mental health care was related to distress. The prognosis was negatively related to distress. Based on this study, there is a need for more attention to psychological distress among secondary health care patients. Patients' ability to identify their distress suggests the importance of involving the patient in the diagnostic process. Correct detection of distress alone does not appear to decrease the use of primary medical and mental health services. PMID:8714802

  20. Psychological distress in parents of children with advanced cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Abby R; Dussel, Veronica; Kang, Tammy; Geyer, J. Russel; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Feudtner, Chris; Wolfe, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe the prevalence and factors of psychological distress (PD) among parents of children with advanced cancer. Design Cohort study embedded within a randomized clinical trial (Pediatric Quality of Life and Evaluation of Symptoms Technology [PediQUEST] study). Setting Multicenter study conducted at three children’s hospitals (Boston Children’s Hospital, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Seattle Children’s Hospital). Participants Parents of children with advanced (progressive, recurrent, or refractory) cancer Outcome Measure Parental PD, as measured by the Kessler-6 (K6) general psychological distress scale. Results 86 of 104 parents completed the Survey about Caring for Children with Cancer (SCCC, 83% participation); 81 parents had complete K6 data. Over 50% of parents reported high PD and 16% met criteria for serious PD (compared to US prevalence of 2–3%). Parent perceptions of prognosis, goals of therapy, child symptoms/suffering, and financial hardship were associated with PD. In multivariate analyses, average parent K6 scores were higher among parents who believed their child was suffering highly and who reported great economic hardship. Conversely, PD was significantly lower among parents whose prognostic understanding was aligned with concrete goals of care. Conclusions Parenting a child with advanced cancer is strongly associated with high to severe levels of PD. Interventions aimed at aligning prognostic understanding with concrete care goals, and easing child suffering and financial hardship may mitigate parental PD. PMID:23545569

  1. False-positive findings in mammography screening induces short-term distress - breast cancer-specific concern prevails longer.

    PubMed

    Aro, A R; Pilvikki Absetz, S; van Elderen, T M; van der Ploeg, E; van der Kamp, L J

    2000-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine psychological distress in a mammography screening process as a consequence of screening after adjusting for background, personality and prescreening distress. Subjects, aged 50 years, were invitees at their first screening. There were three groups; normal findings (n=1407), false-positive findings (n=492) and referents from outside the screening programme (n=1718, age 48-49 years). Distress was measured as illness worry, anxiety, depression, cancer beliefs and early detection behaviour. Measurements were one month before screening invitation with follow-ups at 2 and 12 months postscreening. At 2 months, there was a moderate multivariate effect of group on distress; and intrusive thinking and worry about breast cancer, in particular, were most frequent amongst the false positives. Intrusive thinking still prevailed at 12 months, in addition to a higher perceived breast cancer risk and susceptibility. Distress related to screening and false-positive findings seems to be moderate, but prevailing cancer-specific concerns call for improvements in screening programmes. PMID:10854941

  2. Divorce History and Self-Reported Psychological Distress in Husbands and Wives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurdek, Lawrence A.

    1990-01-01

    Examined relation between divorce history and psychological distress for newlywed couples (N=459). Results indicated husbands' distress was related to low marital satisfaction and dissatisfaction with social support; wives' distress was related to history of multiple divorces, few years of education, low occupational prestige, low marital…

  3. Experience with breast cancer, pre-screening perceived susceptibility and the psychological impact of screening.

    PubMed

    Absetz, Pilvikki; Aro, Arja R; Sutton, Stephen R

    2003-06-01

    This prospective study examined whether the psychological impact of organized mammography screening is influenced by women's pre-existing experience with breast cancer and perceived susceptibility (PS) to the disease. From a target population of 16,886, a random sample of women with a normal screening finding and all women with a false positive or a benign biopsy finding were included (N=1942). Data were collected with postal questionnaires 1-month before screening invitation and 2 and 12 months after screening. Response rate was 63% at baseline; 86, and 80% of the baseline participants responded to the follow-ups. Psychological impact was measured as anxiety (STAI-S), depression (BDI), health-related concerns (IAS), and breast cancer-specific beliefs and concerns. Data was analyzed with repeated measures analyses of variance, with estimates of effect size based on Eta-squared. Women with breast cancer experience had higher risk perception already before screening invitation; after screening they were also more distressed. Women with high PS were more distressed than women with low PS also at pre-invitation. The distress was not alleviated by screening, but instead remained even after normal mammograms. Experience and PS did not influence responses to different screening findings. Of the finding groups, false positives experienced most adverse effects: their risk perception increased and they reported most post-screening breast cancer-specific concerns. Furthermore, they became more frequent in breast self-examination (BSE) despite a simultaneous decrease in BSE self-efficacy. Our findings suggest that women with high PS and women with false positive screening finding may need individualized counseling and follow-up as much as women with a family history of breast cancer. Besides medical risk factors, women's own perceptions of susceptibility should be discussed during the screening process. PMID:12748969

  4. Identifying the Prevalence, Trajectory, and Determinants of Psychological Distress in Extremity Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Melissa H.; Castle, David J.; Choong, Peter F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Extremity sarcoma (ES) is a rare cancer that presents with unique challenges. This study was performed to identify the prevalence, trajectory, and determinants of distress and characterise sources of stress in this cohort. Methods. Consecutive patients with ES were prospectively recruited between May 2011 and December 2012. Questionnaires were administered during initial diagnosis and then six months and one year after surgery. Results. Distress was reported by about a third of our cohort and associated with poorer physical function, poorer quality of life, and pain. In addition to fears regarding mortality and life role changes, the most common sources of stress were centered on dissatisfaction with the healthcare system, such as frustrations with a lack of communication with the hospital regarding appointments and lack of education regarding management and outcomes. Conclusions. Psychological distress presents early in the cancer journey and persists up to one year after surgery. Distress is associated with negative outcomes. Active screening and effective interventions are necessary to improve outcomes. Sources of stress have been identified that may be amenable to targeted interventions. PMID:25767410

  5. Distress Screening Is a Good Beginning.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joan

    2016-04-01

    It was May of 1999. Having just turned 41 years old, I was on top of life. Adoring my role as a hands-on mom for our three young children, the oldest one deaf since birth, I enjoyed using my background in special education and psychology and my creativity and love for music, drama, and art. My work brought me fulfillment and gave tremendous meaning to my life. I was celebrating the publication of my first book for parents and professionals on helping children with special needs develop language skills, and giving book presentations was great. Between teaching college students majoring in special education and serving on the board of several committees to advocate for special education services for students, I was traveling, entertaining, playing guitar, and singing in a local choral group. I was on the move every minute of every day.
. PMID:26991718

  6. Annual Psychological Screening in Youth and Young Adults with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    KLEMENČIČ, Simona; de WIT, Maartje; RUTAR, Miha; BATTELINO, Tadej; BRATINA, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Aim Youth and young adults with type 1 diabetes are at a great risk for developing depression and diabetes specific distress, therefore, systematic psychological screening is recommended. Routine psychological screening was implemented in Slovene diabetes clinic for children, adolescents and young adults in 2012. One-year results are presented. Methods Adolescents and young adults (N = 159, aged 11 – 25 years), attending the obligatory yearly educational outpatient visit at University Children’s Hospital, Ljubljana, Slovenia, were examined using questionnaires measuring depression (depression scale from Slovene version of Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children) and diabetes distress (Diabetes Distress Screening Scale). Six additional items were included to assess the fear of hypoglycemia and family support. Socio-demographic and diabetes-related data were collected. Questionnaires were analyzed by a psychologist, and the patients that scored above cut-off point were invited to an individual psychological assessment. Results Of the sample, 1.3 % reached the threshold for elevated depressive symptoms, and 32.7 % reported significant diabetes distress. The need for psychological support from a specialist was expressed by 5.0 %. There were statistically significant associations between all psychological variables; moreover, better glycemic control was associated with lower diabetes distress and better family support. Nine patients (5.7 %) started with psychological treatment according to the referrals after screening. Conclusions The results after one year of psychological screening in Slovene type 1 diabetes population displayed small rates of depression and a large proportion of diabetes distress. Only a small percentage of patients attended the offered individual psychological assessment.

  7. Effects of locus of control, occupational stress, and psychological distress on job satisfaction among nurses.

    PubMed

    Jain, V K; Lall, R; McLaughlin, D G; Johnson, W B

    1996-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of locus of control, occupational stress, and psychological symptom distress on reported job satisfaction in a sample of 34 practicing nurses. As predicted, greater work-related stress and higher psychological symptom distress were significantly negatively correlated with job satisfaction. External locus of control was also negatively associated with job satisfaction. PMID:8816047

  8. Self-reports of Psychological Distress in Connection with Various Degrees of Visual Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, Jon S.

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between degree of visual impairment and the self-reports of psychological distress by 167 Icelanders (ages 18-69) and 100 between the ages of 70-97, who were blind or had low vision. The study found that self-reports of psychological distress and perceptions of unhappiness varied significantly with the degree…

  9. Assessing the Impact of Parental Expectations and Psychological Distress on Taiwanese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Li-Fei; Heppner, P. Paul

    2002-01-01

    Current research seems to underscore the impact of parental expectations on college students' psychological distress. This study examined whether parental expectations or living up to parental expectations served as better predictors on Taiwanese college students' psychological distress. Study 1 developed and validated a scale for measuring…

  10. The Prospective Relationship of Interpersonal Forgiveness and Psychological Distress Symptoms among College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orcutt, Holly K.

    2006-01-01

    Forgiveness has frequently been theorized to be related to decreased psychological distress, and longitudinal survey research is important for the examination of this relationship. The prospective relation of forgiveness to psychological distress symptoms (i.e., depression, anxiety, and stress) at a later time point (an average of 36 weeks later)…

  11. Psychological Distress and Hypertension: Results from the National Health Interview Survey for 2004–2013

    PubMed Central

    Ojike, Nwakile; Sowers, James R.; Seixas, Azizi; Ravenell, Joseph; Rodriguez-Figueroa, G.; Awadallah, M.; Zizi, F.; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Ogedegbe, Olugbenga; McFarlane, Samy I.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Psychological conditions are increasingly linked with cardiovascular disorders. We aimed to examine the association between psychological distress and hypertension. Methods We used data from the National Health Interview Survey for 2004-2013. Hypertension was self-reported and the 6-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale was used to assess psychological distress (a score ≥13 indicated distress). We used a logistic regression model to test the assumption that hypertension was associated with psychological distress. Results Among the study participants completing the survey (n = 288,784), 51% were female; the overall mean age (±SEM) was 35.3 ± 0.02 years and the mean body mass index was 27.5 ± 0.01. In the entire sample, the prevalence of psychological distress was 3.2%. The adjusted odds of reporting hypertension in psychologically distressed individuals was 1.53 (95% CI = 1.31-1.80, p = 0.01). Conclusion The findings suggest that psychological distress is associated with higher odds of hypertension after adjusting for other risk factors for high blood pressure. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and to elucidate the mechanisms by which stress increases hypertension risk. PMID:27275156

  12. Symptoms of Depression and Psychological Distress in United States and Japanese College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Martin R.; Matsuyama, Yoshinori

    1988-01-01

    Compares self-report measures of depression and psychological distress in U.S. and Japanese university students. Reassesses sex differences on these measures for U.S. students and examines sex differences for Japanese students. Finds that Japanese students had higher scores on depression measures but not on psychological distress. (Author/ LS)

  13. Romantic Relationships, Relationship Styles, Coping Strategies, and Psychological Distress among Chinese and Australian Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Cynthia; Moore, Susan; Karnilowicz, Wally; Lung, C. L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the association between relationship styles, coping strategies, and psychological distress among 144 Anglo-Australian and 250 Hong Kong Chinese undergraduate students. The results indicated that relationship styles (secure, clingy, and fickle) influenced psychological distress through their association with coping strategies…

  14. Psychological distress, perceived stigma, and coping among caregivers of patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ong, Hui Chien; Ibrahim, Norhayati; Wahab, Suzaily

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, family members are gradually taking on the role of full-time caregivers for patients suffering from schizophrenia. The increasing burden and tasks of caretaking can cause them psychological distress such as depression or anxiety. The aim of this study was to measure the correlation between perceived stigma and coping, and psychological distress as well as determine the predictors of psychological distress among the caregivers. Results showed that 31.5% of the caregivers experienced psychological distress. "Community rejection" was found to be positively associated with psychological distress. In case of coping subscales, psychological distress had a positive correlation with substance use, use of emotional support, behavioral disengagement, venting, and self-blame, while it was negatively correlated with "positive reframing". Behavioral disengagement was the best predictor of psychological distress among caregivers of patients with schizophrenia, followed by positive reframing, use of emotional support, self-blame, and venting. Health practitioners can use adaptive coping strategies instead of maladaptive for caregivers to help ease their distress and prevent further deterioration of psychological disorders. PMID:27574475

  15. Psychological Distress, Substance Use, and HIV/STI Risk Behaviors among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    Psychological distress has been inconsistently associated with sexual risk behavior in youth, suggesting additional factors, such as substance use, may explain this relationship. The mediating or moderating role of substance use on the relationship between psychological distress and sexual risk behaviors was prospectively examined over the four…

  16. Psychological distress, perceived stigma, and coping among caregivers of patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Hui Chien; Ibrahim, Norhayati; Wahab, Suzaily

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, family members are gradually taking on the role of full-time caregivers for patients suffering from schizophrenia. The increasing burden and tasks of caretaking can cause them psychological distress such as depression or anxiety. The aim of this study was to measure the correlation between perceived stigma and coping, and psychological distress as well as determine the predictors of psychological distress among the caregivers. Results showed that 31.5% of the caregivers experienced psychological distress. “Community rejection” was found to be positively associated with psychological distress. In case of coping subscales, psychological distress had a positive correlation with substance use, use of emotional support, behavioral disengagement, venting, and self-blame, while it was negatively correlated with “positive reframing”. Behavioral disengagement was the best predictor of psychological distress among caregivers of patients with schizophrenia, followed by positive reframing, use of emotional support, self-blame, and venting. Health practitioners can use adaptive coping strategies instead of maladaptive for caregivers to help ease their distress and prevent further deterioration of psychological disorders. PMID:27574475

  17. Social Desirability, Psychological Distress, and Consumer Satisfaction With Mental Health Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabourin, Stephane; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Determined strength of relationship between social desirability, psychological distress, and consumer satisfaction with mental health treatment in 82 clients in therapy. Results indicated that both consumer satisfaction reports and psychological distress scores were contaminated by socially desirable responding. (Author/ABL)

  18. Religion, Purpose in Life, Social Support, and Psychological Distress in Chinese University Students.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhizhong; Koenig, Harold G; Ma, Hui; Shohaib, Saad Al

    2016-06-01

    We examined the relationship between religious involvement and psychological distress and explored the mediating effects of social support and purpose in life in university students in western, mid-western, and eastern China. Cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 1812 university students was conducted. The Purpose in Life scale, Duke Social Support Index, and Religious Commitment Inventory-10 were administered, along with Kessler's Psychological Distress Scale. Structural equation modeling was used to test two models of the mediation hypothesis, examining direct, indirect, and total effects. Model 1 (with direction of effect hypothesized from religiosity to psychological distress) indicated that religious involvement had a direct effect on increasing psychological distress (β = 0.23, p < .01) with minor mediated effects. However, Model 2 (with direction of effect hypothesized from psychological distress to religiosity) indicated strong indirect protective effects of religiosity on psychological distress through purpose in life and social support (β = -.40, p < .01). The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that psychological distress increases religious involvement, which then increases purpose in life and social support that then lead to lower psychological distress. PMID:26818682

  19. African American Men, Gender Role Conflict, and Psychological Distress: The Role of Racial Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wester, Stephen R.; Vogel, David L.; Wei, Meifen; McLain, Rodney

    2006-01-01

    Little research exists exploring the intersection of male gender role conflict (GRC), racial identity, and psychological distress. Accordingly, using a sample of 130 self-identified African American male participants, this study explored which aspects of racial identity mediated the relationship between GRC and psychological distress. Results…

  20. A Latent Class Regression Analysis of Men's Conformity to Masculine Norms and Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Y. Joel; Owen, Jesse; Shea, Munyi

    2012-01-01

    How are specific dimensions of masculinity related to psychological distress in specific groups of men? To address this question, the authors used latent class regression to assess the optimal number of latent classes that explained differential relationships between conformity to masculine norms and psychological distress in a racially diverse…

  1. Coping and Psychological Distress of Chinese Parents of Children with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Paul; Tang, Catherine So-Kum

    1995-01-01

    Coping and correlates of psychological distress of 174 Chinese parents of children with Down's syndrome, language delays, or no disabilities were compared. Down's syndrome parents more frequently used avoidance coping style. No differences were observed between Down's syndrome and language delay parents on psychological distress, optimism,…

  2. Psychological Distress and Coping amongst Higher Education Students: A Mixed Method Enquiry

    PubMed Central

    Deasy, Christine; Coughlan, Barry; Pironom, Julie; Jourdan, Didier; Mannix-McNamara, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychological distress among higher education students is of global concern. Students on programmes with practicum components such as nursing and teacher education are exposed to additional stressors which may further increase their risk for psychological distress. The ways in which these students cope with distress has potential consequences for their health and academic performance. An in-depth understanding of how nursing/midwifery and teacher education students experience psychological distress and coping is necessary to enable higher education providers to adequately support these students. Methods This mixed method study was employed to establish self-reported psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire), coping processes (Ways of Coping Questionnaire) and lifestyle behaviour (Lifestyle Behaviour Questionnaire) of a total sample (n = 1557) of undergraduate nursing/midwifery and teacher education students in one university in Ireland. Individual interviews (n = 59) provided an in-depth understanding of students experiences of psychological distress and coping. Results A significant percentage (41.9%) of respondents was psychologically distressed. The factors which contributed to their distress, included study, financial, living and social pressures. Students used varied coping strategies including seeking social support, problem solving and escape avoidance. The positive relationship between elevated psychological distress and escape avoidance behaviours including substance use (alcohol, tobacco and cannabis) and unhealthy diet is of particular concern. Statistically significant relationships were identified between “escape-avoidance” and gender, age, marital status, place of residence, programme/year of study and lifestyle behaviours such as diet, substance use and physical inactivity. Conclusion The paper adds to existing research by illuminating the psychological distress experienced by undergraduate nursing/midwifery and

  3. Psychological Distress among Victimized Women on Probation and Parole: A Latent Class Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Golder, Seana; Engstrom, Malitta; Hall, Martin T.; Higgins, George; Logan, TK

    2015-01-01

    Latent class analysis was used to identify subgroups of victimized women (N=406) on probation and parole differentiated by levels of general psychological distress. The nine primary symptom dimensions from the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) were used individually as latent class indicators (Derogatis, 1993). Results identified three classes of women characterized by increasing levels of psychological distress; classes were further differentiated by posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, cumulative victimization, substance use and other domains of psychosocial functioning (i.e., sociodemographic characteristics; informal social support and formal service utilization; perceived life stress; and resource loss). The present research was effective in uncovering important heterogeneity in psychological distress using a highly reliable and easily accessible measure of general psychological distress. Differentiating levels of psychological distress and associated patterns of psychosocial risk can be used to develop intervention strategies targeting the needs of different subgroups of women. Implications for treatment and future research are presented. PMID:25915692

  4. The Association Between Psychological Distress and Decision Regret During Armed Conflict Among Hospital Personnel.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Bibi, Haim

    2016-09-01

    The association between psychological distress and decision regret during armed conflict among hospital personnel is of interest. The objective of this study was to learn of the association between psychological distress and decision regret during armed conflict. Data was collected from 178 hospital personnel in Barzilai Medical Center in Ashkelon, Israel during Operation Protective Edge. The survey was based on intranet data collection about: demographics, self-rated health, life satisfaction, psychological distress and decision regret. Among hospital personnel, having higher psychological distress and being young were associated with higher decision regret. This study adds to the existing knowledge by providing novel data about the association between psychological distress and decision regret among hospital personnel during armed conflict. This data opens a new venue of future research to other potentially detrimental factor on medical decision making and medical error done during crisis. PMID:26603623

  5. Childhood Victimization, Attachment, Psychological Distress, and Substance Use Among Women on Probation and Parole

    PubMed Central

    Winham, Katherine M.; Engstrom, Malitta; Golder, Seana; Renn, Tanya; Higgins, George E.; Logan, TK

    2015-01-01

    The present analysis was guided by a gendered pathways-based theoretical model and examined relationships between childhood victimization and current attachment, psychological distress and substance use among 406 women with histories of victimization who were on probation and parole in an urban Kentucky county. Structural equation modeling examined relationships among childhood victimization, attachment, psychological distress, and substance use. Additionally, we examined the mediational role that attachment plays in relationships between childhood victimization and both psychological distress and substance use. The data fit the models properly. Psychological distress was significantly predicted by childhood victimization, and adult attachment partially mediated this relationship. Childhood victimization did not significantly predict substance use; however, attachment did. The findings suggest that attachment may be an important factor to further understand and address in relation to psychological distress and substance use among women with histories of victimization who are involved in the criminal justice system. PMID:25822606

  6. The impact of anticipation of job loss on psychological distress and worksite blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Schnall, P L; Landsbergis, P A; Pieper, C F; Schwartz, J; Dietz, D; Gerin, W; Schlussel, Y; Warren, K; Pickering, T G

    1992-01-01

    The impact of occupational stressful life events on psychological distress and blood pressure was examined among employees of a major New York City brokerage firm undergoing massive layoffs. One hundred thirty-nine employees of the firm, who had participated in a blood pressure screening in 1986, were rescreened during the period of layoffs within their company in 1989. About two-thirds of the 139 employees reported being "somewhat" or "very" anxious or upset in 1989 during the period of layoffs, and psychological distress was significantly elevated among those employees reporting possible or definite layoff or job change and/or difficulty in obtaining a comparable job. However, we found no increase in overall blood pressure level, and no effect of anticipation of job loss on 1989 blood pressure when controlling for 1986 blood pressure level, age, body mass index, work hours, and other demographic variables. On the other hand, employment in a department sold to another employer on the day of screening, as well as employment in a clerical job title, were both associated with significant increases in diastolic blood pressure of about 5 mm Hg. PMID:1585951

  7. Workplace gender composition and psychological distress: the importance of the psychosocial work environment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health consequences of the gender segregated labour market have previously been demonstrated in the light of gender composition of occupations and workplaces, with somewhat mixed results. Associations between the gender composition and health status have been suggested to be shaped by the psychosocial work environment. The present study aims to analyse how workplace gender composition is related to psychological distress and to explore the importance of the psychosocial work environment for psychological distress at workplaces with different gender compositions. Methods The study population consisted of participants from the Northern Swedish Cohort with a registered workplace in 2007 when the participants were 42 years old (N = 795). Questionnaire data were supplemented with register data on the gender composition of the participants’ workplaces divided into three groups: workplaces with more women, mixed workplaces, and workplaces with more men. Associations between psychological distress and gender composition were analysed with multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for socioeconomic position, previous psychological distress, psychosocial work environment factors and gender. Logistic regression analyses (including interaction terms for gender composition and each work environment factor) were also used to assess differential associations between psychosocial work factor and psychological distress according to gender composition. Results Working at workplaces with a mixed gender composition was related to a higher likelihood of psychological distress compared to workplaces with more men, after adjustments for socioeconomic position, psychological distress at age 21, psychosocial work environment factors and gender. Psychosocial work environment factors did not explain the association between gender composition and psychological distress. Conclusions The association between gender composition and psychological distress cannot be

  8. Psychological distress in refugee children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bronstein, Israel; Montgomery, Paul

    2011-03-01

    Nearly one-quarter of the refugees worldwide are children. There have been numerous studies reporting their levels of psychological distress. The aim of this paper is to review systematically and synthesize the epidemiological research concerning the mental health of refugee children residing in Western countries. A Cochrane Collaboration style review was conducted searching nine major databases, bibliographies, and grey literature from 2003 to 2008. Included studies had to meet the reporting standards of STROBE and investigate mental health in non-clinical samples of asylum seeking and refugee children residing in OECD countries. A total of twenty-two studies were identified of 4,807 retrieved citations, covering 3,003 children from over 40 countries. Studies varied in definition and measurement of problems, which included levels of post-traumatic stress disorder from 19 to 54%, depression from 3 to 30%, and varying degrees of emotional and behavioral problems. Significant factors influencing levels of distress appear to include demographic variables, cumulative traumatic pre-migration experiences, and post-migration stressors. Importantly, the research base demands greater contextual and methodological refining such that future research would have greater generalizability and clinical implications. PMID:21181268

  9. Effects Of Family Conflict, Divorce, And Attachment Patterns On The Psychological Distress And Social Adjustment Of College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannum,James W.; Dvorak,Dawn M.

    2004-01-01

    Ninety-five freshmen completed measures of attachment, family conflict, family structure, psychological distress, and social adjustment. Attachment to mother predicted less psychological distress and attachment to father and structure predicted better social adjustment. Conflict reduced attachment and predicted psychological distress. Attachment…

  10. The crossover of psychological distress from leaders to subordinates in teams: The role of abusive supervision, psychological capital, and team performance.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuhui; Wang, Zhen; Yang, Liu-Qin; Liu, Songbo

    2016-04-01

    This study examines the underlying mechanism of the crossover process in work teams. Drawing on conservation of resources theory, we hypothesize that a leader's psychological distress positively influences subordinates' psychological distress through abusive supervision. We further hypothesize that team performance attenuates the association between a leader's psychological distress and abusive supervision. In addition, we expect that psychological capital attenuates the positive relationship between abusive supervision and subordinates' psychological distress. Participants were drawn from 86 business teams, and multisource data were collected. The hypotheses were tested with multilevel analysis. Results supported the crossover of psychological distress from leader to subordinates, and abusive supervision serves as a mediating mechanism. The positive relationship between a leader's distress and abusive supervision is stronger when team performance is lower. In addition, the positive relationship between abusive supervision and subordinates' psychological distress is stronger when subordinates' psychological capital is lower. PMID:26652269

  11. Distress Screening in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell (HSCT) Caregivers and Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bevans, Margaret; Wehrlen, Leslie; Prachenko, Olena; Soeken, Karen; Zabora, James; Wallen, Gwenyth R.

    2011-01-01

    Family caregivers of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients are at risk for experiencing significant psychological distress yet screening caregivers has not been well studied. Objective This analysis explored the psychometric characteristics of the Distress Thermometer (DT) by examining its relationship, sensitivity and specificity relative to the Brief Symptom Inventory 18 (BSI-18) and the Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory (MFSI) in a sample of allogeneic HSCT caregivers and patients. Methods Longitudinal data were drawn from an ongoing intervention study for HSCT caregivers and patients. Data from one hundred and fifty-six English-speaking adults where patients (n=65) were receiving their first allogeneic HSCT with at least one adult caregiver (n=91) were eligible for this analysis. Study questionnaires were administered at baseline, initial discharge and 6 weeks following discharge. Results Construct validity was supported by significant relationships (p<0.001) between the DT and the BSI-18 GSI and the MFSI-Emotional subscales for caregivers and patients. The diagnostic utility of the DT for patients was good (AUC=.85±.05, p=.001), while for caregivers it was poor (AUC=.61±.08, p=.28). A DT cut point of 5 was supported for patients (sensitivity=1.0, specificity=.68), while for caregivers there was less confidence (sensitivity=.70, specificity=.52). Caregivers and patients reporting a higher number of problems had a greater level of distress (p<0.001). Conclusions These findings support the validity of the DT in screening for distress in HSCT caregivers and patients. Although the diagnostic utility of the DT for HSCT caregivers may be limited, understanding factors associated with distress can guide practice for this understudied population. PMID:21626610

  12. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Psychological Distress among Urban Adults: The Moderating Role of Neighborhood Social Cohesion

    PubMed Central

    Erdem, Özcan; Van Lenthe, Frank J.; Prins, Rick G.; Voorham, Toon A. J. J.; Burdorf, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Background Various studies have reported socioeconomic inequalities in mental health among urban residents. This study aimed at investigating whether neighborhood social cohesion influences the associations between socio-economic factors and psychological distress. Methods Cross-sectional questionnaire study on a random sample of 18,173 residents aged 16 years and older from 211 neighborhoods in the four largest cities in the Netherlands. Psychological distress was the dependent variable (scale range 10–50). Neighborhood social cohesion was measured by five statements and aggregated to the neighborhood level using ecometrics methodology. Multilevel linear regression analyses were used to investigate cross-level interactions, adjusted for neighborhood deprivation, between individual characteristics and social cohesion with psychological distress. Results The mean level of psychological distress among urban residents was 17.2. Recipients of disability, social assistance or unemployment benefits reported higher psychological distress (β = 5.6, 95%CI 5.2 to 5.9) than those in paid employment. Persons with some or great financial difficulties reported higher psychological distress (β = 3.4, 95%CI 3.2 to 3.6) than those with little or no financial problems. Socio-demographic factors were also associated with psychological distress, albeit with much lower influence. Living in a neighborhood with high social cohesion instead of low social cohesion was associated with a lower psychological distress of 22% among recipients of disability, social assistance or unemployment benefits and of 13% among citizens with financial difficulties. Conclusions Residing in socially cohesive neighborhoods may reduce the influence of lack of paid employment and financial difficulties on psychological distress among urban adults. Urban policies aimed at improving neighborhood social cohesion may contribute to decreasing socio-economic inequalities in mental health. PMID:27280601

  13. Acculturation, perceived discrimination, and psychological distress: Experiences of South Asians in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Tonsing, Kareen N; Tse, Samson; Tonsing, Jenny C

    2016-02-01

    Although migration itself may not compromise the mental health of immigrants, the acculturative process can involve highly stressful factors that are specific to immigrant and minority status. Using structural equation modeling, this study examined the relations between acculturation orientations, perceived discrimination, acculturative stress, and psychological distress among 229 Pakistani and 218 Nepalese migrants living in Hong Kong. Although the initial hypothesized model was not confirmed, a modified model with good fit indices showed that acculturation orientation mediated the relationships of perceived discrimination and acculturative stress with psychological distress. Of all the factors in the model, acculturative stress had the strongest association with psychological distress. PMID:26608650

  14. A Longitudinal Study of Post-Traumatic Growth and Psychological Distress in Colorectal Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Occhipinti, Stefano; Chambers, Suzanne K; Lepore, Stephen; Aitken, Joanne; Dunn, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The stability of post-traumatic growth over time and the relationship between post-traumatic growth and traditional distress outcomes remains unclear. We tracked post-traumatic growth in a population-based sample of colorectal cancer patients from soon after diagnosis to five years subsequently to assess the heterogeneity of a post-traumatic growth response to cancer over time and describe the simultaneous and longitudinal relationships between post-traumatic growth and psychological distress. 1966 colorectal patients who were five months post diagnosis were assessed six times over a five year period. There was considerable heterogeneity associated with both psychological distress and benefit finding scores over time. However, both for benefit finding and psychological distress, the variation in individual scores suggested an underlying positive linear trend and both lagged and lagged change components. Specifically, benefit finding and psychological distress are mutual leading indicators of each other. First, benefit finding served as a leading indicator of distress, in that increases in reported benefit finding from year to year predicted higher future increases in psychological distress. As well, in an inverse relationship, psychological distress served as a leading indicator of benefit finding, such that increases in reported distress from year to year predicted lower future increases in benefit finding. Post-traumatic growth may reflect patients coping efforts to enhance perceptions of wellbeing in response to escalating cancer-related threats, acting as harbinger of increasing trajectories of psychological distress. This explanation is consistent with a cognitive dissonance response in which threats to the integrity of the self then lead to a tendency to accentuate positive aspects of the self. PMID:26418357

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Post-Traumatic Growth and Psychological Distress in Colorectal Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Occhipinti, Stefano; Chambers, Suzanne K.; Lepore, Stephen; Aitken, Joanne; Dunn, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The stability of post-traumatic growth over time and the relationship between post-traumatic growth and traditional distress outcomes remains unclear. We tracked post-traumatic growth in a population-based sample of colorectal cancer patients from soon after diagnosis to five years subsequently to assess the heterogeneity of a post-traumatic growth response to cancer over time and describe the simultaneous and longitudinal relationships between post-traumatic growth and psychological distress. 1966 colorectal patients who were five months post diagnosis were assessed six times over a five year period. There was considerable heterogeneity associated with both psychological distress and benefit finding scores over time. However, both for benefit finding and psychological distress, the variation in individual scores suggested an underlying positive linear trend and both lagged and lagged change components. Specifically, benefit finding and psychological distress are mutual leading indicators of each other. First, benefit finding served as a leading indicator of distress, in that increases in reported benefit finding from year to year predicted higher future increases in psychological distress. As well, in an inverse relationship, psychological distress served as a leading indicator of benefit finding, such that increases in reported distress from year to year predicted lower future increases in benefit finding. Post-traumatic growth may reflect patients coping efforts to enhance perceptions of wellbeing in response to escalating cancer–related threats, acting as harbinger of increasing trajectories of psychological distress. This explanation is consistent with a cognitive dissonance response in which threats to the integrity of the self then lead to a tendency to accentuate positive aspects of the self. PMID:26418357

  16. Relationships Between Refraining From Catastrophic Thinking, Repetitive Negative Thinking, and Psychological Distress.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Tomoko; Sugiura, Yoshinori

    2016-10-01

    Skills to refrain from catastrophic thinking were negatively related to worry and a wide range of psychological distress. Repetitive negative thinking (including worry) is proposed as a common etiological factor for a wide range of psychological distress. Therefore, reduced repetitive negative thinking would mediate the negative relation between refraining from catastrophic thinking and psychological distress (depression, social anxiety, phobia, generalized anxiety, and obsessions and compulsions). As an overlap between five indices of psychological distress was expected, we first computed latent factors underlying them, which were then predicted by refraining from catastrophic thinking and repetitive negative thinking. Cross-sectional questionnaire data from 125 nonclinical voluntarily participating students (M age = 19.0 years, SD = 3.6; 54% women) supported the predictions: refraining from catastrophic thinking was negatively correlated with depression, social anxiety, phobia, generalized anxiety, and obsession and compulsion. Repetitive negative thinking mediated the negative relationship between refraining from catastrophic thinking and latent factors underlying psychological distress (Fear and Distress). Refraining from catastrophic thinking may be negatively correlated with psychological distress due to its negative relation to repetitive negative thinking. PMID:27511967

  17. When Distress Hits Home: The Role of Contextual Factors and Psychological Distress in Predicting Employees' Responses to Abusive Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Restubog, Simon Lloyd D.; Scott, Kristin L.; Zagenczyk, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    We developed a model of the relationships among aggressive norms, abusive supervision, psychological distress, family undermining, and supervisor-directed deviance. We tested the model in 2 studies using multisource data: a 3-wave investigation of 184 full-time employees (Study 1) and a 2-wave investigation of 188 restaurant workers (Study 2).…

  18. Factors influencing psychological distress during a disease epidemic: Data from Australia's first outbreak of equine influenza

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Melanie R; Agho, Kingsley E; Stevens, Garry J; Raphael, Beverley

    2008-01-01

    Background In 2007 Australia experienced its first outbreak of highly infectious equine influenza. Government disease control measures were put in place to control, contain, and eradicate the disease; these measures included movement restrictions and quarantining of properties. This study was conducted to assess the psycho-social impacts of this disease, and this paper reports the prevalence of, and factors influencing, psychological distress during this outbreak. Methods Data were collected using an online survey, with a link directed to the affected population via a number of industry groups. Psychological distress, as determined by the Kessler 10 Psychological Distress Scale, was the main outcome measure. Results In total, 2760 people participated in this study. Extremely high levels of non-specific psychological distress were reported by respondents in this study, with 34% reporting high psychological distress (K10 > 22), compared to levels of around 12% in the Australian general population. Analysis, using backward stepwise binary logistic regression analysis, revealed that those living in high risk infection (red) zones (OR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.57–2.55; p < 0.001) and disease buffer (amber) zones (OR = 1.83; 95% CI: 1.36–2.46; p < 0.001) were at much greater risk of high psychological distress than those living in uninfected (white zones). Although prevalence of high psychological distress was greater in infected EI zones and States, elevated levels of psychological distress were experienced in horse-owners nationally. Statistical analysis indicated that certain groups were more vulnerable to high psychological distress; specifically younger people, and those with lower levels of formal educational qualifications. Respondents whose principal source of income was from horse-related industry were more than twice as likely to have high psychological distress than those whose primary source of income was not linked to horse-related industry (OR = 2.23; 95% CI: 1

  19. Psychological Distress and Resources among Siblings and Parents Exposed to Traumatic Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punamaki, Raija-Leena; Qouta, Samir; El Sarraj, Eyad; Montgomery, Edith

    2006-01-01

    We examined symmetries and asymmetries within family members' psychological distress and resources in general and when exposed to traumatic events in particular. PTSD [Posttraumatic Stress Disorder] and depressive symptoms indicated distress and resilient attitudes, and satisfaction with quality of life indicated resources. We also analysed…

  20. Psychological distress, gender, and health lifestyles in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Cockerham, William C; Hinote, Brian P; Abbott, Pamela

    2006-11-01

    This paper examines the relationship between psychological distress, gender, and health lifestyles in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine. These countries have been subjected to highly stressful and extensive social change associated with the transition out of communism. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews (n = 10,406) in November 2001. Distress was measured by 12 psychological distress symptoms. Health lifestyles focused on measures of alcohol consumption, smoking and diet. We found that females carried a much heavier burden of psychological distress than males, but this distress did not translate into greater alcohol consumption and smoking for these women or for men. The greatest influence of distress on health lifestyle practices was on daily diets in that both less distressed females and males consumed a more balanced diet than more distressed persons. Our findings suggest that it is the normative demands of a particular lifestyle, rather than distress, that principally shapes the pattern of heavy male drinking. This is an important finding as some sources indicate heavy drinking is largely responsible for the health crisis in the former socialist states. PMID:16887246

  1. Gendered racism, psychological distress, and coping styles of African American women.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Anita Jones; Witherspoon, Karen M; Speight, Suzette L

    2008-10-01

    This study explores the relationship of the accumulative effect of gendered racism, the discrimination felt by African American women, on psychological distress. The study also explores whether coping serves as a mediating variable between gendered racism and psychological distress. Over 300 African American women participated in the study and were administered the Symptoms Checklist 90, a revised version of the Schedule of Sexist Events, and the Africultural Coping Styles Inventory. A positive significant relationship between global psychological distress was found with experiences of gendered racism. Regression analyses suggest some degree of partial mediation on the relationship between gendered racism and global psychological distress via cognitive-emotional coping styles, but no mediating effects with spiritual-centered, collective, and ritual-centered coping. Suggestions for future research and implications are discussed. PMID:18954166

  2. Violence and Women’s Psychological Distress After Birth: An Exploratory Study in Italy

    PubMed Central

    ROMITO, PATRIZIA; TURAN, JANET MOLZAN; NEILANDS, TORSTEN; LUCCHETTA, CHIARA; POMICINO, LAURA; SCRIMIN, FEDERICA

    2009-01-01

    Our aim in conducting this study was to analyze the relationships between violence and maternal psychological distress 8 months after a birth, taking into account other important psychosocial factors, known to be associated both with violence and with new mothers’ mental health. A total of 352 women responded to a questionnaire after the birth at a maternity hospital in northern Italy, and 292 also participated in a telephone interview 8 months later. We evaluated psychological distress with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and partner and family violence with a 28-item scale. Eight months postpartum, 5% of women showed high psychological distress; 10% were currently experiencing violence from the partner or another family member. After adjustment for covariates, the odds ratio for depressive symptoms was 13.74 for women experiencing violence. We believe that these results provide support for the important role of violence in postpartum maternal psychological distress. PMID:19116827

  3. The association between bullying dynamics and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Dao, Tam K; Kerbs, John J; Rollin, Stephen A; Potts, Isabelle; Gutierrez, Robert; Choi, Kyubeom; Creason, Alia H; Wolf, Amanda; Prevatt, Frances

    2006-08-01

    This study examined the association between past experience of victimization (PEV), perceived risk of victimization (PRV), and nonspecific psychological distress (NSPD). Repeated measures-analysis of variance and hierarchical regression analyses were conducted on 186 seventh grade middle school students from an urban university-research-affiliated school. Results indicated that gender, PEV, and PRV significantly predicted NSPD. There were no gender differences in either the total number of past experience of victimization or depressive and/or anxious feelings reported. However, the types of victimization experienced as well as perceived risk of victimization appeared to be gender-related in that boys were significantly higher than girls on past experience of physical aggression and property aggression but significantly lower than girls on past experience of emotional aggression and perceived risk of victimization. In gender-specific analyses, PRV mediated the effects of PEV on NSPD for girls but not boys. The reasons for these findings, as well as implications for social policies and future directions, are discussed. PMID:16857541

  4. Association between psychological distress and a sense of contribution to society in the workplace

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Globally, mental health promotion related to psychological distress in the workplace has become a great concern, and a focus of much research attention. However, a sense of contribution to society and sense of bonding with the workplace have not been examined in relation to psychological distress. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine whether these two factors are associated with psychological distress. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1137 full-time employees who worked in systems engineering, sales, or administration at a Japanese company. Participant's sense of contribution to society, sense of bonding with the workplace, psychological distress, and qualitative job stress (quantitative and qualitative workloads, job-control latitude, and support from supervisors, co-workers and family) were assessed with a questionnaire. We performed multiple logistic regression analyses to examine associations between psychological distress and sense of contribution to society and of bonding with the workplace. Results A high sense of contribution to society was significantly associated with a high sense of bonding with the workplace (Spearman's ρ = 0.47, p < 0.01). A sense of contribution to society was negatively associated with psychological distress after adjusting for job stress factors (OR = 2.05, 95% CI 0.99-4.23) or sociodemographic characteristics of participants (OR = 2.92, 1.53-5.59). After adjusting for job stress factors as well as sociodemographic characteristics, the association became weaker. A sense of bonding with the workplace was negatively associated with psychological distress after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics (OR = 2.49, 1.29-4.79). However, this association was not observed after adjusting for job stress factors. Conclusions Psychological distress in the workplace was associated with sense of contribution to society. Therefore, workplace mental health promotion should consider the workers' sense of

  5. A latent class regression analysis of men's conformity to masculine norms and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Wong, Y Joel; Owen, Jesse; Shea, Munyi

    2012-01-01

    How are specific dimensions of masculinity related to psychological distress in specific groups of men? To address this question, the authors used latent class regression to assess the optimal number of latent classes that explained differential relationships between conformity to masculine norms and psychological distress in a racially diverse sample of 223 men. The authors identified a 2-class solution. Both latent classes demonstrated very different associations between conformity to masculine norms and psychological distress. In Class 1 (labeled risk avoiders; n = 133), conformity to the masculine norm of risk-taking was negatively related to psychological distress. In Class 2 (labeled detached risk-takers; n = 90), conformity to the masculine norms of playboy, self-reliance, and risk-taking was positively related to psychological distress, whereas conformity to the masculine norm of violence was negatively related to psychological distress. A post hoc analysis revealed that younger men and Asian American men (compared with Latino and White American men) had significantly greater odds of being in Class 2 versus Class 1. The implications of these findings for future research and clinical practice are examined. PMID:22229799

  6. Social support, marital adjustment, and psychological distress among women with primary infertility in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Farah; Khalid, Amna; Medhin, Girmay

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify prevalence rates of psychological distress among Pakistani women seeking help for primary infertility. The associations of social support, marital adjustment, and sociodemographic factors with psychological distress were also examined. A total of 177 women with primary infertility were interviewed from one hospital in Islamabad using a Self-Reporting Questionnaire, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test. The data were collected between November 2012 and March 2013. The prevalence of psychological distress was 37.3 percent. The results of the logistic regression suggested that marital adjustment and social support were significantly negatively associated with psychological distress in this sample. These associations were not confounded by any of the demographic variables controlled in the multivariable regression models. The role of perceived social support and adjustment in marriage among women experiencing primary infertility are important factors in understanding their psychological distress. The results of this small-scale effort highlight the need for social and familial awareness to help tackle the psychological distress related to infertility. Future research needs to focus on the way the experience of infertility is conditioned by social structural realities. New ways need to be developed to better take into account the process and nature of the infertility experience. PMID:25837531

  7. COPING AS A MEDIATOR OF INTERNALIZED HOMOPHOBIA AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS AMONG YOUNG ADULT SEXUAL MINORITY WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Kaysen, Debra; Kulesza, Magdalena; Balsam, Kimberly F.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Blayney, Jessica A.; Lehavot, Keren; Hughes, Tonda L.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual minorities have higher rates of depression and anxiety than their heterosexual counterparts. This elevated risk of psychological distress has generally been hypothesized to be a result of the effects of discrimination including internalized negative beliefs about sexual minorities. However, little research has examined the role of various types of coping in mediating between internalized homophobia and mental health. We tested the direct relationship between internalized homophobia and psychological distress and evaluated general and sexual minority-specific coping strategies as potential mediators using structural equation modeling. Data are from a national sample of 1,099 young adult sexual minority women who were on average 20.86 (SD= 2.12) years old, participating in a study on mental health and substance use. The model demonstrated acceptable fit, χ2 (83) = 402.9, p <.001, CFI=.94, TLI=.92, SRMR= .07, and RMSEA=.06, accounting for 73% of variance in psychological distress. Greater use of maladaptive coping and less use of sexual minority-specific coping were associated with higher psychological distress. Although maladaptive coping mediated the relationship between internalized homophobia and psychological distress, sexual minority-specific coping did not. Our findings support previous studies that have demonstrated the impact of internalized homophobia on psychological distress as well as the role of coping as a protective/risk factor in this relationship. PMID:25530980

  8. Illness perceptions, coping styles and psychological distress in adults with Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Arran, Natalie; Craufurd, David; Simpson, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with a diagnosis of Huntington's disease (HD) have been shown to experience various emotional, behavioural and psychosocial consequences. The current study employs Leventhal's self-regulation model to explore the biopsychosocial factors related to psychological distress in people with HD, and further examine the relationship between illness perceptions, coping and psychological distress. Eighty-seven people diagnosed with HD completed the Illness Perceptions Questionnaire-Revised adapted for the population. Participants also completed self-report measures of coping and psychological distress. Data were also collected on clinical and demographic variables previously found to be associated with psychological distress. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that illness perceptions of identity, treatment control and timeline cyclical were predictors of anxiety while illness perceptions of identity and perceiving the cause to be related to chance were found to be significant positive predictors of depression. The coping strategy of seeking instrumental support also contributed to scores of depression, and self-report clinical variables of pain and role functioning related to physical difficulties predicted anxiety and depression, respectively. The findings suggest that illness perceptions play a significant role in psychological distress experienced by people with HD. Consequently, a focus on interventions which might change illness perceptions, and perhaps then reduce psychological distress, would be useful for future research. PMID:23767964

  9. Psychological Distress in Young Adults Exposed to War-Related Trauma in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Llabre, Maria M.; Hadi, Fawzyiah; La Greca, Annette M.; Lai, Betty S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We tested a conceptual model of the effect of war-trauma exposure in childhood on psychological distress in young adulthood. Method Participants included 151 urban Kuwaiti children (51% female; M age = 10.62 years) exposed to the 1990-1991 Gulf crisis (assessed in 1993); participants also included 140 parents (81% female; M age mothers = 36.50 years; M age fathers = 41 years). In 2003, 120 participants were reassessed as young adults (50% female; M age = 21.19 years). Results The conceptual model was evaluated with structural equations. War-trauma exposure was associated with psychological distress in children and parents, but parents reported larger effects than children. Parents’ psychological distress did not contribute to children’s psychological distress. Children’s psychological distress did not dissipate over time. Social support may function as a potential mediator of the effect of war-trauma exposure on psychological distress. Conclusions Findings support the importance of early detection and treatment of children exposed to war-trauma. Findings also implicate social support as a factor to consider in clinical interventions for children exposed to war-trauma. PMID:23978198

  10. A randomized control study of psychological intervention to reduce anxiety, amotivation and psychological distress among medical students

    PubMed Central

    Saravanan, Coumaravelou; Kingston, Rajiah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Test anxiety aggravates psychological distress and reduces the motivation among graduate students. This study aimed to identify psychological intervention for test anxiety, which reduces the level of psychological distress, amotivation and increases the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among medical students. Materials and Methods: Westside test anxiety scale, Kessler Perceived Stress Scale and Academic Motivation Scale were used to measure test anxiety, psychological distress and motivation on 436 1st year medical students. Out of 436 students, 74 students who exhibited moderate to high test anxiety were randomly divided into either experimental or waiting list group. In this true randomized experimental study, 32 participants from the intervention group received five sessions of psychological intervention consist of psychoeducation, relaxation therapy and systematic desensitization. Thirty-three students from waiting list received one session of advice and suggestions. Results: After received psychological intervention participants from the intervention group experienced less anxiety, psychological distress, and amotivation (P < 0.01) and high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (P < 0.01) in the postassessment compared with their preassessment scores. Conclusion: Overall psychological intervention is effective to reduce anxiety scores and its related variables. PMID:25097619

  11. Psychological distress and its correlates among dental students: a survey of 17 Colombian dental schools

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Links between the demanding nature of studies in the health sciences, students’ personality traits and psychological distress have been well-established. While considerable amount of work has been done in medicine, evidence from the dental education arena is sparse and data from Latin America are lacking. The authors conducted a large-scale investigation of psychological distress among dental students in Colombia and sought to determine its curriculum and student-level correlates. Methods The Spanish version of the Derogatis’ Symptoms Checklist Revised (SCL-90-R) was administered to all students officially registered and attending classes or clinics in 17 dental schools in 4 geographic districts of Colombia between January and April 2012. Additional information was collected on participants’ socio-demographic information and first career choice, as well as school’s characteristics such as class size. The Global Severity Index (GSI) score, a measure of overall psychological distress, served as the primary analytical endpoint. Analyses relied on multilevel mixed-effects linear and log-binomial regression, accounting for study design and sample characteristics. Results A total of 5700 dental students completed the survey, a response rate of 67%. Pronounced gradients were noted in the association between socio-economic status and psychological distress, with students in higher strata reporting fewer problems. After adjustment for all important covariates, there was an evident pattern of increasing psychological distress corresponding to the transition from the didactic, to the preclinical and clinical phases of training, with few differences between male and female students. Independent of other factors, reliance on own funds for education and having dentistry as the first career choice were associated with lower psychological distress. Conclusions Levels of psychological distress correlated with students’ socio-economic and study

  12. Does parent's psychological distress mediate the relationship between war trauma and psychosocial adjustment in children?

    PubMed

    Khamis, Vivian

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the impact of war trauma on behavioral and emotional disorders, and neuroticism in children by prospectively examining the potential mediator and/or moderator effects of parental psychological distress. The sample consisted of 205 parents and their children. The results indicated that parent's psychological distress did mediate and moderate the effect of trauma exposure on emotional and behavioral disorders in children. An integrated intervention which simultaneously targets children and parental distress symptoms is needed. The integrated intervention may intend to use trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy model that integrates cognitive, behavioral, interpersonal, and family therapy principles with trauma interventions. PMID:27357922

  13. Disability, Health Insurance and Psychological Distress among US Adults: An Application of the Stress Process

    PubMed Central

    Alang, Sirry M.; McAlpine, Donna D.; Henning-Smith, Carrie E.

    2014-01-01

    Structural resources, including access to health insurance, are understudied in relation to the stress process. Disability increases the likelihood of mental health problems, but health insurance may moderate this relationship. We explore health insurance coverage as a moderator of the relationship between disability and psychological distress. A pooled sample from 2008–2010 (N=57,958) was obtained from the Integrated Health Interview Series. Chow tests were performed to assess insurance group differences in the association between disability and distress. Results indicated higher levels of distress associated with disability among uninsured adults compared to their peers with public or private insurance. The strength of the relationship between disability and distress was weaker for persons with public compared to private insurance. As the Affordable Care Act is implemented, decision-makers should be aware of the potential for insurance coverage, especially public, to ameliorate secondary conditions such as psychological distress among persons who report a physical disability. PMID:25767740

  14. Prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors in tuberculosis patients in public primary care clinics in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    psychological distress. Conclusions The study found high rates of psychological distress among tuberculosis patients. Improved training of providers in screening for psychological distress, appropriate referral to relevant health practitioners and providing comprehensive treatment for patients with TB who are co-infected with HIV is essential to improve their health outcomes. It is also important that structural interventions are promoted in order to improve the financial status of this group of patients. PMID:22839597

  15. Illness Perception and Psychological Distress in Persons with Porphyria Cutanea Tarda.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Janice; Nordin, Karin; Sandberg, Sverre

    2016-06-15

    Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) requires long-term treatment and follow-up, although many patients experience life-long remission. The aim of this cross-sectional postal survey was to describe and investigate the association between illness perception, health complaints, self-reported symptoms and distress in persons with PCT. The participants perceived PCT as a chronic condition with high levels of personal and treatment control. Persons who reported active symptoms scored higher on perceived illness threat, total health complaints and psychological distress compared with those in remission or latent phases. However, a higher perception of illness threat and the total burden of health complaints were more closely associated with psychological distress than were perceived PCT symptoms activity. This has implications for clinical consultation; dermatologists should be attentive to symptoms activity, but also recognize that patients in remission with a high perceived illness threat and multiple health complaints might be especially vulnerable to psychological distress with regards to PCT. PMID:26775575

  16. [Psychological distress among German-speaking young prison inmates after imprisonment].

    PubMed

    Obschonka, Martin; Warns, Martin; Schulte-Markwort, Michael; Barkmann, Claus

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine psychological distress among adolescent and young adult prisoners within the first two weeks of imprisonment. In addition, their psychosocial background was explored. A total sample of N = 180 newly imprisoned males was investigated with regard to psychosocial distress, medical history, drug use, as well as socioeconomic and forensic background. Data were collected using the SCL-90-R and a standardized clinical documentation. The prevalence of cases with clinical relevant levels of psychological distress (clinical case) was high (69.4%). Many probands showed a remarkable history of drug use, delinquency, and other problem behavior prior to the imprisonment. Multiple regression and logistic regression analyses revealed that mental disorders of parents or siblings, foreign nationality, and somatic diseases were risk factors for psychological distress. The results underscore the need for improved clinical care in terms of psycho diagnostics, prevention, and intervention. PMID:20345084

  17. Does Caregiving Cause Psychological Distress? The Case for Familial and Genetic Vulnerabilities in Female Twins

    PubMed Central

    Vitaliano, Peter P.; Strachan, Eric; Dansie, Elizabeth; Goldberg, Jack; Buchwald, Dedra

    2014-01-01

    Background Informal caregiving can be deleterious to mental health, but research results are inconsistent and may reflect an interaction between caregiving and vulnerability to stress. Methods We examined psychological distress among 1,228 female caregiving and non-caregiving twins. By examining monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs discordant for caregiving, we assessed the extent to which distress is directly related to caregiving or confounded by common genes and environmental exposures. Results Caregiving was associated with distress as measured by mental health functioning, anxiety, perceived stress, and depression. The overall association between caregiving and distress was confounded by common genes and environment for mental health functioning, anxiety, and depression. Common environment also confounded the association of caregiving and perceived stress. Conclusions Vulnerability to distress is a factor in predicting caregivers' psychosocial functioning. Additional research is needed to explicate the mechanisms by which common genes and environment increase the risk of distress among informal caregivers. PMID:24264772

  18. The Effect of Acculturation and Immigration on the Victimization and Psychological Distress Link in a National Sample of Latino Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Carlos A.; Sabina, Chiara; Bell, Kristin A.

    2012-01-01

    Distinct bodies of research have examined the link between victimization and psychological distress and cultural variables and psychological health, but little is known about how cultural variables affect psychological distress among Latino victims. Substantial research has concluded that Latino women are more likely than non-Latino women to…

  19. Perceived Discrimination and Women's Psychological Distress: The Roles of Collective and Personal Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Ann R.; Holz, Kenna Bolton

    2007-01-01

    In the spirit of counseling psychology's social justice mission (e.g., L. A. Goodman, B. Liang, J. E. Helms, R. E. Latta, E. Sparks, & S. R. Weintraub, 2004), the authors examined perceptions of discrimination against women as related to women's views of the group women, their views of themselves as individuals, and their psychological distress.…

  20. Forbearance Coping, Identification with Heritage Culture, Acculturative Stress, and Psychological Distress among Chinese International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Meifen; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Heppner, Puncky Paul; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Ku, Tsun-Yao

    2012-01-01

    Based on Berry's (1997) theoretical framework for acculturation, our goal in this study was to examine whether the use of a culturally relevant coping strategy (i.e., forbearance coping, a predictor) would be associated with a lower level of psychological distress (a psychological outcome), for whom (i.e., those with weaker vs. stronger…

  1. A basic need theory approach to problematic Internet use and the mediating effect of psychological distress

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ting Yat; Yuen, Kenneth S. L.; Li, Wang On

    2015-01-01

    The Internet provides an easily accessible way to meet certain needs. Over-reliance on it leads to problematic use, which studies show can be predicted by psychological distress. Self-determination theory proposes that we all have the basic need for autonomy, competency, and relatedness. This has been shown to explain the motivations behind problematic Internet use. This study hypothesizes that individuals who are psychologically disturbed because their basic needs are not being met are more vulnerable to becoming reliant on the Internet when they seek such needs satisfaction from online activities, and tests a model in which basic needs predict problematic Internet use, fully mediated by psychological distress. Problematic Internet use, psychological distress, and basic needs satisfaction were psychometrically measured in a sample of 229 Hong Kong University students and structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesized model. All indices showed the model has a good fit. Further, statistical testing supported a mediation effect for psychological distress between needs satisfaction and problematic Internet use. The results extend our understanding of the development and prevention of problematic Internet use based on the framework of self-determination theory. Psychological distress could be used as an early predictor, while preventing and treating problematic Internet use should emphasize the fulfillment of unmet needs. PMID:25642201

  2. Distress screening: an opportunity for enhancing quality cancer care and promoting the oncology social work profession.

    PubMed

    Zebrack, Brad; Burg, Mary Ann; Vaitones, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Throughout its history, social work has played a critical role in major client/patient care initiatives because of its unique perspective, wisdom, and skills. The new screening standards set forth by the American College of Surgeons' Commission on Cancer place oncology social workers at the forefront of developing and implementing procedures for distress screening. Our profession is again challenged to work across disciplines and change systems of care to improve the health and welfare of patients with cancer and their families. Indeed, emerging research suggests that the use of psychosocial screening instruments results in reductions in emotional distress, better quality of life, and improved patient-provider communication. As an introduction to this special issue on distress screening, this article offers a brief overview of issues related to distress screening that are covered by papers authored in this special issue by Association of Oncology Social Work members. Topics addressed include a review of the historical context driving distress screening implementation, barriers and challenges to oncology social workers trying to implement distress screening, statistical and cultural considerations for selecting screening tools, best practice models, and future considerations. This special issue is intended to be a primer and serves to promote oncology social workers' involvement and leadership in the development and implementation of distress screening. PMID:23101546

  3. Vision Loss and Psychological Distress among Ethiopians Adults: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Abateneh, Aemero; Tesfaye, Markos; Bekele, Sisay; Gelaw, Yeshigeta

    2013-01-01

    Background Vision loss causes major changes in lifestyle and habits that may result in psychological distress and further reduction in the quality of life. Little is known about the magnitude of psychological distress in patients with vision loss and its variation with the normal. The aim of this study is, therefore, to investigate the psychological effects of vision loss and its determinants among Ethiopians. Methods A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted on adults attending the Eye clinic of Jimma University Hospital. One hundred fifteen consecutive adults with visual loss at least in one eye and 115 age-and sex-matched controls with normal vision were studied. The psychological distress was measured using standardized Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Chi-square test and logistic regression were carried out and associations were considered significant at P<0.05. Results The overall prevalence of psychological distress was 33.4%. While psychological distress was found in 49.8% of patients who had loss of vision at least in one eye, only 18.3% of the controls had it. In the adjusted analysis, patients with vision loss had 4.6 times higher risk of suffering from psychological distress compared to patients with normal vision (AOR 4.56; 95% CI 2.16-9.62). Moreover, patients with vision loss in both eyes (AOR 4.00; 95% CI 1.453-11.015) and with worse visual acuity in the better eye (AOR 3.66; 95% CI 1.27-10.54) were significantly more likely to have psychological distress than those patients with vision loss in one eye only and good visual acuity in the better eye respectively. The cause of visual loss, pattern of visual loss, duration of visual loss and sociodemographic variables did not influence the likelihood of having psychological distress. Conclusion Prevalence of psychological distress was significantly higher in patients with visual loss compared to patients with normal vision. There is a need for integration of psychosocial care into the

  4. Psychological factors predicting the distress to female persistent genital arousal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Joana; Veríssimo, Ana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of persistent genital arousal are expected to negatively affect women's sexual and emotional well-being. However, not all women who experience persistent genital arousal complain about their genital condition. Against this background, this study aimed to evaluate psychological predictors of the distress associated with persistent genital arousal symptoms, as well as psychological moderators influencing the conditions under which persistent genital arousal causes distress. A total of 117 women reporting symptoms of persistent genital arousal answered to online questionnaires measuring personality traits, sexual beliefs, and dyadic adjustment. Women have also completed a checklist measuring the frequency/severity of persistent genital arousal symptoms and the distress/impairment caused by these symptoms. Results showed that neuroticism, (low) openness, sexual conservatism, and (low) dyadic adjustment significantly predicted distress associated with genital symptoms. Furthermore, sexual conservatism was found to moderate the relation between the symptoms' severity and the distress associated with those symptoms. Overall, sexual conservatism seems to be a key differentiator factor, influencing the psychological conditions under which women may report higher levels of distress caused by persistent genital arousal. Because such findings focus on the distress to genital arousal symptoms rather than on persistent genital arousal disorder as a clinical entity, the results under consideration may or may not characterize women formally assigned to the persistent genital arousal disorder label. PMID:24328817

  5. A Prospective Study of Psychological Distress and Weight Status in Adolescents/Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kubzansky, Laura D.; Gilthorpe, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Background The obesity–psychological distress relationship remains controversial. Purpose This study aims to assess whether adolescents’ psychological distress was associated with body mass index (BMI) class membership determined by latent class analysis. Methods Distress (anxiety, depression) and BMI were measured annually for 4 years in 1,528 adolescents. Growth mixture modeling derived latent BMI trajectory classes for models with 2–11 classes. The relationship of distress to class membership was examined in the best-fitting model using vector generalized linear regression. Results BMI trajectories were basically flat. The five-class model [normal weight (48.8%), overweight (36.7%), obese who become overweight (3.7%), obese (9.4%), and severely obese (1.3%)] was the preferred model (Bayesian information criterion=22789.2, df=31; ρ=0.84). Greater distress was associated with higher baseline BMI and, therefore, class membership. Conclusions Psychological distress is associated with higher BMI class during adolescence. To determine whether distress “leads” to greater weight gain may require studies of younger populations. PMID:22090262

  6. Coping and psychological distress in mothers of adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Jaser, Sarah S; Linsky, Rebecca; Grey, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe coping in mothers of adolescents with type 1 diabetes and to examine the association among mothers' diabetes-related stress and coping strategies and maternal psychological distress (e.g., symptoms of anxiety and depression), adolescent adjustment (e.g., symptoms of depression, quality of life), diabetes-related family conflict, and glycemic control. One hundred and eighteen mother-adolescent dyads completed measures of diabetes-related stress, coping, symptoms of anxiety and depression, quality of life, and family conflict. Data on glycemic control were collected from adolescents' medical charts. Single/divorced mothers and mothers of color were significantly more likely to use disengagement coping strategies (e.g., avoidance) than White and married/partnered mothers. Mothers' use of primary control coping (e.g., problem solving) and secondary control coping (e.g., acceptance) strategies was related to fewer symptoms of anxiety (r = - .51, -.39) and depression (r = - .32, -.37) and less family conflict (r = - .22, -.30, all p < .05). Mothers' use of disengagement coping strategies was related to greater symptoms of anxiety (r = .30) and depression (r = .27, both p < .01). Further, secondary control coping was found to mediate the relationship between diabetes-related stress and maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression. Maternal coping was not significantly associated with adolescent outcomes. The ways in which mothers of adolescents with type 1 diabetes cope with diabetes-related stress are associated with psychological distress and family conflict. By identifying and improving mothers' coping through screening and targeted interventions, we may have the potential to improve both maternal and adolescent outcomes. PMID:23420308

  7. Supporting Commission on Cancer–Mandated Psychosocial Distress Screening With Implementation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Lazenby, Mark; Ercolano, Elizabeth; Grant, Marcia; Holland, Jimmie C.; Jacobsen, Paul B.; McCorkle, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer (CoC) has set psychosocial distress screening as a new patient care standard to be met by 2015. The standard requires CoC-accredited cancer centers to integrate and monitor distress screening and, when needed, refer patients to psychosocial health care services. We describe the uptake of distress screening reported by applicants to a distress screening cancer education program and the degree of and barriers to implementation of distress screening programs reported by selected participants. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study collected quantitative data online from applicants to the program between August 1 and November 15, 2013, described by frequencies, percentages, and measures of central tendency, and qualitative data in person from accepted participants on February 13, 2014, analyzed using an integrated approach to open-ended data. Results: Applications were received from 70 institutions, 29 of which had started distress screening. Seven of 18 selected applicant institutions had not begun screening patients for distress. Analysis of qualitative data showed that all participants needed to create buy-in among key cancer center staff, including oncologists; to decide how to conduct screening in their institution in a way that complied with the standard; and to pilot test screening before large-scale rollout. Conclusion: Fourteen months before the compliance deadline, fewer than half of applicant institutions had begun distress screening. Adding implementation strategies to mandated quality care standards may reduce uncertainty about how to comply. Support from key staff members such as oncologists may increase uptake of distress screening. PMID:25758447

  8. Spiritual well-being may buffer psychological distress in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD).

    PubMed

    Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Crawford, Sybil; Tran, Chau; Goldberg, Robert; Rosenthal, Lawrence; Ockene, Ira

    2012-10-01

    Psychological distress is common in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) and has been associated with a worse prognosis. The authors examined whether spiritual wellbeing is associated with reduced psychological distress in patients with ICDs. The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Wellbeing (FACIT-SWB) questionnare and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were used to measure spiritual wellbeing and overall psychological distress. Multivariate linear regression was used to explore the relationship between these variables.The study sample included 46 ICD outpatients (32 M, 14 F; age range 43-83). An inverse association between HADS and FACIT-SWB scores was found, persisting after adjustment for demographics, anxiety/depression, medications, therapist support, and functional status (F = 0.001; β= -0.31, CI: -0.44, -0.19). In conclusion, spiritual wellbeing was independently associated with lower psychological distress in ICD outpatients. Spiritual wellbeing could act as a protective factor against psychological distress in these high-risk patients. PMID:23050210

  9. Spiritual well-being may buffer psychological distress in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD)

    PubMed Central

    Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Crawford, Sybil; Tran, Chau; Goldberg, Robert; Rosenthal, Lawrence; Ockene, Ira

    2012-01-01

    Psychological distress is common in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) and has been associated with a worse prognosis. The authors examined whether spiritual wellbeing is associated with reduced psychological distress in patients with ICDs. The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Wellbeing (FACIT-SWB) questionnare and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were used to measure spiritual wellbeing and overall psychological distress. Multivariate linear regression was used to explore the relationship between these variables. The study sample included 46 ICD outpatients (32 M, 14 F; age range 43–83). An inverse association between HADS and FACIT-SWB scores was found, persisting after adjustment for demographics, anxiety/depression, medications, therapist support, and functional status (F = 0.001; β= −0.31, CI: −0.44, −0.19). In conclusion, spiritual wellbeing was independently associated with lower psychological distress in ICD outpatients. Spiritual wellbeing could act as a protective factor against psychological distress in these high-risk patients. PMID:23050210

  10. Potential predictors of psychological distress and well-being in medical students: a cross-sectional pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Bore, Miles; Kelly, Brian; Nair, Balakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Research has consistently found that the proportion of medical students who experience high levels of psychological distress is significantly greater than that found in the general population. The aim of our research was to assess the levels of psychological distress more extensively than has been done before, and to determine likely predictors of distress and well-being. Subjects and methods In 2013, students from an Australian undergraduate medical school (n=127) completed a questionnaire that recorded general demographics, hours per week spent studying, in paid work, volunteer work, and physical exercise; past and current physical and mental health, social support, substance use, measures of psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, depression, anxiety, stress, burnout); and personality traits. Results Females were found to have higher levels of psychological distress than males. However, in regression analysis, the effect of sex was reduced to nonsignificance when other variables were included as predictors of psychological distress. The most consistent significant predictors of our 20 indicators of psychological distress were social support and the personality traits of emotional resilience and self-control. Conclusion The findings suggest that emotional resilience skills training embedded into the medical school curriculum could reduce psychological distress among medical students. PMID:27042156

  11. Psychological distress among Ethiopian and Russian Jewish immigrants to Israel: a cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    Ponizovsky, A; Ginath, Y; Durst, R; Wondimeneh, B; Safro, S; Minuchin-Itzigson, S; Ritsner, M

    1998-01-01

    A community survey was conducted examining the differences in levels of psychological distress and its symptomatology, comparing 110 Ethiopian-Jewish and 400 Russian-Jewish immigrants to Israel. Psychological distress was measured by the Talbieh Brief Distress Inventory. Russian immigrants were found to be more distressed than their Ethiopian counterparts and this between-group difference can be attributed to the greater relative number of females, older immigrants and those with longer duration of stay in Israel in the Russian sample. The highest levels of distress were observed for paranoid ideation in the Ethiopian sample and anxiety and hostility in the Russian sample. These symptoms were independent of gender and time since immigration. Russians with longer duration of stay demonstrated higher scores signifying adjustment difficulties than their Ethiopian counterparts. These results suggest that the differences in levels and symptom expression of psychological distress are determined, to a considerable extent, by demographic factors (sex, age) and the differing cultural backgrounds of the two immigrant groups. PMID:9574850

  12. Group-Based Trajectory Modeling of Caregiver Psychological Distress Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Roslyn A.; Kim, Kevin H.; Ren, Dianxu; Schulz, Richard; Given, Charles W.; Given, Barbara A.; Sherwood, Paula R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Competing theories of adaptation and wear-and-tear describe psychological distress patterns among family caregivers. Purpose This study seeks to characterize psychological distress patterns in family caregivers and identify predictors. Methods One hundred three caregivers of care recipients with primary malignant brain tumors were interviewed within 1, 4, 8, and 12 months post-diagnosis regarding psychological distress; care recipients were interviewed regarding clinical/functional characteristics. Group-based trajectory modeling identified longitudinal distress patterns, and weighted logistic/multinomial regression models identified predictors of distress trajectories. Results Group-based trajectory modeling identified high-decreasing (51.1 % of caregivers) and consistently low (48.9 %) depressive symptom trajectories, high-decreasing (75.5 %) and low-decreasing (24.5 %) anxiety trajectories, and high (37.5 %), moderate (40.9 %), and low-decreasing (21.6 %) caregiver burden trajectories. High depressive symptoms were associated with high trajectories for both anxiety and burden, lower caregivers age, income, and social support, and lower care recipient functioning. Conclusions Our data support the adaptation hypothesis; interventions should target those at risk for persistent distress. PMID:22585179

  13. It's in the mix: psychological distress differs between combinations of alexithymic facets

    PubMed Central

    Alkan Härtwig, Elif; Crayen, Claudia; Heuser, Isabella; Eid, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by difficulties in identifying, describing, and communicating one's emotions. The aim of the present study is to examine the usefulness of a typological approach considering the interaction between distinct alexithymic features within a population of high-alexithymic German adults (N = 217). Latent profile analysis (LPA) was employed to test for possible underlying profiles. A 3-profile solution showed the best fit: The profiles can be described as (1) “low”: lower load on all facets of alexithymia, (2) “mixed”: specific problems on identifying emotions, and (3) “high”: higher load on all facets of alexithymia. Moreover, this study tested how these profiles differed in psychological distress. “Mixed” profile, with specific problems on identifying emotions showed the highest levels of psychological distress. The present study suggests the importance of a specific combination of alexithymic features, rather than total alexithymia scores, as a risk factor for psychological distress. PMID:25429275

  14. Coping strategies: a prospective study of patterns, stability, and relationships with psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Morten B; Knardahl, Stein

    2014-04-01

    The aims of this article are: (1) to explore patterns (clusters) of coping strategies; (2) to examine the stability of individual coping strategies and patterns of coping over time; and (3) to establish long term associations between coping and psychological distress. Coping strategies were assessed with the Brief Cope questionnaire, whereas psychological distress was measured with the ten-item version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist, in a two-year prospective sample comprising 3,738 employees. Based on TwoStep cluster analysis of the Brief Cope, three different coping patterns were identified: low coping, engagement coping, and disengagement coping. Analyses of long-term stability indicated malleable properties for the individual coping strategies as well as the three clusters. Disengagement coping strategies in the form of self-blame and self-distraction were most strongly associated with distress at follow-up, whereas baseline distress was related to increased use of these strategies two years later. Coping patterns at baseline had no main effects on later levels of distress, but levels of distress at baseline predicted subsequent use of engagement and disengagement coping patterns. The finding that specific coping strategies are malleable suggests that it is possible to modify and develop dysfunctional strategies. The associations between disengagement coping strategies and distress indicate that this kind of coping is especially problematic with regard to mental health problems. A main contribution of this study is that it establishes cluster analytic techniques as beneficial in the assessment of coping. PMID:24697686

  15. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia during worry forecasts stress-related increases in psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Gouin, Jean-Philippe; Deschênes, Sonya S; Dugas, Michel J

    2014-09-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) has been conceptualized as an index of emotion regulation abilities. Although resting RSA has been associated with both concurrent and prospective affective responses to stress, the impact of RSA reactivity on emotional responses to stress is inconsistent across studies. The type of emotional stimuli used to elicit these phasic RSA responses may influence the adaptive value of RSA reactivity. We propose that RSA reactivity to a personally relevant worry-based stressor might forecast future affective responses to stress. To evaluate whether resting RSA and RSA reactivity to worry inductions predict stress-related increases in psychological distress, an academic stress model was used to prospectively examine changes in psychological distress from the well-defined low- and high-stress periods. During the low-stress period, 76 participants completed self-report mood measures and had their RSA assessed during a resting baseline, free worry period and worry catastrophizing interview. Participants completed another mood assessment during the high-stress period. Results indicated that baseline psychological distress predicted larger decreases in RSA during the worry inductions. Lower resting RSA and greater RSA suppression to the worry inductions at baseline prospectively predicted larger increases in psychological distress from the low- to high-stress period, even after accounting for the impact of baseline distress on RSA. These results provide further evidence that RSA may represent a unique index of emotion regulation abilities in times of stress. PMID:25089936

  16. Locus of control, minority stress, and psychological distress among lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals.

    PubMed

    Carter, Larry W; Mollen, Debra; Smith, Nathan Grant

    2014-01-01

    Within the framework of minority stress theory, lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals are conceptualized as members of a minority group defined by sexual orientation. Two of the component processes of minority stress hypothesized by Meyer (2003), internalized heterosexism and the experience of prejudice events, were examined in the current study. Both internalized heterosexism and the experience of prejudice events have been associated with increased psychological distress in LGB populations. Researchers have also observed a relationship between external locus of control and increased psychological distress in general population samples. The current study explored whether locus of control served as a moderator in the relationship between the overall psychological distress of LGB individuals and both internalized heterosexism and the experience of workplace-based prejudice events (n = 165). Results indicated that locus of control served as a moderator in the relationship between experience of workplace-based prejudice events and overall psychological distress but not for the relationship between internalized heterosexism and distress. PMID:24188657

  17. Psychological distress in African American grandmothers raising grandchildren: the contribution of child behavior problems, physical health, and family resources.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Susan J; Whitley, Deborah M; Campos, Peter E

    2013-08-01

    Diminished psychological health has been identified among caregiving grandmothers. The intent of this investigation was to examine psychological distress levels, as well as their predictors, in a sample of 480 caregiving African American grandmothers, mean age 56 years. Almost 40% (39.8%) of participants had clinically elevated psychological distress scores. Results of hierarchical multiple regression indicated that internalizing and externalizing child behavior problems, poor grandmother physical health, younger age of grandmother, and lack of family resources predicted 31% of the variance in psychological distress. Results provide direction for nursing interventions aimed at enhancing the psychological well-being of caregiving grandmothers. PMID:23606233

  18. Suicidal Behavior and Psychological Distress in University Students: A 12-nation Study.

    PubMed

    Eskin, Mehmet; Sun, Jian-Min; Abuidhail, Jamila; Yoshimasu, Kouichi; Kujan, Omar; Janghorbani, Mohsen; Flood, Chris; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Tran, Ulrich S; Mechri, Anwar; Hamdan, Motasem; Poyrazli, Senel; Aidoudi, Khouala; Bakhshi, Seifollah; Harlak, Hacer; Moro, Maria Francesca; Nawafleh, Hani; Phillips, Louise; Shaheen, Amira; Taifour, Shahama; Tsuno, Kanami; Voracek, Martin

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of suicidal behavior and psychological distress in university students across 12 nations. A total of 5,572 university students from 12 countries were surveyed about suicide ideation, suicide attempts, and psychological distress by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Almost 29% of the samples reported having contemplated suicide and 7% reported attempting suicide. Of the total sample, 51.1% scored above the General Health Questionnaire-12 ≥ 3 cut-off points, 41.6% above the GHQ-12 ≥ 4 cut-off points, and 33.8% scored above the GHQ-12 ≥ 5 cut-off points. While odds of suicide ideation were elevated in Austria and the UK, reduced ORs were detected for China, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, and Turkey. Similarly, while odds of suicide attempt were high in Jordan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, and to some extent in Turkey, reduced ORs were observed for Austria, China, Italy, Japan and the United States. Elevated ORs for psychological distress were seen in Japan, Jordan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, and Turkey but reduced ORs were noted in Austria, China, Iran, Italy, and the United States. Psychological distress was strongly associated with reports of suicide ideation and attempts. Suicide ideation, suicide attempt, and psychological distress are common in university students but their rates vary depending on the sociocultural context. Due attention should be devoted to the mental health needs of young adults enrolled in higher educational institutions and more cross-cultural research is warranted to better understand the etiology of the observed intersocietal variations in suicidal behavior and psychological distress. PMID:26954847

  19. Serious Psychological Distress and Diabetes Management among American Indians and Alaska Natives

    PubMed Central

    Huyser, Kimberly R.; Manson, Spero M.; Nelson, Lonnie A.; Noonan, Carolyn; Roubideaux, Yvette

    2015-01-01

    Objective This paper examined associations between serious psychological distress and blood glucose level (HbA1C) and Body Mass Index (BMI) among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) participants in a cardiovascular disease prevention program. Design Using linear regression, we assessed the relationships between serious psychological distress and HbA1C and BMI at baseline and one-year later. Setting, Participants, and Intervention: AI/AN participants were 18 years or older, diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes, and enrolled in the Special Diabetes Project for Indians - Healthy Heart Project. Main Outcome Measures Outcomes were percentage of HbA1C and BMI, measured at enrollment and first annual exam. Both outcomes were continuous measures in all analyses. Results Serious psychological distress was associated at baseline with increased HbA1C in the unadjusted and adjusted models (adjusted b=0.17%, p< 0.01). Serious psychological distress also was associated at baseline with increased BMI (0.635 kg/m2, p = 0.01) and at one-year with increased BMI (0.174 kg/m2, p = 0.01) in the unadjusted model. After adjustment for demographic and health characteristics, these relationships were no longer significant. Conclusions Cross-sectional baseline findings are consistent with existing literature. One-year findings suggest need for further inquiry into mediators of psychological distress and examination of additional diabetes-specific health outcomes. Additional years of observation may be needed to disentangle relationships between serious psychological distress and BMI. PMID:26118140

  20. Understanding and reducing work-related psychological distress in interns: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Facey, A D; Tallentire, V; Selzer, R M; Rotstein, L

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to collate and evaluate studies investigating either the factors influencing work-related psychological distress in postgraduate year one (PGY1) doctors or the strategies designed to reduce it. This is a systematic review conducted in May 2014. The data sources were key databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Embase) and manual searches of reference lists for relevant studies published in the last 15 years. This study is an empirical research designed either to elucidate the factors influencing work-related psychological distress in PGY1 doctors, or examine the effects of an intervention designed to reduce it. Key information was extracted into an electronic data extraction form, which incorporated elements of Murphy's model of work stress factors. A total of 21 studies was included in the review; 16 studies had examined the factors influencing work-related psychological distress, four studies had investigated strategies to reduce it, and a single study addressed both. Analysis of the findings of each individual study through the conceptual framework provided by Murphy's model revealed a discrepancy between the factors influencing work-related psychological distress and the focus of strategies designed to reduce it. Factors such as career progression and a PGY1 doctor's role within the organisation were not addressed in the interventions identified. Significant sources of psychological distress in PGY1 doctors remain overlooked by current interventions. Strategies designed to prevent or reduce psychological distress should be broad-based and grounded in both the literature exploring salient factors and existing theories of work-related stress. PMID:25871700

  1. Age, Period, and Cohort Effects in Psychological Distress in the United States and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Nicholson, Ryan; Kinley, Jolene; Raposo, Sarah; Stein, Murray B.; Goldner, Elliot M.; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-01-01

    Although treatment utilization for depression and anxiety symptoms has increased substantially in the United States and elsewhere, it remains unclear whether the underlying population distribution of psychological distress is changing over time. We estimated age, period, and cohort effects using data from 2 countries over more than 20 years, including National Health Interview Surveys from 1997 to 2010 (n = 447,058) and Canadian Community Health Surveys from 2000 to 2007 (n = 125,306). Psychological distress was measured with the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. By period, both countries showed the highest levels of psychological distress in 2001 and the lowest levels in 2007. By age, psychological distress was highest in adolescence and during the late 40s and early 50s. By cohort, Canadian Community Health Survey results indicated a decreasing cohort effect among those born in 1922–1925 through 1935–1939 (β = −0.36, 95% confidence interval: −0.45, −0.27) and then a continuously increasing cohort effect during the remainder of the 20th century through 1989–1992 (β = 0.49, 95% confidence interval: 0.38, 0.61). The National Health Interview Survey data captured earlier-born cohorts and indicated an increased cohort effect for the earliest born (for 1912–1914, β = 0.44, 95% confidence interval: 0.26, 0.61). In sum, individuals in the oldest and more recently born birth cohorts have higher mean psychological distress symptoms compared with those born in midcentury, underscoring the importance of a broad, population-level lens for conceptualizing mental health. PMID:24692432

  2. Psychological distress and the perception of radiation risks: the Fukushima health management survey

    PubMed Central

    Yabe, Hirooki; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohira, Tetsuya; Niwa, Shin-Ichi; Ohtsuru, Akira; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Maeda, Masaharu; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess relationships between the perception of radiation risks and psychological distress among evacuees from the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster. Methods We analysed cross-sectional data from a survey of evacuees conducted in 2012. Psychological distress was classified as present or absent based on the K6 scale. Respondents recorded their views about the health risks of exposure to ionizing radiation, including immediate, delayed and genetic (inherited) health effects, on a four-point Likert scale. We examined associations between psychological distress and risk perception in logistic regression models. Age, gender, educational attainment, history of mental illness and the consequences of the disaster for employment and living conditions were potential confounders. Findings Out of the 180 604 people who received the questionnaire, we included 59 807 responses in our sample. There were 8717 respondents reporting psychological distress. Respondents who believed that radiation exposure was very likely to cause health effects were significantly more likely to be psychologically distressed than other respondents: odds ratio (OR) 1.64 (99.9% confidence interval, CI: 1.42–1.89) for immediate effects; OR: 1.48 (99.9% CI: 1.32–1.67) for delayed effects and OR: 2.17 (99.9% CI: 1.94–2.42) for genetic (inherited) effects. Similar results were obtained after controlling for individual characteristics and disaster-related stressors. Conclusion Among evacuees of the Fukushima nuclear disaster, concern about radiation risks was associated with psychological distress. PMID:26478623

  3. Group-Level Coping as a Moderator between Heterosexism and Sexism and Psychological Distress in Sexual Minority Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymanski, Dawn M.; Owens, Gina P.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was: (1) to examine concurrently the relationship between heterosexist events and sexist events and psychological distress and (2) to investigate sexual orientation-based and gender-based group-level coping as potential moderators of the heterosexism-distress and sexism-distress links among 282 lesbian and bisexual women.…

  4. Interacting with the public as a risk factor for employee psychological distress

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The 1-month prevalence of any mental disorder in employees ranges from 10.5% to 18.5%. Mental disorders are responsible for substantial losses in employee productivity in both absenteeism and presenteeism. Potential work related factors contributing to mental difficulties are of increasing interest to employers. Some data suggests that being sales staff, call centre operator, nurse or teacher increases psychological distress. One aspect of these occupations is that there is an interaction with the public. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether employees who interact with the public are at greater risk of psychological distress. Methods Data was collected from two studies. In study one 11,259 employees (60% female; mean age 40-years ± SD 10-years) from six employers responded to the Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ) which contained a measure of psychological distress, the Kessler 6 (K6). Employees were coded as to whether or not they interacted with the public. Binomial logistic regression was performed on this data to determine the odds ratio (OR) for moderate or high psychological distress in employees that interacted with the public. Study two administered the HPQ and K6 to sales employees of a large Australian bank (N = 2,129; 67% female; mean age 39-years SD 10-years). This questionnaire also probed how many contacts individuals had with the public in the past week. Analysis of variance was used to determine if the number of contacts was related to psychological distress. Results In study one the prevalence of psychological distress in those that interacted and did not interact with the public were 19% and 15% respectively (P < 0.001). Interacting with the public was associated with an increased OR of 1.3 (P < 0.001) for moderate to high levels of psychological distress. In study two employees with less than 25 contacts with the public per week had a lower K6 score than those who had ≥ 25 contacts per week (P = 0

  5. Correlations among general stress, family environment, psychological distress, and pain experience.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, P; Pillay, Y G

    1994-06-01

    For 15 subjects with chronic low back pain and 15 matched healthy controls analysis of scores on Life Experiences Survey (general stress), Family Environment Scale (family relationships), Beck Depression Inventory (psychological distress), and McGill Pain Questionnaire (pain experience) indicated that the scores on environmental stressors, general stress, and psychological distress were higher for the group with pain. They experienced more negative life events and were more depressed. Certain family characteristics (decreased scores on Cohesion, Independence, Organization, and increased scores on Conflict) were unique to that group. Finally, certain family variables which did not differentiate between the groups were associated with the pain experience. PMID:7936956

  6. Cognitive Distortion and Psychological Distress in Chronic Low Back Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Timothy W.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Indicated that cognitive distortion was associated with high scores on the Minnesota Multiophasic Personality Inventory (MMPH) Depression (D), Psychasthenia (Pt), and Schizophrenia (Sc) scales, but not the Hypochondriasis (Hs) and Hysteria (Hy) scales. Cognitive distortion is likely to be an important factor in general distress but not in…

  7. Detrimental Effects of Workplace Bullying: Impediment of Self-Management Competence via Psychological Distress.

    PubMed

    Giorgi, Gabriele; Perminienė, Milda; Montani, Francesco; Fiz-Perez, Javier; Mucci, Nicola; Arcangeli, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Emotional intelligence has been linked to various positive outcomes, such as organizational effectiveness, commitment, morale, and health. In addition, longitudinal studies demonstrate that the competencies of emotional intelligence may change and be developed over time. Researchers have argued that work relationships are important for the development of emotional competence, but their usefulness depends on the quality of the relationship. Workplace bullying is considered to be one of the most stressful phenomena in the workplace and an example of a dysfunctional and toxic relationship that has detrimental effects on an individual's physical and psychological health. Hence, the objective of the present study was to analyze the relationship linking workplace bullying, psychological distress and the self-management competence of emotional intelligence. More specifically, we tested part of the model presented by Cherniss and Goleman (2001) in which researchers argued that individual emotional intelligence is a result of relationships at work. In addition, we extended the model by proposing that the relationship between exposure to workplace bullying and the competence of self-management is explained by psychological distress. Data analysis of 326 participants from two private sector organizations in Italy demonstrated that psychological distress fully mediated the relationship between workplace bullying and the emotional intelligence ability of self-management. The present study's findings point to the idea that, not only may emotional intelligence assist in handling exposure to workplace bullying, but exposure to workplace bullying may impede emotional intelligence via psychological distress. PMID:26913013

  8. Detrimental Effects of Workplace Bullying: Impediment of Self-Management Competence via Psychological Distress

    PubMed Central

    Giorgi, Gabriele; Perminienė, Milda; Montani, Francesco; Fiz-Perez, Javier; Mucci, Nicola; Arcangeli, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Emotional intelligence has been linked to various positive outcomes, such as organizational effectiveness, commitment, morale, and health. In addition, longitudinal studies demonstrate that the competencies of emotional intelligence may change and be developed over time. Researchers have argued that work relationships are important for the development of emotional competence, but their usefulness depends on the quality of the relationship. Workplace bullying is considered to be one of the most stressful phenomena in the workplace and an example of a dysfunctional and toxic relationship that has detrimental effects on an individual’s physical and psychological health. Hence, the objective of the present study was to analyze the relationship linking workplace bullying, psychological distress and the self-management competence of emotional intelligence. More specifically, we tested part of the model presented by Cherniss and Goleman (2001) in which researchers argued that individual emotional intelligence is a result of relationships at work. In addition, we extended the model by proposing that the relationship between exposure to workplace bullying and the competence of self-management is explained by psychological distress. Data analysis of 326 participants from two private sector organizations in Italy demonstrated that psychological distress fully mediated the relationship between workplace bullying and the emotional intelligence ability of self-management. The present study’s findings point to the idea that, not only may emotional intelligence assist in handling exposure to workplace bullying, but exposure to workplace bullying may impede emotional intelligence via psychological distress. PMID:26913013

  9. Does Social Support Protect against Depression & Psychological Distress? Findings from the RELACHS Study of East London Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khatib, Yasmin; Bhui, Kamaldeep; Stansfeld, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    Few prospective studies have examined the relationship between social support and psychological distress and depressive symptoms in adolescents. The aims of this study were to test whether social support is protective against psychological distress and depressive symptoms in an ethnically diverse population of adolescents and whether differences…

  10. Acculturation and Acculturative Stress as Predictors of Psychological Distress and Quality-of-Life Functioning in Hispanic Psychiatric Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoman, Lisa Vinuesa; Suris, Alina

    2004-01-01

    This study examined acculturation level and type, acculturative stress, and several demographic variables as predictors of psychological distress and health-related quality of life in a sample of 101 Hispanic patients at a community psychiatric clinic. Acculturative stress was predictive of psychological distress beyond the effects of the…

  11. Does Perceived Racial Discrimination Predict Changes in Psychological Distress and Substance Use over Time? An Examination among Black Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Varner, Fatima A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed whether perceived discrimination predicted changes in psychological distress and substance use over time and whether psychological distress and substance use predicted change in perceived discrimination over time. We also assessed whether associations between these constructs varied by gender. Our sample included 607 Black emerging…

  12. [The undesirable, psychologically adverse effects of screening].

    PubMed

    Döbrössy, Bence; Kovács, Attila; Budai, András; Cornides, Agnes; Döbrössy, Lajos

    2007-09-01

    The psychological adverse effects might play an important role in the non-compliance with the offered screening examination. The possible sources of them are three-fold: 1. The general human attitude, such as the rejection of health interventions, particularly those aiming at the prevention of eventual future health problems instead of handling existing complaints and symptoms at present; the screening can be seen as a "future-oriented" intervention. 2. The cultural image of cancer and the disbelief of its curability. 3. The subjective experiences in relation to the screening process. The providers have to do their best to eliminate these causes: by means of a) health education addressing people of various ages, social classes and cultural levels, promoting the understanding of the importance of disease prevention, and, changing their negative, defeatist attitude towards cancer; b) minimizing the psychological adverse effects of all kinds. This can be done by proper organisation of the screening process; optimizing the quality of work, and, provision of good quality of information and advice to the screenees before, during and after the screening. PMID:17766222

  13. Concealing Concealment: The Mediating Role of Internalized Heterosexism in Psychological Distress Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hoy-Ellis, Charles P.

    2016-01-01

    Recent population-based studies indicate that sexual minorities aged 50 and older experience significantly higher rates of psychological distress than their heterosexual age-peers. The minority stress model has been useful in explaining disparately high rates of psychological distress among younger sexual minorities. The purpose of this study is to test a hypothesized structural relationship between two minority stressors—internalized heterosexism and concealment of sexual orientation—and consequent psychological distress among a sample of 2,349 lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults aged 50 to 95 years old. Structural equation modeling indicates that concealment has a nonsignificant direct effect on psychological distress but a significant indirect effect that is mediated through internalized heterosexism; the effect of concealment is itself concealed. This may explain divergent results regarding the role of concealment in psychological distress in other studies, and the implications will be discussed. PMID:26322654

  14. Sexual identity and HIV status influence the relationship between internalized stigma and psychological distress in black gay and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Boone, Melissa R; Cook, Stephanie H; Wilson, Patrick A

    2016-06-01

    Experiences of internalized homophobia and HIV stigma in young Black gay and bisexual men (GBM) may lead to psychological distress, but levels of distress may be dependent upon their sexual identity or HIV status. In this study, we set out to explore the associations between psychological distress, sexual identity, and HIV status in young Black GBM. Participants were 228 young Black GBM who reported on their psychological distress, their HIV status, and their sexual identity. Results indicated that internalized homophobia was significantly related to psychological distress for gay men, but not for bisexual men. HIV stigma was related to psychological stress for HIV-positive men, but not for HIV-negative men. Results indicate a need for more nuanced examinations of the role of identity in the health and well-being of men who have sex with men. PMID:27017893

  15. Predictors of psychological distress in advanced cancer patients under palliative treatments.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Frutos, D; Baca-Garcia, E; García-Foncillas, J; López-Castroman, J

    2016-07-01

    This work aims to investigate the factors associated with psychological distress in advanced cancer patients under palliative treatment. We comprehensively assessed the demographic, psychosocial and health factors of 158 advanced cancer patients. Patients with high and low distress, according to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, were compared. A regression analysis was built to identify the best predictors of distress. Patients with high psychological distress (81%) were more likely to have lung cancer, suicidal ideation, hopelessness, low quality of life and poor body image than those without. In the multivariate model, only poor emotional functioning (OR = .89; 95% CI = .83-.95; p ≤ .001), hopelessness (OR = .86; 95% CI = .78-.94; p ≤ .001) and body image distortions (OR = .77; 95% CI = .68-.85; p = .005) were retained. High levels of hopelessness, impaired emotional functioning and body image distortions are the main factors associated with psychological distress in patients with advanced cancer. Potential interventions to modify these factors in palliative units are discussed. PMID:27271213

  16. Psychological Distress After Orthopedic Trauma: Prevalence in Patients and Implications for Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Heather K; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Vincent, Kevin R; Brisbane, Sonya T; Sadasivan, Kalia K

    2015-09-01

    Orthopedic trauma is an unforeseen life-changing event. Serious injuries include multiple fractures and amputation. Physical rehabilitation has traditionally focused on addressing functional deficits after traumatic injury, but important psychological factors also can dramatically affect acute and long-term recovery. This review presents the effects of orthopedic trauma on psychological distress, potential interventions for distress reduction after trauma, and implications for participation in rehabilitation. Survivors commonly experience post-traumatic stress syndrome, depression, and anxiety, all of which interfere with functional gains and quality of life. More than 50% of survivors have psychological distress that can last decades after the physical injury has been treated. Early identification of patients with distress can help care teams provide the resources and support to offset the distress. Several options that help trauma patients navigate their short-term recovery include holistic approaches, pastoral care, coping skills, mindfulness, peer visitation, and educational resources. The long-term physical and mental health of the trauma survivor can be enhanced by strategies that connect the survivor to a network of people with similar experiences or injuries, facilitate support groups, and social support networking (The Trauma Survivors Network). Rehabilitation specialists can help optimize patient outcomes and quality of life by participating in and advocating these strategies. PMID:25772720

  17. Exploring mediating factors in the association between parental psychological distress and psychosocial maladjustment in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Campoy, Eric; Chaix, Basile; Chauvin, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Parental psychopathology is associated with increased psychosocial maladjustment in adolescents. We examined, from a psychosocial perspective, the association between parental psychological distress and psychosocial maladjustment in adolescents and assessed the mediating role of psychosocial covariates. This is a cross-sectional survey and the setting include representative sample of Quebec adolescents in 1999. The participants of the study include 13- and 16-year-old children (N = 2,346) in the Social and Health Survey of Quebec Children and Adolescents. The main outcome measures are internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders, substance use, and alcohol consumption. For statistical analysis, we used structural equation modeling to test for mediation. Internalizing and externalizing disorders were significantly associated with parental psychological distress, but not substance use or alcohol consumption. The higher the parental distress, the higher the risk of adolescent mental health disorders. The association between parental psychological distress and internalizing disorders was mediated by adolescent self-esteem, parental emotional support and extrafamilial social support. As for externalizing disorders, these variables only had an independent effect. In conclusion, A family’s well being is a necessary condition for psychosocial adjustment in adolescence. Beyond the psychiatric approach, psychosocial considerations need to be taken into consideration to prevent negative mental health outcomes in children living in homes with distressed parents. PMID:20127380

  18. The relationships among self-care, dispositional mindfulness, and psychological distress in medical students

    PubMed Central

    Slonim, Jessica; Kienhuis, Mandy; Di Benedetto, Mirella; Reece, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Past research suggests that medical students experience high levels of psychological distress. Objective The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationships among engagement in self-care behaviours, dispositional mindfulness, and psychological distress. Methods The sample consisted of 139 female and 68 male Australian medical students (N=207) aged 17–41 years (M=21.82, SD=3.62) across the 5 years of the Monash University medical course. Participants completed an online survey comprising a demographics questionnaire, the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales. Results Results revealed significant and interpretable multivariate correlations between distress and both mindfulness and self-care. Furthermore, the dispositional mindfulness observation subscale was found to be a significant moderator of the relationship between several dimensions of self-care and psychological distress. Conclusions The present study points to the potential of self-care and mindfulness to decrease medical student distress and enhance well-being. PMID:26112354

  19. Parental separation and adult psychological distress: an investigation of material and relational mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An association between parental separation or divorce occurring in childhood and increased psychological distress in adulthood is well established. However relatively little is known about why this association exists and how the mechanisms might differ for men and women. We investigate why this association exists, focussing on material and relational mechanisms and in particular on the way in which these link across the life course. Methods This study used the 1970 British Cohort Study (n = 10,714) to investigate material (through adolescent and adult material disadvantage, and educational attainment) and relational (through parent–child relationship quality and adult partnership status) pathways between parental separation (0–16 years) and psychological distress (30 years). Psychological distress was measured using Rutter’s Malaise Inventory. The inter-linkages between these two broad mechanisms across the life course were also investigated. Missing data were multiply imputed by chained equations. Path analysis was used to explicitly model prospectively-collected measures across the life course, therefore methodologically extending previous work. Results Material and relational pathways partially explained the association between parental separation in childhood and adult psychological distress (indirect effect = 33.3% men; 60.0% women). The mechanisms were different for men and women, for instance adult partnership status was found to be more important for men. Material and relational factors were found to interlink across the life course. Mechanisms acting through educational attainment were found to be particularly important. Conclusions This study begins to disentangle the mechanisms between parental separation in childhood and adult psychological distress. Interventions which aim to support children through education, in particular, are likely to be particularly beneficial for later psychological health. PMID:24655926

  20. Racial Differences in Effects of Religiosity and Mastery on Psychological Distress: Evidence from National Longitudinal Data.

    PubMed

    Oates, Gary L; Goode, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    This research engages nationally representative longitudinal data and a multipopulation LISREL model to investigate variation among black and white Americans in the impact of religiosity and mastery on psychological distress. Guided by the stress and coping perspective and prominent theorizing about how religiosity influences mental health, the model assesses not only direct effects of religiosity and mastery on distress but also the possibility of religiosity and mastery inhibiting distress indirectly (via effects on other coping resources or stressors) and attenuating the distress-inducing properties of individual stressors. Findings solidly support the endorsed proposition of religiosity's being particularly beneficial to blacks' emotional well-being and moderately support the prediction of mastery's being primarily helpful to whites'. Public religiosity substantially eclipses private and subjective religiosity as a facilitator of blacks' emotional well-being, and although main effects dominate, there are significant mediation and moderation effects of religiosity or mastery within each race. PMID:23762783

  1. Racial Differences in Effects of Religiosity and Mastery on Psychological Distress: Evidence from National Longitudinal Data

    PubMed Central

    Oates, Gary L.; Goode, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This research engages nationally representative longitudinal data and a multipopulation LISREL model to investigate variation among black and white Americans in the impact of religiosity and mastery on psychological distress. Guided by the stress and coping perspective and prominent theorizing about how religiosity influences mental health, the model assesses not only direct effects of religiosity and mastery on distress but also the possibility of religiosity and mastery inhibiting distress indirectly (via effects on other coping resources or stressors) and attenuating the distress-inducing properties of individual stressors. Findings solidly support the endorsed proposition of religiosity’s being particularly beneficial to blacks’ emotional well-being and moderately support the prediction of mastery’s being primarily helpful to whites’. Public religiosity substantially eclipses private and subjective religiosity as a facilitator of blacks’ emotional well-being, and although main effects dominate, there are significant mediation and moderation effects of religiosity or mastery within each race. PMID:23762783

  2. Psychological Distress as a Risk Factor for Re-Victimization in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Carlos A.; Finkelhor, David; Clifford, Cynthia; Ormrod, Richard K.; Turner, Heather A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study is to examine the role of psychological distress in predicting child re-victimization across various forms including conventional crime, peer/sibling violence, maltreatment, sexual violence, and witnessed violence. Methods: Longitudinal data from the Developmental Victimization Survey, which surveyed children…

  3. Correlates of Psychological Distress and Major Depressive Disorder among African American Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Karen D.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Watkins, Daphne C.; Chatters, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the demographic correlates of depressive symptoms, serious psychological distress (SPD), and major depressive disorder (MDD; 12-month and lifetime prevalence) among a national sample of African American men. Analysis of the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) data set provides first-time substantiation of important…

  4. Social Coping and Psychological Distress among Chinese Gifted Students in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, David W.

    2004-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between social coping and psychological distress in a sample of Chinese students in Hong Kong. These students, nominated by their schools to join university gifted programs, were assessed with respect to their nonverbal IQ (nonverbal reasoning) social coping strategies in response to being gifted, and…

  5. The Relationships among Caregiver and Adolescent Identity Status, Identity Distress and Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Rachel E.; Berman, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study addresses the relationships of caregiver identity status on their adolescent children's identity distress and psychological symptom severity among a sample of adolescents (age 12-19) in treatment at a community mental health center (N = 60 caregiver-child dyads). A significant proportion of caregivers (10%) and their adolescent…

  6. Multiple Roles, Spillover Effects and Psychological Distress. Working Paper No. 200.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Rosalind C.; Marshall, Nancy L.

    In spite of general concern about the impact on women's mental health of multiple roles, most studies have examined only the impact of individual roles. This study examined the relationship between multiple-role occupancy and quality and psychological distress in a disproportionate random sample of employed female health care workers (N=403).…

  7. Sexual Orientation and Psychological Distress in Adolescence: Examining Interpersonal Stressors and Social Support Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueno, Koji

    2005-01-01

    Adolescents with homosexual and bisexual orientations have higher levels of psychological distress than other adolescents. Drawing from previous studies, I hypothesize that this epidemiological pattern is due largely to the interpersonal problems that sexual minorities experience at home and at school. Analysis of longitudinal data based on a…

  8. Correlates and Predictors of Psychological Distress Among Older Asian Immigrants in California.

    PubMed

    Chang, Miya; Moon, Ailee

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress occurs frequently in older minority immigrants because many have limited social resources and undergo a difficult process related to immigration and acculturation. Despite a rapid increase in the number of Asian immigrants, relatively little research has focused on subgroup mental health comparisons. This study examines the prevalence of psychological distress, and relationship with socio-demographic factors, and health care utilization among older Asian immigrants. Weighted data from Asian immigrants 65 and older from 5 countries (n = 1,028) who participated in the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) were analyzed descriptively and in multiple linear regressions. The prevalence of psychological distress varied significantly across the 5 ethnic groups, from Filipinos (4.83%) to Chinese (1.64%). General health status, cognitive and physical impairment, and health care utilization are all associated (p < .05) with psychological distress in multiple linear regressions. These findings are similar to those from previous studies. The findings reinforce the need to develop more culturally effective mental health services and outreach programs. PMID:26760294

  9. Childhood Risk Factors for Alcohol Abuse and Psychological Distress among Adult Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Tonda L.; Johnson, Timothy P.; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Szalacha, Laura A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationships between childhood and family background variables, including sexual and physical abuse, and subsequent alcohol abuse and psychological distress in adult lesbians. Methodology: Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate relationships between childhood sexual and physical abuse and parenting…

  10. Examining behavioural coping strategies as mediators between work-family conflict and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Aazami, Sanaz; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Akmal, Syaqirah

    2015-01-01

    We examined the mediating role of behavioral coping strategies in the association between work-family conflict and psychological distress. In particular, we examined the two directions of work-family conflict, namely, work interference into family and family interference into work. Furthermore, two coping styles in this study were adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 429 Malaysian working women using self-reported data. The results of mediational analysis in the present study showed that adaptive coping strategy does not significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. However, maladaptive coping strategies significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. These results show that adaptive coping strategies, which aimed to improve the stressful situation, are not effective in managing stressor such as work-family conflict. We found that experiencing interrole conflict steers employees toward frequent use of maladaptive coping strategies which in turn lead to psychological distress. Interventions targeted at improvement of coping skills which are according to individual's needs and expectation may help working women to balance work and family demands. The important issue is to keep in mind that effective coping strategies are to control the situations not to eliminate work-family conflict. PMID:25695097

  11. Gender Differences in Self-Silencing and Psychological Distress in Informal Cancer Carers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ussher, Jane M.; Perz, Janette

    2010-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in self-silencing, the relationship between self-silencing and psychological distress, and reasons for self-silencing in informal cancer carers (329 women, 155 men), using a mixed-method design. Men reported greater self-silencing than women on the Silencing the Self Scale; however, women reported higher…

  12. Perceived addiction to Internet pornography and psychological distress: Examining relationships concurrently and over time.

    PubMed

    Grubbs, Joshua B; Stauner, Nicholas; Exline, Julie J; Pargament, Kenneth I; Lindberg, Matthew J

    2015-12-01

    In the United States, Internet pornography use is a common behavior that has risen in popularity in recent years. The present study sought to examine potential relationships between pornography use and well-being, with a particular focus on individual perceptions of pornography use and feelings of addiction. Using a large cross-sectional sample of adults (N = 713), perceived addiction to Internet pornography predicted psychological distress above and beyond pornography use itself and other relevant variables (e.g., socially desirable responding, neuroticism). This model was replicated using a large cross-sectional sample of undergraduates (N = 1,215). Furthermore, a 1-year, longitudinal follow-up with a subset of this sample (N = 106) revealed a relationship between perceived addiction to Internet pornography and psychological distress over time, even when controlling for baseline psychological distress and pornography use. Collectively, these findings suggest that perceived addiction to Internet pornography, but not pornography use itself, is uniquely related to the experience of psychological distress. PMID:26372200

  13. Prenatal and Postpartum Maternal Psychological Distress and Infant Development: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Dawn; Tough, Suzanne; Whitfield, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Infant development plays a foundational role in optimal child development and health. Some studies have demonstrated an association between maternal psychological distress and infant outcomes, although the main emphasis has been on postpartum depression and infant-maternal attachment. Prevention and early intervention strategies would benefit from…

  14. Relationships among Social Support, Perceived Control, and Psychological Distress in Late Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemeroff, Robin; Midlarsky, Elizabeth; Meyer, Joseph F.

    2010-01-01

    Social support has been shown to buffer the relationship between life stress and psychological distress in late life. However, little attention has been paid to personality variables that are associated with the capacity to effectively utilize social support. Although the buffering effects of social support were replicated in our sample of 134…

  15. Family Structure, Stress, and Psychological Distress: A Demonstration of the Impact of Differential Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avison, William R.; Ali, Jennifer; Walters, David

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we evaluate the relative power of differential exposure and differential vulnerability to stressors to account for variations in psychological distress between single and married mothers. The data for this assessment are derived from a longitudinal survey of 518 single mothers and 502 married mothers living in London, Ontario,…

  16. Impact of Adult Sons' Incarceration on African American Mothers' Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kerry M.; Ensminger, Margaret E.; Robertson, Judith A.; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the effect of sons' incarceration on their mothers' psychological distress. Interviews were conducted over the life course with a community cohort of African American mothers who had children in first grade in 1966-1967 when the study began ("N"=615). Thirty years later, their sons had significant rates of…

  17. The Relation between Masculine Role Conflict and Psychological Distress in Male University Counseling Center Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Glenn E.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the relations between components of masculine gender role conflict and specific symptoms of psychological distress among 130 men seeking counseling services. Masculine role conflict significantly predicted paranoia, psychoticism, and obsessive compulsivity. Future research should explore elements of effective prevention and remediation of…

  18. Maternal Psychological Distress in the First Two Years after Very Preterm Birth and Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meijssen, Dominique; Wolf, Marie-Jeanne; Koldewijn, Karen; van Baar, Anneloes; Kok, Joke

    2011-01-01

    Preterm delivery may have a strong impact on mothers. In a multicentre randomised controlled trial, including very preterm infants (less than 32 weeks and/or less than 1500 g), the effect of the Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program (IBAIP) on maternal psychological distress at 6, 12 and 24 (corrected) months after preterm birth…

  19. Effectiveness of Partner Social Support Predicts Enduring Psychological Distress after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rini, Christine; Redd, William H.; Austin, Jane; Mosher, Catherine E.; Meschian, Yeraz Markarian; Isola, Luis; Scigliano, Eileen; Moskowitz, Craig H.; Papadopoulos, Esperanza; Labay, Larissa E.; Rowley, Scott; Burkhalter, Jack E.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; DuHamel, Katherine N.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) survivors who are 1 to 3 years posttransplant are challenged by the need to resume valued social roles and activities--a task that may be complicated by enduring transplant-related psychological distress common in this patient population. The present study investigated whether transplant…

  20. Neglect and perceived stigmatization impact psychological distress of orphans in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Hermenau, Katharin; Eggert, Ina; Landolt, Markus A.; Hecker, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Background Research has shown that orphans in sub-Saharan Africa are at increased risk for mental health problems. Exposure to maltreatment and HIV/AIDS-related stigmatization are related to orphans’ psychological distress. Yet, researchers stress the need for more research in low-income countries to identify which factors of being an orphan may lead to psychological distress. Objectives The present study aims to systematically investigate orphans’ experiences of maltreatment and stigmatization to identify factors that relate to their psychological distress. Methods In total, 89 Tanzanian children who had lost at least one parent were compared to 89 matched non-orphans (mean age: 11 years; 51% boys). We measured exposure to maltreatment and perceived stigmatization as an orphan. Mental health was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Children's Depression Inventory, the UCLA PTSD Index for Children, and the Reactive–Proactive Questionnaire. Results Orphans reported significantly more experiences of neglect, but not of abuse. A group comparison revealed more depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and aggressive behavior among orphans. Neglect, abuse, and stigmatization correlated with orphans’ internalizing and externalizing problems, yet only neglect and stigmatization were related to orphans’ depression severity. Perceived stigmatization moderated the relationship between neglect and depression. Conclusions Our findings suggest that orphans in Tanzania are at increased risk of experiencing neglect. Maltreatment and perceived stigmatization may play a role in orphans’ psychological distress. Culturally appropriate and evidence-based interventions may help to prevent maltreatment and stigmatization of orphans. PMID:26589257

  1. Examining Behavioural Coping Strategies as Mediators between Work-Family Conflict and Psychological Distress

    PubMed Central

    Shamsuddin, Khadijah

    2015-01-01

    We examined the mediating role of behavioral coping strategies in the association between work-family conflict and psychological distress. In particular, we examined the two directions of work-family conflict, namely, work interference into family and family interference into work. Furthermore, two coping styles in this study were adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 429 Malaysian working women using self-reported data. The results of mediational analysis in the present study showed that adaptive coping strategy does not significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. However, maladaptive coping strategies significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. These results show that adaptive coping strategies, which aimed to improve the stressful situation, are not effective in managing stressor such as work-family conflict. We found that experiencing interrole conflict steers employees toward frequent use of maladaptive coping strategies which in turn lead to psychological distress. Interventions targeted at improvement of coping skills which are according to individual's needs and expectation may help working women to balance work and family demands. The important issue is to keep in mind that effective coping strategies are to control the situations not to eliminate work-family conflict. PMID:25695097

  2. Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Correlates of Psychological Distress among Students at an Australian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larcombe, Wendy; Finch, Sue; Sore, Rachel; Murray, Christina M.; Kentish, Sandra; Mulder, Raoul A.; Lee-Stecum, Parshia; Baik, Chi; Tokatlidis, Orania; Williams, David A.

    2016-01-01

    This research contributes to the empirical literature on university student mental well-being by investigating the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of severe levels of psychological distress. More than 5000 students at a metropolitan Australian university participated in an anonymous online survey in 2013 that included the short form of…

  3. Psychological Distress and Burnout in Australian Employment Service Workers: Two Years On.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Wendy; Goddard, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Case managers providing intensive assistance to the unemployed completed the 12-item General Health Questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results reveal that 48% endorsed responses indicating psychological distress, and on emotional exhaustion, the core dimension of burnout on the MBI, the mean for these case managers was significantly…

  4. Psychological Distress, Perceived Family Conflict, and Career Development Issues in College Students of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantine, Madonna G.; Flores, Lisa Y.

    2006-01-01

    We tested a hypothesized path model that examined the relationships among psychological distress, perceived family conflict, and various career-related constructs in a sample of 329 African American, Asian American, and Latino/Latina American college students. Across each subsample of participants, we found that greater levels of psychological…

  5. "Something's Gotta Give:" Advanced-Degree Seeking Women's Experiences of Sexism, Role Overload, and Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Lindsey M.

    2014-01-01

    With the rise in advanced-degree seeking women and the minimal research on the dual impact of sexism and role overload, the current study aims to better understand the impact of sexism and role overload on psychological distress in a particular sample of advanced-degree seeking women. Seventy-six female medical student participants (mean age 24.7)…

  6. Racial Identity, Maternal Support, and Psychological Distress among African American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bernat, Debra Hilkene; Sellers, Robert M.; Notaro, Paul C.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the role of racial identity and maternal support in reducing psychological distress among African American twelfth-graders. Results provided little support for a direct association between racial identity or maternal support and depressive symptoms and anxiety within a multivariate context. Influence of racial identity and…

  7. Self-Efficacy Beliefs as Predictors of Loneliness and Psychological Distress in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Prem S.; Debats, Dominique L.

    2002-01-01

    Sociodemographic variables, social support, and physical health have been used previously in a few predictor models of loneliness and psychological distress in late life. The present study, however, was designed to test the hypothesis that self-efficacy beliefs of elderly persons are significantly stronger predictors of loneliness and…

  8. Factors Influencing College Student Health: Development of the Psychological Distress Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustman, Patrick J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes the three-phase development of the Psychological Distress Inventory (PDI), an instrument designed primarily to measure life stress in college students. Standard psychometric information is presented, including reliability, validity, and some effects of response set. The PDI allows users to separately assess degree of depression, anxiety,…

  9. Effects of Participation in a Sexual Assault Risk Reduction Program on Psychological Distress following Revictimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouilso, Emily R.; Calhoun, Karen S.; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study followed women who participated in a sexual assault risk reduction program and a wait-list control group for 4 months. Those women in both groups who reported being revictimized (N = 147) were assessed to determine the effect of program participation on psychological distress. Intervention group participants reported a…

  10. Mediators of the Relationship between Internalized Oppressions and Lesbian and Bisexual Women's Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymanski, Dawn M.; Kashubeck-West, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of internalized oppressions to the psychological distress of 304 lesbian and bisexual women. In addition, it investigated whether self-esteem and social support mediated the relationship between internalized oppressions and mental health. Results indicate that after controlling for education, internalized…

  11. The Spectrum Disorders: An Exploratory Study of Family, Social, Individual and Psychological Distress Dimensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarski, John J.; And Others

    Although there is literature on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), empirical research on family, social, and individual factors that may influence the psychological distress experienced by AIDS, Aids-Related Complex (ARC), Human Immunodeficiency Virus positive (HIV+) and worried well individuals is limited. This study explored the…

  12. Correlates and Predictors of Psychological Distress among Afghan Refugees in San Diego County

    PubMed Central

    James, Sigrid; Siddiq, Hafifa; Montgomery, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The psychological effects of war and resulting displacement continue to negatively impact Afghan refugees. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that are associated with and predict psychological distress symptoms among Afghan refugees. We analyzed data from a diverse sample of 130 Afghan refugees recruited through non-random sampling in the San Diego area. Participants completed self-report questionnaires consisting of a culturally validated measure of psychological distress, the Afghan Symptom Checklist [ASCL] alongside standardized measures of acculturation, social support, and perceived stress. In bivariate analyses, older age, older age at migration, female gender, being widowed, having lower education, being unemployed, unable to comfortably pay monthly bills, lower acculturation and social support, and higher levels of perceived stress were associated with psychological distress. However, only few variables – female gender, being widowed, unable to comfortably pay monthly bills, and perceived stress – remained significant in multivariate analysis. The findings from this study contribute to understanding the social determinants of distress that affect Afghans in exile even after long-term resettlement in the US. These reported outcomes support the need for continued research with Afghans, alongside the implementation of culturally relevant psychosocial interventions that emphasize prevention of post-resettlement stressors immediately upon resettlement. PMID:26543500

  13. Sex Differences in Mediating and Moderating Processes Linking Economic Stressors, Psychological Distress, and Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Robyn Lewis; Richman, Judith A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Given the recent downturn in the U.S. economy, we considered in this study the processes linking economic stressors, psychological distress, and two alcohol-related outcomes (past-month drinking and problematic drinking). Method: Data were drawn from a mail survey of a national sample of 663 respondents. Structural equation modeling was used to assess whether psychological distress mediates the associations between economic stressors and the alcohol-related outcomes considered and whether these associations varied by gender. Results: Controlling for correlations among the outcomes and the effects of the sociodemographic control variables, psychological distress was found to partly explain the association between economic stressors and problematic drinking. The mediating effects on problematic drinking were significantly greater for men than women. Conclusions: The findings demonstrate the utility of considering interrelationships among alcohol-related outcomes and, in this context, reveal the circumstances in which gender matters most for understanding the associations among economy-related stressors, psychological distress, and drinking. PMID:22846245

  14. Marriage Amendments and Psychological Distress in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual (LGB) Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostosky, Sharon Scales; Riggle, Ellen D. B.; Horne, Sharon G.; Miller, Angela D.

    2009-01-01

    An online survey of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults (N = 1,552) examined minority stress (I. H. Meyer, 2003) and psychological distress following the 2006 general election in which constitutional amendments to limit marriage to 1 man and 1 woman were on the ballot in 9 states. Following the November election, participants living in states…

  15. Stress, Self-Efficacy, Social Support, and Psychological Distress among Prospective Chinese Teachers in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, David W.

    2002-01-01

    Examines teacher stress, self-efficacy, social support, and psychological distress in a sample of Chinese prospective teachers (n=83) in Hong Kong. Reports that the teachers experienced higher levels of symptoms in somatic problems followed by anxiety and dysphoria. Discusses self-efficacy and social support as protective factors for teacher…

  16. Association between Prenatal and Postnatal Psychological Distress and Toddler Cognitive Development: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Maternal psychological distress is one of the most common perinatal complications, affecting up to 25% of pregnant and postpartum women. Research exploring the association between prenatal and postnatal distress and toddler cognitive development has not been systematically compiled. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the association between prenatal and postnatal psychological distress and toddler cognitive development. Methods Articles were included if: a) they were observational studies published in English; b) the exposure was prenatal or postnatal psychological distress; c) cognitive development was assessed from 13 to 36 months; d) the sample was recruited in developed countries; and e) exposed and unexposed women were included. A university-based librarian conducted a search of electronic databases (Embase, CINAHL, Eric, PsycInfo, Medline) (January, 1990-March, 2014). We searched gray literature, reference lists, and relevant journals. Two reviewers independently evaluated titles/abstracts for inclusion, and quality using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network appraisal tool for observational studies. One reviewer extracted data using a standardized form. Results Thirteen of 2448 studies were included. There is evidence of an association between prenatal and postnatal distress and cognitive development. While variable effect sizes were reported for postnatal associations, most studies reported medium effect sizes for the association between prenatal psychological distress and cognitive development. Too few studies were available to determine the influence of the timing of prenatal exposure on cognitive outcomes. Conclusion Findings support the need for early identification and treatment of perinatal mental health problems as a potential strategy for optimizing toddler cognitive development. PMID:25996151

  17. Concern over radiation exposure and psychological distress among rescue workers following the Great East Japan Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami that followed caused severe damage along Japans northeastern coastline and to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. To date, there are few reports specifically examining psychological distress in rescue workers in Japan. Moreover, it is unclear to what extent concern over radiation exposure has caused psychological distress to such workers deployed in the disaster area. Methods One month after the disaster, 424 of 1816 (24%) disaster medical assistance team workers deployed to the disaster area were assessed. Concern over radiation exposure was evaluated by a single self-reported question. General psychological distress was assessed with the Kessler 6 scale (K6), depressive symptoms with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), fear and sense of helplessness with the Peritraumatic Distress Inventory (PDI), and posttraumatic stress symptoms with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Results Radiation exposure was a concern for 39 (9.2%) respondents. Concern over radiation exposure was significantly associated with higher scores on the K6, CES-D, PDI, and IES-R. After controlling for age, occupation, disaster operation experience, duration of time spent watching earthquake news, and past history of psychiatric illness, these associations remained significant in men, but did not remain significant in women for the CES-D and PDI scores. Conclusion The findings suggest that concern over radiation exposure was strongly associated with psychological distress. Reliable, accurate information on radiation exposure might reduce deployment-related distress in disaster rescue workers. PMID:22455604

  18. Psychological distress after employment transitions: the role of subjective financial position as a mediator

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Claudia; Benzeval, Michaela; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Objective To explore the extent to which the mental health effects of transitions into unemployment, or other forms of non‐employment, and vice versa, are mediated by financial changes. Methods Longitudinal analysis of the British Household Panel Survey from 1991 to 2000. There were 89 264 person‐years of observation from 14 686 individuals aged ⩾16 years. Main outcome measure was psychological distress measured by the 12‐item General Health Questionnaire. Results Transitions to unemployment were associated with increased risk of psychological distress for men (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.15 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.50 to 3.98)) and for women (OR 2.60 (95% CI 1.97 to 3.43)). Women who left work to look after the family were also more likely to experience psychological distress (OR 1.72 (95% CI 1.45 to 2.05)). A reduced risk of psychological distress was seen for transitions from unemployment to paid employment for men (OR 0.52 (95% CI 0.41 to 0.68)) and for women (OR 0.68 (95% CI 0.69 to 1.40)). Financial difficulty partially mediated these relationships: men who became unemployed and were worse off financially were more likely to experience psychological distress (OR 4.19 (95% CI 3.20 to 5.50)) than men who were not (OR 1.48 (95% CI 0.95 to 2.33)). Conversely, the beneficial health effect for people who left unemployment and became employed was confined to those who were better off financially (OR 0.34 (0.25 to 0.48) for men). Conclusions Changes in employment status have both direct and indirect effects, through changes in financial circumstances, on subsequent psychological distress. The results support the view that the direction of causation runs from employment transitions to financial difficulties and psychological distress. PMID:17183015

  19. A Study of Psychological Distress in Two Cohorts of First-Year Medical Students that Underwent Different Admission Selection Processes

    PubMed Central

    Yusoff, Muhamad Saiful Bahri; Rahim, Ahmad Fuad Abdul; Baba, Abdul Aziz; Ismail, Shaiful Bahari; Esa, Ab Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Background: Medical training is often regarded as a stressful period. Studies have previously found that 21.6%–50% of medical students experience significant psychological distress. The present study compared the prevalence and levels of psychological distress between 2 cohorts of first-year medical students that underwent different admission selection processes. Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted by comparing 2 cohorts of first-year medical students; 1 group (cohort 1) was selected based purely on academic merit (2008/2009 cohort) and the other group (cohort 2) was selected based on academic merit, psychometric assessment, and interview performance (2009/2010 cohort). Their distress levels were measured by the General Health Questionnaire, and scores higher than 3 were considered indicative of significant psychological distress. Results: The prevalence (P = 0.003) and levels (P = 0.001) of psychological distress were significantly different between the 2 cohorts. Cohort 1 had 1.2–3.3 times higher risk of developing psychological distress compared to cohort 2 (P = 0.007). Conclusion: Cohort 2 had better psychological health than cohort 1 and was less likely to develop psychological distress. This study provided evidence of a potential benefit of multimodal student selection based on academic merit, psychometric assessment, and interview performance. This selection process might identify medical students who will maintain better psychological health. PMID:23610547

  20. The Interaction of Perceived Maternal and Paternal Parenting Styles and Their Relation with the Psychological Distress and Offending Characteristics of Incarcerated Young Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Julie; Power, Kevin; Loucks, Nancy; Swanson, Vivien

    2001-01-01

    The Parental Bonding Instrument was used to examine the relationship between parenting styles and the psychological distress and offending patterns of a group of young male offenders in Scotland. High levels of psychological distress were linked with low parental care, but there was no association between psychological distress and parental…

  1. Rank, job stress, psychological distress and physical activity among military personnel

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical fitness is one of the most important qualities in armed forces personnel. However, little is known about the association between the military environment and the occupational and leisure-time dimensions of the physical activity practiced there. This study assessed the association of rank, job stress and psychological distress with physical activity levels (overall and by dimensions). Methods This a cross-sectional study among 506 military service personnel of the Brazilian Army examined the association of rank, job stress and psychological distress with physical activity through multiple linear regression using a generalized linear model. Results The adjusted models showed that the rank of lieutenant was associated with most occupational physical activity (β = 0.324; CI 95% 0.167; 0.481); “high effort and low reward” was associated with more occupational physical activity (β = 0.224; CI 95% 0.098; 0.351) and with less physical activity in sports/physical exercise in leisure (β = −0.198; CI 95% −0.384; −0.011); and psychological distress was associated with less physical activity in sports/exercise in leisure (β = −0.184; CI 95% −0.321; −0.046). Conclusions The results of this study show that job stress and rank were associated with higher levels of occupational physical activity. Moreover job stress and psychological distress were associated with lower levels of physical activity in sports/exercises. In the military context, given the importance of physical activity and the psychosocial environment, both of which are related to health, these findings may offer input to institutional policies directed to identifying psychological distress early and improving work relationships, and to creating an environment more favorable to increasing the practice of leisure-time physical activity. PMID:23914802

  2. Cumulative exposure to childhood stressors and subsequent psychological distress. An analysis of US panel data.

    PubMed

    Björkenstam, Emma; Burström, Bo; Brännström, Lars; Vinnerljung, Bo; Björkenstam, Charlotte; Pebley, Anne R

    2015-10-01

    Research has shown that childhood stress increases the risk of poor mental health later in life. We examined the effect of childhood stressors on psychological distress and self-reported depression in young adulthood. Data were obtained from the Child Development Supplement (CDS) to the national Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), a survey of US families that incorporates data from parents and their children. In 2005 and 2007, the Panel Study of Income Dynamics was supplemented with two waves of Transition into Adulthood (TA) data drawn from a national sample of young adults, 18-23 years old. This study included data from participants in the CDS and the TA (n = 2128), children aged 4-13 at baseline. Data on current psychological distress was used as an outcome variable in logistic regressions, calculated as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Latent Class Analyses were used to identify clusters based on the different childhood stressors. Associations were observed between cumulative exposure to childhood stressors and both psychological distress and self-reported depression. Individuals being exposed to three or more stressors had the highest risk (crude OR for psychological distress: 2.49 (95% CI: 1.16-5.33), crude OR for self-reported depression: 2.07 (95% CI: 1.15-3.71). However, a large part was explained by adolescent depressive symptoms. Findings support the long-term negative impact of cumulative exposure to childhood stress on psychological distress. The important role of adolescent depression in this association also needs to be taken into consideration in future studies. PMID:26301483

  3. Family-Related Opinions and Stressful Situations Associated with Psychological Distress in Women Undergoing Infertility Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Takaki, Jiro; Hibino, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540) at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%). The family-related opinions and stressful situations were evaluated using the original questions. Psychological distress was assessed using a self-report measure, the Kessler Six-question Psychological Distress Scale (K6). The K6 scores of the following participants were significantly (p < 0.05) and independently high: those with more frequent miscarriage/stillbirth/abortions, those with repeated miscarriages as the cause of infertility, those with infertility of unknown causes, those living with no child, those having a low joint income with their partner, those with the opinion that “women should devote themselves to their household duties” those who had considered stopping treatment, those without the opinion that “married life without children is favorable” and those who had experienced stressful situations such as inadequate explanation by doctors, frustration of multiple failed attempts, differences of opinion with the partner, and lack of knowledge regarding when to stop treatment. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment are outlined. The results of this study may contribute to the prevention of and care for psychological distress in female patients undergoing infertility treatment. PMID:25184788

  4. Reaction time and onset of psychological distress: the UK Health and Lifestyle Survey

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Catharine R; Harris, Alicia; Deary, Ian J

    2016-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional studies have shown that depression is often accompanied by less efficient cognitive function, as indicated by slower speed of information processing. The direction of effect is unclear. We investigated prospectively whether slower processing speed, as indexed by longer simple or choice reaction time, is associated with an increased risk of psychological distress. Methods Participants were 3088 men and women aged 18 and over who had taken part in the UK Health and Lifestyle Survey. Simple and choice reaction time was measured in the baseline survey. Symptoms of psychological distress were assessed at baseline and at the 7-year follow-up survey with the 30-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Results In unadjusted models, a SD slower simple or choice reaction time at baseline was associated with ORs for psychological distress (≥5 on GHQ) at follow-up of 1.14 (1.06 to 1.23; p<0.001) or 1.13 (1.04 to 1.22; p=0.002), respectively. Further adjustment for age, sex, social class, educational attainment, health behaviours, number of chronic physical illnesses present, neuroticism and GHQ score at baseline had only slight attenuating effects on these associations. In fully adjusted models, a SD slower simple or choice reaction time at baseline was associated with ORs for psychological distress of 1.11 (1.02 to 1.21; p=0.017) or 1.11 (1.00 to 1.24; p=0.048), respectively. Conclusions Slower processing speed may be a risk factor for the development of psychological distress. Future studies should explore the extent to which slower processing speed explains previously demonstrated associations between lower intelligence and poorer mental health. PMID:26847135

  5. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment.

    PubMed

    Takaki, Jiro; Hibino, Yuri

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540) at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%). The family-related opinions and stressful situations were evaluated using the original questions. Psychological distress was assessed using a self-report measure, the Kessler Six-question Psychological Distress Scale (K6). The K6 scores of the following participants were significantly (p < 0.05) and independently high: those with more frequent miscarriage/stillbirth/abortions, those with repeated miscarriages as the cause of infertility, those with infertility of unknown causes, those living with no child, those having a low joint income with their partner, those with the opinion that "women should devote themselves to their household duties" those who had considered stopping treatment, those without the opinion that "married life without children is favorable" and those who had experienced stressful situations such as inadequate explanation by doctors, frustration of multiple failed attempts, differences of opinion with the partner, and lack of knowledge regarding when to stop treatment. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment are outlined. The results of this study may contribute to the prevention of and care for psychological distress in female patients undergoing infertility treatment. PMID:25184788

  6. Mechanisms involved in the psychological distress of Black Caribbeans in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govia, Ishtar O.

    The mental health of ethnic minorities in the United States is of urgent concern. The accelerated growth of groups of ethnic minorities and immigrants in the United States and the stressors to which they are exposed, implores academic researchers to investigate more deeply health disparities and the factors that exacerbate or minimize such inequalities. This dissertation attended to that concern. It used data from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), the first survey with a national representative sample of Black Caribbeans, to explore mechanisms that involved in the psychological distress of Black Caribbeans in the United States. In a series of three studies, the dissertation investigated the role and consequence of (1) chronic discrimination, immigration factors, and closeness to ethnic and racial groups; (2) personal control and social support; and (3) family relations and social roles in the psychological distress of Black Caribbeans. Study 1 examined how the associations between discrimination and psychological distress were buffered or exacerbated by closeness to ethnic group and closeness to racial group. It also examined how these associations differed depending on immigration factors. Results indicated that the buffering or exacerbating effect of ethnic and racial group closeness varied according to the type of discrimination (subtle or severe) and were more pronounced among those born in the United States. Using the stress process framework, Study 2 tested moderation and mediation models of the effects of social support and personal control in the association between discrimination and distress. Results from a series of analyses on 579 respondents suggested that personal control served as a mediator in this relationship and that emotional support exerted a direct distress deterring function. Study 3 investigated sex differences in the associations between social roles, intergenerational family relationship perceptions and distress. Results

  7. Autobiographical memory and psychological distress in a sample of upper-limb amputees.

    PubMed

    Luchetti, Martina; Montebarocci, Ornella; Rossi, Nicolino; Cutti, Andrea G; Sutin, Angelina R

    2014-01-01

    Amputation is a traumatic and life-changing event that can take years to adjust to. The present study (a) examines psychological adjustment in a specific trauma-exposed sample, (b) compares the phenomenology (e.g., vividness) of amputation-related memories to more recent memories, and (c) tests whether memory phenomenology is associated with psychological distress. A total of 24 upper-limb amputees recalled two autobiographical memories--an amputation-related memory and a recent memory--and rated the phenomenological qualities of each memory, including Vividness, Coherence, Emotional Intensity, Visual Perspective, and Distancing. Participants also completed self-rated measures of psychological distress and personality. The sample was generally well adjusted; participants showed no relevant symptoms of anxiety and depression, and personality scores were similar to the general population. There were no significant differences in phenomenology between the two types of memories recalled. Even though amputation-related memories were, on average, almost 20 years older than the recent memories, they retained their intense phenomenology. Despite the intensity of the memory, none of the phenomenological dimensions were associated with psychological distress. It is worth to further define which dimensions of phenomenology characterize memories of traumatic events, and their association with individuals' psychological reactions. PMID:24924483

  8. Autobiographical Memory and Psychological Distress in a Sample of Upper-Limb Amputees

    PubMed Central

    Luchetti, Martina; Montebarocci, Ornella; Rossi, Nicolino; Cutti, Andrea G.; Sutin, Angelina R.

    2014-01-01

    Amputation is a traumatic and life-changing event that can take years to adjust to. The present study (a) examines psychological adjustment in a specific trauma-exposed sample, (b) compares the phenomenology (e.g., vividness) of amputation-related memories to more recent memories, and (c) tests whether memory phenomenology is associated with psychological distress. A total of 24 upper-limb amputees recalled two autobiographical memories–an amputation-related memory and a recent memory–and rated the phenomenological qualities of each memory, including Vividness, Coherence, Emotional Intensity, Visual Perspective, and Distancing. Participants also completed self-rated measures of psychological distress and personality. The sample was generally well adjusted; participants showed no relevant symptoms of anxiety and depression, and personality scores were similar to the general population. There were no significant differences in phenomenology between the two types of memories recalled. Even though amputation-related memories were, on average, almost 20 years older than the recent memories, they retained their intense phenomenology. Despite the intensity of the memory, none of the phenomenological dimensions were associated with psychological distress. It is worth to further define which dimensions of phenomenology characterize memories of traumatic events, and their association with individuals' psychological reactions. PMID:24924483

  9. Psychological Distress among Prostate Cancer Patients: Fact Or Fiction?

    PubMed Central

    Sharpley, Christopher F.; Bitsika, Vicki; Christie, David H.R.

    2008-01-01

    Although the detrimental effect upon psychological well-being of receiving a diagnosis of, or treatment for, cancer has been demonstrated across many different types of cancer, three recent reviews of the psychological health of prostate cancer patients have produced contradictory conclusions. In order to elucidate the reasons for these apparent different conclusions, each of these reviews is described, with principal methods and findings summarised. Actual data, methodology used to select/reject research studies for inclusion in reviews, plus the validity of strict methodological culling of some research studies are discussed. Several extra studies and commentaries are also described, and a resolution of the apparent contradictory review conclusions is offered. PMID:21892333

  10. Job strain and psychological distress among employed pregnant Thai women: role of social support and coping strategies.

    PubMed

    Sanguanklin, Natthananporn; McFarlin, Barbara L; Finnegan, Lorna; Park, Chang Gi; Giurgescu, Carmen; White-Traut, Rosemary; Engstrom, Janet L

    2014-08-01

    Most Thai women continue to work throughout their pregnancy; however, little is known about job strain and its relation to psychological distress. This study aimed to examine: (1) the direct effects of job strain, perceived workplace support, perceived family support, and coping strategies on psychological distress and (2) the moderating effect of perceived workplace support, perceived family support, and coping strategies on the relationship between job strain and psychological distress. Lazarus and Folkman's transactional model of stress and coping guided this cross-sectional study. Full-time employed pregnant women (N = 300) were recruited from three antenatal clinics in Thailand. Thai versions of the following instruments were used: the State-Anxiety Inventory and Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (psychological distress), the Job Content Questionnaire (job strain and perceived workplace support), the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey (perceived family support), and the Ways of Coping Checklist-Revised (coping strategies). Job strain with other predictors explained 54% of the variance in psychological distress. In the separate hierarchical multiple linear regression models, two types of coping strategies, seeking social support and wishful thinking, moderated the effects of job strain on psychological distress. Perceived family support had a direct effect in reducing psychological distress. Job strain is a significant contributor to psychological distress. The average levels of seeking social support and wishful thinking were most beneficial in moderating the negative impact of job strain on psychological distress. Since perceived workplace and family support did not have moderating effects, stress management programs for decreasing the levels of job strain should be developed. PMID:24414302

  11. Insights into preferences for psycho-oncology services among women with gynecologic cancer following distress screening.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Sylvie D; Kelly, Brian; Boyes, Allison; Cameron, Alexander; Adams, Catherine; Proietto, Anthony; Girgis, Afaf

    2014-06-01

    Much attention has been given to implementing routine screening programs in cancer care to improve the management of distress following diagnosis. Although patients might screen positive for distress, several studies have found that most then refuse additional psychosocial support. To inform the development of successful models of distress screening, this qualitative study explored preferences for psychosocial care among 18 women diagnosed with a gynecologic cancer who scored at least 4 on the Distress Thermometer (DT). Participants were recruited from a gynecologic oncology outpatient clinic in Newcastle, Australia, and interviewed. Unanimously, participants felt that completing the DT was an integral part of their cancer care. However, half then refused the referral to see a psychologist. These women typically reported that a referral was not needed, because their rating on the DT reflected transient stressors or physical distress. Many also spoke about their need to cope with the challenges they were facing on their own and the extensive social support they already had in place to help them overcome these challenges. In contrast, women who accepted referral to the psychologist often struggled to cope with several losses they felt had existential and long-term effects. Commonly, these women reported not having the social support they needed, managing several concurrent life stressors, and/or not having the repertoire of coping skills they required to "remain afloat." Findings from this study begin to bridge the gap between clinicians' and patients' expectations of how psychosocial services should be used in response to distress screening. PMID:24925200

  12. Parent-Child Relationships and Parent Psychological Distress: How Do Social Support, Strain, Dissatisfaction, and Equity Matter?

    PubMed

    Reczek, Corinne; Zhang, Zhe

    2016-10-01

    Relationships with children are important for parents' psychological well-being, yet limited research addresses whether and how relationships with adult children matter for aging parents' psychological well-being in mid- to later life. We used four waves of national longitudinal data (Americans' Changing Lives, N = 1,692) and growth curve models to test how multiple dimensions of the intergenerational relationship-social support, strain, equity, and dissatisfaction-shape mid- to later life parents' psychological distress over time. Results showed that social support and strain were associated with parents' distress at baseline but not over time, while relationship equity and dissatisfaction affected change in parents' psychological distress over time. Findings further showed how the effects of dissatisfaction varied for mothers and fathers. This study adds to an understanding of the social context of aging by drawing attention to how specific dimensions of the parent-child tie matter longitudinally for mid- to later life parents' psychological distress. PMID:26334963

  13. What are sleep-related experiences? Associations with transliminality, psychological distress, and life stress.

    PubMed

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit; Shahar, Golan

    2009-12-01

    Sleep-related experiences [Watson, D. (2001). Dissociations of the night: Individual differences in sleep-related experiences and their relation to dissociation and schizotypy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 526-535] refer to a host of nocturnal altered-consciousness phenomena, including narcoleptic tendencies, nightmares, problem-solving dreams, waking dreams, and lucid dreams. In an attempt to clarify the meaning of this construct, we examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of sleep-related experiences (SREs), altered-consciousness tendencies (i.e., dissociation and transliminality), psychological distress, childhood maltreatment (i.e., abuse and neglect), and life stress in young adults. Both types of SREs (general SREs and lucid dreaming) were found to be distinguishable from altered-consciousness tendencies. Transliminality emerged as a longitudinal predictor of both general SREs and lucid dreams. Psychological distress and an increase in life stress predicted an increase in general SREs over a 3-month interval. We conclude that transliminality is a general altered-consciousness trait that accounts for some of the individual differences in sleep-related experiences, and that general sleep experiences are an outcome of psychological distress and life stress. PMID:18799323

  14. Psychological Distress in Out-Patients Assessed for Chronic Pain Compared to Those with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rice, D; Mehta, S; Shapiro, A; Pope, J; Harth, M; Morley-Forster, P; Sequeira, K; Teasell, R

    2016-01-01

    Background. Patients diagnosed with chronic pain (CP) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) represent two samples with overlapping symptoms, such as experiencing significant pain. Objectives. To compare the level of psychological distress among patients diagnosed CP attending a specialist pain clinic with those attending a specialist RA clinic. Measures. A cross-sectional study was conducted at an academic specialist chronic pain and rheumatology clinic. Participants. 330 participants included a CP group (n = 167) and a RA group (n = 163) completed a booklet of questionnaires regarding demographic characteristics, duration, and severity of their pain. Psychological and personality variables were compared between the CP and RA participants using a Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA). Results. Level of psychological distress based on the subscales of the DASS (depression, anxiety, and stress), PASS (escape avoidance, cognitive anxiety, fear of pain, and physiological anxiety), and PCS (rumination, magnification, and helplessness) was significantly higher in the CP group compared to the RA group. Categorization of individuals based on DASS severity resulted in significant differences in rates of depression and anxiety symptoms between groups, with a greater number of CP participants displaying more severe depressive and anxiety symptoms. Discussion and Conclusions. This study found greater levels of psychological distress among CP individuals referred to an academic pain clinic when compared to RA patients referred to an academic rheumatology clinic. PMID:27445623

  15. Psychological Distress in Out-Patients Assessed for Chronic Pain Compared to Those with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rice, D.; Mehta, S.; Shapiro, A.; Pope, J.; Harth, M.; Morley-Forster, P.; Sequeira, K.; Teasell, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Patients diagnosed with chronic pain (CP) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) represent two samples with overlapping symptoms, such as experiencing significant pain. Objectives. To compare the level of psychological distress among patients diagnosed CP attending a specialist pain clinic with those attending a specialist RA clinic. Measures. A cross-sectional study was conducted at an academic specialist chronic pain and rheumatology clinic. Participants. 330 participants included a CP group (n = 167) and a RA group (n = 163) completed a booklet of questionnaires regarding demographic characteristics, duration, and severity of their pain. Psychological and personality variables were compared between the CP and RA participants using a Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA). Results. Level of psychological distress based on the subscales of the DASS (depression, anxiety, and stress), PASS (escape avoidance, cognitive anxiety, fear of pain, and physiological anxiety), and PCS (rumination, magnification, and helplessness) was significantly higher in the CP group compared to the RA group. Categorization of individuals based on DASS severity resulted in significant differences in rates of depression and anxiety symptoms between groups, with a greater number of CP participants displaying more severe depressive and anxiety symptoms. Discussion and Conclusions. This study found greater levels of psychological distress among CP individuals referred to an academic pain clinic when compared to RA patients referred to an academic rheumatology clinic.

  16. Alexithymia, anger and psychological distress in patients with myofascial pain: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Castelli, Lorys; De Santis, Federica; De Giorgi, Ilaria; Deregibus, Andrea; Tesio, Valentina; Leombruni, Paolo; Granieri, Antonella; Debernardi, Cesare; Torta, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate psychological distress, anger and alexithymia in a group of patients affected by myofascial pain (MP) in the facial region. Methods: 45 MP patients [mean (SD) age: 38.9 (11.6)] and 45 female healthy controls [mean (SD) age: 37.8 (13.7)] were assessed medically and psychologically. The medically evaluation consisted of muscle palpation of the pericranial and cervical muscles. The psychological evaluation included the assessment of depression (Beck Depression Inventory—short form), anxiety [State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Form Y (STAI-Y)], emotional distress [Distress Thermometer (DT)], anger [State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory—2 (STAXI-2)], and alexithymia [Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS)]. Results: the MP patients showed significantly higher scores in the depression, anxiety and emotional distress inventories. With regard to anger, only the Anger Expression-In scale showed a significant difference between the groups, with higher scores for the MP patients. In addition, the MP patients showed significantly higher alexithymic scores, in particular in the Difficulty in identifying feelings (F1) subscale of the TAS-20. Alexithymia was positively correlated with the Anger Expression-In scale. Both anger and alexithymia showed significant positive correlations with anxiety scores, but only anger was positively correlated with depression. Conclusion: A higher prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms associated with a higher prevalence of alexithymia and expression-in modality to cope with anger was found in the MP patients. Because the presence of such psychological aspects could contribute to generate or exacerbate the suffering of these patients, our results highlight the need to include accurate investigation of psychological aspects in MP patients in normal clinical practice in order to allow clinicians to carry out more efficacious management and treatment strategies. PMID:23914181

  17. Psychosocial work characteristics, need for recovery and musculoskeletal problems predict psychological distress in a sample of British workers.

    PubMed

    Devereux, J J; Rydstedt, L W; Cropley, M

    2011-09-01

    From an original sample of 2454 participants free of self-reported psychological distress, 1463 workers completed a 15-month follow-up. Baseline measures included exposure to job demands, decision latitude, social support and need for recovery. Psychological distress was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire at baseline and at follow-up. The findings showed that medium and high exposure to job demands and social support increased the risk of reporting psychological distress at 15-months (relative risk (RR) = 1.65, 1.45). The highest adjusted RR was observed for workers reporting a high need for recovery after work (RR 2.12, 1.90) and this finding was independent of the effects of job demands, decision latitude and social support. Neither decision latitude, nor low back problems increased the risk of reporting future psychological distress, although neck problems (RR = 1.66) and hand/wrist problems (RR = 1.45) did. It was concluded that need for recovery appears to be an important indicator of individual workers who are at risk of developing psychological distress long term. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This paper reports the findings of a longitudinal study showing that need for recovery from work was the strongest predictor, relative to psychosocial work characteristics (job demands, decision latitude and social support), and musculoskeletal problems, of psychological distress 15 months later in individuals initially free from distress. PMID:21851291

  18. The impact of pet loss on the perceived social support and psychological distress of hurricane survivors.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Sarah R; Rhodes, Jean E; Zwiebach, Liza; Chan, Christian S

    2009-06-01

    Associations between pet loss and posthurricane perceived social support and psychological distress were explored. Participants (N = 365) were primarily low-income African American single mothers who were initially part of an educational intervention study. All participants were exposed to Hurricane Katrina, and 47% experienced Hurricane Rita. Three waves of survey data, two from before the hurricanes, were included. Sixty-three participants (17.3%) reported losing a pet due to the hurricanes and their aftermath. Pet loss significantly predicted postdisaster distress, above and beyond demographic variables, pre- and postdisaster perceived social support, predisaster distress, hurricane-related stressors, and human bereavement, an association that was stronger for younger participants. Pet loss was not a significant predictor of postdisaster perceived social support, but the impact of pet loss on perceived social support was significantly greater for participants with low levels of predisaster support. PMID:19462438

  19. Neighborhood deprivation and maternal psychological distress during pregnancy: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seungmi; Kestens, Yan; Dahhou, Mourad; Daniel, Mark; Kramer, Michael S

    2015-05-01

    Maternal psychosocial distress is conceptualized as an important factor underlying the association between neighborhood deprivation and pregnancy outcomes. However, empirical studies to examine effects of neighborhood deprivation on psychosocial distress during pregnancy are scant. Based on a large multicenter cohort of pregnant women in Montreal, we examined (1) the extent to which psychosocial distress is clustered at the neighborhood-level, (2) the extent to which the clustering is explained by neighborhood material or social deprivation, and (3) whether associations between neighborhood deprivation and psychosocial distress persist after accounting for neighborhood composition (individual-level characteristics) using multilevel analyses. For 5,218 women residing in 740 neighborhoods, a prenatal interview at 24-26 gestational weeks measured both general and pregnancy-related psychological distress using well-validated scales: perceived stress, social support, depressive symptoms, optimism, commitment to the pregnancy, pregnancy-related anxiety, and maternal locus-of-control. Neighborhood deprivation indices were linked to study participants by their residential postal code. Neighborhood-level clustering (intraclass correlation) ranged from 1 to 2 % for perceived stress (lowest), optimism, pregnancy-related anxiety, and commitment to pregnancy to 4-6 % for perceived social support, depressive symptoms, and maternal locus of control (highest). Neighborhood material deprivation explained far more of the clustering (23-75 %) than did social deprivation (no more than 4 %). Although both material and social deprivation were associated with psychological distress in unadjusted analyses, the associations disappeared after accounting for individual-level socioeconomic characteristics. Our results highlight the importance of accounting for individual-level socioeconomic characteristics in studies of potential neighborhood effects on maternal mental health. PMID:25398620

  20. Psychological and Social Work Factors as Predictors of Mental Distress: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Finne, Live Bakke; Christensen, Jan Olav; Knardahl, Stein

    2014-01-01

    Studies exploring psychological and social work factors in relation to mental health problems (anxiety and depression) have mainly focused on a limited set of exposures. The current study investigated prospectively a broad set of specific psychological and social work factors as predictors of potentially clinically relevant mental distress (anxiety and depression), i.e. “caseness” level of distress. Employees were recruited from 48 Norwegian organizations, representing a wide variety of job types. A total of 3644 employees responded at both baseline and at follow-up two years later. Respondents were distributed across 832 departments within the 48 organizations. Nineteen work factors were measured. Two prospective designs were tested: (i) with baseline predictors and (ii) with average exposure over time ([T1+T2]/2) as predictors. Random intercept logistic regressions were conducted to account for clustering of the data. Baseline “cases” were excluded (n = 432). Age, sex, skill level, and mental distress as a continuous variable at T1 were adjusted for. Fourteen of 19 factors showed some prospective association with mental distress. The most consistent risk factor was role conflict (highest odds ratio [OR] 2.08, 99% confidence interval [CI]: 1.45–3.00). The most consistent protective factors were support from immediate superior (lowest OR 0.56, 99% CI: 0.43–0.72), fair leadership (lowest OR 0.52, 99% CI: 0.40–0.68), and positive challenge (lowest OR 0.60, 99% CI: 0.41–0.86). The present study demonstrated that a broad set of psychological and social work factors predicted mental distress of potential clinical relevance. Some of the most consistent predictors were different from those traditionally studied. This highlights the importance of expanding the range of factors beyond commonly studied concepts like the demand-control model and the effort-reward imbalance model. PMID:25048033

  1. Psychological Distress and Post-Traumatic Symptoms Following Occupational Accidents

    PubMed Central

    Ghisi, Marta; Novara, Caterina; Buodo, Giulia; Kimble, Matthew O.; Scozzari, Simona; Di Natale, Arianna; Sanavio, Ezio; Palomba, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder frequently occur as a consequence of occupational accidents. To date, research has been primarily focused on high-risk workers, such as police officers or firefighters, and has rarely considered individuals whose occupational environment involves the risk of severe, but not necessarily life-threatening, injury. Therefore, the present study was aimed at assessing the psychological consequences of accidents occurring in several occupational settings (e.g., construction and industry). Thirty-eight victims of occupational accidents (injured workers) and 38 gender-, age-, and years of education-matched workers who never experienced a work accident (control group) were recruited. All participants underwent a semi-structured interview administered by a trained psychologist, and then were requested to fill in the questionnaires. Injured workers reported more severe anxious, post-traumatic and depressive symptoms, and poorer coping skills, as compared to controls. In the injured group low levels of resilience predicted post-traumatic symptomatology, whereas the degree of physical injury and the length of time since the accident did not play a predictive role. The results suggest that occupational accidents may result in a disabling psychopathological condition, and that a brief psychological evaluation should be included in the assessment of seriously injured workers. PMID:25379258

  2. Psychological distress and post-traumatic symptoms following occupational accidents.

    PubMed

    Ghisi, Marta; Novara, Caterina; Buodo, Giulia; Kimble, Matthew O; Scozzari, Simona; Di Natale, Arianna; Sanavio, Ezio; Palomba, Daniela

    2013-12-01

    Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder frequently occur as a consequence of occupational accidents. To date, research has been primarily focused on high-risk workers, such as police officers or firefighters, and has rarely considered individuals whose occupational environment involves the risk of severe, but not necessarily life-threatening, injury. Therefore, the present study was aimed at assessing the psychological consequences of accidents occurring in several occupational settings (e.g., construction and industry). Thirty-eight victims of occupational accidents (injured workers) and 38 gender-, age-, and years of education-matched workers who never experienced a work accident (control group) were recruited. All participants underwent a semi-structured interview administered by a trained psychologist, and then were requested to fill in the questionnaires. Injured workers reported more severe anxious, post-traumatic and depressive symptoms, and poorer coping skills, as compared to controls. In the injured group low levels of resilience predicted post-traumatic symptomatology, whereas the degree of physical injury and the length of time since the accident did not play a predictive role. The results suggest that occupational accidents may result in a disabling psychopathological condition, and that a brief psychological evaluation should be included in the assessment of seriously injured workers. PMID:25379258

  3. Web-based treatment for infertility-related psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Minden B; Byrd, Michelle R; O'Donohue, William T; Jacobs, Negar Nicole

    2010-08-01

    Infertility has been associated with stigma and negative psychosocial functioning. However, only a small proportion of this population actually receives care. Fertility patients predominantly use the Internet for information gathering, social support, and assistance with decision-making; yet, available web resources are unreliable sources of mental health care. Web-based alternatives also have the potential to assist with intervention access difficulties and may be of significant lower cost. This study evaluated the efficacy of a web-based approach to providing a cognitive behavioral intervention with 31 infertile women seeking medical reproductive technologies. Following randomized assignment, participants using the web-based intervention were compared with those in a wait-list control condition on general and infertility-related psychological stress measures. Results were mixed regarding intervention efficacy. Significant declines in general stress were evidenced in the experimental group compared with a wait-list control group. However, website access did not result in statistically significant improvements on a measure of infertility-specific stress. These findings add to the literature on psychological interventions for women experiencing fertility problems. Moreover, despite the widespread use of the Internet by this population, the present study is one of the first to investigate the usefulness of the Internet to attenuate stress in this population. Preliminary results suggest general stress may be significantly reduced in infertile women using an online cognitive behavioral approach. PMID:20127127

  4. Cortisol response and psychological distress predict susceptibility to false memories for a trauma film.

    PubMed

    Monds, Lauren A; Paterson, Helen M; Ali, Sinan; Kemp, Richard I; Bryant, Richard A; McGregor, Iain S

    2016-10-01

    For eyewitness testimony to be considered reliable, it is important to ensure memory remains accurate following the event. As many testimonies involve traumatic, as opposed to neutral, events, it is important to consider the role of distress in susceptibility to false memories. The aim of this study was to investigate whether cortisol response following a stressor would be associated with susceptibility to false memories. Psychological distress responses were also investigated, specifically, dissociation, intrusions, and avoidance. Participants were allocated to one of three conditions: those who viewed a neutral film (N = 35), those who viewed a real trauma film (N = 35), and a trauma "reappraisal" group where participants were told the film was not real (N = 35). All received misinformation about the film in the form of a narrative. Participants provided saliva samples (to assess cortisol) and completed distress and memory questionnaires. Cortisol response was a significant predictor of the misinformation effect. Dissociation and avoidance were related to confabulations. In conclusion, following a stressor an individual may differ with regard to their psychological response to the event, and also whether they experience a cortisol increase. This may affect whether they are more distressed later on, and also whether they remember the event accurately. PMID:26493075

  5. Cyberbullying, School Bullying, and Psychological Distress: A Regional Census of High School Students

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Lydia; Stueve, Ann; Coulter, Robert W. S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Using data from a regional census of high school students, we have documented the prevalence of cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and their associations with psychological distress. Methods. In the fall of 2008, 20 406 ninth- through twelfth-grade students in MetroWest Massachusetts completed surveys assessing their bullying victimization and psychological distress, including depressive symptoms, self-injury, and suicidality. Results. A total of 15.8% of students reported cyberbullying and 25.9% reported school bullying in the past 12 months. A majority (59.7%) of cyberbullying victims were also school bullying victims; 36.3% of school bullying victims were also cyberbullying victims. Victimization was higher among nonheterosexually identified youths. Victims report lower school performance and school attachment. Controlled analyses indicated that distress was highest among victims of both cyberbullying and school bullying (adjusted odds ratios [AORs] were from 4.38 for depressive symptoms to 5.35 for suicide attempts requiring medical treatment). Victims of either form of bullying alone also reported elevated levels of distress. Conclusions. Our findings confirm the need for prevention efforts that address both forms of bullying and their relation to school performance and mental health. PMID:22095343

  6. [Work-related stress and psychological distress assessment in urban and suburban public transportation companies].

    PubMed

    Romeo, L; Lazzarini, G; Farisè, E; Quintarelli, E; Riolfi, A; Perbellini, L

    2012-01-01

    The risk of work-related stress has been determined in bus drivers and workers employed in the service department of two urban and suburban public transportation companies. The INAIL evaluation method (Check list and HSE indicator tool) was used. The GHQ-12 questionnaire, which is widely used to assess the level of psychological distress, was also employed. 81.9% of workers involved in the survey answered both the HSE indicator tool and the GHQ-12 questionnaire. The Check list evaluation showed an increase in quantifiable company stress indicators while close examination using the HSE indicator tool demonstrated critical situations for all the subscales, with the control subscales more problematic in bus drivers. The demand, manager's support, relationships and change subscales were most associated with psychological distress in bus drivers, while relationships, role, change and demand subscales were negatively related in workers of the service department. PMID:23405761

  7. Representations of nurses and individuals in psychological distress in the photographic exhibit USAnatomy, by Steven Klein.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Evanilda Souza de Santana; Araújo, Edna Maria de; Santos, Silvone Santa Bárbara da Silva; Santos, Alexandro Gesner Gomes Dos

    2016-06-01

    Objectives To analyze the representations of the nurse and individual in mental suffering portrayed in the photographic work by Steven Klein, in the USAnatomy exhibit held at the Museum of Sculpture (Museu da escultura) in São Paulo, in 2011. Methods Qualitative study carried out in 2012. Three photographs were submitted to iconographic analysis. The interpretation of the findings was based on theoretical frameworks of Foucault and Bourdieu on power relations. Results The nurse is represented as a sensual, insensitive person, with the power to control and torture while the person in psychological distress is represented as dirty, imprisoned and subjected to an asymmetrical relationship of power with the nurse. Final considerations Relationships of submission and symbolic dominance, in which the person in psychological distress has their body molded by discipline imposed by the nurse. Stereotypes of the image of the nurse oppose the ideology of the profession, which is to ensure the integrity of those being cared for. PMID:27253591

  8. Parents of Children with ASD Experience More Psychological Distress, Parenting Stress, and Attachment-Related Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Belinda M; Newman, Louise K; Gray, Kylie M; Rinehart, Nicole J

    2016-09-01

    There has been limited study of the relationship between child attachment and caregiver wellbeing amongst children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined self-reported child attachment quality alongside caregivers' report of their own psychological distress, parenting stress and attachment style, amongst 24 children with high-functioning autism or Asperger's disorder (ASD; aged 7-14 years) and 24 typically developing children (aged 7-12 years), and their primary caregiver. Children with ASD were no less secure, but their caregivers were more stressed and reported more attachment-related anxiety, compared to typically developing dyads. Child attachment security was related to caregiver psychological distress and attachment style, but only amongst typically developing children. Impacts of emotion processing impairments on caregiver-child relationships in ASD are discussed. PMID:27312716

  9. Traditional Machismo and Caballerismo as Correlates of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Psychological Distress, and Relationship Satisfaction in Hispanic Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Catherine J.; Owens, Gina P.; Mallinckrodt, Brent

    2013-01-01

    An online survey was used to examine 45 Hispanic male veterans' traditional machismo and caballerismo as correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), psychological distress, and relationship satisfaction. Higher traditional machismo was associated with higher PTSD severity and distress and lower relationship satisfaction. Psychometric…

  10. Modeling the Relationship between Trauma and Psychological Distress among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Women.

    PubMed

    Brumsey, Ayesha Delany; Joseph, Nataria T; Myers, Hector F; Ullman, Jodie B; Wyatt, Gail E

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the association between cumulative exposure to multiple traumatic events and psychological distress, as mediated by problematic substance use and impaired psychosocial resources. A sample of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women were assessed for a history of childhood and adult sexual abuse and non-sexual trauma as predictors of psychological distress (i.e., depression, non-specific anxiety, and posttraumatic stress), as mediated by problematic alcohol and drug use and psychosocial resources (i.e., social support, self-esteem and optimism). Structural equation modeling confirmed that cumulative trauma exposure is positively associated with greater psychological distress, and that this association is partially mediated through impaired psychosocial resources. However, although cumulative trauma was associated with greater problematic substance use, substance use did not mediate the relationship between trauma and psychological distress. PMID:24587871