Note: This page contains sample records for the topic psychological employment relationship from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results. Last update: November 12, 2013.
This study builds on earlier work showing that adult emotional competencies (EC) could be improved through a relatively brief training. In a set of 2 controlled experimental studies, the authors investigated whether developing EC could lead to improved emotional functioning; long-term personality changes; and important positive implications for physical, psychological, social, and work adjustment. Results of Study 1 showed that
Information technology (IT) professionals are continually placed in diverse employment arrangements as organizations continually look for ways to cut costs, enhance performance and maximize organizational goals. Organizations are using strategies beyond hiring permanent employees to achieve objectives in alternative sourcing. Even though the cost differential is positive when employing non-permanent individuals instead of permanent employees, little is known about the
\\u000a This chapter focuses on issues relating to termination of staffsomething that is never pleasant but occasionally necessary.\\u000a With adequate preparation and clear understanding of the law at least the drama can be reduced to some extent. There is also\\u000a a more fundamental reason to make sure a termination is handled properlylabor disputes can be expensive for employers in\\u000a China. For
The relationships among career experiences, perceptions of company employment practices, and psychological commitment to the firm are explored in this paper. Psychological commitment is defined as non-instrumental attraction to and identification with the goals and values of the organization, excluding propensity to stay in the organization. Results show that employee perceptions of the organization's adherence to career-oriented employment practices, including
We develop theory specifying the role of ownership in the employmentrelationship and address how sharing in ownership's privileges can create convergent psycholog- ical contracts between workers and employers. We specify two factors limiting the attractiveness of ownership for some workersthat is, the potential for internal conflict among worker\\/owners transitioning to this dual role and the risks that own- ership
|Summarizes results of the 1981 and 1982 Doctorate Employment Survey, which assesses the employment status of recent doctorate recipients in psychology. Reports that the employment market has stabilized, that unemployment remains low, and that the percentage of respondents who find academic employment has stopped declining. (KH)|
|Summarizes results of surveys among doctorate recipients in psychology on employment status; characteristics of secondary employment; sources of support for graduate training; geographic location after graduation; and employment in academic versus nonacademic settings. Presents results and trends in employment of 1975-1980 doctorate recipients.
The authors surveyed 347 public sector employees on 4 measurement occasions to investigate the conceptual distinctiveness of the psychological contract and perceived organizational support (POS) and how they are associated over time. Results support the distinctiveness of the 2 concepts. In terms of their interrelationships over time, by drawing on psychological contract theory the authors found little support for a reciprocal relationship between POS and psychological contract fulfillment. Under an alternative set of hypotheses, by drawing on organizational support theory and by separating psychological contract fulfillment into its 2 components (perceived employer obligations and inducements), the authors found that perceived employer inducements were positively related to POS, which, in turn, was negatively related to perceived employer obligations. The results suggest that POS and the components of psychological contract fulfillment are more important in predicting organizational citizenship behavior than psychological contract fulfillment. PMID:16060794
The opinion is expressed that clinical psychology is essential to the best practice of psychiatry. Clinical psychology stems from a background of testing, investigation and experimental approach, while psychiatry originates from a background of humanics, public service, interpersonal relationships with suffering people and an almost entirely clinical approach. Details in the relationship between psychiatry and clinical psychology in four areas
This paper explores the relationship between common-sense psychology (CSP) and scientific psychology (SP) which we could call the mind-mind problem. CSP has come under much attack recently, most of which is thought to be unjust or misguided. This paper's first section examines the many differences between the aims, interests, explananda, explanantia, methodology, conceptual frameworks, and relationships to the neurosciences,
The focus to date has been in the psychological contract between employer and employee. Based on the organizational behavior studies, this paper translates this theory to marketing relationships and develops a theoretical model involving psychological contract, customer trust, customer commitment, and customer loyalty, i.e., the relationship marketing mechanism based upon psychological contract. This relationship marketing mechanism is validated by an
...2013-07-01 false Employmentrelationship. 788.16 Section 788... Â§ 788.16 Employmentrelationship. (a) The Supreme Court...of an employeeâ and is dependent on the business which...business, the permanency of the relationship, the...
Objective: This research examined links between adolescents' experiences of psychological and physical relationship aggression and their psychological distress. Experiences of psychological and physical aggression were expected to correlate positively with symptoms of psychological distress, but experiences of psychological aggression were
Jouriles, Ernest N.; Garrido, Edward; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee
|Objective: This research examined links between adolescents' experiences of psychological and physical relationship aggression and their psychological distress. Experiences of psychological and physical aggression were expected to correlate positively with symptoms of psychological distress, but experiences of psychological aggression were
Jouriles, Ernest N.; Garrido, Edward; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee
|The Changing EmploymentRelationships Project examined the importance of good employmentrelationships for workers, employers, and public policy. A nationally representative sample of 2,500 employed Canadians was surveyed, and 8 focus groups were conducted. The research findings were analyzed to explain the multidimensional nature of the
Background This study investigated variations in psychological distress in a large sample of the Canadian population according to employment status, occupation, work organization conditions, reasons for non-employment, stress and support outside the work environment, family situation and individual characteristics. Methods Data came from cycle 4 (20001) of the Canadian National Population Health Survey conducted by Statistics Canada. Multiple regression analyses, adjusted for the family situation, the level of support from the social network and the individual characteristics, were carried out on a sample of 7258 individuals aged from 18 to 65 years. Results Occupation, social support at work, age, self-esteem, presence of children aged five and under and social support outside of the workplace were associated with lower levels of psychological distress, while permanent and temporary disability, psychological demands in the workplace, job insecurity, female gender, and stressful financial, marital and parental situations were related to higher levels of psychological distress. Conclusions Findings from this study suggest that, in terms of psychological distress, having a job is not always better than non-employment, and that specific non-employment situations associate differently with psychological distress.
Objectives Mental health disorders account for 13% of the global burden of disease, a burden that low-income countries are generally ill-equipped to handle. Research evaluating the association between mental health and employment in low-income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, is limited. We address this gap by examining the association between employment and psychological distress. Methods We analyzed data from the Ghana Socioeconomic Panel Survey using logistic regression (N?=?5,391 adults). In multivariable analysis, we estimated the association between employment status and psychological distress, adjusted for covariates. We calculated lost productivity from unemployment and from excess absence from work that respondents reported was because of their feelings of psychological distress. Findings Approximately 21% of adults surveyed had moderate or severe psychological distress. Increased psychological distress was associated with increased odds of being unemployed. Men and women with moderate versus mild or no psychological distress had more than twice the odds of being unemployed. The association of severe versus mild or no distress with unemployment differed significantly by sex (P-value for interaction 0.004). Among men, the adjusted OR was 12.4 (95% CI: 7.2, 21.3), whereas the association was much smaller for women (adjusted OR?=?3.8, 95% CI: 2.5, 6.0). Extrapolating these figures to the country, the lost productivity associated with moderate or severe distress translates to approximately 7% of the gross domestic product of Ghana. Conclusions Psychological distress is strongly associated with unemployment in Ghana. The findings underscore the importance of addressing mental health issues, particularly in low-income countries.
Investigates the effects of depressive symptomatology, parental stress, and instrumental support on maternal spanking. Results show that employment has a moderating effect on the relationship between mothers' psychological functioning and their decision to use spanking. The availability of instrumental support seems to increase the frequency of
In order to explore the relationship between social supporting system and psychological health of teenagers, we investigated the social supporting system and psychological health in Zhuzhou area.350 teenagers in this area were chosen as the subjects. Chinese Middle School Students Psychological Health Scale and Middle School Students' Social Support System Evaluating Scale was employed in our test. Results revealed that
The UK National Health Service (NHS) is facing recruitment challenges that mean it will need to become an 'employer of choice' if it is to continue to attract high-quality employees. This paper reports the findings from a study focusing on allied health professional staff (n = 67), aimed at establishing the expectations of the NHS inherent in their current psychological contract and to consider whether the government's drive to make the NHS a model employer meets those expectations. The findings show that the most important aspects of the psychological contract were relational and based on the investment made in the employmentrelationship by both parties. The employmentrelationship was one of high involvement but also one where transactional contract items, such as pay, were still of some importance. Although the degree of employee satisfaction with the relational content of the psychological contract was relatively positive, there was, nevertheless, a mismatch between levels of importance placed on such aspects of the contract and levels of satisfaction, with employees increasingly placing greater emphasis on those items the NHS is having the greatest difficulty providing. Despite this apparent disparity between employee expectation and the fulfilment of those expectations, the overall health of the psychological contract was still high. PMID:17524221
Objectives Psychological distress is a health issue of critical importance, especially in people of working age in developed countries,\\u000a including Japan. This study examined the relationships of income and employment arrangement with psychological distress and\\u000a treatment of depression in a national sample of Japanese adults.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Data for 10,959 men and 11,655 women 2559 years of age, obtained from the Comprehensive Survey of
Possibilities for employment opportunities related to aging are reviewed for four areas of professional psychology: clinical and counseling psychology, education, human factors engineering and ecological psychology, and teaching and research. Some reasons for the slow development of opportunities for employment in the field of psychology of aging are identified and discussed.
It is becoming increasingly evident that physical abuse is often accompanied by psychological abuse in marital as well as college dating relationships. However, no known research has been conducted to examine psychological abuse in the high school population, nor have gender differences been explored in relationship to psychological abuse of high school students. For this study, the Psychological Maltreatment of
This study was designed to identify possible predictors of psychological abuse in non-marital heterosexual romantic relationships. In attempting to predict who would self-identify as being psychologically abused, we investigated a number of variables including psychological abuse in past close relationships, psychological abuse within the family of origin, self-esteem, and characteristics of the current relationship, including seriousness and duration of the
|Presents data from four annual surveys of psychology doctorates with regard to rates of employment and unemployment; employment in psychology-related work, in academic settings, service, business, government, and other settings, full-time and part-time employment; and postdoctoral fellowships. Includes job market perceptions of recent doctorate
Although much research has focused on whether the physical demands of employment during pregnancy affect birth outcomes, this\\u000a article argues that psychological demands should also be considered. Research published since 1980 is reviewed to examine\\u000a how physical and psychological demands of employment are related to birth outcomes. Evidence for the effect of specific types\\u000a of physical activities (e.g., lifting, standing)
|Role overload, job satisfaction, leisure satisfaction, and psychological health were measured for 155 women who were employed full time. Role overload was negatively correlated with psychological health, job satisfaction, and leisure satisfaction. Job satisfaction and leisure satisfaction were positively correlated with psychological health.
This research examines the relatively unexplored area of psychological aggression in dating relationships. One causal factor of particular interest is interpersonal control, that is, the degree to which one person controls another in a relationship. Data are collected on men and women inflicting and sustaining psychological abuse in heterosexual college dating relationships. The results show that interpersonal control is an
...against discrimination apply to former employees of an employer. For example, an employee may quit rather than take a lie detector test. The employer cannot discriminate or threaten to discriminate in any manner against that person (such as by...
This paper investigates the relationship between obesity and lifestyles in the light of different employment status. The distinction between Employed and Not-employed individuals is used in order to represent the different constraints that face the two types of individuals: the average Employed has more money and less time and the average Not-employed has less money and more time. Typically, healthy
The interaction of a manager's psychological type and the corporate culture in which he or she works is explored, finding that certain psychological types predominate in certain cultures. The relationship is most pronounced amongst senior managers and can lead to 'type homogeneity' in top management teams. This tendency of managers of a similar psychological type to congregate and form homogeneous
We examine the structure of soldier's psychological skills and assess the relationship between psychological skills profiles and physical performance with data from 427 soldiers from a Stryker Brigade. Exploratory factor analyses results provided empirical support for a three-factor structure that included foundation skills, psychosomatic skills, and cognitive skills. Cluster analysis revealed three emergent psychological skills profile groups: (a) strong skills,
Jon Hammermeister; Michael A. Pickering; Leigh McGraw; Carl Ohlson
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is associated with complex psychological and interpersonal issues. A new measure of treatment outcome, the Psychological and Interpersonal Relationship Scales (PAIRS), was developed to evaluate the broader psychological and interpersonal outcomes associated with erectile dysfunction and its treatment. Initial items were generated based on literature review, focus groups and market research, interviews with patients and partners, and
Ralph W. Swindle; Ann E. Cameron; Daniel C. Lockhart; Raymond C. Rosen
DISCUSSES THE ISSUE OF ESTIMATING THE MAGNITUDES OF RELATIONSHIPS AMONG PSYCHOLOGICAL VARIABLES. THE THESIS ADVANCED IS THAT THE PROCEDURES TYPICALLY USED TO ESTIMATE SUCH RELATIONSHIPS PROVIDE ANSWERS TO ONLY 1 OF SEVERAL VARIANTS OF THE GENERAL RELATIONAL QUESTION, THAT OTHER VARIANTS ARE OFTEN OF EQUAL OR GREATER PSYCHOLOGICAL INTEREST, AND THAT THE DATA AVAILABLE FROM THE USUAL KINDS OF RELATIONAL
In general, psychology is defined as the study of mind and behaviour, where behaviour is considered to be a stimulus-response connection between mind and environment. Contrary to this view it is argued that the stimulus-response mechanism is only a secondary feature adjusting a more basic relationship between an intentional organism and the objectives of this organism. The basic psychologicalrelationship
Discusses strategic human resource management (HRM) which emphasizes the importance of HRM policies and practices being integrated by a longer-range HRM strategy, which in turn is an integrated part of an overall organizational strategy. Proposes an alternative, more overtly political, employment relations model with HRM policies and practices as negotiated outcomes which attempt to resolve the often conflicting expectations of
This comparative paper examines the relationship between equity markets and corporate governance on one hand, and job tenure, training, and pay on the other. Two dimensions of equity markets and corporate governance are used: share trading activity and mergers and acquisitions. There is support for the posited links between these measures and job tenure, employee stock ownership plans, pay dispersion,
Objectives. To investigate equivocal findings within the literature addressing the relationship between competitive anxiety responses and psychological skills. Intensity (i.e. level) and direction (i.e. interpretation of intensity as facilitative or debilitative) dimensions of competitive state anxiety and self-confidence were examined in performers with different levels of psychological skills usage.Design. Cross-sectional design assessing psychological constructs during competition. The independent variable was
A four-year study of a Scottish manufacturer's employee lifelong learning program discovered a positive relationship between the program and employee perceptions of careers, fairness, and the long-term "psychological contract." Due to reduction in the employer's commitment to job security, employees were beginning to view the program as an aid to
This article explores the employability of information and communication technology (ICT) professionals from the perspective of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The first stage of analysis, based on over 100 interviews with managers of ICT supplier companies in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland and the UK), showed most SMEs to have a generally ad hoc
Dora Scholarios; Beatrice I. J. M. Van der Heijden; Esther Van der Schoot; Nikos Bozionelos; Olga Epitropaki; Piotr Jedrzejowicz; Peter Knauth; Izabela Marzec; Aslaug Mikkelsen; Claudia M. Van der Heijde
Two large-scale surveys were undertaken by Statistics Canada in 1978 to examine the employment experiences of 1976 graduates from Canadian universities (outside Quebec). The present report is based on secondary analyses of this data. It compares the experiences of psychology graduates with those from other fields and examines possible sex differences. In terms of full-time employment, salary, and relatedness of
|Objectives: The Employment Hope scale (EHS) was designed to measure the empowerment-based self-sufficiency (SS) outcome among low-income job-seeking clients. This measure captures the psychological SS dimension as opposed to the more commonly used economic SS in workforce development and employment support practice. The study validates the EHS
Hong, Philip Young P.; Polanin, Joshua R.; Pigott, Therese D.
Reports findings from an empirical investigation into the nature of the employmentrelationship in small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and how this is affected by the Employment Relations Act (1999). A two-stage methodology was used, with a postal questionnaire of 69 companies and telephone interviews with a further 33 SMEs. The informal, paternalistic approach to employee relations in many small
This article examines the relationship between vigorous physical activity and psychologic distress (by using the General Health Questionnaire-12) among a sample of 2,104 adolescents. Multiple regression analysis revealed a differential relationship between physical activity and dimensions of the General Health Questionnaire-12. Specifically, vigorous physical activity was related significantly to problems with social functioning but not to depression or anxiety.
Kenneth R. Allison; Edward M. Adlaf; Hyacinth M. Irving; Janelle L. Hatch; Trevor F. Smith; John J. M. Dwyer; Jack Goodman
Discourse in psychotherapeutic practice has typically focussed on technique and the therapeutic relationship. The setting in which psychological therapies occur has attracted little research attention to date. What we have understood as relationship may need to be expanded to include aspects of the material environment as constitutive in the dynamic process of psychotherapy. An in-depth, art-based method was used to
This study tested a model in which empowerment was hypothesised to mediate the relationship between psychological climate and job satisfaction. Individual levels of negative affectivity were controlled for. The sample consisted of 174 customer service employees (59% female and 39% male). Support was found for a model in which empowerment mediated the relationship between climate and job satisfaction, the dimensions
Considerable research has found elevated levels of stress and psychological distress among single mothers. However, little\\u000a research has addressed the relevance of employment for stress processes in this population, and few studies have focused on\\u000a links between employment, stress, and mental health among single mothers living in rural areas. Based on a probability sample of 508 single mothers age 1839
Discharged war veterans with neuropsychiatric problems and others with less serious problems will be difficult for employers to handle. Industrial psychologists must adequately select and place these veterans to insure maximum satisfaction and performance on the job. In addition to aptitude testing, this involves a detailed inspection of job analyses (including social-psychological factors which influence feelings of pleasure and satisfaction
|Evaluates the effectiveness of a brief program to prevent physical, psychological, and sexual aggression in dating relationships. The program consisted of an educational video followed by a discussion led by either a female presenter or male/female co-presenters. Participants endorsed more prosocial attitudes about dating aggression immediately
Evaluates the effectiveness of a brief program to prevent physical, psychological, and sexual aggression in dating relationships. The program consisted of an educational video followed by a discussion led by either a female presenter or male/female co-presenters. Participants endorsed more prosocial attitudes about dating aggression immediately
Adult children of alcoholics' (n = 68) perceptions of their relationships with parents were compared with those of a control sample (n = 37) to examine independent and joint influences of interpersonal status and affect on family dynamics. Visual metaphors for relationships using circle drawings and a status-affect rating scale from the Grasha-Ichiyama Psychological Size and Distance Scale were employed. Compared with the control group, adult children of alcoholics drew smaller circles to represent themselves, i.e., indicating less interpersonal status, only when assessing their relationships with their fathers. Analyses of status-affect ratings showed that the drawings of smaller circles reflected feeling less competent, i.e., having less personal knowledge and expertise, rather than perceptions of being submissive in the relationship. The distance drawn between the circles of adult children of alcoholics and their parents, i.e., psychological distance, was much larger than that of the control group. Ratings showed that perceptions of a negative emotional climate and submissiveness together accounted for 25% of the unique variance in predicting psychological distance. Perceptions of being submissive, however, were not associated with perceptions of psychological distance among adult children of nonalcoholic parents. PMID:7667474
|This study examines the relationships of positive thinking versus negative thinking with psychological well-being and psychological maladjustment. Three hundred and ninety-eight undergraduate students from Singapore participated in this study. First, positive thinking were positively correlated with indicators psychological well-being--life
Psychological distress and resources were examined in an ethnically diverse sample of low-education, unemployed, and difficult-to-employ persons who participated in a three-week pre-employment training program (STRIVE). Compared to the general population, applicants to the program exhibited significantly higher levels of psychological distress. Men showed significantly higher levels of depression and anxiety, less self-esteem, and more dysfunctional attributions than women. Caucasian
Georg E. Matt; Lara Bellarditaa; Gene Fischer; Scott Silverman
Several measures of religious practice and religious orientation (intrinsic/extrinsic/quest) and two measures of psychological well-being (positive affect and negative affect) have been employed in a cross-cultural survey of undergraduate university students from five different cultural/religious environments: Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, the United States of America, and Japan. Results suggest that measures of exstrinsic, intrinsic, and quest religiosity are not entirely applicable in most of the cultures observed. Nevertheless, it was possible to discern abbreviated cross-culturally valid scales for each dimension. The strength and direction of the correlation between psychological well-being and a particular type of religious orientation proved to depend substantially upon culture. More importantly, the cultural environment plays a crucial role in shaping the relationship between general measures of religiosity and psychological well-being. According to the data, higher general levels of religiosity at the societal level are linked to more positive correlations between religiosity and psychological well-being. The overall picture leads to the conclusion that there is no culturally universal pattern in the relationship between measures of religiosity and psychological well-being and that the particular cultural and religious context should always be considered in studies dealing with this issue. PMID:19105009
Objectives: This study examines the effects of objective (level of engagement) and subjective (discrepancy between importance of work and the degree to which work needs are met) indicators of employment on self-reported psychological well-being, quality of life (QoL), and depression for individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Community-based research and training center. Participants: 317 individuals with self-reported
Studies indicate that women experience higher rates of mental illness than do men. The basis of this difference in mental health status is unclear. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether self?reports about the method, safety, and reliability of fertility regulation, the presence of menstrual symptoms, and specific social factors influence employed women's psychological well?being (PWB). A cross?sectional
Background A large body of international research reveals that single mothers experience poorer mental health than their partnered counterparts, with socioeconomic disadvantage identified as an important contributory factor in understanding this health disparity. Much less research, however, has focused specifically on the psychological well-being of single mothers who are employed, despite their growing presence in the labor force. Of the research which has considered employment, the focus has been on employment status per se rather than on other important work-related factors which may impact psychological health, such as psychosocial work quality and work-family conflict. The aim of this study was to: (1) compare employed single mothers and employed partnered mothers on measures of psychological distress, psychosocial work quality and work-family conflict; and (2) explore the potential role of work-family conflict and psychosocial work quality as explanations for any observed differences in psychological distress based on partner status. Method Analysis of data obtained from a cross-sectional telephone survey of employed parents in a mid-sized Western Canadian city. Analyses were based on 674 employed mothers (438 partnered and 236 single), who were 25-50 years old, with at least one child in the household. Results Compared to employed single mothers, employed partnered mothers were older, had more education and reported fewer hours of paid work. Single mothers reported higher levels of psychological distress, financial hardship, work-family conflict and poor psychosocial work quality. Statistical adjustment for income adequacy, psychosocial work quality and work-family conflict each independently resulted in single motherhood no longer being associated with psychological distress. Conclusions While single employed mothers did experience higher levels of psychological distress than their partnered counterparts, differences between these groups of women in income adequacy, psychosocial work quality, and work-family conflict were found to explain this relationship. Future research employing a longitudinal design and subject to lower selection biases is required to tease out the interrelationship of these three life strains and to point to the most appropriate economic and social policies to support single mothers in the workforce.
For many years, potential police recruits have had to undergo a variety of pre-employment tests. The testing process includes\\u000a physical and psychological procedures. In more recent years the psychological testing has received more scrutiny with some\\u000a states requiring the conducting of more than one procedure. Of particular popularity among psychological testing tools has\\u000a been the Minnesota Multiple Personality Inventory (MMPI).
Demographic data show that major changes have been occurring in the everyday lives of families over the last generation, with the majority of mothers of young children in the workforce and an increasing number of men and women assuming caregiving responsibilities for older relatives. Thus, the 2 primary identities of most adults, defined by their multiple family and work roles, need to be coordinated in ways that promote positive family outcomes, returns on investments for employers, and societal values. Despite changes in the workforce, the world of work is still largely organized for a family model that is increasingly rare--one with a stay-at-home caregiver. Recommendations based on psychological and other social science research are offered to align the needs of working families and employers. PMID:16045393
Recently, attention has been focused on the relationship among circadian typology, psychiatric symptoms, and personality traits. This study analyzes the influence of circadian typology on psychological distress, and the sensation-seeking personality trait. Five hundred seventeen college students (173 males), aged 17 to 30, answered the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM), the General Health Questionnaire 28-item version (GHQ-28), and the Sensation Seeking Scale-V (SSS-V). The evening-type subjects in our sample scored higher than the neither- and morning- type in the GHQ-28 total score, as well as in the four subscales that composed it (Psychosomatic Symptoms, Anxiety and Insomnia, Social Dysfunction, and Severe Depression) (p<0.02 in all cases). The evening-type subjects also had a larger proportion of psychiatric cases than the other two circadian typologies (p<0.0001 in all cases). Moreover, the evening-type subjects obtained higher scores in the SSS-V total score and in the subscales of Disinhibition and Boredom Susceptibility (p<0.001 in all cases). A positive correlation was observed between the GHQ-28 and the SSS-V total scores in the total sample, but only for the evening-type group (r=0.217; p<0.027). In the evening group, several relations were also found between the subscales of the GHQ-28 and the subscales of the SSS-V (r>0.206; p<0.036). All these data point to a relationship between evening-type subjects and the level of psychological distress and the sensation-seeking personality trait. They also suggest that eveningness could be related to developing psychological distress and personality traits that could, in turn, be related to developing other problems, such as drug consumption. PMID:23806000
The goals of this study were twofold: (1) to confirm a relationship between employee perceptions of psychological safety climate and safety behavior for a sample of workers in the rail industry and (2) to explore the relative strengths of relationships between specific facets of safety climate and safety behavior. Non-management rail maintenance workers employed by a large North American railroad completed a survey (n=421) regarding workplace safety perceptions and behaviors. Three facets of safety climate (management safety, coworker safety, and work-safety tension) were assessed as relating to individual workers' reported safety behavior. All three facets were significantly associated with safety behavior. Dominance analysis was used to assess the relative importance of each facet as related to the outcome, and work-safety tension evidenced the strongest relationship with safety behavior. PMID:20538102
Study design:Cross-sectional survey.Objectives:To describe anxiety and depression among caregivers of youth with spinal cord injury (SCI), examine predictors of caregiver psychological functioning and evaluate relationships between caregiver and child psychological outcomes. The protective factor of youth social relationships was also included to examine its impact on relationships between caregiver and child psychological functioning.Setting:Families received services at one of three pediatric
E H Kelly; C J Anderson; S I Garma; H F Russell; S J Klaas; J A Gorzkowski; L C Vogel
This paper examines changes in employmentrelationships in Canada during the late twentieth century. Despite well-documented transformations in labour market structures and work contexts, we are only now grasping the significance of these trends for the relationships between workers and employers. Considerable debate revolves around the extent and nature of new employmentrelationships. Still, it is clear that fewer workers
This study investigated the connection between sport, emotion, and psychological health through an examination of the literature on sports participation and psychological health. The review found that while some of the research supports a relationship between psychological well-being and sports participation, some of it is inconclusive. Many
Psychological aggression is the most prevalent form of aggression in dating relationships, with women perpetrating as much, if not more, psychological aggression than men. Researchers have advocated for an examination of the consequences that follow psychological aggression for the perpetrator, in hopes that this will lead to innovative
Shorey, Ryan C.; Temple, Jeff R.; Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Sherman, Amanda E.; Stuart, Gregory L.
|Psychological aggression is the most prevalent form of aggression in dating relationships, with women perpetrating as much, if not more, psychological aggression than men. Researchers have advocated for an examination of the consequences that follow psychological aggression for the perpetrator, in hopes that this will lead to innovative
Shorey, Ryan C.; Temple, Jeff R.; Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Sherman, Amanda E.; Stuart, Gregory L.
Researchers conducted a two-wave panel study to test the hypothesis of the normal and reversed causal relationships of job characteristics, burnout, and psychological health. The hypotheses are as follows: job characteristics lead to burnout and psychological health over time; and vice versa, burnout and psychological health were expected to result in perceived job stress over time. Nearly 513 participants were
Yu-Hwa Huang; Chin-Hui Chen; Pey-Lan Du; Ing-Chung Huang
Researchers conducted a two-wave panel study to test the hypothesis of the normal and reversed causal relationships of job characteristics, burnout, and psychological health. The hypotheses are as follows: job characteristics lead to burnout and psychological health over time; and vice versa, burnout and psychological health were expected to result in perceived job stress over time. Nearly 513 participants were
Yu-Hwa Huang; Chin-Hui Chen; Pey-Lan Du; Ing-Chung Huang
Provides a contemporary picture of mentor relationships in clinical psychology, focusing on 787 survey respondents who were U.S. members or associates of the American Psychological Association and graduated with a PhD or PsyD in clinical psychology in 1994, 1995, or 1996. Presents the results and discusses implications for graduate education. (CMK)
Clark, Richard A.; Harden, Sherry L.; Johnson, W. Brad
Previous research on the influence of gender roles upon psychological health has found that most effects may be due to participants' levels of masculine traits alone. This study investigated whether individual gender role ideals moderate the relationship between gender roles and psychological well-being. Eighty-three psychology undergraduate students of European descent were given a battery of measures of gender role and
|This study investigated the similarity of the factor structure for self-reported versus supervisor-rated employability for two age groups of workers, and then validated a career success enhancing model of employability across the two age groups. The results confirmed a two-factor model including self-reported and supervisor-rated employability as
Van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.; de Lange, Annet H.; Demerouti, Evangelia; Van der Heijde, Claudia M.
Even though interest in reducing or eliminating tobacco-caused diseases is a common goal in tobacco control, many experts hold different views on addiction as a target of intervention. Some consider tobacco-caused addiction as a tobacco-caused disease to be eliminated alongside the other diseases. Some consider tobacco-caused addiction as a much lower priority disease to be eliminated, and a subset of this group is prepared to employ addiction to tobacco (nicotine) as a tool to reduce other tobacco-caused disease. These varying attitudes towards ending, controlling or employing tobacco addiction to reduce damage from tobacco use constitute quite different approaches to tobacco control and cause conflict among those in tobacco control. Moral psychological analyses argue that there is more than scientific evidence involved in supporting this continuum of approaches. Divergent values also influence positions in tobacco control. Attention to these values as well as the scientific evidence should be included in policy and practice in tobacco control. It is not that one constellation of values is necessarily superior, but debates need to be informed by and engage discussions of these values as well as the scientific evidence.
The relationship between personal psychological attributes and psychological well-being was assessed among adults with HIV\\/AIDS.\\u000a The predictive power of sense of coherence, dispositional optimism and perceived competence (PC) on positive affect (PA),\\u000a negative affect (NA) and relative mood (PANA) were assessed using hierarchical linear regression analysis of two data collections,\\u000a 2 months apart, from 124 HIV-infected participants. In cross-sectional models all
Family relationship quality predicts medical outcomes in various health conditions, including stroke, end stage renal disease, and heart failure. Family relationships also influence the onset and course of depression and anxiety disorders. Family may be particularly important in COPD given the high prevalence of depression and anxiety in COPD patients and the association of depression and anxiety with important clinical features of COPD such as dyspnea. The objective of this study was to test three hypotheses in a sample of individuals with COPD: 1) unsupportive family relationships are associated with psychological distress; 2) psychological distress is associated with dyspnea and impairment in health-related quality of life; and 3) unsupportive family relationships are indirectly associated with dyspnea and health-related quality of life via psychological distress. Cross-sectional data were collected via self-report questionnaires completed by 526 individuals with COPD. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypotheses. All three hypotheses were supported. Unsupportive family relationships were associated with psychological distress, psychological distress was associated with dyspnea and impairment in health-related quality of life, and unsupportive family relationships were indirectly associated with dyspnea and health-related quality of life via psychological distress. If subsequent longitudinal investigations demonstrate that unsupportive family relationships do indeed lead to psychological distress among individuals with COPD, then interventions to improve family relationships of patients with COPD could lead to reductions in psychological distress and, ultimately, to improvements in dyspnea and quality of life.
Holm, Kristen E.; Bowler, Russell P.; Make, Barry J.; Wamboldt, Frederick S.
Based on a review of research on the relationship of personality factors to human-computer interaction, Pocius (1991) concluded that there was little evidence for a relationship between Jungian psychological types and programming aptitude and mixed evidence regarding psychological type and computer-related attitudes. However, the studies on which Pocius based this conclusion suffered from a number of methodological flaws, including small
Family relationship quality predicts medical outcomes in various health conditions, including stroke, end stage renal disease, and heart failure. Family relationships also influence the onset and course of depression and anxiety disorders. Family may be particularly important in COPD given the high prevalence of depression and anxiety in COPD patients and the association of depression and anxiety with important clinical features of COPD such as dyspnea. The objective of this study was to test three hypotheses in a sample of individuals with COPD: (1) unsupportive family relationships are associated with psychological distress; (2) psychological distress is associated with dyspnea and impairment in health-related quality of life; and (3) unsupportive family relationships are indirectly associated with dyspnea and health-related quality of life via psychological distress. Cross-sectional data were collected via self-report questionnaires completed by 526 individuals with COPD. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypotheses. All three hypotheses were supported. Unsupportive family relationships were associated with psychological distress, psychological distress was associated with dyspnea and impairment in health-related quality of life, and unsupportive family relationships were indirectly associated with dyspnea and health-related quality of life via psychological distress. If subsequent longitudinal investigations demonstrate that unsupportive family relationships do indeed lead to psychological distress among individuals with COPD, then interventions to improve family relationships of patients with COPD could lead to reductions in psychological distress and, ultimately, to improvements in dyspnea and quality of life. PMID:19863365
Holm, Kristen E; Bowler, Russell P; Make, Barry J; Wamboldt, Frederick S
We examined relationships between abuse, coping, and psychological health among 143 women who had experienced abuse in adult relationships. Measures included characteristics of the abuse, problem-focused and emotion-focused coping, Sense of Coherence, and four measures of psychological wellbeing--the SF-36 Mental Component Scale, the General
|The controversial discussion of "atypical" forms of employment overlooks the fact that all parties involved can benefit from greater flexibility in the employmentrelationship. It all depends on what is made more flexible and how this greater flexibility is achieved. Employmentrelationships are built on a variety of factors (remuneration,
The increasing use of temporary agency work in Germany has implications for the nature of the employmentrelationship. The notion of a clearly defined employer-employee relationship becomes difficult to uphold in triangular relationships like in the case of temporary agency work where the agencies employees are working at the site of the client company. The blurring of the boundaries of
|The present study investigated the influence of contextual (i.e., being in college vs. being employed) and psychological (i.e., sense of coherence) processes on achieving a sense of adulthood in a sample of 317 emerging adults. Identity formation, conceptualized as multiple dimensions of exploration and of commitment, was conceived of as a
Luyckx, Koen; Schwartz, Seth J.; Goossens, Luc; Pollock, Sophie
|Background: This paper focuses on the transition to supported employment for people with intellectual disabilities paying particular attention to the impact of job breakdown on psychological well-being; an issue often omitted from studies. Materials and Methods: Forty-nine people with intellectual disabilities were interviewed within 3 months of
Banks, Pauline; Jahoda, Andrew; Dagnan, Dave; Kemp, John; Williams, Victoria
There is increasing recognition that the growth of precarious employment in industrialised countries affects the incidence\\u000a of occupational injuries. As yet there has been little research into connections between precarious employment and occupational\\u000a violence. This study provides Australian evidence on patterns of workplace violence in occupations dominated by contingent\\u000a workers. The study examined surveys of workers in thirteen occupations. The
This paper analyses job satisfaction as an aggregate of satisfaction with several job aspects, with special focus on the influence of contingent-employment contracts. Fixed-effect analysis is applied on a longitudinal sample of Dutch employees in four work arrangements: regular, fixed-term, on-call and temporary agency work. Our results indicate that temporary agency work is the only contingent employment relation that is
This study investigates maternal grandmothergrandchild relationship quality as a predictor of psychological adjustment among youth from divorced families. Three hundred twenty-four adolescents aged between 17 and 20 report on the quality of their relationships with their maternal grandmothers and their relational competence, self-efficacy, and psychological symptoms. Structural equation modeling analyses support a model in which participants' relationships with grandmothers predict
Craig E. Henderson; Bert Hayslip; Leah M. Sanders; Linda Louden
We examined the consequences of witnessing interparental psychological aggression in childhood for daily conflict processes in adult intimate relationships. Both partners in 73 heterosexual couples provided daily diary reports of relationship conflict over a 28-day period. Partners' reports of witnessing mother-to-father and father-to-mother psychological aggression were used to predict exposure to daily relationship conflicts and reactivity to those conflicts (as
Janet Krone Kennedy; Niall Bolger; Patrick E. Shrout
|This study examined the relationship between level of depression and level of psychological abuse in women. In addition, the relationship between the use of self-report and measured report of psychological abuse within an intimate relationship was assessed. One hundred women were surveyed using the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory
Psychological aggression is the most prevalent form of aggression in dating relationships, with women perpetrating as much, if not more, psychological aggression than men. Researchers have advocated for an examination of the consequences that follow psychological aggression for the perpetrator, in hopes that this will lead to innovative intervention programs aimed at ameliorating dating violence. The current study investigated the self-reported consequences of having perpetrated psychological aggression against a dating partner among female college students in a current dating relationship (N = 115). Participants endorsed numerous consequences as having followed their perpetration of psychological aggression, including both punishing and potentially reinforcing consequences. Furthermore, findings indicated that for some perpetrators, psychological aggression may function as a method of emotion regulation. Implications of these findings for future research and intervention are discussed.
Shorey, Ryan C.; Temple, Jeff R.; Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Sherman, Amanda E.; Stuart, Gregory L.
|The present study explored relations among remembered parental (paternal and maternal) acceptance in childhood, spouse acceptance and psychological adjustment of adults. It also explored whether remembered childhood experiences of parental acceptance mediate the relation between perceived spouse acceptance and psychological adjustment. The sample
Khaleque, Abdul; Shirin, Anjuman; Uddin, Muhammad Kamal
|This study investigated the influence of maternal employment on perceptions of the costs and benefits to children associated with mothers working outside the home and professional ambition among junior high school adolescents. A sample of 151 suburban and urban junior high school students completed a questionnaire relating to their professional
Attention to privacy issues in the workplace has increased over the past two decades as use of electronic mail and text messages has made these means of communication commonplace. Beyond text messages and emails, employees can access the internet at their place of employment at many different entry points. This access can be through company issued desktops or laptops, mobile
|Selections from the career counseling literature indicated that the undergraduate psychology curriculum is a potential source of generic liberal arts skills--for example, numeracy, literacy, critical thinking--said to be useful to baccalaureates entering the workforce. A "meritocracy hypothesis" stated that psychology and other liberal arts
|In this rejoinder the authors respond to the three reactions to the major contribution, "Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations: Connections to Counseling Psychology," provided by Chung and Wu, Neville, Flores, and Dobson, and Yakushko, Wang, and Warrior. In their thoughtful reactions, these current and past leaders of the Society of
Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.
The aim of this study was to compare levels of psychological distress in employed single fathers relative to partnered fathers and to explore the role of psychosocial job quality, work-family conflict, and work-family facilitation as explanations for differences in distress. The data were collected from a cross-sectional telephone survey conducted in a Canadian city. Participants were 486 employed fathers with children living in the household. In addition to experiencing higher levels of psychological distress than partnered fathers (p = .057), single fathers reported greater work-family conflict, poorer work quality, and lower family-to-work facilitation. Adjusting for the strain-based work-family conflict variables in the regression analysis resulted in the largest reduction to the association between partner status and psychological distress. Future research employing a longitudinal design and subject to lower selection biases is required to tease out the interrelationship between these exposures and to point to the most appropriate policies to support employed single fathers. PMID:22398993
I examine the relationship between evolutionary definitions of altruism that are based on fitness effects and psychological definitions that are based on the motives of the actor. I show that evolutionary altruism can be motivated by proximate mechanisms that are psychologically either altruistic or selfish. I also show that evolutionary definitions do rely upon motives as a metaphor in which
A recent and major focus in the psychology of men and masculinity has been the attempt to better understand men's experiences of disordered eating. Previously, research with women suggested emotional self-denial in the context of interpersonal relationships, self-silencing, predicted disordered eating. Based on evidence suggesting that both men and women share the same basic psychological aspects underpinning disordered eating, the
Taylor K. Locker; Martin Heesacker; Jessica O. Baker
Forgiveness has frequently been theorized to be related to decreased psychological distress, and longitudinal survey research is important for the examination of this relationship. The prospective relation of forgiveness to psychological distress symptoms (i.e., depression, anxiety, and stress) at a later time point (an average of 36 weeks later)
|The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between attachment to parents and psychological separation in college students. Three hundred sixty-eight undergraduate students completed the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (Armsden & Greenberg, 1987) and the Psychological Separation Inventory (Hoffman, 1984). Results suggest
Background: Psychological distress, particularly anxiety and depression, has been associated with a prothrombotic state. However, the relationship between psychosocial factors and endogenous anticoagulants protein S (PS) and protein C (PC) has not previously been investigated. We explored the association between psychological distress, PS, and PC in patients with an objectively diagnosed venous thromboembolic event (VTE). Methods: We investigated 126 consecutively
René Krummenacher; Paul S. Lukas; Franziska Demarmels Biasiutti; Stefan Begré; Hansjörg Znoj; Roland von Känel
Background: The concept of psychological well-being has been neglected for a long time in scientific literature. Over the last decades, however, many psychometric instruments have been developed to measure it. The aim of the present study was to analyze the concept of psychological well-being and its relationship to distress and personality traits. It is clinically and empirically important to establish
Chiara Ruini; Fedra Ottolini; Chiara Rafanelli; Eliana Tossani; Carol D. Ryff; Giovanni A. Fava
Leadership style in service enterprises can significantly affect service innovation. This paper takes psychological empowerment and staffs' satisfaction as intermediary variables to study the relationship between leadership style and service innovation. We find that humane care and knowledge aid in leadership style can affect psychological empowerment and staffs' satisfaction positively, leaders' charm can affect staffs' satisfaction positively, but exception management
...operators of a coal mine or coal mine-related enterprise to avoid the payment of benefits to miners who, based upon the economic reality of their relationship to this enterprise, are, in fact, employees of the enterprise. (2) The payment of...
Radical pluralism, the mainstream perspective for British and European industrial relations, centres on a Marxian, sociological conception of the employmentrelationship, which structures explanations of power and conflict. This theoretical critique stresses the historical specificity of the experience of work and the explanatory limitations of the employmentrelationship. The intellectual history of radical pluralism is traced from Fox ((1974), Beyond
University support to students transition to university life can be divided into three dimensions, namely: academic adjustment, social adjustment and psychological adjustment. Previous researches show that there are relationships among those adjustments. However, less is known about gender differences in these relationships. The purpose of this study is to examine the gender differences in the perception of the relationships among
This study focused on the impact of relationship functioning, relationship satisfaction, psychological adjustment, and the thematic content of sexual fantasies endorsed by lesbian and bisexual couples during masturbation and sexual relations. The sample consisted of 129 women (85 lesbian, 44 bisexual) who were part of a same-sex couple (average relationship duration of 510 years). Participants (94% The authors would like
Background In accord with new European university reforms initiated by the Bologna Process, our objectives were to assess psychological\\u000a quality of life (QoL) and to analyse its associations with academic employability skills (AES) among students from the Faculty\\u000a of Language, Literature, Humanities, Arts and Education, Walferdange Luxembourg (F1, mostly vocational\\/applied courses); the\\u000a Faculty of Social and Human Sciences, Liege, Belgium (F2,
This study determines the relationships between shame, anger, and mens perpetration of psychological abuse in dating relationships. The authors hypothesize the connection between shame proneness and mens use of psychological abuse with a dating partner, with angers mediating in this relationship. In addition, the authors hypothesize that affect regulation would moderate the relationship between anger and mens use of psychological
Felicity W. K. Harper; Amanda G. Austin; Jennifer J. Cercone; Ileana Arias
|This study examined the contributions of gender, adult romantic attachment orientations (i.e., avoidance, anxiety), defense mechanisms (i.e., narcissism, other-splitting), and stressors to college student psychological abuse perpetration (dominance). Men with higher levels of attachment avoidance, narcissistic entitlement, and stressful problems
We suggest that the involvement of clinical psychologists in health care teams may not necessarily improve health care. The position of clinical psychology with regard to medical theory and practice is examined. Then issues arising from multidisciplinary teamwork, with particular emphasis on consultationliaison work, are discussed. We conclude that professional power structures in hospital settings have a profound influence on
Data from 211 business students demonstrated a low correlation between business communication course grades and English, marketing, and psychology courses. It was recommended that principles of personal selling be incorporated into business communication and that English and business teachers collaborate more in developing students' communication
Substance use disorders and psychological distress have been shown to have a negative impact on many aspects of the lives of affected persons, including their ability to hold jobs and be productive in the workplace. The National Survey on Drug Use and Hea...
The promise of a synthesized basic and applied psychology has been most strongly realized and appreciated in behavior analysis. The traditional model for this relationship has been largely unidirectional in that the experimental analysis of behavior has fed applied behavior analysis with its principles. Despite the relative strength of this relationship, which should lead to a more coherent and broadly
|In proposing a "work and relationship" perspective for vocational psychology, Richardson builds on a rich intellectual (social constructionist) tradition and offers incisive social commentary. In this reaction, the author examines several of her foci--in particular, the four-part division of life's social contexts, her views on relationships, and
|We examined the contribution of relational aggression in adolescents' peer and dating relationships to their psychological and behavioral adjustment. In the Fall and again four months later, 1279 (646 female) grade 9 students reported on relational aggression perpetration and victimization in their romantic and peer relationships,
Ellis, Wendy E.; Crooks, Claire V.; Wolfe, David A.
|The authors present the results from a study investigating advisor-advisee relationships in counseling psychology doctoral training. Participants were 47 advisor-advisee dyads who were currently working together in an advising relationship. The results indicated that advisors and advisees exhibited significant agreement in their assessments of
The study investigated the moderating role of emotion regulation (ER) in relationships between body image concerns and psychological symptomatology. A community sample of 533 boys and girls (1120 years) completed measures assessing body image thoughts and feelings, domain-specific and general ER strategies, drive for thinness, and bulimic, depressive and anxiety symptoms. Results indicated that ER moderated relationships between body image
|This study investigates maternal grandmother-grandchild relationship quality as a predictor of psychological adjustment among youth from divorced families. Three hundred twenty-four adolescents aged between 17 and 20 report on the quality of their relationships with their maternal grandmothers and their relational competence, self-efficacy, and
Henderson, Craig E.; Hayslip, Bert, Jr.; Sanders, Leah M.; Louden, Linda
|This study examined whether social class moderated the relationship between empowering and disempowering processes and psychological empowerment (PE) in a sample of individuals from five community organizing initiatives (N=490). Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test the relationship between community participation (CP) and alienation
Christens, Brian D.; Speer, Paul W.; Peterson, N. Andrew
The authors present the results from a study investigating advisor-advisee relationships in counseling psychology doctoral training. Participants were 47 advisor-advisee dyads who were currently working together in an advising relationship. The results indicated that advisors and advisees exhibited significant agreement in their assessments of
...Establishing relationship of pneumoconiosis to coal mine employment. 718.203 Section...PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED STANDARDS FOR DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH...
...false Relationship of pneumoconiosis to coal mine employment. 718.302 Section...PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED STANDARDS FOR DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR DEATH...
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the Anxiety Sensitivity Index were administered to 143 undergraduate students. Although there was no significant difference between Extraverts and Introverts in Anxiety Sensitivity scores, those classified as Sensing and Thinking types exhibited higher mean scores on Anxiety Sensitivity than those classified as Intuitive and Feeling types. These findings suggest that knowledge of psychological type may be helpful in predicting sensitivity to anxiety. PMID:14738341
In this study, we examined the utility of self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2002) as a framework for understanding the antecedents of athlete burnout in elite New Zealand rugby union players (n=133). Perceptions of competence, autonomy, and relatedness (i.e. basic psychological needs) were hypothesized to be negatively related to burnout scores, while players classified as high-burnouts were predicted to report
Relative to the broader industrial-organizational (I-O) psychology field, research on the turnover of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment staff is in its infancy. Despite its long and rich history, recent reviews of the turnover literature within I-O psychology have noted that there remains considerable room for improvement. In particular, recommendations have been made for research that considers time in the turnover process and explores more distal causes of staff turnover. Addressing these gaps, this article examined the temporal relationship between latent measures of psychological climate, work attitude, and staff turnover. Using data from 95 SUD treatment staff clustered within 29 treatment organizations, multilevel discrete-time survival analyses revealed that a latent measure of work attitude (e.g., job satisfaction, pay satisfaction, turnover intentions) fully mediated the temporal relationship between latent measures of psychological climate (e.g., supervisor support, coworker support, role conflict) and subsequent staff turnover. PMID:22658290
Considerable data (primarily physiological) have been collected during expeditions in extreme environments over the last century. Physiological measurements have only recently been examined in association with the emotional or behavioral state of the subject. Establishing this psychophysiological relationship is essential to understanding fully the adaptation of humans to the stresses of extreme environments. This pilot study investigated the simultaneous collection of physiological, psychological and behavioral data from a two-man Greenland expedition in order to model how specific relationships between physiological and psychological adaptation to a polar environment may be identified. The data collected describes changes in adrenal and other hormonal activity and psychological functioning. Levels of cortisol and testosterone were calculated. Factors influencing the plasma profiles of the aforementioned included 24-hour sunlight, high calorific intake of more than 28 000 kJ/day and extreme physical exercise. There was a difference between individual psychological profiles as well as self-report stress and physiological stress.
Bishop, Sheryl L.; Grobler, Lukas C.; SchjØll, Olaf
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a prevalent condition associated with complex psychological and interpersonal issues. The Psychological and Interpersonal Relationship Scales (PAIRS) is a valid and reliable measure of Sexual Self-Confidence, Spontaneity, and Time Concerns associated with ED and its treatment. This paper describes the development and validation of a 15-item, short form of PAIRS (SF-PAIRS). Domain scores and psychometric properties
The authors examined the relationships between change-based and acceptance-based strategies for responding to negative internal\\u000a experience (thoughts and emotions) and levels of psychological symptoms and well-being. A large sample of undergraduate students\\u000a completed measures of their general frequency of experiencing negative affect and intrusive thoughts, their typical ways of\\u000a responding when these experiences occur, and their levels of psychological symptoms
This study examined the prevalence of sexual behavior and its relationship with psychological distress among individuals with HIV who were seeking mental health care. Upon self-enrollment in HIV-related mental health care, 845 participants completed self-assessments of demographics, psychological distress, and sexual behaviors. Participants were categorized by sexual risk as determined by their reported unprotected sexual activity within the previous 30
It is known that social isolation is negatively associated to psychological well-being. Hence, it is imperative to identify factors that may moderate this association. This study aimed to examine the moderating effect of religiosity on the relationship between social isolation and psychological well-being among a sample of 1415 community-dwelling older Malay Muslims age 60 years and over. The data for
We report a preliminary study of the relationship between genotype (using a functional polymorphism of the serotonin transporter 5-HTT gene) and positive psychological development in high-achieving adolescent swimmers. Thirty-one volunteers of both genders, aged 1024 years, completed a battery of positive psychological questionnaires measuring hardiness, mental toughness, self-esteem, self-efficacy, dispositional optimism, and positive affectivity. DNA samples were obtained via buccal
|Economic, technological, and political changes have created a new employmentrelationship characterized by an externalized labor market, more tenuous ties between workers and employers, and growing wage inequality. To date, policymakers have sought to address these problems through a supply-side approach focused on education and training. What is
|This study determines the relationships between shame, anger, and men's perpetration of psychological abuse in dating relationships. The authors' hypothesize the connection between shame proneness and men's use of psychological abuse with a dating partner, with anger's mediating in this relationship. In addition, the authors' hypothesize that
Harper, Felicity W. K.; Austin, Amanda G.; Cercone, Jennifer J.; Arias, Ileana
Background: Spiritual intelligence is defined as the human capacity to ask questions about the ultimate meaning of life and the integrated relationship between us and the world in which we live. It results in an increase in psychological well-being of individuals as well as having a goal in their life. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between spiritual intelligence with purpose in life and psychological well-being among the nurses. Materials and Methods: The study was a descriptive correlation study. In this study, 270 nurses were selected from some hospitals of Tehran University through convenient sampling. Data were collected through a four-section questionnaire including demographic characteristics, a 24-item questionnaire of spiritual intelligence and its four components, psychological well-being questionnaire with six subscales and 84 questions, and the questionnaire of purpose in life with 20 questions. The data obtained from the questionnaires were analyzed through SPSS software. Results: The results showed that there was a significant relationship between spiritual intelligence with psychological well-being and having a purpose in life. Furthermore, there was a significant association between the components of spiritual intelligence including conscious state expansion, personal meaning production, transcendental awareness, and critical existential thinking with psychological well-being. Conclusion: High level of spiritual intelligence in nurses helps them to improve their psychological well-being and have a purpose in life, which can lead to the health provision of them and their patients.
Sahebalzamani, Mohammad; Farahani, Hojjatollah; Abasi, Reza; Talebi, Mehdi
The interactive relationship between psychological distress and physical health is a particularly salient one for women. Routine screening for abuse history and current psychological disturbance is essential in providing comprehensive patient care. The present study examines the utility of a brief screening measure in detecting psychological factors in female patients at a primary care facility. Sixty-nine percent of 108 women
Jennifer P. Read; Amy Leventhal Stern; Jessica Wolfe; Paige Crosby Ouimette
Background Previous studies examining the relationship between physical activity levels and broad-based measures of psychological wellbeing\\u000a in adolescents have been limited by not controlling for potentially confounding variables. The present study examined the\\u000a relationship between adolescents self-reported physical activity level, sedentary behaviour and psychological wellbeing;\\u000a while controlling for a broad range of sociodemographic, health and developmental factors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods The study entailed a
Michael H. Ussher; Christopher G. Owen; Derek G. Cook; Peter H. Whincup
Background Lung cancer morbidity and mortality may increase the risk for distress in couples facing this malignancy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose We examined the prevalence of psychological and relationship distress in lung cancer patients and their spouses, predictors\\u000a of psychological distress for both, and whether relationship satisfaction moderated the relation between patient and spouse\\u000a distress.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Participants (169 patients and 167 spouses) completed questionnaires provided during
Cindy L. Carmack Taylor; Hoda Badr; Ji H. Lee; Frank Fossella; Katherine Pisters; Ellen R. Gritz; Leslie Schover
The extent to which baseline psychological measures, pain, and compensation status are related to admission and posttreatment functional capacity and employment outcome was investigated. Four pass\\/fail functional capacity tests based on the DOT (Dictionary of Occupational Titles) classification system and previously shown to be predictive of treatment outcome in chronic pain patients were analyzed in relation to baseline measures of
Robert B. Cutler; David A. Fishbain; Renee Steele-Rosomoff; Hubert L. Rosomoff
Legal recognition of same-sex couple relationships provides at least some material benefits to couple members; however, few studies have examined the associations between legal recognition and psychological distress or well-being. Using an online survey sample of 2,677 lesbian, gay, bisexual (LGB) individuals, participants were placed in 4 groups: single, dating, in a committed relationship, and in a legally recognized relationship. Analyses revealed that participants in committed or legally recognized relationships reported less psychological distress (i.e., internalized homophobia, depressive symptoms, and stress) and more well-being (i.e., the presence of meaning in life) than single participants. Significant group differences and multivariate analyses indicated that participants in a legally recognized relationship reported less internalized homophobia, fewer depressive symptoms, lower levels of stress, and more meaning in their lives than those in committed relationships, even after controlling for other factors. The need for further research on the psychological benefits of legal relationship recognition for same-sex couples is discussed. PMID:20175612
Riggle, Ellen D B; Rostosky, Sharon S; Horne, Sharon G
Abstract Psychologists contributions to our understanding of compassionatelove have fallen far short of their potential. A major reason, it is argued, is psychologists love?hate relationship with the concept of love. Psychologists raise challenging questions about love (or some understandingsof love), based on their own deep (albeit rarely clearly articulated) ethical intuitions (e.g., telling battered women they are obligatedto show greater
|This study investigated the relationship of psychological masculinity and feminity in children to trait stereotyping and toy preferences. Subjects (157 boys and 157 girls in Grades K-4) were tested on a Child Test Battery, including the Child's Personal Attributes Questionnaire based on the adult PAQ (Spence, Helmreich & Stapp, 1974, 1975), the
This study examined demographic, psychological, and relationship factors that are associated with the experience of sexual desire in women. The contribution of other aspects of sexual function on sexual desire was also investigated. The participants were 741 partnered heterosexual women (mean age = 45.7 years), who completed the Female Sexual Desire Questionnaire online, which evaluated their levels of sexual desire, as well
This study examined demographic, psychological, and relationship factors that are associated with the experience of sexual desire in women. The contribution of other aspects of sexual function on sexual desire was also investigated. The participants were 741 partnered heterosexual women (mean age = 45.7 years), who completed the Female Sexual Desire Questionnaire online, which evaluated their levels of sexual desire, as well
|Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction, and child
|This study investigated whether gender, stressful problems common among college students, and adult attachment orientations (anxiety and avoidance) contributed to self-reported perpetration of psychological abuse in dating relationships among 127 college students. College men's stress levels were the strongest predictor of perpetration of
Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction, and child
The high levels of depression among teenage mothers have received considerable research attention in smaller targeted samples, but a large-scale examination of the complex relationship between adolescent childbearing and psychological distress that explores bidirectional causality is needed. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and the Early Childhood Longitudinal StudyBirth Cohort, we found that teenage mothers had
|The present study addresses the relationships of caregiver identity status on their adolescent children's identity distress and psychological symptom severity among a sample of adolescents (age 12-19) in treatment at a community mental health center (N = 60 caregiver-child dyads). A significant proportion of caregivers (10%) and their adolescent
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the frequency of cognitive distortions, as measured by the Inventory of Cognitive Distortions (ICD), and psychological and behavioral factors, as measured by the Millon Behavioral Medicine Diagnostic (MBMD), which includes negative health habits, psychiatric indications, coping styles, stress moderators, treatment prognostics, and management guide. The sample was selected from
|Two-hundred and four entering master's-level counseling students from 9 programs in 5 states participated in a study testing the only counseling-based wellness assessment measure, the Five Factor Wellness Evaluation of Lifestyle (J. E. Myers, R. M. Luecht, & T. J. Sweeney, 2004), for its relationship to 2 other constructs: psychological distress
Smith, Heather L.; Robinson, E. H. "Mike", III; Young, Mark E.
Objectives: The extent to which family and friends contribute to psychological well-being (PWB) may be subject to cultural variability. This study examines the mechanisms by which relationships with family and friends contribute to PWB among Thai elders.Method: Interviews were conducted with 469 men and women aged 60 and older in Nan Province, Thailand. The data were analyzed using structural equation
|Social support has been shown to buffer the relationship between life stress and psychological distress in late life. However, little attention has been paid to personality variables that are associated with the capacity to effectively utilize social support. Although the buffering effects of social support were replicated in our sample of 134
Nemeroff, Robin; Midlarsky, Elizabeth; Meyer, Joseph F.
The current investigation examined the relationship of ethnic identity, acculturation, and psychological functioning among 334 Chinese, Japanese, and Korean American participants. Multiple regression analyses revealed that ethnic identity and acculturation differentially predicted well-being on the basis of ethnic group membership. Results also
|Objective: To further investigate use and potential misuse of prescription stimulants (e.g., Ritalin, Adderall, Concerta) among a sample of college students and to explore the relationship between psychological variables and nonmedical stimulant use. Method: The sample consisted of 390 college students (71.6% female, 28.4% male). Participants
The aim of the study is to examine the relationship among self-efficacy expectancies and two important clinical aspects of alcohol abuse, namely the severity of abuse and strength of the perceived psychological benefits from drinking. The self-efficacy expectancies were measured by the Situational Confidence Questionnaire (Annis, 1984) in a group of alcoholic men (N = 203). A systematic and significant
This paper examines the relationship between workaholism and family functioning and the psychological outcomes of family members. A profile of the workaholic family is presented, along with an argument for family scientists and practitioners to pay more attention to this neglected area of family life. Considerations for how to address the need in family research and practice also are presented.
In this study we used a gender diagnostic (GD) approach to examine the associations between gender-atypical behavior and gender role (masculinityM and femininityF), bullying, peer relationships, and psychological well-being in a large community sample of 15-year-olds. GD showed little relationship with gender role. Irrespective of sex, M was positively, and F negatively associated with being a bully. Gender atypical boys
Used variables related to the use of physical aggression in dating relationships and conflict management strategies to predict the use of psychological aggression in courtship. Participants were 193 females and 194 males (aged 18-20 yrs) from 2 small universities. Individual factors (i.e., variables associated with threat susceptibility) and situational variables (i.e., relationship length and emotional commitment to the partner, conflict
For many years the professional psychology and religious communities have maintained a strained relationship. At best, a passive indifference has been the norm. Fortunately, in some circles, the psychological and religious communities have recently begun to develop more collaborative relationships. For some psychologists, religion and spirituality is now in vogue. The purpose of this article is to detail one professionals
This study examined the relationship of sex-role typology, medical and psychiatric symptomatology, and personality functioning in adolescents. Seventy-nine males and 101 females with an average age of 18.3 were administered the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI), Offer Self Image Questionnaire (OSIQ), Self Rating Depression Scale (SRDS), and Cornell Medical Index (CMI). In comparison to males, females reported significantly more medical
Background The discourse about mental health problems among migrants and refugees tends to focus on adverse pre-migration experiences; there is less investigation of the environmental conditions in which refugee migrants live, and the contrasts between these situations in different countries. This cross-national study of two samples of Somali refugees living in London (UK) and Minneapolis, Minnesota, (USA) helps to fill a gap in the literature, and is unusual in being able to compare information collected in the same way in two cities in different countries. Methods There were two parts to the study, focus groups to gather in-depth qualitative data and a survey of health status and quantifiable demographic and material factors. Three of the focus groups involved nineteen Somali professionals and five groups included twenty-eight lay Somalis who were living in London and Minneapolis. The quantitative survey was done with 189 Somali respondents, also living in London and Minneapolis. We used the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to assess ICD-10 and DSM-IV mental disorders. Results The overall qualitative and quantitative results suggested that challenges to masculinity, thwarted aspirations, devalued refugee identity, unemployment, legal uncertainties and longer duration of stay in the host country account for poor psychological well-being and psychiatric disorders among this group. Conclusion The use of a mixed-methods approach in this international study was essential since the quantitative and qualitative data provide different layers and depth of meaning and complement each other to provide a fuller picture of complex and multi-faceted life situations of refugees and asylum seekers. The comparison between the UK and US suggests that greater flexibility of access to labour markets for this refugee group might help to promote opportunities for better integration and mental well-being.
Employment status following spinal cord injury (SCI) has important implications for financial and psychosocial well-being. Several age-related variablesin particular chronological age, duration of SCI, and age at SCI onsethave been identified as being associated with employment among individuals with SCI. Cross-sectional investigations of this topic are complicated by methodological and statistical issues associated with aging and disability. The purpose of the current study was to examine the associations between three aging variables and employment status in individuals with SCI through a series of regression analyses. Six hundred twenty individuals with SCI completed a survey that included measures of demographic characteristics, pain, psychological functioning, physical functioning, fatigue, and sleep. The results indicated that chronological age and age at SCI onset were significant predictors of employment status. A significantly greater proportion of individuals aged 4554 were employed compared to those aged 5564 even after controlling for biopsychosocial variables. Additionally, there was a negative linear relationship between percent employed and age at SCI onset, and this relationship was not accounted for by the biopsychosocial variables. The analyses used in this study provide one method by which to disentangle the effects of different age-related variables on important SCI outcomes in cross-sectional research. Continued research in this area is needed to better understand age-related effects on employment status, which could be used to help maximize the quality of life in individuals with SCI.
Molton, Ivan R.; Johnson, Kurt L.; Bombardier, Charles H.; Jensen, Mark P.
The purpose of this study was to identify a variety of employmentrelationships based upon an economy-wide, representative sample. We turn to psychological contract studies examining different types of psychological contracts. We expand two existing typologies by incorporating multiple features or underlying dimensions of psychological contracts. Such a feature-oriented approach allows us to construct a meaningful conceptualization of employer and
The purpose of this study was to provide a descriptive profile of the alcohol, cigarette, marijuana and cocaine use practices among adolescents and to examine the relationship between employment, political beliefs, religious beliefs and substance use behaviors among high school seniors participating in the Monitoring the Future Study during the
|The relationship between maternal employment and maternal and paternal parenting styles is investigated in this study. Subjects included 117 two-parent families with elementary school children. Responses were obtained from 111 mothers and 24 fathers. The survey was conducted by a telephone interview lasting 10-15 minutes in duration. Questions
The environment is an asset that provides essential services. Like any other asset, its services will diminish as it depreciates. The environmentally sustainable income of a nation depends on a sustained flow of these services, and can be estimated by including the environment in a macroeconomic framework, with a goal to achieve both full employment and sustainability. The relationship of
|The purpose of this study was to provide a descriptive profile of the alcohol, cigarette, marijuana and cocaine use practices among adolescents and to examine the relationship between employment, political beliefs, religious beliefs and substance use behaviors among high school seniors participating in the Monitoring the Future Study during the
This study investigated the relationship between job dissatisfaction and psychological and physical health among Filipino immigrants in the United States. Cross-sectional data from the Filipino American Community Epidemiological Study were analyzed for 1,381 Filipino immigrants. The primary independent variable of interest was job dissatisfaction. Linear and negative binomial regression analyses were conducted to determine separate associations between job dissatisfaction and the outcomes of psychological distress and physical health conditions, respectively. Job dissatisfaction was positively associated with both psychological distress (? = 0.32, p < .001) and physical health conditions (? = 0.42, p < .001), controlling for sociodemographic variables such as age, gender, education, income, and job category. This community-based study demonstrated that job dissatisfaction has implications for health and well-being among an understudied, immigrant group of workers. Findings also suggest that job-related experiences should be considered when examining disparate health for immigrant, minority populations.
de Castro, A. B.; Gee, Gilbert C.; Takeuchi, David
Clinicians face formidable challenges in working with male perpetrators of domestic violence. Many treatment programs use a confrontational approach that emphasizes male entitlement and patriarchal societal attitudes, without honoring the genuine psychological pain of the abusive male. Although some men with strong psychopathic tendencies are almost impossible to treat, the majority of spouse-abusing males respond best to an empathic, client-centered, self psychological approach that also includes education about sociocultural issues and specific skill building. Understanding the deprivations in mirroring selfobject functions from which these men typically suffer facilitates clinical treatment response. While insisting that men take full responsibility for their abusive behavior, treatment approaches can still be most effective by addressing inherent psychological issues. Group leaders who can offer respect for perpetrators' history, their experience of powerlessness, and their emotional injuries in primary relationships are more likely to make an impact. PMID:10079460
Adolescents (N=1281; M age = 15.2 years, SD = 0.51 years) from a state-wide sample of schools provided information about their psychological well-being, family functioning, extraversion, and perceived physical attractiveness and weight, using a questionnaire completed at school. Consistent with previous research, girls were significantly more likely than boys to be dissatisfied with their weight and physical appearance, and these factors explained significantly more variation in self-esteem than in life satisfaction or other measures of psychological well-being. The strong relationship between body dissatisfaction and self-esteem for adolescent girls was not moderated by school type (single sex or educational). However, girls who were dissatisfied but psychologically well adjusted tended to be more extraverted, have more close friends and receive greater family support. PMID:21452753
Delfabbro, Paul H; Winefield, Anthony H; Anderson, Sarah; Hammarström, Anne; Winefield, Helen
Several measures of religious practice and religious orientation (intrinsic\\/extrinsic\\/quest) and two measures of psychological\\u000a well-being (positive affect and negative affect) have been employed in a cross-cultural survey of undergraduate university\\u000a students from five different cultural\\/religious environments: Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, the United States\\u000a of America, and Japan. Results suggest that measures of exstrinsic, intrinsic, and quest religiosity are not
With the advent of social network sites (SNSs), people can efficiently maintain preexisting social relationships and make online friendships without offline encounters. While such technological features of SNSs hold a variety of potential for individual and collective benefits, some scholars warn that use of SNSs might lead to socially negative consequences, such as social isolation, erosion of social cohesion, or SNS addiction. This study distinguishes types of SNS relationships, and investigates their relationships with social isolation, interpersonal trust, and SNS addiction. We classify SNS relationships into two types: (a) social relationships based on reciprocity between a user and his/her friends, and (b) parasocial relationships in which an ordinary user is aware of activities of a celebrity (e.g., famous actors, athletes, and others) but not vice versa. Based on achievements in studies of media effect and social psychology, we constructed a set of hypotheses, and tested them using a subsample of SNS users drawn from representative survey data in South Korea. We found that dependency on parasocial relationships is positively related with loneliness but negatively correlated with interpersonal distrust, while dependency on social relationship is negatively correlated with loneliness but positively related with trust. However, more dependency on both social and parasocial relationships are positively related with SNS addiction. Implications based on findings are also discussed. PMID:23697533
There is strong evidence for an association between maternal smoking in pregnancy and psychological problems in offspring. The problems most frequently associated are attention problems, hyperactivity, and conduct problems, although there is some evidence for an association with substance use problems as well. The nature of this association is unclear, but it is likely the result of a number of different mechanisms. Animal studies provide evidence for a causal relationship, in which exposure to nicotine has detrimental effects on foetal development. Other studies suggest that factors that correlate with maternal prenatal smoking may be the real risk factors for behavioural problems, although evidence that the associations remain after controlling for such risks goes some way to dispel this as the only explanation. Finally, maternal prenatal smoking may index underlying psychological problems in the mother that are inherited by the offspring. In all likelihood, a combination of these mechanisms may contribute to observed relationships between prenatal smoking and offspring psychological problems. Now that the association is well established, future research needs to focus more strongly on disentangling underlying mechanisms. Although animal studies demonstrate a casual relationship, it appears from other research that this may not be the whole story in human samples. Furthermore, the relationship may only exist under certain conditions (i.e. against a certain genetic background), and this possibility warrants further examination, particularly in relation to other genetic risks, and outcomes other than ADHD. Application of the children-of-twins design may also cast further light on the processes involved.
Button, Tanya Maria May; Maughan, Barbara; McGuffin, Peter
Several basic issues that affect the establishment of psychological services in the General Hospital are considered. Historically, because of mutual avoidance, employmentrelationships infrequently have been developed. Recently, however psychiatric services have been instituted in these settings. The primary choice for psychology currently is one of assuming traditional roles and functions, within the realm of mental health, and\\/or the provision
Research on Asian Americans and their psychological adjustment is limited. Consisting of two cross-sectional studies, the\\u000a present investigation examined the relationships among self-concealment, mindfulness, emotional distress in stressful interpersonal\\u000a situations, and general psychological ill-health in Asian American college students, and in comparison with European American\\u000a counterparts. In the Asian Americans, self-concealment was found to be positively related to general psychological
Akihiko Masuda; Johanna W. Wendell; Ying-Yi Chou; Amanda B. Feinstein
Objective: To further investigate use and potential misuse of prescription stimulants (e.g., Ritalin, Adderall, Concerta) among a sample of college students and to explore the relationship between psychological variables and nonmedical stimulant use. Method: The sample consisted of 390 college students (71.6% female, 28.4% male). Participants were asked to complete five questionnaires concerning demographic information, prescription stimulant use, internal restlessness,
Lisa L. Weyandt; Grace Janusis; Kimberly G. Wilson; Genevieve Verdi; Gregory Paquin; Justin Lopes; Michael Varejao; Crystal Dussault
Objectives: To examine the associations between psychosocial work characteristics and fatigue in employees in the Maastricht Cohort Study. A second objective was to compare the relationships for fatigue versus psychological distress with these psychosocial work characteristics. Methods: The design was cross-sectional and included 11,020 employees who responded to the self-administered baseline questionnaire of the Maastricht Cohort Study. Fatigue was measured
U. Bültmann; I. J. Kant; C. A. P. Schröer; S. V. Kasl
Objective: Insufficient sleep may be a significant contributing factor to the increase in pediatric obesity and thus may also contribute to adult obesity and chronic illness. Previous research has been based on large survey studies with consideration of demographics and lifestyle factors (e.g., snacking and TV watching) but not of child psychological\\/behavioral functioning and parenting factors.Method:This study investigated the relationship
Carolyn E. Ievers-Landis; Amy Storfer-Isser; Carol Rosen; Nathan L. Johnson; Susan Redline
Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and\\/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on motherchild relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, motherchild interaction, and child adjustment were administered to 32 surrogacy, 32 egg donation, and 54 natural conception families
Susan Golombok; Lucy Blake; Polly Casey; Alex Marks; Vasanti Jadva
This study explored the relationships among perceived workplace incivility, stress, burnout, perceived turnover intentions, and perceived level of psychological empowerment among acute care nurses (medical-surgical and critical care) in community and tertiary hospitals through the lens of complexity science. An exploratory study was conducted, and findings demonstrate significant relationships among workplace incivility, stress, burnout, turnover intentions, total years of nursing experience, and RN education levels. Creating targeted retention strategies and policies that will be sensitive to the needs and interests of nurses at high risk for leaving their organizations is imperative for nurse executives. PMID:24061587
We examined the relationship between childhood sexual, physical, psychological, and "multiple" abuse (i.e., abuse in more than one form) and comorbid Axis I and personality psychopathology among women with a lifetime history of bulimia nervosa (BN group; n =s 80) and a control group of noneating-disordered women (n = 40). Subjects were recruited primarily by newspaper advertisement. They participated in structured clinical interviews for diagnosis of Axis I and personality pathology, and they completed child abuse questionnaires in the interview setting. At odds with prediction, child abuse in various forms was not associated with the presence of lifetime comorbid Axis I disorders in general (i.e., 1 or more) or disorder classes in particular (mood, alcohol/substance use, anxiety) among BN subjects, although sexual, psychological, and multiple abuse were associated with the diagnosis of a higher total number of Axis I conditions. A history of psychological and multiple abuse (but not physical or sexual abuse alone) among BN subjects was strongly associated with the presence of personality disorder diagnoses, especially those in the "anxious-fearful" cluster (Cluster C). Finally, we found that when a personality disorder was present in addition to the Axis I conditions in question, significant relationships emerged between abuse and Axis I pathology, particularly for psychological and multiple abuse. In general, control group findings were in accord with BN group findings, indicating that our findings were not specific to eating-disordered women. Our results suggest that childhood abuse, particularly psychological abuse and abuse in multiple forms, increase the likelihood of lifetime comorbid Axis I disorders and personality pathology among bulimic patients. Eating-disordered women with a history of child abuse may thus represent a subgroup of patients requiring especially intensive intervention. PMID:7866412
This study examined associations between couple communication about cancer and psychological distress and relationship satisfaction of women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer. One hundred forty-eight couples completed a videotaped discussion of a cancer-related issue and a general issue. Patients completed measures of psychological distress
Manne, Sharon; Sherman, Marne; Ross, Stephanie; Ostroff, Jamie; Heyman, Richard E.; Fox, Kevin
Background: Few studies have examined the potentially beneficial role of positive psychological functioning in individuals with chronic pain. This study examined the relationship of psychological well-being (PWB) to pain and disability in women with fibromyalgia (FM) as compared to women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and healthy controls (HC). We targeted several domains of PWB that have been associated with health,
Holly Schleicher; Carmen Alonso; Elizabeth A. Shirtcliff; Daniel Muller; Barbara L. Loevinger; Christopher L. Coe
This pilot study examined the relational-behavior model (RBM) as a method of intrinsic motivational instruction in psychology courses. Among a sample of 33 college students enrolled in two undergraduate psychology courses, a Spearman rho analysis revealed a significant relationship between the intrinsic motivational factors (e.g. student/class
|This study explored the association between psychological strengths and perceptions of being a victim of a bullying relationship in the school environment. Using self-report questionnaires with grades 7 and 8 students, the role of psychological strengths as potential protective factors against various forms of bullying were examined including the
Anderson, Chris G.; Rawana, Edward P.; Brownlee, Keith; Whitley, Jessica
This study examined the relationship between social network characteristics and breast cancer screening practices among employed\\u000a women. We hypothesized that larger social networks, higher levels of support from networks, and stronger social influences\\u000a to undergo screening would be positively associated with regular utilization of mammograms and clinical breast examinations.\\u000a Data were collected from women aged 52 and over who were
Jennifer Dacey Allen; Glorian Sorensen; Anne M. Stoddard; Karen E. Peterson; Graham Colditz
BACKGROUND: A large body of international research reveals that single mothers experience poorer mental health than their partnered counterparts, with socioeconomic disadvantage identified as an important contributory factor in understanding this health disparity. Much less research, however, has focused specifically on the psychological well-being of single mothers who are employed, despite their growing presence in the labor force. Of the
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between physical health and psychological well-being among oldest-old adults. Structural equation modeling was performed to examine health influences on psychological well-being among 306 octogenarians and centenarians from the Georgia Centenarian Study. Latent variables were created to reflect subjective health, as measured by self-ratings of health and objective health, as measured by physical health impairment (i.e., health problems, past and present diseases, hospitalization) and biomarkers (i.e., hemoglobin and albumin). Psychological well-being was measured by positive and negative affect. There were significant direct effects of subjective health on affect and significant indirect effects of objective health through subjective health on positive affect and negative affect. Subjective health took the role of a mediator between objective health and psychological well-being. These results highlight the status and perceptions of health as a critical indicator for well-being in extreme old age.
Cho, Jinmyoung; Martin, Peter; Margrett, Jennifer; MacDonald, Maurice; Poon, Leonard W.
This study tested whether identity formation and emotional competence mediated the relationship between childhood psychological maltreatment and adult attachment styles, and tested the differential long-term effects of psychological abuse and neglect. The sample included 187 undergraduates in romantic relationships. Measures assessed the extent of childhood trauma, family expressiveness, alexithymia, self-esteem, self-concept, and adult attachment style. Results of path analysis showed
This study reports on the psychological well-being, life, and relationship satisfaction among a national sample of 213 stay-at-home fathers (SAHFs). Results from an Internet-based survey suggest these men report moderate to high levels of relationship and life satisfaction and moderate to low levels of psychological distress as compared with college-aged and adult men. SAHFs also reported high levels of parental
Aaron B. Rochlen; Ryan A. McKelley; Marie-Anne Suizzo; Vanessa Scaringi
The advent of the Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and the Internet with its subsequent use in the field of supply chains, mainly online shopping; web managed purchasing and online auctions have given rise to complex relationships between buyers and suppliers. The manner in which the buyer-supplier transactions occur have a psychological bearing similar to the transactions occurring between humans in the buyer-supplier organizations. The on-going research to study the psychological aspects of the transactions will use Transactional Analysis as a tool to identify these aspects of the relationship. The essential aspect of this view is that organizational culture plays a very strong role in the way organizations operate, and when two organizations transact with each other the individual culture is bound to play a role in the way the transaction is conducted. There are a number of factors that play a role in bringing the culture to the forefront of the transaction process. It is necessary to study these factors in order to understand why the psychological behavior is actually shown by these buyer- supplier organizations.
This article examines the relationship between literacy\\/numeracy skills and economic wellbeing, with a particular focus on employment, and its corollary, unemployment. Most people assume this relationship to be relatively unproblematic because the discourse on the role of literacy (and to a lesser extent numeracy) and (un)employment is well known. When, for example, the former Australian federal Minister for Education, Training
The purpose of this study is to examine the role of economic resources, status compatibility, and alcohol consumption on forms of nonphysical abuse, such as controlling and emotional abuse. Specifically, we focus on the connections between women's employment, the employment of their partners, alcohol use, and women's risk of abuse in intimate relationships. We hypothesize that women in intimate relationships
This study examined whether sexual/relationship satisfaction are differentially associated with mental health issues. Using data from a population-based computer-assisted telephone survey, the authors included in this study 3,800 respondents who had a regular heterosexual partner. The authors used 2 methods of scoring the K6 to produce measures of moderate psychological distress and serious psychological distress. Overall, 8.8% of men and 12.1% of women were classified as having moderate psychological distress, whereas 1.6% of men and 3.2% of women were classified as currently experiencing serious psychological distress. The association between satisfaction and mental health was influenced by sex and the severity of the mental health issue but not by type of satisfaction. After adjusting for demographic differences in mental health, low ratings of sexual/relationship satisfaction were both consistently associated with higher levels of moderate psychological distress in men and women and higher proportions of serious psychological distress in men. Although women may be able to resolve their satisfaction issues during less severe stages of psychological distress, for men there was a strong association between low sexual/relationship satisfaction and serious psychological distress. PMID:23152969
Patrick, Kent; Heywood, Wendy; Smith, Anthony M A; Simpson, Judy M; Shelley, Julia M; Richters, Juliet; Pitts, Marian K
The present study explored the relationships among stress, general and religious coping, and mental health in a sample of urban adolescents. The participants included 587 9th- through 12th-grade students attending two Catholic high schools in the New York City area. They completed a set of self-report measures assessing perceived stress, religious coping, general coping, clinical symptomology, positive and negative affect, and life satisfaction. Correlation and regression analyses were used to describe relationships among variables. Perceived stress, negative religious coping, and avoidant coping were significantly associated with indicators of psychological distress. Conversely, positive religious coping and active/engagement coping were significantly associated with indicators of psychological adjustment. Negative religious coping also was found to moderate the relationship between perceived stress and positive affect. Finally, partial correlational analyses revealed significant relationships between religious coping and mental health indicators, even after controlling for the contributions of general coping. Implications of the findings for research and clinical practice with adolescent populations are considered. PMID:22130582
Research indicates that obsessive and harmonious passion can explain variability in burnout through various mediating processes (e.g., Vallerand, Paquet, Phillippe, & Charest, 2010). The current study extended previous research (Curran, Appleton, Hill, & Hall, 2011; Gustafsson, Hassmén, & Hassmén, 2011) by testing a model in which the effects of passion for sport on athlete burnout were mediated by psychological need satisfaction. One hundred and seventy-three academy soccer players completed self-report measures of passion for sport, psychological need satisfaction, and athlete burnout. Results indicated that psychological need satisfaction mediated the relationship between harmonious passion and athlete burnout but not obsessive passion and athlete burnout. The findings indicate that the inverse relationship between harmonious passion and burnout can be explained by higher levels of psychological need satisfaction. However, this was not the case for obsessive passion, which was not associated with psychological need satisfaction or most symptoms of athlete burnout. PMID:23148547
Curran, Thomas; Appleton, Paul R; Hill, Andrew P; Hall, Howard K
Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate career-related antecedents of graduates anticipatory psychological contracts.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design\\/Methodology\\/Approach A survey was filled out by a sample of 722 graduates addressing questions on career strategy, individual career management,\\u000a work importance, and beliefs about employer and employee obligations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Findings Graduates with a high score on careerism, who are engaged in a high level of individual career
Ans De Vos; Katleen De Stobbeleir; Annelies Meganck
Online social network users may leave creative, subtle cues on their public profiles to communicate their motivations and interests to other network participants. This paper explores whether psychological predictions can be made about the motivations of social network users by identifying and analyzing these cues. Focusing on the domain of relationship seeking, we predicted that people using social networks for dating would reveal that they have a single relationship status as a method of eliciting contact from potential romantic others. Based on results from a pilot study (n = 20) supporting this hypothesis, we predicted that people attempting to attract users of the same religious background would report a religious affiliation along with a single relationship status. Using observational data from 150 Facebook profiles, results from a multivariate logistic regression suggest that people providing a religious affiliation were more likely to list themselves as single (a proxy for their interest in using the network to find romantic partners) than people who do not provide religious information. We discuss the implications for extracting psychological information from Facebook profiles. To our knowledge, this is the first study to suggest that information from publicly available online social networking profiles can be used to predict people's motivations for using social networks. PMID:19366321
Detection probability is an important index to represent and estimate target viability, which provides basis for target recognition and decision-making. But it will expend a mass of time and manpower to obtain detection probability in reality. At the same time, due to the different interpretation of personnel practice knowledge and experience, a great difference will often exist in the datum obtained. By means of studying the relationship between image features and perception quantity based on psychology experiments, the probability model has been established, in which the process is as following.Firstly, four image features have been extracted and quantified, which affect directly detection. Four feature similarity degrees between target and background were defined. Secondly, the relationship between single image feature similarity degree and perception quantity was set up based on psychological principle, and psychological experiments of target interpretation were designed which includes about five hundred people for interpretation and two hundred images. In order to reduce image features correlativity, a lot of artificial synthesis images have been made which include images with single brightness feature difference, images with single chromaticity feature difference, images with single texture feature difference and images with single shape feature difference. By analyzing and fitting a mass of experiments datum, the model quantitys have been determined. Finally, by applying statistical decision theory and experimental results, the relationship between perception quantity with target detection probability has been found. With the verification of a great deal of target interpretation in practice, the target detection probability can be obtained by the model quickly and objectively.
|The roles of previous psychological service use and social network variables in beliefs about psychological services were examined with 184 college students. Having friends and family members who used psychological services, being female, and having used psychological services positively related with beliefs about psychological services.
Walter, Jeffrey P.; Yon, Kyu Jin; Skovholt, Thomas M.
The mechanism linking biopsychosocial factors to disordered eating among university students is not well understood especially among Malaysians. This study aimed to examine the mediating role of psychological distress in the relationships between biopsychosocial factors and disordered eating among Malaysian university students. A self-administered questionnaire measured self-esteem, body image, social pressures to be thin, weight-related teasing, psychological distress, and disordered eating in 584 university students (59.4% females and 40.6% males). Body weight and height were measured. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that the partial mediation model provided good fit to the data. Specifically, the relationships between self-esteem and weight-related teasing with disordered eating were mediated by psychological distress. In contrast, only direct relationships between body weight status, body image, and social pressures to be thin with disordered eating were found and were not mediated by psychological distress. Furthermore, multigroup analyses indicated that the model was equivalent for both genders but not for ethnic groups. There was a negative relationship between body weight status and psychological distress for Chinese students, whereas this was not the case among Malay students. Intervention and prevention programs on psychological distress may be beneficial in reducing disordered eating among Malaysian university students. PMID:22885453
Gan, Wan Ying; Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Zalilah, Mohd Shariff; Hazizi, Abu Saad
|This study examines the relationships among work possible selves, socioeconomic position, gender, and psychological well-being. Participants were college students in early adulthood (N = 201), aged 20 to 35. Work possible selves, a construct based on the theory of possible selves, were examined. The results showed relationships between
A number of variables have been shown to moderate the relationship between stress and psychological functioning. Physical activity (PA) has the potential to influence some of these variables but there is mixed evidence that PA can moderate the stress and mental well-being relationship among adolescents. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate if leisure time physical activity moderates
Unni K. Moksnes; Inger E. O. Moljord; Geir A. Espnes; Don G. Byrne
This research comprises two studies examining the antecedents and outcomes of psychological reactance in teacher requests in the instructional context. In Study 1 we investigated the mediating role of reactance in the relationship of perceived teacher request politeness and teacher-student relationship distance with student resistance intention.
Many factors affect brand relationship quality in corporate crisis, crisis communication strategy (CCS) for example. Different communication strategies may generate different impacts on consumers. However we can't ignore other factors that influence communication effects, such as consumer types. This paper uses consumer psychological contract (CPC) to distinguish the types of consumers and brand relationship quality (BRQ) to quantify crisis communication
This study investigates the role that core self-evaluations (CSE) plays on the relationship between subjective well-being (SWB) and health functioning. The findings from a sample of 160 undergraduate students revealed that CSE explains incremental variance in physical and psychological health functioning, above and beyond the effect of SWB. The results also revealed that CSE moderated the relationship of two indicators
Ioannis Tsaousis; Ioannis Nikolaou; Nikolaos Serdaris; Timothy A. Judge
|An online survey was used to examine 45 Hispanic male veterans' traditional machismo and caballerismo as correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), psychological distress, and relationship satisfaction. Higher traditional machismo was associated with higher PTSD severity and distress and lower relationship satisfaction. Psychometric
This study tested a theoretical model of one mediator and 4 moderators of the relationships between 2 masculinity variables (Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Gender Role Conflict) and Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Services (Attitudes). Self-stigma was the hypothesized mediator, and the hypothesized moderators were (a) Depression, (b) General Self-efficacy, (c) Precontemplation, and (d) Barriers to Help-seeking. A sample of 654 men responded to an online survey of 9 questionnaires. After evaluating mediation in the absence of moderation, moderated path analyses were conducted for each moderator. The relationship between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes was partially mediated by Self-stigma, whereas that between Gender Role Conflict and Attitudes was completely mediated. No indirect or direct paths involving Gender Role Conflict were moderated by any moderators. Both Depression and Barriers to Help-seeking demonstrated mediated moderation by moderating both Stage 1 (the path from Traditional Masculinity Ideology to Self-stigma) of the mediated relationships and the direct effects between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes. Precontemplation moderated the direct effect between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes. The findings suggest that the relationships between masculinity variables and men's negative help-seeking attitudes may be better understood through their relationships with other variables that serve as mediators and moderators. Findings from the present study may offer some direction in the design of interventions to remediate men's negative help-seeking attitudes. PMID:23668728
Levant, Ronald F; Stefanov, Dimitre G; Rankin, Thomas J; Halter, Margaret J; Mellinger, Chris; Williams, Christine M
This study examined the relationship between socially desirable and undesirable components of masculinity and femininity, and their effects on psychological well-being among 366 Chinese university students. Results indicated that the undesirable traits of one gender were negatively correlated with the desirable traits of the opposite gender. Desirable masculinity predicted psychological well-being consistently across well-being indices, but undesirable masculinity predicted low
Summary Foreign workers seek overseas employment without sponsorship from a firm in their home country and hold temporary work visas in the host country. Despite the rising numbers of for- eign workers, there is very little research that examines employmentrelationships and work behaviors of foreign workers. In this study, we draw on social exchange theory and predict differences in
Employing the New Indices of Religious Orientation (NIRO), this study examines the theory that different religious orientations are related to individual differences in psychological type as developed by Carl Jung and operationalized by the MyersBriggs Type Indicator (MBTI). Data provided by 481 weekly churchgoing Christians who completed the MBTI and the NIRO demonstrated that quest religious orientation scores were higher
This article examines the association between job role quality and psychological distress in a sample of 300 full-time employed dual-earner couples, controlling for such individual level variables as age, education, occupational prestige, and marital quality and for such couple level variables as length of marriage, parental status, and household income. The magnitude of this effect is compared for men and
Rosalind C. Barnett; Nancy L. Marshall; Stephen W. Raudenbush; Robert T. Brennan
The aim of this study is to investigate sleep quality in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and to evaluate the relationship of the disease parameters with sleep disturbance. Eighty AS patients (60 males and 20 females) fulfilling the modified New York criteria, and 52 age- and gender-matched controls (33 males and 19 females) were enrolled in the study. Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Pain was measured by visual analogue scale. The disease activity and functional status were assessed by the Bath AS disease Activity Index and the Bath AS Functional Index. The Bath AS Metrology Index was used to evaluate mobility restrictions, and the Bath AS Radiology Index was employed to evaluate the radiological damage. The psychological status and quality of life were assessed with the hospital anxiety-depression scale and AS quality of life scale. The patients with AS had significantly more unfavourable scores in the subjective sleep quality, habitual sleep efficiency domains (p < 0.001) and the total PSQI score (p < 0.05). Poor sleep quality (total PSQI score) was positively correlated with increased pain, poor quality of life, higher depressed mood, higher disease activity and mobility restrictions. Pain was also an independent contributor to poorer sleep quality (p = 0.002). The sleep quality is disturbed in patients with AS. The lower quality of sleep is greatly associated with the pain, disease activity, depression, quality of life and increased limitation of mobility. PMID:22940709
Policies of deterrence, including the use of detention and temporary visas, have been widely implemented to dissuade asylum seekers from seeking protection in Western countries. The present study examined the impact of visa status change on the mental health of 97 Mandaean refugees resettled in Australia. At the time of the first survey (2004), 68 (70%) participants held temporary protection visas (TPVs) and 29 (30%) held permanent residency (PR) status, whereas by the second survey (2007), 97 (100%) participants held PR status. We tested a meditational model to determine whether the relationship between change in visa status and change in psychological symptoms was mediated by change in living difficulties associated with the visa categories. The conversion of visa status from TPV to PR status was associated with significant improvements in PTSD and depression symptoms, and increases in mental health-related quality of life (MHR-QOL). The relationship between change in visa status and reduced PTSD and depression symptoms was mediated by reductions in living difficulties. In contrast, the relationship between change in visa status and increased MHR-QOL was not mediated by changes in living difficulties. These results suggest that restriction of rights and access to services related to visa status negatively affect the mental health of refugees. Implications for government policies regarding refugees are discussed. PMID:21296428
An increasing number of babies are being born using donated sperm, where the child lacks a genetic link to the father, or donated eggs, where the child lacks a genetic link to the mother. This study examined the impact of telling children about their donor conception on mother-child relationships and childrens psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction and child adjustment were administered to 32 egg donation, 36 donor insemination and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. Although no differences were found for maternal negativity or child adjustment, mothers in non-disclosing gamete donation families showed less positive interaction than mothers in natural conception families suggesting families may benefit from openness about the childs genetic origins.
Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and childrens psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction and child adjustment were administered to 32 surrogacy, 32 egg donation and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. No differences were found for maternal negativity, maternal positivity or child adjustment, although the surrogacy and egg donation families showed less positive mother-child interaction than the natural conception families. The findings suggest that both surrogacy and egg donation families function well in the early school years.
The psychological functioning of fathers with children born after in vitro fertilization (IVF) has received little attention. Among men in general, little is known about predictors of early father-infant relationship (here also defined as attachment). The first aim was to compare IVF fathers and control fathers regarding personality traits, state anxiety, depressive symptoms and early father-infant attachment. The second aim was to assess whether early father-infant relationship is explained by the father's prenatal relationship with the unborn infant, his personality traits, state anxiety and symptoms of depression. Fifty-three IVF fathers and 36 controls filled in self-rating scales measuring father-infant attachment, personality, anxiety and symptoms of depression at 2 months postpartum. At gestational week 26 their prenatal relationship to the unborn infant was assessed. It was found that IVF fathers rated more somatic and psychic anxiety, indirect aggression and less assertiveness. They were as strongly attached to their infant as the controls. Fathers, who had rated higher attachment to their unborn infant during pregnancy, who were less anxious, more assertive and less irritable, were more attached to their infants than men who had been less attached to their unborn infants and who were more anxious, less assertive and more irritable. In conclusion, although IVF fathers are as strongly attached to their infants as other fathers, they may benefit from emotional support as they have elevated levels of anxiety proneness and indirect aggression. It is important to pay attention during pregnancy to fathers who have a less optimal attachment to their unborn infant and who have high levels of anxiety and irritability, as those three factors are related to a weak emotional father-infant relationship. PMID:18269425
Background Breast cancer (BC) risk, based on either known risk factors (objective) or self-assessment (subjective), may influence natural killer cell activity (NKCA) directly or through psychological distress. Objective The main objective of this study was to examine the relationships of objective and subjective BC risk with NKCA and a mediating role of psychological distress in a community sample of healthy women. Methods In a cross-sectional descriptive study, a convenience sample of 117 healthy women (mean age 36.5 years) completed questionnaires for BC risk and psychological distress and provided blood for NKCA measurement. Results Objective and subjective BC risk were positively correlated (p < .001). Regression analyses revealed that objective BC risk had a significant negative relationship with NKCA at the 12.5:1 effector-to-target (E:T) cell ratio (p = .011), whereas subjective risk was not associated with NKCA at any E:T cell ratio tested. Only subjective risk had a positive association with both BC-specific (p = .002) and general (p < .001) psychological distress. Psychological distress failed to mediate the relationship between subjective risk and NKCA. Conclusions Objective BC risk had a limited but significant relationship with NKCA. Subjective risk was highly associated with psychological distress but was not associated with NKCA. Implications for Practice Despite the limited relationships between BC risk and NKCA, the impact of BC risk on other tumor defense mechanisms needs to be further explored. Collective findings in this area will suggest early preventive strategies for monitoring BC risk and maintaining better tumor defense in healthy women.
We examine antecedents and outcomes of psychological contract violation in parallel with perceptions of psychological contract fulfilment in the Greek banking sector. We demonstrated that violation mediated the relation between breach and attitudinal outcomes. Trust in the employer partially mediated the relationship of breach and violation with employee attitudes. Finally, careerism moderated the relationship of perceived breach and organizational commitment.
We examine antecedents and outcomes of psychological contract violation in parallel with perceptions of psychological contract fulfilment in the Greek banking sector. We demonstrated that violation mediated the relation between breach and attitudinal outcomes. Trust in the employer partially mediated the relationship of breach and violation with employee attitudes. Finally, careerism moderated the relationship of perceived breach and organizational commitment.
In this study we examined the characteristics of human capital as well as the human resource (HR) configurations used for employees in four different employment modes (knowledge-based employment, job-based employment, contract work, and alliance\\/partnership). Results from 148 firms show that the strategic value and uniqueness of human capital differs across these four employment modes. In addition, each employment mode is
The attachment styles of psychiatric staff are likely to impact on their capacity to form positive therapeutic relationships with patients with psychosis. Twenty staff completed a measure assessing levels of attachment anxiety and avoidance. Staff and patients completed a measure of patients' interpersonal problems and staff completed the Five-Minute Speech Sample, which was used to derive ratings of psychological mindedness and therapeutic relationships. Higher staff avoidance was associated with greater discrepancies in staff and patient ratings of patients' interpersonal problems and poorer staff psychological mindedness. Lower staff anxiety and avoidance were associated with positive therapeutic relationships. Findings warrant replication in larger samples, but suggest that staff attachment style may be important in the development of better quality staff and patient relationships. PMID:18302212
|This study examined the relationships among academic and psychological attitudes and academic achievement of first-year students. The College Resilience Scale, the Academic Motivation Scale, the College Self-Efficacy Inventory, and the University Environment Scale were administered to 164 first-year undergraduate students enrolled at a large
|This exploratory study examines the relationships between self-esteem and psychological adjustment among 19 adolescents with Asperger syndrome and 19 typically developing adolescents using a model developed by Harter. The groups were matched for age (mean 13 years), sex (M:F 16:3) and ethnicity (white British). Participants completed four
This study examined the relationships among academic and psychological attitudes and academic achievement of first-year students. The College Resilience Scale, the Academic Motivation Scale, the College Self-Efficacy Inventory, and the University Environment Scale were administered to 164 first-year undergraduate students enrolled at a large RU/VH
|Background: Media use is associated with an increased risk of chronic disease and reduced quality of life among children. This study examined the relationship between media use during discretionary hours after school and psychological and physical assets among preadolescent girls. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using data from
Racine, Elizabeth F.; DeBate, Rita D.; Gabriel, Kelley P.; High, Robin R.
The present study examined the rates of victimization by physical, sexual and psychological abuse in adolescent dating relationships, with self-esteem being explored as a mediating variable. Subjects included 257 students from a coed, ethnically diverse, religiously affiliated high school. Information was obtained using a self-report questionnaire on teenage dating behaviors. Of the 114 male and 118 female subjects who had
David R. Jezl; Christian E. Molidor; Tracy L. Wright
We examined the strategies that people with osteoarthritis (OA) use to cope with illness-related problems in four areas: household\\u000a activities, leisure activities, pain management, and social relationships. We also examined the relationship between the coping\\u000a strategies participants reported using upon entry to the study (Time 1) and psychological well-being reported six months later.\\u000a Three hundred people, aged 50 and over,
Susan J. Blalock; Brenda M. DeVellis; Karen B. Giorgino
Temporomandibular disorders is a collective term used to describe a number of related disorders involving the temporomandibular joints, masticatory muscles and occlusion with common symptoms such as pain, restricted movement, muscle tenderness and intermittent joint sounds. The multifactorial TMD etiology is related to emotional tension, occlusal interferences, tooth loss, postural deviation, masticatory muscular dysfunction, internal and external changes in TMJ structure and the various associations of these factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the relationship between signs of psychological distress and temporomandibular disorder in university students. A total 150 volunteers participated in this study. They attended different courses in the field of human science at one public university and four private universities. TMD was assessed by the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) questionnaire. Anxiety was measured by means of a self-evaluative questionnaire, Spielberger's Trait-State anxiety inventory, to evaluate students'state and trait anxiety. The results of the two questionnaires were compared to determine the relationship between anxiety levels and severity degrees of chronic TMD pain by means of the chi-square test. The significance level was set at 5%. The statistical analysis showed that the TMD degree has a positive association with state-anxiety (p = 0.008; p < 0.05) and negative with trait-anxiety (p = 0.619; p < 0.05). Moreover a high TMD rate was observed among the students (40%). This study concluded that there is a positive association between TMD and anxiety. PMID:21638957
Pesqueira, Aldiéris A; Zuim, Paulo R J; Monteiro, Douglas R; Ribeiro, Paula Do Prado; Garcia, Alicio R
The high levels of depression among teenage mothers have received considerable research attention in smaller targeted samples, but a large-scale examination of the complex relationship between adolescent childbearing and psychological distress that explores bidirectional causality is needed. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Birth Cohort, we found that teenage mothers had higher levels of distress than their childless adolescent peers and adult mothers, but the experience of teenage childbearing did not appear to be the cause. Rather teenage mothers' distress levels were already higher than their peers before they became pregnant, and they remained higher after childbearing and into early and middle adulthood. We also found that distress did not increase the likelihood of adolescent childbearing except among poor teenagers. In this group, experiencing high levels of distress markedly increased the probability of becoming a teenage mother Among nonpoor teenage girls, the relationship between distress and subsequent teenage childbearing was spurious. PMID:19711808
Dating in adolescence plays an integral part in the development of sexual and social identities. This process is particularly salient for sexual minority youth who face additional obstacles to their identity formation due to their marginalized status. We investigated the influence of participating in a same-sex relationship (SSR) or an opposite-sex relationship (OSR) on sexual minority youths' psychological well-being (i.e., symptoms of depression, anxiety and internalized homophobia, and self-esteem) in an ethnically-diverse sample of 350 youth (55% male) between the ages of 15-19 years, recruited from three GLBT drop-in centers in the New York City area. Using longitudinal data, we examined youths' SSR and OSR over time. Multivariate regression analyses suggest that involvement in a SSR was positively associated with changes in self-esteem in males, and negatively correlated with changes in internalized homophobia in females. We discuss the implications for positive development in sexual minority adolescent populations. PMID:20535536
Bauermeister, José A; Johns, Michelle Marie; Sandfort, Theo G M; Eisenberg, Anna; Grossman, Arnold H; D'Augelli, Anthony R
Dating in adolescence plays an integral part in the development of sexual and social identities. This process is particularly salient for sexual minority youth who face additional obstacles to their identity formation due to their marginalized status. We investigated the influence of participating in a same-sex relationship (SSR) or an opposite-sex relationship (OSR) on sexual minority youths' psychological well-being (i.e., symptoms of depression, anxiety and internalized homophobia, and self-esteem) in an ethnically-diverse sample of 350 youth (55% male) between the ages of 15-19 years, recruited from three GLBT drop-in centers in the New York City area. Using longitudinal data, we examined youths' SSR and OSR over time. Multivariate regression analyses suggest that involvement in a SSR was positively associated with changes in self-esteem in males, and negatively correlated with changes in internalized homophobia in females. We discuss the implications for positive development in sexual minority adolescent populations.
Bauermeister, Jose A.; Johns, Michelle Marie; Sandfort, Theo G.M.; Eisenberg, Anna; Grossman, Arnold H.; D'Augelli, Anthony R.
The high levels of depression among teenage mothers have received considerable research attention in smaller targeted samples, but a large-scale examination of the complex relationship between adolescent childbearing and psychological distress that explores bidirectional causality is needed. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and the Early Childhood Longitudinal StudyBirth Cohort, we found that teenage mothers had higher levels of distress than their childless adolescent peers and adult mothers, but the experience of teenage childbearing did not appear to be the cause. Rather, teenage mothers distress levels were already higher than their peers before they became pregnant, and they remained higher after childbearing and into early and middle adulthood. We also found that distress did not increase the likelihood of adolescent childbearing except among poor teenagers. In this group, experiencing high levels of distress markedly increased the probability of becoming a teenage mother. Among nonpoor teenage girls, the relationship between distress and subsequent teenage childbearing was spurious.
This study examines the interrelationships among racial discrimination, racial identity, and psychological functioning in a sample of 314 African American adolescents. Racial discrimination was associated with lower levels of psychological functioning as measured by perceived stress, depressive symptomatology, and psychological well-being.
Sellers, Robert M.; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Martin, Pamela P.; Lewis, R. L'Heureux
Chronic psychological stressis a risk factor formultiple diseases of aging. Accelerated cellular aging as indexed by short telomere length has emerged as a potential common biological mechanism linking various forms of psychological stress and diseases of aging. Stress appraisals determine the degree and type of biological stress responses and altered stress appraisals may be a common psychological mechanism linking psychological stress and diseases of aging. However, no previous studies have examined the relationship between stress appraisals and telomere length. We exposed chronically stressed female caregivers and non-caregiving controls (N= 50; M age = 62.14±6.10) to a standardized acute laboratory stressor and measured their anticipatory and retrospective threat and challenge appraisals of the stressor. We hypothesized that threat and challenge appraisals would be associated with shorter and longer telomere length respectively, and that chronic care giving stress would influence telomere length through altered stress appraisals. Higher anticipatory threat appraisals were associated with shorter age-adjusted telomere length (? = ?.32, p = .03), but challenge appraisals and retrospective threat appraisals showed no independent association with telomere length. Caregivers reported significantly higher anticipatory (? = ?.36, p = .006)and retrospective (? = ?.29, p = .03) threat appraisals than controls, but similar challenge appraisals. Although there was no significant main effect of caregiver status on telomere length, care giving had a significant indirect effect on telomere length through anticipatory threat appraisals. Exaggerated anticipatory threat appraisals may be a common and modifiable psychological mechanism of psychological stress effects on cellular aging.
O'Donovan, Aoife; Tomiyama, A. Janet; Lin, Jue; Puterman, Eli; Adler, Nancy E.; Kemeny, Margaret; Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.; Epel, Elissa S.
Chronic psychological stress is a risk factor for multiple diseases of aging. Accelerated cellular aging as indexed by short telomere length has emerged as a potential common biological mechanism linking various forms of psychological stress and diseases of aging. Stress appraisals determine the degree and type of biological stress responses and altered stress appraisals may be a common psychological mechanism linking psychological stress and diseases of aging. However, no previous studies have examined the relationship between stress appraisals and telomere length. We exposed chronically stressed female caregivers and non-caregiving controls (N=50; M age=62.14±6.10) to a standardized acute laboratory stressor and measured their anticipatory and retrospective threat and challenge appraisals of the stressor. We hypothesized that threat and challenge appraisals would be associated with shorter and longer telomere length respectively, and that chronic caregiving stress would influence telomere length through altered stress appraisals. Higher anticipatory threat appraisals were associated with shorter age-adjusted telomere length (?=-.32, p=.03), but challenge appraisals and retrospective threat appraisals showed no independent association with telomere length. Caregivers reported significantly higher anticipatory (?=-.36, p=.006) and retrospective (?=-.29, p=.03) threat appraisals than controls, but similar challenge appraisals. Although there was no significant main effect of caregiver status on telomere length, caregiving had a significant indirect effect on telomere length through anticipatory threat appraisals. Exaggerated anticipatory threat appraisals may be a common and modifiable psychological mechanism of psychological stress effects on cellular aging. PMID:22293459
O'Donovan, Aoife; Tomiyama, A Janet; Lin, Jue; Puterman, Eli; Adler, Nancy E; Kemeny, Margaret; Wolkowitz, Owen M; Blackburn, Elizabeth H; Epel, Elissa S
|Introduction: The study reported here explored the relationship between the self-perceived computer competence and employment outcomes of transition-aged youths with visual impairments. Methods: Data on 200 in-school youths and 190 out-of-school youths with a primary disability of visual impairment were retrieved from the database of the first
This background paper examines the relationship between child abuse and the workplace and discusses employer-based strategies that can reduce the stress levels of working parents and provide a buffer against problems of child abuse and neglect. Part 1, "Child Abuse and the World of Work," discusses the kinds of stress experienced by working
The relationship between knowledge sharing and organizational performance for high technology start-up companies is not well understood. Using game theory and the concept of competitive advantage through human resource management, I examine employee perceptions of the employment game relating to cooperative knowledge behavior and firm performance as an entry point into researching organizational knowledge utilization. I draw upon classical game
The present study sought to examine the relationship between selected psychological traits as measured by the Institute for Personality and Ability Testing (IPAT) 16 PF inventory and fear of success as measured by the Fear of Success Scale (FOSS). The subjects were 36 Senior elite wrestlers (age 20-25) who were invited to the Colorado Springs Olympic Training Center to prepare for an up-coming inter-national competition. A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the following 16 PF factors predicted fear of success (p less than .05): IPAT-Q4, IPAT-L, IPAT-E, and IPAT-O. The multiple R was .75 and the R2 was 57.78%. Interpretation of the results suggest that while this sample of Senior elite wrestlers generally exhibit extremely low fear of success scores, athletes who are tense, frustrated, apprehensive, submissive, humble, and trusting tend to be more fearful of the consequences of success than those who are relaxed, unfrustrated, self-assured, assertive, competitive, and suspecting. PMID:3815711
In the United States, the at-will doctrine purports to give employers the right to terminate employees with or without notice or good cause. However, numerous exceptions have made protection afforded by the doctrine illusory, and wrongful termination litigation often results. Other countries such as Canada and New Zealand legally prohibit at-will employment, and require reasonable notice or justification when terminating
The purpose of the study was to investigate the impact of repeated Health Risk Appraisal (HRA), and the personalized feedback that they generate on employed adults. Health risk appraisals are used extensively by employers as a worksite wellness intervention to improve employee health status and reduce health care costs. In this study, secondary analysis of three years of HRA data
Hoping to generate employment opportunities for residents, communities often offer location incentives to businesses. But many newly created jobs may go to commuters rather than local residents, resulting in higher incentive costs per local job than perhaps antici- pated. In this paper we examine the allocation of employment across space, emphasizing the propensity of commuters to \\
The Fair Labor Standards Act (1938), administered by the U.S. Department of Labor, utilizes criteria established in landmark Supreme Court cases to distinguish nonpaid instructional work experiences from paid employment. Special Education teachers involved in developing jobs for students with disabilities should understand this distinction in order to prevent problems that could accrue from providing employment-related instruction without pay, when
Ian Pumpian; Douglas Fisher; Nicholas J. Certo; Thomas Engel; Denise Mautz
|The purpose of this study was to understand the extent to which students' psychological sense of community was influenced by IM use using the psychological sense of community theoretical framework created by McMillan and Chavis (1986), and the student development theoretical frameworks created by Schlossberg (1989) and Astin (1984). Thus, this
The present research was comprised of two studies that aimed to explore the role of religious and spiritual variables in the psychological adjustment and quality of life of people with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). In study 1, religious behavior and objective levels of spirituality and religiosity were not significantly related to psychological adjustment or quality of life among people with MS.
A conceptual framework is advanced that assumes that psychological symptoms emerge within multiple contexts, such as the workplace, and are influenced by the interplay of individual and situational risk and protective factors over time. This framework was utilized to examine the impact of work and work-family role stressors, coping, and work-related social support on psychological symptoms among 239 female, secretarial
David L. Snow; Suzanne C. Swan; Chitra Raghavan; Christian M. Connell; Ilene Klein
Objective. the primary aim of this study was to investigated relative between parenting style, social support on psychological well being .Method. the sample consist of 398 female students in grade two from public high school in Tehran .participants completed measures of Baum rind's parenting style (1991), Vaux's social support (1988) and Ryff's psychological well- being(1998) .Result. founding revealed that
|This article presents analyses of a representative sample of U.S. Latinos (N = 2,540) to investigate whether family cohesion moderates the effects of cultural conflict on psychological distress. The results for the aggregated Latino group suggest a significant association between family cohesion and lower psychological distress, and the
Rivera, Fernando I.; Guarnaccia, Peter J.; Mulvaney-Day, Norah; Lin, Julia Y.; Torres, Maria; Alegria, Margarita
The underlying architecture of the decision to pursue a degree in psychology was quantified using the Method of Sorting technique to identifying the critical issues necessary to make this choice. Multidimentsional scaling procedures were employed to construct a three-dimensional map representing the relationships between reasons for selecting psychology as a major. Freshman and senior psychology majors (N = 165) from
Robert Stewart; Karen Hill; Jessa Stewart; David Bimler; John Kirkland
This exploratory study examines the relationships between self-esteem and psychological adjustment among 19 adolescents with Asperger syndrome and 19 typically developing adolescents using a model developed by Harter. The groups were matched for age (mean 13 years), sex (M:F 16:3) and ethnicity (white British). Participants completed four quantitative measures examining self-competencies, social approval, anxiety, depression and self-worth. Findings revealed significant
This study was designed to examine the relationships between different aspects of body image and psychological, social, and sexual functioning throughout adulthood. The respondents were 211 men and 226 women (age range 1886 years; mean = 42.26). Respondents completed measures of self-rated attractiveness, body satisfaction, body image importance, body image behaviors, appearance comparison, social physique anxiety, self-esteem, depression, anxiety, and
This study explores minority stress among lesbian and bisexual women by examining the relationship of sexist and heterosexist events, self-concealment, and self-monitoring to positive psychological well being. The sample was made up of 373 lesbian and bisexual women, including 77 women of color. Results of a multiple regression analysis of the total sample indicated that, considered simultaneously, self-concealment and self-monitoring
Mary M. D. Selvidge; Connie R. Matthews; Sara K. Bridges
This study investigated the relationship between parental attachment, adult attachment, and psychological well-being among Hispanic American and non-Hispanic White college students. There were 166 participants, 84 of whom were Hispanic American (50.6%), and 82 of whom were non-Hispanic White (49.4%). In terms of parental attachment, results indicated higher maternal and paternal attachment among non-Hispanic White college students than Hispanic American
It is generally accepted that Attention?Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) results from a dysfunction of the central nervous system, which has led to a commonly held belief that environmental factors play little role in the behavioural problems of children identified as having ADHD. Therefore, the two studies reported in this article investigated the relationship between parental divorce and the psychological well?being of
Leila Heckel; Adam Clarke; Robert Barry; Rory McCarthy; Mark Selikowitz
The current study investigated gender differences in the relationship between sources of perceived support (parent, teacher,\\u000a classmate, friend, school) and psychological and academic adjustment in a sample of 636 (49% male) middle school students.\\u000a Longitudinal data were collected at two time points in the same school year. The study provided psychometric support for the\\u000a Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale
The impact of pain beliefs on coping and adjustment is well established. However, less is known about how beliefs unrelated to pain might impact upon this experience. In particular, just world beliefs could impact upon and be influenced by chronic pain, given that pain is not experienced in a vacuum but instead is experienced in a social context where justice issues are potentially salient. The focus of this study was the ability of personal and general just world beliefs to moderate the relationshipspsychological distress held with pain intensity and disability in chronic pain. The sample (N=95) was recruited from members of arthritis and fibromyalgia support groups to investigate these social beliefs in a controlled community pain context. A cross-sectional, questionnaire design was adopted. The personal just world belief was endorsed significantly more than the general just world belief, and endorsement of the personal just world belief was negatively correlated with pain intensity, disability and psychological distress, while the general just world belief was unrelated to these variables. When interaction terms relating to personal and general just world beliefs were entered simultaneously into regression analyses, the personal just world belief did not predict psychological distress. However, pain intensity positively predicted psychological distress at low but not high levels of the general just world belief, while disability predicted psychological distress at low and high levels of this belief. This suggests that a strong general just world belief has implications for psychological well-being in chronic pain, and as such this belief may occupy a potential coping function in this context. PMID:19121590
Leadermember exchange (LMX) has been characterized as a form of social support capable of buffering the effects of negative work experiences. However, employees with high-quality relationships with leaders in the organization may have stronger negative reactions when psychological contracts are breached. Thus, while a social support perspective would suggest that LMX minimizes the adverse impact of psychological contract breach on
Simon Lloyd D. Restubog; Prashant Bordia; Robert L. Tang; Scott A. Krebs
This study tested predictions from economic and developmental theories that maternal time with an infant is important for mother-child relationships and children's development, using time-use diaries for mothers of 7- to 8-month-old infants from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care (N 51,053). Employment reduced time with infants, but mothers compensated for some
The relation of culture change to psychological stress was investigated in a sample of second generation Greek-Americans undergoing the acculturation process. The sample was subdivided into four sub-groups on the basis of sex and social class (lower class-middle class) and positioned on a continuum of progressive stages of acculturation. The relation of culture change to psychological stress was then examined
The purpose of this study is to examine the major determinants of psychological health during unemployment. With this in mind, 438 (17% female and 83% male) unemployed individuals were contacted through Turkey's State Employment Office. It was expected that the relationship between duration of unemployment and psychological wellbeing would be nonlinear. Additionally it was hypothesized that perceived social support would moderate the relationship between length of unemployment and psychological health. Further, we suggested that self-esteem would be related to psychological health and moderate the relationship between length of unemployment and psychological health. The results supported the curvilinearity hypothesis of the relationship between unemployment duration and psychological health as measured by General Health Questionnaire. However, social support was not found to moderate the relationship between unemployment duration and psychological health. The hypothesis that self-esteem would moderate the relationship between length of unemployment and psychological distress was not supported, although self-esteem was a strong negative determinant of psychological distress during unemployment. Regression analysis showed that the best predictors of psychological health were self-esteem, perceived social support and perceived adequacy of financial aid received from relatives. Interestingly, perceived adequacy of the financial aid was negatively related to psychological health. This result was contradictory with the previous literature pointing out that financial aid reduces the effects of poverty due to unemployment. The findings of this study are important since the relationship between unemployment duration and psychological health was nonlinear, indicating that relevant services should be especially careful to intervene to increase social support and self-esteem during these critical times. The other results and limitations are discussed. PMID:23151222
The purpose of this paper is to provide a historical overview of the ethical concept of organizational due process in relation to contemporary issues in the utilization of company grievance procedures in the rapidly growing nonunion arena. Another objective of this paper is to appraise the current practices that employers have evolved for resolving issues generated by grievances, particularly those
Issues of privacy and employee health screening rank as two of the most important ethical concerns organizations will face in the next five years. Despite the increasing numbers of social scientists researching personal privacy and the current focus on workplace privacy rights as one of the most dynamic areas of employment law, the concept of privacy remains relatively abstract. Understanding
The corporate governance environment in the UK and US is generally thought to be hostile to the emergence of cooperative employment relations of the kind exemplified by labour-management partnerships. We discuss case study evidence from the UK which suggests that, contrary to this widespread perception, enduring and proactive partnerships may develop, in conditions where management can convince shareholders of the
Simon Deakin; Richard Hobbs; Sue Konzelmann; Frank Wilkinson
Museums today are faced with a number of challenges and are currently searching for ways to attract and retain audiences and engage with the public. In order to address these issues, researchers have called for studies to help construct a more complete understanding of the visitor experience. Few studies employ methodological approaches that provide in-depth accounts of the museum experience.
|American society has placed considerable emphasis on the value of a part-time job for working-age students. This work is infrequently based upon real economic need. Many adults believe employment will teach a young person many important traits such as responsibility, time-management, budget management, and organizational skills. Although this may
This study examined the kind of employment taken by male junior college graduates and related it to their college training, whether regular lower division (transfer) or vocational (terminal). A questionnaire was sent to 369 alumni of three California junior colleges three years after graduation; 276 of them responded. A year later, 28 of those who
Behavioural and psychological factors related to eating have been associated with obesity, although their relationship to anthropometric measures, more specifically fat mass, has not been fully examined. This study examined the relationship between fat mass (n=98; 75M, 23 F) and behavioural measures of eating and obesity related psychological traits (n=337; 226M, 111 F) in overweight and obese individuals (Mean BMI 30.5±4.0; BMI range 25-46kg/m(2)). Two sets of principal component analyses (PCA) were performed: one on validated questionnaires of eating behaviour and psychological traits and a second on fat mass and body weight related anthropometric measures (BMI, weight) and the aforementioned questionnaire measures. From the initial PCA (n=337), the primary principal component, P1 (R(2) value of 0.33), represented a latent variable associated with overeating or binge eating behaviour. In a second PCA (questionnaire measures augmented by anthropometric variables, n=98), a single component was identified, P1(+) (R(2) of 0.28), similar to that identified as P1 in the previous analysis and this component was highly correlated with fat mass (?=0.68). These findings suggest that levels of body fat and eating behaviour (namely, binging or overeating) are strongly related and, at least in a subgroup of individuals, obesity may be driven by behavioural factors associated with eating in combination with pre-existing environmental and genetic factors. PMID:22898608
O'Neill, Barry V; Bullmore, Edward T; Miller, Sam; McHugh, Simon; Simons, David; Dodds, Chris M; Koch, Annelize; Napolitano, Antonella; Nathan, Pradeep J
Reviews the book, Leading Change in Healthcare: Transforming Organizations Using Complexity, Positive Psychology and Relationship-Centered Care, edited by Anthony L. Suchman, David J. Sluyter, and Penelope R. Williamson (2011). The editors set out to articulate a coherent frame for thinking about organizations and change, which they call "relationship-centered administration." To do this, they review new theories in three domains-complexity, positive psychology, and relationship-centered care-and then weave them together. In addition, they explore presence as the personal basis of leadership for improvement. The book is in three parts. Part 1 lays out the theories, and then eight case studies are presented in Part 2 to show the theories in action. Part 3 is appendixes aimed at giving specific methods to support the implementation of relationship-centered administration. Despite the lack of conversation transcriptions in the narrative explorations making up the bulk of the book, as an articulation of a broad new theoretical framework for health care improvement, this book is a gem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24059276
|The limited research that exists about sibling relationships during adulthood has employed primarily sociological variables. Psychological aspects of the sibling relationship were explored in a sample of 35 women and 9 men with a mean age of 59. Subjects completed the California Psychological Inventory, the Scale of Sibling Relationships, and the
The authors of this study examine how evaluations made during an early stage of the structured interview (rapport building) influence end of interview scores, subsequent follow-up employment interviews, and actual internship job offers. Candidates making better initial impressions received more internship offers (r = .22) and higher interviewer ratings (r = .42). As predicted, initial evaluations of candidate competence extend beyond liking and similarity to influence subsequent interview outcomes from the same interviewer (?R² = .05), from a separate interviewer (?R² = .05), and from another interviewer who skipped rapport building (?R² = .05). In contrast, assessments of candidate liking and similarity were not significantly related to other judgments when ratings were provided by different interviewers. The findings of this study thus indicate that initial impressions of candidates influence employment outcomes, and that they may be based on useful judgments of candidate competence that occur in the opening minutes of the structured interview. PMID:20718533
Barrick, Murray R; Swider, Brian W; Stewart, Greg L
Sixty-one women with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis were given the Italian version of Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale which showed a good construct through the factorial analysis. The disability index was then related to the body mass index, the anatomical/radiographic damage, to the severity of pain assessed either through the McGill Pain Questionnaire or a visual analog scale, and finally to the degree of anxiety and depression as obtained from the Zung depression and anxiety inventory scores. A statistically significant relationship was found between radiographic damage and body weight, while disability correlated with the degree of psychological involvement and with the age of the patients. Through the stepwise multiple regression analysis we demonstrated that the pain experience and disability scores are strongly influenced by psychological impact. Our data may have important therapeutic implications. PMID:1765985
Salaffi, F; Cavalieri, F; Nolli, M; Ferraccioli, G
A number of studies suggest that demographic characteristics may be related to individuals' satisfaction with their work. If gender does relate to job satisfaction, this relationship might be partly explained by a mediating effect of another set of variables--individuals' reasons for working. Because the effect of socialization on work attitudes
|A number of studies suggest that demographic characteristics may be related to individuals' satisfaction with their work. If gender does relate to job satisfaction, this relationship might be partly explained by a mediating effect of another set of variables--individuals' reasons for working. Because the effect of socialization on work attitudes
Introduction Studies of psychological factors in ulcerative colitis (UC) have produced inconsistent findings. This study sought to determine whether perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (pANCA) demarcates subtypes which differ with respect to psychobiological interactions. Methods In 148 outpatients with UC, the strength of the relationship between current UC disease activity and psychological distress was assessed. pANCA was determined by ELISA and immunofluorescence, disease activity was determined by symptoms, physical examination and endoscopy using the St. Marks index, and depressive symptoms and health anxiety were measured with self report scales. Pearson correlations between disease activity and depressive symptoms and between disease activity and health anxiety were calculated. Results In 74 pANCA negative subjects, the relationship between disease activity and measures of psychological distress was significant for disease activity-depression (partial correlation= 0.48, p < 0.001) and for disease activity-health anxiety (partial correlation= 0.64, p < 0.001), whereas in 74 pANCA positive subjects, no relationships were found (disease activity-depression: partial correlation= 0.18, p = 0.14; disease activity-health anxiety: partial correlation= 0.20, p = 0.09). The differences in the strength of correlation between pANCA positive and pANCA negative subjects were statistically significant for both disease activity-depression (z = 2.0, p = 0.02) and for activity-health anxiety (z = 3.3, p < 0.001). Conclusions pANCA status demarcates psychobiologically distinct subtypes of UC, such that the absence of pANCA is associated with greater psychobiological interaction. These findings have implications for clinical care and understanding the pathophysiology of intestinal inflammation.
Maunder, Robert G.; Greenberg, Gordon R.; Hunter, Jonathan J.; Lancee, William J.; Steinhart, A. Hillary; Silverberg, Mark S.
Considerable research has investigated how psychological reactance affects individuals' responses to health promotion messages, but little is known about how family processes might moderate the reactance process. In this study, 301 participants were exposed to a persuasive message about organ donation. The moderating role of family communication patterns in the reactance process was tested using hierarchical regression. We found that
|Background: Findings are presented of the second phase of a longitudinal study of families created through surrogacy. Methods: At the time of the child's 2nd birthday, 37 surrogacy families were compared with 48 egg donation families and 68 natural conception families on standardised interview and questionnaire measures of the psychological
|Although religion has not been a mainline topic of empirical inquiry in the gerontological social work literature, there has been growing recognition in the past two decades of the health protective effects of religious involvement on both physical and psychological well-being. Depression interferes with both individual and social functioning
The American Psychological Association (APA) has been steadfast in its position that psychologists must have the right to participate in interrogations in U.S.-run illegal detention centers. One wonders why the APA is so resolute in this view especially in light of the opposition to involvement in these sites by all other relevant professional organizations. This paper offers an answer to
Background/Aims In Asian countries including Korea, the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is on the rise and its clinical impact has been emphasized. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of esophagitis patients with or without symptoms, and their association with psychological factors. Methods Subjects diagnosed as erosive esophagitis of Los Angeles-A or more in screening by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were enrolled. Questionnaires regarding GERD symptoms and Symptom Checklist-90-Revision were used to identify the presence of psychological symptoms. Results There was no difference between the subjects' general characteristics (gender, age, body mass index, smoking and alcohol intake) according to the existence of typical symptoms in these patients with erosive esophagitis. Patients with typical GERD symptoms were more likely to have atypical symptoms, dyspepsia and higher scores on psychological symptoms (somatization, obsessive-compulsiveness and phobic anxiety) than those without. Conclusions Psychological symptoms and other gastrointestinal symptoms should be considered in the patients with erosive esophagitis.
Lee, Sang Pyo; Lee, Kang Nyeong; Lee, Hang Lak; Choi, Ho Soon; Yoon, Byung Chul; Jun, Dae Won; Sohn, Won; Cho, Seung Chul
The extent to which psychological type is related to attraction to group in a growth group setting is investigated early, midway, and late in a group's development. The study also examines the pattern of attraction to group over the course of the group, in which 56 students participated in growth groups in conjunction with a beginning course in group procedures.
There is support in the review of the literature that there is a psychological basis for how an individual might handle the effects of stress. Using Carl Jung's typology as a basis, the House Paradigm of Stress Research was modified to reflect the hypothetical dichotomous results expected by the application of Jung's theory in the form of the outcomes of
Maternal cocaine use during pregnancy can affect the infant directly through toxic effects or indirectly through cocaine's influence on maternal psychological status. We followed 160 cocaine exposed and 56 nonexposed infants and their mothers identified at birth through interview and\\/or urine screen. Although cocaine exposure defined the groups, infant exposure to alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco was allowed to vary. Infants
LYNN SINGER; ROBERT ARENDT; KATHLEEN FARKAS; SONIA MINNES; JIE HUANG; TOYOKO YAMASHITA
Administered the Bem Sex Role Inventory, the SCL-90, and a demographic questionnaire to 195 new mothers. Analysis showed new mothers classified as either androgynous or masculine tended to score lower on the dimensions reflecting psychological distress than feminine or undifferentiated women. Androgynous mothers tended to be less hostile. (JAC)
|We used structural equation modeling to explore associations between inhibitory maternal gatekeeping attitudes, reports of inhibitory maternal gatekeeping behaviors, maternal psychological control, observed mother-adolescent warmth, and adolescent reports of maternal involvement. Our random stratified sample consisted of 315 mothers and their
Holmes, Erin Kramer; Dunn, KayLee C.; Harper, James; Dyer, W. Justin; Day, Randal D.
Attitudes toward cooperative, competitive, and individualistic situations were correlated with a number of measures of criminal attitudes and thought patterns and psychological pathology. Three male-criminal samples from correctional institutions were included in the study: 62 juvenile inmates, 25 prisoners in a minimal security prison, and 36 prisoners in a maximal security prison. The results indicate that the more cooperatively oriented
This study assessed genetic and environmental influences on the association between social support and psychological functioning using the combined adoption\\/twin design from the Swedish Adoption\\/Twin Study of Aging. A subsample of 424 twin pairs, 50 years and older, was used: 64 pairs of identical twins reared apart, 95 pairs of identical twins reared together, 132 pairs of fraternal twins reared
C. S. Bergeman; Robert Plomin; Nancy L. Pedersen; G. E. McClearn
The degree to which experiential avoidance may represent a functional response class was examined by comparing the perseverance of participants displaying high versus low levels of experiential avoidance, as assessed by the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (Hayes et al., 2004), during a "psychological biathlon" consisting of 2 challenging tasks
Zettle, Robert D.; Barner, Stacy L.; Gird, Suzanne R.; Boone, Linda T.; Renollet, Debra L.; Burdsal, Charles A.
Masculine gender role stress is a theoretical construct that describes the stress created in men when they feel they are not meeting society's expectations for masculinity, or when the situation forces men to act in feminine-typed ways. The stress produced by these feelings or actions are thought to be related to negative psychological outcomes for men, but should be unrelated
Donald R. McCreary; Frank Y. Wong; Willie Wiener; Kenneth M. Carpenter; Amy Engle; Pauline Nelson
|Prior research has demonstrated that intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with employment instability among poor women. The current study assesses the broader relationship between IPV and women's workforce participation in a population-based sample of 6,698 California women. We examined past-year IPV by analyzing specific effects of
Although previous research has linked sexual harassment to negative psychological outcomes, few studies have focused on moderators of these relationships. The present study surveyed Black (n = 88) and White (n = 170) female under- graduates who endorsed experiences of sexual harassment to examine whether traditional gender attitudes differentially moderated the relationship between sexual harassment and three outcomes: posttraumatic stress
Juliette C. Rederstorff; NiCole T. Buchanan; Isis H. Settles
The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the mortality rate and changes in employment status. This study used mortality data from the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study. To analyze the relationship between the mortality rate and changes in employment status, the population was classified into employed, unemployed, or economically inactive. Demographic and socioeconomic variables such as gender, age, educational level, annual household income, marital status, and self-rated health status were controlled. In this study, the generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the relationship between the morality rate and the changes in employment status. The mortality rate was higher (odds ratio = 4.31) among the population that experienced a change in economic status from employed to unemployed than those who maintained employment. The mortality rate for the population who became unemployed or economically inactive was higher (odds ratio = 5.05) in cases of death by disease. PMID:23674827
Kim, Ji Man; Son, Nak-Hoon; Park, Eun-Cheol; Nam, Chung Mo; Kim, Tae Hyun; Cho, Woo-Hyun
The present review examines the relationship between disaster occurrence and psychopathology outcome for 52 studies that used quantitative measures of such a relationship. Descriptive and inferential techniques were used to examine relationships among four sets of variables: (a) the characteristics of the victim population, (b) the characteristics of the disaster, (c) study methodology, and (d) the type of psychopathology. A
Two types of harassment are distinguished: sexual and psychological. In the private sector, according to French labour laws and the penal code, psychological harassment is actionable. It is up to the employer to prove the absence of harassment. The sanctions incurred can be up to 5 years imprisonment and a 150,000 euro fine and various measures of compensation for damages can be envisaged. PMID:23672157
|Analyzes the relationship between cognitive psychology as a broad theoretical framework, and the psychology of mathematics education. Argues that mathematics education should not simply borrow from cognitive psychology; rather, it should provide its own psychological research problems, adapted investigation strategies, and adequate original
The results from the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), which identified preferred psychological traits for 131 nursing students, were compared to their usage levels of course objectives in an undergraduate course in anatomy and physiology. The three usage levels (user, occasional user, and nonuser) were also compared to exam scores in the course, overall grade point averages (GPA) in first-year nursing, and the various psychological traits measured by the MBTI. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated that users of objectives achieved significantly higher exam scores and maintained a higher GPA than occasional and nonusers. The MANOVA also indicated that users of course objectives preferred a sensing judging modality, whereas nonusers preferred an intuiting perceiving style to guide their studying and learning. PMID:10186913
Harasym, P H; Leong, E J; Lucier, G E; Lorscheider, F L
Within the Job Demands-Resources model, the presence of job demands (e.g., work pressure) and the absence of job resources (e.g., social support) relate to burnout through a psychological energetic process, whereas the presence of job resources associates with work engagement through a motivational process. Although various mechanisms have been suggested to understand these processes, empirical evidence for these mechanisms is
Anja Van den Broeck; Maarten Vansteenkiste; Hans De Witte; Willy Lens
Objective:To examine levels of eating disorder behaviours and cognitions of young women with obesity in the Australian Capital Territory, Australia and assess the impact upon psychological status.Design:General population cross-sectional survey.Subjects:A total of 4891 young women from the community aged 1842 years, of which 630 were in the obese weight range.Measurements:Body mass index (BMI), eating disorder psychopathology (eating disorder examination questionnaire),
Self-reported behavior and attitudes towards eating [Eating Disorder Invetory-2; Garner DM (1991). Eating Disorder Inventory-2: Professional Manual. Odessa, Fl.: Psychological Assessment Resources; Estonian version Podar I, Hannus A, Allik J (1999). Personality and Affectivity Characteristics Associated With Eating Disorders: a Comparison of Eating Disordered, Weight-Preoccupied, and Normal Samples. J Pers Assess; 73(1), 133147] and the activity of platelet monoamine oxidase
Iris Podar; Maiken Jaanisk; Jüri Allik; Jaanus Harro
Adolescents (N = 1,281; M age = 15.2 years, SD = 0.51 years) from a state-wide sample of schools provided information about their psychological well-being, family functioning, extraversion, and perceived physical attractiveness and weight, using a questionnaire completed at school. Consistent with previous research, girls were significantly more likely than boys to be dissatisfied with their weight and physical appearance,
Paul H. Delfabbro; Anthony H. Winefield; Sarah Anderson; Anne Hammarström; Helen Winefield
This study examined whether college students' self-appraisal of their problem-solving effectiveness (i.e., perceived confidence, personal control, approach-avoidance) is related to their psychological adjustment, as measured by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Subjects (N = 671) were initially given the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI; Heppner & Petersen, 1982), with 40 subjects who scored in the top 16% and 40 in
The relationship between an individual' s psychological contract violation by a former employer and his or her attitudes toward a new employer was examined in a sample of lay off victims ( N=141). Violation was negatively related to trust in the new employer, and positively related to employee cynicism. The degree that participants worried about being similarly mistreated by their
S. Douglas Pugh; Daniel P. Skarlicki; Brian S. Passell
Relationships were investigated between home practice of mindfulness meditation exercises and levels of mindfulness, medical\\u000a and psychological symptoms, perceived stress, and psychological well-being in a sample of 174 adults in a clinical Mindfulness-Based\\u000a Stress Reduction (MBSR) program. This is an 8- session group program for individuals dealing with stress-related problems,\\u000a illness, anxiety, and chronic pain. Participants completed measures of mindfulness,
The present study investigated the prevalence of psychological problems and their relationships with relevant HIV prevention behaviors among female sex workers (FSWs). An anonymous cross-sectional survey was conducted. With a mapping exercise, 293 Chinese FSWs were recruited from a red-light district in Hong Kong. Results showed high prevalence of psychological problems among FSWs: substance use (40.4%), probable depression (53.9%), self-harm
Joseph T. F. Lau; H. Y. Tsui; Shara P. Y. Ho; Eric Wong; X. Yang
This study examined the association between generativity and psychological well-being for a subsample of 1882 mid- to late-life parents using the MIDUS data set. Guided by Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, we tested a structural model of psychological well-being that also included direct and indirect effects (via generativity) of remembered pre-adult relationships with parents and current parental experiences with offspring
The purpose of this study was to investigate how work environment and psychological empowerment related to worker outcomes\\u000a in public child welfare. These relationships were examined by testing a conceptual model in which psychological empowerment\\u000a mediated the relationships between work environment variables (quality of supervision and role ambiguity) and worker outcome\\u000a variables (emotional exhaustion and intentions to remain employed in
This study evaluated the effect of parent-child relationship quality (acceptance and differential treatment) over dimensions of the quality of sibling relationships (warmth and confl ict) and psychologi- cal adjustment in 69 adolescent sibling dyads. The effects of parent-child relationships were evaluated both at the individual and dyadic levels. In older siblings, the father-child relationship had a signifi - cant effect
KAREN RIPOLL; SONIA CARRILLO; JOHN ALEXANDER CASTRO
Explores the roles of sexuality and intimacy in cross-gender mentoring relationships. Todays leaders are concerned about controlling sexuality and intimacy in cross-gender work relationships and there is an increased awareness of the sexual harassment aspect of sexuality in todays society. Describes sexuality and intimacy in cross-gender mentoring relationships and explores the sex role spillover models explanation for sexuality in these
|This study of 59 undergraduate men and 85 undergraduate women explored how defining emotional and physical sibling abuse affected the frequency of reported sibling abuse. In addition, the current study examined how the emotional context of the sibling relationship (i.e., rivalry and conflict) moderated the relationship between sibling abuse and
Mackey, Amber L.; Fromuth, Mary Ellen; Kelly, David B.
|Genuine moral disagreement exists and is widespread. To understand such disagreement, we must examine the basic kinds of social relationships people construct across cultures and the distinct moral obligations and prohibitions these relationships entail. We extend relational models theory (Fiske, 1991) to identify 4 fundamental and distinct moral
The aim of the present study was threefold. Firstly, it investigated whether a general measure or specific measure of motivational orientation was better in describing the relationship between motivation and exercise behaviour. Secondly, it examined the relationship between the four most popular indirect methods of body composition assessment and physical activity and exercise patterns. Thirdly, the interaction between motivation and
Remco Polman; Willy Pieter; Luigi T. Bercades; Nikos Ntoumanis
People who are low in socioeconomic status (SES) are more likely to be religious than their higher-status counterparts; however, little research has tested the mechanisms for this relationship. Using data from 90 diverse societies and multi-level path analysis, we replicated findings that individuals low in SES are more religious and furthermore found that in wealthy countries this relationship was mediated
Genuine moral disagreement exists and is widespread. To understand such disagreement, we must examine the basic kinds of social relationships people construct across cultures and the distinct moral obligations and prohibitions these relationships entail. We extend relational models theory (Fiske, 1991) to identify 4 fundamental and distinct moral motives. Unity is the motive to care for and support the integrity
Contents: Introduction to forensic psychology; Psychological structure of the administration of justice; The methods of forensic psychology; Psychological fundamentals of preliminary investigation; Psychological fundamentals of court proceedings; Psycholo...
ObjectiveTo examine the relationships between learning difficulties and behavior problems in preadolescent children both concurrently and longitudinally, using data from the Australian Temperament Project, and to examine associations between DSM-diagnosed disorders and types of learning difficulties.
MARGOT PRIOR; DIANA SMART; ANN SANSON; FRANK OBERKLAID
Real-time monitoring of behavior using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) has provided detailed data about daily temporal patterns of craving and use in cigarette smokers. We have collected similar data from a sample of cocaine and heroin users. Here we analyzed it in the context of its relationship with a societal construct of daily temporal organization: 9-to-5 business hours. In a 28-week prospective study, 112 methadone-maintained polydrug-abusing individuals initiated an electronic-diary entry and provided data each time they used cocaine, heroin, or both during weeks 4 to 28. EMA data were collected for 10,781 person-days and included: 663 cocaine-craving events, 710 cocaine-use events, 288 heroin-craving events, 66 heroin-use events, 630 craving-both-drugs events, and 282 use-of-both-drugs events. At baseline, 34% of the participants reported full-time employment in the preceding 3-year period. Most participants' current employment status fluctuated throughout the study. In a generalized linear mixed model (SAS Proc Glimmix), cocaine use varied by time of day relative to business hours (p<0.0001) and there was a significant interaction between Day of the Week and Time Relative to Business Hours (p<0.002) regardless of current work status. Cocaine craving also varied by time of day relative to business hours (p<0.0001), however, there was no significant interaction between Day of the Week and Time Relative to Business Hours (p=.57). Heroin craving and use were mostly reported during business hours, but data were sparse. Cocaine craving is most frequent during business hours while cocaine use is more frequent after business hours. Cocaine use during business hours, but not craving, seems suppressed on most weekdays, but not weekends, suggesting that societal conventions reflected in business hours influence drug-use patterns even in individuals whose daily schedules are not necessarily dictated by employment during conventional business hours. PMID:23770647
Phillips, Karran A; Epstein, David H; Preston, Kenzie L
A relationship between perfectionism and religiosity has been suggested in the literature, and this relationship is clarified\\u000a further when the adaptive and maladaptive dimensions of both constructs are compared. Literature in both areas implicates\\u000a the idea of a rigid and inflexible personality style that may explain why well meaning high standards can be associated with\\u000a negative outcomes such as perfectionism.
Jesse M. Crosby; Scott C. Bates; Michael P. Twohig
The authors examined mental health and marital quality in an index group of spouses of women with postpartum psychiatric disorders and a control group of men whose wives had recently given birth but had no such disorders. At 6 to 9 weeks postpartum, couples underwent a psychiatric interview and completed self-report measures of psychological symptoms, marital satisfaction, and changes in couple and family functioning since the birth. Index spouses reported more symptoms and had lower Global Assessment of Functioning (R. L. Spitzer, J. B. W. Williams, M. Gibbon, & M. B. First, 1990) scores than controls. Index men reported greater marital dissatisfaction and more change in household routines, recreation, and intimacy with their partners than controls. PMID:8723010
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between exposure to behaviors identified as workplace bullying and self-report measurements of psychological and psychosomatic health complaints. Secondly, we investigated whether these relationships were mediated by the state negative affectivity of the victim. Thirdly, we investigated the extent to which generalized self-efficacy moderated the relationships between exposure to bullying behaviors and health complaints. Two hundred and twenty-four white- and blue-collar employees from a Danish manufacturing company participated in the study. Exposure to bullying behaviors was associated with an increase in psychological health complaints, increased levels of psychosomatic complaints and an elevated level of state negative affectivity. Whereas bullying by itself accounted for 27% of the variance in psychological health complaints and 10% of the variance in psychosomatic complaints, the results pointed to state negative affectivity as a partial mediator of the relationships between exposure to bullying behaviors and both measures of self-reported health. Though not directly related to reported exposure to bullying behaviors, generalized self-efficacy seemed to act as a moderator of the relationship between exposure to bullying behaviors and psychological health complaints. PMID:12500778
Objective: This study examines the relationship between low family income (LFI) experienced at different points in time, chronic low income status and its impact on child behaviour measured at 5 years of age. Method: Longitudinal data from the Mater University Study of Pregnancy were used to measure LFI in families at three points in time (the antenatal period, 6 months
William Bor; Jake M. Najman; Margaret J. Andersen; Michael O'callaghan; Gail M. Williams; Brett C. Behrens
This study examined implicit theories in ongoing, enduring relationships in order to elucidate the cognitive outcomes of marital communication. A random, urban sample of 207 married couples assessed how the dimensions of instrumentality and expressivity applied to their mates. Predictions of how mates would weight these two dimensions were based on Sandra Bem's gender schema theory. This theory posits that
A review of research on AIDS preventive behavior indicates that minority and nonminority heterosexual adolescents and adults, gay men, injection drug users, and commercial sex workers are all less likely to practice safer sex with close relationship partners, compared with partners they perceive to be \\
Stephen J. Misovich; Jeffrey D. Fisher; William A. Fisher
|Objectives: The purpose of the study was to examine three aspects of romantic relationships of Spanish adolescents: the prevalence of verbal-emotional and physical aggressive behaviors, correlates of dating violence perpetration (both verbal-emotional and physical aggression), and consequences of violence for victims' well-being. Method: A
Objectives: This study examines: (1) the effect of widowed persons frequency of contact with friends and relatives on their depressive and grief symptoms six months following spousal loss and (2) the extent to which the effects of social contact are contingent upon the degree of emotional support received from these relationships and the congruence between widowed persons preferred and actual
|Dating in adolescence plays an integral part in the development of sexual and social identities. This process is particularly salient for sexual minority youth who face additional obstacles to their identity formation due to their marginalized status. We investigated the influence of participating in a same-sex relationship (SSR) or an
Bauermeister, Jose A.; Johns, Michelle Marie; Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Eisenberg, Anna; Grossman, Arnold H.; D'Augelli, Anthony R.
|Objective: This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ) in measuring adolescent humor, including the relationship between humor and coping style, defense style, depressive symptoms, and adjustment in a non-clinical sample of adolescents. Method: Humor, coping, defense strategies, depressive symptoms,
|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review and synthesise literature on the role of human resource practices (HRP) in shaping employee psychological contract (PC). Based on this review, a conceptual framework for examining the relationship between HRP and PC and their impact on employee attitudes as well as behaviour has been put forward for
Closer relationships between caregivers and care recipients with dementia are associated with positive outcomes for care recipients, but it is unclear if closeness is a risk or protective factor for the health and psychological well-being of caregivers. We examined 234 care dyads from the population-based Cache County Dementia Progression Study. Caregivers included spouses (49%) and adult offspring (51%). Care recipients
Elizabeth Fauth; Kyle Hess; Kathy Piercy; Maria Norton; Chris Corcoran; Peter Rabins; Constantine Lyketsos; JoAnn Tschanz
|We examined the co-occurrence of and risk factors for adolescent boys' and girls' self-reported use of psychologically, physically, and sexually abusive behaviours in their dating relationships. The participants were 324 boys and 309 girls in grades 7, 9, or 11 who completed surveys at school. Descriptive analyses showed that 19% of boys and 26%
Sears, Heather A.; Sandra Byers, E.; Lisa Price, E.
We examined the co-occurrence of and risk factors for adolescent boys and girls self-reported use of psychologically, physically, and sexually abusive behaviours in their dating relationships. The participants were 324 boys and 309 girls in grades 7, 9, or 11 who completed surveys at school. Descriptive analyses showed that 19% of boys and 26% of girls reported having used two
What happens when the sciences of brain physiology, human psychology and marketing collide with the science of creativity? Could this generate a massive impact leading to the Holy Grail of marketinga rare insight into the code for building strong brand\\/customer relationships? As a veteran copywriter and creative director in the ad industry, my tools for gaining customer insight were limited
This article explores the relationship between bipolar disorder and disorders of psychological trauma. While bipolar disorder is generally thought of as a life-long illness, naturalistic studies report that some patients have a self-limited course. Three patients are presented who met diagnostic criteria for bipolar disorder, responded well to mood stabilizing medication, and were subsequently able to successfully discontinue their mood
|Although previous research has linked sexual harassment to negative psychological outcomes, few studies have focused on moderators of these relationships. The present study surveyed Black (n = 88) and White (n = 170) female undergraduates who endorsed experiences of sexual harassment to examine whether traditional gender attitudes differentially
Rederstorff, Juliette C.; Buchanan, NiCole T.; Settles, Isis H.
Aim: To investigate the prevalence, perceived causes and relationship to psychological well-being of verbal abuse in a National Health Service (NHS) ambulance service control room (ASCR).Method: Questionnaire survey with ASCR personnel (n = 48).Results: 7% of calls per shift were verbally abusive; the most common sources were patients or emergency callers. Verbally abusive calls were associated with staff having poorer
Christine A Sprigg; Christopher J Armitage; Kate Hollis
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the extent to which racial identity attitudes mediate the relationship between gender role conflict and psychological symptoms in Men of Color. The mediating role of racial identity was tested in Study 1 with a sample of Black men and in Study 2 with a sample of Asian and Latino men. The results
Robert T. Carter; Bryant Williams; Heather L. Juby; Tamara R. Buckley
To gain a closer understanding of client collaboration and its determinants, the first goal of this study involved the investigation of clients' perceptions of collaboration using a discovery-oriented methodology. Content analysis of 30 clients' written descriptions revealed three different modes of client collaboration, labeled active, mutual, and therapist-dependent, which emphasized client initiative and active participation, joint participation, and reliance on therapists' contributions to the work and change process, respectively. The majority of clients valued the therapist's active involvement and also emphasized the helpfulness of their collaborative experiences. In general, the therapist actions and attitudes involved in clients' views of good collaboration varied among clients. A second goal was to examine the relationships between client psychological functioning, quality of interpersonal relationships, and motivation, and clients' collaborative contributions, as rated by clients and therapists. Of these, only motivation was significantly associated with client collaboration, particularly in the perceptions of therapists. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22122209
Bachelor, Alexandra; Laverdière, Olivier; Gamache, Dominick; Bordeleau, Vincent
Psychological abuse in childhood has been linked to psychological distress in adulthood, although the interceding variables or possible mediators for the adult distress have not been adequately examined. Identification of mediating variables may provide important opportunities for targeting intervention and prevention efforts following psychological abuse. Experiential avoidance, a response style characterized by avoidance of negative private events, was examined as
Madhavi K. Reddy; Scott M. Pickett; Holly K. Orcutt
The reciprocal exchange of employees' work for pay that is central to employmentrelationships is viewed here through the lens of the psychological contract. A psychological contract involves promised inducements, promised contributions, delivered inducements, and delivered contributions: How an employee cognitively integrates these 4 elements is
Purpose: Research concerned with the relationship between volunteer activity and psychological well- being has typically reported higher levels of well- being among older adult volunteers relative to non- volunteers. However, few studies have examined nonlinear associations between frequency of volun- teer activity and well-being. We examined nonlinear associations between hours spent volunteering and psychological well-being, controlling for employment status, partner
Timothy D. Windsor; Kaarin J. Anstey; Bryan Rodgers
The present study examined self-concealment as a possible mediator in the relationship between perfectionism and distress. The study also explored whether willingness to disclose differed depending on whether the disclosure was to a friend, family member, or counselor. One hundred and sixteen undergraduate women were administered the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Self-Concealment Scale, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-21, and the College
Using Olsen and Cromwell's (1975) three facetsof interpersonal power (power in resources, process, andoutcomes), we examined the balance of power in lateadolescent romantic relationships and the associations between interpersonal power, adolescents'self-esteem, and depression. Participants were 61adolescent couples who were primarily European-American(90% of girls and 93% of boys), with the remainder being comprised of approximately 2-3% each of NativeAmerican, Asian, African
Renee V. Galliher; Sharon S. Rostosky; Deborah P. Welsh; Myra C. Kawaguchi
Background Research on contextual and neighborhood effects increasingly includes the built (physical) environment's influences on health and social well-being. A population-based study examined whether architectural features of the built environment theorized to promote observations and social interactions (e.g., porches, windows) predict Hispanic elders psychological distress. Methods Coding of built environment features of all 3,857 lots across 403 blocks in East Little Havana, Florida, and enumeration of elders in 16,000 households was followed by assessments of perceived social support and psychological distress in a representative sample of 273 low socioeconomic status (SES) Hispanic elders. Structural-equation modeling was used to assess relationships between block-level built environment features, elders perceived social support, and psychological distress. Results Architectural features of the front entrance such as porches that promote visibility from a building's exterior were positively associated with perceived social support. In contrast, architectural features such as window areas that promote visibility from a building's interior were negatively associated with perceived social support. Perceived social support in turn was associated with reduced psychological distress after controlling for demographics. Additionally, perceived social support mediated the relationship of built environment variables to psychological distress. Conclusions Architectural features that facilitate direct, in-person interactions may be beneficial for Hispanic elders mental health.
Mason, Craig A.; Lombard, Joanna L.; Martinez, Frank; Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth; Spokane, Arnold R.; Newman, Frederick L.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose
|Describes the design of the University of Texas Austin's Seay Psychology and Child Development & Family Relationships building. With modern technique and materials, the Seay building adds to the established architectural language of the campus, offering a richly tactile structure and adjoining outdoor space embracing the tenets of successful
Discusses trivia related to the history of psychology (with many fun examples such as: What are the names of Pavlov's original dogs?) and the relationship of this game to students learning how to use library resources (in attempts to answer such trivia questions), as well as the relevance of such knowledge.
This volume comprehensively reviews the research on the psychology of the middle aged (ages 40-65). Topics include the concept of maturity and maturation models, the measurement and influences of adult self image; marriage and sexual patterns; intergenerational relationships between and children; vocations and avocations (work, retirement, play,
Legal rules governing the employer-employee relationship are many and varied. Economic analysis has illuminated both the efficiency and the effects on employee welfare of such rules, as described in this chapter. Topics addressed below include workplace safety mandates, compensation systems for workplace injuries, privacy protection in the workplace, employee fringe benefits mandates, targeted mandates such as medical and family leave,
Explores the issue of whether psychology is a science and introduces some findings of scientific psychology. Topics discussed include psychology as an experimental science, and the relationship between psychology and free will. (Author/DB)
Research on brain areas involved in experiencing emotion and physical pain is abundant; however, psychological pain has received little attention in studies of the brain. The purpose of this systematic review was to provide an overview of studies on brain function related to psychological pain. The review was limited to studies in which participants experienced actual psychological pain or recalled a significant autobiographical event that may be assumed to have involved psychological pain. Based on results of the studies (N?=?18), a tentative neural network for psychological pain is proposed that includes the thalamus, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, the prefrontal cortex, cerebellum, and parahippocampal gyrus. Results indicated that grief may be a more accurate exemplar of psychological pain than recalled sadness, with indications of greater arousal during psychological pain. The proposed neural network for psychological pain overlaps to some extent with brain regions involved in physical pain, but results suggest a markedly reduced role for the insula, caudate, and putamen during psychological pain. Psychological pain is well known for its association with depression and as a precursor of suicidal behavior. Thus, identification of brain areas involved in psychological pain may help guide development of interventions to decrease mortality and morbidity. PMID:22660945
Meerwijk, Esther L; Ford, Judith M; Weiss, Sandra J
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to contribute to two related contemporary debates on the changing views of the employment relation and on the adoption of telework as a new work practice by analyzing line managers' general telework-attitude formation processes, and possible outcomes in concrete request situations, mirroring managers' views of the employmentrelationship. Design\\/methodology\\/approach This multi-method
Although the supervisory relationship is thought to be critical in training clinical psychologists, little is known about factors affecting the supervisory alliance. We conducted an Internet survey of British clinical doctoral trainees (N = 259) in which participants rated their supervisory working alliance, parental style during childhood, pathological adult attachment behaviours and attachment style for themselves and their supervisors. Trainees' ratings of the working alliance were associated with perceptions of supervisors' attachment style, but not with perceptions of trainees' own attachment styles. Path analysis supported a causal chain linking parental indifference, compulsive self-reliance, insecure supervisor attachment style and lower ratings of the working alliance. Our results broadly replicate data from a US sample and suggest that attachment theory is helpful in understanding clinical supervisory processes. PMID:20645272
Dickson, Joanne M; Moberly, Nicholas J; Marshall, Yehuda; Reilly, James
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine potential differences in identity commitment and career success perceptions between casually and permanently employed nurses. Specifically, it aims to investigate whether casually employed nurses have lower levels of commitment to their professional identity, as compared to permanently employed nurses, and whether this in turn negatively affects their perceptions of career
Contends that health care (HC) psychology should be more strongly emphasized in graduate clinical psychology training programs so that clinical psychologists can better meet demands for services that come from society, the HC field, clinical psychology itself, practicing clinical psychologists, and clinical psychology graduate students. The relationship of clinical psychology to HC psychology and the efficacy of training in HC
Child psychology and early childhood education are closely related, but the relationship is very complex. This is due to the fact that child psychology at the same time covers 1) researchers' scientific psychology, 2) writers' popular psychology, and 3) parents' and teachers' common sense psychology about child development. This article presents current trends in scientific child psychology and recent studies
The association between parent role quality and psychological distress is examined in a sample of 180 full-time employed dual-earner couples, controlling for such individual-level variables as age, education, occupational prestige, and marital quality and for such couple-level variables as length of marriage, household income, and number, ages, and sex of children. The magnitude of this effect is compared for men
ROSALIND C. BARNETT; ROBERT T. BRENNAN; NANCY L. MARSHALL
We examined the relationship between marital status and a 2-stage model of pain-related effect, consisting of pain unpleasantness and suffering. We studied 1914 chronic pain patients using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) to clarify whether marital status was a determinant factor in the emotional or ideational suffering associated with chronic pain after controlling for pain sensation intensity, age, and ethnicity. Marital status was unrelated to immediate unpleasantness (P = 0.08). We found a strong association with emotional suffering (P < 0.0001) but not with negative illness beliefs (P = 0.44). Interestingly, widowed subjects experienced significantly less frustration, fear, and anger than all other groups (married, divorced, separated, or single). A final MANCOVA including sex as a covariate revealed that the emotional response to pain was the same for both widow and widower. Only those individuals whose spouse died experienced less emotional turmoil in the face of a condition threatening their lifestyle. These data suggest that after experiencing the death of a spouse, an individual may derive some emotional inoculation against future lifestyle threat.
Wade, James B.; Hart, Robert P.; Wade, James H.; Bajaj, Jasmohan S.; Price, Donald D.
Background This study aims to (i) evaluate the association between anxiety and depressive symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL); and (ii) identify the effect modifiers of this relationship in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods A total of 337 clinically stable COPD patients answered the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) (assessing HRQoL) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Socio-demographic information, lung function, and other clinical data were collected. Results Most patients (93%) were male; they had a mean (SD) age of 68 (9) years and mild to very severe COPD (post-bronchodilator FEV1 52 (16)% predicted). Multivariate analyses showed that anxiety, depression, or both conditions were associated with poor HRQoL (for all SGRQ domains). The association between anxiety and total HRQoL score was 6.7 points higher (indicating a worse HRQoL) in current workers than in retired individuals. Estimates for patients with "both anxiety and depression" were 5.8 points lower in stage I-II than in stage III-IV COPD, and 10.2 points higher in patients with other comorbidities than in those with only COPD. Conclusions This study shows a significant association between anxiety, depression, or both conditions and impaired HRQoL. Clinically relevant factors affecting the magnitude of this association include work status, COPD severity, and the presence of comorbidities.
Paranormal beliefs (PB) are those that lie outside the explanatory realm of science. Thus, the existence of PB within a particular field of scholarship might indicate a decreased reliance on scientific methods within that field. This study evaluated the extent of PB among undergraduates majoring in the traditional sciences (biology, chemistry, and physics), psychology, and the arts and humanities. In particular, the relationship between PB and the personality trait Openness to Experience (OTE) was investigated, the goal being to both identify specific determinants of PB and better understand why PB are more prevalent in psychology compared with traditional sciences. Students majoring in the sciences, psychology, or arts and humanities were assessed across six domains of PB and six facets of the global personality trait OTE. Additionally, estimates of science education (SE) and IQ were obtained for each subject. Relationships among these variables were predicted to support the hypothesis that PB are largely determined by OTE rather than SE or IQ. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that the prevalence of PB in contemporary psychology could be explained by a relative overabundance of PB and OTE within psychology majors when compared with science majors. The obtained results confirmed that psychology majors were significantly higher in both PB and OTE compared to science majors. Furthermore, psychology majors scored lower than arts and humanities majors in PB and OTE, supporting the notion that psychology as a field occupies a position intermediate between the traditional sciences and the humanities. Regarding the determinants of PB, while SE and IQ were both shown to be significant, OTE was the single most powerful predictor of PB when considering the entire, undifferentiated sample. An unanticipated result was that determinants of PB are substantially gender-related. Among females, PB were predicted by OTE though not SE, while among males, PB were predicted by SE and not OTE. This surprising finding suggests a mechanism for the acquisition of PB that is fundamentally different for males and females. Given that among the sciences, psychology currently attracts a disproportionate number of females, this may in part explain the relatively larger degree of PB found within the field.
Dementia is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by cognitive impairment and behavioral disturbances. The behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common, contributing to caregiver burden and premature institutionalization. Management of BPSD is complex and often needs recourse to psychotropic drugs. Though widely prescribed, there is a lack of consensus concerning their use, and serious side effects are frequent. This is particularly the case with antidepressant treatment based on the assumption that BPSD is depressive in nature. A better understanding of BPSD etiology could lead to better management strategies. We submit that some BPSD could be the consequence of both dementia and an undiagnosed comorbid bipolar spectrum disorder, or a pre-existing bipolar diathesis pathoplastically altering the clinical expression of dementia. The existence of such a relationship is based on clinical observation, as far as the high frequency of bipolar spectrum disorders in the general population, with a prevalence estimated to be between 5.4% and 8.3%, and the psychopathological similarities between BPSD and mood disorder episodes in bipolar illness. We will review the concept of the bipolar spectrum and explain BPSD before proposing clinical pointers of a possible bipolar spectrum contaminating the phenomenology of dementia, which could lead to the targeted prescription of mood-stabilizing agents in lieu of antidepressant monotherapy. These considerations are of heuristic interest in reconceptualizing the origin of the behavioral manifestations of dementia, with important implications for geriatric practice. PMID:18849899
Dorey, Jean-Michel; Beauchet, Olivier; Thomas Antérion, Catherine; Rouch, Isabelle; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre; Gaucher, Jacques; Gonthier, Régis; Akiskal, Hagop S
Counseling psychology can make a contribution to the newly emerging fields of health-related behavioral science, but the nature of that contribution will depend on counseling psychology's willingness to develop new perspectives and practices. The present authors compare 2 of these health orientations, behavioral medicine and health psychology, in an effort to establish counseling psychology's relationship with either of these approaches.
|The purpose of the present dissertation study was to investigate the impact of interpersonal relationships on postschool employment outcomes and community satisfaction for young women with learning disabilities. Using a longitudinal, in-depth multiple case study design, the author examined a set of influencing factors (i.e., individual
|Three recently-released research reports commissioned through Project U-Turn and funded by the William Penn Foundation and the Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry offer analyses that shed new light on the relationships between Philadelphians' educational attainment and their earnings, employment and contributions to government and
This preliminary study compared the associations between objective and subjective socioeconomic status (SES) with psychological and physical variables among 157 healthy White women, 59 of whom subsequently participated in a laboratory stress study. Compared with objective indicators, subjective social status was more consistently and strongly related to psychological functioning and health-related factors (self-rated health, heart rate, sleep latency, body fat
Nancy E. Adler; Elissa S. Epel; Grace Castellazzo; Jeannette R. Ickovics
The present study investigated the predictive power of employment status, husband's and friends' social support and number of life-events on the levels of depressive symptomatology as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory among married Turkish women. Husband's support and number of life-events appeared as significant predictors of depression, whereas employment status did not. The results also showed that subjects reporting
We examined the co-occurrence of and adolescents' emotional reaction to self-reported experiences of psychologically, physically, and sexually aggressive behaviors in their dating relationships. Participants were 317 boys and 310 girls (Grades 7, 9, or 11). The most common co-occurrence pattern was experiencing all three forms of dating violence. More girls than boys were upset by their worst nonsexual and sexual
It is generally accepted that Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD\\/HD) results from a dysfunction of the central nervous system, which has led to a commonly-held belief that environmental factors play little role in the behavioural problems of these children. However, this perspective has been poorly investigated. This thesis examined the relationship between parental divorce and the psychological well-being of children with AD\\/HD.
This study aims to test a new process underlying the negative relationship between job insecurity and work-related well-being. Specifically, based on Self-Determination Theory, frustration of the psychological needs for autonomy, belongingness and competence was expected to explain the associations between job insecurity and emotional exhaustion and vigour (i.e. the core energy-related components of burnout and work engagement, respectively). Structural equation
Tinne Vander Elst; Anja Van den Broeck; Hans De Witte; Nele De Cuyper
In this cross-sectional study we analyzed the links between marital quality and intimacy, body image, and psychological quality\\u000a of life (PQoL) of breast cancer patients, as well as the moderating role of cancer phase (treatment, survivorship) on the\\u000a aforementioned links. We also evaluated whether body image mediated the associations between marital relationship variables\\u000a and PQoL. An analysis of the data
Helena Moreira; Carla Crespo; Tiago Paredes; Sónia Silva; Maria Cristina Canavarro; Frank M. Dattilio
|Describes employment characteristics and employment settings of American Psychological Association Members. Examines characteristics of respondents in each setting, underemployment, time spent in various activities, and salaries. Discusses employment trends and the continuing need for data on employment and utilization of pscyhologists.
Purpose The direct relationships between personorganization fit (PO fit) and multiple individual-level outcomes such as job satisfaction\\u000a and in-role performance have been heavily studied in the extant literature; potential mediators of these relationships have\\u000a been studied much less frequently. Consequently, a complete picture of the psychology surrounding PO fit is missing. This\\u000a research aims to begin to fill this gap in
Brian T. GregoryM; M. David Albritton; Talai Osmonbekov
Objectives: This study examines the relative contribution of employment-related and general self-efficacy to perceptions of quality of life (QoL) for individuals with traumatic brain injury. Design: Correlational. Setting: Community-based research and training center. Participants: 427 individuals with self-reported TBI under the age of 65 were included in analysis. Main Outcome Measure: Employment-related self-efficacy, general self-efficacy, perceived quality of life (PQoL),
Theodore Tsaousides; Adam Warshowsky; Teresa A. Ashman; Joshua B. Cantor; Lisa Spielman; Wayne A. Gordon
The present study investigated the prevalence of psychological problems and their relationships with relevant HIV prevention behaviors among female sex workers (FSWs). An anonymous cross-sectional survey was conducted. With a mapping exercise, 293 Chinese FSWs were recruited from a red-light district in Hong Kong. Results showed high prevalence of psychological problems among FSWs: substance use (40.4%), probable depression (53.9%), self-harm tendencies (34-38%), poor self-esteem (48-52%), and pessimistic future outlook (46-47%). Inconsistent condom use was common (51% with clients, 23% with one-night-stand sex partner, and 73% with boyfriends). Over 70% had not used HIV-related prevention services in the last 6 months. Multivariate analyses indicated that psychological problems were significantly associated with inconsistent condom use and non-use of prevention services. The poor psychological well-beings of FSWs have important public health implications. Relevant professional services should be provided and integrated with HIV prevention efforts. PMID:20467945
Lau, Joseph T F; Tsui, H Y; Ho, Shara P Y; Wong, Eric; Yang, X
Regarding the differences in timing of adult transitions (i.e., completion of education, full-time employment, having an intimate relationship, having a child) and their relation to childhood antecedents and adulthood psychological functioning, 282 participants were examined. The study was based on the ongoing Finnish Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development in which the same individuals have been followed from
This paper examines how organisation changes, driven by economic, social and technological changes at the macro level, have impacted on the psychological contract. Whilst criticised for being an ill-defined concept, it is usually taken to refer to 'the implicit relationship that exists between individuals and their employer concerning perceived mutual obligations and expectations'. Although its origins can be traced to
\\u000a From its very beginning, modern scientific psychology has dealt with issues regarding mind-body, health-disease relationships;\\u000a in particular, clinical psychology, in its various applications, has tried to provide a structure to psychological concepts\\u000a tied to organic disease. Clinical psychology is described as the area of psychology whose objectives are the explanation,\\u000a understanding, interpretation and reorganization of dysfunctional or pathological mental processes,
|Fifty employed adults with multiple sclerosis completed an interview that enabled them to identify barriers to job retention in four areas: work site accessibility; performance of essential functions, job mastery, and job satisfaction. Findings support such priorities as educating employees with disabilities regarding their rights, and
|To identify the attitudes towards maternal employment of undergraduates reared in single-parent families compared to those in dual-parent households, 717 undergraduates were surveyed. Subjects were divided into two groups based on number of household parents. Between group t-tests revealed a significant effect on the Beliefs about the
This longitudinal study examined the relations of post-partum maternal employment profiles with infant-mother attachment security, maternal sensitivity, and concurrent child and maternal characteristics in a rural Canadian sample. Contrary to expectations, dyads where mothers returned to outside work after six months post-partum showed higher Q-SORT scores on attachment security than other dyads, and higher sensitivity scores than dyads in which
|As the "Baby Boom" population ages, the geriatric population will grow to be the largest cohort in history. Elders are considered to be members of a diverse population and, therefore, topics related to older adulthood should be addressed within multicultural training. The purpose of this study was to understand the relationship among counselor
|This study assessed relationships between conforming judgment and employee rank and between conforming judgment and dogmatism among Florida Forest Service employees. Fifty-nine employees were tested for conforming behavior under varying conditions of dogmatism, institutional rank, and relative rank pressure. Rokeach's Dogmatism Scale was used, as
|Using data drawn from a longitudinal study of families of children with ASD, the current study examined the impact of marital quality on three indicators of maternal psychological adjustment: depressed mood, parenting efficacy, and subjective well-being. Multiple regression analyses indicated marital quality to be a significant cross-sectional
Using a sample of 144 mature students, aged 1853 years, attending a high school upgrading program, the screening properties of the Holden Psychological Screening Inventory (HPSI) and the correspondence of the HPSI to the Basic Personality Inventory (BPI) were evaluated. Correlations between the HPSI and the BPI scales and joint factor analysis of these two inventories demonstrated the validity of
|This study explores issues in teacher education that increase our understanding of, and response to, the individual differences displayed by learners. A large undergraduate teacher education cohort provided evidence of the range and distribution of preferences in learning styles, psychological types and multiple intelligences. This information
This study examined relations between perceived racial discrimination, multiracial identity integration (i.e., racial distance and racial conflict), and psychological adjustment (i.e., distress symptoms, positive affect, and negative affect) of 263 multiracial adults, using an online cross-sectional survey design. As hypothesized, higher levels of
Jackson, Kelly F.; Yoo, Hyung Chol; Guevarra, Rudy, Jr.; Harrington, Blair A.
The purpose of the current study was to examine in detail the association between witnessing domestic violence (DV) and long-term psychological adjustment. Important limitations of past research were addressed, including controlling for several associated risk factors. Special attention was paid to whether the perpetrator of the violence was the maternal or paternal figure, as well as to whether the witness
This study investigated the role of psychological contract breach, procedural justice, and interactional justice in influencing employees' anticitizenship behaviors. It was posited that the association between contract breach and these negative employee outcomes would be moderated by perceptions of both procedural and interactional justice. In particular, employees' anticitizenship behaviors are hypothesized to be higher following a breach when both procedural
Jill R. Kickul; George Neuman; Christopher Parker; Jon Finkl
We used the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales (M. A. Straus, S. L. Hamby, D. Finkelhor, D. W. Moore, & D. Runyan, 1998) to assess retrospectively womens childhood experiences of both mother and father physical abuse and psychological aggression, and assessed mother and father alcohol problems based on criteria derived from the Family History Research Diagnostic Criteria (N. C. Andreasen, J.
We examined the effects of adolescent social disinhibition expectancies and adult psychological distress on alcohol use and misuse in adulthood, using the 1970 British Cohort Study data. Multivariate imputation by chained equations filled in incomplete cases for 7023 men and 6896 women. A propensity to heavy alcohol use and misuse was predicted by social expectations of the releasing effects of
|This book is a collection of classic and recent papers (published between 1964 and 1994) reprinted from the "Journal of Juvenile Psychology""Individual Psychologist," and "Individual Psychology." Each of the five sections is introduced by the editor's comments. "General Techniques" contains the following articles: (1) "I-Thou Relationship Versus
|The document presents the proceedings of an international symposium analyzing the relationship among youth, education, and employment, with emphasis on youth employment trends and the need to find solutions for unemployment problems. The objectives are to evaluate the existing relationship in the light of changing values and expectations of young
Individual wellness comprises both psychological and physiological wellbeing, which are interrelated. In long-term monitoring of wellness, both components should be included. Work-related stress and burnout are persistent problems in industrial countries. Early identification of work-related stress symptoms and early intervention could reduce individual suffering and improve the working productivity and creativity. The goal of this study was to explore the
Juha Pärkkä; Juho Merilahti; Elina M. Mattila; Esko Malm; Kari Antila; Martti T. Tuomisto; Ari Viljam Saarinen; Mark van Gils; Ilkka Korhonen
Associations among three dimensions of parenting (support, behavioral control, psychological control) and measures of adolescent depression, delinquency, and academic achievement were assessed in a sample of African American youth. All data were adolescent self-reports by way of school-administered questionnaires in random samples of classrooms in southeastern U.S. metropolitan areas. Path analysis revealed several associations between parenting dimensions and youth outcomes,
Contents: Introduction; Summary and recommendations; Research procedures; An overview of the employment status and employment experiences of released federal prisoners; The relationship between employment status and institutional experiences; Post-release...
This study evaluated the relationship between women's perceptions of men's gender role conflict and women's relationship satisfaction and well-being. One hundred seventy-five women reported perceptions of their most recent or current male romantic partner's gender role conflict and rated their own levels of somatization, depression, anxiety, self-esteem, and relationship satisfaction. Women who perceived their romantic partners as scoring higher on
Using the demandcontrolsupport model of job strain, the authors examined gender differences in the relationship between psychosocial work exposures and psychological distress in a cross-sectional sample of 7,484 employed Canadians. Compared with low-strain work, high-strain and active work were associated with a significantly higher level of distress in both men and women. Differences in psychological distress in relation to psychosocial
This paper examined six patterns of violent relationships (severe and mild victimization, perpetration, and mutual violence) and their associations with psychosocial outcomes in men and women (N = 3,519) using data from the National Comorbidity Survey. Violence patterns most frequently reported included mild and severe violence performed by both relationship partners. Some gender differences in frequency of patterns emerged. Main
The study's objective was to investigate the motivational significance of the coach- athlete relationship in team sports. 591 athletes completed the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire (Newton, Duda, & Yin, 2000) to assess perceptions of the coach-created motivational climate and two Coach-Athlete Relationship Ques- tionnaires to assess direct perceptions (Jowett & Ntoumanis, 2004) and meta-percep- tions (Jowett, in press)
This article presents the fundamental paradigmatic principles of evolutionary psychology, which are then subjected to criticism. It is argued that evolutionary psychology suffers from both a number of unfounded empirical presuppositions and from conceptual confusion. Evolutionary psychology invokes Darwin as a background figure, but the relationship between the two is rather problematic. Although critical of evolutionary psychology, the article argues
Discusses three articles of Mr. McDougall, on the subject of psychological method. The articles accomplish their purpose, if by method we mean (with Mr. McDougall) not so much ways and means of going to work in psychology, but the method of conceiving the scope of psychology and of psychological processes. By their contention that there can be \\
We investigated the relationship between employment status and obesity prevalence in an elderly Korean, using a nationally representative sample. This cross-sectional study included 2991 participants (1396 men and 1595 women) aged 60 years or older. Employment status was categorized into full-time employees, part-time employees, and an unemployed group, based on a self-reported questionnaire. According to Asia Pacific regional guidelines from the World Health Organization (WHO) and International Obesity Task Force (IOTF), obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI)?25kg/m(2). Mean BMI in women was highest in the unemployed group, whereas the mean BMI in men did not differ significantly between employment groups. The obesity prevalence in full-time employees, part-time employees, and the unemployed group were 25.1%, 25.5%, and 27.1% in men and 36.0%, 37.9%, and 40.4% in women, respectively. Compared to the full-time employees, the odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals) for obesity were 1.172 (0.765-1.795) and 1.164 (0.843-1.609) in the part-time employees, and 1.451 (1.054-1.999) and 1.399 (1.090-1.795) in the unemployed group, for men and women, respectively, after adjusting for age, lifestyle factors (physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking status, daily calorie intake), socioeconomic factors (education level and household income), and inflammatory factor (white blood cell (WBC) counts). Unemployment appears to be significantly related to a higher prevalence risk of obesity in an elderly Korean population, regardless of age, lifestyle, socioeconomic factors, and inflammatory factor. PMID:23478160
Inflammation is frequently present in the visceral fat and vasculature in certain patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and/or adult onset Diabetes Mellitus Type II (NIDDM). An hypothesis is presented which argues that repeated acute or chronic psychologically stressful states may cause this inflammatory process. The mediators are the major stress hormones norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) and cortisol together with components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), the proinflammatory cytokines (PIC), as well as free fatty acids (ffa), the latter as a result of lipolysis of neutral fat. NE/E commence this process by activation of NF(kappa)B in macrophages, visceral fat, and endothelial cells which induces the production of toll-like receptors which, when engaged, produce a cascade of inflammatory reactions comprising the acute phase response (APR) of the innate immune system (IIS). The inflammatory process is most marked in the visceral fat depot as well as the vasculature, and is involved in the metabolic events which culminate in the insulin resistance/metabolic syndromes (IRS/MS), the components of which precede and comprise the major risk factors for CVD and NIDDM. The visceral fat has both the proclivity and capacity to undergo inflammation. It contains a rich blood and nerve supply as well as proinflammatory molecules such as interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), leptin, and resistin, the adipocytokines, and acute phase proteins (APP) which are activated from adipocytes and/or macrophages by sympathetic signaling. The inflammation is linked to fat accumulation. Cortisol, IL-6, angiotensin II (angio II), the enzyme 11(beta) hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 and positive energy balance, the latter due to increased appetite induced by the major stress hormones, are factors which promote fat accumulation and are linked to obesity. There is also the capacity of the host to limit fat expansion. Sympathetic signaling induces TNF which stimulates the production of IL-6 and leptin from adipocytes; these molecules promote lipolysis and ffa fluxes from adipocytes. Moreover, catecholamines and certain PIC inhibit lipoprotein lipase, a fat synthesizing enzyme. The brain also participates in the regulation of fat cell mass; it is informed of fat depot mass by molecules such as leptin and ffa. Leptin stimulates corticotrophin releasing hormone in the brain which stimulates the SNS and HPA axes, i.e. the stress response. Also, ffa through portal signaling from the liver evoke a similar stress response which, like the response to psychologic stress, evokes an innate immune response (IIR), tending to limit fat expansion, which culminates in inflammatory cascades, the IRS-MS, obesity and disease if prolonged. Thus, the brain also has the capacity to limit fat expansion. A competition apparently exists between fat expansion and fat loss. In "western" cultures, with excessive food ingestion, obesity frequently results. The linkage of inflammation to fat metabolism is apparent since weight loss diminishes the concentration of inflammatory mediators. The linkage of stress to inflammation is all the more apparent since the efferent pathways from the brain in response to fat signals, which results in inflammation to decrease and limit fat cell mass, is the same as the response to psychologic stress, which strengthens the hypothesis presented herein. PMID:16781084
In the late twentieth century, it is popular to research the effect of participative goal setting. The general conclusion is that the relationship between participation and performance is inconsistent and unclear at individual level. With team becoming a more dominant mode in organizing, motivating, and managing, it is worthwhile to investigate the effect of participation in team goal setting. This
Examined strengths of intergenerational kin dyads (grandparent-grandchild, grandparent-parent, aunt/uncle-niece-nephew) as rated by recipients of kin investment (adult grandchildren or nieces/nephews), noting that affectional ties between cultural model and recipient facilitates cross-generational cultural transmission. Relationship structures
Background and Purpose. While it is well established that social agents contribute to the quality of youth physical activity experiences, relatively little research has specifically explored peer relationships in physical activity settings. Rather, the bulk of research on social agents has focused on teachers, coaches, and parents. The purpose of this paper is to provide justification for pursuing youth peer
|The purpose of this study was to test tenets of both minority stress and lesbian feminist/sexual identity development theories by examining the potential moderating and mediating roles of individual coping styles (i.e., problem-solving and avoidant coping) in the relationship between internalized heterosexism and lesbian and bisexual (sexual
Clinical observations suggest that many patients with chronic pain have difficulty forgiving persons they perceive as having unjustly offended them in some way. By using a sample of 61 patients with chronic low back pain, this study sought to determine the reliability and variability of forgiveness assessments in patients and to examine the relationship of forgiveness to pain, anger, and
James W. Carson; Francis J. Keefe; Veeraindar Goli; Anne Marie Fras; Thomas R. Lynch; Steven R. Thorp; Jennifer L. Buechler
|Research with siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) suggests that they may be at increased risk for behavioural and emotional problems and relatively poor sibling relationships. This study investigated a diathesis-stress model, whereby the presence of Broad Autism Phenotype features in the typically developing siblings might
Petalas, Michael A.; Hastings, Richard P.; Nash, Susie; Hall, Louise M.; Joannidi, Helen; Dowey, Alan
|A criminal record is severe handicap that affects employment. Bonding and licensing regulations, employer attitudes, and psychological maladjustment of ex-offenders are aspects of employment problems. Understanding and active involvement of rehabilitation counselors and community can help overcome employment barriers and help ex-offenders become
Using data collected in a longitudinal study of detained juveniles, we test a model of the relationships among alcohol and marijuana or hashish use, reported adverse effects of the use of these substances, and emotional and psychological problems. Significant interrelationships were found among these factors over time. Degree of involvement in alcohol and marijuana or hashish use (measured either by
Richard Dembo; Linda Williams; Werner Wothke; James Schmeidler
The literature on the psychological and mental health effects of unemployment is reviewed in terms of its main effects and the factors that mediate its impact. Significant decrements in mental health for people of all ages are identified, with additional effects of prolonged unemployment, employment commitment, social relationships, gender, ethnic group, social class, local unemployment rate, and personal vulnerability. An
Despite considerable research into psychological momentum in sports, researchers and theorists still appear to be divided on whether the concept is real or illusionary (Burke, Edwards, Weigard & Weinberg, 1997). This seems to be based on inconsistent evidence regarding the relationship between perceived momentum and actual performance. Researchers have predominantly employed quantitative approaches, which, it is argued, has limited the
|This document reviews the progress of the Employment Training (ET) initiative for employed adults in Great Britain. The document begins by explaining the changing context in which the project is operating, which includes a downgrading of the alternatives to ET, increased participation in ET, and increased employer involvement in ET. The response
Cross-generational cultural transmission is facilitated by affectional ties between cultural model and recipient. A theory of cultural transmission must therefore account for how and why affectional ties vary between different dyadic relationships. Findings on the tie strengths of several intergenerational kin dyads (grandparent- grandchild, grandparent-parent, aunt\\/uncle-niece\\/nephew) as rated by recipients of kin investment (adult grandchildren or nieces\\/nephews) are presented, based
This study among 115 US and 260 Dutch nurses and nurse assistants tested a theoretically derived model of specific relationships between work characteristics and two theoretically distinct outcomes (i.e., emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction). Furthermore, the mediating role of negative workhome interference (NWI) in this context was examined. It was hypothesized that emotional exhaustion is related to job demands (i.e.,
Peter P. M. Janssen; Maria C. W. Peeters; Jan de Jonge; Inge Houkes; Gladys E. R. Tummers
Investigated the antecedents, effects, and underlying characteristics of natural mentor relationships in a sample of 54 inner-city,\\u000a Latina adolescent mothers. Women with mentors reported significantly lower levels of depression and anxiety than those without\\u000a mentors despite similar levels of stress exposure and overall support resources. Young women with natural mentors were also\\u000a more satisfied with their support resources and appeared
Jean E. Rhodes; Josefina M. Contreras; Sarah C. Mangelsdorf
Our research explores the correlates of spiritual experiences over a 2-year period in a sample of older adults (N = 164; mean age 81.9 years) living in a continuing care retirement community. Utilizing responses to the Daily Spiritual\\u000a Experiences Scale, scores were analyzed for changes over time and for their hypothesized moderating effect in the relationship\\u000a between chronic illness impact and markers of
Shoshana H. Ballew; Susan M. Hannum; Jean M. Gaines; Katherine A. Marx; John M. Parrish
Design: Cross sectional survey. Setting: Municipal sector employees in eight Finnish towns. Participants: 5981 employees with a permanent contract and 2786 employees with a non-permanent contract (2194 fixed term contract, 682 government subsidised contract). Outcome measures: Poor self rated health, chronic disease, and psychological distress. Results: Compared with permanent employees, fixed term men and women had better self rated health (men odds ratio 0.70; 95% confidence intervals 0.50 to 0.98, women 0.70 (0.60 to 0.82) and less chronic disease (men 0.69; 0.52 to 0.91; women 0.89; 0.79 to 1.02), but women had more psychological distress (1.26; 1.09 to 1.45). The only difference between subsidised employees and permanent employees was the high level of psychological distress in women (1.35; 1.09 to 1.68). Low perceived employment security was associated with poor health across all three indicators. The association of low perceived security with psychological distress was significantly stronger in permanent employees than among fixed term and subsidised employees, indicating that perceived security is more important for mental health among employees with a permanent contract. Conclusions: Contractual security and perceived security of employment are differently associated with health. It is therefore important to distinguish between these aspects of employment security in studies of labour market status and health. Such studies will also need to control for health selection, which is unlikely to operate in the same way among permanent and non-permanent employees.
Virtanen, P; Vahtera, J; Kivimaki, M; Pentti, J; Ferrie, J
|Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive
Positive psychology is the study of human strength, resilience, and optimal human functioning. The goal of positive psychology is to make people happier by understanding and building positive emotion, gratification and meaning. The constructs of happiness, hope, optimism, well-being, resilience and flow are examined in how they relate to positive psychology. The \\
Citation: Brigham, J., & Grisso, T. (2003). Forensic Psychology. In D.K. Friedheim & I.B. Weiner (eds.), Comprehensive handbook of psychology. Vol. 1: The history of psychology, (pp. 391-411). New York: John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0471383201, 9780471383208.\\u000aLimited preview available via Google Books.
|Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between various levels of parent-child physical violence and psychological symptoms reported by college students, while controlling for demographic variables, severity and frequency of violence, and co-occurrence of parental psychological aggression. Method: Participants
Miller-Perrin, Cindy L.; Perrin, Robin D.; Kocur, Jodie L.
Explores the field of medicine as an area for psychological inquiry. Evidence for the growth of medical psychology is presented, though relatively few psychologists are engaged in its pursuit. Medical topics of interest to psychologists are discussed, and the importance of more rigorous research methodologies being used in this area is stressed. It is suggested that psychology and medicine need
|A key factor in the successful development of workplace learning is employer engagement (Leitch, 2006; DfES, 2007). However, despite numerous approaches by government in the United Kingdom to bring together employers, providers and learners so that economic success is generated by a skilled and flexible workforce, there continue to be challenges
Purpose This paper aims to contribute empirical data to the under-researched relationship between trust and the psychological contract. Design\\/methodology\\/approach A case study approach is used carrying out 41 interviews in three case study firms, adopting a critical incident technique (CIT). Findings Trust is present in all psychological contracts and its different bases, cognitive and affective, underpin transactional
The relationship between psychology and education has waxed and waned over the past century. In addition, a core issue for psychologists is how to bridge the gap between theory and practice in applied settings such as schools. While acknowledging the work that has been done, it is apparent that the effective dissemination of psychology to
The association between vigorous exercise and certain aspects of mental health is well documented. Explanations for this relationship are not well understood, however, and recent developments in sport psychology suggest a renewed interest in health-related topics. Paradoxically, the more fundamental or prerequisite issue of exercise adherence has received little attention from a psychological perspective. Moreover, the research related to adherence
This study explores the prevalence of disordered eating attitudes in a sample of male first-year university students engaged in a physical education program and examines the relationships between emotional intelligence, coping, and emotional eating in relation to disordered-eating (DE) attitudes. A total of 140 students completed the following questionnaires: the eating attitudes test, the bar-on emotional intelligence questionnaire, the coping inventory stress scale, and the Dutch eating behavior questionnaire. The number of participants represented 80% of the male students registered in this discipline at the authors' university. Twenty percent of students presented DE attitudes even though they were of normal weight. The bar-on EQ-I results indicated that students with DE attitudes had lower levels of emotional intelligence (EI) scores than students without DE attitudes (control group). Moreover, they scored higher than the control group on coping styles such as avoidance-oriented coping, emotion-oriented coping, and emotional eating. The DE group presented a positive correlation between DE attitudes symptoms and both avoidance- and emotion-oriented coping but a negative correlation between DE attitudes and task-oriented coping. There was also a significant negative correlation between DE attitudes and EI score. Another result from this group indicated an association between EI score and emotional-eating score (p < .05, r = -.44) and also a positive correlation between emotion-oriented coping and emotional eating (p < .01, r = .47). The findings highlight future research potential on the role of emotions and EI in DE symptoms, which may be beneficial in the context of collaborative care management intervention. PMID:23011656
This study explores the prevalence of disordered eating attitudes in a sample of male first-year university students engaged in a physical education program and examines the relationships between emotional intelligence, coping, and emotional eating in relation to disordered-eating (DE) attitudes. A total of 140 students completed the following questionnaires: the Eating Attitudes Test, the Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, the Coping Inventory Stress Scale, and the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. The number of participants represented 80% of the male students registered in this discipline at the authors' university. Twenty percent of students presented DE attitudes even though they were of normal weight. The Bar-On EQ-I results indicated that students with DE attitudes had lower levels of emotional intelligence (EI) scores than students without DE attitudes (control group). Moreover, they scored higher than the control group on coping styles such as avoidance-oriented coping, emotion-oriented coping, and emotional eating. The DE group presented a positive correlation between DE attitudes symptoms and both avoidance- and emotion-oriented coping but a negative correlation between DE attitudes and task-oriented coping. There was also a significant negative correlation between DE attitudes and EI score. Another result from this group indicated an association between EI score and emotional-eating score (p < .05, r = -.44) and also a positive correlation between emotion-oriented coping and emotional eating (p < .01, r = .47). The findings highlight future research potential on the role of emotions and EI in DE symptoms, which may be beneficial in the context of collaborative care management intervention. PMID:22805240
|William James, the turn of the century psychologist, philospher, and educator, was avidly interested in the relationship between psychology and teaching. This paper considers operant conditioning, timing of reinforcers, and programmed instruction--touchstones of B.F. Skinner in the teaching/learning milieu. Of course, materials not just methods
Manual therapy is based on a biomedical model of illness and places considerable reliance on the patient's report of pain. Reported pain intensity is assumed to bear a close relationship with underlying nociception but research has shown that the experience of pain is also influenced by a wide range of psychological factors. Firstly, response to pain provocation (whether palpation or
Surrogate motherhood arrangements have increased in recent years and yet the practice remains controversial. The present paper evaluates the limited available research evidence. Issues discussed include: psychological stressors associated with surrogacy, attitudes towards the practice, motives of surrogate and commissioning couple and issues pertaining to their relationship, the question of the surrogate relinquishing the child to the commissioning couple and
Hirsutism, i.e. excess body hair in the male distribution, is a medical term applied only to women. Although associated with social and psychological difficulties including anxiety, social avoidance and a confusion of gender identity and although it raises important gender issues, there has been little systematic study. No prior research has focussed on the relationship between womens perceived degree of
\\u000a Does the appearance of pruritus always necessitate psychological treatment? The answer to this question remains subordinate\\u000a to the dermatologists clinical examination, including the psychological component (cf. Part II, Subchapter 4, Psychological\\u000a Approach). The dermatologists entire observational and clinical sense is mobilized. What is the patient telling me about\\u000a his pruritus? Is he psychically and physically overwhelmed by the itching? Did
Examines the contribution of individual and family factors to psychological adjustment in a sample of junior high school students living in urban poverty. Identity development served as a mediator between poverty and psychological adjustment. Although perceived parental treatment was not related to economic hardship, it was clearly associated with
In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects. PMID:23587541
In this study, we analyzed the physiological and psychological states of female college students using the typological theory of Carl Jung. It was suggested that the expression of psychological typological characteristics (psychotypological actualization) is associated with the actual autonomic, somatic, and psychological condition of the subject. The analysis of the relationships of the psychotypological actualization with the psychophysiological state pointed
A. I. Nesterenko; V. N. Vasilyev; M. A. Medvedev; T. V. Robenkova
Aesthetic plastic surgery and psychology are closely linked, as the aesthetic plastic surgeon is dealing with people's emotional, psychological, and social needs and aspirations. This article presents an overview of the relationship between the two professional disciplines. The minority of patients with psychiatric or psychological problems is described, and their treatment is considered in relation to both disciplines. We then
The purpose of this research is to assess the effect of pre-employment drug-testing policies on aspects of employee work performance in the full-service restaurant industry. Specifically, this study attempts to compare aspects of employee work performance in full-service restaurants with pre-employment drug-testing policies against the aforementioned aspects of work performance in full-service restaurants without pre-employment drug-testing polices. For the purpose
Transformational leaders employ a visionary and creative style of leadership that inspires employees to broaden their interest in their work and to be innovative and creative. There is some evidence that transformational leadership style is linked to employee psychological well-being. However, it is not clear whether this is due to (1) a direct relationship between leadership behaviour and affective well-being
Karina Nielsen; Raymond Randall; Joanna Yarker; Sten-Olof Brenner
In order to understand highly-skilled flexible workers job satisfaction, we take their track records into consideration, integrating several employment contracts. We conceptualize our research interest within the framework of the psychological contract to explore individual rationalities in exchange relationships. This expectancy-oriented approach allows the reflection of contract arrangements and related attitudes from a process perspective. The analysis is based on
Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.
Comments on Notes on the Psychic Development of the Young White Rat, by Willard S. Small (American Journal of Psychology, Vol. XI., No. I, Oct., 1899. Pp. 80-100; ; An Experimental Study of the Mental Processes of the Rat, by Willard S. Small (American Journal of Psychology, Vol. XI., No. 2, Jan., 1900. Pp. 133-165; ; Notes on the Individual
This article concerns itself with the four factors in preparing psychological profiles of perpetrators of crimes. The author provides a brief background of psychological profiling and its application to biographical studies and law enforcement. The author's perspective is that of a psychoanalytical orientation. He emphasizes the need to integrate neurological understanding when preparing the profile of a suspect.
This article, which represents a contribution to the 30th anniversary issue of the Journal of Vocational Behavior, seeks to extend the reach of vocational psychology by charting the course for an integrative and inclusive psychology of working. Building on Richardson's (1993) foundation of work as a location for counseling psychology practice and inquiry, I employ a sociopolitical analysis and a
|This "feature issue" reports on major shifts in attitudes, practices, and policies that have led to the growth of supported employment programs for people with disabilities, with special focus on the situation in Minnesota. It contains the following articles: "To the Year 2000 and Beyond: Jobs Won't Be the Problem" (David R. Johnson); "The End of
...REGULATIONS JOINT EMPLOYMENTRELATIONSHIP UNDER FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 Â§ 791.2 Joint employment. ...two or more employers at the same time under the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, since there is nothing in the...
Legal rules governing the employer-employee relationship are many and varied. Economic analysis has illuminated both the efficiency and the effects on employee welfare of such rules, as described in this chapter. Topics addressed below include workplace safety mandates, compensation systems for workplace injuries, privacy protection in the workplace, employee fringe benefits mandates, targeted mandates such as medical and family leave,
For many years individuals with disabilities have been less likely to be employed than their working age nondisabled peers. The demographic profile for disability cuts across race, gender, age, and geography. Individuals with disabilities are more likely ...
The literature on immigration to the United States and its psychological effects upon immigrants and their children is reviewed. Guidelines for psychologist\\/attorney collaboration to support undocumented immigrants and their qualified relatives are addressed. Psychological evaluation can document rectification of prior negative behaviors, a causal relationship between abuse and psychological diagnosis in support of asylum, and\\/or a qualified relative's extreme psychological
This essay reviews the literature on the social psychological impact of infertility, paying special attention to the relationship between gender and the infertility experience. It is convenient to divide the literature into articles which explore the possibility that infertility may have psychological causes (Psychogenic Hypothesis) and those which examine the psychological consequences of infertility (Psychological Consequences Hypothesis). The psychogenic hypothesis
Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)
Comments on a recent article in The Reporter (Feb. 16, 1962), where Marya Mannes, a staff writer of this publication, praises Joyce Brothers for her ability to answer complex psychological problems in simple language \\
English-language versions of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Form G) measure of psychological type and the NEO-FFI measure of the Big Five personality factors were completed by 57 Polish university students fluent in the English language. The pattern of correlations between MBTI and NEO-FFI scales for the Polish sample was compared to the pattern of correlations for measures of these same constructs reported for Americans. Four of the five significant relationships between MBTI and NEO-FFI scales reported in the American sample were also recorded in the Polish sample: MBTI Extraversion-Introversion with NEO Extraversion, MBTI Sensing-Intuition and MBTI Judging-Perceiving with NEO-Openness, and MBTI Judging-Perceiving with NEO Conscientiousness. Pending replication with a larger, more representative sample, this preliminary study supports the validity of psychological type in Polish society. PMID:19102483
Tobacyk, Jerome J; Livingston, Mary M; Robbins, James E
This study examined the relationships among several measures of psychological thinking which, in a figurative sense, required reading between the lines of behavior. Primary measures included psychological-construing (describing another person in psychological terms), the ability to see through and explain defense mechanisms, and detecting a bogus thief by means of suspects responses to a word association test. Secondary measures were
Stephen J. Dollinger; Mark J. Reader; Joseph P. Marnett; Barbara Tylenda
|A two-part study examined the employment status, distribution, job satisfaction, and promotion opportunities of women working for livestock industry magazines. Livestock publications were chosen for this research because they are typical of industry-related magazines and are traditionally dominated by males. The mastheads of 59 magazines were
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the empirical literature concerning the design of the strategic planning process and its relationship to environmental, organizational, strategic and psychological factors. The paper aims to focus on psychological type and its relationship to planning preferences. Design\\/methodology\\/approach A study of 187 managers' profiling their psychological type (using
Reproductive disorders and psychological distress are common co-morbidities of obesity in young women. Psychological and reproductive disturbances may also be associated with increased food cravings but the relationships between these factors have not been explored. This study aimed to explore the pattern of food cravings and to determine the relationship between psychological distress, reproductive health and food cravings in overweight
Siew S. Lim; Robert J. Norman; Peter M. Clifton; Manny Noakes
A Web-based survey was conducted to study the religious and health practices, medical history and psychological characteristics among Buddhist practitioners. This report describes the development, advertisement, administration and preliminary results of the survey. Over 1200 Buddhist practitioners responded. Electronic advertisements were the most effective means of recruiting participants. Survey participants were mostly well educated with high incomes and white. Participants engaged in Buddhist practices such as meditation, attending meetings and obtaining instruction from a monk or nun, and practiced healthful behaviors such as regular physical activity and not smoking. Buddhist meditative practice was related to psychological mindfulness and general health. PMID:19107601
Wiist, W H; Sullivan, B M; Wayment, H A; Warren, M
Psychological or emotional maltreatment of children may be the most challenging and prevalent form of child abuse and neglect. Caregiver behaviors include acts of omission (ignoring need for social interactions) or commission (spurning, terrorizing); may be verbal or nonverbal, active or passive, and with or without intent to harm; and negatively affect the child's cognitive, social, emotional, and/or physical development. Psychological maltreatment has been linked with disorders of attachment, developmental and educational problems, socialization problems, disruptive behavior, and later psychopathology. Although no evidence-based interventions that can prevent psychological maltreatment have been identified to date, it is possible that interventions shown to be effective in reducing overall types of child maltreatment, such as the Nurse Family Partnership, may have a role to play. Furthermore, prevention before occurrence will require both the use of universal interventions aimed at promoting the type of parenting that is now recognized to be necessary for optimal child development, alongside the use of targeted interventions directed at improving parental sensitivity to a child's cues during infancy and later parent-child interactions. Intervention should, first and foremost, focus on a thorough assessment and ensuring the child's safety. Potentially effective treatments include cognitive behavioral parenting programs and other psychotherapeutic interventions. The high prevalence of psychological abuse in advanced Western societies, along with the serious consequences, point to the importance of effective management. Pediatricians should be alert to the occurrence of psychological maltreatment and identify ways to support families who have risk indicators for, or evidence of, this problem. PMID:22848125
|Processes of psychological empowerment for members of community-based organizations may be strongly influenced by organizational factors. Using survey data from a random sample of urban residents (n = 974), the present study examines how individual perceptions of empowering features of organizations (group-based belief system, role opportunity,
This study examines the theory that companion animals may contribute to the work-related psychological health of Catholic parochial clergy in England and Wales as a possible antidote to the personal and social loneliness of single celibate men. Data were provided by a sample of 1,482 Catholic parochial clergy who completed the modified form of the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the
Leslie J. Francis; Douglas W. Turton; Stephen H. Louden
Paranormal beliefs (PB) are those that lie outside the explanatory realm of science. Thus, the existence of PB within a particular field of scholarship might indicate a decreased reliance on scientific methods within that field. This study evaluated the extent of PB among undergraduates majoring in the traditional sciences (biology, chemistry, and physics), psychology, and the arts and humanities. In
|The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of relational-interdependent self-construal on cyberbullying and the effect of cyberbullying on psychological disharmony. Participants were 258 high school students. In this study, the Relational-Interdependent Self-Construal Scale, the Revised Cyberbullying Inventory, and the Depression,
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of maternal employment and maternal education on the Cuban-American and Anglo-American female adolescents' perception of their sex role.Procedures. The Attitudes toward Women Scale, the Texas Social Behavior Inventory, the Personal Attributes Questionnaire, and a demographic questionnaire devised by the author were administered to a total of 221 female private
A prominent theory of white-collar crime holds that organizations have distinctive cultures which are more or less tolerant\\u000a of law violation for the benefit of the firm. This explanation purports to account for why college-educated, relatively affluent,\\u000a and seemingly conventional persons can commit crime when they are employed in white-collar occupations. The vexing paradox\\u000a of why good people do dirty
|Recent years have witnessed a growing diversity of career patterns, resulting from the relative decline of stable employment. In the present study of 1368 employed and self-employed German adults career pattern diversity was assessed using nine pictograms. The goal was to identify psychological and demographic correlates of these patterns and to
Reitzle, Matthias; Korner, Astrid; Vondracek, Fred W.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between perceived percentage of time spent on particular rehabilitation counseling responsibilities, on one hand, and possession of an educational degree, certification as a rehabilitation counselor (CRC), and years worked for the state--federal vocational rehabilitation (VR) agency, on the
Diagnostic criteria for stress reactions and adjustment disorders are summarized. Existing psychological treatments are outlined with a focus on evidence-based methods, and recommendations for treatment are described. The conclusion is that there is no evidence for the effect of psychological debriefing or other professional treatment in the immediate aftermath of traumatic events. On the other hand, cognitive behavioural therapy, EMDR and similar methods with focus on exposure can be recommended, both as a preventive strategy and for patients with post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:19284905
|Preliminary results of the 1979 Doctorate Employment Survey, which is designed to assess the employment experiences of new doctorates in psychology, are briefly described. The survey focuses on employment status, employment settings, and salaries, and is the first survey designed to allow respondents to provide detailed information on their
Traditionally non-union employees are hired under the common-law doctrine known as employment at will, which allows the employer or employee to terminate the relationship at any time for any reason. Over the years exceptions to that doctrine have crept into case law and, in those states where the tort of wrongful discharge is recognized, wronged employees have recovered substantial punitive
Lorne Seidman; Robert J. Aalberts; Jolie R. Gaston
This article investigates the relationship between employment and the use of marijuana and cocaine for males in National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data from 1984 and 1988. Previous studies yielding mixed evidence may have inadequately accounted for the simultaneity between drug consumption and employment. I implement an instrumental variable procedure that identifies drug use with variables that are empirically unrelated
|Faculty are pressured to provide high-quality advising for undergraduate psychology majors, but lack the time and resources. One efficient solution provides comprehensive advising information via a departmental handbook that helps students solve the problem of graduating with a degree in psychology, prepared for employment or graduate school. A
Abstract Studying human behavior in the light of evolutionary theory involves studying the comparative evolutionary history of behaviors (phylogeny), the psychological machinery that generates them (mechanisms), and the adaptive value of that machinery in past reproductive competition (natural selection). To show the value of a phylogenetic perspective, I consider the ethology of emotional expression and the cladistics of primate social
The contents of the present volume, designed to bring together in a single place writings by the new black psychologists and other black social and behavioral scientists, are organized in seven parts, as follows: Part I, "Black Psychology: Perspectives," includes articles by Cedric Clark, Wade W. Nobles, Doris P. Mosby, Joseph White, and William
Although there have been numerous studies documenting a relationship between physical fitness and psychologic functioning, few have employed the type of experimental design that would allow conclusions to be drawn regarding cause and effect. In the present study, college students were randomly assigned to a cardiovascular conditioning program or to a control program designed to give the appearance of physical training while minimizing cardiovascular benefits. Both groups were tested for cardiovascular fitness as well as on a number of self-rating scales before and after the 6-week program. The cardiovascular group demonstrated a significantly greater improvement in cardiovascular fitness than the control group and also tended to show a greater reduction in anxiety and greater increase in measures of general psychologic well-being. PMID:4048364
Sexual selection theory provides a powerful model for the analysis of psychological sex differences. This research examined (a) tests of several sex differences in mating psychology predicted from sexual selection theory, (b) broad developmental hypotheses about sex differences in mating psychologythrough the relationship of mating psychology to sexual orientation, and (c) the structure of within-sex differences in mating psychology. Scales
J. Michael Bailey; Steven Gaulin; Yvonne Agyei; Brian A. Gladue
A Web-based survey was conducted to study the religious and health practices, medical history and psychological characteristics\\u000a among Buddhist practitioners. This report describes the development, advertisement, administration and preliminary results\\u000a of the survey. Over 1200 Buddhist practitioners responded. Electronic advertisements were the most effective means of recruiting\\u000a participants. Survey participants were mostly well educated with high incomes and white. Participants
W. H. Wiist; B. M. Sullivan; H. A. Wayment; M. Warren
The past decade and ah alf witnessed ag lobal trend towards the use of participator y team-based interventions. In the present contribution, we addres st he widespread idea that the resulting increase in team autonom yf osters employee psychological well-being. Specifically ,w ea ddress the common but mostly implicit rationale for this widespread idea that the well-being effect occurs because
H. van Mierlo; C. G. Rutte; J. K. V ermunt; M. A. J. K ompier
The unpredictable nature & elongated course of epilepsy affect all dimensions (physical, psychological, and social) of an individual's life. People with the diagnosis of epilepsy are a high-risk group for different psychiatric problems that is anxiety, depression as well as social problems (marriage, education, and daily activities). The findings of present research revealed high rate (70%) of psychological distress among fifty adult individuals with epilepsy. It was also found that people with uncontrolled epilepsy experience high level of psychological distress (100%) as compared to those with controlled (42%). Demographic and clinical factors associated with distress include lack of occupation, the presence of an underlying disabling condition (with treatment), and the severity of epilepsy. The finding generated here showed that 13 out of 19 females with epilepsy reported psychological distress. It was also found that none of these women was employed (a cultural specific phenomenon) with a slightly high number of unmarried females (74%). So by understanding the relationship between clinical and psychosocial variables, a good management plan can be devised with a focus on social and gender differences. The present research can also help to increase the awareness and to lower the stigmatization related to epilepsy.
A non-experimental design was used to investigate the relationship of the Test of Adult Basic Education (TABE) scores to employment status. Groups were comprised of individuals with disabilities who were either employed or not employed immediately following their taking of the TABE and being released from a testing and employment services center
This longitudinal study examined antecedents and consequences of psychological burnout among human service professionals. Antecedents of psychological burnout included individual and situational characteristics, work stressors, and measures of social support. Consequences of psychological burnout emphasized satisfaction and emotional and physical well-being variables. Participants in the study were 362 school-based educators (teachers and administrators) employed by the same school board. Respondents
Philip G. Zimbardo outlines the challenges and opportunities he faces as the American Psychological Association's (APA's) 110th president. This article expands on remarks made in his introduction to Patrick H. DeLeon's presidential address at the APA's 2001 annual convention in San Francisco, California. Appearing now, mid-term in his presidency, that vision is a working blueprint of his activities and what he hopes to accomplish in his remaining tenure: enhancing psychologists' pride in psychology; developing more productive relationships with all media as gatekeepers to the public; publishing the standard high school psychology textbook; developing a compendium of all psychological research that illustrates how psychologists have made a significant difference in improving various aspects of the quality of life of individuals, groups, communities, and the United States; and encouraging greater unity of purpose and respect among psychologists across their many diverse domains and specialties. PMID:12094437
The systematics of the poriferan Order Haplosclerida (Class Demospongiae) has been under scrutiny for a number of years without resolution. Molecular data suggests that the order needs revision at all taxonomic levels. Here, we provide a comprehensive view of the phylogenetic relationships of the marine Haplosclerida using many species from across the order, and three gene regions. Gene trees generated using 28S rRNA, nad1 and cox1 gene data, under maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches, are highly congruent and suggest the presence of four clades. Clade A is comprised primarily of species of Haliclona and Callyspongia, and clade B is comprised of H. simulans and H. vansoesti (Family Chalinidae), Amphimedon queenslandica (Family Niphatidae) and Tabulocalyx (Family Phloeodictyidae), Clade C is comprised primarily of members of the Families Petrosiidae and Niphatidae, while Clade D is comprised of Aka species. The polyphletic nature of the suborders, families and genera described in other studies is also found here. PMID:21931685
Redmond, Niamh E; Raleigh, Jean; van Soest, Rob W M; Kelly, Michelle; Travers, Simon A A; Bradshaw, Brian; Vartia, Salla; Stephens, Kelly M; McCormack, Grace P
The systematics of the poriferan Order Haplosclerida (Class Demospongiae) has been under scrutiny for a number of years without resolution. Molecular data suggests that the order needs revision at all taxonomic levels. Here, we provide a comprehensive view of the phylogenetic relationships of the marine Haplosclerida using many species from across the order, and three gene regions. Gene trees generated using 28S rRNA, nad1 and cox1 gene data, under maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches, are highly congruent and suggest the presence of four clades. Clade A is comprised primarily of species of Haliclona and Callyspongia, and clade B is comprised of H. simulans and H. vansoesti (Family Chalinidae), Amphimedon queenslandica (Family Niphatidae) and Tabulocalyx (Family Phloeodictyidae), Clade C is comprised primarily of members of the Families Petrosiidae and Niphatidae, while Clade D is comprised of Aka species. The polyphletic nature of the suborders, families and genera described in other studies is also found here.
Redmond, Niamh E.; Raleigh, Jean; van Soest, Rob W. M.; Kelly, Michelle; Travers, Simon A. A.; Bradshaw, Brian; Vartia, Salla; Stephens, Kelly M.; McCormack, Grace P.
After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious phenomena are discussed.
|The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university
This paper addresses the relationship between psychology and criminal law reform in the area of sentencing. Sentencing reform is more likely at the present than ever before. In 1987 the report of the Canadian Sentencing Commission (CSC) was released. In 1988, a Parliamentary Committee launched a review of both sentencing and parole. The Canadian Psychological Association submitted a brief to
|Recommends the inclusion of a master's thesis in industrial and organizational psychology programs. Argues that the thesis serves several critical educational purposes and is relevant to applied psychology. Offers suggestions for increasing the relationship between the educational requirement and the professional tasks. (MJP)|
This monograph explores implications of the psychology of consciousness for education. The psychology of consciousness encompasses the relationships among behavior, experience, and states of consciousness. It is interpreted to include different states of consciousness, paranormal phenomena, mystical experiences, dreams, psychic healing, and other
|This monograph explores implications of the psychology of consciousness for education. The psychology of consciousness encompasses the relationships among behavior, experience, and states of consciousness. It is interpreted to include different states of consciousness, paranormal phenomena, mystical experiences, dreams, psychic healing, and other
Sleep disturbance is often reported by the patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), with awakenings produced by inflammatory pain. There are limited studies about sleep disturbance on these patients, and especially its association with psychological state and quality of life to examine the prevalence of sleep disturbance and to assess its association with disease-specific variables, psychological status and quality of life. One hundred and ten patients were included in this cross-sectional study according to the modified New York criteria for AS. Clinical and biological parameters were evaluated. Sleep disturbance was assessed by the fourth item of Hamilton Anxiety Scale. Psychological status was assessed by The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale including depression subscale and anxiety subscale. The quality of life was evaluated by the short form-36 (SF-36). Sleep disturbance was found in 64.5 %, depression in 55.5 % and anxiety in 60.9 % amongst our patients. Significantly, worse pain, higher disease activity and functional disability were present in patients with sleep disturbance. Likewise, sleep problems were significantly higher in patients with depression, anxiety and in patients with low scores of the SF36. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the pain (OR = 1.019) and depression (OR = 1.304) were independent risk factors that influenced sleep disturbance. Sleep problems are prevalent amongst Moroccan patients with AS. Our findings suggest that pain and depression were the independent risk factors that influenced the sleep disturbance and hence, the need for evaluation and optimal management of pain and depression to improve sleep quality in AS patients. PMID:22441961
The aim of this study was to examine sport psychology consultants (SPCs) perceptions of the influence of SPC characteristics on consultant effectiveness, while determining the conditions necessary for establishing an effective consulting relationship. Thirteen accredited SPCs participated in semi-structured interviews. Thematic content analysis identified three characteristics of SPC effectiveness: (a) build a connection with the athlete to create positive change,
...The relationships referred to in this paragraph include relationships with employment and referral agencies, with labor unions, with organizations providing or administering fringe benefits to employees of the recipient, and with...
Introduction: The psychological influence of food (PFS) and perceived barriers to lifestyle change (PBLC) were considered as predictors of body mass index and website tool utilization (TU) in an online weight loss program. Materials and Methodology: An archival analysis of all (N = 1361) overweight/obese (BMI M = 31.6 + 6.24 kg/m2), adult (M = 42.0 + 10.72 years) users (82.4% female) of an evidence-based, multidisciplinary Internet weight loss program was performed. Predictor variables included: PFS and PBLC, age, and longest maintained weight loss in relation to 1) BMI 2) TU. Results: Both PBLC and PFS were correlated with baseline BMI and TU. Regression analyses indicated that only PFS independently predicted BMI (p = .0001) and TU (p = .001) when the model included all predictor variables. One-way ANOVA indicated gender differences on both PBLC and PFS scores (p = .001). Subsequent regression analyses separated by gender showed that in females PFS predicted BMI (p = .0001) and TU (p = .005). For males no variable significantly predicted BMI (ps > .05) however PBLC did predict TU (p = .008). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that when developing online weight loss programs clinical characteristics of the user could inform website algorithms to maximize website utilization. Gender differences indicated that for women it may be important to understand how factors related to the psychological influence of food impact utilization of online weight loss programs, however, for men broader barriers to lifestyle change is an important consideration.
Binks, Martin; van Mierlo, Trevor; Edwards, Christopher L
This study was conducted to better understand the psychological and roadway correlates of aggressive driving. The study had two phases: In Phase One, survey data was used to investigate the relationship between personality, emotional, and behavioral varia...
Examined the relationship between selected maternal attitudes and the sex, sex role preference and level of psychological differentiation of the preschool child. Data indicate that extreme sex role typing works against learning. (GO)
Reviews psychological perspectives of Buddhism and the universal human problem and its subsequent cures that can be applied to interactions in a counseling relationship. Suggests that meditation techniques can be integrated into current counseling theories. (JAC)
|Research of childhood psychological maltreatment has documented a range of severe and long-lasting difficulties for children who experience this type of abuse. Consequences can include but are not limited to emotional and behavioural problems, low self-esteem, and relationship difficulties. Accordingly, the development of therapy programs to
Discusses the evolution of counseling psychology's theoretical models and their subsequent treatment by "The Counseling Psychologist" (TCP) in its early years through 1984. After outlining the founding of the journal, the author traces the history of the TCP and its relationship to the historical periods of the profession's development. (GCP)
|Many potential psychology majors are electing to pursue degrees in other disciplines that appear to have greater market value in the current employment environment. Providing psychology majors with the skills and knowledge necessary to compete successfully with business majors for entry-level employment opportunities in a variety of business
This study reports levels of psychological distress found in a sample of Australian case managers who work with the unemployed. Using a longitudinal survey method- ology, 86 case managers employed throughout Australia completed the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12; D. P. Goldberg, 1978) on 2 occasions during 1999. In comparison with other studies investigating psychological well- being of both employed
This study examined levels of bumout and relationships between burnout and selected personality characteristics and role expectations in a sample of school psychologists employed as practitioners in school settings. The results indicated that personality variables related significantly to burnout over and above demographic and work condition variables. Higher levels of burnout were associated with tendencies to be high in competitiveness
|The growing field of positive psychology is encouraging advances in the scientific research of developmental strengths and virtues like forgiveness. However, multicultural and indigenous psychology perspectives can raise valuable questions about positive psychology and the relationship between cultural particularity and virtues like forgiveness.
Sandage, Steven J.; Hill, Peter C.; Vang, Henry C.