Hensel, Elizabeth; Kroese, Biza Stenfert; Rose, John
Background: Less than 10% of people with intellectual disabilities are employed. The aim of the present study was to investigate what psychological factors might predict employment outcome for people with intellectual disability who had received a placement in a supported employment service. Method: Sixty people were interviewed whilst they were…
Ngoma, Muhammad; Dithan Ntale, Peter
This paper seeks to evaluate the relationship between psychological capital, career identity, social capital and graduate employability. We also seek to evaluate the mediating role of social capital on the relationships between psychological capital, career identity and graduate employability in Uganda. A population of 480 unemployed young people…
... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment relationship. 788.16 Section 788.16 Labor... MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.16 Employment relationship. (a) The Supreme Court has made..., the permanency of the relationship, the opportunities for profit or loss, the initiative judgment...
... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment relationship. 801.8 Section 801.8 Labor... OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 General § 801.8 Employment relationship. (a) EPPA... employer in relationship to an employee or prospective employee” (EPPA section 2(2)). (b) EPPA...
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment relationship. 801.8 Section 801.8 Labor... OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 General § 801.8 Employment relationship. (a) EPPA... employer in relationship to an employee or prospective employee” (EPPA section 2(2)). (b) EPPA...
Matthews, Janet R.
Suggestions for improving the employability of bachelor's-level psychology graduates are offered, based in part on practices at Creighton University, Nebraska. One approach is to provide training in specific skills useful in the employment setting, including: biofeedback training; independent study in computer work and a psychology field;…
Jouriles, Ernest N.; Garrido, Edward; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee
Objective: This research examined links between adolescents' experiences of psychological and physical relationship aggression and their psychological distress. Experiences of psychological and physical aggression were expected to correlate positively with symptoms of psychological distress, but experiences of psychological aggression were…
Dabos, Guillermo E; Rousseau, Denise M
The authors assessed the joint perceptions of the employee and his or her employer to examine mutuality and reciprocity in the employment relationship. Paired psychological contract reports were obtained from 80 employee-employer dyads in 16 university-based research centers. On the basis of in-depth study of the research setting, research directors were identified as primary agents for the university (employer) in shaping the terms of employment of staff scientists (employees). By assessing the extent of consistency between employee and employer beliefs regarding their exchange agreement, the present study mapped the variation and consequences of mutuality and reciprocity in psychological contracts. Results indicate that both mutuality and reciprocity are positively related to archival indicators of research productivity and career advancement, in addition to self-reported measures of Met Expectations and intention to continue working with the employer. Implications for psychological contract theory are presented. PMID:14769120
Hinton, Christa G.
The purpose of the present study was to quantitatively examine the relationships between employability and hope. Using a sample of 266 Master of Business Administration students at a large Midwestern private university, this study hypothesized that one, there was a relationship between hope and employability and two, of the predictor variables,…
Lowe, Graham S.; Schellenberg, Grant
The Changing Employment Relationships Project examined the importance of good employment relationships for workers, employers, and public policy. A nationally representative sample of 2,500 employed Canadians was surveyed, and 8 focus groups were conducted. The research findings were analyzed to explain the multidimensional nature of the…
Jackson, Aurora P.; Gyamfi, Phyllis; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Blake, Mandy
Investigates the effects of depressive symptomatology, parental stress, and instrumental support on maternal spanking. Results show that employment has a moderating effect on the relationship between mothers' psychological functioning and their decision to use spanking. The availability of instrumental support seems to increase the frequency of…
Rajecki, D W; Borden, Victor M H
Psychology is a very popular undergraduate major. Examining wage data from a range of degree holders reveals much about the expected career trajectories of those with psychology degrees. First, regarding baccalaureates, psychology and other liberal arts graduates-compared with those from certain preprofessional and technical undergraduate programs-generally fall in relatively low tiers of salary levels at both starting and later career points. Salary levels among baccalaureate alumni groups correlate with averaged measures of salary satisfaction, repeated job seeking, and perceptions of underemployment. These patterns seem to stem from the specific occupational categories (job titles) entered by graduates in psychology compared with other graduates, calling into question the employability advantage of so-called generic liberal arts skills. Second, psychology master's degree holders also generally fall in a low tier of salary among their science, engineering, and health counterparts. Third, psychology college faculty (including instructors) fall in low tiers of salary compared with their colleagues from other academic fields. Such broadly based indications of the relative economic disadvantages of psychology degrees have implications for career counseling in the field. PMID:26167786
Fielden, Sandra; Whiting, Fiona
The UK National Health Service (NHS) is facing recruitment challenges that mean it will need to become an 'employer of choice' if it is to continue to attract high-quality employees. This paper reports the findings from a study focusing on allied health professional staff (n = 67), aimed at establishing the expectations of the NHS inherent in their current psychological contract and to consider whether the government's drive to make the NHS a model employer meets those expectations. The findings show that the most important aspects of the psychological contract were relational and based on the investment made in the employment relationship by both parties. The employment relationship was one of high involvement but also one where transactional contract items, such as pay, were still of some importance. Although the degree of employee satisfaction with the relational content of the psychological contract was relatively positive, there was, nevertheless, a mismatch between levels of importance placed on such aspects of the contract and levels of satisfaction, with employees increasingly placing greater emphasis on those items the NHS is having the greatest difficulty providing. Despite this apparent disparity between employee expectation and the fulfilment of those expectations, the overall health of the psychological contract was still high. PMID:17524221
Fozard, James L.
Possibilities for employment opportunities related to aging are reviewed for four areas of professional psychology: clinical and counseling psychology, education, human factors engineering and ecological psychology, and teaching research. Some reasons for the slow development of opportunities for employment in the field of psychology of aging are…
Sümer, Nebi; Helvaci, Elif; Misirlisoy, Mine
The interest in studying psychology has dramatically increased in the recent decades in Turkey. However, only 60% of psychology graduates work in jobs related to psychology. Moreover, there is no data on employability and job distribution of psychology graduates or on their job satisfaction. In the current study, the authors' first aim was to…
Pipes, Randolph B.; LeBov-Keeler, Karen
Identifies possible predictors of psychological abuse in nonmarital heterosexual romantic relationships. Responses from 175 undergraduate women reveal 11% claiming psychological abuse as well as more instances of partner behaviors characteristic of psychological abuse. Abused individuals were more likely to have lower self-esteem, had parents'…
Thomas, Claudia; Benzeval, Michaela; Stansfeld, Stephen
Objective To explore the extent to which the mental health effects of transitions into unemployment, or other forms of non‐employment, and vice versa, are mediated by financial changes. Methods Longitudinal analysis of the British Household Panel Survey from 1991 to 2000. There were 89 264 person‐years of observation from 14 686 individuals aged ⩾16 years. Main outcome measure was psychological distress measured by the 12‐item General Health Questionnaire. Results Transitions to unemployment were associated with increased risk of psychological distress for men (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.15 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.50 to 3.98)) and for women (OR 2.60 (95% CI 1.97 to 3.43)). Women who left work to look after the family were also more likely to experience psychological distress (OR 1.72 (95% CI 1.45 to 2.05)). A reduced risk of psychological distress was seen for transitions from unemployment to paid employment for men (OR 0.52 (95% CI 0.41 to 0.68)) and for women (OR 0.68 (95% CI 0.69 to 1.40)). Financial difficulty partially mediated these relationships: men who became unemployed and were worse off financially were more likely to experience psychological distress (OR 4.19 (95% CI 3.20 to 5.50)) than men who were not (OR 1.48 (95% CI 0.95 to 2.33)). Conversely, the beneficial health effect for people who left unemployment and became employed was confined to those who were better off financially (OR 0.34 (0.25 to 0.48) for men). Conclusions Changes in employment status have both direct and indirect effects, through changes in financial circumstances, on subsequent psychological distress. The results support the view that the direction of causation runs from employment transitions to financial difficulties and psychological distress. PMID:17183015
Stapp, Joy; And Others
Presents data from four annual surveys of psychology doctorates with regard to rates of employment and unemployment; employment in psychology-related work, in academic settings, service, business, government, and other settings, full-time and part-time employment; and postdoctoral fellowships. Includes job market perceptions of recent doctorate…
Safstrom, My; Hartig, Terry
We investigated the mediating versus moderating role of psychological detachment in the relationship between job stressors and psychological strain. Our sample consisted of 173 university students invested in challenging programs of advanced professional studies, who could find it difficult to detach from work. Hierarchical regression analyses of cross-sectional survey data affirmed the role of psychological detachment as a mediator in the relationship between job demands and perceived stress. Detachment also mediated the relationship between job demands and satisfaction with life, although the association disappeared when controlling for negative affectivity. Detachment did not mediate relationships between job demands and cognitive failures. Psychological detachment did not moderate any of the investigated relationships. The study contributes to a view of psychological detachment as less subject to individual differences than to the imposition of stressors in the given context. PMID:25379246
Faculty jobs have a remarkable degree of freedom compared to other jobs, but they have comparatively low salaries. The income difference between academic employment and employment in corporations, law firms, and medicine causes morale problems in faculties. (MLW)
Warren, John Robert
Investigated the relationship between high school students' employment and school performance. Identified conceptual problems with prior research, using new data collection in a study that let researchers weigh the merits of the zero-sum model and the social psychological primary orientation model. Results found that these data were more…
Pearson, Quinn M.
Role overload, job satisfaction, leisure satisfaction, and psychological health were measured for 155 women who were employed full time. Role overload was negatively correlated with psychological health, job satisfaction, and leisure satisfaction. Job satisfaction and leisure satisfaction were positively correlated with psychological health.…
Rubel, Alicia N; Bogaert, Anthony F
Consensually nonmonogamous relationships are those in which all partners explicitly agree that each partner may have romantic or sexual relationships with others (Conley, Ziegler, Moors, Matsick, & Valentine, 2013 ). In this article, research examining the associations between consensual nonmonogamy, psychological well-being, and relationship quality is reviewed. Specifically, three types of consensual nonmonogamy are examined: swinging, open relationships (including sexually open marriage and gay open relationships), and polyamory. Swinging refers to when a couple practices extradyadic sex with members of another couple; open relationships are relationships in which partners agree that they can have extradyadic sex; and polyamory is the practice of, belief in, or willingness to engage in consensual nonmonogamy, typically in long-term and/or loving relationships. General trends in the research reviewed suggest that consensual nonmonogamists have similar psychological well-being and relationship quality as monogamists. Methodological challenges in research on consensual nonmonogamy and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25189189
Leung, Cynthia; Moore, Susan; Karnilowicz, Wally; Lung, C. L.
This study examined the association between relationship styles, coping strategies, and psychological distress among 144 Anglo-Australian and 250 Hong Kong Chinese undergraduate students. The results indicated that relationship styles (secure, clingy, and fickle) influenced psychological distress through their association with coping strategies…
Werth, James L., Jr.; Borges, Nicole J.; McNally, Christopher J.; Maguire, Colleen P.; Britton, Paula J.
This article introduces the Major Contribution on integrating health and vocational psychology, using persons with HIV who have work-related concerns as an example. The authors describe the demographics associated with HIV disease and new treatments that have allowed people with HIV to remain healthy and continue working, or consider returning to…
Maynard, M Travis; Luciano, Margaret M; D'Innocenzo, Lauren; Mathieu, John E; Dean, Matthew D
Employee psychological empowerment is widely accepted as a means for organizations to compete in increasingly dynamic environments. Previous empirical research and meta-analyses have demonstrated that employee psychological empowerment is positively related to several attitudinal and behavioral outcomes including job performance. While this research positions psychological empowerment as an antecedent influencing such outcomes, a close examination of the literature reveals that this relationship is primarily based on cross-sectional research. Notably, evidence supporting the presumed benefits of empowerment has failed to account for potential reciprocal relationships and endogeneity effects. Accordingly, using a multiwave, time-lagged design, we model reciprocal relationships between psychological empowerment and job performance using a sample of 441 nurses from 5 hospitals. Incorporating temporal effects in a staggered research design and using structural equation modeling techniques, our findings provide support for the conventional positive correlation between empowerment and subsequent performance. Moreover, accounting for the temporal stability of variables over time, we found support for empowerment levels as positive influences on subsequent changes in performance. Finally, we also found support for the reciprocal relationship, as performance levels were shown to relate positively to changes in empowerment over time. Theoretical and practical implications of the reciprocal psychological empowerment-performance relationships are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25111249
Sanguanklin, Natthananporn; McFarlin, Barbara L; Finnegan, Lorna; Park, Chang Gi; Giurgescu, Carmen; White-Traut, Rosemary; Engstrom, Janet L
Most Thai women continue to work throughout their pregnancy; however, little is known about job strain and its relation to psychological distress. This study aimed to examine: (1) the direct effects of job strain, perceived workplace support, perceived family support, and coping strategies on psychological distress and (2) the moderating effect of perceived workplace support, perceived family support, and coping strategies on the relationship between job strain and psychological distress. Lazarus and Folkman's transactional model of stress and coping guided this cross-sectional study. Full-time employed pregnant women (N = 300) were recruited from three antenatal clinics in Thailand. Thai versions of the following instruments were used: the State-Anxiety Inventory and Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (psychological distress), the Job Content Questionnaire (job strain and perceived workplace support), the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey (perceived family support), and the Ways of Coping Checklist-Revised (coping strategies). Job strain with other predictors explained 54% of the variance in psychological distress. In the separate hierarchical multiple linear regression models, two types of coping strategies, seeking social support and wishful thinking, moderated the effects of job strain on psychological distress. Perceived family support had a direct effect in reducing psychological distress. Job strain is a significant contributor to psychological distress. The average levels of seeking social support and wishful thinking were most beneficial in moderating the negative impact of job strain on psychological distress. Since perceived workplace and family support did not have moderating effects, stress management programs for decreasing the levels of job strain should be developed. PMID:24414302
Buch, Robert; Kuvaas, Bard; Dysvik, Anders
This study investigated the interplay between perceived investment in contract worker development by the "client" organization and contract workers' perceived organizational support from their temporary employment "agency." A study among 2021 contract workers from three temporary employment agencies in Norway showed that the relationships between…
Zare, Maliheh; Zarmehr, Fateme; Ashrafi-rizi, Hasan
Introduction: Psychological empowerment is really important and has remarkable effect on different organizational variables such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, productivity, etc. So the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between psychological empowerment and productivity of Librarians in Isfahan Medical University. Methods: This was correlational research. Data were collected through two questionnaires. Psychological empowerment questionnaire and the manpower productivity questionnaire of Gold. Smith Hersey which their content validity was confirmed by experts and their reliability was obtained by using Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient, 0.89 and 0.9 respectively. Due to limited statistical population, did not used sampling and review was taken via census. So 76 number of librarians were evaluated. Information were reported on both descriptive and inferential statistics (correlation coefficient tests Pearson, Spearman, T-test, ANOVA), and analyzed by using the SPSS19 software. Findings: In our study, the trust between partners and efficacy with productivity had the highest correlation. Also there was a direct relationship between psychological empowerment and the productivity of labor (r =0.204). In other words, with rising of mean score of psychological empowerment, the mean score of efficiency increase too. Conclusions: The results showed that if development programs of librarian’s psychological empowerment increase in order to their productivity, librarians carry out their duties with better sense. Also with using the capabilities of librarians, the development of creativity with happen and organizational productivity will increase. PMID:26236079
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment relationship defined. 725.493... relationship defined. (a)(1) In determining the identity of a responsible operator under this part, the terms “employ” and “employment” shall be construed as broadly as possible, and shall include any...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employment relationship defined. 725.493... relationship defined. (a)(1) In determining the identity of a responsible operator under this part, the terms “employ” and “employment” shall be construed as broadly as possible, and shall include any...
Hong, Philip Young P.; Polanin, Joshua R.; Pigott, Therese D.
Objectives: The Employment Hope scale (EHS) was designed to measure the empowerment-based self-sufficiency (SS) outcome among low-income job-seeking clients. This measure captures the psychological SS dimension as opposed to the more commonly used economic SS in workforce development and employment support practice. The study validates the EHS and…
Murray, Kantahyanee W; Dwyer, Kathleen M; Rubin, Kenneth H; Knighton-Wisor, Sarah; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn
Few studies have examined both maternal and paternal parenting practices in the prediction of child outcomes despite evidence that underscores the salience of fathers throughout their children's development. This study examined the role of the quality of mother-child and father-child relationships in buffering the influence of ineffective parenting practices on subsequent adolescent aggression. Measures of parental psychological control, the quality of the parent-child relationship, and youth aggressive behavior were completed by 163 (49 % female) mostly White and Asian adolescents and their parents during the eighth and ninth grades. Paternal psychological control predicted aggression when adolescents perceived low-quality relationships with their mothers. Similarly, maternal psychological control predicted aggression when adolescents perceived low-quality relationships with their fathers. Maternal psychological control was also associated with lower levels of aggression among adolescent males who reported a high-quality relationship with their father. These findings indicate that, when one parent exerts psychological control, the low-quality relationship the adolescent shares with the opposite gender parent increases risk for adolescent aggression. The findings also suggest that, as mothers exert psychological control, the high-quality parent-child relationship a son shares with his father decreases risk for adolescent aggression. PMID:24072564
Changing employment relations between employees and employers due to the increasing employment flexibility have contributed to the development of a new paradigm to analyze these relations based on the concept of psychological contract. This paradigm might be particularly relevant in Poland where the employment flexibility understood as the number of workers with temporary contracts is the highest in Europe. In this paper the concept of psychological contract is presented along with the existing findings related to its range, balance and contract fulfilment vs. contract breach. The results of studies showing the differences in psychological contract of temporary and permanent workers are also presented. The majority of them indicate that psychological contracts of temporary workers are limited in their extent, less balanced and asymmetric (to workers' disadvantage), as well as more transactional in their nature than those of permanent workers. The temporary workers' well-being and attitudes towards work and their reaction to psychological contract breach largely depends on their preferences for this type of employment, on their qualifications and on a labor market situation. Med Pr 2016;67(4):529-536. PMID:27623833
Background In accord with new European university reforms initiated by the Bologna Process, our objectives were to assess psychological quality of life (QoL) and to analyse its associations with academic employability skills (AES) among students from the Faculty of Language, Literature, Humanities, Arts and Education, Walferdange Luxembourg (F1, mostly vocational/applied courses); the Faculty of Social and Human Sciences, Liege, Belgium (F2, mainly general courses); and the Faculty of Social Work, Iasi, Romania (F3, mainly vocational/professional courses). Method Students who redoubled or who had studied at other universities were excluded. 355 newly-registered first-year students (145 from F1, 125 from F2, and 85 from F3) were invited to complete an online questionnaire (in French, German, English or Romanian) covering socioeconomic data, the AES scale and the QoL-psychological, QoL-social relationships and QoL-environment subscales as measured with the World Health Organisation Quality of Life short-form (WHOQoL-BREF) questionnaire. Analyses included multiple regressions with interactions. Results QoL-psychological, QoL-social relationships and QoL-environment' scores were highest in F1 (Luxembourg), and the QoL-psychological score in F2 (Belgium) was the lower. AES score was higher in F1 than in F3 (Romania). A positive link was found between QoL-psychological and AES for F1 (correlation coefficient 0.29, p < 0.01) and F3 (correlation coefficient 0.30, p < 0.05), but the association was negative for F2 (correlation coefficient -0.25, p < 0.01). QoL-psychological correlated positively with QoL-social relationships (regression coefficient 0.31, p < 0.001) and QoL-environment (regression coefficient 0.35, p < 0.001). Conclusions Psychological quality of life is associated with acquisition of skills that increase employability from the faculties offering vocational/applied/professional courses in Luxembourg and Romania, but not their academically orientated Belgian
Carstens, Christian B.; Beck, Hall P.
Assesses the relationship between high school psychology and natural science classes and subsequent performance in a college introductory psychology course. Both high school courses were related to precourse psychology knowledge. Findings indicate students with strong backgrounds in high school natural sciences obtained higher final grades than…
Wong, Shyh Shin
This study examines the relationships of positive thinking versus negative thinking with psychological well-being and psychological maladjustment. Three hundred and ninety-eight undergraduate students from Singapore participated in this study. First, positive thinking were positively correlated with indicators psychological well-being--life…
This paper reviews Chinese management research since its beginning more than thirty years ago. It then discusses the possible interplay between higher education scale and employment relationship, and suggests that it is time to take the road less traveled rather than to over-travel the more popular road. We conclude that the practice will prove…
Lustig, Daniel C.; Zanskas, Stephen
Although research supports a relationship between work and psychological factors, one area not studied is the relationship between preferred career value and psychological factors. This study investigated the relationship between preferred career values and psychological problems for individuals with disabilities. Career values have been shown to…
Beveridge, Scott; Fabian, Ellen
This study examined the relationship between attaining a job congruent with the Individualized Plan for Employment (IPE) vocational rehabilitation goal and vocational rehabilitation outcomes. Study participants were 171 vocational rehabilitation clients served by the Maryland State Department of Education Division of Rehabilitation Services (DORS)…
DiPietro, Janet A.
The earliest relationship does not begin with birth. Pregnant women construct mental representations of the fetus, and feelings of affiliation or “maternal-fetal attachment” generally increase over the course of gestation. While there is a fairly substantial literature on the development and moderation of psychological features of the maternal-fetal relationship, including the role of ultrasound imaging, relatively little is known about the manner in which maternal psychological functioning influences the fetus. Dispositional levels of maternal stress and anxiety are modestly associated with aspects of fetal heart rate and motor activity. Both induced maternal arousal and relaxation generate fairly immediate alterations to fetal neurobehaviors; the most consistently observed fetal response to changes in maternal psychological state involves suppression of motor activity. These effects may be mediated, in part, by an orienting response of the fetus to changes in the intrauterine environment. Conversely, there is evidence that fetal behaviors elicit maternal physiological responses. Integration of this finding into a more dynamic model of the maternal-fetal dyad, and implications for the postnatal relationship are discussed. Research on the period before birth affords tremendous opportunity for developmental scientists to advance understanding of the origins of human attachment. PMID:20228872
Borden, Victor M. H.; Rajecki, D. W.
Explores recent graduates' judgments of the relatedness of their current employment to their major and whether their education prepared them for work and future prospects. Confirms earlier findings that, compared with other alumni, psychology baccalaureates ranked low on ratings of relatedness of current job to major and preparedness for the job…
Kingsberg, S A
Aging has a powerful impact on the quality of relationships and sexual functioning. The psychological impact of aging after midlife is a particularly timely topic given improved medical and psychological understanding of sexuality in both women and men, as well as more effective treatment for age-related sexual dysfunctions. It is time to dispel the stereotype of the midlife relationship as the continuation of a traditional heterosexual marriage with grown or almost grown children in order to more effectively address emotional and sexual issues arising in relationships. Regardless of the length or nature of the relationship, however, its quality is enhanced by emotional intimacy, autonomy without too much distance, an ability to manage stress and distractions by external factors, and achieving a satisfying sexual equilibrium. Perception of the quality of the primary relationship and sexuality is influenced by the other factors in a person's life. Thus, the relationship must be examined and issues must be addressed taking these external factors into consideration. Among the most powerful external factors is one's occupation or avocation, as it tends to strongly influence one's sense of identity, self-esteem, and self-worth in all areas of life. To understand and treat effects of aging on sexuality, it is important to address the three components of sexual desire: drive, beliefs/values, and motivation, as well as the sexual equilibrium within the primary relationship. It is also essential to understand how the physiological changes in male and female sexual functioning affect desire and equilibrium. Other health-related changes that occur with aging must be recognized and addressed, including the fact that the oldest of old women will outlive their corresponding male cohort. Treatment implications for these issues are discussed. PMID:10695872
Buzdar, Muhammad Ayub; Ali, Akhtar; Nadeem, Masood; Nadeem, Muhammad
Depression, anxiety and stress are among major psychiatric conditions being prevalent in contemporary youth. This study intended to examine the role of three religious orientations (Allport and Ross 1967) in students demonstrating these psychological symptoms. A sample comprising 502 Pakistani girls studying at university level was randomly selected. Age Universal I-E Scale and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale were used to collect data. Findings reveal an inverse relationship between extrinsic personal religious orientation and symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress among the respondents. Results support the integration of religious orientations in mental health care of young adults in Pakistan. PMID:25216967
This study examines the relationship between the internality-externality (I-E) scale as an indicator of coping styles and the Kessler 6 (K6) scale as an indicator of psychological distress and analyzes the effects of sociodemographic and employment-related factors on this relationship. Employees from Akita prefecture in Japan were invited to complete self-administered questionnaires. A uniform pattern of findings emerged in the relationship between the two scales as follows: all the significant correlations were negative, that is, as the I-E score increased, the K6 score decreased. Furthermore, significant effects were observed for the I-E scale regarding sex, age, education, employee type, and employment status and the K6 scale with multiple regression analyses. Among these, the effect of the K6 scale was significant for the I-E scale in both males and females. The results of this study may help improve mental health clinicians' understanding of psychological distress in employees. PMID:21808732
This study examines the relationship between the internality-externality (I-E) scale as an indicator of coping styles and the Kessler 6 (K6) scale as an indicator of psychological distress and analyzes the effects of sociodemographic and employment-related factors on this relationship. Employees from Akita prefecture in Japan were invited to complete self-administered questionnaires. A uniform pattern of findings emerged in the relationship between the two scales as follows: all the significant correlations were negative, that is, as the I-E score increased, the K6 score decreased. Furthermore, significant effects were observed for the I-E scale regarding sex, age, education, employee type, and employment status and the K6 scale with multiple regression analyses. Among these, the effect of the K6 scale was significant for the I-E scale in both males and females. The results of this study may help improve mental health clinicians' understanding of psychological distress in employees. PMID:21808732
Morrow, Stephanie L; McGonagle, Alyssa K; Dove-Steinkamp, Megan L; Walker, Curtis T; Marmet, Matthew; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L
The goals of this study were twofold: (1) to confirm a relationship between employee perceptions of psychological safety climate and safety behavior for a sample of workers in the rail industry and (2) to explore the relative strengths of relationships between specific facets of safety climate and safety behavior. Non-management rail maintenance workers employed by a large North American railroad completed a survey (n=421) regarding workplace safety perceptions and behaviors. Three facets of safety climate (management safety, coworker safety, and work-safety tension) were assessed as relating to individual workers' reported safety behavior. All three facets were significantly associated with safety behavior. Dominance analysis was used to assess the relative importance of each facet as related to the outcome, and work-safety tension evidenced the strongest relationship with safety behavior. PMID:20538102
Background A large body of international research reveals that single mothers experience poorer mental health than their partnered counterparts, with socioeconomic disadvantage identified as an important contributory factor in understanding this health disparity. Much less research, however, has focused specifically on the psychological well-being of single mothers who are employed, despite their growing presence in the labor force. Of the research which has considered employment, the focus has been on employment status per se rather than on other important work-related factors which may impact psychological health, such as psychosocial work quality and work-family conflict. The aim of this study was to: (1) compare employed single mothers and employed partnered mothers on measures of psychological distress, psychosocial work quality and work-family conflict; and (2) explore the potential role of work-family conflict and psychosocial work quality as explanations for any observed differences in psychological distress based on partner status. Method Analysis of data obtained from a cross-sectional telephone survey of employed parents in a mid-sized Western Canadian city. Analyses were based on 674 employed mothers (438 partnered and 236 single), who were 25-50 years old, with at least one child in the household. Results Compared to employed single mothers, employed partnered mothers were older, had more education and reported fewer hours of paid work. Single mothers reported higher levels of psychological distress, financial hardship, work-family conflict and poor psychosocial work quality. Statistical adjustment for income adequacy, psychosocial work quality and work-family conflict each independently resulted in single motherhood no longer being associated with psychological distress. Conclusions While single employed mothers did experience higher levels of psychological distress than their partnered counterparts, differences between these groups of women in income
Matzka, Martin; Mayer, Hanna; Köck-Hódi, Sabine; Moses-Passini, Christina; Dubey, Catherine; Jahn, Patrick; Schneeweiss, Sonja; Eicher, Manuela
Objective Psychological distress remains a major challenge in cancer care. The complexity of psychological symptoms in cancer patients requires multifaceted symptom management tailored to individual patient characteristics and active patient involvement. We assessed the relationship between resilience, psychological distress and physical activity in cancer patients to elucidate potential moderators of the identified relationships. Method A cross-sectional observational study to assess the prevalence of symptoms and supportive care needs of oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy, radiotherapy or chemo-radiation therapy in a tertiary oncology service. Resilience was assessed using the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC 10), social support was evaluated using the 12-item Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and both psychological distress and activity level were measured using corresponding subscales of the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist (RSCL). Socio-demographic and medical data were extracted from patient medical records. Correlation analyses were performed and structural equation modeling was employed to assess the associations between resilience, psychological distress and activity level as well as selected socio-demographic variables. Results Data from 343 patients were included in the analysis. Our revised model demonstrated an acceptable fit to the data (χ2(163) = 313.76, p = .000, comparative fit index (CFI) = .942, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = .923, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = .053, 90% CI [.044.062]). Resilience was negatively associated with psychological distress (β = -.59), and positively associated with activity level (β = .20). The relationship between resilience and psychological distress was moderated by age (β = -0.33) but not social support (β = .10, p = .12). Conclusion Cancer patients with higher resilience, particularly older patients, experience lower psychological distress. Patients
Avdibegović, Esmina; Hasanović, Mevludin; Hodzić, Medin; Selimbasić, Zihnet
In Central and Eastern European countries, after abandoning communism, significant political, economic and social changes occurred, followed by the increase in income inequality and social disparity. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between psychological symptoms and monthly income of employees in companies undergoing privatization. The study included 258 workers from seven companies undergoing privatization in the Tuzla Canton region. For the study purposes, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and a general questionnaire with questions about socio-demographic characteristics, income, and workplace, were used. Monthly income of the majority of workers (207 or 80.2%) was below the monthly income in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Workers with salaries below the average salary for Bosnia and Herzegovina have pronounced somatization, anxiety, paranoia, interpersonal sensitivity and hostility. The BSI scale yielded significant negative correlation between the level of monthly salary and the expression of psychological symptoms (r = -0.184, p = 0.002) and between the level of family income and the expression of psychological symptoms (r = -0.123, p = 0.024). Based on the study results, it was determined that socio-economic factors such as the level of salary and total family income and job insecurity, educational level, marital status and gender may be predictors of psychological symptoms. PMID:22397229
Shorey, Ryan C.; Temple, Jeff R.; Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Sherman, Amanda E.; Stuart, Gregory L.
Psychological aggression is the most prevalent form of aggression in dating relationships, with women perpetrating as much, if not more, psychological aggression than men. Researchers have advocated for an examination of the consequences that follow psychological aggression for the perpetrator, in hopes that this will lead to innovative…
Murry, Velma McBride; Brody, Gene H.; Brown, Anita; Wisenbaker, Joseph; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Simons, Ronald L.
Using an ecological risk-protection perspective, explores functional changes in single African American mothers (N=96) receiving government assistance. Examines links among maternal employment, mothers' physical and psychological health, and children's attributions about causes of poverty. Maternal psychological distress was linked with children's…
Kulm, Tracy L.; Cramer, Sheran
This study examines the relationships of college student employment and its effect on student life. Approximately 500, 19-24 year old, mid-western university undergraduates participated in an "on-line" survey. Data were analyzed using exploratory factor analyses, reliability and correlations. Study time/student time positively correlated with…
Helm, Charles Andre
Many researchers have investigated the relationship between the experiences of overt racist events and psychological wellbeing (Greene, Way, & Pahl, 2006; Harrell, Hall & Taliaferro, 2003; Okazaki, 2009). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between psychological wellbeing and racial microaggressions. Psychological…
Parker, Glennys; Lee, Christina
We examined relationships between abuse, coping, and psychological health among 143 women who had experienced abuse in adult relationships. Measures included characteristics of the abuse, problem-focused and emotion-focused coping, Sense of Coherence, and four measures of psychological wellbeing--the SF-36 Mental Component Scale, the General…
Zargar, Fatemeh; Foruzandeh, Elham; Omidi, Abdollah; Mohammadi, Abolfazl
Background: Human society has witnessed disasters and wars that left many consequences on families as well as social and individual life of the victims. Objectives: In this research, we compared the psychological health and marital adjustment in Iranian employed veterans with veterans receiving disability pension. Patients and Methods: The study participants were all of the veterans of Isfahan city registered in Veterans and Martyr Foundation who were receiving disability pension, were still working, or had not received any disability pension yet. A total of 330 veterans were selected by randomized systematic sampling. The Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) questionnaire and Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) were completed by the participants. The data were analyzed by Chi square test, independent samples t test, and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Almost half of the veterans did not demonstrate any psychopathology and half of them were diagnosed with borderline or serious psychopathology. Veterans receiving disability pension had more mental problems in comparison with the employed veterans. Veterans receiving disability pension had higher scores in psychosomatic disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, anxiety, phobias, psychoticism, and total scales (general symptom index, GSI) in comparison with the employed veterans. Employed veterans and veterans receiving disability pension did not differ significantly regarding DAS scores. Conclusions: Occupational condition has an important effect on mental health of veterans. PMID:25237560
Hom, Peter W; Tsui, Anne S; Wu, Joshua B; Lee, Thomas W; Zhang, Ann Yan; Fu, Ping Ping; Li, Lan
The research reported in this article clarifies how employee-organization relationships (EORs) work. Specifically, the authors tested whether social exchange and job embeddedness mediate how mutual-investment (whereby employers offer high inducements to employees for their high contributions) and over-investment (high inducements without corresponding high expected contributions) EOR approaches, which are based on Tsui, Pearce, Porter, and Tripoli's (1997) framework, affect quit propensity and organizational commitment. Two studies evaluated these intervening mechanisms. Study 1 surveyed 953 Chinese managers attending part-time master of business administration (MBA) programs in China, whereas Study 2 collected cross-sectional and longitudinal data from 526 Chinese middle managers in 41 firms. Standard and multilevel causal modeling techniques affirmed that social exchange and job embeddedness translate EOR influence. A second multilevel test using lagged outcome measures further established that job embeddedness mediates long-term EOR effects over 18 months. These findings corroborate prevailing views that social exchange explains how mutual- and over-investment EORs motivate greater workforce commitment and loyalty. This study enriches EOR perspectives by identifying job embeddedness as another mediator that is more enduring than social exchange. PMID:19271791
Citarella, Ashley I.; Mueller, John A.
The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between feminist identity and psychological maltreatment in intimate relationships among college students. Existing research and theories have raised questions about the relationship between these constructs, but no studies have yet explored the relationship between them. The…
Van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.; de Lange, Annet H.; Demerouti, Evangelia; Van der Heijde, Claudia M.
This study investigated the similarity of the factor structure for self-reported versus supervisor-rated employability for two age groups of workers, and then validated a career success enhancing model of employability across the two age groups. The results confirmed a two-factor model including self-reported and supervisor-rated employability as…
Kelly, Virginia; Warner, Kelly; Trahan, Courtenay; Miscavage, Karen
This study examined the relationship between level of depression and level of psychological abuse in women. In addition, the relationship between the use of self-report and measured report of psychological abuse within an intimate relationship was assessed. One hundred women were surveyed using the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory…
Khaleque, Abdul; Shirin, Anjuman; Uddin, Muhammad Kamal
The present study explored relations among remembered parental (paternal and maternal) acceptance in childhood, spouse acceptance and psychological adjustment of adults. It also explored whether remembered childhood experiences of parental acceptance mediate the relation between perceived spouse acceptance and psychological adjustment. The sample…
Özten, Eylem; Sayar, Gökben Hızlı; Eryılmaz, Gül; Kağan, Gaye; Işık, Sibel; Karamustafalıoğlu, Oğuz
Objective Interactions between psychological, biological and environmental factors are important in development of trichotillomania and skin picking. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship of traumatic life events, symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociation in patients with diagnoses of trichotillomania and skin picking disorder. Methods The study included patients who was diagnosed with trichotillomania (n=23) or skin picking disorder (n=44), and healthy controls (n=37). Beck Depression Inventory, Traumatic Stress Symptoms Scale and Dissociative Experiences Scale were administered. All groups checked a list of traumatic life events to determine the exposed traumatic events. Results There was no statistical significance between three groups in terms of Dissociative Experiences Scale scores (P=0.07). But Beck Depression Inventory and Traumatic Stress Symptoms Scale scores of trichotillomania and skin picking groups were significantly higher than the control group. Subjects with a diagnosis of trichotillomania and skin picking reported statistically significantly higher numbers of traumatic and negative events in childhood compared to healthy subjects. Conclusion We can conclude that trauma may play a role in development of both trichotillomania and skin picking. Increased duration of trichotillomania or skin picking was correlated with decreased presence of post-traumatic stress symptoms. The reason for the negatively correlation of severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms and self-harming behavior may be speculated as developing trichotillomania or skin picking symptoms helps the patient to cope with intrusive thoughts related to trauma. Future longitudinal research must focus on whether trauma and post-traumatic stress or trichotillomania and skin picking precede the development of mental disorder. PMID:26028973
Kelly, Adrian B; Chan, Gary C K; Mason, W Alex; Williams, Joanne W
Polydrug use is relatively common among adolescents. Psychological distress is associated with the use of specific drugs, and may be uniquely associated with polydrug use. The purpose of this study was to test the association of psychological distress with polydrug use using a large adolescent sample. The sample consisted of 10,273 students aged 12-17 years from the State of Victoria, Australia. Participants completed frequency measures of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, inhalant, and other drug use in the past 30 days, and psychological distress. Control variables included age, gender, family socioeconomic status, school suspensions, academic failure, cultural background, and peer drug use. Drug-use classes were derived using latent-class analysis, then the association of psychological distress and controls with drug-use classes was modeled using multinomial ordinal regression. There were 3 distinct classes of drug use: no drug use (47.7%), mainly alcohol use (44.1%), and polydrug use (8.2%). Independent of all controls, psychological distress was higher in polydrug users and alcohol users, relative to nondrug users, and polydrug users reported more psychological distress than alcohol users. Psychological distress was most characteristic of polydrug users, and targeted prevention outcomes may be enhanced by a collateral focus on polydrug use and depression and/or anxiety. PMID:26415064
Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.
In this rejoinder the authors respond to the three reactions to the major contribution, "Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations: Connections to Counseling Psychology," provided by Chung and Wu, Neville, Flores, and Dobson, and Yakushko, Wang, and Warrior. In their thoughtful reactions, these current and past leaders of the Society of…
Johnson, Courtney E.; Petrie, Trent A.
Examines the relationship of gender discrepancy to a broad range of physical and psychological correlates of eating disorders in 144 female undergraduates. Findings reveal that women with no gender discrepancy were psychologically healthier in many aspects than women who wanted to be more masculine or more feminine. (RJM)
Schonnesson, Lena Nilsson
A literature study was conducted to highlight the relationship between psychological dysfunction and sexuality within a marital context. The research reviewed suggests that women report more psychological symptoms, in particular depression, than do men. The husband's personality and functioning appeared to determine the level of marital…
Orcutt, Holly K.
Forgiveness has frequently been theorized to be related to decreased psychological distress, and longitudinal survey research is important for the examination of this relationship. The prospective relation of forgiveness to psychological distress symptoms (i.e., depression, anxiety, and stress) at a later time point (an average of 36 weeks later)…
Scope and Method of Study: This study was concerned with perceptions of academic facilitators, academic obstacles, and psychological well-being of college honors students. Differences in the way factors of academic success are perceived, and the relationship these perceptions have with psychological well-being were examined. College honors…
Sirin, Ahmet; Kadioglu, Fahriye
The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationship between psychological counselors' job satisfaction and self-esteem. The sample of the research consists of 297 psychological counselors who are accessible and working at schools and the center for guidance research in different districts such as Kadikoy, Kartal and Maltepe in…
Wigley, Stephen C.
This investigation examined the relationship between attendance and examination performance. Psychology students (179) took A/S psychology modules; their results were correlated with their attendance up to the examination date. The data were subjected to a Pearson Product Moment Correlation and a statistically significant result was found. (p…
Feuille, Peter; Blandin, James
A study of teacher militancy at a medium size University indicates that faculty militancy may be more a function of perceptions of the employing organizational context than standard demographic characteristics. (Author/DE)
Kimerling, Rachel; Alvarez, Jennifer; Pavao, Joanne; Mack, Katelyn P; Smith, Mark W; Baumrind, Nikki
Prior research has demonstrated that intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with employment instability among poor women. The current study assesses the broader relationship between IPV and women's workforce participation in a population-based sample of 6,698 California women. We examined past-year IPV by analyzing specific effects of physical violence, psychological violence, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as predictors of unemployment. Results indicated substantial rates of unemployment among women who reported IPV, with rates of 20% among women who experienced psychological violence, 18% among women who experienced physical violence, and 19% among women with PTSD symptoms. When the relationship was adjusted for demographic characteristics and educational attainment, PTSD (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22, 2.09) and psychological violence (AOR = 1.78; 95% CI = 1.36, 2.32), but not physical violence, were associated with unemployment. Implications for supported employment programs and workplace responses to IPV are discussed. PMID:18458353
Vuori, Jukka; Vesalainen, Janne
Finnish job seekers (n=559) were followed up after 1 year (n=401) after 84.3% participated in guidance courses, subsidized employment, vocational training, or some combination. Guidance courses enhanced reemployment. None of the interventions increased job-seeking activity. Training temporarily decreased psychological distress. Deteriorating…
Banks, Pauline; Jahoda, Andrew; Dagnan, Dave; Kemp, John; Williams, Victoria
Background: This paper focuses on the transition to supported employment for people with intellectual disabilities paying particular attention to the impact of job breakdown on psychological well-being; an issue often omitted from studies. Materials and Methods: Forty-nine people with intellectual disabilities were interviewed within 3 months of…
Skinner, Jean D.; And Others
Nutrient intakes and meal patterns of 123 adolescents with employed mothers were compared with those of 88 adolescents with nonemployed mothers. The 24-hour food records indicated few differences between the two groups of adolescents in total nutrient intakes or in intakes at breakfast, the evening meal, or snacks. (Author/CT)
Gorton, Laura; McCauley, Joyce; Farrell, Debi; Nyce, Susan; Johnson, Lisa; Covert, Stephanie; Strauss, Aviva; Maggi, Leigh; Fields, Susan; Eddy, Preethy; Denis, Lauren; Hemperly, Megan; Fronheiser, April; Chambliss, Catherine
This study investigated the influence of maternal employment on perceptions of the costs and benefits to children associated with mothers working outside the home and professional ambition among junior high school adolescents. A sample of 151 suburban and urban junior high school students completed a questionnaire relating to their professional…
The purpose of this study was to assess relations between adult intimacy, quality of life, and psychological adjustment. Data were collected in the United States from a sample of 64 college students. The measuring instruments used were Personal Information Sheet, Adult version of the Personality Assessment Questionnaire (Adult PAQ), Intimate…
Johnson, Gil; Laird, Mark; Maxson, John
This interview between Mark Laird, statewide employment specialist with Missouri Rehabilitation Services for the Blind, and Gil Johnson, director of American Foundation for the Blind West, describes an innovative rehabilitation model that forges relationships with businesses and has doubled the number of consumers with visual impairments who find…
Washington, Novella Channell
Living in a society that is quick to label and condemn, has been, and continues to be a source of pain for African-Americans. However, society's microscope has for sometime had a one dimensional lens, particularly when examining the coping styles of African-American male-female relationships within the African-American family. There exists a great…
Henderson, Craig E.; Hayslip, Bert, Jr.; Sanders, Leah M.; Louden, Linda
This study investigates maternal grandmother-grandchild relationship quality as a predictor of psychological adjustment among youth from divorced families. Three hundred twenty-four adolescents aged between 17 and 20 report on the quality of their relationships with their maternal grandmothers and their relational competence, self-efficacy, and…
Schlosser, Lewis Z.; Kahn, Jeffrey H.
The authors present the results from a study investigating advisor-advisee relationships in counseling psychology doctoral training. Participants were 47 advisor-advisee dyads who were currently working together in an advising relationship. The results indicated that advisors and advisees exhibited significant agreement in their assessments of…
This article explores the influence of relationships on student achievement by examining empirical evidence and by adopting a social psychological theory. Initially, the issue is addressed from a national, Swedish context. Thereafter, two general questions are raised: (1) What is the influence of relationships on student achievement, according to…
Szymanski, Dawn M.; Kashubeck-West, Susan
This study examined the relationship of internalized oppressions to the psychological distress of 304 lesbian and bisexual women. In addition, it investigated whether self-esteem and social support mediated the relationship between internalized oppressions and mental health. Results indicate that after controlling for education, internalized…
Lent, Robert W.
In proposing a "work and relationship" perspective for vocational psychology, Richardson builds on a rich intellectual (social constructionist) tradition and offers incisive social commentary. In this reaction, the author examines several of her foci--in particular, the four-part division of life's social contexts, her views on relationships, and…
Ellis, Wendy E.; Crooks, Claire V.; Wolfe, David A.
We examined the contribution of relational aggression in adolescents' peer and dating relationships to their psychological and behavioral adjustment. In the Fall and again four months later, 1279 (646 female) grade 9 students reported on relational aggression perpetration and victimization in their romantic and peer relationships,…
Christens, Brian D.; Speer, Paul W.; Peterson, N. Andrew
This study examined whether social class moderated the relationship between empowering and disempowering processes and psychological empowerment (PE) in a sample of individuals from five community organizing initiatives (N=490). Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test the relationship between community participation (CP) and alienation…
Shepherd-McMullen, Cassandra; Mearns, Jack; Stokes, Julie E; Mechanic, Mindy B
This study explored the relationships among psychological abuse, attitudes about intimate partner violence (IPV), negative mood regulation expectancies (NMRE), and coping. Participants were 126 female college students in dating, cohabitating, or married relationships within the previous year. In one single session, they completed self-report scales measuring IPV, NMRE, and coping. Results indicated that women reporting higher levels of psychological abuse reported less negative attitudes toward IPV, engaged in less-active coping responses, and had lower NMRE. Psychological abuse was a significant predictor of avoidant coping, while NMRE significantly predicted both active and avoidant coping. In addition, the interaction of NMRE × Psychological abuse added incremental prediction of avoidant coping. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:25049030
Garner, Bryan R.; Hunter, Brooke D.
Relative to the broader industrial-organizational (I-O) psychology field, research on the turnover of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment staff is in its infancy. Despite its long and rich history, recent reviews of the turnover literature within I-O psychology have noted there remains considerable room for improvement. In particular, recommendations have been made for research that considers time in the turnover process and explores more distal causes of staff turnover. Addressing these gaps, this paper examined the temporal relationship between latent measures of psychological climate, work attitude, and staff turnover. Using data from 95 SUD treatment staff clustered within 29 treatment organizations, multilevel discrete-time survival analyses revealed that a latent measure of work attitude (e.g., job satisfaction, pay satisfaction, turnover intentions) fully mediated the temporal relationship between latent measures of psychological climate (e.g., supervisor support, coworker support, role conflict) and subsequent staff turnover. PMID:22658290
Bishop, S L; Grobler, L C; Schjoll, O
Considerable data (primarily physiological) have been collected during expeditions in extreme environments over the last century. Physiological measurements have only recently been examined in association with the emotional or behavioral state of the subject. Establishing this psychophysiological relationship is essential to understanding fully the adaptation of humans to the stresses of extreme environments. This pilot study investigated the simultaneous collection of physiological, psychological and behavioral data from a two-man Greenland expedition in order to model how specific relationships between physiological and psychological adaptation to a polar environment may be identified. The data collected describes changes in adrenal and other hormonal activity and psychological functioning. Levels of cortisol and testosterone were calculated. Factors influencing the plasma profiles of the aforementioned included 24-hour sunlight, high calorific intake of more than 28 000 kJ/day and extreme physical exercise. There was a difference between individual psychological profiles as well as self-report stress and physiological stress. PMID:11669115
Garner, Bryan R; Hunter, Brooke D
Relative to the broader industrial-organizational (I-O) psychology field, research on the turnover of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment staff is in its infancy. Despite its long and rich history, recent reviews of the turnover literature within I-O psychology have noted that there remains considerable room for improvement. In particular, recommendations have been made for research that considers time in the turnover process and explores more distal causes of staff turnover. Addressing these gaps, this article examined the temporal relationship between latent measures of psychological climate, work attitude, and staff turnover. Using data from 95 SUD treatment staff clustered within 29 treatment organizations, multilevel discrete-time survival analyses revealed that a latent measure of work attitude (e.g., job satisfaction, pay satisfaction, turnover intentions) fully mediated the temporal relationship between latent measures of psychological climate (e.g., supervisor support, coworker support, role conflict) and subsequent staff turnover. PMID:22658290
Bishop, Sheryl L.; Grobler, Lukas C.; SchjØll, Olaf
Considerable data (primarily physiological) have been collected during expeditions in extreme environments over the last century. Physiological measurements have only recently been examined in association with the emotional or behavioral state of the subject. Establishing this psychophysiological relationship is essential to understanding fully the adaptation of humans to the stresses of extreme environments. This pilot study investigated the simultaneous collection of physiological, psychological and behavioral data from a two-man Greenland expedition in order to model how specific relationships between physiological and psychological adaptation to a polar environment may be identified. The data collected describes changes in adrenal and other hormonal activity and psychological functioning. Levels of cortisol and testosterone were calculated. Factors influencing the plasma profiles of the aforementioned included 24-hour sunlight, high calorific intake of more than 28 000 kJ/day and extreme physical exercise. There was a difference between individual psychological profiles as well as self-report stress and physiological stress.
Rajecki, D. W.; Borden, Victor M. H.
Selections from the career counseling literature indicated that the undergraduate psychology curriculum is a potential source of generic liberal arts skills--for example, numeracy, literacy, critical thinking--said to be useful to baccalaureates entering the workforce. A "meritocracy hypothesis" stated that psychology and other liberal arts…
Oliveira, Queiti Batista Moreira; de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Njaine, Kathie; Pires, Thiago Oliveira
The scope of this paper is to evaluate the perpetration of psychological violence in current male and female dating relationships and their link to psychological violence experienced in other contexts of their lives, namely family, relationships with friends and dating partners. 3,205 students in the 2nd year of high school (15 to 19 years old) in public and private schools in ten Brazilian cities filled out a closed and self-administered questionnaire. The results highlight the fact that the increase in the number of psychologically violent events perpetrated by adolescents in their intimate relationships is related to greater verbal aggression of the mother and father, and the more frequent experiences of psychological violence between parents, siblings, friends and that existing in earlier dating relationships. This reinforces the notion of circularity of psychological violence in various contexts of socialization of adolescents and highlights the continuity of aggressive behavior in other dating relationships, and those between siblings, family and friends. PMID:24714886
Sahebalzamani, Mohammad; Farahani, Hojjatollah; Abasi, Reza; Talebi, Mehdi
Background: Spiritual intelligence is defined as the human capacity to ask questions about the ultimate meaning of life and the integrated relationship between us and the world in which we live. It results in an increase in psychological well-being of individuals as well as having a goal in their life. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between spiritual intelligence with purpose in life and psychological well-being among the nurses. Materials and Methods: The study was a descriptive correlation study. In this study, 270 nurses were selected from some hospitals of Tehran University through convenient sampling. Data were collected through a four-section questionnaire including demographic characteristics, a 24-item questionnaire of spiritual intelligence and its four components, psychological well-being questionnaire with six subscales and 84 questions, and the questionnaire of purpose in life with 20 questions. The data obtained from the questionnaires were analyzed through SPSS software. Results: The results showed that there was a significant relationship between spiritual intelligence with psychological well-being and having a purpose in life. Furthermore, there was a significant association between the components of spiritual intelligence including conscious state expansion, personal meaning production, transcendental awareness, and critical existential thinking with psychological well-being. Conclusion: High level of spiritual intelligence in nurses helps them to improve their psychological well-being and have a purpose in life, which can lead to the health provision of them and their patients. PMID:23983726
Coutinho, Joana Fernandes; Silva, Patrícia Oliveira; Decety, Jean
In this article, we define the construct of empathy and its relevance for counseling psychology. The importance of deficits in empathic processes for most of the psychological disorders is presented within the context of the social brain hypothesis (Frith, 2007). We provide a review of empirical research about the neural correlates of empathy in terms of both the central and peripheral nervous system. We present recent evidence on the cortical and subcortical regions involved in different dimensions of empathy-emotional contagion, cognitive and emotional empathy, and self-regulation. Regarding the autonomic correlates of empathy, we present evidence about the correlates of sympathetic arousal associated with empathic processes and review data supporting the idea of the physiological linkage or synchrony as indicator of empathy in interpersonal relationships. The implications of these findings for counseling psychology, particularly for the psychotherapist-client relationship and for context of intimate relationships or couples therapy, are discussed. PMID:25285714
Mackey, Amber L; Fromuth, Mary Ellen; Kelly, David B
This study of 59 undergraduate men and 85 undergraduate women explored how defining emotional and physical sibling abuse affected the frequency of reported sibling abuse. In addition, the current study examined how the emotional context of the sibling relationship (i.e., rivalry and conflict) moderated the relationship between sibling abuse and later psychological adjustment (i.e., depression and anxiety). Respondents completed self-report questionnaires of sibling abuse (CTS2-SP), self-labeling of sibling abuse, quality of sibling relationships (SRQ), depression (CES-D), and anxiety (ZAS). Results indicated differences in frequency of reported abuse depending on how sibling abuse was defined. Also, there were no statistically significant correlations between the CTS2-SP and measures of psychological adjustment. Although self-labeling as emotionally abused correlated with later anxiety, the emotional context of the sibling relationship did not moderate this relationship. PMID:19734372
Cacioppo, John T.; Berntson, Gary G.; Decety, Jean
Social species create emergent organizations beyond the individual. These emergent structures evolved hand in hand with neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms to support them because the consequent social behaviors helped these organisms survive, reproduce, and care for offspring sufficiently long that they too reproduced. Social neuroscience seeks to specify the neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms underlying social behavior, and in so doing to understand the associations and influences between social and biological levels of organization. Success in the field, therefore, is not measured in terms of the contributions to social psychology per se, but rather in terms of the specification of the biological mechanisms underlying social interactions and behavior—one of the major problems for the neurosciences to address in the 21st century. PMID:24409007
Cacioppo, John T; Berntson, Gary G; Decety, Jean
Social species create emergent organizations beyond the individual. These emergent structures evolved hand in hand with neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms to support them because the consequent social behaviors helped these organisms survive, reproduce, and care for offspring sufficiently long that they too reproduced. Social neuroscience seeks to specify the neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms underlying social behavior, and in so doing to understand the associations and influences between social and biological levels of organization. Success in the field, therefore, is not measured in terms of the contributions to social psychology per se, but rather in terms of the specification of the biological mechanisms underlying social interactions and behavior-one of the major problems for the neurosciences to address in the 21(st) century. PMID:24409007
Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Zeglin, Robert J.; McGuire-Kuletz, Maureen; Rhodes, Scott D.
Purpose: To explore employment as a social determinant of health through examining the relationship between employment status and physical health. Method: The authors explored the causal relationship between employment status and physical health through conducting a systematic review of 22 longitudinal studies conducted in Finland, France, the…
Roohafza, Hamidreza; Feizi, Awat; Afshar, Hamid; Mazaheri, Mina; Behnamfar, Omid; Hassanzadeh-Keshteli, Ammar; Adibi, Peyman
AIM: To provide a structural model of the relationship between personality traits, perceived stress, coping strategies, social support, and psychological outcomes in the general population. METHODS: This is a cross sectional study in which the study group was selected using multistage cluster and convenience sampling among a population of 4 million. For data collection, a total of 4763 individuals were asked to complete a questionnaire on demographics, personality traits, life events, coping with stress, social support, and psychological outcomes such as anxiety and depression. To evaluate the comprehensive relationship between the variables, a path model was fitted. RESULTS: The standard electronic modules showed that personality traits and perceived stress are important determinants of psychological outcomes. Social support and coping strategies were demonstrated to reduce the increasing cumulative positive effects of neuroticism and perceived stress on the psychological outcomes and enhance the protective effect of extraversion through decreasing the positive effect of perceived stress on the psychological outcomes. CONCLUSION: Personal resources play an important role in reduction and prevention of anxiety and depression. In order to improve the psychological health, it is necessary to train and reinforce the adaptive coping strategies and social support, and thus, to moderate negative personality traits. PMID:27354968
Owen, Jesse; Fincham, Frank D; Manthos, Megan
Friends with benefits (FWB) relationships are formed by an integration of friendship and sexual intimacy, typically without the explicit commitments characteristic of an exclusive romantic relationship. The majority of these relationships do not transition into committed romantic relationships, raising questions about what happens to the relationship after the FWB ends. In a sample of 119 men and 189 women university students, with a median age of 19 years and the majority identified as Caucasian (63.6 %), we assessed relationship adjustment, feelings of deception, perception of the FWB relationship and friendship, social connectedness, psychological distress, and loneliness. Results demonstrated that the majority of FWB relationships continued as friendships after the sexual intimacy ceased and that about 50 % of the participants reported feeling as close or closer to their FWB partner. Those who did not remain friends were more likely to report that their FWB relationship was more sex- than friendship-based; they also reported higher levels of feeling deceived by their FWB partner and higher levels of loneliness and psychological distress, but lower levels of mutual social connectedness. Higher levels of feeling deceived were related to feeling less close to the post-FWB friend; also, more sex-based FWB relationships were likely to result in post-FWB friendships that were either more or less close (as opposed to unchanged). FWB relationships, especially those that include more attention to friendship based intimacy, do not appear to negatively impact the quality of the friendship after the "with benefits" ends. PMID:23979784
Conger, Anthony J.; Jackson, Douglas N.
The suppressor variable, a variable wholly uncorrelated with a criterion, but which nevertheless improves prediction because of its relationship with a predictor, is critically examined. For a suppressor so defined, formal identities are shown with part, partial, and multiple correlational procedures. It is demonstrated that if maximum prediction…
Bender, Jade A.; Roberts, Michael C.
As children's exposure to violence (EV) has become more evident, concern for the implications that violence has on children has risen. Consequently, researchers have explored the relationship between exposure and outcomes, as well as potential mediators and moderators. In this study, we (a) examined EV in a sample of children from the Midwestern…
Asif, Muhammad; Ayyub, Samia; Bashir, Muhammad Khawar
This study explores the relationship between style of transformational leadership and organizational commitment of employees with mediating role of psychological empowerment in the textile sector Punjab Pakistan. Data was collected using tools from 250 employees. The transformational leadership questionnaire, MLQ-Multifactor leadership Questionnaire  was used to verify the perception of the employees towards transformational leadership style in two dimensions i.e. idealized influence and inspirational motivation. The organizational commitment questionnaire designed by  was used to verify the affective organizational commitment. Further, psychological empowerment questionnaire was developed by  which was used to examine the state of psychological empowerment of textile sector employees. Pearson Correlation revealed that there exists a positive significant relationship between idealized influence and affective organizational commitment, Inspirational motivation and affective organizational commitment, affective organizational commitment and psychological empowerment. The results from the study put forward that there is a significant relationship between style of transformational leadership and organizational commitment. The mediating variable which one is suitable in the model i.e. psychological empowerment and the model is good fit as the F value is significant.
Krause, James S.; Broderick, Lynne
We investigated relationships among personality, locus of control, and current post-injury employment status for 1,391 participants with spinal cord injury. Participants with higher internality locus-of-control scores and activity scores (personality) reported more favorable employment outcomes. Higher scores on chance and powerful others (locus…
Rousseau, Denise M.; Hornung, Severin; Kim, Tai Gyu
This study tests propositions regarding idiosyncratic deals (i-deals) in a sample of N = 265 hospital employees using structural equation modeling. Timing and content of idiosyncratic employment arrangements are postulated to have differential consequences for the nature of the employment relationship. Results confirm that i-deals made after hire…
Finkel, Eli J; Eastwick, Paul W; Reis, Harry T
In recent years, a robust movement has emerged within psychology to increase the evidentiary value of our science. This movement, which has analogs throughout the empirical sciences, is broad and diverse, but its primary emphasis has been on the reduction of statistical false positives. The present article addresses epistemological and pragmatic issues that we, as a field, must consider as we seek to maximize the scientific value of this movement. Regarding epistemology, this article contrasts the false-positives-reduction (FPR) approach with an alternative, the error balance (EB) approach, which argues that any serious consideration of optimal scientific practice must contend simultaneously with both false-positive and false-negative errors. Regarding pragmatics, the movement has devoted a great deal of attention to issues that frequently arise in laboratory experiments and one-shot survey studies, but it has devoted less attention to issues that frequently arise in intensive and/or longitudinal studies. We illustrate these epistemological and pragmatic considerations with the case of relationship science, one of the many research domains that frequently employ intensive and/or longitudinal methods. Specifically, we examine 6 research prescriptions that can help to reduce false-positive rates: preregistration, prepublication sharing of materials, postpublication sharing of data, close replication, avoiding piecemeal publication, and increasing sample size. For each, we offer concrete guidance not only regarding how researchers can improve their research practices and balance the risk of false-positive and false-negative errors, but also how the movement can capitalize upon insights from research practices within relationship science to make the movement stronger and more inclusive. PMID:25603376
Wiley, Rachel E.; Berman, Steven L.
The present study addresses the relationships of caregiver identity status on their adolescent children's identity distress and psychological symptom severity among a sample of adolescents (age 12-19) in treatment at a community mental health center (N = 60 caregiver-child dyads). A significant proportion of caregivers (10%) and their adolescent…
Cao, Li; Nietfeld, John L.
This mixed methods study examined the relationships between students' learning goals, performance goals, study strategies, and test performances over a 14-week undergraduate course in educational psychology. Sixty undergraduate students provided goals at the beginning of the semester and reflected on their goals, study strategies, and test…
Bornstein, Robert F.
Research indicates that economic dependency in women and emotional dependency in men independently contribute to domestic-partner abuse risk and that high levels of emotional dependency in an abused partner may reduce the likelihood that the victimized person will terminate the relationship. An analysis of psychological factors and social forces…
Lizzio, Alf; Wilson, Keithia; Que, Janelle
The professional supervision of new graduates to ensure both their effectiveness with clients and their personal learning and development is a common feature of a range of human services contexts. This study investigated psychology supervisees' perceptions of relationship processes and outcomes in professional supervision. The relationship…
Gormley, Barbara; Lopez, Frederick G.
This study investigated whether gender, stressful problems common among college students, and adult attachment orientations (anxiety and avoidance) contributed to self-reported perpetration of psychological abuse in dating relationships among 127 college students. College men's stress levels were the strongest predictor of perpetration of…
Spence, Janet T.; And Others
This study investigated the relationship of psychological masculinity and feminity in children to trait stereotyping and toy preferences. Subjects (157 boys and 157 girls in Grades K-4) were tested on a Child Test Battery, including the Child's Personal Attributes Questionnaire based on the adult PAQ (Spence, Helmreich & Stapp, 1974, 1975), the…
Smith, Heather L.; Robinson, E. H. "Mike", III; Young, Mark E.
Two-hundred and four entering master's-level counseling students from 9 programs in 5 states participated in a study testing the only counseling-based wellness assessment measure, the Five Factor Wellness Evaluation of Lifestyle (J. E. Myers, R. M. Luecht, & T. J. Sweeney, 2004), for its relationship to 2 other constructs: psychological distress…
Masek, Robert J.
Psychoanalysis is undergoing rapid and remarkable changes in its basic metapsychology, theoretical reflections, and concrete, clinical interventions. Through self-psychology, Heinz Kohut's alternative views on the clinical relationship have contributed to this restructuring of psychoanalysis. Traditionally, mainstream psychoanalysis has viewed the…
Nemeroff, Robin; Midlarsky, Elizabeth; Meyer, Joseph F.
Social support has been shown to buffer the relationship between life stress and psychological distress in late life. However, little attention has been paid to personality variables that are associated with the capacity to effectively utilize social support. Although the buffering effects of social support were replicated in our sample of 134…
Blank, Logan F.
Previous research has found little or no relationship between student instructional ratings and numerous academic and personal variables. This study sought to determine if such ratings are related to student and instructor psychological types. Undergraduate engineering students (297) and nine instructors were administered the Myers-Briggs Type…
Cruza-Guet, Maria-Cristina; Spokane, Arnold R.; Caskie, Grace I. L.; Brown, Scott C.; Szapocznik, Jose
This study compared 5 psychological models of the relationship between social support (SS) and behavioral health. These theoretical models, which have garnered some level of prior empirical support, were as follows: (a) main effects, (b) buffering effects, (c) social exchange, (d) equity, and (e) protective health outcomes of providing SS. A…
Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti
Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction, and child…
Winfield, Evelyn B.; Whaley, Arthur L.
The present study examined relationship status, psychological orientation toward sexual risk taking, and other characteristics as potential correlates of risky sexual behavior in a sample of 223 heterosexual African American college students. Risky sexual behavior was investigated as a multinomial variable (i.e., abstinence, consistent condom use,…
Chae, Mark H.; Foley, Pamela F.
The current investigation examined the relationship of ethnic identity, acculturation, and psychological functioning among 334 Chinese, Japanese, and Korean American participants. Multiple regression analyses revealed that ethnic identity and acculturation differentially predicted well-being on the basis of ethnic group membership. Results also…
Weyandt, Lisa L.; Janusis, Grace; Wilson, Kimberly G.; Verdi, Genevieve; Paquin, Gregory; Lopes, Justin; Varejao, Michael; Dussault, Crystal
Objective: To further investigate use and potential misuse of prescription stimulants (e.g., Ritalin, Adderall, Concerta) among a sample of college students and to explore the relationship between psychological variables and nonmedical stimulant use. Method: The sample consisted of 390 college students (71.6% female, 28.4% male). Participants were…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Relationship of pneumoconiosis to coal mine... OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED STANDARDS FOR DETERMINING COAL... Determinations § 718.302 Relationship of pneumoconiosis to coal mine employment. If a miner who is suffering...
Pike, Gary R.; Kuh, George D.; Massa-McKinley, Ryan C.
This study examined the relationships among first-year students' employment, engagement, and academic achievement using data from the 2004 National Survey of Student Engagement. A statistically significant negative relationship was found between working more than 20 hours per week and grades, even after controlling for students' characteristics…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Relationship of pneumoconiosis to coal mine... OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED STANDARDS FOR DETERMINING COAL... Determinations § 718.302 Relationship of pneumoconiosis to coal mine employment. If a miner who is suffering...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Relationship of pneumoconiosis to coal mine... OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED STANDARDS FOR DETERMINING COAL... Determinations § 718.302 Relationship of pneumoconiosis to coal mine employment. If a miner who is suffering...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationship of pneumoconiosis to coal mine... LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED STANDARDS FOR DETERMINING COAL MINERS... § 718.302 Relationship of pneumoconiosis to coal mine employment. If a miner who is suffering...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Relationship of pneumoconiosis to coal mine... OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED STANDARDS FOR DETERMINING COAL... Determinations § 718.302 Relationship of pneumoconiosis to coal mine employment. If a miner who is suffering...
Kunyk, Diane; Craig-Broadwith, Morgan; Morris, Heather; Diaz, Ruth; Reisdorfer, Emilene; Wang, JianLi
The estimated societal and economic costs of mental illness and psychological injury in the workplace is staggering. Governments, employers and other stakeholders have been searching for policy solutions. This qualitative, exploratory study sought to uncover organizational receptivity to a voluntary comprehensive standard for dealing with psychological health and safety in the workplace. A series of five focus groups were conducted in a large Western Canadian city in November 2013. The seventeen participants were from the fields of healthcare, construction/utilities, manufacturing industries, business services, and finance. They worked in positions of management, consulting, human resources, health promotion, health and safety, mediation, and occupational health and represented organizations ranging in size from 20 to 100,000 employees. The findings confirm and illustrate the critical role that psychological health and safety plays across workplaces and occupations. This standard resonated across the represented organizations and fit with their values. This alignment posed challenges with articulating its added value. There appears to be a need for simplified engagement and implementation strategies of the standard that can be tailored to the nuanced differences between types and sizes of industries. It appears that organizations in the most need of improving psychological health and safety may be the least receptive. PMID:26303900
Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Burk, William J
Assortative mating is an important issue in explaining antisocial, aggressive behavior. It is yet unclear, whether the similarity paradigm fully explains frequent displays of aggression in adolescents' romantic relationships. In a sample of 194 romantic partner dyads, differences between female and male partners' reports of aggression (psychological and physical) and different measures of relationship functioning (e.g., jealousy, conflicts, and the affiliative and romantic quality of the relationship) were assessed. A hierarchical cluster analysis identified five distinct subgroups of dyads based on male and female reports of psychological and physical aggression: nonaggressive couples, couples with higher perceived aggressiveness (both physical and psychological) by females, couples with higher aggressiveness perceived by males and mutually aggressive couples. A substantial number of non-aggressive dyads emerged. Of note was the high number of females showing one-sided aggression, which was, however, not countered by their partner. The mutually aggressive couples showed the least adaptive relationship functioning, with a lack of supportive, trusting relationship qualities, high conflict rates and high jealousy. The discussion focuses on the different functions of aggression in these early romantic relations, and the aggravating impact of mutual aggression on relationship functioning and its potential antisocial outcomes. PMID:26067515
Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Burk, William J.
Assortative mating is an important issue in explaining antisocial, aggressive behavior. It is yet unclear, whether the similarity paradigm fully explains frequent displays of aggression in adolescents’ romantic relationships. In a sample of 194 romantic partner dyads, differences between female and male partners’ reports of aggression (psychological and physical) and different measures of relationship functioning (e.g., jealousy, conflicts, and the affiliative and romantic quality of the relationship) were assessed. A hierarchical cluster analysis identified five distinct subgroups of dyads based on male and female reports of psychological and physical aggression: nonaggressive couples, couples with higher perceived aggressiveness (both physical and psychological) by females, couples with higher aggressiveness perceived by males and mutually aggressive couples. A substantial number of non-aggressive dyads emerged. Of note was the high number of females showing one-sided aggression, which was, however, not countered by their partner. The mutually aggressive couples showed the least adaptive relationship functioning, with a lack of supportive, trusting relationship qualities, high conflict rates and high jealousy. The discussion focuses on the different functions of aggression in these early romantic relations, and the aggravating impact of mutual aggression on relationship functioning and its potential antisocial outcomes. PMID:26067515
Kuzucu, Yaşar; Şimşek, Ömer Faruk
This research examined the mediatory role of life purpose and career indecision in the relationship between the satisfaction of basic psychological needs and aggression. Data were collected from high school students (n = 466) and results showed that life purpose and career indecision fully mediated the relationship between basic psychological needs satisfaction and aggression. These findings suggested that unsatisfied basic psychological needs foster late adolescents' aggression by promoting less clear life purposes and career indecision. PMID:24837531
Pedersen, Cory L.; Lymburner, Jocelyn; Ali, Jordan I.; Coburn, Patricia I.
Connecting Minds (CM) is a North American undergraduate research conference in psychology, hosted annually by Kwantlen Polytechnic University in British Columbia, Canada. However, CM is a conference with a twist: it is both student-focused and student-led. The organizing committee is comprised of both faculty and students working collaboratively.…
Schult, Carolyn A.; McIntosh, John L.
Computer-administered exams offer many advantages, but instructors may be reluctant to use them due to concerns that computer anxiety may increase student test anxiety. Introductory psychology students (N = 265) completed surveys prior to their first exam about their anxiety related to the upcoming exam, computers in general, and taking exams on…
Patton, Wendy; Goddard, Richard
Case managers providing intensive assistance to the unemployed completed the 12-item General Health Questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results reveal that 48% endorsed responses indicating psychological distress, and on emotional exhaustion, the core dimension of burnout on the MBI, the mean for these case managers was significantly…
Özbek, Emel; Bongers, Ilja L; Lobbestael, Jill; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs
This study investigated the relationship between acculturation and psychological problems in Turkish and Moroccan young adults living in the Netherlands. A sample of 131 healthy young adults aged between 18 and 24 years old, with a Turkish or Moroccan background was recruited using snowball sampling. Data on acculturation, internalizing and externalizing problems, beliefs about psychological problems, attributions of psychological problems and barriers to care were collected and analyzed using Latent Class Analysis and multinomial logistic regression. Three acculturation classes were identified in moderately to highly educated, healthy Turkish or Moroccan young adults: integration, separation and diffusion. None of the participants in the sample were marginalized or assimilated. Young adults reporting diffuse acculturation reported more internalizing and externalizing problems than those who were integrated or separated. Separated young adults reported experiencing more practical barriers to care than integrated young adults. Further research with a larger sample, including young adult migrants using mental health services, is required to improve our understanding of acculturation, psychological problems and barriers to care in this population. Including experiences of discrimination in the model might improve our understanding of the relationship between different forms of acculturation and psychological problems. PMID:25845438
Sugiura, Tomoko; Sugiura, Yoshinori
Skills to refrain from catastrophic thinking were negatively related to worry and a wide range of psychological distress. Repetitive negative thinking (including worry) is proposed as a common etiological factor for a wide range of psychological distress. Therefore, reduced repetitive negative thinking would mediate the negative relation between refraining from catastrophic thinking and psychological distress (depression, social anxiety, phobia, generalized anxiety, and obsessions and compulsions). As an overlap between five indices of psychological distress was expected, we first computed latent factors underlying them, which were then predicted by refraining from catastrophic thinking and repetitive negative thinking. Cross-sectional questionnaire data from 125 nonclinical voluntarily participating students (M age = 19.0 years, SD = 3.6; 54% women) supported the predictions: refraining from catastrophic thinking was negatively correlated with depression, social anxiety, phobia, generalized anxiety, and obsession and compulsion. Repetitive negative thinking mediated the negative relationship between refraining from catastrophic thinking and latent factors underlying psychological distress (Fear and Distress). Refraining from catastrophic thinking may be negatively correlated with psychological distress due to its negative relation to repetitive negative thinking. PMID:27511967
Greve, Jane; Nielsen, Louise Herrup
This paper examines the relationship between schizophrenia and employment. We use longitudinal register data and show a considerable drop in the employment rate for people with schizophrenia six years before the first treatment at a psychiatric facility. After the first treatment, the employment rate stabilizes at 18%. The difference in the employment rate in 2007 for siblings with and without schizophrenia is estimated at 67%. This difference is reduced to 62% when we include additional control variables. The results remain unchanged when we apply a sibling fixed effects approach that controls for the unobserved family specific characteristics that the siblings share. PMID:24103500
The relationship between psychological stress and the course of MS has been investigated in several studies using methods with different qualities. The majority of findings indicates that acute short-term stressors have no negative consequences. Chronic psychosocial stressors, however, such as interpersonal conflicts, loss and complicated bereavement, low perceived social support, anxiety and depressive episodes have to be regarded as possible risk factors for the development of MS exacerbations. The neuroimmunological findings in MS and under various stress conditions are delineated with emphasis on the changes in lymphocyte and cytokine networks and evaluated with regard to their possible clinical significance. Practical consequences for psychological intervention strategies are discussed. PMID:11345583
Baek, Young Min; Bae, Young; Jang, Hyunmi
With the advent of social network sites (SNSs), people can efficiently maintain preexisting social relationships and make online friendships without offline encounters. While such technological features of SNSs hold a variety of potential for individual and collective benefits, some scholars warn that use of SNSs might lead to socially negative consequences, such as social isolation, erosion of social cohesion, or SNS addiction. This study distinguishes types of SNS relationships, and investigates their relationships with social isolation, interpersonal trust, and SNS addiction. We classify SNS relationships into two types: (a) social relationships based on reciprocity between a user and his/her friends, and (b) parasocial relationships in which an ordinary user is aware of activities of a celebrity (e.g., famous actors, athletes, and others) but not vice versa. Based on achievements in studies of media effect and social psychology, we constructed a set of hypotheses, and tested them using a subsample of SNS users drawn from representative survey data in South Korea. We found that dependency on parasocial relationships is positively related with loneliness but negatively correlated with interpersonal distrust, while dependency on social relationship is negatively correlated with loneliness but positively related with trust. However, more dependency on both social and parasocial relationships are positively related with SNS addiction. Implications based on findings are also discussed. PMID:23697533
McMurray, Isabella; Roberts, Pat; Robertson, Ian; Teoh, Kevin
Within the UK, traditional subject-specific areas are increasingly being complemented by the provision of opportunities to foster students' personal development planning as an aide to support their future employment and lifelong learning. This paper describes an action research project which examined employability skills within a psychology…
Ying, Shangjun; Li, Xiaojun; Zhong, Xiuqin
This paper discusses the initial value sensitivity (IVS) of Chinese stock market, including the single stock market and the Chinese A-share stock market, with respect to real markets and evolving models. The aim is to explore the relationship between IVS of the Chinese A-share stock market and the investment psychology based on the evolving model of genetic cellular automaton (GCA). We find: (1) The Chinese stock market is sensitively dependent on the initial conditions. (2) The GCA model provides a considerable reliability in complexity simulation (e.g. the IVS). (3) The IVS of stock market is positively correlated with the imitation probability when the intensity of the imitation psychology reaches a certain threshold. The paper suggests that the government should seek to keep the imitation psychology under a certain level, otherwise it may induce severe fluctuation to the market.
Wexler, David B.
Clinicians face formidable challenges in working with male perpetrators of domestic violence. Many treatment programs use a confrontational approach that emphasizes male entitlement and patriarchal societal attitudes, without honoring the genuine psychological pain of the abusive male. Although some men with strong psychopathic tendencies are almost impossible to treat, the majority of spouse-abusing males respond best to an empathic, client-centered, self psychological approach that also includes education about sociocultural issues and specific skill building. Understanding the deprivations in mirroring selfobject functions from which these men typically suffer facilitates clinical treatment response. While insisting that men take full responsibility for their abusive behavior, treatment approaches can still be most effective by addressing inherent psychological issues. Group leaders who can offer respect for perpetrators' history, their experience of powerlessness, and their emotional injuries in primary relationships are more likely to make an impact.(The Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research 1999; 8:129–141) PMID:10079460
Reczek, Corinne; Zhang, Zhe
Relationships with children are important for parents' psychological well-being, yet limited research addresses whether and how relationships with adult children matter for aging parents' psychological well-being in mid- to later life. We used four waves of national longitudinal data (Americans' Changing Lives, N = 1,692) and growth curve models to test how multiple dimensions of the intergenerational relationship-social support, strain, equity, and dissatisfaction-shape mid- to later life parents' psychological distress over time. Results showed that social support and strain were associated with parents' distress at baseline but not over time, while relationship equity and dissatisfaction affected change in parents' psychological distress over time. Findings further showed how the effects of dissatisfaction varied for mothers and fathers. This study adds to an understanding of the social context of aging by drawing attention to how specific dimensions of the parent-child tie matter longitudinally for mid- to later life parents' psychological distress. PMID:26334963
Acikgoz, Yalcin; Sumer, H Canan; Sumer, Nebi
The relationship between perceived employability and turnover intentions seems much more complicated than what the common sense would suggest. Based on the reviewed literature, it was expected that job satisfaction, affective commitment, and perceived job security would moderate this relationship. Using a sample of working individuals from different occupations and sectors (N = 721), it was found that employees who perceived themselves as highly employable were more likely to have turnover intentions when their affective commitment was low and perceived job security was high; and the relationship was negative for employees with shorter tenures. Understanding the conditions under which perceived employability is associated with turnover intentions may help organizations design human resource policies that allow them to retain an educated and competent workforce. PMID:27043746
Background Psychological distress (e.g., depression and anxiety) has been regarded as the main cause of leaving work for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in workplaces. This study aims to explore the associations of functional social support (FSS) and psychological capital (PC) with depressive and anxiety symptoms among PLWHA employed full-time. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed in Liaoning, China, during the period of December 2010–April 2011. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, the Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire, and the Psychological Capital Questionnaire were completed by PLWHA employed full-time. Structural equation modeling was used to test the proposed relationships between variables. Asymptotic and resampling strategies were performed to explore the mediating roles of PC and its components (self-efficacy, hope, optimism, resilience). Results Of 320 participants surveyed, 66.3% had depressive symptoms, and 45.6% had anxiety symptoms. Significant negative associations of FSS and PC with depressive and anxiety symptoms were revealed. PC (a*b = −0.209, BCa 95% CI: -0.293, -0.137, p < 0.05), hope (a*b = −0.103, BCa 95% CI: -0.192, -0.034, p < 0.05), and optimism (a*b = −0.047, BCa 95% CI: -0.106, -0.008, p < 0.05) significantly mediated the association between FSS and depressive symptoms. PC (a*b = −0.151, BCa 95% CI: -0.224, -0.095, p < 0.05) and self-efficacy (a*b = −0.080, BCa 95% CI: -0.158, -0.012, p < 0.05) significantly mediated the FSS-anxiety symptoms association. Conclusions FSS and PC could help reduce depressive and anxiety symptoms among PLWHA employed full-time. PC fully mediates the associations of FSS with depressive and anxiety symptoms. In addition to enhancing FSS, PC development could be included in the prevention and treatment strategies for depressive and anxiety symptoms targeted at PLWHA employed
Button, Tanya Maria May; Maughan, Barbara; McGuffin, Peter
There is strong evidence for an association between maternal smoking in pregnancy and psychological problems in offspring. The problems most frequently associated are attention problems, hyperactivity, and conduct problems, although there is some evidence for an association with substance use problems as well. The nature of this association is unclear, but it is likely the result of a number of different mechanisms. Animal studies provide evidence for a causal relationship, in which exposure to nicotine has detrimental effects on foetal development. Other studies suggest that factors that correlate with maternal prenatal smoking may be the real risk factors for behavioural problems, although evidence that the associations remain after controlling for such risks goes some way to dispel this as the only explanation. Finally, maternal prenatal smoking may index underlying psychological problems in the mother that are inherited by the offspring. In all likelihood, a combination of these mechanisms may contribute to observed relationships between prenatal smoking and offspring psychological problems. Now that the association is well established, future research needs to focus more strongly on disentangling underlying mechanisms. Although animal studies demonstrate a casual relationship, it appears from other research that this may not be the whole story in human samples. Furthermore, the relationship may only exist under certain conditions (i.e. against a certain genetic background), and this possibility warrants further examination, particularly in relation to other genetic risks, and outcomes other than ADHD. Application of the children-of-twins design may also cast further light on the processes involved. PMID:17888593
Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Willmore, Jacqueline
The purpose of this study was to further explore the association between bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in children and adolescents. Compared to the previous study, we have used a larger and representative sample of middle and high school students, examined the effect of gender, different forms (physical, verbal, theft/vandalism and cyber) and severity of bullying on breakfast eating behaviour. Data from students (2286 boys and 2859 girls) aged 11 to 19 years (mean ± SD age: 14.6 ± 1.9 years) from the 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS) were analysed using self-reports of being bullied, diet, psychological distress, demographics, socio-economic status, weight status, and substance use. Results revealed greater odds of breakfast skipping in girl victims of physical, verbal, and cyber bullying, and in boy victims of verbal and cyber bullying. There was a dose-response relationship between experience of both school and cyber bullying victimization and breakfast skipping behaviour for both genders. Mediation analysis indicated that psychological distress fully mediated the relationship between both verbal and physical bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in girls, and partially mediated the relationship between verbal bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in boys. Psychological distress also partially mediated the link between cyber bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in both boys and girls. These results corroborate previous findings on the association between bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in children and adolescents. The strong and consistent associations with different forms of bullying victimization, the dose-response relationship, and the mediating role of psychological distress suggest a causal relationship. PMID:25633132
Grubbs, Joshua B; Stauner, Nicholas; Exline, Julie J; Pargament, Kenneth I; Lindberg, Matthew J
In the United States, Internet pornography use is a common behavior that has risen in popularity in recent years. The present study sought to examine potential relationships between pornography use and well-being, with a particular focus on individual perceptions of pornography use and feelings of addiction. Using a large cross-sectional sample of adults (N = 713), perceived addiction to Internet pornography predicted psychological distress above and beyond pornography use itself and other relevant variables (e.g., socially desirable responding, neuroticism). This model was replicated using a large cross-sectional sample of undergraduates (N = 1,215). Furthermore, a 1-year, longitudinal follow-up with a subset of this sample (N = 106) revealed a relationship between perceived addiction to Internet pornography and psychological distress over time, even when controlling for baseline psychological distress and pornography use. Collectively, these findings suggest that perceived addiction to Internet pornography, but not pornography use itself, is uniquely related to the experience of psychological distress. PMID:26372200
Objective: The present study aimed to review the relationships between procrastination and two self-factors self-efficacy and self-esteem. Methods: Participants were 140 undergraduates Psychology students enrolled in Mohagheg Ardabili University, Ardabil, Iran. Instruments used for collecting the required data were the student-version of the General Procrastination Scale (GP-S), General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) and Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale (SES). Results: Using causal modeling, two models were compared; a model with self-esteem as a mediator versus a model with procrastination as a mediator. The self-esteem mediator model accounted for 21% of the variance in procrastination. The significance of the mediation effect was found by bootstrapping method. Conclusion: The relationship of procrastination with self-esteem and self-efficacy was revealed among undergraduate psychology students. PMID:25780374
Schweitzer, R D; Seth-Smith, M; Callan, V
The study adopts a multi-dimensional construct of self-esteem to examine the relationship between self-perception and psychological adjustment in order to identify specific dimensions that discriminate between disturbed and non-disturbed groups. The disturbed group (n = 33) is derived from a clinical sample and are matched with a non-disturbed group (n = 33) of adolescents. Results indicate that dimensional self-concept scores are significantly lower for clinical subjects while there are no significant differences between groups on the mathematics, honesty, and physical ability dimensions. These findings provide a more fine grained understanding of the relationship between self-esteem and psychological adjustment and emphasize the need to examine self-esteem in terms of its particular dimensions. PMID:1607427
Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick
Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…
Sampson, Joan M.; And Others
This study was designed to determine factors that affect the employment status of the wife-mother and prove that these factors would be similar in both "typical" and "disadvantaged" samples. Three "universal variables" were: the husband's attitudes, youngest child's educational status, and frequency of family sharing the housework…
Oyeleye, Olubunmi; Hanson, Patricia; O'Connor, Nancy; Dunn, Deborah
This study explored the relationships among perceived workplace incivility, stress, burnout, perceived turnover intentions, and perceived level of psychological empowerment among acute care nurses (medical-surgical and critical care) in community and tertiary hospitals through the lens of complexity science. An exploratory study was conducted, and findings demonstrate significant relationships among workplace incivility, stress, burnout, turnover intentions, total years of nursing experience, and RN education levels. Creating targeted retention strategies and policies that will be sensitive to the needs and interests of nurses at high risk for leaving their organizations is imperative for nurse executives. PMID:24061587
Blau, Gary; Hill, Theodore L.; Snell, Corinne; Atwater, Craig; Halbert, Terry; Zuckerman, M. Michael
This study's results, with 664 surveyed graduating business students, demonstrated that creating four groups, using gender and quantitative or nonquantitative major, was useful for testing their relationships to professional development behaviors and expected employment. Results showed that male-nonquantitative majors (n = 144) reported the lowest…
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition on employer-employee relationship 300.504 Section 300.504 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... temporaries including orientation, assignment of tasks, and review of work products, in order that...
O'Donoghue, John; Maguire, Theresa
Purpose: In the current knowledge-based economic climate, the success of an organisation is inextricably linked to the individual. This article seeks to consider the key relationships between the individual, lifelong learning, the workplace and employability in the context of the knowledge society. The aim is to extend understanding of these…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolution of an employee opinion survey and to evaluate its impact on the graduate training programme and associated employment relationships. Design/methodology/approach: The paper provides a detailed, longitudinal case study of one large-scale UK organisation. The approach recognises that…
Huss, Ephrat; Magos, Michal
This study used drawing and semi-structured interviews to access the visions of self-actualisation of a group of at-risk young women in an employment support group in Israel. The findings point to the synergetic relationship between the self-defined goals of the young women such as inner peace, self-regulation, assertiveness, good relationships…
Brown, Kelly; And Others
The relationship between maternal employment and maternal and paternal parenting styles is investigated in this study. Subjects included 117 two-parent families with elementary school children. Responses were obtained from 111 mothers and 24 fathers. The survey was conducted by a telephone interview lasting 10-15 minutes in duration. Questions…
DOHERTY, ROBERT E.; AND OTHERS
THIS DOCUMENT CONTAINS SIX PAPERS PRESENTED AT A CONFERENCE HELD MAY 12-13, 1966, AT THE ROOSEVELT HOTEL IN NEW YORK CITY UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE NEW YORK STATE SCHOOL OF INDUSTRIAL AND LABOR RELATIONS AND THE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION AT CORNELL. THE PAPERS, REFLECTING SOME ASPECT OF THE CONFERENCE THEME, "THE CHANGING EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP IN…
... service firm. At the same time, agencies must give technical, task-related instructions to private sector... relationship 300.504 Section 300.504 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Use of Private Sector Temporaries § 300.504 Prohibition on...
Benn, Rita K.
Investigates factors associated with outcomes in attachment relationships between 30 well-educated, full-time working mothers and their 18-month-old firstborn sons. Suggests maternal employment effects on mother-son attachment are mediated primarily by a woman's affective state, which becomes manifested in her style of caregiving and child-care…
Euler, Bryan L.
Assessed degree of relationship between superficial and deep psychological adjustment among elderly individuals (n=86). Found only moderate correlation between shallow and deep psychological adjustment as measured by Cantril's Self-Anchoring Scale for life satisfaction (shallow) and Eriksonian-based Measures of Psychosocial Development (deep).…
Manne, Sharon; Sherman, Marne; Ross, Stephanie; Ostroff, Jamie; Heyman, Richard E.; Fox, Kevin
This study examined associations between couple communication about cancer and psychological distress and relationship satisfaction of women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer. One hundred forty-eight couples completed a videotaped discussion of a cancer-related issue and a general issue. Patients completed measures of psychological distress…
Chandler, Donald S., Jr.
This pilot study examined the relational-behavior model (RBM) as a method of intrinsic motivational instruction in psychology courses. Among a sample of 33 college students enrolled in two undergraduate psychology courses, a Spearman rho analysis revealed a significant relationship between the intrinsic motivational factors (e.g. student/class…
Masuda, Akihiko; Wendell, Johanna W.; Chou, Ying-Yi; Feinstein, Amanda B.
Research on Asian Americans and their psychological adjustment is limited. Consisting of two cross-sectional studies, the present investigation examined the relationships among self-concealment, mindfulness, emotional distress in stressful interpersonal situations, and general psychological ill-health in Asian American college students, and in…
Anderson, Chris G.; Rawana, Edward P.; Brownlee, Keith; Whitley, Jessica
This study explored the association between psychological strengths and perceptions of being a victim of a bullying relationship in the school environment. Using self-report questionnaires with grades 7 and 8 students, the role of psychological strengths as potential protective factors against various forms of bullying were examined including the…
Brown, Deborah; Mulvey, Matthew; Cordingley, Lis; Rashid, Amir; Horan, Michael; Pendleton, Neil; Duncan, Rosie; McBeth, John
Multiple tender points are common in the population and, in studies of mid-life adults, are strongly associated with high levels of psychological distress. Whether this relationship occurs in older adults is unclear. This cross-sectional study investigated whether high levels of psychological distress would be associated with a high tender point count and whether the relationship would be moderated by age. Three thousand three hundred and seventy-nine individuals were mailed a questionnaire which included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale, the Pain Catastrophising Scale (PCS), the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (Brief IPQ), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). A random sample of approximately 10% of subjects who returned the questionnaire undertook a physical assessment, including a manual tender point count assessment. A total of 2385 (71%) subjects completed the questionnaire, of whom 798 (33%) were invited to take part in the physical assessment and 290 (12%) participated. Of the 290 participants the median age was 64 years (range 34-97) and 63% were female. The median HAD score was 9 (IQR 5-14) and the median number of tender points was 3 (range 0-7). Increasing HAD score was positively and significantly associated with tender point count, but this relationship was not moderated by age. In a final multivariable model, sex, HAD score and PSQI score were independent predictors of multiple tender points. Psychological distress was associated with multiple tender points independent of age. Psychological distress and trouble sleeping were important, potentially modifiable factors associated with the outcome. PMID:26607869
Brown, Deborah; Mulvey, Matthew; Cordingley, Lis; Rashid, Amir; Horan, Michael; Pendleton, Neil; Duncan, Rosie; McBeth, John
Multiple tender points are common in the population and, in studies of mid-life adults, are strongly associated with high levels of psychological distress. Whether this relationship occurs in older adults is unclear. This cross-sectional study investigated whether high levels of psychological distress would be associated with a high tender point count and whether the relationship would be moderated by age. Three thousand three hundred and seventy-nine individuals were mailed a questionnaire which included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale, the Pain Catastrophising Scale (PCS), the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (Brief IPQ), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). A random sample of approximately 10% of subjects who returned the questionnaire undertook a physical assessment, including a manual tender point count assessment. A total of 2385 (71%) subjects completed the questionnaire, of whom 798 (33%) were invited to take part in the physical assessment and 290 (12%) participated. Of the 290 participants the median age was 64 years (range 34–97) and 63% were female. The median HAD score was 9 (IQR 5–14) and the median number of tender points was 3 (range 0–7). Increasing HAD score was positively and significantly associated with tender point count, but this relationship was not moderated by age. In a final multivariable model, sex, HAD score and PSQI score were independent predictors of multiple tender points. Psychological distress was associated with multiple tender points independent of age. Psychological distress and trouble sleeping were important, potentially modifiable factors associated with the outcome. PMID:26607869
Aazami, Sanaz; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Akmal, Syaqirah; Azami, Golnaz
Background: The workplace environment has a great influence on employees’ health. Job dissatisfaction has been widely recognised as a workplace stressor that can influence employees’ psychological and physical health statuses. However, job satisfaction is a multi-dimensional concept, and it is necessary to investigate its different facets and their unique consequences. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the nine facets of job satisfaction and psychological health and somatic complaints (i.e., sleep disorders, headache, gastro-intestinal and respiratory problems). Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 567 Malaysian women working in the public sector. Data collection was conducted using a series of self-administered questionnaires. Results: The results of this study show that there is a link between job satisfaction and psychological distress as well as four somatic complaints. Satisfaction with the nature of work was the strongest predictor for psychological distress, sleep disorders, headaches and gastro-intestinal problems. Conclusion: From the results of this study, we conclude that there is a link between job satisfaction and the health status of employees. In addition, job satisfaction levels vary across different dimensions and can even differ from an individual’s feelings of global job satisfaction. Policies and practices should focus on improving working conditions to enhance the fit of the job and the employee. PMID:26715907
Tatsumi, Tomonori; Takenouchi, Takashi
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the causal relationships between the psychological acceptance process of athletic injury and athletic-rehabilitation behavior. [Subjects] One hundred forty-four athletes who had injury experiences participated in this study, and 133 (mean age = 20.21 years, SD = 1.07; mean weeks without playing sports = 7.97 weeks, SD = 11.26) of them provided valid questionnaire responses which were subjected to analysis. [Methods] The subjects were asked to answer our originally designed questionnaire, the Psychosocial Recovery Factor Scale (PSRF-S), and two other pre-existing scales, the Athletic Injury Psychological Acceptance Scale and the Athletic-Rehabilitation Dedication Scale. [Results] The results of factor analysis indicate “emotional stability”, “social competence in the team”, “temporal perspective”, and “communication with the teammates” are factors of the PSRF-S. Lastly, the causal model in which psychosocial recovery factors are mediated by psychological acceptance of athletic injury, and influence on rehabilitation behaviors, was examined using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results of SEM indicate that the factors of emotional stability and temporal perspective are mediated by the psychological acceptance of the injury, which positively influences athletic-rehabilitation dedication. [Conclusion] The causal model was confirmed to be valid. PMID:25202190
Slonim, Jessica; Kienhuis, Mandy; Di Benedetto, Mirella; Reece, John
Background Past research suggests that medical students experience high levels of psychological distress. Objective The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationships among engagement in self-care behaviours, dispositional mindfulness, and psychological distress. Methods The sample consisted of 139 female and 68 male Australian medical students (N=207) aged 17–41 years (M=21.82, SD=3.62) across the 5 years of the Monash University medical course. Participants completed an online survey comprising a demographics questionnaire, the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales. Results Results revealed significant and interpretable multivariate correlations between distress and both mindfulness and self-care. Furthermore, the dispositional mindfulness observation subscale was found to be a significant moderator of the relationship between several dimensions of self-care and psychological distress. Conclusions The present study points to the potential of self-care and mindfulness to decrease medical student distress and enhance well-being. PMID:26112354
Dani, Samir S.; Burns, Neil D.
The advent of the Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and the Internet with its subsequent use in the field of supply chains, mainly online shopping; web managed purchasing and online auctions have given rise to complex relationships between buyers and suppliers. The manner in which the buyer-supplier transactions occur have a psychological bearing similar to the transactions occurring between humans in the buyer-supplier organizations. The on-going research to study the psychological aspects of the transactions will use Transactional Analysis as a tool to identify these aspects of the relationship. The essential aspect of this view is that organizational culture plays a very strong role in the way organizations operate, and when two organizations transact with each other the individual culture is bound to play a role in the way the transaction is conducted. There are a number of factors that play a role in bringing the culture to the forefront of the transaction process. It is necessary to study these factors in order to understand why the psychological behavior is actually shown by these buyer- supplier organizations.
Background The discourse about mental health problems among migrants and refugees tends to focus on adverse pre-migration experiences; there is less investigation of the environmental conditions in which refugee migrants live, and the contrasts between these situations in different countries. This cross-national study of two samples of Somali refugees living in London (UK) and Minneapolis, Minnesota, (USA) helps to fill a gap in the literature, and is unusual in being able to compare information collected in the same way in two cities in different countries. Methods There were two parts to the study, focus groups to gather in-depth qualitative data and a survey of health status and quantifiable demographic and material factors. Three of the focus groups involved nineteen Somali professionals and five groups included twenty-eight lay Somalis who were living in London and Minneapolis. The quantitative survey was done with 189 Somali respondents, also living in London and Minneapolis. We used the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to assess ICD-10 and DSM-IV mental disorders. Results The overall qualitative and quantitative results suggested that challenges to masculinity, thwarted aspirations, devalued refugee identity, unemployment, legal uncertainties and longer duration of stay in the host country account for poor psychological well-being and psychiatric disorders among this group. Conclusion The use of a mixed-methods approach in this international study was essential since the quantitative and qualitative data provide different layers and depth of meaning and complement each other to provide a fuller picture of complex and multi-faceted life situations of refugees and asylum seekers. The comparison between the UK and US suggests that greater flexibility of access to labour markets for this refugee group might help to promote opportunities for better integration and mental well-being. PMID:22954304
Lertmaharit, Somrat; Lohsoonthorn, Vitool; Rattananupong, Thanapoom; Sonkprasert, Thanawan; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A.
We conducted this study to fill the noted gap in the available literature by evaluating the prevalence of poor sleep quality in this understudied population and to explore the relationship between sleep quality and psychological problems among undergraduates in Thailand. This study used a cross-sectional survey. Self-administrated questionnaires included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale and the Thai General Health Questionnaire. The study group included 1,055 undergraduates, aged 18-25 years. The prevalence of poor sleep quality was 42.4%. Students classified as poor quality sleepers reported significantly more psychological problems, indicating a linear trend of progressively worse global sleep quality associated with greater mood and anxiety symptomatology. Prospective studies that include objective measures of sleep duration and quality are needed to more fully develop focused health promotion strategies for Southeast Asian undergraduates. PMID:27152114
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between students' entrepreneurial attitudes and traits and their classification of employment six months after university graduation. It aims to identify what specific attitudes and traits of entrepreneurial graduates are linked to employability in a professional or managerial…
Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Zeglin, Robert J.; McGuire-Kuletz, Maureen; Rhodes, Scott D.
Purpose: To explore employment as a social determinant of health through examining the relationship between employment status and mental health. Method: The authors conducted a systematic review of 48 longitudinal studies conducted in Australia, Canada, Croatia, Germany, Ireland, Israel, the Netherlands, Norway, United Kingdom, and United States…
Hori, Hiroaki; Ozeki, Yuji; Teraishi, Toshiya; Matsuo, Junko; Kawamoto, Yumiko; Kinoshita, Yukiko; Suto, Shiho; Terada, Sumio; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Kunugi, Hiroshi
Psychological distress and coping styles have been suggested to relate to altered function in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, although there remains much to be understood about their relationships. High and low cortisol levels (or reactivity) both represent HPA axis dysfunction, with accumulated evidence suggesting that they are linked to different types of psychopathology. The dexamethasone (DEX)/corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) test has been extensively used to identify HPA axis abnormalities in various psychiatric conditions including mood disorders; however, the possible associations of psychological distress and coping styles with HPA axis function have not been well documented using this test. Here, we examined the relationships of HPA axis reactivity as measured by the DEX/CRH test with subjectively perceived psychological distress and coping styles, both of which were assessed with self-report questionnaires, in 121 healthy volunteers. Subjects were divided into three groups by the cortisol suppression pattern, namely the incomplete-suppressors (DST-Cortisol ≥ 5 μg/dL or DEX/CRH-Cortisol ≥ 5 μg/dL), moderate-suppressors (DST-Cortisol < 5 μg/dL and 1 μg/dL ≤ DEX/CRH -Cortisol < 5 μg/dL), and enhanced-suppressors (DST-Cortisol < 5 μg/dL and DEX/CRH-Cortisol < 1 μg/dL). The enhanced-suppressors showed significantly higher scores in obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity and anxiety symptoms and significantly more frequent use of avoidant coping strategy, compared to the other two groups. These results point to the important role of enhanced suppression of cortisol, or blunted cortisol reactivity, in non-clinical psychopathology such as avoidant coping strategy and greater psychological distress. PMID:20334880
Bergeron, Félix-Antoine; Blais, Martin; Hébert, Martine
Introduction Sexual-minority youths (SMY) report high rates of psychological distress such as depression, anxiety and suicidal ideation (Burton, Marshal, Chisolm, Sucato et Friedman, 2013; Williams & Chapman, 2011). Several studies confirm that the poor mental health outcomes are partly related to their high likelihood of experiencing homophobic victimization (Blais, Gervais, Boucher, Hébert & Lavoie, 2013; Taylor & Peter, 2011; Hughes, McCabe, Wilsnack, West & Boyd, 2010; Chamberland, Richard & Bernier, 2013). Whereas the development of a positive sexual minority identity is crucial for the mental health of SMY (Chamberland, Richard & Chevrier, 2011; Rosario, Schrimshaw & Hunter, 2011; Luhtanen, 2002), the victimization they experience put them at risk of internalizing societal homophobia and heterosexism (Meyer, 2003; Hatzenbuehler, 2009). It is important to identify variables that may influence the impact of distal and proximal factors that impact SMY's mental health.Objectives The objectives of this paper are 1) to document different forms of homophobic victimization experienced by SMY, according to gender and age, and 2) to test the potential moderating effect of parental support in the relationship between homophobic victimization, internalized homophobia and psychological distress.Method Data come from 228 SMY aged 14 to 22 years old recruited through online means as part of the Quebec Youth's Romantic Relationships Survey. The impact of homophobic victimization, parental support, and internalized homophobia on psychological distress is explored by a linear regression model including moderated mediation effects.Results Results show the relationship between homophobic victimization and psychological distress as well as indirect significant relationship through internalized homophobia. The moderated mediation analysis also confirms the moderating role of parental support in the relationship between homophobic victimization and psychological distress. Thus
Kubzansky, Laura D.; Adler, Gail K.
Numerous studies support the notion that cumulative exposure to chronic stress is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Various stress-related hormones have been proposed as potential mediators of the relationship between psychological stress and CVD, including catecholamines and more indirectly, cortisol. Somewhat surprisingly, although aldosterone is also released in response to hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activation, it has not been considered as relevant for this relationship. In the present review we will consider aldosterone as a potentially important mediator of the relationship between negative affective states and CVD. First, we will briefly review the known functions and roles of aldosterone, and then consider its actions in both the brain and the periphery. We will then review the available literature on the role of aldosterone in CVD, and also consider links between aldosterone and various forms of chronic psychological stress. Finally we will present an integrated model of how aldosterone may mediate effects of chronic stress on CVD, recommend new directions for research, and identify important methodological and design issues for this work. PMID:19631234
Young, Sean; Dutta, Debo; Dommety, Gopal
Online social network users may leave creative, subtle cues on their public profiles to communicate their motivations and interests to other network participants. This paper explores whether psychological predictions can be made about the motivations of social network users by identifying and analyzing these cues. Focusing on the domain of relationship seeking, we predicted that people using social networks for dating would reveal that they have a single relationship status as a method of eliciting contact from potential romantic others. Based on results from a pilot study (n = 20) supporting this hypothesis, we predicted that people attempting to attract users of the same religious background would report a religious affiliation along with a single relationship status. Using observational data from 150 Facebook profiles, results from a multivariate logistic regression suggest that people providing a religious affiliation were more likely to list themselves as single (a proxy for their interest in using the network to find romantic partners) than people who do not provide religious information. We discuss the implications for extracting psychological information from Facebook profiles. To our knowledge, this is the first study to suggest that information from publicly available online social networking profiles can be used to predict people's motivations for using social networks. PMID:19366321
Phelps, L H; Waskel, S A
An assessment of the relationship between explanatory style and perceived general job satisfaction is presented for 135 employed women age 40 and over who were asked to complete the Attributional Style Questionnaire and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. Although a forced-order multiple regression analysis did not yield a significant correlation between explanatory style and perceived general job satisfaction, several interesting factors emerged. PMID:8058876
Lin, Wei; Chen, Yu-hua; Wang, Ji-yuan; Gao, Hong-sheng; Wang, Ji-jun; Su, Rong-hua; Mao, Wei
Detection probability is an important index to represent and estimate target viability, which provides basis for target recognition and decision-making. But it will expend a mass of time and manpower to obtain detection probability in reality. At the same time, due to the different interpretation of personnel practice knowledge and experience, a great difference will often exist in the datum obtained. By means of studying the relationship between image features and perception quantity based on psychology experiments, the probability model has been established, in which the process is as following.Firstly, four image features have been extracted and quantified, which affect directly detection. Four feature similarity degrees between target and background were defined. Secondly, the relationship between single image feature similarity degree and perception quantity was set up based on psychological principle, and psychological experiments of target interpretation were designed which includes about five hundred people for interpretation and two hundred images. In order to reduce image features correlativity, a lot of artificial synthesis images have been made which include images with single brightness feature difference, images with single chromaticity feature difference, images with single texture feature difference and images with single shape feature difference. By analyzing and fitting a mass of experiments datum, the model quantitys have been determined. Finally, by applying statistical decision theory and experimental results, the relationship between perception quantity with target detection probability has been found. With the verification of a great deal of target interpretation in practice, the target detection probability can be obtained by the model quickly and objectively.
The split between the theoretical branch and the practice--oriented art of memory psychology has existed for centuries. Whereas the theory of memory involved creation of elaborate models to elucidate the structure and processes of memory, in contrast the art of memory embraced techniques to enhance memory performance. One might expect a close relationship between practice and theory. This is, however, not the case. Theorists and memory artists criticized, fought, or ignored each other, as is demonstrated by examples from the 16th to the 19th century. PMID:19244672
Sweeper, Susie; Halford, Kim
Relationship separation is associated with substantial adult adjustment problems. The Psychological Adjustment to Separation Test (PAST) was developed as a self-report measure of 3 key dimensions of separation adjustment problems: lonely negativity, ex-partner attachment and coparenting conflict. Two independent samples (n = 219 and n = 169, respectively) of recently separated adults, 60% of whom had children, completed the PAST and other measures of general adjustment. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated a replicable 3-factor structure, with each factor showing satisfactory test-retest and internal reliability and good convergent and discriminant validity. The PAST meets initial criteria for a potentially useful new measure of adult separation adjustment. PMID:17176198
Sommers, J; Vodanovich, S J
The relationship between boredom proneness and health-symptom reporting was examined. Undergraduate students (N = 200) completed the Boredom Proneness Scale and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. A multiple analysis of covariance indicated that individuals with high boredom-proneness total scores reported significantly higher ratings on all five subscales of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (Obsessive-Compulsive, Somatization, Anxiety, Interpersonal Sensitivity, and Depression). The results suggest that boredom proneness may be an important element to consider when assessing symptom reporting. Implications for determining the effects of boredom proneness on psychological- and physical-health symptoms. as well as the application in clinical settings, are discussed. PMID:10661377
Iwanami, Takuya; Kikuchi, Ayano; Kaneko, Takashi; Hirai, Keita; Yano, Natsumi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Tsumura, Norimichi; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Miyake, Yoichi
In this paper, we have clarified the relationship between ambient illumination and psychological factors in viewing of display images. Psychological factors were obtained by the factor analysis with the results of the semantic differential (SD) method. In the psychological experiments, subjects evaluated the impressions of displayed images with changing ambient illuminating conditions. The illumination conditions were controlled by a fluorescent ceiling light and a color LED illumination which was located behind the display. We experimented under two kinds of conditions. One was the experiment with changing brightness of the ambient illumination. The other was the experiment with changing the colors of the background illumination. In the results of the experiment, two factors "realistic sensation, dynamism" and "comfortable," were extracted under different brightness of the ambient illumination of the display surroundings. It was shown that the "comfortable" was improved by the brightness of display surroundings. On the other hand, when the illumination color of surroundings was changed, three factors "comfortable," "realistic sensation, dynamism" and "activity" were extracted. It was also shown that the value of "comfortable" and "realistic sensation, dynamism" increased when the display surroundings were illuminated by the average color of the image contents.
Schick, Matthis; Zumwald, Andre; Knöpfli, Bina; Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A.; Schnyder, Ulrich; Müller, Julia; Morina, Naser
Background Refugees have been shown to present high prevalence rates of trauma-related mental disorders. Despite their psychological impairment, they are expected to meet high functional requirements in terms of social integration into, and financial independence from, the host society. Methods This cross-sectional study examined the relationship of mental health problems, post-migration living difficulties (PMLD), and social integration in a sample of 104 refugees seeking treatment for severe posttraumatic stress and comorbid symptoms in two outpatient clinics in Switzerland. Results Despite an average time of residence in Switzerland of over 10 years, participants showed poor integration and a high number of PMLD. Integration difficulties were closely associated with psychological symptoms, but not with socio-demographic parameters such as education or visa status. Conclusions Psychological impairment in treatment-seeking traumatized refugees is associated with poor integration. To foster social integration, it is crucial to better understand and address the specific needs of this highly vulnerable population. PMID:26886484
Walter, Jeffrey P.; Yon, Kyu Jin; Skovholt, Thomas M.
The roles of previous psychological service use and social network variables in beliefs about psychological services were examined with 184 college students. Having friends and family members who used psychological services, being female, and having used psychological services positively related with beliefs about psychological services.…
Prince, Melvin; Burns, David J.; Manolis, Chris
The authors explore how the relationship between part-time master of business administration (MBA) students and their employers changes as students proceed through their MBA program by examining the degree to which students are integrated into their employer organizations. Significant positive relationships observed between students' progress…
Liu, Changyun; Zhou, Jianguang; Yang, Xuedong; Lv, Jiao; Shi, Yunxing; Zeng, Xiaohong
Objectives: We examined changes in sleep quality and architecture in patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) and the impacts of sleep disruption on patient physical and psychological health. Methods: Ninety-eight MHE patients were examined by polysomnography (PSG) and the Pittsburg sleep quality inventory (PSQI). In addition, patients completed the SAS, SDS, and SCL-90 to examine the relationship between sleep quality and psychological health. Results: Mean relative durations of Stage 1 and Stage 2, sleep latency, microarousal frequency, and total sleep time (TST) were all lower in MHE patients compared to healthy controls (P<0.05 for all). Similarly, SWS and REM stage durations, REM latency, sleep maintenance rate, and sleep efficiency were lower than controls (P<0.01 for all). Mean PSQI scores were lower in MHE patients. Total SAS, SDS, and SCL-90 scores, as well as all SCL-90 subscores, were significantly higher in the MHE group (P<0.05), indicating significant psychological dysfunction. Longer SWS, longer REM, and lower microarousal frequency were associated with improved sleep quality (P<0.05), while shorter SWS and REM led to dyssomnia and daytime functional disturbance (P<0.05, P<0.01). Longer REM latency and higher microarousal frequency were associated with higher PSQI scores (P<0.05, P<0.01), while longer SWS, longer REM, and higher sleep maintenance rate were associated with lower PSQI scores (P<0.05, P<0.01). Finally, total PSQI score and sleep efficiency subscore were positively correlated with total SCL-90 and most SCL-90 subscores (P<0.05). Conclusions: MHE patients suffer from multiple subjective dyssomnias and changes in sleep architecture that are strongly correlated with psychological dysfunction. PMID:26885103
Gan, Wan Ying; Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Zalilah, Mohd Shariff; Hazizi, Abu Saad
The mechanism linking biopsychosocial factors to disordered eating among university students is not well understood especially among Malaysians. This study aimed to examine the mediating role of psychological distress in the relationships between biopsychosocial factors and disordered eating among Malaysian university students. A self-administered questionnaire measured self-esteem, body image, social pressures to be thin, weight-related teasing, psychological distress, and disordered eating in 584 university students (59.4% females and 40.6% males). Body weight and height were measured. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that the partial mediation model provided good fit to the data. Specifically, the relationships between self-esteem and weight-related teasing with disordered eating were mediated by psychological distress. In contrast, only direct relationships between body weight status, body image, and social pressures to be thin with disordered eating were found and were not mediated by psychological distress. Furthermore, multigroup analyses indicated that the model was equivalent for both genders but not for ethnic groups. There was a negative relationship between body weight status and psychological distress for Chinese students, whereas this was not the case among Malay students. Intervention and prevention programs on psychological distress may be beneficial in reducing disordered eating among Malaysian university students. PMID:22885453
Herrera, Catherine J.; Owens, Gina P.; Mallinckrodt, Brent
An online survey was used to examine 45 Hispanic male veterans' traditional machismo and caballerismo as correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), psychological distress, and relationship satisfaction. Higher traditional machismo was associated with higher PTSD severity and distress and lower relationship satisfaction. Psychometric…
Yau, Hon Keung; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong
There are three dimensions through which to measure university support for students' transition to university life: academic adjustment, social adjustment and psychological adjustment. Previous research studies show that there are relationships among those adjustments. However, less is known about gender differences in these relationships.…
Zhang, Qin; Sapp, David A.
This research comprises two studies examining the antecedents and outcomes of psychological reactance in teacher requests in the instructional context. In Study 1 we investigated the mediating role of reactance in the relationship of perceived teacher request politeness and teacher-student relationship distance with student resistance intention.…
Shapiro, Adam; Lambert, James David
States that the effect of divorce on the quality of the father-child relationship and fathers' psychological well being is moderated by the residence of children. Divorce is associated with lower relationship quality only for nonresident fathers and is associated with a decline in happiness for nonresident fathers. Divorced fathers are more…
Adams, Danielle R.; Meyers, Steven A.; Beidas, Rinad S.
Objective: Financial strain may directly or indirectly (i.e., through perceived stress) impact students' psychological symptoms and academic and social integration, yet few studies have tested these relationships. The authors explored the mediating effect of perceived stress on the relationship between financial strain and 2 important outcomes:…
Hornung, Carlton A.; McCullough, B. Claire
Examines the consequences of inconsistency between individual's statuses and between his or her spouse's statuses, as well as incompatibilities between husbands' and wives' educational and occupational status. Results show status inconsistency and incompatibility to be important variables for explaining life and marital dissatisfaction. (Author)
Levant, Ronald F; Stefanov, Dimitre G; Rankin, Thomas J; Halter, Margaret J; Mellinger, Chris; Williams, Christine M
This study tested a theoretical model of one mediator and 4 moderators of the relationships between 2 masculinity variables (Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Gender Role Conflict) and Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Services (Attitudes). Self-stigma was the hypothesized mediator, and the hypothesized moderators were (a) Depression, (b) General Self-efficacy, (c) Precontemplation, and (d) Barriers to Help-seeking. A sample of 654 men responded to an online survey of 9 questionnaires. After evaluating mediation in the absence of moderation, moderated path analyses were conducted for each moderator. The relationship between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes was partially mediated by Self-stigma, whereas that between Gender Role Conflict and Attitudes was completely mediated. No indirect or direct paths involving Gender Role Conflict were moderated by any moderators. Both Depression and Barriers to Help-seeking demonstrated mediated moderation by moderating both Stage 1 (the path from Traditional Masculinity Ideology to Self-stigma) of the mediated relationships and the direct effects between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes. Precontemplation moderated the direct effect between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes. The findings suggest that the relationships between masculinity variables and men's negative help-seeking attitudes may be better understood through their relationships with other variables that serve as mediators and moderators. Findings from the present study may offer some direction in the design of interventions to remediate men's negative help-seeking attitudes. PMID:23668728
Hung, Humphry; Wong, Yiu Hing
Based on psychological contract theory and expectancy disconfirmation theory, we posit that if employers support their staff by endorsing their continuing education and training, these employees will in turn be more satisfied and will perform better not only in their studies but also in their jobs. We also propose that such an endorsement will…
Krch, F D; Rathner, G
Overweight is often mentioned in causal relationship with various psychological problems and a lack of self-control. 438 randomly chosen subjects (selected from electoral registers or by random walk method)--men and women from Prague and the countryside--were divided according to their body weight into two groups, one with BMI equal or lower that 25, the other one with BMI higher than 25. 92.2 per cent of the subjects were overweight, 8 per cent had BMI higher than 30. Comparison of the two groups with lower and higher body weight based on a self-report questionnaire (GHQ, CAGE and some other items) showed differences between men and women. In men, with growing body weight the self-control in food intake decreased and problems related to lack of self-control increased significantly (smoking, problems with alcohol). On the contrary, women with overweight reported higher self-control in food intake (dieting) and had less problems with alcohol. The relationship between psychological problems (depression, anxiety) and overweight was not unequivocally proved. Men with higher body weight reported significantly less somatic problems in the GHQ. They also suffered comparatively less from depression and anxiety. The overweight women showed slightly more anxiety and significantly higher social dysfunction than women with normal body weight. PMID:10358430
Kunikata, Hiroko; Shiraishi, Yuko; Nakajima, Kazuo; Tanioka, Tetsuya; Tomotake, Masahito
The purpose of this study was to demonstrate a causal model of the sense of having psychological comfortable space that is call 'ibasho' in Japanese and self-esteem in people with mental disorders who had difficulty in social activities. The subjects were 248 schizophrenia patients who were living in the community and receiving day care treatment. Data were collected from December 2007 to April 2009 using the Scale for the Sense of ibasho for persons with mentally ill (SSI) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and analyzed for cross-validation of construct validity by conducting covariance structure analysis. A relationship between the sense of having comfortable space and self-esteem was investigated. Multiple indicator models of the sense of having psychological comfortable space and self-esteem were evaluated using structural equation modeling. Furthermore, the SSI scores were compared between the high- and low-self-esteem groups. The path coefficient from the sense of having comfortable space to self-esteem was significant (0.80). High-self-esteem group scored significantly higher in the SSI subscales, 'the sense of recognizing my true self' and 'the sense of recognizing deep person-to-person relationships' than the low-self-esteem group. It was suggested that in order to help people with mental disorders improve self-esteem, it might be useful to support them in a way they can enhance the sense of having comfortable space. PMID:21372487
Hirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Hara, Michiya; Fujiwara, Akira; Hanada, Hirofumi; Morioka, Shu
BACKGROUND: Persistent postoperative pain has a significant relationship with patient health and satisfaction. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence and association of neglect-like symptoms (NLS) and other psychological factors on postoperative pain in patients following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). NLS are defined as the loss of perception of the limb with pain and excessive effort required to move the limb. The authors hypothesized that NLS were an important contributor to postoperative pain. METHODS: The factors influencing pain were investigated using a longitudinal study with assessments at three and six weeks postsurgery. The relationships among demographic factors (age, body weight, body mass index), psychological factors (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS]) and NLS with postoperative pain were investigated in 90 patients after TKA. The associations among motor functions (muscle strength of knee extension, range of motion), sensory functions (joint position sense and two-point discrimination in the thigh) and NLS were also investigated. RESULTS: At three and six weeks after surgery, 36% and 19% of patients, respectively, experienced NLS. In hierarchical multiple regression analysis, NLS and PCS scores were significantly associated with postoperative pain, while joint position sense and range of motion were significantly associated with NLS. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that facilitation of sensory integration is important in rehabilitation after TKA because NLS appears to result from impaired sensory integration. The association of PCS scores with postoperative pain and NLS suggests the need to provide appropriate postoperative education to reduce persistent negative thoughts regarding future pain. PMID:25101335
Roberts, Michael C; Ilardi, Stephen S; Johnson, Rebecca J
This study tested the folkloristic belief that doctoral degree recipients who pursue academic careers typically wind up at institutions ranked lower in prestige than the institutions at which they trained (the step-down thesis). We used a database of faculty members in 150 clinical psychology doctoral programs accredited by the American Psychological Association, and compared each faculty member's training institution with the current employing institution on three distinct reputation ranking systems: The Center (University of Florida, Gainesville) for overall university reputation, the National Research Council (Washington, DC) for doctoral degree department reputation, and the news magazine, U.S. News and World Report ranking for clinical psychology training program reputation. Although support for the step-down thesis was found across all three ranking systems, a disproportionately large number of professors were also observed to move laterally in terms of their employing institution's reputation. PMID:16541384
Construct Validity in Psychological Measurement; Proceedings of a Colloquium on Theory and Application in Education and Employment (Henry Chauncey Conference Center, Princeton, New Jersey, October 1979).
Office of Personnel Management, Washington, DC.
The stimulus for this colloquium was the convergence of several significant developments bearing on the construct validation of standardized tests and other assessment methods. Of these developments, some were fundamental to psychology as a science; others reflected socio-political pressures on measurement in education and employment. The ten…
O'Brien, Kerry S; Latner, Janet D; Puhl, Rebecca M; Vartanian, Lenny R; Giles, Claudia; Griva, Konstadina; Carter, Adrian
Weight stigma is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including disordered eating, but the psychological mechanisms underlying these associations are not well understood. The present study tested whether the association between weight stigma experiences and disordered eating behaviors (emotional eating, uncontrolled eating, and loss-of-control eating) are mediated by weight bias internalization and psychological distress. Six-hundred and thirty-four undergraduate university students completed an online survey assessing weight stigma, weight bias internalization, psychological distress, disordered eating, along with demographic characteristics (i.e., age, gender, weight status). Statistical analyses found that weight stigma was significantly associated with all measures of disordered eating, and with weight bias internalization and psychological distress. In regression and mediation analyses accounting for age, gender and weight status, weight bias internalization and psychological distress mediated the relationship between weight stigma and disordered eating behavior. Thus, weight bias internalization and psychological distress appear to be important factors underpinning the relationship between weight stigma and disordered eating behaviors, and could be targets for interventions, such as, psychological acceptance and mindfulness therapy, which have been shown to reduce the impact of weight stigma. The evidence for the health consequences resulting from weight stigma is becoming clear. It is important that health and social policy makers are informed of this literature and encouraged develop anti-weight stigma policies for school, work, and medical settings. PMID:26898319
Manne, Sharon L; Kissane, David; Zaider, Talia; Kashy, Deborah; Lee, David; Heckman, Carolyn; Virtue, Shannon Myers
The present study evaluated intimacy as a mechanism for the effects of holding back sharing concerns about cancer on couples' psychological distress, well-being, and marital satisfaction using the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM), and evaluated 2 possible moderators of these associations: the number of patient and spouse cancer concerns. We had 139 men treated for localized prostate cancer in the past year and their spouses complete surveys about holding back sharing cancer concerns, intimacy, distress, and relationship satisfaction, as well as patient and spouse cancer concerns. APIM-indicated that the association between holding back sharing concerns, and patient and spouse distress, well-being, and relationship satisfaction could be partially accounted for by their influence on patient and spouse perceptions of relationship intimacy. The number of cancer concerns did not moderate the mediational model. Holding back has strong associations with both partners' well-being and distress. Holding back sharing concerns was particularly detrimental for couples' intimacy and relationship satisfaction. PMID:26192132
Padham, Melissa; Aujla, Imogen
The Dualistic Model of Passion defines passion as an intense desire or enthusiasm for a self-defining activity that people love, consider important, and devote significant amounts of time and energy to. The model proposes two distinct types of passion, harmonious (HP) and obsessive (OP). HP occurs when the activity is autonomously internalized into the individual's life and identity, while OP is a result of a controlled internalization of the activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and type of passion professional dancers have for dance in relation to their psychological well-being, specifically eating attitudes, self-esteem, and perfectionism. Participants were 92 professional dancers, aged 19 to 35 years (M = 27.03, SD = 3.84), and mostly from the United States, the United Kingdom, and Canada. Results revealed that HP positively predicted self-esteem (SE), while OP positively predicted self-evaluative perfectionism (SEP), conscientious perfectionism (CP), and disordered eating attitudes (EAT-26). Additionally, SEP was found to mediate the relationship between OP and EAT-26, suggesting that OP may lead to SEP, which could in turn motivate disordered eating. Overall, the results of this study have supported and extended previous research suggesting that the two types of passion can have divergent effects on aspects of psychological well-being. Findings indicate that HP should be encouraged and OP discouraged among dancers, for example, via autonomy supportive behaviors of teachers. PMID:24568802
Nickerson, Angela; Steel, Zachary; Bryant, Richard; Brooks, Robert; Silove, Derrick
Policies of deterrence, including the use of detention and temporary visas, have been widely implemented to dissuade asylum seekers from seeking protection in Western countries. The present study examined the impact of visa status change on the mental health of 97 Mandaean refugees resettled in Australia. At the time of the first survey (2004), 68 (70%) participants held temporary protection visas (TPVs) and 29 (30%) held permanent residency (PR) status, whereas by the second survey (2007), 97 (100%) participants held PR status. We tested a meditational model to determine whether the relationship between change in visa status and change in psychological symptoms was mediated by change in living difficulties associated with the visa categories. The conversion of visa status from TPV to PR status was associated with significant improvements in PTSD and depression symptoms, and increases in mental health-related quality of life (MHR-QOL). The relationship between change in visa status and reduced PTSD and depression symptoms was mediated by reductions in living difficulties. In contrast, the relationship between change in visa status and increased MHR-QOL was not mediated by changes in living difficulties. These results suggest that restriction of rights and access to services related to visa status negatively affect the mental health of refugees. Implications for government policies regarding refugees are discussed. PMID:21296428
Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Mellish, Laura; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti
An increasing number of babies are being born using donated sperm, where the child lacks a genetic link to the father, or donated eggs, where the child lacks a genetic link to the mother. This study examined the impact of telling children about their donor conception on mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction and child adjustment were administered to 32 egg donation, 36 donor insemination and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. Although no differences were found for maternal negativity or child adjustment, mothers in non-disclosing gamete donation families showed less positive interaction than mothers in natural conception families suggesting families may benefit from openness about the child’s genetic origins. PMID:21401244
Golombok, Susan; Zadeh, Sophie; Imrie, Susan; Smith, Venessa; Freeman, Tabitha
Fifty-one solo mother families were compared with 52 two-parent families all with a 4-9-year-old child conceived by donor insemination. Standardized interview, observational and questionnaire measures of maternal wellbeing, mother-child relationships and child adjustment were administered to mothers, children and teachers. There were no differences in parenting quality between family types apart from lower mother-child conflict in solo mother families. Neither were there differences in child adjustment. Perceived financial difficulties, child's gender, and parenting stress were associated with children's adjustment problems in both family types. The findings suggest that solo motherhood, in itself, does not result in psychological problems for children. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26866836
Fifty-one solo mother families were compared with 52 two-parent families all with a 4–9-year-old child conceived by donor insemination. Standardized interview, observational and questionnaire measures of maternal wellbeing, mother–child relationships and child adjustment were administered to mothers, children and teachers. There were no differences in parenting quality between family types apart from lower mother–child conflict in solo mother families. Neither were there differences in child adjustment. Perceived financial difficulties, child’s gender, and parenting stress were associated with children’s adjustment problems in both family types. The findings suggest that solo motherhood, in itself, does not result in psychological problems for children. PMID:26866836
Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti
Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction, and child adjustment were administered to 32 surrogacy, 32 egg donation, and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. No differences were found for maternal negativity, maternal positivity, or child adjustment, although the surrogacy and egg donation families showed less positive mother-child interaction than the natural conception families. The findings suggest that both surrogacy and egg donation families function well in the early school years. PMID:21895360
Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Mellish, Laura; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti
An increasing number of babies are being born using donated sperm, where the child lacks a genetic link to the father, or donated eggs, where the child lacks a genetic link to the mother. This study examined the impact of telling children about their donor conception on mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction, and child adjustment were administered to 32 egg donation, 36 donor insemination, and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. Although no differences were found for maternal negativity or child adjustment, mothers in nondisclosing gamete donation families showed less positive interaction than mothers in natural conception families, suggesting that families may benefit from openness about the child's genetic origins. PMID:21401244
Brumsey, Ayesha Delany; Joseph, Nataria T; Myers, Hector F; Ullman, Jodie B; Wyatt, Gail E
This study investigated the association between cumulative exposure to multiple traumatic events and psychological distress, as mediated by problematic substance use and impaired psychosocial resources. A sample of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women were assessed for a history of childhood and adult sexual abuse and non-sexual trauma as predictors of psychological distress (i.e., depression, non-specific anxiety, and posttraumatic stress), as mediated by problematic alcohol and drug use and psychosocial resources (i.e., social support, self-esteem and optimism). Structural equation modeling confirmed that cumulative trauma exposure is positively associated with greater psychological distress, and that this association is partially mediated through impaired psychosocial resources. However, although cumulative trauma was associated with greater problematic substance use, substance use did not mediate the relationship between trauma and psychological distress. PMID:24587871
Játiva, Raquel; Cerezo, M Angeles
The objectives of the present study were to analyze the relationship between victimization and psychological maladjustment in adolescents and the role of self-compassion as a mediator in this relationship. The sample was composed of 109 adolescents aged from 15 to 18 years old with poor school performance. The participants filled out a battery of questionnaires made up of: a socio-demographic data questionnaire; the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ); the Youth Self-Report (YSR); and the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS). Results indicated that victimization was positively associated with psychological maladjustment. Moreover, adolescents reporting poly-victimization showed significantly higher level of psychological maladjustment and different types of victimization show different effects on adolescents' psychological maladjustment. Self-compassion partially mediated the relationship between victimization and psychological maladjustment and reduced negative consequences in adolescents who reported having been victimized. Adolescence is a time of development and search for identity in which strengthening personal protective factors could help overcome any traumas experienced. Therefore, developing self-compassion in adolescence could be a good way to help young people recover from bad experiences and protect themselves against future negative experiences. As self-compassion can be improved with practice it could be included in adolescent intervention and prevention programs. PMID:24811571
Alcover, Carlos-María; Martínez-Iñigo, David; Chambel, Maria José
Working conditions in call/contact centers influence employees' perceptions of their relations with the organization and their attitudes to work. Such perceptions can be analyzed through the psychological contract. The association between the relational/transactional orientation of the psychological contract and intention to quit the organization was examined, as well as the mediating role of affective commitment in employment relations. Data were collected from 973 employees in a cross-sectional survey. Analysis confirmed that there was a statistically significant relation between the orientation of the psychological contract and intention to quit, which was positive for transactionally oriented and negative for relationally oriented contracts. A mediating role for affective commitment was also confirmed, and a full mediating effect was reported for both orientations. PMID:22897088
Bonifacci, Paola; Storti, Michele; Tobia, Valentina; Suardi, Alessandro
Despite their ascertained neurobiological origin, specific learning disorders (SLD) often have been found to be associated with some emotional disturbances in children, and there is growing interest in the environmental and contextual variables that may modulate children's developmental trajectories. The present study was aimed at evaluating the psychological profile of parents and children and the relationships between their measures. Parents of children with SLD (17 couples, 34 participants) and parents of children with typical development (17 couples, 34 participants) were administered questionnaires assessing parenting styles, reading history, parenting stress, psychopathological indexes, and evaluations of children's anxiety and depression. Children (N = 34, 10.7 ± 1.2 years) were assessed with self-evaluation questionnaires on anxiety, depression, and self-esteem and with a scale assessing their perception of parents' qualities. Results showed that parents of children with SLD have higher parental distress, poorer reading history, and different parenting styles compared to parents of children with TD; there were no differences in psychopathological indexes. The SLD group also rated their children as more anxious and depressed. Children with SLD had lower scholastic and interpersonal self-esteem, but they report ratings of parents' qualities similar to those of TD children. Relationships between parents' and children's measures were further explored. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:25609675
Arulrajah, Annette Ananthi; Harun, Lily Mastura Haji
The aim of this study was to: (a) explore the levels of four factors (psychological well-being, perceived stress, coping styles, and social support) among undergraduates; (b) acquire an accurate description of the demographic variables; (c) explore the relationships among the four factors after controlling for the possible intervening demographic…
Racine, Elizabeth F.; DeBate, Rita D.; Gabriel, Kelley P.; High, Robin R.
Background: Media use is associated with an increased risk of chronic disease and reduced quality of life among children. This study examined the relationship between media use during discretionary hours after school and psychological and physical assets among preadolescent girls. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using data from a…
Sarkova, Maria; Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Katreniakova, Zuzana; van den Heuvel, Wim; van Dijk, Jitse P.
Background: The school environment has shown itself to be an important factor in explaining adolescent behaviour. The relationships and experiences that pupils have at school have been found to influence their development, psychological well-being, self-esteem and social adjustment. Purpose: The aim of the study is to explore whether there is a…
Williamson, Sara; Craig, Jaime; Slinger, Richard
This exploratory study examines the relationships between self-esteem and psychological adjustment among 19 adolescents with Asperger syndrome and 19 typically developing adolescents using a model developed by Harter. The groups were matched for age (mean 13 years), sex (M:F 16:3) and ethnicity (white British). Participants completed four…
Dinizulu, Sonya Mathies; Grant, Kathryn E.; Bryant, Fred B.; Boustani, Maya M.; Tyler, Donald; McIntosh, Jeanne M.
Background: African American youth residing in urban poverty have been shown to be at increased risk for exposure to violence and for psychological symptoms, but there has been little investigation of mediating processes that might explain this association. Objectives: This study tested the quality of parent-adolescent relationships and adolescent…
Rueger, Sandra Yu; Malecki, Christine Kerres; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick
The current study investigated gender differences in the relationship between sources of perceived support (parent, teacher, classmate, friend, school) and psychological and academic adjustment in a sample of 636 (49% male) middle school students. Longitudinal data were collected at two time points in the same school year. The study provided…
Pieterse, Alex L.; Carter, Robert T.
This study explored the relationship among general life stress, racism-related stress, and psychological health in a sample of 220 Black men. Participants completed a personal data form, the Perceived Stress Scale (S. Cohen, T. Kamarck, & R. Mermelstein, 1983), a modified version of the Schedule of Racist Events (H. Landrine & E. A. Klonoff,…
Reynolds, Amy L.; Weigand, Matthew J.
This study examined the relationships among academic and psychological attitudes and academic achievement of first-year students. The College Resilience Scale, the Academic Motivation Scale, the College Self-Efficacy Inventory, and the University Environment Scale were administered to 164 first-year undergraduate students enrolled at a large RU/VH…
van Damme, Maike; Kalmijn, Matthijs
The specialization theory from Gary Becker is often used to explain the effect of women's work on the risk of divorce. The main argument is that women with little work experience have higher economic costs to exit marriage. Using the Fertility and Family Surveys, we test for 16 countries to what extent women's employment increases the risk of separation. We also more directly examine the role of economic exit costs in separation by investigating the effect of separated women's work history during the union on women's post-separation employment. The results imply that Becker was right to some extent, especially in contexts with little female employment support. However, in settings where women's employment opportunities are more ample, sociological or psychological theories have probably more explanatory power to explain the causes and consequences of union dissolution. PMID:25131289
Sellers, Robert M.; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Martin, Pamela P.; Lewis, R. L'Heureux
This study examines the interrelationships among racial discrimination, racial identity, and psychological functioning in a sample of 314 African American adolescents. Racial discrimination was associated with lower levels of psychological functioning as measured by perceived stress, depressive symptomatology, and psychological well-being.…
Moussas, G I; Papadopoulou, A G; Christodoulaki, A G; Karkanias, A P
, affect body image and cause feelings of embarrassment with severe consequences on the patient's sense of wellbeing, his or her daily activities, interpersonal relationships or sexuality. Depressive symptoms often occur in prodromal stages of pancreatic cancer. Depression is a common diagnosis in patients with prostate cancer. Prostatectomy negatively affects patient's self-esteem, because it might be experienced as a threat to his sexual life. Disfigurement is related to skin cancer because of both cancer and surgical procedures. Therefore, it is a challenge for modern psycho-oncology to identify those patients who are vulnerable in developing psychiatric symptoms, to early diagnose anxiety and depression and to use psychotherapeutic interventions targeting individual psychological and psychiatric problems in relation to the localization of disease in the human body. PMID:22549040
A psychometric evaluation of adult patients with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus: prevalence of psychological dysfunction and relationship to demographic variables, metabolic control and complications.
Winocour, P H; Main, C J; Medlicott, G; Anderson, D C
The relationship between psychosocial traits and glycaemic control and complications was examined in 130 adults (83 men, 47 women) with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Abnormal depression ratings were observed in more women (19.1%) than men (12.0%), p less than 0.01, whilst obsessive symptoms were recorded more frequently in men (41.0 v 21.3%, p less than 0.01). Abnormal anxiety ratings were present in roughly 8-13% of men and women, although a notably low feeling of insecurity rating was observed more frequently in men (56.5%) than in women (38.3% of cases), p less than 0.05. Psychological scores were related to age, employment status and social class, but not to duration of diabetes or glycaemic control. The anxiety, depression and obsessive ratings correlated with one another (rs range 0.24-0.62, all p less than 0.001). Higher anxiety and depression ratings or overt psychological dysfunction was recorded in patients with neuropathic symptoms and signs, impotence, macrovascular disease or proliferative retinopathy. It is concluded that the presence of diabetic complications and adverse social circumstances are more relevant to psychological status than glycaemic control. PMID:2132190
Lambert, V A; Lambert, C E; Klipple, G L; Mewshaw, E A
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among hardiness, social support, severity of illness, and psychological well-being in women with rheumatoid arthritis who were being seen on an outpatient basis. Questionnaires were administered, to 122 women, assessing hardiness, social support, and psychological well-being. Severity of illness was determined by assessment of joint function, sedimentation rates, and length of morning stiffness. Significant correlations were found between (a) hardiness and the number of persons in the social support system, (b) hardiness and satisfaction with social support, (c) hardiness and psychological well-being, (d) the number of persons in the social support system and satisfaction with social support, (e) the number of persons in the social support system and joint function, (f) satisfaction with social support and psychological well-being, and (g) length of morning stiffness and psychological well-being. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that satisfaction with social support, hardiness, and length of morning stiffness (in that order) were the best predictors of psychological well-being. The findings suggest that these three factors play a significant role in the identification of women with rheumatoid arthritis who are more able to cope with the stressful ramifications of their disease. PMID:2324026
Demsky, Caitlin A; Ellis, Allison M; Fritz, Charlotte
The current study investigates workplace aggression and psychological detachment from work as possible antecedents of work-family conflict. We draw upon Conservation of Resources theory and the Effort-Recovery Model to argue that employees who fail to psychologically detach from stressful events in the workplace experience a relative lack of resources that is negatively associated with functioning in the nonwork domain. Further, we extend prior research on antecedents of work-family conflict by examining workplace aggression, a prevalent workplace stressor. Utilizing multisource data (i.e., employee, significant other, and coworker reports), our findings indicate that self-reported psychological detachment mediates the relationship between coworker-reported workplace aggression and both self- and significant other-reported work-family conflict. Findings from the current study speak to the value of combining perspectives from research on recovery from work stress and the work-family interface, and point toward implications for research and practice. PMID:24635738
Park, YoungAh; Fritz, Charlotte; Jex, Steve M
Employees can have difficulty mentally distancing themselves from work during off-job time due to increasing use of communication technologies (e.g., e-mail, cell phone, etc.). However, psychological detachment from work during nonwork time is important for employee recovery and health. This study examined several antecedents of psychological detachment: work-home segmentation preference, perceived segmentation norm, and the use of communication technology at home. Results indicate that segmentation preference and segmentation norm were positively associated with psychological detachment. Further, technology use at home partially mediated these relationships. Findings indicate that segmenting work and nonwork roles can help employees detach and recover from work demands. In addition, findings show that the segmentation norm within a work group is associated with employee experiences outside of work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:21728434
Mutumba, Massy; Musiime, Victor; Lepkwoski, James M; Harper, Gary W; Snow, Rachel C; Resnicow, Ken; Bauermeister, Jose A
Psychological distress is common among adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) worldwide, and has been associated with non-adherence to anti-retroviral therapy (ART), leading to poor virologic suppression, drug resistance, and increased risk for AIDS morbidity and mortality. However, only a few studies have explored the relationship between psychological distress and ART adherence among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. The paper examines the relationship between psychological distress and ART adherence, and effect of psychosocial resources on ART adherence. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 464 ALHIV (aged 12-19; 53% female) seeking HIV care at a large HIV treatment center in Kampala, Uganda. ALHIV were recruited during routine clinic visits. Three self-reported binary adherence measures were utilized: missed pills in the past three days, non-adherence to the prescribed medical regimen, and self-rated adherence assessed using a visual analog scale. Psychological distress was measured as a continuous variable, and computed as the mean score on a locally developed and validated 25-item symptom checklist for Ugandan ALHIV. Psychosocial resources included spirituality, religiosity, optimism, social support, and coping strategies. After adjusting for respondents' socio-demographic characteristics and psychosocial resources, a unit increase in psychological distress was associated with increased odds of missing pills in past 3 days (Odds Ratio(OR) = 1.75; Confidence Interval (CI): 1.04-2.95), not following the prescribed regimen (OR = 1.63; CI: 1.08-2.46), and lower self-rated adherence (OR = 1.79; CI: 1.19-2.69). Psychosocial resources were associated with lower odds for non-adherence on all three self-report measures. There is a need to strengthen the psychosocial aspects of adolescent HIV care by developing interventions to identify and prevent psychological distress among Ugandan ALHIV. PMID:27294696
Raver, C Cybele
This longitudinal study examined quantity and quality of maternal employment as predictors of depressive symptoms and parenting style in a sample of 94 low-income mothers whose 4-year-old children were enrolled in Head Start at baseline. Results suggest that answers to the question of whether work "pays" are complex: Findings suggest some benefits of greater employment participation while also indicating that women holding lower prestige jobs experienced increases in their use of negative parenting style, net of baseline demographic and psychological characteristics. Sparse evidence for selection processes was found, with cohabitation and maternal depressive symptoms modestly predictive of subsequent maternal employment. Implications of these findings for welfare reform and educationally related policies for low-income families are discussed. PMID:14669892
Allen, Michael T; Bocek, Christine M; Burch, Ashley E
The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships of perceived background stress and self-reported psychological distress on cardiovascular reactivity during acute laboratory stressors. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was used as the measure of perceived background stress, and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was used as the measure of psychological distress. A secondary aim was to examine whether background stress and psychological distress affected the susceptibility to induction of a negative mood using music. Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were measured in 149 female and male college students at rest and during a stressful mental arithmetic (MA) task and a mood induction procedure. Higher scores on the GHQ were associated with lower systolic BP reactivity during the MA task by all participants. Higher scores on the PSS and GHQ were also associated with lower diastolic BP and HR reactivity, but only in females. Thus, higher self-reports of background stress and psychological distress tended to result in blunted reactivity to an acute laboratory challenge. Higher levels of background stress and psychological distress were not associated with greater susceptibility to a negative mood induction. This study adds to the growing literature indicating that potentially negative health outcomes may be associated with diminished cardiovascular reactivity under certain conditions. PMID:21729723
Totura, Christine M Wienke; Karver, Marc S; Gesten, Ellis L
Peer victimization is a well-known national and international problem, contributing to a range of emotional, social, and behavioral consequences. Using structural equation modeling, the authors tested a theoretical model suggesting that psychological distress and student engagement mediate the association between the experience of victimization and concurrent academic achievement. Participants were 469 (46.4 % male, 53.6 % female) 6th to 8th grade students, from randomly selected classrooms in 11 middle schools in a southeastern school district. Structural equation models of the hypothesized effects demonstrated adequate fit to the data, with both symptoms of psychological distress and engagement mediating the relationship between victimization and academic achievement. In general, the results suggest that victimization predicts diminished academic achievement by way of psychological distress and poorer engagement in classroom and academic tasks. However, the direct relationship between victimization and measures of achievement lacked significance across many correlational and path analyses conducted. These findings have implications for researchers and practitioners in understanding how psychological distress and student engagement are associated with the academic performance of students who experience peer victimization. PMID:23377991
Wen, Li; Jiang, Guangbin; Zhang, Xiaoming; Lai, Ruiping; Wen, Xiaoyi
Previously, acne and its effects on psychological well-being have mostly been studied unilaterally in the western population. This study was aimed to investigate bidirectional relationship between acne and stress using Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check (ASLEC) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) surveys from inhabitants of central China. An on-line survey of 2,284 high school and college students from central China was conducted using three questionnaires posted on Chinese professional survey website, the Questionnaire Web. The prevalence and severity of acne were determined using the Pillsbury grading, whereas, the role of stress in acne formation was ascertained by the ASLEC scale. The HADS was employed to assess the psychological well-being. A total of 50.61 % of high school and college students in central China were found to be suffering from acne for more than 6 months, and 19.72 % of them were graded as having severe acne. Negative life events were found to accelerate the occurrence and exacerbation of the condition. Acne-affected groups showed significantly higher HADS-A (HADS-anxiety) and HADS-D (HADS-depression) scores than the controls (7.31 and 7.28 vs. 4.37 and 3.85, respectively; p < 0.01). Despite the apparent neglect of acne in Chinese high school and college students, a close bidirectional relationship was found to exist between stress and acne. It is incumbent on the healthcare professional to introduce school-based educational programs to help students with knowledge and management of acne and prevent the consequent psychological disorders. PMID:25331674
Goodmon, Leilani B.; Middleditch, Ashlea M.; Childs, Bethany; Pietrasiuk, Stacey E.
The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of a positive psychology course on student well-being, depressive symptoms, and stress in a repeated measure, nonequivalent control design. As hypothesized, the positive psychology students reported higher overall happiness, life satisfaction, routes to happiness, and lower depressive…
Thomas, Amanda Garland
The purpose of this study was to understand the extent to which students' psychological sense of community was influenced by IM use using the psychological sense of community theoretical framework created by McMillan and Chavis (1986), and the student development theoretical frameworks created by Schlossberg (1989) and Astin (1984). Thus, this…
... pneumoconiosis was employed for ten years or more in one or more coal mines, there shall be a rebuttable... from pneumoconiosis was employed less than ten years in the nation's coal mines, it shall be...
... pneumoconiosis was employed for ten years or more in one or more coal mines, there shall be a rebuttable... from pneumoconiosis was employed less than ten years in the nation's coal mines, it shall be...
... pneumoconiosis was employed for ten years or more in one or more coal mines, there shall be a rebuttable... from pneumoconiosis was employed less than ten years in the nation's coal mines, it shall be...
Purpose. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the hypothetical model based on structural relationship with the occupational dysfunction on psychological problems (stress response, burnout syndrome, and depression) in healthcare workers. Method. Three cross sectional studies were conducted to assess the following relations: (1) occupational dysfunction on stress response (n = 468), (2) occupational dysfunction on burnout syndrome (n = 1,142), and (3) occupational dysfunction on depression (n = 687). Personal characteristics were collected through a questionnaire (such as age, gender, and job category, opportunities for refreshment, time spent on leisure activities, and work relationships) as well as the Classification and Assessment of Occupational Dysfunction (CAOD). Furthermore, study 1 included the Stress Response Scale-18 (SRS-18), study 2 used the Japanese Burnout Scale (JBS), and study 3 employed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and path analysis of structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis were used in all of the studies. EFA and CFA were used to measure structural validity of four assessments; CAOD, SRS-18, JBS, and CES-D. For examination of a potential covariate, we assessed the correlation of the total and factor score of CAOD and personal factors in all studies. Moreover, direct and indirect effects of occupational dysfunction on stress response (Study 1), burnout syndrome (Study 2), and depression (Study 3) were also analyzed. Results. In study 1, CAOD had 16 items and 4 factors. In Study 2 and 3, CAOD had 16 items and 5 factors. SRS-18 had 18 items and 3 factors, JBS had 17 items and 3 factors, and CES-D had 20 items and 4 factors. All studies found that there were significant correlations between the CAOD total score and the personal factor that included opportunities for refreshment, time spent on leisure
Teraoka, Mutsumi; Kyougoku, Makoto
Purpose. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the hypothetical model based on structural relationship with the occupational dysfunction on psychological problems (stress response, burnout syndrome, and depression) in healthcare workers. Method. Three cross sectional studies were conducted to assess the following relations: (1) occupational dysfunction on stress response (n = 468), (2) occupational dysfunction on burnout syndrome (n = 1,142), and (3) occupational dysfunction on depression (n = 687). Personal characteristics were collected through a questionnaire (such as age, gender, and job category, opportunities for refreshment, time spent on leisure activities, and work relationships) as well as the Classification and Assessment of Occupational Dysfunction (CAOD). Furthermore, study 1 included the Stress Response Scale-18 (SRS-18), study 2 used the Japanese Burnout Scale (JBS), and study 3 employed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and path analysis of structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis were used in all of the studies. EFA and CFA were used to measure structural validity of four assessments; CAOD, SRS-18, JBS, and CES-D. For examination of a potential covariate, we assessed the correlation of the total and factor score of CAOD and personal factors in all studies. Moreover, direct and indirect effects of occupational dysfunction on stress response (Study 1), burnout syndrome (Study 2), and depression (Study 3) were also analyzed. Results. In study 1, CAOD had 16 items and 4 factors. In Study 2 and 3, CAOD had 16 items and 5 factors. SRS-18 had 18 items and 3 factors, JBS had 17 items and 3 factors, and CES-D had 20 items and 4 factors. All studies found that there were significant correlations between the CAOD total score and the personal factor that included opportunities for refreshment, time spent on leisure
Murray, Regan L.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Walton, Maureen A.; Winters, Jamie; Booth, Brenda M.; Blow, Frederic C.
Objective: This study focused on the prevalence and predictors of psychological aggression, physical aggression, and injury rates in nonintimate partner relationships in a substance-use disorder treatment sample. Method: The sample included 489 (76% men, 24% women) participants who completed screening measures for inclusion in a randomized control trial for an aggression-prevention treatment. Primary outcome measures included rates of past-year psychological aggression, physical aggression, and injury (both from the participant to nonpartners and from nonpartners to the participant). Potential predictors included individual factors (e.g., age, gender), developmental factors (e.g., family history of drug use, childhood physical abuse), and recent factors (e.g., depression, cocaine use). Results: Rates of participant-tononpartner psychological aggression (83%), physical aggression (61%), and injury (47%) were high, as were rates of nonpartner-to-participant aggression. Bivariate analyses revealed significant relationships between the aggression outcomes and most of the individual, developmental, and recent factors. However, multivariate analyses (zero-inflated Poisson regression) revealed that age, treatment status, current symptoms of depression, heavy periods of drinking, and cocaine use were related most frequently to the occurrence of aggression to and from nonpartners. Conclusions: Nonpartner aggression may be as common within a substance-use disorder sample as partner aggression, and it is associated with heavy drinking episodes, cocaine use, and depressive symptoms. The findings highlight the need for the development of effective violence interventions addressing violence in nonpartner relationship types. PMID:18925348
Danaci, A E; Oruç, S; Adigüzel, H; Yildirim, Y; Aydemir, O
Women may experience some mental and sexual problems between the ages of 40 years and 60 years due to serious changes in the hormonal system. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the changes in sex hormones, sexual behaviours, depression and anxiety levels of women who were in either the premenopausal, perimenopausal or postmenopausal period. The subjects of this cross-sectional study consisted of 324 women who attended the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Out-Patient Ward of Celal Bayar University Hospital. Of this group, 37.0% (n = 124) were postmenopausal, 27.2% (n = 84) perimenopausal and 35.8% (n = 116) premenopausal. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State and Trait Anxiety Inventories (STAI-I and II) and a questionnaire on sexual behaviour which was prepared for this study by the authors, were applied to all of the attendees and serum sex hormone levels were analyzed. Beck Depression Anxiety, STAI-I and STAI-II scores and sexual behaviours did not show any statistically significant difference among these three groups. The frequency of sexual intercourse was lower in women with high BDI scores. The rate of painful intercourse was higher in women with high STAI-I scores. The frequency of sexual intercourse, sexual desire and orgasm decreased and painful intercourse increased in women with high STAI-II scores. The frequency of sexual intercourse decreased significantly as the age or follicle stimulating hormone level of women increased. These findings have revealed that the menopausal state did not affect the sexual behaviour, and psychological state of women between the ages of 40 and 60 years, but the increase in anxiety and depression scores affected the sexual life in a negative manner. PMID:12806751
Obasi, Ezemenari M; Brooks, Jessica J; Cavanagh, Lucia
Few studies have sought to understand the concurrent relationship between cognitive and affective processes on alcohol use and negative alcohol-related consequences, despite both being identified as predictive risk factors in the college population. More research is needed to understand the relationships between identified factors of problem drinking among this at-risk population. The purpose of this study was to test if the relationship between psychological distress and problem drinking among university students (N = 284; M-age = 19.77) was mediated by negative affect regulation strategies and positive alcohol-related expectancies. Two latent mediation models of problem drinking were tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). The parsimonious three-path mediated latent model was supported by the data, as evidenced by several model fit indices. Furthermore, the alternate saturated model provided similar fit to the data, but contained several direct relationships that were not statistically significant. The relationship between psychological distress and problem drinking was mediated by an extended contributory chain, including negative affect regulation and positive alcohol-related expectancies. Implications for prevention and treatment, as well as future directions, are discussed. PMID:26311191
Obasi, Ezemenari M.; Brooks, Jessica J.; Cavanagh, Lucia
Few studies have sought to understand the concurrent relationship between cognitive and affective processes on alcohol use and negative alcohol-related consequences, despite both being identified as predictive risk factors in the college population. More research is needed to understand the relationships between identified factors of problem drinking among this at-risk population. The purpose of this study was to test if the relationship between psychological distress and problem drinking among university students (N = 284; M̄age = 19.77) was mediated by negative affect regulation strategies and positive alcohol-related expectancies. Two latent mediation models of problem drinking were tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). The parsimonious three-path mediated latent model was supported by the data, as evidenced by several model fit indices. Furthermore, the alternate saturated model provided similar fit to the data, but contained several direct relationships that were not statistically significant. The relationship between psychological distress and problem drinking was mediated by an extended contributory chain, including negative affect regulation and positive alcohol-related expectancies. Implications for prevention and treatment, as well as future directions, are discussed. PMID:26311191