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Ratings of job satisfaction and psychological health (self-esteem, stigma, loneliness, and aspirations) were obtained from 31 workers (ages 18 to 41) with a mild intellectual disability. The workers, all in competitive employment settings in Australia, reported they were "happy" with their jobs. Only partial support was found for a "spillover"
The paper is a multidisciplinary collaboration between contract law, employment law and management scholars and draws from the fields of law, management, and psychology. After reviewing and noting the gaps in the employment and justice literatures, this paper presents the findings of a survey of 763 participants to measure whether certain variablesprocedural and substantive fairness, as well as educating employees
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to compare knowledge employees' perceptions of contingent work with their managers' perceptions, highlighting potential differences in their respective psychological contracts which might produce dissonance in the employmentrelationship. Design\\/methodology\\/approach Original research using interviews and scalar data of both contingent knowledge workers and their managers are reported. The study sample consists of
This paper explores the information-seeking behaviors newcomers engage in relating to their psychological contract and addresses the impact of work values (autonomy, advancement, group orientation and economic rewards) and work locus of control (LOC). We propose that these individual characteristics could explain differences in the frequency with which newcomers search for information about the promises their employer has made to
The manuscript is a interdisciplinary collaboration between contract law, employment law and management scholars and draws from the fields of law, management, and psychology. One of the authors is currently Editor-in-Chief of the top-tier level ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT JOURNAL. Because of his nationally-recognized expertise, the survey and statistical analysis is of the highest order.\\u000aAfter reviewing and noting the gaps
Examines the changing employmentrelationship between organizations and their staff. Analyses the relationship in terms of five contractual areas knowledge requirements, psychological needs, efficiency demands, job design and ethical relations. Describes how a number of these informal contracts have become overweighted in favour of one partner to the contract the employer, how each of the contract areas can
What sort of report you would like from you provider of psychological services may depend a great deal on your department's position on a number of variables. These variables include the number of applicants per hiring slot, concern over litigation, amount of weight given to psychological testing in the hiring process, and how the department views the psychological assessment. Ordinarily,
The authors surveyed 347 public sector employees on 4 measurement occasions to investigate the conceptual distinctiveness of the psychological contract and perceived organizational support (POS) and how they are associated over time. Results support the distinctiveness of the 2 concepts. In terms of their interrelationships over time, by drawing on psychological contract theory the authors found little support for a reciprocal relationship between POS and psychological contract fulfillment. Under an alternative set of hypotheses, by drawing on organizational support theory and by separating psychological contract fulfillment into its 2 components (perceived employer obligations and inducements), the authors found that perceived employer inducements were positively related to POS, which, in turn, was negatively related to perceived employer obligations. The results suggest that POS and the components of psychological contract fulfillment are more important in predicting organizational citizenship behavior than psychological contract fulfillment. PMID:16060794
Suggestions for improving the employability of bachelor's-level psychology graduates are offered, based in part on practices at Creighton University, Nebraska. One approach is to provide training in specific skills useful in the employment setting, including: biofeedback training; independent study in computer work and a psychology field;
Discusses relationship problems between psychology and education, sources of potential conflict between research and practice, and how a conceptual framework for better communication between education and psychology may be evolved. Educational psychologists should work to avoid estrangement of psychology from education through promoting mutual
Objective: This research examined links between adolescents' experiences of psychological and physical relationship aggression and their psychological distress. Experiences of psychological and physical aggression were expected to correlate positively with symptoms of psychological distress, but experiences of psychological aggression were
Jouriles, Ernest N.; Garrido, Edward; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee
The authors assessed the joint perceptions of the employee and his or her employer to examine mutuality and reciprocity in the employmentrelationship. Paired psychological contract reports were obtained from 80 employee-employer dyads in 16 university-based research centers. On the basis of in-depth study of the research setting, research directors were identified as primary agents for the university (employer) in shaping the terms of employment of staff scientists (employees). By assessing the extent of consistency between employee and employer beliefs regarding their exchange agreement, the present study mapped the variation and consequences of mutuality and reciprocity in psychological contracts. Results indicate that both mutuality and reciprocity are positively related to archival indicators of research productivity and career advancement, in addition to self-reported measures of Met Expectations and intention to continue working with the employer. Implications for psychological contract theory are presented. PMID:14769120
The authors assessed the joint perceptions of the employee and his or her employer to examine mutuality and reciprocity in the employmentrelationship. Paired psychological contract reports were obtained from 80 employee-employer dyads in 16 university-based research centers. On the basis of in-depth study of the research setting, research directors were identified as primary agents for the university (employer) in
This study investigated the relationship of psychological distress to mothers' perceptions of their 3- and 4-year-old children using data gathered from a sample of 111 single employed black mothers with low income. Findings revealed that parenting a boy child was associated with higher levels of depressive symptomatology, which, in turn, was associated with more negative perceptions of children, especially boys.
The Changing EmploymentRelationships Project examined the importance of good employmentrelationships for workers, employers, and public policy. A nationally representative sample of 2,500 employed Canadians was surveyed, and 8 focus groups were conducted. The research findings were analyzed to explain the multidimensional nature of the
The UK National Health Service (NHS) is facing recruitment challenges that mean it will need to become an 'employer of choice' if it is to continue to attract high-quality employees. This paper reports the findings from a study focusing on allied health professional staff (n = 67), aimed at establishing the expectations of the NHS inherent in their current psychological contract and to consider whether the government's drive to make the NHS a model employer meets those expectations. The findings show that the most important aspects of the psychological contract were relational and based on the investment made in the employmentrelationship by both parties. The employmentrelationship was one of high involvement but also one where transactional contract items, such as pay, were still of some importance. Although the degree of employee satisfaction with the relational content of the psychological contract was relatively positive, there was, nevertheless, a mismatch between levels of importance placed on such aspects of the contract and levels of satisfaction, with employees increasingly placing greater emphasis on those items the NHS is having the greatest difficulty providing. Despite this apparent disparity between employee expectation and the fulfilment of those expectations, the overall health of the psychological contract was still high. PMID:17524221
This study was designed to identify possible predictors of psychological abuse in non-marital heterosexual romantic relationships. In attempting to predict who would self-identify as being psychologically abused, we investigated a number of variables including psychological abuse in past close relationships, psychological abuse within the family of origin, self-esteem, and characteristics of the current relationship, including seriousness and duration of the
The past two decades have witnessed demographic, social, and economic changes that have affected the nature of psychology. The Committee on Employment and Human Resources of the American Psychological Association (APA), based on an examination of available data, identified six trends with major implications for psychology and the APA: changes in the specialization of new doctorate recipients in psychology, the
Ann Howard; Georgine M. Pion; Gary D. Gottfredson; Pamela Ebert Flattau; Stuart Oskamp; Sheila M. Pfaffin; Douglas W. Bray; Alvin G. Burstein
Presents data from four annual surveys of psychology doctorates with regard to rates of employment and unemployment; employment in psychology-related work, in academic settings, service, business, government, and other settings, full-time and part-time employment; and postdoctoral fellowships. Includes job market perceptions of recent doctorate
Identifies possible predictors of psychological abuse in nonmarital heterosexual romantic relationships. Responses from 175 undergraduate women reveal 11% claiming psychological abuse as well as more instances of partner behaviors characteristic of psychological abuse. Abused individuals were more likely to have lower self-esteem, had parents'
Role overload, job satisfaction, leisure satisfaction, and psychological health were measured for 155 women who were employed full time. Role overload was negatively correlated with psychological health, job satisfaction, and leisure satisfaction. Job satisfaction and leisure satisfaction were positively correlated with psychological health.
Explored child-parent relationships and parents' (N-1,502) psychological well-being through analysis of structural and demographic correlates of parent-child relationship quality and child-rearing demands and through implications of relational quality and demands for parents' psychological well-being. Found age and divorce status strongest
This article will show the impact of employment equity legislation on the psychologicalemployment contracts of the three main employee groupings in South African society. This study is important in that it fills the gap in the literature that identifies labour market regulations as an important shaping influence on the psychological contract. More than 500 managers from across South African
Stress arousal may compromise the feedback regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, releasing stress-related biomarkers and thereby affecting establishment of pregnancy. This study examined the relationship between stress and recurrent miscarriage (RM) and the impact of stress on establishment of pregnancy. The stress status of 45 patients with unexplained RM and 40 fertile women was investigated with the Fertility Problem Inventory (FPI), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, peripheral natural killer (NK) cells and cortisol. Patients with unexplained RM had significantly higher scores on the FPI (P<0.05, adjusted OR 1.02), PSS (P<0.05, adjusted OR 1.13) and Negative Affect scale (P<0.05, adjusted OR 1.12) and lower scores on the Positive Affect scale (P<0.05, adjusted OR 0.89) than fertile controls. Patients who had live births (n=20) during the study period had significantly lower scores in the Positive Affect scale (P<0.05, adjusted OR 1.17) than those who miscarried (n=10). There was a little association between psychological stress measurements and biochemical stress measurements. These results suggest that stress is a risk factor of RM. Within women with RM, moderate stress appears to be associated with improved pregnancy outcome. PMID:22687324
Li, W; Newell-Price, J; Jones, G L; Ledger, W L; Li, T C
A self-report questionnaire was administered to high school seniors to collect data on the psychological, behavioral, and social aspects of their lives. It was found that employment was associated with: greater depression; inferior relationships with parents and best friend, including less time and physical contact with parents; lower grade point
Largie, Shay; Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Sanders, Christopher E.; Diego, Miguel
A four-year study of a Scottish manufacturer's employee lifelong learning program discovered a positive relationship between the program and employee perceptions of careers, fairness, and the long-term "psychological contract." Due to reduction in the employer's commitment to job security, employees were beginning to view the program as an aid to
Most Thai women continue to work throughout their pregnancy; however, little is known about job strain and its relation to psychological distress. This study aimed to examine: (1) the direct effects of job strain, perceived workplace support, perceived family support, and coping strategies on psychological distress and (2) the moderating effect of perceived workplace support, perceived family support, and coping strategies on the relationship between job strain and psychological distress. Lazarus and Folkman's transactional model of stress and coping guided this cross-sectional study. Full-time employed pregnant women (N?=?300) were recruited from three antenatal clinics in Thailand. Thai versions of the following instruments were used: the State-Anxiety Inventory and Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (psychological distress), the Job Content Questionnaire (job strain and perceived workplace support), the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey (perceived family support), and the Ways of Coping Checklist-Revised (coping strategies). Job strain with other predictors explained 54 % of the variance in psychological distress. In the separate hierarchical multiple linear regression models, two types of coping strategies, seeking social support and wishful thinking, moderated the effects of job strain on psychological distress. Perceived family support had a direct effect in reducing psychological distress. Job strain is a significant contributor to psychological distress. The average levels of seeking social support and wishful thinking were most beneficial in moderating the negative impact of job strain on psychological distress. Since perceived workplace and family support did not have moderating effects, stress management programs for decreasing the levels of job strain should be developed. PMID:24414302
Sanguanklin, Natthananporn; McFarlin, Barbara L; Finnegan, Lorna; Park, Chang Gi; Giurgescu, Carmen; White-Traut, Rosemary; Engstrom, Janet L
This study examined the association between relationship styles, coping strategies, and psychological distress among 144 Anglo-Australian and 250 Hong Kong Chinese undergraduate students. The results indicated that relationship styles (secure, clingy, and fickle) influenced psychological distress through their association with coping strategies
Leung, Cynthia; Moore, Susan; Karnilowicz, Wally; Lung, C. L.
Within the UK, traditional subject-specific areas are increasingly being complemented by the provision of opportunities to foster students' personal development planning as an aide to support their future employment and lifelong learning. This paper describes an action research project which examined employability skills within a psychology
McMurray, Isabella; Roberts, Pat; Robertson, Ian; Teoh, Kevin
Background In accord with new European university reforms initiated by the Bologna Process, our objectives were to assess psychological quality of life (QoL) and to analyse its associations with academic employability skills (AES) among students from the Faculty of Language, Literature, Humanities, Arts and Education, Walferdange Luxembourg (F1, mostly vocational/applied courses); the Faculty of Social and Human Sciences, Liege, Belgium (F2, mainly general courses); and the Faculty of Social Work, Iasi, Romania (F3, mainly vocational/professional courses). Method Students who redoubled or who had studied at other universities were excluded. 355 newly-registered first-year students (145 from F1, 125 from F2, and 85 from F3) were invited to complete an online questionnaire (in French, German, English or Romanian) covering socioeconomic data, the AES scale and the QoL-psychological, QoL-social relationships and QoL-environment subscales as measured with the World Health Organisation Quality of Life short-form (WHOQoL-BREF) questionnaire. Analyses included multiple regressions with interactions. Results QoL-psychological, QoL-social relationships and QoL-environment' scores were highest in F1 (Luxembourg), and the QoL-psychological score in F2 (Belgium) was the lower. AES score was higher in F1 than in F3 (Romania). A positive link was found between QoL-psychological and AES for F1 (correlation coefficient 0.29, p < 0.01) and F3 (correlation coefficient 0.30, p < 0.05), but the association was negative for F2 (correlation coefficient -0.25, p < 0.01). QoL-psychological correlated positively with QoL-social relationships (regression coefficient 0.31, p < 0.001) and QoL-environment (regression coefficient 0.35, p < 0.001). Conclusions Psychological quality of life is associated with acquisition of skills that increase employability from the faculties offering vocational/applied/professional courses in Luxembourg and Romania, but not their academically orientated Belgian counterparts. In the context of developing a European Higher Educational Area, these measurements are major indicators that can be used as a guide to promoting programs geared towards counseling, improvement of the social environment, and services to assist with university work and facilitate achievement of future professional projects.
Finds that perceptions of an organization's climate (dimensions of cohesion, pressure, innovation, trust, support, and recognition) were associated with the types of communication relationships employees form with their peers. Finds that these associations were moderated in part by gender, suggesting that men and women differ significantly in the
A study examined the relationship between self-reported communication apprehension and psychological sex type as measured by the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI). The BSRI identifies people as masculine (high in masculinity, low in feminity), feminine (high in femininity, low in masculinity), androgynous (high in both femininity and masculinity), and
Few studies have examined both maternal and paternal parenting practices in the prediction of child outcomes despite evidence that underscores the salience of fathers throughout their children's development. This study examined the role of the quality of mother-child and father-child relationships in buffering the influence of ineffective parenting practices on subsequent adolescent aggression. Measures of parental psychological control, the quality of the parent-child relationship, and youth aggressive behavior were completed by 163 (49 % female) mostly White and Asian adolescents and their parents during the eighth and ninth grades. Paternal psychological control predicted aggression when adolescents perceived low-quality relationships with their mothers. Similarly, maternal psychological control predicted aggression when adolescents perceived low-quality relationships with their fathers. Maternal psychological control was also associated with lower levels of aggression among adolescent males who reported a high-quality relationship with their father. These findings indicate that, when one parent exerts psychological control, the low-quality relationship the adolescent shares with the opposite gender parent increases risk for adolescent aggression. The findings also suggest that, as mothers exert psychological control, the high-quality parent-child relationship a son shares with his father decreases risk for adolescent aggression. PMID:24072564
Work environments appear to have both positive and negative impacts on the psychological well-being of workers. This paper reviews a number of models and theories that have addressed this issue. First, those aspects of the psychological work environment, which are thought to be most relevant to well-being, are described. Second, a number of models and theories are considered. How then is it possible to best understand how the work environment creates a psychological environment, which in turn may affect psychological well-being? While some of the available approaches are general and offer descriptive frameworks, others do attempt to explain the relationships between a more narrow set of work characteristics and well-being. Further, recent approaches focus on explaining emotional reactions at work and the role of the psychological contract. A sound understanding of work and well-being is still some way away. However, focusing on more specific kinds of well-being, taking account of other contextual influences, and looking at both the salubrious and harmful effects of the work environment are likely to bring about greater understanding. PMID:10975124
Most criminological theories predict an inverse relationship between employment and crime, but teenagers' involvement in paid work during the school year is positively correlated with delinquency and substance use. Whether the work-delinquency association is causal or spurious has long been debated. This study estimates the effect of paid work on juvenile delinquency using longitudinal data from the national Monitoring the Future project. We address issues of spuriousness by using a two-level hierarchical model to estimate the relationships of within-individual changes in juvenile delinquency and substance use to those in paid work and other explanatory variables. We also disentangle effects of actual employment from preferences for employment to provide insight about the likely role of time-varying selection factors tied to employment, delinquency, school engagement, and leisure activities. Whereas causal effects of employment would produce differences based on whether and how many hours respondents worked, we found significantly higher rates of crime and substance use among non-employed youth who preferred intensive versus moderate work. Our findings suggest the relationship between high-intensity work and delinquency results from preexisting factors that lead youth to desire varying levels of employment.
Staff, Jeremy; Osgood, D. Wayne; Schulenberg, John E.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Messersmith, Emily E.
Most criminological theories predict an inverse relationship between employment and crime, but teenagers' involvement in paid work during the school year is positively correlated with delinquency and substance use. Whether the work-delinquency association is causal or spurious has long been debated. This study estimates the effect of paid work on juvenile delinquency using longitudinal data from the national Monitoring the Future project. We address issues of spuriousness by using a two-level hierarchical model to estimate the relationships of within-individual changes in juvenile delinquency and substance use to those in paid work and other explanatory variables. We also disentangle effects of actual employment from preferences for employment to provide insight about the likely role of time-varying selection factors tied to employment, delinquency, school engagement, and leisure activities. Whereas causal effects of employment would produce differences based on whether and how many hours respondents worked, we found significantly higher rates of crime and substance use among non-employed youth who preferred intensive versus moderate work. Our findings suggest the relationship between high-intensity work and delinquency results from preexisting factors that lead youth to desire varying levels of employment. PMID:21442045
Staff, Jeremy; Osgood, D Wayne; Schulenberg, John E; Bachman, Jerald G; Messersmith, Emily E
The earliest relationship does not begin with birth. Pregnant women construct mental representations of the fetus, and feelings of affiliation or maternal-fetal attachment generally increase over the course of gestation. While there is a fairly substantial literature on the development and moderation of psychological features of the maternal-fetal relationship, including the role of ultrasound imaging, relatively little is known about the manner in which maternal psychological functioning influences the fetus. Dispositional levels of maternal stress and anxiety are modestly associated with aspects of fetal heart rate and motor activity. Both induced maternal arousal and relaxation generate fairly immediate alterations to fetal neurobehaviors; the most consistently observed fetal response to changes in maternal psychological state involves suppression of motor activity. These effects may be mediated, in part, by an orienting response of the fetus to changes in the intrauterine environment. Conversely, there is evidence that fetal behaviors elicit maternal physiological responses. Integration of this finding into a more dynamic model of the maternal-fetal dyad, and implications for the postnatal relationship are discussed. Research on the period before birth affords tremendous opportunity for developmental scientists to advance understanding of the origins of human attachment.
We investigated interactions between perceived employability and employees' perceptions about psychological contract obligations made by the employer in relation to life and job satisfaction, self-rated performance, and turnover intention. We hypothesized that perceived employability relates positively to job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and self-rated performance and negatively to turnover intention under the condition of many promises. Conversely, perceived employability relates negatively
Nele De Cuyper; Beatrice I. J. M. Van der Heijden; Hans De Witte
This study examined the relationship between attaining a job congruent with the Individualized Plan for Employment (IPE) vocational rehabilitation goal and vocational rehabilitation outcomes. Study participants were 171 vocational rehabilitation clients served by the Maryland State Department of Education Division of Rehabilitation Services (DORS)
Recently, attention has been focused on the relationship among circadian typology, psychiatric symptoms, and personality traits. This study analyzes the influence of circadian typology on psychological distress, and the sensation-seeking personality trait. Five hundred seventeen college students (173 males), aged 17 to 30, answered the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM), the General Health Questionnaire 28-item version (GHQ-28), and the Sensation Seeking Scale-V (SSS-V). The evening-type subjects in our sample scored higher than the neither- and morning- type in the GHQ-28 total score, as well as in the four subscales that composed it (Psychosomatic Symptoms, Anxiety and Insomnia, Social Dysfunction, and Severe Depression) (p<0.02 in all cases). The evening-type subjects also had a larger proportion of psychiatric cases than the other two circadian typologies (p<0.0001 in all cases). Moreover, the evening-type subjects obtained higher scores in the SSS-V total score and in the subscales of Disinhibition and Boredom Susceptibility (p<0.001 in all cases). A positive correlation was observed between the GHQ-28 and the SSS-V total scores in the total sample, but only for the evening-type group (r=0.217; p<0.027). In the evening group, several relations were also found between the subscales of the GHQ-28 and the subscales of the SSS-V (r>0.206; p<0.036). All these data point to a relationship between evening-type subjects and the level of psychological distress and the sensation-seeking personality trait. They also suggest that eveningness could be related to developing psychological distress and personality traits that could, in turn, be related to developing other problems, such as drug consumption. PMID:23806000
The research reported in this article clarifies how employeeorganization relationships (EORs) work. Specifically, the authors tested whether social exchange and job embeddedness mediate how mutual-investment (whereby employers offer high inducements to employees for their high contributions) and over-investment (high inducements without corresponding high expected contributions) EOR approaches, which are based on Tsui, Pearce, Porter, and Tripoli's (1997) framework, affect quit
Peter W. Hom; Anne S. Tsui; Joshua B. Wu; Thomas W. Lee; Ann Yan Zhang; Ping Ping Fu; Lan Li
Examined relationship of current parental attachment to symptoms of psychological distress and satisfaction in romantic relationships among 157 undergraduate students. Current parental attachment was found to be significantly associated with psychological distress. No such association was found between parental attachment and relationship
Psychological aggression is the most prevalent form of aggression in dating relationships, with women perpetrating as much, if not more, psychological aggression than men. Researchers have advocated for an examination of the consequences that follow psychological aggression for the perpetrator, in hopes that this will lead to innovative
Shorey, Ryan C.; Temple, Jeff R.; Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Sherman, Amanda E.; Stuart, Gregory L.
Researchers conducted a two-wave panel study to test the hypothesis of the normal and reversed causal relationships of job characteristics, burnout, and psychological health. The hypotheses are as follows: job characteristics lead to burnout and psychological health over time; and vice versa, burnout and psychological health were expected to result in perceived job stress over time. Nearly 513 participants were
Yu-Hwa Huang; Chin-Hui Chen; Pey-Lan Du; Ing-Chung Huang
Researchers conducted a two-wave panel study to test the hypothesis of the normal and reversed causal relationships of job characteristics, burnout, and psychological health. The hypotheses are as follows: job characteristics lead to burnout and psychological health over time; and vice versa, burnout and psychological health were expected to result in perceived job stress over time. Nearly 513 participants were
Yu-Hwa Huang; Chin-Hui Chen; Pey-Lan Du; Ing-Chung Huang
This paper reports on meta-analyses of the relations of child sexual abuse to adult psychological adjustment. Results indicated statistically significant relationships between the experience of child sexual abuse and subsequent difficulties in psychological adjustment as measured by psychological symptomatology, depression, and self-esteem. Significant heterogeneity occurred across studies using a variety of different subject populations, research designs, and assessment methods. Some
Provides a contemporary picture of mentor relationships in clinical psychology, focusing on 787 survey respondents who were U.S. members or associates of the American Psychological Association and graduated with a PhD or PsyD in clinical psychology in 1994, 1995, or 1996. Presents the results and discusses implications for graduate education. (CMK)
Clark, Richard A.; Harden, Sherry L.; Johnson, W. Brad
The relations of socioeconomic and psychological factors to resumption of employment following coronary artery bypass surgery were studied using a questionnaire returned by a sample of 426 men and 70 women. The sample was drawn from the membership of Mended Hearts, Inc., a nationwide voluntary organization of persons who have had heart surgery. Preoperatively, more men (92 percent) than women (59 percent) were employed. Return to work rates were high for men (81 percent) and much lower for women (58 percent). The 395 men tended to return to work an average of 3.7 months after surgery whereas the 41 women took an average of 4.8 months. Return to work following surgery was most clearly related to socioeconomic level for both sexes. In addition, for men, those most likely to return had less postoperative morbidity and held jobs requiring little physical exertion. Patients who reported that they were forced into an early retirement represent a particularly vulnerable group in that they were more likely to experience the most postoperative morbidity. As a group, they believed that their physicians had least prepared them to return to work, and they experienced the poorest emotional adjustment. Thus, women and those forced into early retirement represent two potentially high-risk groups of patients who would seem to require additional clinical and psychological management following surgery.
Zyzanski, S J; Rouse, B A; Stanton, B A; Jenkins, C D
Management of information technology (IT) human capital is more dynamic and diverse today as organizations use a variety and mixture of employment arrangements to gain IT core competency, cost, and productivity improvements, yet it is not well known how the employment arrangements affect the IT professional. Applying the psychological contract framework and social information processing theory in the investigation into
Sandra K. Newton; Stephen C. Wingreen; J. Ellis Blanton
The effects of basic psychological need satisfaction from the self-determination theory on relationships within the theory of planned behavior (TPB) were examined in a prospective study. It was hypothesized that need satisfaction would moderate the relationship between intention and behavior and between intention and its proximal determinants. Participants (n = 250) completed measures of the TPB and psychological need satisfaction
Relationships among major life events, perceived social support, and psychological disorder were assessed in a sample of older adolescents. Negative life events and satisfaction with social support were significantly and independently related to a range of psychological symptoms. Further, the relationship between negative events and disorder was moderated by gender, the types of events experienced, and anticipated change in the
Bruce E. Compas; Lesley A. Slavin; Barry M. Wagner; Kathryn Vannatta
Family relationship quality predicts medical outcomes in various health conditions, including stroke, end stage renal disease, and heart failure. Family relationships also influence the onset and course of depression and anxiety disorders. Family may be particularly important in COPD given the high prevalence of depression and anxiety in COPD patients and the association of depression and anxiety with important clinical features of COPD such as dyspnea. The objective of this study was to test three hypotheses in a sample of individuals with COPD: 1) unsupportive family relationships are associated with psychological distress; 2) psychological distress is associated with dyspnea and impairment in health-related quality of life; and 3) unsupportive family relationships are indirectly associated with dyspnea and health-related quality of life via psychological distress. Cross-sectional data were collected via self-report questionnaires completed by 526 individuals with COPD. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypotheses. All three hypotheses were supported. Unsupportive family relationships were associated with psychological distress, psychological distress was associated with dyspnea and impairment in health-related quality of life, and unsupportive family relationships were indirectly associated with dyspnea and health-related quality of life via psychological distress. If subsequent longitudinal investigations demonstrate that unsupportive family relationships do indeed lead to psychological distress among individuals with COPD, then interventions to improve family relationships of patients with COPD could lead to reductions in psychological distress and, ultimately, to improvements in dyspnea and quality of life.
Holm, Kristen E.; Bowler, Russell P.; Make, Barry J.; Wamboldt, Frederick S.
Even though interest in reducing or eliminating tobacco-caused diseases is a common goal in tobacco control, many experts hold different views on addiction as a target of intervention. Some consider tobacco-caused addiction as a tobacco-caused disease to be eliminated alongside the other diseases. Some consider tobacco-caused addiction as a much lower priority disease to be eliminated, and a subset of this group is prepared to employ addiction to tobacco (nicotine) as a tool to reduce other tobacco-caused disease. These varying attitudes towards ending, controlling or employing tobacco addiction to reduce damage from tobacco use constitute quite different approaches to tobacco control and cause conflict among those in tobacco control. Moral psychological analyses argue that there is more than scientific evidence involved in supporting this continuum of approaches. Divergent values also influence positions in tobacco control. Attention to these values as well as the scientific evidence should be included in policy and practice in tobacco control. It is not that one constellation of values is necessarily superior, but debates need to be informed by and engage discussions of these values as well as the scientific evidence.
We examined the consequences of witnessing interparental psychological aggression in childhood for daily conflict processes in adult intimate relationships. Both partners in 73 heterosexual couples provided daily diary reports of relationship conflict over a 28-day period. Partners' reports of witnessing mother-to-father and father-to-mother psychological aggression were used to predict exposure to daily relationship conflicts and reactivity to those conflicts (as
Janet Krone Kennedy; Niall Bolger; Patrick E. Shrout
This study examined the relationship between level of depression and level of psychological abuse in women. In addition, the relationship between the use of self-report and measured report of psychological abuse within an intimate relationship was assessed. One hundred women were surveyed using the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory
The authors surveyed 347 public sector employees on 4 measurement occasions to investigate the conceptual distinctiveness of the psychological contract and perceived organizational support (POS) and how they are associated over time. Results support the distinctiveness of the 2 concepts. In terms of their interrelationships over time, by drawing on psychological contract theory the authors found little support for a
In this rejoinder the authors respond to the three reactions to the major contribution, "Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations: Connections to Counseling Psychology," provided by Chung and Wu, Neville, Flores, and Dobson, and Yakushko, Wang, and Warrior. In their thoughtful reactions, these current and past leaders of the Society of
Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between attachment to parents and psychological separation in college students. Three hundred sixty-eight undergraduate students completed the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (Armsden & Greenberg, 1987) and the Psychological Separation Inventory (Hoffman, 1984). Results suggest
This investigation examined the relationship between attendance and examination performance. Psychology students (179) took A/S psychology modules; their results were correlated with their attendance up to the examination date. The data were subjected to a Pearson Product Moment Correlation and a statistically significant result was found. (p
This article examines behavioral and psychological differences among women who used violence in four types of relationships. Nearly all of the women experienced physical abuse from their male partners. Types were compared on the extent of childhood abuse experienced, use of avoidance coping, anger, motivations for using violence, injuries, psychological symptoms, and alcohol use. Women in the Victim type (the
The relationship between the experience of women in their work and family roles and their mental health was examined. Specifically, the aspects of women's work which were related to the levels of psychological distress and subjective well being were ident...
Purpose An employee's willingness to share knowledge may be contingent on whether the organization equitably fulfills its reward obligations. This paper seeks to examine how managers and organizations can be vehicles for managing psychological contract perceptions favoring knowledge sharing among current employees, newcomers, and applicants. Design\\/methodology\\/approach The authors propose an integrative model to discuss psychological contract issues within
This study assessed the prevalence of extradyadic sex and the relationship between such activity and psychological distress and relationship quality in male couples of mixed HIV serostatus. Sixty-three couples were interviewed and had sufficient data for inclusion in all analyses. With regard to sexual activity during the year prior to being interviewed, 19 (30%) couples were monogamous, 18 (29%) described
Glenn J. Wagner; Robert H. Remien; Alex Carballo Dieguez
Social support has been shown to buffer the relationship between life stress and psychological distress in late life. However, little attention has been paid to personality variables that are associated with the capacity to effectively utilize social support. Although the buffering effects of social support were replicated in our sample of 134 community-dwelling individuals over the age of 65, perceived control was found to significantly moderate the relationship between stress, social support, and psychological distress. Specifically, older adults who were highly satisfied with social support consistently reported less psychological distress than those who were less satisfied with social support, regardless of perceived control. However, under conditions of both low and high satisfaction with social support, external controllers were found to be less reactive to stress than internal controllers. Implications for developing more complex models of the relationship between stress, social support and psychological distress are discussed. PMID:20718233
Nemeroff, Robin; Midlarsky, Elizabeth; Meyer, Joseph F
Increasing Career Choices, located at the National Center on Deafness, Cal State Northridge, is committed to assisting students and alumni who are deaf and hard-of-hearing to improve their job seeking skills and enhance employment opportunities. In addition, it is dedicated to working with employers and providing information about workplace
This research analyzes placement credentials of 64 employed and 64 non-employed college graduates who had used the same campus placement center. The study indicates that the variables of academic performance, biographical data and age are potent predictors in the current job market. The variables of work experience, personal recommendations, and
Abstract Purpose . This study examined associations between employment characteristics and obesity among a sample representing civilian noninstitutionalized U.S. adults. Design . Quantitative, cross-sectional study. Setting . Workplace. Subjects . The 2010 National Health Interview Survey data for 15,121 employed adults (?18 years). Measures . The outcome variable was weight status, and exposure variables were employment characteristics (number of employees, work hours, paid by the hour, paid sick leave, and health insurance offered). Analysis . Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for employment characteristics associated with obesity (body mass index [BMI] ? 30 kg/m(2)) after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, family income, fruit/vegetable intake, physical activity, smoking, and occupations. Results . Nationwide, 28% of employed adults were obese. From multivariate logistic regression, the odds of being obese was significantly greater among adults who worked at a company with 100 to 499 employees (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.02-1.39) vs. with 1 to 24 employees and those who worked >50 hours/week (OR ?= 1.32, 95% CI ?= 1.05-1.65) vs. <30 hours/week. Conclusion . Approximately 3 out of 10 employees were obese and 6 out of 10 were overweight or obese. A better understanding of why these employment characteristics are associated with obesity could help employers better develop and target interventions for obesity prevention and treatment in the worksites. PMID:24200331
The purpose of this study was to assess relations between adult intimacy, quality of life, and psychological adjustment. Data were collected in the United States from a sample of 64 college students. The measuring instruments used were Personal Information Sheet, Adult version of the Personality Assessment Questionnaire (Adult PAQ), Intimate
...COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED CLAIMS FOR BENEFITS...MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT, AS AMENDED Responsible Coal Mine Operators Â§ 725.493 Employment...
This research examined the relationships between perceived psychological contract breach, felt violation, and burnout in a sample (n = 361) of employees from various organizations in Pakistan. The moderating role of contract types in these relationships was also tested. Findings supported a positive association between perceived psychological contract breach and felt violation and both were positively related to burnout. Transactional and relational contracts moderated the felt violation-burnout relationship. Scores on relational contract type tended to be higher than for transactional contract type showing some contextual influence. PMID:24003592
This study examined relationships between specific learning styles, attachment styles and psychological symptoms in a sample of female college students (N=246). The participants in this study were assessed on the above variables through completion of several self-report instruments measuring these variables. Significant relationships between
Vaughn, Lisa M.; Battle, Julie V.; Taylor, Trisha; Dearman, Laura
Relationships among major life events, perceived social support, and psychological disorder were assessed in a sample of older adolescents. Results showed that the relationship between negative events and disorders was moderated by gender, the types of events experienced, and anticipated change in the psychosocial environment. (Author/JAZ)
We examined the contribution of relational aggression in adolescents' peer and dating relationships to their psychological and behavioral adjustment. In the Fall and again four months later, 1279 (646 female) grade 9 students reported on relational aggression perpetration and victimization in their romantic and peer relationships,
Ellis, Wendy E.; Crooks, Claire V.; Wolfe, David A.
This study examines the moderating effect of collectivistic value on the relationship between psychological empowerment and job satisfaction. Specifically, we propose that the multi-dimensional psychological effects of empowerment (i.e., meaning, competence, self-determination, and impact) on job satisfaction differ between high and low collectivistic employees. Data collected from hotel employees in Canada (n=193) and China (n=371) revealed that collectivistic orientation elevated
Henry Fock; Flora Chiang; Kevin Y. Au; Michael K. Hui
This study investigated the influence of maternal employment on perceptions of the costs and benefits to children associated with mothers working outside the home and professional ambition among junior high school adolescents. A sample of 151 suburban and urban junior high school students completed a questionnaire relating to their professional
Psychological disorders in people with extreme weight (low weight or obesity) should be taken into consideration by health professionals in order to practice an effective treatment to these patients. This study evaluates the association between body mass index (BMI) and psychological distress in 563 inhabitants of Málaga (South of Spain). Participants were classified in four categories of BMI: Underweight (BMI <18.5 Kg/m2), Normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.99 Kg/m2), Overweight (BMI 25.0-29.99 Kg/m2) and Obesity (BMI >30 Kg/m2). Psychological distress was measured with the Spanish version of the Derogatis' Symptoms Checklist Revised (SCL-90-R). We observed a symmetric U-shaped relationship between weight status and psychological distress in all SCL-90-R dimensions (p for quadratic trend <0.001) for both men and women. Participants with extreme weight showed the worst psychological status, and participants with normal weight exhibited the best. We found no statistically significant differences between underweight and obese participants in 9 of the 10 SCL-90-R dimensions analyzed among men, and in 8 of the 10 dimensions among women. Underweight and obese participants showed no gender differences in psychological distress levels. Psychological treatment of Mediterranean people with extreme weight, should consider underweight and obese patients at the same level of psychological distress. PMID:24763112
Psychological disorders in people with extreme weight (low weight or obesity) should be taken into consideration by health professionals in order to practice an effective treatment to these patients. This study evaluates the association between body mass index (BMI) and psychological distress in 563 inhabitants of Málaga (South of Spain). Participants were classified in four categories of BMI: Underweight (BMI <18.5 Kg/m2), Normal weight (BMI 18.524.99 Kg/m2), Overweight (BMI 25.029.99 Kg/m2) and Obesity (BMI >30 Kg/m2). Psychological distress was measured with the Spanish version of the Derogatis Symptoms Checklist Revised (SCL-90-R). We observed a symmetric U-shaped relationship between weight status and psychological distress in all SCL-90-R dimensions (p for quadratic trend <0.001) for both men and women. Participants with extreme weight showed the worst psychological status, and participants with normal weight exhibited the best. We found no statistically significant differences between underweight and obese participants in 9 of the 10 SCL-90-R dimensions analyzed among men, and in 8 of the 10 dimensions among women. Underweight and obese participants showed no gender differences in psychological distress levels. Psychological treatment of Mediterranean people with extreme weight, should consider underweight and obese patients at the same level of psychological distress.
From 1992 to 1999, the Kennett government in Victoria moved to competitive market models of service delivery and the measurement of service provision through casemix funding. Public hospital managers were given greater accountability for the costs and provision of service delivery and a new range of service providers, many from the private sector, entered the public health market. The decentralisation of the industrial relations system led to new developments in bargaining that brought both opportunities and problems. In the Victorian public health system there was an increasing emphasis on decentralisation in both service provision and employment relations. In this paper I suggest that there were contradictions in these developments for government, and new challenges and difficulties for employers, employees and trade unions. PMID:11186053
The association between mothers' psychological control and their children's emotional adjustment problems is well documented. However, processes that may explain this association are not well understood. The present study tested the idea that relational aggression and psychological control within the context of the sibling relationship may help to account for the relation between mothers' psychological control and adolescents' internalizing symptoms. Older (M = 16.46, SD = 1.35 years) and younger (M = 13.67, SD = 1.56 years) siblings from 101 dyads rated the psychological control they received from mothers and siblings, and the relational aggression they received from siblings. Despite some similarities between psychological control and relational aggression, confirmatory factor analyses provided evidence that the two sibling processes are distinct. Maternal psychological control was related to psychological control and relational aggression within the sibling relationship, which were related to adolescents' anxiety and depressed mood. In addition, sibling relational aggression was a more powerful mediator of the relationship between maternal psychological control and adolescent adjustment than sibling psychological control. PMID:25047296
Campione-Barr, Nicole; Lindell, Anna K; Greer, Kelly Bassett; Rose, Amanda J
The National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) established a policy in 1989 mandating a national study of the field every 5 years. The purpose of the studies was to generate a comprehensive description of the field of school psychology across the United States, as well as to allow for analyses of changes in the field over time. The first
Curtis, Michael J.; Castillo, Jose M.; Gelley, Cheryl
Examined differentiation patterns within marital, parental, and parent/child relationships and support level experienced within peer relationships as predictors of anxiety and depression in college students (n=60). Peer support and system of dynamics significantly covaried with reported levels of depression. Only differentiation level found within
The authors present a theoretical framework for designing training programs for the hard to employ that takes cultural variables into account. Studies employing this framework are reviewed. (Author/DE)
Study examined the role of social support in moderating the relationship between psychological distress and willingness to seek psychological help in 158 Black and Latino college students from a large, predominantly White university. Authors found that a social support network served as a significant moderator for Black college students but not
Constantine, Madonna G.; Wilton, Leo; Caldwell, Leon D.
This study of 59 undergraduate men and 85 undergraduate women explored how defining emotional and physical sibling abuse affected the frequency of reported sibling abuse. In addition, the current study examined how the emotional context of the sibling relationship (i.e., rivalry and conflict) moderated the relationship between sibling abuse and later psychological adjustment (i.e., depression and anxiety). Respondents completed self-report questionnaires of sibling abuse (CTS2-SP), self-labeling of sibling abuse, quality of sibling relationships (SRQ), depression (CES-D), and anxiety (ZAS). Results indicated differences in frequency of reported abuse depending on how sibling abuse was defined. Also, there were no statistically significant correlations between the CTS2-SP and measures of psychological adjustment. Although self-labeling as emotionally abused correlated with later anxiety, the emotional context of the sibling relationship did not moderate this relationship. PMID:19734372
Mackey, Amber L; Fromuth, Mary Ellen; Kelly, David B
Social species create emergent organizations beyond the individual. These emergent structures evolved hand in hand with neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms to support them because the consequent social behaviors helped these organisms survive, reproduce, and care for offspring sufficiently long that they too reproduced. Social neuroscience seeks to specify the neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms underlying social behavior, and in so doing to understand the associations and influences between social and biological levels of organization. Success in the field, therefore, is not measured in terms of the contributions to social psychology per se, but rather in terms of the specification of the biological mechanisms underlying social interactions and behaviorone of the major problems for the neurosciences to address in the 21st century.
Cacioppo, John T.; Berntson, Gary G.; Decety, Jean
A sample of 231 unemployed adults was surveyed using scales tapping psychological distress, the latent and manifest benefits of employment, and spirituality (connectedness, universality, prayer fulfilment, attendance at worship). It was hypothesised that the latent and manifest benefits would be associated with wellbeing; spirituality would be
Friends with benefits (FWB) relationships are formed by an integration of friendship and sexual intimacy, typically without the explicit commitments characteristic of an exclusive romantic relationship. The majority of these relationships do not transition into committed romantic relationships, raising questions about what happens to the relationship after the FWB ends. In a sample of 119 men and 189 women university students, with a median age of 19 years and the majority identified as Caucasian (63.6 %), we assessed relationship adjustment, feelings of deception, perception of the FWB relationship and friendship, social connectedness, psychological distress, and loneliness. Results demonstrated that the majority of FWB relationships continued as friendships after the sexual intimacy ceased and that about 50 % of the participants reported feeling as close or closer to their FWB partner. Those who did not remain friends were more likely to report that their FWB relationship was more sex- than friendship-based; they also reported higher levels of feeling deceived by their FWB partner and higher levels of loneliness and psychological distress, but lower levels of mutual social connectedness. Higher levels of feeling deceived were related to feeling less close to the post-FWB friend; also, more sex-based FWB relationships were likely to result in post-FWB friendships that were either more or less close (as opposed to unchanged). FWB relationships, especially those that include more attention to friendship based intimacy, do not appear to negatively impact the quality of the friendship after the "with benefits" ends. PMID:23979784
This study assessed the prevalence of extradyadic sex and the relationship between such activity and psychological distress and relationship quality in male couples of mixed HIV serostatus. Sixty-three couples were interviewed and had sufficient data for inclusion in all analyses. With regard to sexual activity during the year prior to being interviewed, 19 (30%) couples were monogamous, 18 (29%) described themselves as "open," 13 (21%) kept extradyadic sex a secret from their partners, and in 13 couples there was only partial knowledge of extradyadic sex. Though not statistically significant, monogamous and open couples consistently scored lower numerically on measures of psychological distress and higher on measures of relationship quality, compared to "partial knowledge" and "secretive" couples. When pooled, monogamous and open couples scored significantly higher on measures of dyadic consensus, affectional expression, dyadic satisfaction, and sexual satisfaction compared to the combined subgroup of partial knowledge and secretive couples. PMID:10933280
ABSTRACT. This research examined the mediatory role of life purpose and career indecision in the relationship between the satisfaction of basic psychological needs and aggression. Data were collected from high school students (n = 466) and results showed that life purpose and career indecision fully mediated the relationship between basic psychological needs satisfaction and aggression. These findings suggested that unsatisfied basic psychological needs foster late adolescents' aggression by promoting less clear life purposes and career indecision. PMID:24837531
There has been growing interest in the impact of flexible employment contracts on workers affected by them. In the light of assumptions that such workers are significantly disadvantaged, European-wide legislation has been introduced to ensure that they are treated similarly to permanent employees. The evidence on the impact of flexible employment contracts on employees attitudes and behaviour is reviewed within
As children's exposure to violence (EV) has become more evident, concern for the implications that violence has on children has risen. Consequently, researchers have explored the relationship between exposure and outcomes, as well as potential mediators and moderators. In this study, we (a) examined EV in a sample of children from the Midwestern
In this study, we examined the utility of self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2002) as a framework for understanding the antecedents of athlete burnout in elite New Zealand rugby union players (n=133). Perceptions of competence, autonomy, and relatedness (i.e. basic psychological needs) were hypothesized to be negatively related to burnout scores, while players classified as "high-burnouts" were predicted to report lower needs fulfilment than players with low burnout. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that relatedness was a low to moderate predictor of burnout, but players' competence and autonomy accounted for substantial portions of variance in two athlete burnout symptoms: reduced accomplishment and sport devaluation. The proportion of variance accounted for in the exhaustion dimension of athlete burnout was not substantive. Multivariate analysis of variance supported these results, as "high-burnout" players had lower competence and autonomy scores than athletes reporting low burnout symptoms. The two groups did not report significantly different relatedness scores. Implications of these results for researchers and practitioners are discussed. PMID:18569549
The psychomotor skills required in dental laboratory technology and dentistry are similar. Dental educators have recognized the problems in selecting from among dental school applicants those with potential psychomotor skills. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of admissions data and measurements of psychological constructs of dental technology students with their psychomotor performance in first-semester dental laboratory
The present study examined relationship status, psychological orientation toward sexual risk taking, and other characteristics as potential correlates of risky sexual behavior in a sample of 223 heterosexual African American college students. Risky sexual behavior was investigated as a multinomial variable (i.e., abstinence, consistent condom use,
ObjectivePerception of changes in respiratory symptoms is a critical element in the self-management of pediatric asthma. The purpose of this study was to quantify perceptual accuracy in childhood asthma, to investigate links between symptom perception and functional morbidity, and to examine relationships between psychological variables and perceptual accuracy.
GREGORY K. FRITZ; ELIZABETH L. McQUAID; ANTHONY SPIRITO; ROBERT B. KLEIN
This study compared 5 psychological models of the relationship between social support (SS) and behavioral health. These theoretical models, which have garnered some level of prior empirical support, were as follows: (a) main effects, (b) buffering effects, (c) social exchange, (d) equity, and (e) protective health outcomes of providing SS. A
Cruza-Guet, Maria-Cristina; Spokane, Arnold R.; Caskie, Grace I. L.; Brown, Scott C.; Szapocznik, Jose
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between teachers' organizational commitment perceptions and both their psychological hardiness and some demographic variables in a sample of Turkish primary schools. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 405 randomly selected teachers working at primary schools in Ankara
This study investigated whether gender, stressful problems common among college students, and adult attachment orientations (anxiety and avoidance) contributed to self-reported perpetration of psychological abuse in dating relationships among 127 college students. College men's stress levels were the strongest predictor of perpetration of
Objective: To further investigate use and potential misuse of prescription stimulants (e.g., Ritalin, Adderall, Concerta) among a sample of college students and to explore the relationship between psychological variables and nonmedical stimulant use. Method: The sample consisted of 390 college students (71.6% female, 28.4% male). Participants were
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between teachers' organizational commitment perceptions and both their psychological hardiness and some demographic variables in a sample of Turkish primary schools. Design\\/methodology\\/approach A total of 405 randomly selected teachers working at primary schools in Ankara participated in the study. Personal Views Survey III-R and the Organizational Commitment
The aim of the study is to examine the relationship among self-efficacy expectancies and two important clinical aspects of alcohol abuse, namely the severity of abuse and strength of the perceived psychological benefits from drinking. The self-efficacy expectancies were measured by the Situational Confidence Questionnaire (Annis, 1984) in a group of alcoholic men (N = 203). A systematic and significant
Psychoanalysis is undergoing rapid and remarkable changes in its basic metapsychology, theoretical reflections, and concrete, clinical interventions. Through self-psychology, Heinz Kohut's alternative views on the clinical relationship have contributed to this restructuring of psychoanalysis. Traditionally, mainstream psychoanalysis has viewed the
The relationships between health and job performance problems have received increased attention in business and scientific communities. This paper attempts to synthesize theoretical and empirical work in this arena. First, the theoretical links between health and work performance are presented. This is followed by a meta-analysis of the relations between psychological, physical, and behavioural health variables and work performance criteria.
Michael T. Ford; Christopher P. Cerasoli; Jennifer A. Higgins; Andrew L. Decesare
...Relationship of pneumoconiosis to coal mine employment. 718.302 Section...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED STANDARDS FOR DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR...
...relationship of pneumoconiosis to coal mine employment. 718.203 Section...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED STANDARDS FOR DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR...
...Relationship of pneumoconiosis to coal mine employment. 718.302 Section...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED STANDARDS FOR DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR...
...relationship of pneumoconiosis to coal mine employment. 718.203 Section...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED STANDARDS FOR DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR...
This study investigated the relationship between negative life events and psychological disorder and the roles of positive life events and received and perceived social support in moderating this relationship. A prospective design was used and statistical analyses were based on a hierarchical regression model. College undergraduates served as subjects. Negative events were significantly related to psychological disorder at each of two measurement periods. This relationship was found even when initial disorder was statistically controlled. The cross-sectional analyses, but not the prospective analyses, provided some support for the stress-buffering (interaction) effects of positive events. There was no support for the stress-buffering effects of received social support, but the cross-sectional and prospective regression analyses provided strong support for the stress-buffering effects of perceived social support. PMID:6496413
Building on previous studies that documented psychological withdrawal or distancing from one's employing organization as one kind of response to major organizational change, this study developed and tested a dependence-regulation account of psychological distancing responses. This account was derived from social psychological analysis of interpersonal relationships and interdependence theory. It emphasizes the self-protective function of psychological distancing when the employment
Background:There is little known about potential mechanisms underlying the association between maternal employment and childhood obesity. The relationships between maternal hours worked per week (none, 120 hours, 21+ hours) and childrens dietary and physical activity\\/inactivity habits were examined. Where mothers were employed, the relationships between flexible work arrangements and these health behaviours were also examined.Methods:Data from 12 576 singleton children
The purpose of this study was to identify a variety of employmentrelationships based upon an economy-wide, representative sample. We turn to psychological contract studies examining different types of psychological contracts. We expand two existing typologies by incorporating multiple features or underlying dimensions of psychological contracts. Such a feature-oriented approach allows us to construct a meaningful conceptualization of employer and
Adolescents (N=1281; M age = 15.2 years, SD = 0.51 years) from a state-wide sample of schools provided information about their psychological well-being, family functioning, extraversion, and perceived physical attractiveness and weight, using a questionnaire completed at school. Consistent with previous research, girls were significantly more likely than boys to be dissatisfied with their weight and physical appearance, and these factors explained significantly more variation in self-esteem than in life satisfaction or other measures of psychological well-being. The strong relationship between body dissatisfaction and self-esteem for adolescent girls was not moderated by school type (single sex or educational). However, girls who were dissatisfied but psychologically well adjusted tended to be more extraverted, have more close friends and receive greater family support. PMID:21452753
Delfabbro, Paul H; Winefield, Anthony H; Anderson, Sarah; Hammarström, Anne; Winefield, Helen
This study tests propositions regarding idiosyncratic deals (i-deals) in a sample of N = 265 hospital employees using structural equation modeling. Timing and content of idiosyncratic employment arrangements are postulated to have differential consequences for the nature of the employmentrelationship. Results confirm that i-deals made after hire
Rousseau, Denise M.; Hornung, Severin; Kim, Tai Gyu
We investigated relationships among personality, locus of control, and current post-injury employment status for 1,391 participants with spinal cord injury. Participants with higher internality locus-of-control scores and activity scores (personality) reported more favorable employment outcomes. Higher scores on chance and powerful others (locus
Background The discourse about mental health problems among migrants and refugees tends to focus on adverse pre-migration experiences; there is less investigation of the environmental conditions in which refugee migrants live, and the contrasts between these situations in different countries. This cross-national study of two samples of Somali refugees living in London (UK) and Minneapolis, Minnesota, (USA) helps to fill a gap in the literature, and is unusual in being able to compare information collected in the same way in two cities in different countries. Methods There were two parts to the study, focus groups to gather in-depth qualitative data and a survey of health status and quantifiable demographic and material factors. Three of the focus groups involved nineteen Somali professionals and five groups included twenty-eight lay Somalis who were living in London and Minneapolis. The quantitative survey was done with 189 Somali respondents, also living in London and Minneapolis. We used the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to assess ICD-10 and DSM-IV mental disorders. Results The overall qualitative and quantitative results suggested that challenges to masculinity, thwarted aspirations, devalued refugee identity, unemployment, legal uncertainties and longer duration of stay in the host country account for poor psychological well-being and psychiatric disorders among this group. Conclusion The use of a mixed-methods approach in this international study was essential since the quantitative and qualitative data provide different layers and depth of meaning and complement each other to provide a fuller picture of complex and multi-faceted life situations of refugees and asylum seekers. The comparison between the UK and US suggests that greater flexibility of access to labour markets for this refugee group might help to promote opportunities for better integration and mental well-being.
Objectives: To examine the associations between psychosocial work characteristics and fatigue in employees in the Maastricht Cohort Study. A second objective was to compare the relationships for fatigue versus psychological distress with these psychosocial work characteristics. Methods: The design was cross-sectional and included 11,020 employees who responded to the self-administered baseline questionnaire of the Maastricht Cohort Study. Fatigue was measured
U. Bültmann; I. J. Kant; C. A. P. Schröer; S. V. Kasl
Britain is increasingly multicultural, with greater potential for mixing between individuals of differing religions. While both religion and romantic partnerships offer benefits for psychological well-being, religious heterogeneity in a relationship may be detrimental. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of interfaith partnerships using the UK Household Longitudinal Study, and explore impact on well-being. Over one-fifth of individuals were in
Research on Asian Americans and their psychological adjustment is limited. Consisting of two cross-sectional studies, the present investigation examined the relationships among self-concealment, mindfulness, emotional distress in stressful interpersonal situations, and general psychological ill-health in Asian American college students, and in
Masuda, Akihiko; Wendell, Johanna W.; Chou, Ying-Yi; Feinstein, Amanda B.
Background: Few studies have examined the potentially beneficial role of positive psychological functioning in individuals with chronic pain. This study examined the relationship of psychological well-being (PWB) to pain and disability in women with fibromyalgia (FM) as compared to women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and healthy controls (HC). We targeted several domains of PWB that have been associated with health,
Holly Schleicher; Carmen Alonso; Elizabeth A. Shirtcliff; Daniel Muller; Barbara L. Loevinger; Christopher L. Coe
This study explored the association between psychological strengths and perceptions of being a victim of a bullying relationship in the school environment. Using self-report questionnaires with grades 7 and 8 students, the role of psychological strengths as potential protective factors against various forms of bullying were examined including the
Anderson, Chris G.; Rawana, Edward P.; Brownlee, Keith; Whitley, Jessica
This study explores correlates of psychological distress and relationship satisfaction among concerned significant others (CSOs) of pathological gamblers. CSOs often seek help in dealing with the gambling problem and are influential in recovery, but little is known about the sources of their distress. A sample of 186 CSOs responded to media announcements offering telephone and bibliotherapy support. In multivariate models, CSOs who were spouses and who were younger reported more personal distress, and higher distress was associated with a greater number of CSO emotional and behavioral consequences. Lower relationship satisfaction was associated with more CSO emotional consequences, fewer gambler consequences, and greater severity of gambling problem. Implications for treatment are discussed. PMID:17220742
This study explored the relationships among perceived workplace incivility, stress, burnout, perceived turnover intentions, and perceived level of psychological empowerment among acute care nurses (medical-surgical and critical care) in community and tertiary hospitals through the lens of complexity science. An exploratory study was conducted, and findings demonstrate significant relationships among workplace incivility, stress, burnout, turnover intentions, total years of nursing experience, and RN education levels. Creating targeted retention strategies and policies that will be sensitive to the needs and interests of nurses at high risk for leaving their organizations is imperative for nurse executives. PMID:24061587
Psychological contract and organizational justice theories are used in the management literature to describe the relationship between employees and employers. Provides an exploratory study that applies these theories to strategic partnerships between buyers and suppliers, drawing on logistics examples. Uses empirical data from a survey to illustrate where such relationships are working well, and where potential problems lie. Uses psychological
This study reports on the psychological well-being, life, and relationship satisfaction among a national sample of 213 stay-at-home fathers (SAHFs). Results from an Internet-based survey suggest these men report moderate to high levels of relationship and life satisfaction and moderate to low levels of psychological distress as compared with college-aged and adult men. SAHFs also reported high levels of parental
Aaron B. Rochlen; Ryan A. McKelley; Marie-Anne Suizzo; Vanessa Scaringi
This study tested whether identity formation and emotional competence mediated the relationship between childhood psychological maltreatment and adult attachment styles, and tested the differential long-term effects of psychological abuse and neglect. The sample included 187 undergraduates in romantic relationships. Measures assessed the extent of childhood trauma, family expressiveness, alexithymia, self-esteem, self-concept, and adult attachment style. Results of path analysis showed
The advent of the Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and the Internet with its subsequent use in the field of supply chains, mainly online shopping; web managed purchasing and online auctions have given rise to complex relationships between buyers and suppliers. The manner in which the buyer-supplier transactions occur have a psychological bearing similar to the transactions occurring between humans in the buyer-supplier organizations. The on-going research to study the psychological aspects of the transactions will use Transactional Analysis as a tool to identify these aspects of the relationship. The essential aspect of this view is that organizational culture plays a very strong role in the way organizations operate, and when two organizations transact with each other the individual culture is bound to play a role in the way the transaction is conducted. There are a number of factors that play a role in bringing the culture to the forefront of the transaction process. It is necessary to study these factors in order to understand why the psychological behavior is actually shown by these buyer- supplier organizations.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolution of an employee opinion survey and to evaluate its impact on the graduate training programme and associated employmentrelationships. Design/methodology/approach: The paper provides a detailed, longitudinal case study of one large-scale UK organisation. The approach recognises that
Purpose: In the current knowledge-based economic climate, the success of an organisation is inextricably linked to the individual. This article seeks to consider the key relationships between the individual, lifelong learning, the workplace and employability in the context of the knowledge society. The aim is to extend understanding of these
Repetitive strain injury, or work related upper limb disorder, provides an interesting paradigm for the study of the relative contribution of physical and psychological factors to the resulting pain and disability. Sixty three subjects were studied, comprising the work-force of a subsection of a large local industrial company, in whom pain in the arm related to work was known to be common. Ergonomic data were obtained by estimating the cumulative daily load on the wrist joint for each of four identified tasks. Data on the occurrence of pain, treatment sought, and disability were obtained by a structured self administered questionnaire. Psychological data were obtained by administering the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale, a self reported measure of anxiety and depression, and the Bradford Somatic Inventory (BSI), an inventory of somatic symptoms associated with anxiety and depression. The employment specific period prevalence of work related upper limb disorder was 81%, with 30% of the subjects having pain at the time of the study. Domestic disability was minimal in all but two subjects, though the use of devices such as jar openers at home was common (12 of 51 subjects). Medical advice was seldom sought. Twenty per cent of subjects had received anti-inflammatory drugs, 10% had received physiotherapy, and 47% had wrist splints. Pain was related to the tasks with the highest estimated daily loads, but a history of pain and current pain were associated with higher scores on the HAD and BSI scales, suggesting an interaction between physical and psychological factors.
Helliwell, P S; Mumford, D B; Smeathers, J E; Wright, V
Online social network users may leave creative, subtle cues on their public profiles to communicate their motivations and interests to other network participants. This paper explores whether psychological predictions can be made about the motivations of social network users by identifying and analyzing these cues. Focusing on the domain of relationship seeking, we predicted that people using social networks for dating would reveal that they have a single relationship status as a method of eliciting contact from potential romantic others. Based on results from a pilot study (n = 20) supporting this hypothesis, we predicted that people attempting to attract users of the same religious background would report a religious affiliation along with a single relationship status. Using observational data from 150 Facebook profiles, results from a multivariate logistic regression suggest that people providing a religious affiliation were more likely to list themselves as single (a proxy for their interest in using the network to find romantic partners) than people who do not provide religious information. We discuss the implications for extracting psychological information from Facebook profiles. To our knowledge, this is the first study to suggest that information from publicly available online social networking profiles can be used to predict people's motivations for using social networks. PMID:19366321
BACKGROUND: A large body of international research reveals that single mothers experience poorer mental health than their partnered counterparts, with socioeconomic disadvantage identified as an important contributory factor in understanding this health disparity. Much less research, however, has focused specifically on the psychological well-being of single mothers who are employed, despite their growing presence in the labor force. Of the
The roles of previous psychological service use and social network variables in beliefs about psychological services were examined with 184 college students. Having friends and family members who used psychological services, being female, and having used psychological services positively related with beliefs about psychological services.
Walter, Jeffrey P.; Yon, Kyu Jin; Skovholt, Thomas M.
This study examines the relationships among work possible selves, socioeconomic position, gender, and psychological well-being. Participants were college students in early adulthood (N = 201), aged 20 to 35. Work possible selves, a construct based on the theory of possible selves, were examined. The results showed relationships between
States that the effect of divorce on the quality of the father-child relationship and fathers' psychological well being is moderated by the residence of children. Divorce is associated with lower relationship quality only for nonresident fathers and is associated with a decline in happiness for nonresident fathers. Divorced fathers are more
Although recent reports have suggested a relationship exists between university students' debt levels and their levels of psychological well-being, no formal study has been done to test this hypothesis. Therefore, using a model of financial distress developed by Krause, Jay and Laing (1991), this study was undertaken to determine the precise nature of the relationship between students' levels of daily
This research examines the relationships between individual differences (equity sensitivity and careerism) and psychological contracts (transactional, balanced, and relational) using knowledge employees as research participants. We test the hypothesized relationships using hierarchical regression analysis with data from a sample of 452 knowledge employees from several big cities of China. The results show that equity sensitivity is positively related to transactional
This research examines the relationships between conceptions of organizational practices (POS, LMX, and perceived meaning of work) and psychological contracts (transactional, balanced, and relational) using knowledge employees as research participants. We test the hypothesized relationships using hierarchical regression analysis with data from a sample of 452 knowledge employees from several big cities of China. The results show that POS, LMX
This research comprises two studies examining the antecedents and outcomes of psychological reactance in teacher requests in the instructional context. In Study 1 we investigated the mediating role of reactance in the relationship of perceived teacher request politeness and teacher-student relationship distance with student resistance intention.
This study tested a theoretical model of one mediator and 4 moderators of the relationships between 2 masculinity variables (Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Gender Role Conflict) and Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Services (Attitudes). Self-stigma was the hypothesized mediator, and the hypothesized moderators were (a) Depression, (b) General Self-efficacy, (c) Precontemplation, and (d) Barriers to Help-seeking. A sample of 654 men responded to an online survey of 9 questionnaires. After evaluating mediation in the absence of moderation, moderated path analyses were conducted for each moderator. The relationship between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes was partially mediated by Self-stigma, whereas that between Gender Role Conflict and Attitudes was completely mediated. No indirect or direct paths involving Gender Role Conflict were moderated by any moderators. Both Depression and Barriers to Help-seeking demonstrated mediated moderation by moderating both Stage 1 (the path from Traditional Masculinity Ideology to Self-stigma) of the mediated relationships and the direct effects between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes. Precontemplation moderated the direct effect between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes. The findings suggest that the relationships between masculinity variables and men's negative help-seeking attitudes may be better understood through their relationships with other variables that serve as mediators and moderators. Findings from the present study may offer some direction in the design of interventions to remediate men's negative help-seeking attitudes. PMID:23668728
Levant, Ronald F; Stefanov, Dimitre G; Rankin, Thomas J; Halter, Margaret J; Mellinger, Chris; Williams, Christine M
Based on psychological contract theory and expectancy disconfirmation theory, we posit that if employers support their staff by endorsing their continuing education and training, these employees will in turn be more satisfied and will perform better not only in their studies but also in their jobs. We also propose that such an endorsement will
Working conditions in call/contact centers influence employees' perceptions of their relations with the organization and their attitudes to work. Such perceptions can be analyzed through the psychological contract. The association between the relational/transactional orientation of the psychological contract and intention to quit the organization was examined, as well as the mediating role of affective commitment in employment relations. Data were collected from 973 employees in a cross-sectional survey. Analysis confirmed that there was a statistically significant relation between the orientation of the psychological contract and intention to quit, which was positive for transactionally oriented and negative for relationally oriented contracts. A mediating role for affective commitment was also confirmed, and a full mediating effect was reported for both orientations. PMID:22897088
Alcover, Carlos-María; Martínez-Iñigo, David; Chambel, Maria José
Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating effect of the psychological contracts on the relationship between human\\u000a resource (HR) systems and role behavior.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design\\/Methodology\\/Approach Multilevel analyses were conducted on data gathered from 146 knowledge workers and 28 immediate managers in 25 Taiwanese high-tech\\u000a firms.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Findings Relational psychological contracts mediated the relationship between commitment-based HR systems and in-role behaviors, as
This study evaluated the prevalence and predictors of long term posttraumatic growth (PTG) after breast cancer, and relationships of PTG with psychological health in a random sample of 307 currently disease-free women 5-15 years after diagnosis. This cross-sectional study reveals long term posttraumatic growth scores comparable to those found in shorter term studies. Prevalence of a better appreciation of life is especially noteworthy. With the exception of perceived current sequelae of disease associated in a somewhat curvilinear fashion with PTG, demographic and medical variables are poor predictors of the issue. On the contrary, dispositional positive affectivity and adaptative coping of positive, active, relational, religious and to some extent denial coping have a strong effect on growth. Finally, PTG is slightly associated with mental quality of life and happiness. Findings are discussed in the light of posttraumatic growth theory. PMID:20082122
Self-care behaviors are crucial for following the complex regimen after lung transplantation, yet little is known about recipients' levels of self-care agency (the capability and willingness to engage in self-care behaviors) and its correlates. We examined levels of self-care agency and recipient characteristics (socio-demographics, psychological distress, quality of relationship with primary lay caregiver, and health locus of control) in 111 recipients. Based on Perceived Self-Care Agency scores, recipients were assigned to either the low- or high-self-care agency comparison group. Characteristics were compared between groups to identify characteristics likely to be associated with lower-self-care agency. Mean (SD) score for self-care agency (scale range, 53-265) was 223.02 (22.46). Recipients with lowest-self-care agency scores reported significantly poorer quality of caregiver relationships (p < 0.001) and greater psychological distress (p < 0.001). After controlling for psychological distress, the quality of the recipient-caregiver relationship remained significantly associated with self-care agency. Every one-point decrease in the quality of caregiver relationship increased the risk of low-self-care agency by 12%. Recipients with poorer caregiver relationships and greater psychological distress may need additional support to perform the self-care behaviors expected after lung transplantation. PMID:23004565
The objective of the present study was to examine the psychological impact of a group-oriented approach to disease management and health behaviour in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Seventeen overweight PCOS women were randomised in a crossover design of eight weeks high-intensity aerobic exercise followed by eight weeks of group counselling (n=8) or vice versa (n=9). Interpersonal communication, emotional and relational aspects were observed and analysed throughout the period focusing on changes in health behaviour. The most salient findings showed supportive relationships expressed as group cohesion, exchange of narratives of illness and of disorder-specific aspects. Individual relationships between the participants were important for changes in behaviour, especially those generating feedback from the other participants and reducing social isolation. The results were most encouraging in the group that had initial counselling sessions before the physical intervention. It can be concluded that group counselling sessions focusing on supportive relationships followed by high-intensity aerobic training have beneficial effects on wellbeing, health and exercise behaviour. PMID:24498697
Policies of deterrence, including the use of detention and temporary visas, have been widely implemented to dissuade asylum seekers from seeking protection in Western countries. The present study examined the impact of visa status change on the mental health of 97 Mandaean refugees resettled in Australia. At the time of the first survey (2004), 68 (70%) participants held temporary protection visas (TPVs) and 29 (30%) held permanent residency (PR) status, whereas by the second survey (2007), 97 (100%) participants held PR status. We tested a meditational model to determine whether the relationship between change in visa status and change in psychological symptoms was mediated by change in living difficulties associated with the visa categories. The conversion of visa status from TPV to PR status was associated with significant improvements in PTSD and depression symptoms, and increases in mental health-related quality of life (MHR-QOL). The relationship between change in visa status and reduced PTSD and depression symptoms was mediated by reductions in living difficulties. In contrast, the relationship between change in visa status and increased MHR-QOL was not mediated by changes in living difficulties. These results suggest that restriction of rights and access to services related to visa status negatively affect the mental health of refugees. Implications for government policies regarding refugees are discussed. PMID:21296428
Abstract Objective Limited research in Taiwan and Europe suggest that hope is inversely correlated with certain dimensions of the pain experience. However, the relationship between hope and pain among oncology outpatients in the United States has not been evaluated. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between hope and cancer pain, after accounting for key psychological, demographic, and clinical characteristics. Design We enrolled a convenience sample of 78 patients who were receiving concurrent oncologic and symptom-focused care in a comprehensive cancer center. Patient demographic and clinical information was obtained from patient report and medical record review. Patients completed the Herth Hope Index, the Brief Pain Inventory, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Steinhauser Spiritual Concern Probe. Results Levels of hope were not associated with age, gender, or the presence of metastatic disease. Herth Hope Index scores were negatively correlated with average pain intensity (p=0.02), worst pain intensity (p<0.01), pain interference with function (p<0.05), anxiety (p<0.01), and depression (p<0.01), and were positively correlated with spiritual well-being scores (p<0.01). However, after controlling for depression and spiritual well-being with regression analysis, the relationship between pain intensity and hope was no longer significant. Conclusions While an association exists between the patients' experience of pain and levels of hope in this study, adjustment for depression and spiritual well being eliminates the relationship initially observed. Although the causal relationships have yet to be determined, in our study hope had a stronger connection to psycho-spiritual factors, than to pain experiences or severity.
Abstract Objective: To determine if correlations exist between employment status and sexual functioning in persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Design: Descriptive cross-sectional. Setting: Community. Participants: One hundred and forty-six English-speaking, community dwelling adults, without other neurological or psychiatric disorder that could impact outcome and (1) enrolled in TBI Model Systems sexuality study database or (2) admitted to Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago with primary diagnosis of TBI between 2004-2006. Main outcome measures: Employment status, annual income, Derogatis Interview for Sexual Functioning Self Report (DISF-SR) sum and sub-scale scores, Global Sexual Satisfaction Index (GSSI). Results: No significant difference was found in GSSI scores between employed, unemployed or students/volunteers (p?=?0.20); however, lower income marginally correlated with lower GSSI scores (p?=?0.09). Marginally significant lower DISF-SR Sexual Cognition sub-group (p?=?0.09) scores were found in unemployed vs. employed. Lower annual income also correlated with lower DISF-SR sum scores (p?=?0.06), Sexual cognition/fantasy (p?=?0.07), Orgasm/ejaculation (p?=?0.003) and Sexual drive and relationship (p?=?0.01) scores. Conclusions: Lower quality sexual functioning and satisfaction was present in persons with TBI and concomitant unemployment or lower annual income. Efforts are needed to increase awareness amongst the TBI population and rehabilitation professionals of the potential impact unemployment or financial stress has on sexual functioning and satisfaction. PMID:24702630
In the field of international human resource management, studies have seldom examined organizational justice, social exchange, and psychological contract together as important factors in influencing the expatriate adjustment process. The purpose of this research is to fill the research gap by examining these factors and their relationships with expatriate adjustment. The researcher conducted a survey of Taiwanese business expatriates during
The eighth volume of the introduction to psychology and leadership course (see the final reports which summarize the development project, EM 010 418, EM 010 419, and EM 010 484) concentrates on senior-subordinate relationships, and is presented in two separate documents. Like Volume One (EM 010 420), this document is a self-instructional syndactic
The eighth volume of the introduction to psychology and leadership course (see the final reports which summarize the development project, EM 010 418, EM 010 419, and EM 010 484) concentrates on senior-subordinate relationships, and is presented in two separate documents. This document is a linear text with information and quizzes. EM 010 438 is
The content is outlined and the terminal and enabling objectives are provided for a curriculum area on senior-subordinate relationships (see EM 010 437, EM 010 438, EM 010 460, and EM 010 469), part of an introduction to psychology and leadership course for the United States Naval Academy (see the final reports which summarize the course
The current study investigated gender differences in the relationship between sources of perceived support (parent, teacher, classmate, friend, school) and psychological and academic adjustment in a sample of 636 (49% male) middle school students. Longitudinal data were collected at two time points in the same school year. The study provided
Background: Media use is associated with an increased risk of chronic disease and reduced quality of life among children. This study examined the relationship between media use during discretionary hours after school and psychological and physical assets among preadolescent girls. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using data from a
Racine, Elizabeth F.; DeBate, Rita D.; Gabriel, Kelley P.; High, Robin R.
Examines the relationship between partner physical victimization and a range of psychological and psychosocial functioning in a sample of couples (N=6,453). Explores whether gender interacted with factors to predict victimization. Increased levels of victimization were associated with greater levels of depression but no significant interactions
Zlotnick, Caron; Kohn, Robert; Peterson, Johan; Pearlstein, Teri
This study examined the relationships among academic and psychological attitudes and academic achievement of first-year students. The College Resilience Scale, the Academic Motivation Scale, the College Self-Efficacy Inventory, and the University Environment Scale were administered to 164 first-year undergraduate students enrolled at a large RU/VH
Central to this study is the emerging body of knowledge describing how social exchange relationships are being nurtured. A random sample of 343 Australian distributor firms from within the motorized vehicle industry was used to test a model developed on the basis of social exchange theory. Psychological contracts are perceptual in nature and were found to encompass reciprocal obligations stemming
This exploratory study examines the relationships between self-esteem and psychological adjustment among 19 adolescents with Asperger syndrome and 19 typically developing adolescents using a model developed by Harter. The groups were matched for age (mean 13 years), sex (M:F 16:3) and ethnicity (white British). Participants completed four
The aim of this study was to: (a) explore the levels of four factors (psychological well-being, perceived stress, coping styles, and social support) among undergraduates; (b) acquire an accurate description of the demographic variables; (c) explore the relationships among the four factors after controlling for the possible intervening demographic
Arulrajah, Annette Ananthi; Harun, Lily Mastura Haji
We examined the strategies that people with osteoarthritis (OA) use to cope with illness-related problems in four areas: household\\u000a activities, leisure activities, pain management, and social relationships. We also examined the relationship between the coping\\u000a strategies participants reported using upon entry to the study (Time 1) and psychological well-being reported six months later.\\u000a Three hundred people, aged 50 and over,
Susan J. Blalock; Brenda M. DeVellis; Karen B. Giorgino
Organizational choices shape the way in which individuals experience their employmentrelationship. Given the multiple differences between the public and the private sectors, this study seeks to identify variations in employee perceptions of their psychological contract depending upon the sector in which they work. The psychological contract is seen as lying at the heart of the employer-employee exchange relationship. The
Dating in adolescence plays an integral part in the development of sexual and social identities. This process is particularly salient for sexual minority youth who face additional obstacles to their identity formation due to their marginalized status. We investigated the influence of participating in a same-sex relationship (SSR) or an opposite-sex relationship (OSR) on sexual minority youths' psychological well-being (i.e., symptoms of depression, anxiety and internalized homophobia, and self-esteem) in an ethnically-diverse sample of 350 youth (55% male) between the ages of 15-19 years, recruited from three GLBT drop-in centers in the New York City area. Using longitudinal data, we examined youths' SSR and OSR over time. Multivariate regression analyses suggest that involvement in a SSR was positively associated with changes in self-esteem in males, and negatively correlated with changes in internalized homophobia in females. We discuss the implications for positive development in sexual minority adolescent populations. PMID:20535536
Bauermeister, José A; Johns, Michelle Marie; Sandfort, Theo G M; Eisenberg, Anna; Grossman, Arnold H; D'Augelli, Anthony R
Chronic psychological stressis a risk factor formultiple diseases of aging. Accelerated cellular aging as indexed by short telomere length has emerged as a potential common biological mechanism linking various forms of psychological stress and diseases of aging. Stress appraisals determine the degree and type of biological stress responses and altered stress appraisals may be a common psychological mechanism linking psychological stress and diseases of aging. However, no previous studies have examined the relationship between stress appraisals and telomere length. We exposed chronically stressed female caregivers and non-caregiving controls (N= 50; M age = 62.14±6.10) to a standardized acute laboratory stressor and measured their anticipatory and retrospective threat and challenge appraisals of the stressor. We hypothesized that threat and challenge appraisals would be associated with shorter and longer telomere length respectively, and that chronic care giving stress would influence telomere length through altered stress appraisals. Higher anticipatory threat appraisals were associated with shorter age-adjusted telomere length (? = ?.32, p = .03), but challenge appraisals and retrospective threat appraisals showed no independent association with telomere length. Caregivers reported significantly higher anticipatory (? = ?.36, p = .006)and retrospective (? = ?.29, p = .03) threat appraisals than controls, but similar challenge appraisals. Although there was no significant main effect of caregiver status on telomere length, care giving had a significant indirect effect on telomere length through anticipatory threat appraisals. Exaggerated anticipatory threat appraisals may be a common and modifiable psychological mechanism of psychological stress effects on cellular aging.
O'Donovan, Aoife; Tomiyama, A. Janet; Lin, Jue; Puterman, Eli; Adler, Nancy E.; Kemeny, Margaret; Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.; Epel, Elissa S.
Cancer may be localized in a variety of areas in the human body. This localization is associated with significant issues concerning not only therapy and prognosis but also psychological and psychiatric problems that the patient may be confronted with. The psychic impact on the patient is determined to a significant degree by the symbolism the affected organ carries. The symbolic significance of a sick body area triggers emotions and sets in motion self-defence mechanisms. In this way, patients deal with the new psychic reality that cancer creates. Therapeutic choices may include interventions, involving mutilation, which cause disfigurement and major consequences in the body image which result in narcissistic injuries. The phenomenology of anxiety and depressive disorders is connected to the affected body area. The appearance of cancer not only in sexual organs but also in other body areas, may disturb sexual function and therefore lead to sexual disorders. Especially, head and neck are connected with vital functions. This area of the body has had a major impact on psychic reality since early life. Complicated psychic functions have developed in relation to organs of the head and neck. Therefore, localization of cancer in this area leads to individual psychological and psychiatric problems, since eating and breathing are harmed, verbal communication becomes difficult and body image alters. Also, increased incidence of alcohol and nicotine abuse in these patients reflects special aspects of psychic structure and personality. Because of severe somatic symptoms and poor prognosis, lung cancer patients feel hopelessness and helplessness. Patients with gynaecological cancer are confronted with a disease that affects organs like breast and internal female sexual organs associated with femininity, attractiveness and fertility. Dietary habits are often a source of guilt for patients who suffer from cancer of the gastrointestinal tract. Additionally, stomas, as colostomy, affect body image and cause feelings of embarrassment with severe consequences on the patient's sense of wellbeing, his or her daily activities, interpersonal relationships or sexuality. Depressive symptoms often occur in prodromal stages of pancreatic cancer. Depression is a common diagnosis in patients with prostate cancer. Prostatectomy negatively affects patient's self-esteem, because it might be experienced as a threat to his sexual life. Disfigurement is related to skin cancer because of both cancer and surgical procedures. Therefore, it is a challenge for modern psycho-oncology to identify those patients who are vulnerable in developing psychiatric symptoms, to early diagnose anxiety and depression and to use psychotherapeutic interventions targeting individual psychological and psychiatric problems in relation to the localization of disease in the human body. PMID:22549040
Moussas, G I; Papadopoulou, A G; Christodoulaki, A G; Karkanias, A P
Early onset of alcohol consumption may increase the risk of physical disease and psychological disorders. The relationship between alcohol consumption during youth/early adulthood and subsequent employment is not fully known. With fewer opportunities for ...
C. G. Moore J. Y. Wang K. J. Bennett M. Mink M. P. Powell
The authors investigate employer practices toward expatriate managers and how those practices relate to retention-relevant outcomes (e.g., organizational commitment, intent to quit, and intent to return early to a domestic assignment). The psychological contract is investigated as a mediator of this relationship. A model in which the psychological contract mediates the relationship between organizational practices and retention-relevant outcomes is empirically
Richard A. Guzzo; Katherine A. Noonan; Efrat Elron
This study examined the association between social skills and psychological well-being, operationalized through a variety of positive psychological states. It was hypothesized that positive relations with other people would mediate the association between social skills and psychological well-being. A community based sample of 703 adults, aged 1887 completed measures of social skills, positive relations with others, and the following indicators
Relations between ethnic backgrounds, family socioeconomic status, leisure participation, and psychological well-being were explored. Participants returned 827 valid pencil-and-paper surveys. An increase in student-athlete leisure participation was associated with better psychological well-being and sense of accomplishment. Compared with Aboriginal student-athletes, Han student-athletes had higher passive leisure participation; there was no correlation between their families' socioeconomic status and the student-athletes' leisure participation or psychological well-being. PMID:24611242
Explores the relationship between wife's employment, sex-role traditionalism, and reported division of household tasks and decisions. Findings suggest that despite differences among women in sex-role traditionalism and employment status, most women say that they and their spouses divide tasks in a traditional sex-role fashion. (Author)
Summary Foreign workers seek overseas employment without sponsorship from a firm in their home country and hold temporary work visas in the host country. Despite the rising numbers of for- eign workers, there is very little research that examines employmentrelationships and work behaviors of foreign workers. In this study, we draw on social exchange theory and predict differences in
The impact of academic/corporate partnerships on employmentrelationships on college campuses is examined, with attention to the concerns of faculty, administrations, and corporations. Topics such as patent and copyright ownership, conflict of interest, and collective bargaining relationships are discussed, along with the question of negotiating
The purpose of this study was to understand the extent to which students' psychological sense of community was influenced by IM use using the psychological sense of community theoretical framework created by McMillan and Chavis (1986), and the student development theoretical frameworks created by Schlossberg (1989) and Astin (1984). Thus, this
This exploratory study examines the relationships between self-esteem and psychological adjustment among 19 adolescents with Asperger syndrome and 19 typically developing adolescents using a model developed by Harter. The groups were matched for age (mean 13 years), sex (M:F 16:3) and ethnicity (white British). Participants completed four quantitative measures examining self-competencies, social approval, anxiety, depression and self-worth. Findings revealed significant group differences: the adolescents with Asperger syndrome perceived themselves to be less competent in social and athletic domains, and to receive less peer approval. Logistic regression analyses indicated that the variables studied were particularly relevant in distinguishing group differences and worked together in predicting group membership. Indeed the variables in the final model accurately predicted group membership for all individuals in the sample. Exploratory hierarchical multiple regression analyses suggested that the two groups had different patterns of relationships between measures of self-competencies, social approval and psychological outcomes. PMID:18579646
The authors conducted a meta-analysis of the literature on associations between trauma survivors' PTSD symptoms and the (a) relationship quality and (b) psychological distress of intimate partners. Results yielded a small combined effect size (r = -.24) for the association between PTSD and partners' perceived relationship quality. Gender and military status moderated this association with a larger effect size for female partners of male trauma survivors than for male partners of female trauma survivors and a larger effect size for military samples than for civilians. The effect size of the association between PTSD and partners' psychological distress was moderate in magnitude (r = .30). Analysis of hypothesized moderators indicated this association was stronger among military than civilian samples. The association was also stronger among samples of survivors who experienced traumatic events in the more distant past compared with those who experienced more recent events. Results support the systemic impact of one family member's PTSD symptoms and highlight areas for future research. PMID:22924422
The current study investigated gender differences in the relationship between sources of perceived support (parent, teacher,\\u000a classmate, friend, school) and psychological and academic adjustment in a sample of 636 (49% male) middle school students.\\u000a Longitudinal data were collected at two time points in the same school year. The study provided psychometric support for the\\u000a Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale
This study investigated the relationship between three dimensions of perfectionism (i.e., self-oriented perfectionism, other-oriented perfectionism, and socially prescribed perfectionism) and achievement in a graduate-level research methodology course among 130 psychology students. Achievement, which involved students knowledge of research concepts, methodologies, and applications, was measured individually in all sections via comprehensive written midterm and final examinations. A canonical correlation analysis revealed
Lisa A. Witcher; Elizabeth S. Alexander; Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie; Kathleen M. T. Collins; Ann E. Witcher
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between HIV-related disclosure and quality of life, anxiety and depression among HIV-infected subjects in South India. Methodology: 68 subjects (35 men and 33 women) were assessed for quality of life and psychological morbidity using WHOQOL-BREF and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Details of disclosure were collected using
Prabha S Chandra; S Deepthivarma; K. R Jairam; Tinku Thomas
The impact of pain beliefs on coping and adjustment is well established. However, less is known about how beliefs unrelated to pain might impact upon this experience. In particular, just world beliefs could impact upon and be influenced by chronic pain, given that pain is not experienced in a vacuum but instead is experienced in a social context where justice issues are potentially salient. The focus of this study was the ability of personal and general just world beliefs to moderate the relationshipspsychological distress held with pain intensity and disability in chronic pain. The sample (N=95) was recruited from members of arthritis and fibromyalgia support groups to investigate these social beliefs in a controlled community pain context. A cross-sectional, questionnaire design was adopted. The personal just world belief was endorsed significantly more than the general just world belief, and endorsement of the personal just world belief was negatively correlated with pain intensity, disability and psychological distress, while the general just world belief was unrelated to these variables. When interaction terms relating to personal and general just world beliefs were entered simultaneously into regression analyses, the personal just world belief did not predict psychological distress. However, pain intensity positively predicted psychological distress at low but not high levels of the general just world belief, while disability predicted psychological distress at low and high levels of this belief. This suggests that a strong general just world belief has implications for psychological well-being in chronic pain, and as such this belief may occupy a potential coping function in this context. PMID:19121590
A study was conducted to determine whether there is a relationship between the psychological types of copywriting students and performance in a copywriting class. The goal was to develop a program of instruction which would systematically alter psychological makeup in a constructive manner to enable students to become better copywriters. Subjects,
The issue of what antecedents of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and psychological contracts (PC) employees form with their organization has also been of interest as they have many implications on an employee's extra-role behavior, specifically ...
The purpose of this research was to identify the effect of psychological empowerment (PE) on social network location and individual performance. This study sought to test three hypotheses, which were introduced through a comprehensive literature review, r...
In this work, we present a new way of understanding psychology, which emerges as a result of relating it to the three principles of the theory of fashion of Gilles Lipovetsky: "the principle of the ephemeral," "the principle of the marginal differentiation of individuals," and "the principle of seduction." We relate the first principle to the plurality of the diverse and changing "schools and systems" that have existed throughout the history of psychology. We apply the second to the figure of the psychologist, considered individually, revealing his or her leading role in the generation of the changing plurality of the systems. By means of the third principle, we point up that the diverse psychologies are forms of seduction. We conclude by stating that psychology has the form of fashion and we analyze how this form can help us to better understand it. PMID:19476249
This article examines the association between job role quality and psychological distress in a sample of 300 full-time employed dual-earner couples, controlling for such individual level variables as age, education, occupational prestige, and marital quality and for such couple level variables as length of marriage, parental status, and household income. The magnitude of this effect is compared for men and for women. Results indicate that job role quality is significantly negatively associated with psychological distress for women as well as for men and that the magnitude of the effect depends little, if at all, on gender, casting doubt on the widely held view that job experiences more significantly influence men's mental health states than women's. The results are discussed in the context of differentiating between sex differences and gender differences. PMID:8505708
Barnett, R C; Marshall, N L; Raudenbush, S W; Brennan, R T
A significant number of empirical studies have reported that parental support for basic psychological needs is a robust correlate of adolescent happiness. Yet, less is known about the mechanisms responsible for this link. The present study proposed a model suggesting that personal sense of uniqueness explains why satisfaction of basic psychological needs in parent-child relationships is related to happiness. This mediational model was tested among late adolescents in Turkey and the United States. Analyses relying on structural equation modeling and bootstrapping supported the model in both cultures. Implications of the findings for theory and cross-cultural research are discussed. Directions for future research that could improve our understanding of the dynamic interplay between basic needs, sense of uniqueness and well-being are provided. PMID:24946386
In this paper, we argue that the concept of the psychological contract can be understood as a discourse that reflects dominant managerial ideologies regarding the nature of the employmentrelationship. Using qualitative case study data collected from employers and employees working in small businesses in the private care sector, we illustrate how participation in the discourse of the psychological contract
Introduction: The study reported here explored the relationship between the self-perceived computer competence and employment outcomes of transition-aged youths with visual impairments. Methods: Data on 200 in-school youths and 190 out-of-school youths with a primary disability of visual impairment were retrieved from the database of the first
This background paper examines the relationship between child abuse and the workplace and discusses employer-based strategies that can reduce the stress levels of working parents and provide a buffer against problems of child abuse and neglect. Part 1, "Child Abuse and the World of Work," discusses the kinds of stress experienced by working
Abstract: In recent years, there has been a rapid rise in atypical, precarious forms of employment in all European Union states, and the political significance of the issue of employment in the cultural sector has increased noticeably. There are several reasons for this. One is the change from a post-industrial economy to a cultural economy and a forced process of
This study investigated the main effects and the interaction effects of psychological contract breach and hostile attributional style on employee deviance (i.e., interpersonal deviance and organizational deviance). Data were collected from 233 employees and their supervisors in eight electronic companies in Taiwan. Results demonstrate that
Although both have been used in studies of the impact of mental illness on the family, the constructs of caregiver strain (often referred to as burden of care) and psychological distress have not been clearly distinguished. The vagueness surrounding these constructs, and the lack of a cohesive conceptual framework for understanding how they relate, leads to contradictory interpretations of results.
Comparison of attitudes of 40 young adult substance abusers and 40 nonabusers found perceived parental rejection in childhood was higher among abusers than nonabusers and substance abusers were more impaired in their current psychological adjustment than nonabusers. These two variables and education level produced classification accuracy of 91.2
Background: Childhood sexual and physical abuse has been related to subsequent offending behaviour in non-disabled individuals as well as people with intellectual disabilities, but there is a dearth of research examining the link between these two characteristics and psychological, behavioural and psychiatric symptoms amongst sex offenders with
The limited research that exists about sibling relationships during adulthood has employed primarily sociological variables. Psychological aspects of the sibling relationship were explored in a sample of 35 women and 9 men with a mean age of 59. Subjects completed the California Psychological Inventory, the Scale of Sibling Relationships, and the
The present study includes externalizing problems, internalizing problems, mother-adolescent relationship quality, and father-adolescent relationship quality in the same structural equation model and tests the longitudinal reciprocal association among all four variables over a 1-year period. A transactional model in which adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems are negatively related to the quality of adolescents' relationships with their parents and relationship quality
Kostas A. Fanti; Christopher C. Henrich; Kathryn A. Brookmeyer; Gabriel P. Kuperminc
In this retrospective study, 210 college freshmen completed questionnaires assessing frequency of childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse; childhood bully victimization by peers; and current psychological distress. It was found that those who were bully victims experienced higher rates of emotional (M = 25.57 vs. 17.01) and physical maltreatment (M = 2.96 vs. 0.94) by parents and more childhood sexual
The Body Mass Index (BMI) was created in order to classify individuals into body weight categories ranging from below normal\\u000a to very obese, depending on the individuals weight and height. The Body Mass Index has been identified as a marker for psychological\\u000a issues such as self-control, self-esteem, depression, and anxiety. This study used a data matrix composed of a sample
Miranda J. Ours; William U. Weiss; Cary Rostow; Robert Davis
The results from the Myers-Briggs 7Tpe Indicator (MBTI), which identified preferred psychological traits for 131 nursing students, were compared to their usage levels of course objectives in an undergraduate course in anatomy and physiology. The three usage levels (user, occasional user, and nonuser) were also compared to exam scores in the course, overall grade point averages (GPA) in first-year nursing,
P. H. Harasym; E. J. Leong; G. E. Lucier; F. L. Lorschelder
Context Hope may be important in explaining the variability in how patients adjust to lung cancer. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine how hope, as conceptualized by Snyder and colleagues, is associated with multiple indices of adjustment to lung cancer. This theoretical model of hope suggests that people with high levels of hope are able to think about the pathways to goals (pathways) and feel confident that they can pursue those pathways to reach their goals (agency). Methods We hypothesized that higher levels of hope, as measured by Snyder et al.s hope scale, would be related to lower levels of pain and other lung cancer symptoms (i.e., fatigue, cough) and lower psychological distress (i.e., depression). Participants in this study included patients with a diagnosis of lung cancer (n = 51). All participants provided demographic and medical information and completed measures of hope, lung cancer symptoms, and psychological distress. Results Data analyses found that hope was inversely associated with major symptoms of cancer (i.e., pain, fatigue, cough) and psychological distress (i.e., depression), even after accounting for important demographic and medical variables (i.e., age, cancer stage). Conclusion The findings of this cross-sectional study highlight the potential importance of hope in understanding adjustment to lung cancer. Future longitudinal research could help reveal how hope and adjustment interact over the course of cancer survivorship.
Berendes, David; Keefe, Francis J.; Somers, Tamara J.; Kothadia, Sejal M.; Porter, Laura S.; Cheavens, Jennifer S.
Contents: Introduction to forensic psychology; Psychological structure of the administration of justice; The methods of forensic psychology; Psychological fundamentals of preliminary investigation; Psychological fundamentals of court proceedings; Psycholo...
This study examined the association between generativity and psychological well-being for a subsample of 1882 mid- to late-life parents using the MIDUS data set. Guided by Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, we tested a structural model of psychological well-being that also included direct and indirect effects (via generativity) of remembered pre-adult relationships with parents and current parental experiences with offspring
Relationships were investigated between home practice of mindfulness meditation exercises and levels of mindfulness, medical\\u000a and psychological symptoms, perceived stress, and psychological well-being in a sample of 174 adults in a clinical Mindfulness-Based\\u000a Stress Reduction (MBSR) program. This is an 8- session group program for individuals dealing with stress-related problems,\\u000a illness, anxiety, and chronic pain. Participants completed measures of mindfulness,
This paper reports on the relationships between quality of life, spiritual well-being, and psychological adjustment styles for people living with leukaemia. Participants were 40 adults (26 women and 14 men) aged between 22 and 80 years living with acute or chronic leukaemia in Western Australia. Participants completed three scales measuring spiritual well-being (FACIT-Sp-12-C Version 4; Cella, 1997), psychological adjustment styles
Moira OConnor; Andrew Guilfoyle; Lauren Breen; Firdaus Mukhardt; Colleen Fisher
This study examines a unique contingent employmentrelationshipthat between tour guides and tour operators in Ecuador. Linkages\\u000a among tour operators HR practices, interactions between operations managers and tour guides, and the tour guides attitudes\\u000a toward both the tour operator and the ultimate tourist-client are investigated. Tour guides are found to exhibit dual commitments\\u000a to both operators and tourist-clients. Affective commitment
Monica C. Gavino; Patricia G. Martinez; Stanley B. Malos
This study describes a series of focus groups conducted with employers. A series of 10 focus groups was conducted in 10 different communities in a midwestern state, with small, medium, and large communities represented. A total of 67 participants, representing human resources offices and direct supervisors, responded to questions regarding
This study examined the kind of employment taken by male junior college graduates and related it to their college training, whether regular lower division (transfer) or vocational (terminal). A questionnaire was sent to 369 alumni of three California junior colleges three years after graduation; 276 of them responded. A year later, 28 of those who
...or treated as Federal employees for any purpose...eligible for civil service employee benefits, including...appearance of such a relationship, agencies shall observe...on use of individual employee of a temporary help...assignment of tasks, and review of work products,...
...or treated as Federal employees for any purpose...eligible for civil service employee benefits, including...appearance of such a relationship, agencies shall observe...on use of individual employee of a temporary help...assignment of tasks, and review of work products,...
A number of studies suggest that demographic characteristics may be related to individuals' satisfaction with their work. If gender does relate to job satisfaction, this relationship might be partly explained by a mediating effect of another set of variables--individuals' reasons for working. Because the effect of socialization on work attitudes
Genuine moral disagreement exists and is widespread. To understand such disagreement, we must examine the basic kinds of social relationships people construct across cultures and the distinct moral obligations and prohibitions these relationships entail. We extend relational models theory (Fiske, 1991) to identify 4 fundamental and distinct moral motives. Unity is the motive to care for and support the integrity
ABSTRACTThe health-care reform promised by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of March 2010 continues our dependence on a central feature of the American health-care system: employer-sponsored insurance (ESI). In this article I will criticize the assumptions regarding market and welfare concerns on which this dependence is based and argue that efforts to mandate ESI ignore both the dynamics
Individual wellness comprises both psychological and physiological wellbeing, which are interrelated. In long-term monitoring of wellness, both components should be included. Work-related stress and burnout are persistent problems in industrial countries. Early identification of work-related stress symptoms and early intervention could reduce individual suffering and improve the working productivity and creativity. The goal of this study was to explore the relationship between physiological and psychological variables measured at home by the users themselves or automatically. In all, 17 (3 males and 14 females, age 40-62) people participating in a work ability rehabilitation program (due to work overload) were monitored for three months. Physiological and behavioral variables (activity, bed occupancy, heart rate (HR) and respiration during night, HR during day, blood pressure, steps, weight, room illumination, and temperature) were measured with different unobtrusive wireless sensors. Daily self-assessment of stress, mood, and behaviors (exercise, sleep) were collected using a mobile phone diary. The daily self-assessment of stress and the Derogatis stress profile questionnaire were used as reference for stress status. Results show modest, but significant pooled overall correlations between self-assessed stress level, and physiological and behavioral variables (e.g., sleep length measured with wrist-worn activity monitor: rho = -0.22, p < 0.001, and variance of nightly bedroom illumination: rho = 0.13, p < 0.001). Strong, but sometimes conflicting correlations can be found at individual level, suggesting individual reactions to stress in daily life. PMID:19272856
Pärkkä, Juha; Merilahti, Juho; Mattila, Elina M; Malm, Esko; Antila, Kari; Tuomisto, Martti T; Saarinen, Ari Viljam; van Gils, Mark; Korhonen, Ilkka
Twenty-five introductory college psychology textbooks are analyzed for terms most frequently used, the textbooks which employed the largest number of frequently used terms; similarity among textbooks; and the relationship between readability and technical thoroughness of the texts. (Author/JR)
Customized Employment is the voluntary negotiation of a personalized employmentrelationship between a specific individual and an employer that fulfills the business needs of the employer. The negotiation process addresses areas such as job duties, terms ...
The relationship between social development and a sense of personal identity in early adulthood was explored. Information was gathered by structured interviews with randomly selected older students (N = 111, average age 24.1 years). Cluster analysis showed that 9.1% of the sample was very socially isolated but not dissatisfied with that, 28.3% had few social relationships but were very committed
Our research explores the correlates of spiritual experiences over a 2-year period in a sample of older adults (N = 164; mean age 81.9 years) living in a continuing care retirement community. Utilizing responses to the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale, scores were analyzed for changes over time and for their hypothesized moderating effect in the relationship between chronic illness impact and markers of psychological well-being (as measured by the Geriatric Depression and Life Satisfaction scales). Repeated measures ANOVA indicated a significant decline (P < .01) in the reported spiritual experiences over a 2-year period of time, and t tests showed a significant difference by gender (P < .01) in years 1 and 2, with women reporting higher levels of spiritual experiences than men. Analyses found low spirituality scores associated with low life satisfaction in all years (baseline: r = -.288, P < .01; year 1: r = -.209, P < .05; year 2: r = -.330, P < .001). Only weak associations were detected between low spirituality and the presence of depressive symptoms at baseline (r = .186, P < .05) and year 2 (r = .254, P < .01). Moderation effects of spirituality on the relationship between chronic illness impact and markers of psychological well-being were explored in all years, with a statistically significant effect found only for the presence of depressive symptoms in year 2. Higher impact of chronic illnesses is associated with more depressive symptoms under conditions of low spirituality. Future research may center upon longer-duration evaluation of reliance upon spiritual practices and their impact in care management models. PMID:21604081
Ballew, Shoshana H; Hannum, Susan M; Gaines, Jean M; Marx, Katherine A; Parrish, John M
Summary Although organizational support theory and psychological contract theory both stress social exchange processes in the establishment and maintenance of the employee-employer rela- tionship, they have focused on different aspects of this relationship. We suggest that, far from being independent, the different parts of the employee-employer association considered by the two theories are mutually interdependent. Further, key processes identified by
The different possibilities of orientation of the systems of axes currently employed in flight mechanics are compiled and described. Of the three possible couplings between the wind and aircraft axes, the most suitable coupling is that in which the y axis is made the principal axis of rotation for one of the two coupling angles (angles of attack). In connection with this coupling, an experimental system of axes is introduced, whose axes x(sub e) and z(sub e) are situated in the plane of symmetry of the airplane and rotate about the airplane lateral axis y = y(sub e). This system of axes enables the utilization of the coefficients obtained in the wind tunnel in the flight-mechanic equations by a simple transformation, with the aid of the angle of attack, measured in the plane of symmetry of the airplane.
Discusses trivia related to the history of psychology (with many fun examples such as: What are the names of Pavlov's original dogs?) and the relationship of this game to students learning how to use library resources (in attempts to answer such trivia questions), as well as the relevance of such knowledge.
This volume comprehensively reviews the research on the psychology of the middle aged (ages 40-65). Topics include the concept of maturity and maturation models, the measurement and influences of adult self image; marriage and sexual patterns; intergenerational relationships between and children; vocations and avocations (work, retirement, play,
Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3-9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent-child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior
Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E.
The present study investigated the relationship between immunoglobulin levels and work stress and personality factors in a population of healthy air force aviators, and also if such factors were related to health complaints. Sixty-four aviators participated, 31 fighter pilots and 33 from a Hercules C130 squadron. Significant correlations were found between environmental stress factors, perceived health complaints and levels of
Ragnar J. Værnes; Grete Myhre; Henrik Aas; Terje Homnes; Ivar Hansen; Olav Tonder
Objective: This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ) in measuring adolescent humor, including the relationship between humor and coping style, defense style, depressive symptoms, and adjustment in a non-clinical sample of adolescents. Method: Humor, coping, defense strategies, depressive symptoms,
Reminiscence has long been considered an integral part of the aging process, whether as a form of cultural transmission or as a method of strengthening the ego structure. To examine the form of reminiscence defined as life review and its relationship to adjustment in the final stages of development, older Canadian adults (N=82) completed a
A review of research on AIDS preventive behavior indicates that minority and nonminority heterosexual adolescents and adults, gay men, injection drug users, and commercial sex workers are all less likely to practice safer sex with close relationship partners, compared with partners they perceive to be \\
Stephen J. Misovich; Jeffrey D. Fisher; William A. Fisher
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess infertile couples' short-term emotional responses to their first IVF treatment (the women's and men's emotional reactions and their experiences of the marital relationship at dif- ferent stages of the first treatment) and to relate these responses to the outcome of the IVF treatment. METHODS: The study was part of a prospective,
Objectives: The purpose of the study was to examine three aspects of romantic relationships of Spanish adolescents: the prevalence of verbal-emotional and physical aggressive behaviors, correlates of dating violence perpetration (both verbal-emotional and physical aggression), and consequences of violence for victims' well-being. Method: A
Test items for the introduction to psychology and leadership course (see the final reports which summarize the course development project, EM 010 418, EM 010 419, and EM 010 484) which were compiled as part of the project documentation and which are coordinated with the text-workbook on senior-subordinate relationships (EM 010 437, EM 010 438, EM
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review and synthesise literature on the role of human resource practices (HRP) in shaping employee psychological contract (PC). Based on this review, a conceptual framework for examining the relationship between HRP and PC and their impact on employee attitudes as well as behaviour has been put forward for
We examined the co-occurrence of and risk factors for adolescent boys' and girls' self-reported use of psychologically, physically, and sexually abusive behaviours in their dating relationships. The participants were 324 boys and 309 girls in grades 7, 9, or 11 who completed surveys at school. Descriptive analyses showed that 19% of boys and 26%
Sears, Heather A.; Sandra Byers, E.; Lisa Price, E.
Vigor is a positive affect experienced at work. It refers to feelings of possessing physical strength, emotional energy, and cognitive liveliness. Accumulated evidence suggests that vigor has a protective effect on health, but the mechanisms of this link remain to be discovered. This study focused on sleep quality as one possible mechanism. We used a full-panel, longitudinal design to investigate the hypothesis that changes in vigor over time have inverse effects on insomnia and vice versa. The study was conducted on a multi-occupational sample of working adults (N = 1,414, 70 % men) at three time points (T1, T2, and T3), over a period of about 3 years. Vigor was assessed by the Shirom-Melamed Vigor Measure, while insomnia was assessed by the Brief Athens Insomnia Scale. Results of SEM-analyses, controlling for neuroticism, and other potential confounding variables, offered a strong support for the study hypotheses, indicating cross-lagged reciprocal inverse relationships between vigor and insomnia. The results suggest that vigor has a protective effect on sleep quality and that vigor might positively influence health through this pathway. PMID:23653015
Background Research on contextual and neighborhood effects increasingly includes the built (physical) environment's influences on health and social well-being. A population-based study examined whether architectural features of the built environment theorized to promote observations and social interactions (e.g., porches, windows) predict Hispanic elders psychological distress. Methods Coding of built environment features of all 3,857 lots across 403 blocks in East Little Havana, Florida, and enumeration of elders in 16,000 households was followed by assessments of perceived social support and psychological distress in a representative sample of 273 low socioeconomic status (SES) Hispanic elders. Structural-equation modeling was used to assess relationships between block-level built environment features, elders perceived social support, and psychological distress. Results Architectural features of the front entrance such as porches that promote visibility from a building's exterior were positively associated with perceived social support. In contrast, architectural features such as window areas that promote visibility from a building's interior were negatively associated with perceived social support. Perceived social support in turn was associated with reduced psychological distress after controlling for demographics. Additionally, perceived social support mediated the relationship of built environment variables to psychological distress. Conclusions Architectural features that facilitate direct, in-person interactions may be beneficial for Hispanic elders mental health.
Mason, Craig A.; Lombard, Joanna L.; Martinez, Frank; Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth; Spokane, Arnold R.; Newman, Frederick L.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose
The reciprocal exchange of employees' work for pay that is central to employmentrelationships is viewed here through the lens of the psychological contract. A psychological contract involves promised inducements, promised contributions, delivered inducements, and delivered contributions: How an employee cognitively integrates these 4 elements is
We tested the hypothesis that there is a mediational pathway from parental alcohol use during the participants' adolescence to the participants' psychological symptoms in young adulthood. This pathway includes the participants' alcohol use and their psychological symptoms, both during adolescence. The participants are inner city African American and Puerto Rican early adolescents followed until young adulthood. They reported their own and their parents' behavior. Structural equation modeling showed that parental alcohol use was related to early adolescent alcohol use, which was associated with late adolescent alcohol use. Late adolescent alcohol use was related to psychological symptoms in late adolescence, which predicted young adult psychological symptoms. Males reported more alcohol use and more psychological symptoms than females in late adolescence and more psychological symptoms in young adulthood. Findings suggest that parents' and adolescents' alcohol use should be a focus in interventions designed to prevent or treat psychological symptoms in late adolescence and young adulthood.
Brook, Judith S.; Balka, Elinor B.; Crossman, Andrya M.; Dermatis, Helen; Galanter, Marc; Brook, David W.
We tested the hypothesis that there is a mediational pathway from parental alcohol use during the participants' adolescence to the participants' psychological symptoms in young adulthood. This pathway includes the participants' alcohol use and their psychological symptoms, both during adolescence. The participants are inner city African American and Puerto Rican early adolescents followed until young adulthood. They reported their own and their parents' behavior. Structural equation modeling showed that parental alcohol use was related to early adolescent alcohol use, which was associated with late adolescent alcohol use. Late adolescent alcohol use was related to psychological symptoms in late adolescence, which predicted young adult psychological symptoms. Males reported more alcohol use and more psychological symptoms than females in late adolescence and more psychological symptoms in young adulthood. Findings suggest that parents' and adolescents' alcohol use should be a focus in interventions designed to prevent or treat psychological symptoms in late adolescence and young adulthood.? PMID:20958850
Brook, Judith S; Balka, Elinor B; Crossman, Andrya M; Dermatis, Helen; Galanter, Marc; Brook, David W
This report, one of a series of country studies on higher education and employment, particularly in the humanities and social sciences, looks at the employment of social science and humanities graduates in Norway. The paper opens by briefly sketching some major interrelated developments in current society such as shifts in the economy, changes in
Objective This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ) in measuring adolescent humor,\\u000a including the relationship between humor and coping style, defense style, depressive symptoms, and adjustment in a non-clinical\\u000a sample of adolescents.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method Humor, coping, defense strategies, depressive symptoms, and adjustment were investigated in 94 adolescents aged 1215.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results The HSQ demonstrated adequate internal consistency. Inter-scale correlational patterns
Paranormal beliefs (PB) are those that lie outside the explanatory realm of science. Thus, the existence of PB within a particular field of scholarship might indicate a decreased reliance on scientific methods within that field. This study evaluated the extent of PB among undergraduates majoring in the traditional sciences (biology, chemistry, and physics), psychology, and the arts and humanities. In particular, the relationship between PB and the personality trait Openness to Experience (OTE) was investigated, the goal being to both identify specific determinants of PB and better understand why PB are more prevalent in psychology compared with traditional sciences. Students majoring in the sciences, psychology, or arts and humanities were assessed across six domains of PB and six facets of the global personality trait OTE. Additionally, estimates of science education (SE) and IQ were obtained for each subject. Relationships among these variables were predicted to support the hypothesis that PB are largely determined by OTE rather than SE or IQ. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that the prevalence of PB in contemporary psychology could be explained by a relative overabundance of PB and OTE within psychology majors when compared with science majors. The obtained results confirmed that psychology majors were significantly higher in both PB and OTE compared to science majors. Furthermore, psychology majors scored lower than arts and humanities majors in PB and OTE, supporting the notion that psychology as a field occupies a position intermediate between the traditional sciences and the humanities. Regarding the determinants of PB, while SE and IQ were both shown to be significant, OTE was the single most powerful predictor of PB when considering the entire, undifferentiated sample. An unanticipated result was that determinants of PB are substantially gender-related. Among females, PB were predicted by OTE though not SE, while among males, PB were predicted by SE and not OTE. This surprising finding suggests a mechanism for the acquisition of PB that is fundamentally different for males and females. Given that among the sciences, psychology currently attracts a disproportionate number of females, this may in part explain the relatively larger degree of PB found within the field.
This study investigated, firstly, the rate of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the level of psychological well-being amongst people with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS); and secondly, the extent to which illness cognitions, defence styles and PTSD symptom severity related to fatigue severity and psychological well-being. Seventy-eight participants with a diagnosis of CFS completed the Chalder Fatigue Scale, the General Health Questionnaire-28, the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, the Illness Cognition Questionnaire and the Defence Style Questionnaire. Fifty-nine participants were recruited from the general public to form the non-fatigued control group. CFS participants had significantly higher levels of PTSD symptoms, lower levels of psychological well-being and more traumatic life events compared to the non-fatigued controls. Trauma exposure and PTSD severity both predicted CFS status. However, regression analyses demonstrated no significant relationship between PTSD symptoms and fatigue severity or the degree of psychological well-being. 'Helplessness' predicted both physical and mental fatigue and psychological well-being, whilst the 'mature' defence styles predicted fatigue severity only. The results offer support to previous research showing that the rate of traumatic life events and PTSD are significantly higher amongst the CFS population. The lack of relationship between PTSD symptoms and fatigue severity or psychological well-being indicates that these processes may operate independently of one another, via different appraisal processes. This study focused on fatigue severity, but it may be that the role of pain in CFS is a key element in the previously reported association between PTSD and CFS. PMID:21600664
Although previous research has indicated an elevated prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental health problems among veterans of Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom following deployment, most of this research has been cross-sectional and has focused on a limited range of military groups and outcome criteria. This investigation was a longitudinal study of U.S. Air Force security forces assigned to a year-long high-threat ground mission in Iraq to determine the degree to which airmen's emotional and behavioral health and committed relationships were adversely impacted by an extended deployment to a warzone. Participants were a cohort of 164 security forces airmen tasked to a 365-day deployment to train Iraqi police. Airmen completed study measures both prior to and 6-9 months following deployment. Rates of deterioration in individual and interpersonal adjustment were both significant and medium to large in magnitude of effect, d = 0.43 to 0.90. Results suggest that the negative effects of deployment are related to levels of traumatic experiences and do not spontaneously remit within the first 6-9 months following return from deployment-particularly among those service members having relatively lower levels of social support. PMID:24464429
Cigrang, Jeffrey A; Talcott, G Wayne; Tatum, JoLyn; Baker, Monty; Cassidy, Daniel; Sonnek, Scott; Snyder, Douglas K; Balderrama-Durbin, Christina; Heyman, Richard E; Smith Slep, Amy M
Dementia is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by cognitive impairment and behavioral disturbances. The behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common, contributing to caregiver burden and premature institutionalization. Management of BPSD is complex and often needs recourse to psychotropic drugs. Though widely prescribed, there is a lack of consensus concerning their use, and serious side effects are frequent. This is particularly the case with antidepressant treatment based on the assumption that BPSD is depressive in nature. A better understanding of BPSD etiology could lead to better management strategies. We submit that some BPSD could be the consequence of both dementia and an undiagnosed comorbid bipolar spectrum disorder, or a pre-existing bipolar diathesis pathoplastically altering the clinical expression of dementia. The existence of such a relationship is based on clinical observation, as far as the high frequency of bipolar spectrum disorders in the general population, with a prevalence estimated to be between 5.4% and 8.3%, and the psychopathological similarities between BPSD and mood disorder episodes in bipolar illness. We will review the concept of the bipolar spectrum and explain BPSD before proposing clinical pointers of a possible bipolar spectrum contaminating the phenomenology of dementia, which could lead to the targeted prescription of mood-stabilizing agents in lieu of antidepressant monotherapy. These considerations are of heuristic interest in reconceptualizing the origin of the behavioral manifestations of dementia, with important implications for geriatric practice. PMID:18849899
Dorey, Jean-Michel; Beauchet, Olivier; Thomas Antérion, Catherine; Rouch, Isabelle; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre; Gaucher, Jacques; Gonthier, Régis; Akiskal, Hagop S
Real-time monitoring of behavior using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) has provided detailed data about daily temporal patterns of craving and use in cigarette smokers. We have collected similar data from a sample of cocaine and heroin users. Here we analyzed it in the context of its relationship with a societal construct of daily temporal organization: 9-to-5 business hours. In a 28-week prospective study, 112 methadone-maintained polydrug-abusing individuals initiated an electronic-diary entry and provided data each time they used cocaine, heroin, or both during weeks 4 to 28. EMA data were collected for 10,781 person-days and included: 663 cocaine-craving events, 710 cocaine-use events, 288 heroin-craving events, 66 heroin-use events, 630 craving-both-drugs events, and 282 use-of-both-drugs events. At baseline, 34% of the participants reported full-time employment in the preceding 3-year period. Most participants' current employment status fluctuated throughout the study. In a generalized linear mixed model (SAS Proc Glimmix), cocaine use varied by time of day relative to business hours (p<0.0001) and there was a significant interaction between Day of the Week and Time Relative to Business Hours (p<0.002) regardless of current work status. Cocaine craving also varied by time of day relative to business hours (p<0.0001), however, there was no significant interaction between Day of the Week and Time Relative to Business Hours (p=.57). Heroin craving and use were mostly reported during business hours, but data were sparse. Cocaine craving is most frequent during business hours while cocaine use is more frequent after business hours. Cocaine use during business hours, but not craving, seems suppressed on most weekdays, but not weekends, suggesting that societal conventions reflected in business hours influence drug-use patterns even in individuals whose daily schedules are not necessarily dictated by employment during conventional business hours. PMID:23770647
Phillips, Karran A; Epstein, David H; Preston, Kenzie L
Currently, there is a growing need for formal training in forensic psychology. This pilot study examines the relational-behavior model (RBM) as a method of intrinsic motivational instruction, perceived academic competence, and program competency among a sample of forensic psychology students. In theory, the RBM suggests that self-appraisal,
Chandler, Donald S., Jr.; Chandler, Michele D.; Clark, Quelanda C.
The objective of this study was to further elucidate the relationship between relevant biological, behavioural, socio-economic and psychological conditions, experienced in very early life and along the life course, and dental caries experience using the life course approach. A two-phase study was carried out in Brazil. In the first phase, 652 13-year-olds were clinically examined and interviewed. In the second
In this cross-sectional study we analyzed the links between marital quality and intimacy, body image, and psychological quality\\u000a of life (PQoL) of breast cancer patients, as well as the moderating role of cancer phase (treatment, survivorship) on the\\u000a aforementioned links. We also evaluated whether body image mediated the associations between marital relationship variables\\u000a and PQoL. An analysis of the data
Helena Moreira; Carla Crespo; Tiago Paredes; Sónia Silva; Maria Cristina Canavarro; Frank M. Dattilio
We examined the co-occurrence of and adolescents' emotional reaction to self-reported experiences of psychologically, physically, and sexually aggressive behaviors in their dating relationships. Participants were 317 boys and 310 girls (Grades 7, 9, or 11). The most common co-occurrence pattern was experiencing all three forms of dating violence. More girls than boys were upset by their worst nonsexual and sexual
Created and maintained by Professor John Suler of Rider University, The Psychology of Cyberspace is a frequently updated interactive document that provides "an evolving conceptual framework for understanding the various psychological components of cyberspace." Currently, the site contains six major components: The Fundamental Psychological Qualities of Cyberspace, The Psychology of the Individual in Cyberspace, The Psychology of Cyberspace Relationships, Group Dynamics in Cyberspace, Research Methods in Cyberpsychology, and The Palace Study, an ongoing case study of an online multimedia community. This extensive site also includes a subject index to aid information retrieval, and a modest annotated webliography of cyberpsychology resources.
The aim of this study was to investigate the acute-stage and later-stage impacts of trauma on a patient, and to determine the relationship between the degree of the impact of the event and recovery of hand function in patients with traumatic hand injury. The functional status of patients was assessed by the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire; psychological influence was assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI); and the impact of the event was assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) both during the acute stage and at a later stage. Fifty-four patients completed the study. The DASH, BDI, and IES-R scores were significantly improved at a later stage compared with the acute stage (P<0.05). The DASH, BDI, and IES-R scores had significant positive correlations with each other in both the acute stage and later stage (P<0.05). In the linear regression analysis, the independent variables affecting the DASH score at a later stage were the DASH and IES-R scores in the acute stage (P<0.05), whereas depression scores had no effect on functional outcome (P>0.05). Our study suggests that depression status, functional status of the hand, and impact of the event improve at a later stage, and that the functional outcome at a later stage is affected by the degree of impact of the event, and the functional status of the hand in the acute stage, in patients with traumatic hand injury. PMID:24276593
Reviews research on the effects of the mother's employment on the preschool child in the two-parent family. Also examines the effects on the following family processes that mediate child outcomes: (1) psychological well-being of parents; (2) their marital relationship; (3) the father's role; and (4) parent-child interaction. (Author/BJV)
...1616 Medical or psychological consultants...employed by or under contract with the State...this chapter, psychological experts employed by or under contract with the State...limitations on what a psychological consultant...
...1016 Medical or psychological consultants...employed by or under contract with the State...this chapter, psychological experts employed by or under contract with the State...limitations on what a psychological consultant...
We conducted a four-wave prospective study of Palestinian adults living in the West Bank, Gaza Strip, and East Jerusalem, interviewed between 2007 and 2009 at 6-month intervals to explore transactional relationships among resource loss (i.e., intra- and inter-personal resource loss) and psychological distress (i.e., PTSD and depression symptoms). Initially, 1196 Palestinians completed the first wave interview and 752 of these participants completed all four interviews. A cross-lagged panel design was constructed to model the effects of trauma exposure on both resource loss and psychological distress and the subsequent reciprocal effects of resource loss and psychological distress across four time waves. Specifically, resource loss was modeled to predict distress, which in turn was expected to predict further resource loss. Structural equation modeling was used to test this design. We found that psychological distress significantly predicts resource loss across shorter, 6-month time waves, but that resource loss predicts distress across longer, 12-month intervals. These findings support the Conservation of Resources theorys corollary of loss spirals.
Heath, Nicole M.; Hall, Brian J.; Russ, Eric U.; Canetti, Daphna; Hobfoll, Stevan E.
Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate whether more sickness absence is reported in countries with higher income inequality than elsewhere, and whether the level of income inequality moderates the association between psycho-social job demands and sickness absence. Methods Our analysis is based on the Fifth European Working Conditions Survey that compared 23 European countries. We performed multi-level regression analysis. On the macro-level of analysis we included the Gini-Index as measure of inequality. On the micro-level of analysis we followed the Karasek-Theorell model and included three scales for psychological job demands, physical job demands, and decision latitude in the model. The model was stratified by sex. Results We found that, in countries with high income inequality, workers report significantly more sickness absence than workers in countries with low income inequality. In addition we found that the level of income inequality moderates the relationship between psychological job demands and sickness absence. High psychological job demands are significantly more strongly related to more days of sickness absence in countries with low income inequality than in countries with high income inequality. Conclusions As the nature and causal pathways of cross-level interaction effects still cannot be fully explained, we argue that future research should aim to explore such causal pathways. In accordance with WHO recommendations we argue that inequalities should be reduced. In addition we state that, particularly in countries with low levels of income inequality, policies should aim to reduce psychological job demands.
Muckenhuber, Johanna; Burkert, Nathalie; Grossschadl, Franziska; Freidl, Wolfgang
This research investigated the relationship among discrepancies between the employers' obligations and the level of fulfillment of those obligations and the information technology (IT) professionals' citizenship and innovative work behaviors. The dimensional approach to the psychological contract was used to demonstrate the IT professional's perceptions of their employer's obligations and the level of fulfillment of those obligations. Survey data from
Relationships were investigated between home practice of mindfulness meditation exercises and levels of mindfulness, medical and psychological symptoms, perceived stress, and psychological well-being in a sample of 174 adults in a clinical Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program. This is an 8- session group program for individuals dealing with stress-related problems, illness, anxiety, and chronic pain. Participants completed measures of mindfulness, perceived stress, symptoms, and well-being at pre- and post-MBSR, and monitored their home practice time throughout the intervention. Results showed increases in mindfulness and well-being, and decreases in stress and symptoms, from pre- to post-MBSR. Time spent engaging in home practice of formal meditation exercises (body scan, yoga, sitting meditation) was significantly related to extent of improvement in most facets of mindfulness and several measures of symptoms and well-being. Increases in mindfulness were found to mediate the relationships between formal mindfulness practice and improvements in psychological functioning, suggesting that the practice of mindfulness meditation leads to increases in mindfulness, which in turn leads to symptom reduction and improved well-being. PMID:17899351
Purpose Changing career patterns and the erosion of job security have led to a growing emphasis on employability as a basis for career and employment success. The written and psychological contracts between employer and employer have become more transactional and less relational, and loyalty is no longer a guarantee of ongoing employment. Individuals are thus expected to take primary
The change in the United States from a manufacturing economy to a service economy has important implications for theoretical models of the relationships between job characteristics and workers' psychological distress. A sample of 600 men and women employed full-time were recruited to test 2 theoretical models. The job demand-control model posits that jobs that are both high in job demands and low in decision latitude are associated with greater psychological distress. The job demand-service model posits that jobs that are high in job demands and low in service to others are associated with greater psychological distress. Results show that the job demand-control model is a significant predictor of psychological distress among employees in the manufacturing industry, whereas the job demand-service model is a significant predictor of psychological distress among employees in the services industries. PMID:9552283
The relationship between employees and their employers has been conceptualized as involving a psychological contract (PC). The PC construct is assumed by many to have a key role to play in understanding organizational behavior, and there has been a proliferation of writing regarding PCs in recent years. The history of the construct, however, has remained under-reported, and largely undiscussed. This
This book is a collection of classic and recent papers (published between 1964 and 1994) reprinted from the "Journal of Juvenile Psychology""Individual Psychologist," and "Individual Psychology." Each of the five sections is introduced by the editor's comments. "General Techniques" contains the following articles: (1) "I-Thou Relationship Versus
Citations superficially suggest that the relationship between Gestalt theory and contemporary social psychology is hardly recognizable if we disregard the occasional homage to Kurt Lewin. Neither Gestalt nor field theory belongs to the present pool of social-psychological theories. On the other hand, it can be shown that basic concepts of Gestalt theory have survived under various names and are still
The changing psychological contract has become a focus for organizational development, especially as job roles within organizations continue to change. This literature review examines the evolving employee-employerrelationship and how this relationship has impacted career management and organizations for over the past century. The paper
Three recently-released research reports commissioned through Project U-Turn and funded by the William Penn Foundation and the Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry offer analyses that shed new light on the relationships between Philadelphians' educational attainment and their earnings, employment and contributions to government and
The purpose of the current study was to examine in detail the association between witnessing domestic violence (DV) and long-term psychological adjustment. Important limitations of past research were addressed, including controlling for several associated risk factors. Special attention was paid to whether the perpetrator of the violence was the maternal or paternal figure, as well as to whether the witness
Background: To date, research has focused primarily on psychological correlates of weight-based teasing. In this study, we extended previous work by also examining physical health-related variables (eg, physical self-concept and physical fitness [PF]). Methods: Participants included 1419 middle school students (637 boys and 782 girls). Of these,
Greenleaf, Christy; Petrie, Trent A.; Martin, Scott B.
The present study used meta-analytic techniques to examine the association between spirituality and religiosity (S/R) and psychological outcomes in adolescents and emerging adults. The outcome measures of risk behavior, depression, well-being, self-esteem, and personality were examined with respect to the influence of S/R across 75 independent
Yonker, Julie E.; Schnabelrauch, Chelsea A.; DeHaan, Laura G.
Child sexual abuse continues to be a prevalent and complex problem in todays society as it poses serious and pervasive mental health risks to child victims and their non-offending parents. The main objectives of this study were (a) to elucidate the psychological symptoms and support needs of parents of child sexual abuse victims as they present to group treatment, (b)
Using data drawn from a longitudinal study of families of children with ASD, the current study examined the impact of marital quality on three indicators of maternal psychological adjustment: depressed mood, parenting efficacy, and subjective well-being. Multiple regression analyses indicated marital quality to be a significant cross-sectional and
The purpose of this study was to explore how social support, mother's psychological status, and maternal sensitivity affected attachment security in children with disabilities by using the structural equation model (SEM). Subjects were 141 pairs of children with disabilities and theirs mothers. Empirical data was obtained through a series of
Aim To investigate the prevalence, perceived causes and relationship to psychological well?being of verbal abuse in a National Health Service (NHS) ambulance service control room (ASCR). Method Questionnaire survey with ASCR personnel (n?=?48). Results 7% of calls per shift were verbally abusive; the most common sources were patients or emergency callers. Verbally abusive calls were associated with staff having poorer mental health and the desire to leave. Conclusion Support from managers in the form of clear protocols to deal with abusive callers and training in verbal de?escalation techniques are recommended.
Sprigg, Christine A; Armitage, Christopher J; Hollis, Kate
This report, one of a series of country studies on higher education and employment, particularly in the humanities and social sciences, looks at employment for social science and humanities graduates in Sweden. Following an introduction in section 1, section 2 offers a short description of the evolution of humanities and social sciences in Swedish
This study examined employment and sources of income for different genders and ethnic groups residing in a substance abuse recovery homes called Oxford Houses. Men compared to women reported significantly higher mean income from employment as well as total income. African Americans compared to European Americans reported significantly more work in the past 30 days; however, the rate of pay
Olya Belyaev-Glantsman; Leonard A. Jason; Joseph R. Ferrari
English and History doctoral programs produced varying amounts of doctoral degrees between 1973 and 2003. These doctoral degree recipients experienced changing employment outcomes influenced by program prestige. The main goal of this study is to explain the changes over time in doctoral degree production and employment outcomes for doctoral degree
This report, one of a series of country studies on higher education and employment particularly in the humanities and social sciences, looks at employment prospects for social science and humanities graduates in Austria. Organized in three main sections the first reviews past problems in humanities and social science education. In particular the
A study concerning some "psychosomatic aspects of the parent-child relationship and atopic eczema in childhood" was published in this journal in 1986 . The authors concluded that mothers of children suffering from atopic eczema "were shown to be less 'spontaneous', more 'under control' and less 'emotional' than the normal population." They showed "characteristic features indicating difficulties in emotional relationships with their children." These conclusions were based on the answers of 14 mothers to a popular German personality questionnaire (Freiburger Persönlichkeitsinventar, FPI). We analyzed the investigation cited, judged it to be unsatisfactory and attempted to duplicate the study. Two parallel samples of mothers with healthy and ill children (n = 50 and n = 47) were tested with the same questionnaire. The previous results could not be verified. Therefore, we reject the interpretation that mothers of children suffering from atopic eczema have unique psychological characteristics. PMID:7591765
The study of psychological well-being will advance understanding of child maltreatment effects and resilience processes. In this study, the mean level of anger in adulthood was significantly higher for those identified 3 decades earlier as having been maltreated. Mean levels of self-esteem, autonomy, purpose in life, perceived (fewer) constraints, and happiness and satisfaction were lower for those who were maltreated according to child welfare reports. Officially recorded child maltreatment was moderately (r < .30) correlated with several psychological well-being indicators and predictive of adult anger, self-esteem, autonomy, and happiness/life satisfaction, after accounting for childhood SES, gender, and other sources of data on child abuse and neglect. Parent-reported abusive disciplining also uniquely predicted several outcomes, as did a measure of observed child neglect to a lesser extent.
Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean; Dee, Tamara
IntroductionEvidence suggests that psychological factors, such as depression and anxiety, are independent risk factors for increased morbidity and mortality post ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Since improved treatments have increased survival rates post STEMI the emphasis has turned to more patient related outcome measures such as health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of the study was to assess the contribution
L McGowan; H Iles-Smith; C Dickens; M Campbell; C Rogers; F Fath-Ordoubadi
Preliminary data suggest that defensive profile of hemodialysis (HD) patients might influence adaptation to the disease. However, the association of defense mechanisms with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of HD patients remains unknown. In this cross-sectional investigation, 170 HD patients and 170 age- and sex-matched healthy participants had their psychological profile assessed with the Defense Style Questionnaire-40 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Furthermore, the HD patients had their HRQoL measured with the World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument-abbreviated version. The HD patients had a more neurotic and immature defensive profile. Splitting, projection, reaction formation, and denial were significantly associated with impaired HRQoL, independent of psychological distress. Somatization was an independent correlate of worse overall and physical HRQoL. These findings suggest that, apart from the treatment of psychological distress symptoms, clinicians should also consider the defensive profile of HD patients because it is independently associated with HRQoL and may be amenable to treatment. PMID:23787481
Carvalho, André F; Ramírez, Susana P; Macêdo, Danielle S; Sales, Paulo Marcelo G; Rebouças, Juliana C; Daher, Elizabeth F; Hyphantis, Thomas N
Introduction: Breast cancer patients suffer clinically relevant levels of psychological stress because of their disease. Various factors can affect the level of stress experienced. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the level of psychological stress and employment and children, including time since diagnosis. Material and Methods: A randomised clinical study was done of 724 breast cancer patients aged between 18 and 65 years; all were in the curative stage of disease and had been diagnosed 012 months previously. Patients were investigated for their levels of psychological stress (anxiety and depression) using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The relationship between anxiety and depression and the variables employment, parenthood and time since diagnosis were investigated, using univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: Patients with a longer time since diagnosis (412 months) were found to have lower levels of anxiety (6.28) compared to patients who had been diagnosed only 03 months previously (7.24; p?0.01). There was no unambiguous relation between parenthood and anxiety. The age of the children was crucial. Even when results were controlled for patient age, the anxiety levels of women with children below the age of 16 years were significantly higher (7.84) compared to patients without children (6.42) or patients whose children were older than 16 years (6.87; p?=?0.04). Women who were not employed had significantly higher levels of depression compared to all other participants in the study (p?=?0.02). No reciprocal effects were found between investigated variables. Conclusion: We found a differentiated relationship between the variables time since diagnosis, employment and children and the level of psychological stress experienced by breast cancer patients. When determining the level of psychological stress in the 1st year after diagnosis, particular attention should be paid to patients who are not employed and patients with children below the age of 16 years.
Ebenhan, K.; Leuteritz, K.; Barthel, Y.; Beutel, M. E.; Papsdorf, K.; Weissflog, G.; Brahler, E.
In 1977 the Center for Continuing Education of Women (CEW) at the University of Michigan initiated a study of the lives of women who had gone to CEW during 1964-73. Effects of the transition from the traditional wife-mother-homemaker role to employment were examined among women of different ages and points of the life cycle, with particular
This study tested the mediating role of violation in the relationship between breach and both affective and continuance commitment and the extent to which this mediating role is moderated by exchange imbalance amongst a sample of 103 sales personnel. Results suggest that violation mediated the relationship between breach and commitment. Also,
The study's objective was to investigate the motivational significance of the coach- athlete relationship in team sports. 591 athletes completed the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire (Newton, Duda, & Yin, 2000) to assess perceptions of the coach-created motivational climate and two Coach-Athlete Relationship Ques- tionnaires to assess direct perceptions (Jowett & Ntoumanis, 2004) and meta-percep- tions (Jowett, in press)
As the "Baby Boom" population ages, the geriatric population will grow to be the largest cohort in history. Elders are considered to be members of a diverse population and, therefore, topics related to older adulthood should be addressed within multicultural training. The purpose of this study was to understand the relationship among counselor
Public policy in the UK has adopted employability to define the relationship of globalisation, work and learning. This article claims that employability serves the interests of capital. It helps capital to exercise its domination/hegemony over labour and employs a redefined vision of learning as its principal vehicle. Employability is a term that
In this article, we assert that relationships and networks are of paramount importance for understanding and improving settings, neighborhoods, communities, and larger social systems. Despite previous acknowledgements of their relevance, relational and social network perspectives and analyses remain underrepresented in community psychological research and action. Here, we claim that network and relational perspectives can provide conceptual and empirical 'links' between levels of analysis, more fully reflecting a transactional view. We also describe some of the sophisticated methodologies that can be employed in empirical studies drawing on these perspectives. Additionally, we contend that core concepts in community psychology such as health promotion, empowerment, coalition building, and dissemination and implementation can be better understood when employing relational and network perspectives. As an introduction to this special issue of American Journal of Community Psychology, we draw out themes and key points from the articles in the issue, and offer recommendations for future advancement of these perspectives in the field. PMID:24752731
Background Smoking has been linked to low-grade systemic inflammation, a known risk factor for disease. This state is reflected in elevated white blood cell (WBC) count. Objective We analyzed the relationship between WBC count and smoking in healthy men and women across several age ranges who underwent preventive medical check-ups in the workplace. We also analysed the relationship between smoking and lung function. Methods Cross-sectional descriptive study in 163 459 men and 59 382 women aged between 16 and 70?years. Data analysed were smoking status, WBC count, and spirometry readings. Results Total WBC showed higher counts in both male and female smokers, around 1000 to 1300 cell/ml (t test, P?0.001). Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%) was higher in nonsmokers for both sexes between 25 to 54?years (t test, P?0.001). Analysis of covariance showed a multiple variable effect of age, sex, smoking status, body mass index on WBC count. The relationship between WBC blood count and smoking status was confirmed after the sample was stratified for these variables. Smokers with airway obstruction measured by FEV1% were found to have higher WBC counts, in comparison to smokers with a normal FEV1% among similar age and BMI groups. Conclusions Smoking increases WBC count and affects lung function. The effects are evident across a wide age range, underlining the importance of initiating preventive measures as soon as an individual begins to smoke.
In a year-long survey beginning on 1 June 1989, the Employment Medical Advisory Service received queries from careers officers about 162 individuals whose past or current health problems potentially affected their employability. Respiratory, neurological, 'other', sensory and orthopaedic diagnoses were most common (20, 20, 15, 13 and 12.5% respectively). Up to six months after the initial query, 37 (22.8%) were unemployed and 21 (13.0%) had either changed or lost jobs or training. In 13/21 instances (61.9%), health problems were alleged to be the reason for the change. The School Medical Service detected only 29 of these cases (17.9%). The main reasons for this low rate were: late age at diagnosis, failure to attend for examination, and correct decisions that no health problems existed. These results suggest that school leavers with health problems may not be best served by current arrangements, since they may either be unnecessarily restricted or exposed to hazards as a result of their job choice. PMID:7703468
The subject of this study is the psychological contract approach to the employmentrelationship within the hospitality industry with special reference to highly educated employees. The purpose was to research the differences in the psychological contract and its relation to the intention to leave between highly-educated male and female employees. The research study conducted among this specific group worldwide provided
The purpose of this study was to test tenets of both minority stress and lesbian feminist/sexual identity development theories by examining the potential moderating and mediating roles of individual coping styles (i.e., problem-solving and avoidant coping) in the relationship between internalized heterosexism and lesbian and bisexual (sexual
This study among 115 US and 260 Dutch nurses and nurse assistants tested a theoretically derived model of specific relationships between work characteristics and two theoretically distinct outcomes (i.e., emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction). Furthermore, the mediating role of negative work-home interference (NWI) in this context was
Janssen, Peter P. M.; Peeters, Maria C. W.; de Jonge, Jan; Houkes, Inge; Tummers, Gladys E. R.
Research with siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) suggests that they may be at increased risk for behavioural and emotional problems and relatively poor sibling relationships. This study investigated a diathesis-stress model, whereby the presence of Broad Autism Phenotype features in the typically developing siblings might
Petalas, Michael A.; Hastings, Richard P.; Nash, Susie; Hall, Louise M.; Joannidi, Helen; Dowey, Alan
The relationships among the frequency of access to online lecture notes, examination performance, and class attendance were investigated. Data on use of online notes were gathered from the log maintained by the server and from student responses to a questionnaire. Students who made any attempt to access online notes viewed notes associated with
Grabe, Mark; Christopherson, Kimberly; Douglas, Jason
Background and Purpose. While it is well established that social agents contribute to the quality of youth physical activity experiences, relatively little research has specifically explored peer relationships in physical activity settings. Rather, the bulk of research on social agents has focused on teachers, coaches, and parents. The purpose of this paper is to provide justification for pursuing youth peer
Much of the media violence research that has occurred, principally in the United States, has been based on a fundamental epistemological error: A correlation between variables that is, between the consumption of media violence and acted-out aggressionhas been inferred by many researchers to be a causal relationship. This article suggests that scholars who infer causation from correlation miss an important
Citation: Brigham, J., & Grisso, T. (2003). Forensic Psychology. In D.K. Friedheim & I.B. Weiner (eds.), Comprehensive handbook of psychology. Vol. 1: The history of psychology, (pp. 391-411). New York: John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0471383201, 9780471383208.\\u000aLimited preview available via Google Books.
Background The incidence of severe maternal morbidity is increasing in high-income countries. However, little has been known about the impact on postnatal morbidity, particularly on psychological health outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between severe maternal morbidity (ie. major obstetric haemorrhage, severe hypertensive disorders or intensive care unit/obstetric high dependency unit admission) and postnatal psychological health symptoms, focusing on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms at 68 weeks postpartum. Method A prospective cohort study was undertaken of women who gave birth over six months in 2010 in an inner city maternity unit in England. Primary outcomes were prevalence of PTSD symptoms namely: 1) intrusion and 2) avoidance as measured using the Impact of Event Scale at 6 8 weeks postpartum via a self-administered postal questionnaire. Secondary outcomes included probable depression. Data on incidence of severe maternal morbidity were extracted from maternity records. Multivariable logistic regression analysis examined the relationship between severe maternal morbidity and PTSD symptoms taking into account factors that might influence the relationship. Results Of women eligible to participate (n=3509), 52% responded. Prevalence of a clinically significant level of intrusion and avoidance were 6.4% (n=114) and 8.4% (n=150) respectively. There was a higher risk of PTSD symptoms among women who experienced severe maternal morbidity compared with women who did not (adjusted OR = 2.11, 95%CI = 1.17-3.78 for intrusion; adjusted OR = 3.28, 95%CI = 2.01-5.36 for avoidance). Higher ratings of reported sense of control during labour/birth partially mediated the risk of PTSD symptoms. There were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence or severity of symptoms of depression. Conclusion This is one of the largest studies to date of PTSD symptoms among women who had recently given birth. Findings showed that an experience of severe maternal morbidity was independently associated with symptoms of PTSD. Individually tailored care that increases womens sense of control during labour may be a protective factor with further work required to promote effective interventions to prevent these symptoms. Findings have important implications for womens health and the content and organisation of maternity services during and after the birth.
The document presents the proceedings of an international symposium analyzing the relationship among youth, education, and employment, with emphasis on youth employment trends and the need to find solutions for unemployment problems. The objectives are to evaluate the existing relationship in the light of changing values and expectations of young
This study among 115 US and 260 Dutch nurses and nurse assistants tested a theoretically derived model of specific relationships between work characteristics and two theoretically distinct outcomes (i.e., emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction). Furthermore, the mediating role of negative workhome interference (NWI) in this context was examined. It was hypothesized that emotional exhaustion is related to job demands (i.e.,
Peter P. M. Janssen; Maria C. W. Peeters; Jan de Jonge; Inge Houkes; Gladys E. R. Tummers
You spend lots of time and money recruiting the best candidates to fill your physician positions. But sometimes you lose those physicians after only a year or two on the job. Discover ways to help stop the turnover and keep valued employees happy. PMID:12055954
The literature on the psychological and mental health effects of unemployment is reviewed in terms of its main effects and the factors that mediate its impact. Significant decrements in mental health for people of all ages are identified, with additional effects of prolonged unemployment, employment commitment, social relationships, gender, ethnic group, social class, local unemployment rate, and personal vulnerability. An
Psychological facts and their place in psychological theory are described. The future of facts and theory in the development of psychology as a science is discussed. Theory must be produced, amended, and used continuously to guide the collection of fact. The rules of science must be observed.
Purpose Mentoring and psychological contracts are related and important organizationally based social exchange relationships. Research\\u000a indicates that social support from internal mentors might buffer the negative effects of psychological contract breach (PCB),\\u000a but less is known about the possible negative influence that mentors might have on psychological contracts. This study investigates\\u000a protégés' perceptions of their mentors failure to fulfill mentoring obligations
The term 'rhetoric' is widely utilized within writings on employment relations, typically to signify emptiness, manipulation or as a contrast with reality. This paper critiques such usage and argues for employment relations to engage with the discipline of rhetoric. In outlining the parameters of rhetorical analysis in relation to the indeterminacy of the employmentrelationship and significance of persuasion, it
Individuals who have suffered polytrauma injuries must often contend with a complex constellation of physical, psychological, and psychosocial factors. These variables must be understood and addressed by rehabilitation specialists in order to optimize employment outcomes and overall quality of life for persons who have incurred these injuries. This article provides an abridged review of the current empirical data concerning the relationship between polytrauma and employment outcomes, with a focus on traumatic brain injury (TBI). In addition, Bordin's  working alliance model is recommended as a framework for strengthening the relationship between rehabilitation professionals and persons with TBI, thereby optimizing their employment outcomes. PMID:19029672
A literature review and a pilot study are used to develop psychological assessment techniques for determining objectively the major aspects of the psychological state of an astronaut. Relationships between various performance and psychophysiological variables and between those aspects of attention necessary to engage successfully in various functions are considered in developing a paradigm to be used for collecting data in manned isolation chamber experiments.
Qualitative research methods have much to contribute to theoretical and applied knowledge in rehabilitation psychology. However, as a discipline, rehabilitation psychology has been behind the curve in employing qualitative methods. Objectives: This article is a summary of the state of qualitative research in rehabilitation and an introduction to various methodological dimensions to consider in implementing qualitative rehabilitation psychology research. Types
Measures the job satisfaction, leisure satisfaction, and psychological health of 189 full-time employed men. Job satisfaction and leisure satisfaction were significant positive predictors of psychological health. Although job satisfaction was higher for white collar workers than for blue collar workers, the prediction of psychological health was
Contents: Ideology and social psychology: The subject of social psychology; Interdependence of ideology and social psychology; Class and national features of social psychology; Basic elements of social psychology. Study of the psychology of a military gro...
In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects. PMID:23587541
William James, the turn of the century psychologist, philospher, and educator, was avidly interested in the relationship between psychology and teaching. This paper considers operant conditioning, timing of reinforcers, and programmed instruction--touchstones of B.F. Skinner in the teaching/learning milieu. Of course, materials not just methods
Aesthetic plastic surgery and psychology are closely linked, as the aesthetic plastic surgeon is dealing with people's emotional, psychological, and social needs and aspirations. This article presents an overview of the relationship between the two professional disciplines. The minority of patients with psychiatric or psychological problems is described, and their treatment is considered in relation to both disciplines. We then
Describes investigation of relationship between parental alcoholism and psychological distress and mediating effects of social support and hardiness among undergraduates. Suggests parental alcoholism is positively related to psychological distress and higher levels of social support and hardiness are associated with lower levels of psychological
In human beings of both sexes, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) circulating in blood is mostly an adrenally secreted steroid whose serum concentration (in the micromolar range and 30-50% higher in men than in women) decreases with age, toward approximately 20-10% of its value in young adults during the 8th and 9th decades. The mechanism of action of DHEA and DHEAS is poorly known and may include partial transformation into sex steroids, increase of bioavailable insulin-like growth factor 1, and effects on neurotransmitter receptors. Whether there is a cause-to-effect relationship between the decreasing levels of DHEAS with age and physiological and pathological manifestations of aging is still undecided, but this is of obvious theoretical and practical interest in view of the easy restoration by DHEA administration. Here we report on 622 subjects over 65 years of age, studied for the 4 years since DHEAS baseline values had been obtained, in the frame of the PAQUID program, analyzing the functional, psychological, and mental status of a community-based population in the south-west of France. We confirm the continuing decrease of DHEAS serum concentration with age, more in men than in women, even if men retain higher levels. Significantly lower values of baseline DHEAS were recorded in women in cases of functional limitation (Instrumental Activities of Daily Living), confinement, dyspnea, depressive symptomatology, poor subjective perception of health and life satisfaction, and usage of various medications. In men, there was a trend for the same correlations, even though not statistically significant in most categories. No differences in DHEAS levels were found in cases of incident dementia in the following 4 years. In men (but not in women), lower DHEAS was significantly associated with increased short-term mortality at 2 and 4 years after baseline measurement. These results, statistically established by taking into account corrections for age, sex, and health indicators, suggest the need for further careful trials of the administration of replacement doses of DHEA in aging humans. Indeed, the first noted results of such "treatment" are consistent with correlations observed here between functional and psychological status and endogenous steroid serum concentrations. PMID:8917605
Berr, C; Lafont, S; Debuire, B; Dartigues, J F; Baulieu, E E
In human beings of both sexes, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) circulating in blood is mostly an adrenally secreted steroid whose serum concentration (in the micromolar range and 3050% higher in men than in women) decreases with age, toward ?2010% of its value in young adults during the 8th and 9th decades. The mechanism of action of DHEA and DHEAS is poorly known and may include partial transformation into sex steroids, increase of bioavailable insulin-like growth factor I, and effects on neurotransmitter receptors. Whether there is a cause-to-effect relationship between the decreasing levels of DHEAS with age and physiological and pathological manifestations of aging is still undecided, but this is of obvious theoretical and practical interest in view of the easy restoration by DHEA administration. Here we report on 622 subjects over 65 years of age, studied for the 4 years since DHEAS baseline values had been obtained, in the frame of the PAQUID program, analyzing the functional, psychological, and mental status of a community-based population in the south-west of France. We confirm the continuing decrease of DHEAS serum concentration with age, more in men than in women, even if men retain higher levels. Significantly lower values of baseline DHEAS were recorded in women in cases of functional limitation (Instrumental Activities of Daily Living), confinement, dyspnea, depressive symptomatology, poor subjective perception of health and life satisfaction, and usage of various medications. In men, there was a trend for the same correlations, even though not statistically significant in most categories. No differences in DHEAS levels were found in cases of incident dementia in the following 4 years. In men (but not in women), lower DHEAS was significantly associated with increased short-term mortality at 2 and 4 years after baseline measurement. These results, statistically established by taking into account corrections for age, sex, and health indicators, suggest the need for further careful trials of the administration of replacement doses of DHEA in aging humans. Indeed, the first noted results of such treatment are consistent with correlations observed here between functional and psychological status and endogenous steroid serum concentrations.
Design: Cross sectional survey. Setting: Municipal sector employees in eight Finnish towns. Participants: 5981 employees with a permanent contract and 2786 employees with a non-permanent contract (2194 fixed term contract, 682 government subsidised contract). Outcome measures: Poor self rated health, chronic disease, and psychological distress. Results: Compared with permanent employees, fixed term men and women had better self rated health (men odds ratio 0.70; 95% confidence intervals 0.50 to 0.98, women 0.70 (0.60 to 0.82) and less chronic disease (men 0.69; 0.52 to 0.91; women 0.89; 0.79 to 1.02), but women had more psychological distress (1.26; 1.09 to 1.45). The only difference between subsidised employees and permanent employees was the high level of psychological distress in women (1.35; 1.09 to 1.68). Low perceived employment security was associated with poor health across all three indicators. The association of low perceived security with psychological distress was significantly stronger in permanent employees than among fixed term and subsidised employees, indicating that perceived security is more important for mental health among employees with a permanent contract. Conclusions: Contractual security and perceived security of employment are differently associated with health. It is therefore important to distinguish between these aspects of employment security in studies of labour market status and health. Such studies will also need to control for health selection, which is unlikely to operate in the same way among permanent and non-permanent employees.
Virtanen, P; Vahtera, J; Kivimaki, M; Pentti, J; Ferrie, J
As organizations shift the central focus of their competitive strategy away from value appropriation towards value creation it is to knowledge workers that they will look to provide the innovation to fuel their continued development. The state of the relationship between the knowledge worker and the employer - the psychological contract - will determine whether this source of innovation and
Patrick C. Flood; Thomas Turner; Nagarajan Ramamoorthy; Jill Pearson
Comments on a recent article in The Reporter (Feb. 16, 1962), where Marya Mannes, a staff writer of this publication, praises Joyce Brothers for her ability to answer complex psychological problems in simple language \\
The field of positive psychology rests on the assumption that certain psychological traits and processes are inherently beneficial for well-being. We review evidence that challenges this assumption. First, we review data from 4 independent longitudinal studies of marriage revealing that 4 ostensibly positive processesforgiveness, optimistic expectations, positive thoughts, and kindnesscan either benefit or harm well-being depending on the context in which they operate. Although all 4 processes predicted better relationship well-being among spouses in healthy marriages, they predicted worse relationship well-being in more troubled marriages. Then, we review evidence from other research that reveals that whether ostensibly positive psychological traits and processes benefit or harm well-being depends on the context of various noninterpersonal domains as well. Finally, we conclude by arguing that any movement to promote well-being may be most successful to the extent that it (a) examines the conditions under which the same traits and processes may promote versus threaten well-being, (b) examines both healthy and unhealthy people, (c) examines well-being over substantial periods of time, and (d) avoids labeling psychological traits and processes as positive or negative.
Reviewed evidence concerning the psychological effects of vasectomy for American men. Surveys of postoperative sexual behavior and satisfaction and/or happiness were cited, as were data from studies employing clinical interviews and/or psychological tests. (Author/SB)
This article reports on an empirical test of Bowen's hypothesized relationships between differentiation of self and psychological symptoms, and examines further evidence for the construct validity of a newly developed instrument, the Behavioral and Emotional Reactivity Index (BERI). Finds an indirect relationship between emotional reactivity
Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Rosen, Karen H.; Stith, Sandra M.
Reproductive disorders and psychological distress are common co-morbidities of obesity in young women. Psychological and reproductive disturbances may also be associated with increased food cravings but the relationships between these factors have not been explored. This study aimed to explore the pattern of food cravings and to determine the relationship between psychological distress, reproductive health and food cravings in overweight
Siew S. Lim; Robert J. Norman; Peter M. Clifton; Manny Noakes
The authors identified perceived barriers to employment in 1998 among 343 unemployed participants with spinal cord injury and correlated these data with employment status 5 years later. Actively looking for work was associated with the greatest likelihood of employment. Health factors, not disincentives or resources, were the primary barriers to
Absenteeism rates are the cornerstone metrics guiding corporate policy for health care investment in employees. However, traditional absenteeism measures do not reflect the contemporary workplace milieu. It is accepted practice that employees work evenings or weekends to makeup time. Using a hours-based absenteeism measure, that accounts for time made-up as well as time lost, this paper evaluates the impact of psychological distress on employee absenteeism.Psychological distress and absenteeism data were collected from 54,264 full-time employees. Consistent with traditional approaches, employees indicated how many days they were absent. Hours based absenteeism was formulated from the ratio of how many hours the employees worked and how many hours were they expected to work in the past seven-days.Concordant with previous concinnous evidence, traditional absenteeism computation indicated that elevated psychological distress is associated with increasing absenteeism. Using the hours-based method psychological distress did not significantly influence absenteeism.Traditional calculations of absenteeism do not reflect the current work practices of the majority of employees. Employees with psychological distress may take time off work but it appears that they make up for lost time possibly to stay up to speed with task driven occupations and avoid performance review. PMID:19194855
Hilton, Michael F; Sheridan, Judith; Cleary, Catherine M; Whiteford, Harvey A
Purpose To suggest a counseling model for human resource professionals, firmly based in providing complete transparency, which will assist employees and organizations in adapting to changes in the psychological contract. Design\\/methodology\\/approach The authors posit that as the psychological contract between employers and employees undergoes a metamorphosis reflecting the fundamental changes in the exchange of work and rewards, human
A host of online educational initiatives during the past few years have brought lectures from all over the world into the homes into many persons who may not have access to such programs in their own local communities. One such website brings the insights and collected knowledge of various members of Stanford University's renowned psychology department to the Internet-browsing public. The lectures address such topics as the psychology of evil, the role of parents in their children's lives, and the role of personal and collective efficacy. Along with these individual talks presented by various members of the psychology faculty, there are several nice panel sessions on the nature of language and the cultural shaping of emotion. Finally, the site also contains the lively question-and-answer sessions that followed each panel session.
Occupational activities such as lifting loads, working in constrained spaces, and training increase the risk of pain-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in military veterans. Few studies have investigated MSD and psychological disorder in veterans, and previous studies had limitations. This cross-sectional study compared pain-related MSD and psychological comorbidity and well-being between 1381 male Australian 1990-1991 Gulf War veterans (veterans) and a military comparison group (n=1377, of whom 39.6% were serving and 32.7% had previously deployed). At a medical assessment, 2000-2002, reported doctor-diagnosed arthritis or rheumatism, back or neck problems, joint problems, and soft tissue disorders were rated by medical practitioners as nonmedical, unlikely, possible, or probable diagnoses. Only probable MSDs were analysed. Psychological disorders in the past 12 months were measured using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) assessed 4-week physical and mental well-being. Almost one-quarter of veterans (24.5%) and the comparison group (22.4%) reported an MSD. Having any or specific MSD was associated with depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but not alcohol disorders. Physical and mental well-being was poorer in those with an MSD compared to those without, in both study groups (eg, veterans with any MSD, difference in SF-12 physical component summary scale medians = -10.49: 95% confidence interval -12.40, -8.57), and in those with MSD and psychological comorbidity compared with MSD alone. Comorbidity of any MSD and psychological disorder was more common in veterans, but MSDs were associated with depression, PTSD, and poorer well-being in both groups. Psychological comorbidity needs consideration in MSD management. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess directionality and causality. PMID:24361580
Kelsall, Helen Louise; McKenzie, Dean Philip; Forbes, Andrew Benjamin; Roberts, Minainyo Helen; Urquhart, Donna Michelle; Sim, Malcolm Ross
The high prevalence of health conditions among U.S. women receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF, or `welfare') impedes the ability of many in this group to move from `welfare-to-work', and the economic recession has likely exacerbated this problem. Despite this, few interventions have been developed to improve employment outcomes by addressing the health needs of women receiving TANF, and little is known about the impact of economic downturns on the employment trajectory of this group. Using data from a recent randomized controlled trial (RCT) that tested the efficacy of a public health nursing (PHN) intervention to address the chronic health condition needs of 432 American women receiving TANF, we examine the effect of the intervention and of recession exposure on employment. We further explore whether intervention effects were modified by select sociodemographic and health characteristics. Both marginal and more robust intervention effects were noted for employment-entry outcomes (any employment, p=0.05 and time-to-employment, p=0.01). There were significant effects for recession exposure on employment-entry (any employment, p=0.002 and time-to-employment, p<0.001). Neither the intervention nor recession exposure influenced longer-term employment outcomes (employment rate or maximum continuous employment). Intervention effects were not modified by age, education, prior TANF receipt, functional status, or recession exposure, suggesting the intervention was equally effective in improving employment-entry across a fairly heterogeneous group both before and after the recession onset. These findings advance our understanding of the health and employment dynamics among this group of disadvantaged women under variable macroeconomic conditions, and have implications for guiding health and TANF-related policy.
Kneipp, Shawn M.; Kairalla, John A.; Sheely, Amanda L.
This page, from the Mid-Pacific Information and Communications Technology Center, provides some information on careers and employment in the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) industries. The three types of individuals using information and communications technologies include ICT users, enablers and creators. The webpage also includes employment data from a few different agencies including the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics.
The overwhelming evidence from years of research is that maternal employment, by itself, has little influence on the behaviors of children. More relevant issues are: mother's reasons for working, family's acceptance of mother's employment, quality of substitute child care, family's social and emotional health, and economic conditions. (Author/AJ)
The contents of the present volume, designed to bring together in a single place writings by the new black psychologists and other black social and behavioral scientists, are organized in seven parts, as follows: Part I, "Black Psychology: Perspectives," includes articles by Cedric Clark, Wade W. Nobles, Doris P. Mosby, Joseph White, and William
Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of relational-interdependent self-construal on cyberbullying and the effect of cyberbullying on psychological disharmony. Participants were 258 high school students. In this study, the Relational-Interdependent Self-Construal Scale, the Revised Cyberbullying Inventory, and the Depression, Anxiety,
14 patients with a history of anorexia nervosa (AN) (mean duration 7.1 years) were divided into two groups according to whether they were still amenorrheic (group I, n = 6) at a significantly lower body weight or at normal stable weight with eumenorrhea (group II, n = 8); 26 age-matched students served as the control group. Psychological testing included the
Sexual selection theory provides a powerful model for the analysis of psychological sex differences. This research examined (a) tests of several sex differences in mating psychology predicted from sexual selection theory, (b) broad developmental hypotheses about sex differences in mating psychologythrough the relationship of mating psychology to sexual orientation, and (c) the structure of within-sex differences in mating psychology. Scales
J. Michael Bailey; Steven Gaulin; Yvonne Agyei; Brian A. Gladue
This article examines the relationship between psychological contract of knowledge workers and their turnover intention. In addition, the impact of equity sensitivity on psychological contract breach perception and turnover intention is included in our study. Following prior research, relational psychological contract and transactional psychological contract are two key dimensions of knowledge workers' psychological contract. And our empirical study shows that
The risk of work-related stress has been determined in bus drivers and workers employed in the service department of two urban and suburban public transportation companies. The INAIL evaluation method (Check list and HSE indicator tool) was used. The GHQ-12 questionnaire, which is widely used to assess the level of psychological distress, was also employed. 81.9% of workers involved in the survey answered both the HSE indicator tool and the GHQ-12 questionnaire. The Check list evaluation showed an increase in quantifiable company stress indicators while close examination using the HSE indicator tool demonstrated critical situations for all the subscales, with the control subscales more problematic in bus drivers. The demand, manager's support, relationships and change subscales were most associated with psychological distress in bus drivers, while relationships, role, change and demand subscales were negatively related in workers of the service department. PMID:23405761
While previous research suggests that employees rarely believe organizations keep all of the commitments made to them, only in some cases do employees perceive these unfulfilled commitments as psychological contract violations and make active attempts to get even with their employers for the betrayal. This article presents a discrepancy model for understanding when employees will perceive unfulfilled commitments as psychological
Recent years have witnessed a growing diversity of career patterns, resulting from the relative decline of stable employment. In the present study of 1368 employed and self-employed German adults career pattern diversity was assessed using nine pictograms. The goal was to identify psychological and demographic correlates of these patterns and to
Reitzle, Matthias; Korner, Astrid; Vondracek, Fred W.
Understanding the processes through which employees incorporate the organizations identity into their own identity is critical\\u000a to building positive employer-employee relationships. We draw primarily on organizational support theory to advance the argument\\u000a that psychological contract breach is negatively related to organizational identification and positively related to organizational\\u000a disidentification because it makes employees believe that their organizations do not value their
Thomas J. Zagenczyk; Ray Gibney; W. Timothy Few; Kristin L. Scott
The present study examines exchange and creditor ideologies (two dispositional characteristics that are strongly related to exchange relationships) and their moderating effects on the psychological contract. Five hundred public-sector employees were studied over a 3-year period. Respondents were surveyed as to their perceptions of what they believed their employer owed them (e.g., job security, training, involvement in decision making, etc.)
The purpose of this study was to explore how social support, mothers psychological status, and maternal sensitivity affected\\u000a attachment security in children with disabilities by using the structural equation model (SEM). Subjects were 141 pairs of\\u000a children with disabilities and theirs mothers. Empirical data was obtained through a series of questionnaires such as marital\\u000a satisfaction, support from people around, maternal
Based on recent advances in cognitive and comparative psychology, we posit that the arguably unique human ability to decouple primary mental representations from the present moment and place them into different temporal localities (i.e., form secondary mental representations of objects) as well as the ability to form higher-order mental representations of secondary representations (meta-representations) gave rise to the development of
... and equipment and properly maintain this equipment. Use color codes, posters, labels or signs to warn employees of potential hazards. Establish or update operating procedures and communicate them so that employees follow safety and health requirements. Employers must provide safety training ...
This "feature issue" reports on major shifts in attitudes, practices, and policies that have led to the growth of supported employment programs for people with disabilities, with special focus on the situation in Minnesota. It contains the following articles: "To the Year 2000 and Beyond: Jobs Won't Be the Problem" (David R. Johnson); "The End of
Empirical evidence from a banking organization illustrated how change has an impact on psychological contracts. Concluded that maintenance of contracts makes an important contribution to relationships but organizations need to adjust psychological contracts to meet the needs of the work force. (Contains 58 references.) (JOW)
This monograph explores implications of the psychology of consciousness for education. The psychology of consciousness encompasses the relationships among behavior, experience, and states of consciousness. It is interpreted to include different states of consciousness, paranormal phenomena, mystical experiences, dreams, psychic healing, and other
In dynamic business environments the concept of the psychological contract has altered radically. Empirical evidence from a case study conducted in one of Australias largest banking organisations is used to illustrate how change can impact upon the psychological contract. Traditional loyalty to an organisation and continuance commitment are becoming less important as organisations pursue more transactional relationships with their employees
The psychological contract is currently a popular concept. It has been used in several recent analyses of individuals' careers. However, there are a number of unresolved conceptual and empirical issues surrounding the psychological contract. These are described and discussed. The main issues concern the extent to which the psychological contract between employee and employer is mutual, the importance or otherwise
Prior integrations of the leader-member exchange (LMX) and psychological contract literatures have not clarified how within-group LMX differentiation influences employees' attitudes and behaviors in the employmentrelationship. Therefore, using a sample of 278 members and managers of 31 intact work groups at 4 manufacturing plants, the authors examined how LMX operating at the within-group level (relative LMX, or RLMX) and the group level influenced perceptions of psychological contract fulfillment and employee-level outcomes. Controlling for individual-level perceptions of LMX quality, results indicated a positive relationship between RLMX and fulfillment, which was strengthened as group-level variability in LMX quality increased. Perceptions of fulfillment mediated the relationship between RLMX and performance and sportsmanship behaviors. The importance of conceptualizing LMX as simultaneously operating at multiple levels is highlighted. PMID:19025243
Henderson, David J; Wayne, Sandy J; Shore, Lynn M; Bommer, William H; Tetrick, Lois E
The goals of this study were to examine, first, the relationship between choice shift and three psychological variables (social desirability, locus of control, and moral reasoning) and, second, the influence of these and subjects' employment position on the choice-shift phenomenon within the context of a professional accounting setting. The sample of 60 subjects (four auditors per group, each holding different employment ranks within their firms, yielding 15 groups, each from a different small to medium size CPA firm), participated in three group decision-making tasks related to common accounting and auditing risk-assessment issues. The exercise consisted of three iterations of a standard choice-shift exercise followed by three standardized tests to mcasure the selected psychological characteristics. Analysis indicated that choice shifts were not significantly affected by subjects' psychological characteristics. Instead, subjects' position in an organization influenced choice shift, and the higher the position, the less absolute shift shown. PMID:12353807
Kent, D Donald; Arnold, Donald F; Nydegger, Rudy V
Examined whether parents' symptoms and qualitative and quantitative aspects of parentchild relationships make unique contributions to mothers' and fathers' reports of, and motherchild, fatherchild, and fathermother discrepancies on, children's behavior. Participants were 100 children, aged 1012, and their mothers and fathers. Parents' symptoms and parentchild relationships made unique contributions to both parents' ratings of externalizing behavior. Although parentchild relationship variables
Individuals with a diagnosis of Huntington's disease (HD) have been shown to experience various emotional, behavioural and psychosocial consequences. The current study employs Leventhal's self-regulation model to explore the biopsychosocial factors related to psychological distress in people with HD, and further examine the relationship between illness perceptions, coping and psychological distress. Eighty-seven people diagnosed with HD completed the Illness Perceptions Questionnaire-Revised adapted for the population. Participants also completed self-report measures of coping and psychological distress. Data were also collected on clinical and demographic variables previously found to be associated with psychological distress. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that illness perceptions of identity, treatment control and timeline cyclical were predictors of anxiety while illness perceptions of identity and perceiving the cause to be related to chance were found to be significant positive predictors of depression. The coping strategy of seeking instrumental support also contributed to scores of depression, and self-report clinical variables of pain and role functioning related to physical difficulties predicted anxiety and depression, respectively. The findings suggest that illness perceptions play a significant role in psychological distress experienced by people with HD. Consequently, a focus on interventions which might change illness perceptions, and perhaps then reduce psychological distress, would be useful for future research. PMID:23767964
The report provides national statistics on municipal government employment and payrolls for the month of October 1990. Statistics presented in the report are based on a mail canvass survey that includes a sample of 4,781 municipal governments. City govern...
Research of childhood psychological maltreatment has documented a range of severe and long-lasting difficulties for children who experience this type of abuse. Consequences can include but are not limited to emotional and behavioural problems, low self-esteem, and relationship difficulties. Accordingly, the development of therapy programs to
Article focuses upon the basic frame of reference and methodology of behavioral psychology, its relationship to architecture and the promise that synthesis of the two disciplines holds for education. (Author)
The relationship between psychological job stress and coronary heart disease (CHD) was studied in a population of 397 male professionals of an aerospace firm. Representatives from various occupational categories, including finance and accounting, new busi...
J. H. Chadwick M. A. Chesney G. W. Black R. H. Rosenman G. G. Sevelius
Reviews psychological perspectives of Buddhism and the universal human problem and its subsequent cures that can be applied to interactions in a counseling relationship. Suggests that meditation techniques can be integrated into current counseling theories. (JAC)
This research study provides data on both the reliability of evaluation instruments and the relationship between student course evaluations and achievement in an introductory college psychology course. (Author/JR)
This article reports on the outcome of a presidential initiative of 2012 American Psychological Association President Suzanne Bennett Johnson to delineate competencies for primary care (PC) psychology in six broad domains: science, systems, professionalism, relationships, application, and education. Essential knowledge, skills, and attitudes are described for each PC psychology competency. Two behavioral examples are provided to illustrate each competency. Clinical vignettes demonstrate the competencies in action. Delineation of these competencies is intended to inform education, practice, and research in PC psychology and efforts to further develop team-based competencies in PC. PMID:24820690
McDaniel, Susan H; Grus, Catherine L; Cubic, Barbara A; Hunter, Christopher L; Kearney, Lisa K; Schuman, Catherine C; Karel, Michele J; Kessler, Rodger S; Larkin, Kevin T; McCutcheon, Stephen; Miller, Benjamin F; Nash, Justin; Qualls, Sara H; Connolly, Kathryn Sanders; Stancin, Terry; Stanton, Annette L; Sturm, Lynne A; Johnson, Suzanne Bennett
A two-part study examined the employment status, distribution, job satisfaction, and promotion opportunities of women working for livestock industry magazines. Livestock publications were chosen for this research because they are typical of industry-related magazines and are traditionally dominated by males. The mastheads of 59 magazines were
This article discusses the precarious relationship of humanistic psychology to the mental health worker in our current managed care, empirically based, behaviorally focused, excessively medication-oriented mental health system. Some of the challenges, frustrations, and potential successes of bringing real and nurturing human relationships in the context of humanistic psychology into the day-to-day involvements with clients for the mental health worker
Analysis of data from 797 residents of university housing cooperatives demonstrated that psychological ownership was positively related to extrarole behavior. In addition, mediated regression analysis supported the hypothesis that the relationship between psychological ownership and extrarole behavior was mediated by organizational commitment. Furthermore, psychological ownership was superior to satisfaction in predicting extrarole behavior. The article concludes with a discussion of
The growing field of positive psychology is encouraging advances in the scientific research of developmental strengths and virtues like forgiveness. However, multicultural and indigenous psychology perspectives can raise valuable questions about positive psychology and the relationship between cultural particularity and virtues like forgiveness.
Sandage, Steven J.; Hill, Peter C.; Vang, Henry C.
To determine whether self-report psychological inventories could be used to better understand characters in literature, a psychology instructor and an English instructor arranged their courses so that they both focused on interpersonal relationships. The psychology course emphasized research on attraction, romantic love, and interpersonal
Examined whether parents' symptoms and qualitative and quantitative aspects of parent-child relationships make unique contributions to mothers' and fathers' reports of, and mother-child, father-child, and father-mother discrepancies on, children's behavior. Participants were 100 children, aged 10-12, and their mothers and fathers. Parents' symptoms and parent-child relationships made unique contributions to both parents' ratings of externalizing behavior. Although parent-child relationship variables were related to both parents' ratings of internalizing behavior, only parents' symptoms made unique contributions. On mother-child and father-child discrepancies, differences emerged between mother and father, and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Both fathers' and mothers' symptoms contributed to father-mother discrepancies on both behavior types, with parent-child relationships contributing unique variance to discrepancies on internalizing behavior. Results highlight the importance of each informant's symptoms and relationship variables in understanding informant discrepancies. PMID:12597696
Resiliency is the ability to survive, or even thrive, during adversity. It is a key construct within both humanistic and positive psychology, but each sees it from a contrasting vantage. Positive psychology decontextualizes resilience by judging it as a virtue regardless of circumstance, while humanistic psychology tends to view it in a more holistic way in relationship to other virtues
Audio tape recordings of selected Skylab communications were processed by a psychological stress evaluator. Strip chart tracings were read blind and scores were assigned based on characteristics reported by the manufacturer to indicate psychological stress. These scores were analyzed for their empirical relationships with operational variables in Skylab judged to represent varying degrees of situational stress. Although some statistically significant relationships were found, the technique was not judged to be sufficiently predictive to warrant its use in assessing the degree of psychological stress of crew members in future space missions.
A prominent theory of white-collar crime holds that organizations have distinctive cultures which are more or less tolerant\\u000a of law violation for the benefit of the firm. This explanation purports to account for why college-educated, relatively affluent,\\u000a and seemingly conventional persons can commit crime when they are employed in white-collar occupations. The vexing paradox\\u000a of why good people do dirty
Many potential psychology majors are electing to pursue degrees in other disciplines that appear to have greater market value in the current employment environment. Providing psychology majors with the skills and knowledge necessary to compete successfully with business majors for entry-level employment opportunities in a variety of business
This study reports levels of psychological distress found in a sample of Australian case managers who work with the unemployed. Using a longitudinal survey method- ology, 86 case managers employed throughout Australia completed the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12; D. P. Goldberg, 1978) on 2 occasions during 1999. In comparison with other studies investigating psychological well- being of both employed
After identifying the discipline of psychologys history of contributing pioneers and leaders to the field of race research,\\u000a epistemological problems in empirical psychology are identified including an adherence to a naïve empiricist philosophy of\\u000a science. The reconstruction focuses on the underdetermined relationship between data and interpretation. It is argued that\\u000a empirical psychology works under a hermeneutic deficit and that this
Background and Aims: Coeval with the expansion of mobile phone technology and the associated obvious presence of mobile phone base stations, some people living close to these masts reported symptoms they attributed to electromagnetic fields (EMF). Public and scientific discussions arose with regard to whether these symptoms were due to EMF or were nocebo effects. The aim of this study was to find out if people who believe that they live close to base stations show psychological or psychobiological differences that would indicate more strain or stress. Furthermore, we wanted to detect the relevant connections linking self-estimated distance between home and the next mobile phone base station (DBS), daily use of mobile phone (MPU), EMF-health concerns, electromagnetic hypersensitivity, and psychological strain parameters. Design, Materials and Methods: Fifty-seven participants completed standardized and non-standardized questionnaires that focused on the relevant parameters. In addition, saliva samples were used as an indication to determine the psychobiological strain by concentration of alpha-amylase, cortisol, immunoglobulin A (IgA), and substance P. Results: Self-declared base station neighbors (DBS ? 100 meters) had significantly higher concentrations of alpha-amylase in their saliva, higher rates in symptom checklist subscales (SCL) somatization, obsessive-compulsive, anxiety, phobic anxiety, and global strain index PST (Positive Symptom Total). There were no differences in EMF-related health concern scales. Conclusions: We conclude that self-declared base station neighbors are more strained than others. EMF-related health concerns cannot explain these findings. Further research should identify if actual EMF exposure or other factors are responsible for these results.
ployment Contracts: Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Relations with Quality of Working Life, Health and Well-being: Michiel KOMPIER, et al. Department of Work and Organizational Psychology, Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands-Objectives: The aim of this study was to enhance (i) insight in the relationship between different types of employment contract and the quality of working life, health and well-being,
Michiel Kompier; Jan Fekke Ybema; Julia Janssen; Toon Taris
Background: According to the biopsychosocial model, menstrual symptoms are caused not only by a combination of biological factors such as hormonal disorders and lifestyle, but also by psychological and social factors such as working environment. This study aimed to determine the relation between occupational stress and dysmenorrhea in Iranian midwives. Materials and Methods: This prospective correlational study was performed on 150 midwives at public and private hospitals and health care centers of Mashhad, Iran. The subjects were selected through two-stage cluster sampling during 2010-2011. At the beginning of the study, participants completed questionnaires containing demographic information, work circumstances, the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale, and the Job Content Questionnaire. They then completed the short form of daily Menstrual Distress Questionnaire during three consecutive menstrual cycles. Independent Student's t-test, one-way analysis of variance, KruskalWallis, MannWhitney, and chi-square tests, correlation coefficients, and linear regression analysis were used to analyze the data collected data in SPSS11.5. Results: Dysmenorrhea was observed in 63.3% of the participants. Among these individuals, 15.7%, 45.2%, and 38.9% had mild, moderate, and severe symptoms, respectively. Moreover, 59.3% of the studied midwives had severe occupational stress. There was a significant positive correlation between occupational stress and severity of dysmenorrhea (P = 0.002, r = 0.82). Conclusions: Occupational stress is associated with increased risk of severe dysmenorrhea. This finding can be used to guide preventive measures to eliminate or decrease occupational stress and dysmenorrhea among Iranian midwives. However, identification of sources of occupational stress and related workloads is necessary.
Historically, sport psychology has been identified with physical education; however, recent developments in the field toward applied issues have substantially expanded psychologists' interests and opportunities. Unfortunately, little is known about professional psychologists' involvement in sport psychology practice, research, and training. Therefore, a national survey of 500 male and 500 female psychologists (American Psychological Association Division 12members) was conducted. Based on
Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics
This article is a response to the major contribution published in this volume regarding the history and relationship between the Society of Counseling Psychology and five ethnic minority psychological associations. Using a both-and approach, this response discusses the topics of (a) written and oral history, (b) interconnectedness and
The relationship between the fields of humanistic and positive psychology has been marked by continued tension and ambivalence. This tension can be traced to extensive differences in the philosophical grounding characterizing the two perspectives within psychology. These differences exist with respect to (a) ontology, including the ways in which
International Society of Sport Psychology clarifies the psychological benefits of physical activity, noting the positive relationship between physical activity level and mental health. Exercise can reduce anxiety, decrease depression levels, reduce neuroticism and anxiety, reduce stress, and have beneficial emotional effects for both sexes across
Within the current economic climate students are seen as needing more than a degree to succeed in securing graduate employment. One way that students chose to enhance their employability is through engaging in voluntary work. In this empirical study, undergraduate psychology students' reasons for volunteering are explored within the context of
The present paper, based on the results of international studies, is focused on the reconsideration of the psychological aspects of induced abortion. By presenting a narrow cross-section of the Hungarian demographic data, we would like to emphasise the necessity and the significance of a deeper understanding of the subject. Factors behind the decision-making, short- and long term outcomes of the intervention influencing primarily the mental health of women and partner-relationship aspects are discussed in details. While acknowledging the complexity of the subject deriving from the legal, ethical, moral, religious, medical, social and sociological concerns, our aim is to call attention to the psychological aspects of induced abortion and the importance of psychological care of women undergoing surgical operation. PMID:22232522
This website was created by Professor Jon Mueller of North Central College in order to help fellow professors teach a range of social psychology topics to their students. The resources here are divided into 10 areas, including Online Lectures, Examples of Concepts, and Class Assignments. The site is updated frequently, and visitors can click through each of these sections to get a sense of the offerings. The Topics Resources area contains helpful links and activities related to conformity, aggression, and group influence. Moving on, the site also includes links to other teaching psychology sites, including Science of Relationships and the GoCognitive project, which offers an online center for teaching in cognitive psychology and neuroscience. [KMG
This article investigates the relationship between employment and the use of marijuana and cocaine for males in National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data from 1984 and 1988. Previous studies yielding mixed evidence may have inadequately accounted for the simultaneity between drug consumption and employment. I implement an instrumental variable procedure that identifies drug use with variables that are empirically unrelated
Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an overview of
Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural
Analyzed data from 288 African-American members of National Association of Social Workers to investigated impact of undermining among coworker and supervisor-supervisee relationships. Found substantial increases in irritability, depression, anxiety, and depersonalization among social workers when social undermining was included in set of predictor
Compared parent-child relationships and early adolescent well-being in families with children conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF), adoptive families, and families with a naturally conceived child. Found that IVF children were functioning well and did not differ from other children in social or emotional adjustment. (Author/KB)
The aims of this study were to (a) identify the predictors of attrition from a fully self-directed intervention, and (b) to test whether an intervention to increase gratitude is an effective way to reduce body dissatisfaction. Participants (N=479, from the United Kingdom) aged 18-76 years took part in a self-help study via the Internet and were randomized to receive one of two interventions, gratitude diaries (n=130), or thought monitoring and restructuring (n=118) or a waitlist control (n=231) for a two week body dissatisfaction intervention. The gratitude intervention (n=40) was as effective as monitoring and restructuring (n=22) in reducing body dissatisfaction, and both interventions were significantly more effective than the control condition (n=120). Participants in the gratitude group were more than twice as likely to complete the intervention compared to those in the monitoring and restructuring group. Intervention content, baseline expectancy and internal locus of control significantly predicted attrition. This study shows that a gratitude intervention can be as effective as a technique commonly used in cognitive therapy and is superior in retaining participants. Prediction of attrition is possible from both intervention content and psychological variables. PMID:20400220
Geraghty, Adam W A; Wood, Alex M; Hyland, Michael E
Background: Although psychological factors are now recognized as playing a significant and independent role in the development of coronary heart disease (CHD) and its complications, many of these factors are correlated with each other. The present study is aimed at examining the association between alexithymia and anxiety depression, stress, quality of life, and social support in CHD patients. Materials and Methods: In this research 398 patients with coronary heart disease (166 females and 232 males) from the city of Isfahan were selected using random sampling. The tools used included depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS-21), Health-related to Quality Of Life (HRQOL-26), Multiple Scale Perceived Social Support (MSPSS-12), and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling by using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS21) (IBM Corp: Armonk, New York.U.S.) and Asset Management Operating System (AMOS21) SPSS, an IBM Company: Chicago, U.S. Software. Results: Results of the structural equation model showed an acceptable goodness of fit, for the explanation alexithymia that was significantly associated with lower HRQOL and social support and increasing anxiety, depression, and stress. Conclusions: Alexithymia may increase anxiety, depression, and stress and can be a predisposing factor to poorer HRQOL and social support.
This article covers the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Psychology, Division 45 of the American Psychological Association (APA) in understanding the relationship of ethnic minority psychological associations with Division 17. A brief history is provided, followed by current status and resources, connections to counseling
Morales, Eduardo; Lau, Michael Y.; Ballesteros, Andrea
While acknowledging the psychological experience of intimacy, evolutionary theory postulates proliferation as the underlying grounds for human relationships. Intimacy, according to evolutionary theory, is merely a psychological mechanism whereby sexual selection and parental investment are facilitated. Unfortunately, the assumption of an underlying evolutionary mechanism which governs human relationships is fraught with problematic consequences. Unlike the evolutionary understanding of intimacy, the
This new Usenet Group, moderated by a team of six people, including John Grohol, one of the founders of the well known Mental Health Net (discussed in the October 4, 1996 Scout Report), "exists as a forum for the discussion of psychotherapy." Appropriate discussion topics include: particular types of psychotherapy, particular psychological disorders, research relevant to psychotherapy, psychopharmacological treatments, diagnostic issues, employment opportunities, conference announcements, and relevant research.
In describing memory phenomena in natural language, a spatial metaphor is typically employed. Memories are considered to be\\u000a objects that are stored in a mind space, and the process of retrieval is conceived as a search for these objects. It is argued\\u000a that this metaphor has been carried over into many of the popular theories of memory in cognitive psychology
Consumer and rehabilitation provider factors that might limit employment opportunities for 154 individuals with six slowly progressive neuromuscular diseases (NMD) were investigated. The NMDs were spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), hereditary motor sensory neuropathy (HMSN), Becker's muscular dystrophy (BMD), facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), myotonic muscular dystrophy (MMD), and limb-girdle syndrome (LGS). Forty percent were employed in the competitive labor market at the time of the study, 50% had been employed in the past, and 10% had never been employed. The major consumer barrier to employment was education. Other important factors were type of occupation, intellectual capacity, psychosocial adjustment, and the belief by most individuals that their physical disability was the only or major barrier to obtaining a job. Psychological characteristics were associated with level of unemployment. However, physical impairment and disability were not associated with level of unemployment. There also were differences among the types of NMDs. Compared with the SMA, HMSN, BMD, and FSHD groups, the MMD and LGS groups had significantly higher levels of unemployment, lower educational levels, and fewer employed professional, management, and technical workers. Nonphysical impairment factors such as a low percentage of college graduates, impaired intellectual function in some individuals, and poor psychological adjustment were correlated with higher unemployment levels in the MMD group. Unemployment in the LGS group was correlated with a failure to complete high school. Major provider barriers to employment were the low level of referrals to Department of Rehabilitation by physicians and the low percentage of acceptance into the State Department of Rehabilitation. The low rate of acceptance was primarily attributable to the low number of referrals compounded by a lack of counselor experience with individuals with NMD. Both consumer and provider barriers may contribute to the lack of interest in obtaining a job. PMID:9036908
Fowler, W M; Abresch, R T; Koch, T R; Brewer, M L; Bowden, R K; Wanlass, R L
The author presents a model based on verbal and non-verbal instruments in order to elaborate a psychological diagnosis in troubles of sexual behavior. The instruments usually employed are the following: the map aimed at verifying harmony or conflict with significant people; family drawing, another means to check harmony or conflict in the nuclear family; genogram, in order to reconstruct family myths; body drawing aimed at discovering the body parts that give pleasure, uneasiness, annoyance-tickle and the problems connected with genitals; questionnaire on the couple aimed at finding out areas of mutual dissatisfaction; the drawing of the shared space in the couple, represented by the WE area, in order to identify the relational/emotional deficiencies. Using this model we can simplify the anamnesis, focus on the problematic areas, quickly check the unconscious contents and define a diagnosis with the subsequent hypothesis of intervention. PMID:12834033
Summary The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) is commonly used in chronic illness and chronic pain populations\\u000a to assess psychological functioning. We report the results of the first study employing the MMPI-2 to assess psychological\\u000a aspects of patients with Gaucher disease, type I (GD) is an inborn error of metabolism with unique features as a chronic illness:\\u000a the disorder often presents
W. Packman; T. Wilson Crosbie; A. Riesner; C. Fairley; S. Packman
This paper discusses psychological problems relevant to developing and designing expert systems. With respect to the former, the psychological literature suggests that several cognitive biases may affect the elicitation of a valid knowledge base from the expert. The literature also suggests that common expert system inference engines may be quite inconsistent with reasoning heuristics employed by experts. With respect to expert system user interfaces, care should be taken when eliciting uncertainty estimates from users, presenting system conclusions, and ordering questions.
Posted by the American Psychological Society (see the May 6, 1994 Scout Report), this Website presents an extensive annotated list of psychological research currently being conducted on the Web. In addition to a new studies section, topics include health psychology, industrial and organizational psychology, personality studies, psychology and religion, sensation and perception, social psychology, neural psychology, clinical psychology, developmental psychology, cognition, emotions, and others. Links are provided to the listed Websites.
A non-experimental design was used to investigate the relationship of the Test of Adult Basic Education (TABE) scores to employment status. Groups were comprised of individuals with disabilities who were either employed or not employed immediately following their taking of the TABE and being released from a testing and employment services center
Our purpose in this study was to examine the relationship between interpersonal violence and background traumas and symptom distress in a community sample of Colombian women (N = 217). We utilized the Life Stressor Checklist-Revised (LSC-R) to measure lifetime interpersonal violence (IPV) and background trauma exposure and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) to measure current symptom distress. Although both exposures were common in this sample, IPV was strongly correlated with current symptom distress; background traumas made no unique contribution to the variance in current symptom distress. Based on our findings, it is suggested that interpersonal events may be particularly distressing. PMID:20835943
Psychological ownership is rarely considered in health discourse related to chronic illness or disease state. Construction of identity is an important consideration within this framework. This autoethnographic study explores psychological ownership and identity related to prostate cancer and chronic illness. Conclusions about the nature of psychological ownership and identity were gathered from the relevant literature and personal experience. Themes include the patienthealthcare professional relationship and that psychological ownership is personal and grounded in an individual's sense of identity, control and perceived capacity to control illness or disease. Personal reflection through autoethnography guides discussion of psychological ownership and identity.
Just as postsecondary schooling serves as a dividing line between the advantaged and disadvantaged on outcomes like income and marital status, it also serves as a dividing line between the healthy and unhealthy. Why are the better educated healthier? Human capital theory posits that education makes one healthier via cognitive (skill improvements) and noncognitive psychological resources (traits such as conscientiousness and a sense of mastery). I employ the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (1957-2005) to test the relative strength of measures of cognitive human capital versus noncognitive psychological human capital in explaining the relationship between education and health outcomes among high school graduates. I find little evidence that noncognitive psychological human capital is a significant mediator, but find a relatively significant role for cognitive human capital, as measured by high school academic performance. It is not just higher educational attainment; academic performance is strongly linked to health in later life. PMID:21131622
The current research started from the assumption that one of the major motives driving individuals' Internet use is to relieve psychosocial problems (e.g., loneliness, depression). This study showed that individuals who were lonely or did not have good social skills could develop strong compulsive Internet use behaviors resulting in negative life outcomes (e.g., harming other significant activities such as work, school, or significant relationships) instead of relieving their original problems. Such augmented negative outcomes were expected to isolate individuals from healthy social activities and lead them into more loneliness. Even though previous research suggests that social use of the Internet (e.g., social networking sites, instant messaging) could be more problematic than entertainment use (e.g., downloading files), the current study showed that the former did not show stronger associations than the latter in the key paths leading to compulsive Internet use. PMID:19514821
Psychological contracts have been described as individuals' beliefs regarding the obligations, expectations, and contributions that exist between them and their employer. They can be influenced by the organization's culture and philosophy, through human resources policies, and through the employee's personality and characteristics. Owing to the recent economic crisis, hospices in the UK are currently in a transitional phase and are being expected to demonstrate efficiencies that might be more in line with a business model than a health-care environment. This may conflict with the philosophical views of hospice nurses. To support nurses through this transition, it might be helpful to understand the antecedents of hospice nurses' behaviour and how they construct their psychological contracts. Failure to offer adequate support might lead to negative outcomes such as a desire to leave the organisation, poorer quality work, or disruptive behaviour. This study used a modified grounded theory approach involving in-depth interviews to explore the context and content of the psychological contracts of hospice nurses in the UK. Four main themes emerged: the types of psychological contracts formed, how the contracts are formed, their contents, and the breaches and potential violations the nurses perceive. PMID:21240104
Objective: To explore the psychological treatment options for pruritus in patients with wounds. Method: This study employed a narrative design with a search being completed using the databases Academic Search Complete, Google Scholar, PsycInfo, PsycARTICLES, Medline and CINAHL Plus. All articles between 1980-2013 that included the following search terms: [pruritus OR itch OR itching] AND [management OR psychological interventions OR treatment] AND [wounds OR burns OR wounds burns] were included in the review. Results: A number of psychological treatments options emerged from the literature search that were suggested to be effective for treating itching. These included methods such as habit reversal, suggestions, relaxation, massage and itch-coping programmes. Each of these methods showed potential for improving the patient experience by reducing itching, although the research evidence is currently somewhat limited. Conclusion: Although itching is a common symptom in wounds, the use of psychological treatments for this may be rather limited. The treatments discussed show promise and their use should be a welcome addition to the healthcare professional's armoury for working with people with wounds. Declaration of interest: There were no external sources of funding for thist study. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. PMID:24920200
... Organizations Resources: FAQs FAQs - The Psychological Component of Infertility -- written by the ASRM Mental Health Professional Group ( ... Professional in your area ) Q1. What impact does infertility have on psychological well being? Infertility often creates ...
Changes within the health services are raising a number of employment issues for nurses. The idea that a professional qualification and a job will lead to security of employment and career development is rapidly changing. These assumptions, the 'old' psychological contract, is giving way to new expectations from employers and employees; the emergence of a 'new' psychological contract. A psychological contract is an implicit agreement between employer and employee that each party will treat the other fairly. Such contracts are maintained by virtue of all parties wanting to seek agreement on issues where possible and to maintain trust. While such a contract is not a legally binding agreement it is nonetheless a binding understanding between people. Changes to this psychological contract can have important implications for individuals and their employer in terms of work and organizational commitment. This paper will discuss some of the issues surrounding psychological contracts and the impact of violating them. It will also discuss, from a management perspective, how psychological contracts develop between employer and employee, and how to form a 'new' psychological contract based upon mutual benefit and shared values. PMID:8705068
Despite debate on the nature of employees' perceptions of their psychological contract, little research has compared employees' and employers' sides of the psychological contract. All 80 items from both scales in the Psychological Contract Inventory were used in a survey of 436 currently working, non-student respondents. Structural equation modeling yielded nonsymmetrical perspectives on promises and obligations, highlighting the validity of approaching the issues via individual perceptions. PMID:22897087
Responds to five major articles by Duckworth, Goldman, Healy, Sampson, and Goodyear on issues pertaining to testing and assessment in counseling psychology. Suggests that the interactive, collaborative aspects of the assessment relationship between psychologist and client need more attention. (TE)
Determines the relation between industrialism and applied psychology. Applied psychology can help to minimize the mental deterioration by changing old habits of carelessness and wastefulness. Applied psychology must consider: (1) the necessity of readjusting and adapting national habits to modern economical and social requirements (2) mental activity and initiative of workers atrophied by specialization of labor and monotony of repetitive
Discusses an analysis of 10 common introductory psychology textbooks. Argues that the books tend to present psychology as tedious, even silly, and as a canned, multimedia, self-teaching program. Concludes that replacing textbooks with lectures based on the instructor's personal knowledge and experience would improve the teaching of psychology. (SG)
This article provides a survey of the applications of nonlinear dynamical systems theory to substantive problems encountered in the full scope of psychological science. Applications are organized into three topical areas - cognitive science, social and organizational psychology, and personality and clinical psychology. Both theoretical and empirical studies are considered with an emphasis on works that capture the broadest scope
At the present time there are in psychology three rival standpoints. (1) There is the traditional psychology of mental states. This type of psychology is objectionable since it seems to invert the standpoint of common sense, and since it rests upon an antiquated metaphysics. Having no objective standards, it leads nowhere. (2) Behaviorism arises as an extreme reaction to the
In "Psychology in its place" (2008) John Radford explores and attempts to initiate a debate on what is or should be the place and role of psychology in Higher Education, primarily as a main subject for a first degree. In this paper, the author raises the stakes, and argues that Higher Education should provide a certain form of practical psychology
The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental
Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts
Because psychology systematically explores human judgment, behavior, and well-being, it can teach us important lessons about how humans differ from the way they are traditionally described by economists. This essay discusses a selection of psychological findings relevant to economics. While standard economics assumes that each person maximizes stable and coherent preferences given rationally-formed probabilistic beliefs, psychological research teaches us about
Describes education system of Denmark and reviews background and development of school psychology in that country. Discusses organization of school psychology work and practice. Explains qualifications and training of school psychologists and describes professional organizations, wages, and problems in school psychology. (NB)
Graduate employability is a key issue for Higher Education. In this two-part study student employability skills have been evaluated from the perspective of sandwich students and graduates in biomolecular science, and their employers. A strong correlation was found between employer and sandwich student/graduate perceptions of the relative
Objective The objective of this study was to test three hypotheses in a sample of individuals with COPD: 1) unsupportive family relationships are associated with psychological distress; 2) psychological distress is associated with smoking status; and 3) unsupportive family relationships are indirectly associated with smoking status via psychological distress. Method Cross-sectional data were collected via self-report questionnaires completed by 455 individuals with COPD who had at least a 10 pack-year smoking history. The hypotheses were tested with structural equation modeling. Results All three hypotheses were supported. Unsupportive family relationships were associated with psychological distress (? = .67, p < .001), psychological distress was associated with smoking status (? = .40, p < .001), and unsupportive family relationships were indirectly associated with smoking status via psychological distress (? = .27, p < .001). Conclusion Results of this study suggest that family relationships are an important factor to include in future longitudinal research that attempts to elucidate social and psychological influences on smoking behavior.
Holm, Kristen E.; LaChance, Heather R.; Bowler, Russell P.; Make, Barry J.; Wamboldt, Frederick S.
There is a paucity of research examining the experiences and perceptions of men employed as school psychology academicians. The purpose of this investigation was to ascertain male school psychology academicians' perceptions of their respective academic climates, levels of support, incidences of harassment, and levels of stress, and to compare
Little, Steven G.; Akin-Little, Angeleque; Palomares, Ronald S.; Eckert, Tanya L.
...POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES...the land or the appropriation rights to the timber or other forestry products; (2) the crew boss has no very...
Objective. To investigate whether greater social support and support network are cross-sectionally associated with less functional limitations and psychological distress in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA); whether this associ- ation is constant over time; and whether increases in social support or support network are associated with less functional limitations and psychological distress. Methods. Subjects were from the European Research
V. Demange; F. Guillemin; M. Baumann; T. P. B. M. Suurmeijer; T. Moum; D. Doeglas
In the past years Environmental Medicine has established itself in the departments of community medicine. The clients of these health offices as well as those attending other Environmental Outpatient Departments and who suffer from anxiety in connection with environmental pollution show increasingly psychomatic and even psychiatric disturbances. This paper demonstrates, from the psychiatrists as well as the environmental physicians point of view, the relationship between psychological disturbances and environmental pollution in a typical case-history. The differentiation between possibly toxically induced symptoms and psychologically caused symptoms will be made clear. The aim of this interdisciplinary paper is to contribute towards reducing contact anxiety between Psychiatry und Environmental Medicine also to reduce the clients' fears of psychiatrisation and thus to facilitate therapeutic intervention. PMID:11285753
This study investigates how different psychological antecedents lead to different components of organizational commitment and employee referrals or employment recommendations in a people-based financial services context. Specifically, we consider the impact of position involvement, volitional choice, and informational complexity on affective, calculative, and normative commitment, which ultimately influences employee referrals in the context of a Flemish bank. Our conceptual model
In the last decade, there has been a dramatic increase in research effectively integrating cognitive psychology, functional neuroimaging, and behavioral neurology. This new work is typically conducting basic research into aspects of the human mind and brain. The present review features as examples of such integrations two series of studies by the author and his colleagues. One series, employing object
Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks. PMID:23163473
The reciprocal exchange of employees' work for pay that is central to employmentrelationships is viewed here through the lens of the psychological contract. A psychological contract involves promised inducements, promised contributions, delivered inducements, and delivered contributions: How an employee cognitively integrates these 4 elements is a central question in psychological contract theory. Three alternative approaches for integrating the 4 elements were drawn from discrepancy theory, from equity theory, and from need theories of satisfaction, respectively. Experimental findings disconfirmed the discrepancy and equity approaches. Findings were consistent with the premise of the needs model, which is that appraisal is driven by how psychological contract elements facilitate or hinder an employee's effort to fulfill personal needs. Results showed that promised and delivered pay and work contribute uniquely to appraisal but that they vary in their influence on appraisal. These findings were consistent with the needs model principle that elements proximal to need satisfaction matter more than distal elements. That is, what is delivered (for pay and for work) matters more than what is promised, and pay matters more than work. PMID:21142346
Treatment under conditions of gnotobiotic isolation can augment the stress of adaptation to a diagnosis of leukaemia. Identification of the psychological problems experienced in isolator treatment can contribute to the effective maintenance of therapy. Individual patterns of adjustment to treatment relate to the psychological defence mechanisms employed to contend with the dependent position enforced by isolation. Psychiatric assessment can assist both patients and nursing staff with the management of their separate difficulties in this unfamiliar treatment situation. Psychological features of isolator treatment in ten patients with acute leukemia are described and suggestions proposed for psychological management of patients under isolator conditions. PMID:1201453
This paper begins by exploring four different possible forms of relationship between economics and psychology, which have different connotations in terms of the relative status of the two disciplines. It t hen focused on the future for one of these, psychological economics. After setting out t he hardcore a xioms and p ositive a nd negative heuristics of a research
Examined the relationship between weight cycling and psychological health in 120 obese women. Weight cycling was defined in two ways by retrospective self-report: total lifetime weight loss and total number of weight cycles greater than or equal to 20 pounds. Psychological self-report measures assessed psychiatric symptoms, eating behavior, mood,
This study was conducted to determine whether a statistically significant relationship exists between the leadership styles of managers and employee psychological contracts, as perceived by the employees. The findings indicated that the employees' perception of leadership style significantly affected satisfaction levels of employee psychological
Informed by current trauma literature, this study explored the relationships between Posttraumatic Growth (PTG; Tedeschi & Calhoun, 1995), Posttraumatic Depreciation (PTD; Cann et al., 2010) and other post-trauma outcomes including well-being, psychological flourishing, and psychological distress. The predictive utility of PTG and PTD was also examined. The sample comprised 104 trauma survivors (28 community members and 76 university students) who
Background: In psychological studies, exposure to electromagnetic field is one of the hazardous factors, which has adverse effects on mental health. Exposure to electromagnetic field due to daily use of electricity makes this study so important. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between psychologi- cal symptoms and occupational exposure to electromagnetic field among workers at High
The salivary cortisol response to psychological stress and its relationship to psychological variables was examined in 36 female temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) sufferers and 39 female control participants. Saliva samples were taken at baseline, after completion of a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test, and after rest. Participants also completed a battery of measures, including Visual Analog Scales for
Fibromyalgia is a form of nonarticular rheumatism characterized by musculoskeletal aching and tenderness on palpation. The role of psychological factors in fibromyalgia has been controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of fibromyalgia to the intensity of anxiety and depression and to determine the correlation between psychological disturbances with disease duration and pain severity.
R. Çeliker; P. Borman; F. Öktem; Y. Gökçe-Kutsal; O. Ba?göze
Past research has consistently documented the positive relationship between a transition to marriage and psychological well-being. In this study, we separate the depressed from the nondepressed to assess whether the benefits marriage has for psychological well-being depend on premarital depression. We also examine whether the effect of marital
In this study, the relationship between student study strategies and performance in Introductory Psychology was examined. Eighty-eight students in three sections of Introductory Psychology at a Midwestern university in the United States completed a demographic questionnaire and the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory-2nd edition (LASSI-2)
Discusses the implications of Charles Darwin's personal and professional history for an academic career in psychology. Relationships between his theoretical position and the content of an introductory psychology course he might teach and how he might fare in a contemporary academic environment are sketched in this fictionalized account.
Discusses the place of psychology in the modern university. Sections dealing with psychology and the geopolitics of science, the relationship of pure to applied science, the role of the university as a social institution, and recommendations for change are presented. (26 ref.)
Using a sample of post-retirement workers (N = 176), this study investigated the role of future time perspective (FTP) in psychological contracts. The study aimed to test: (i) whether future time perspective is related to employerpsychological contract fulfillment and (ii) whether it moderates relations between psychological contract fulfillment
Bal, P. Matthijs; Jansen, Paul G. W.; van der Velde, Mandy E. G.; de Lange, Annet H.; Rousseau, Denise M.
Introduction. Pain is defined "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage". Pain is a sensation of the body, and is always an unpleasant emotional experience. The role of psychology is auxiliary and supplemental to medicine. This is an aid addressed to the patient, physician and patient's caregivers: professional caregivers, family members and significant others. At each stage of the diagnostic and therapeutic process, psychology offers help, both from the cognitive and practical aspects. Objective. The objective of the article is to present important psychological aspects of studies concerning pain, and the psychological methods and techniques of pain treatment. State of knowledge. Pain is the leading reason for patients seeking medical care and is one of the most disabling, burdensome, and costly conditions. Pain accompanies many diseases, each one of which generates unique/separate diagnostic, therapeutic and research problems. Depression and related psychical disorders. There is a significant relationship between depression and pain symptoms, as well as between pain and suicidal thoughts. Patients with a long history of pain disorders also have increased depression and anxiety symptoms, as well as suicidal thoughts. Patients with more severe depression and anxiety symptoms also have an increase in pain problems. The intensity of pain correlates with the intensity of psychopathological symptoms - both with mood lowering and with anxiety symptoms and worry. Active pain coping strategies strive to function in spite of pain, or to distract oneself from pain, are associated with adaptive functioning. Passive strategies involve withdrawal or relinquishing control to an external force or agent and are related to greater pain and depression. Pain catastrophizing is a negatively distorted perception of pain as awful, horrible and unbearable. Catastrophizing is strongly associated with depression and pain. Studies in which functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used showed that pain catastrophizing, independent of the influence of depression, was significantly associated with increased activity in brain areas related to anticipation of pain, attention to pain, emotional aspects of pain and motor control. Pain behaviour is a conditioned pain. Care and concern on the part of others, secondarily enhance a patient's pain behaviours, which lead to an increase in the intensity of the pain experienced. A history of early life adversity (ELA) - rejection, neglect, physical or sexual abuse is related to the development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in adulthood. Ovarian hormones have been shown to modulate pain sensitivity. Imaging of the human brain in chronic pain. Acute pain and chronic pain are encoded in different regions of the brain. Chronic pain can be considered a driving force that carves cortical anatomy and physiology, creating the chronic pain brain/ mind state. Cognitive-behavioural methods of pain treatment in domains of pain experience, cognitive coping and appraisal (positive coping measures), and reduced pain experience are effective in reducing pain in patients. PMID:25000837
This paper studies the relationship between competitiveness and higher education systems in Europe. It explores whether more competitive countries have developed more labour-market-oriented systems of higher education (HE) that thereby give their graduates greater short term employability potential. Based on and a large-scale survey among 45.000
The time has come to start to improve students' job experiences and to improve the relationship between the work and school experiences. In rural and agricultural economies, student work was so important to the family that the school year was fashioned to accommodate it. As the nation became more urban, student employment for pay and student
Why has the specialty of counseling psychology been overlooked in the larger conversation about positive psychology? Is it reasonable that counseling psychology claims positive psychology as its own? What are some of the problems in defining "positive psychology," and how does the lack of consensus around operationalization thwart discourse on
Mollen, Debra; Ethington, Lanaya L.; Ridley, Charles R.
Human psychology, neuroscience and behavioural economics study the human mind, brain and behaviour. Scientific research has discovered a great deal about the factors that influence human perception, judgment and activity in the real world. In this article, I aim to provide an outline of the relationship between decision-making, cognition, emotion and behaviour. I propose that meta-cognition, or thinking-about-thinking, has the potential to inform how we practice emergency medicine. By accommodating human traits rather than trying to defy them, we can ultimately benefit our patients. PMID:24712897
Designed and maintained by Professor Michael E. Nielsen of the Psychology Department at Georgia Southern University, this site offers numerous resources for people interested in psychological aspects of religious belief and behavior. The site is designed as an introduction to the psychology of religion, rather than a comprehensive treatment. Resources are grouped into three main categories: general resource pages, science and religion pages, and pages devoted to new religious movements. Contents include notable people in the psychology of religion; a bibliography; course syllabi; journal TOCs; essays on the field, on science and religion, and on several aspects of new religious movements; and related links.
Japan has become a world leader in humanoid robotics, and every year, international conferences like SICE feature reports of remarkable new suites of human behaviors that have been convincingly simulated by machines. But as machines everywhere have become more capable of autonomous operation, there is an increasing awareness that the psychological dimensions of human relationships with intelligent machines must be
The aim of the ARCO mailing list (ARt and COmmunication) is to discuss themes and questions about the importance of ART in the actual historical period and its relationships with literature, psychology, and the techniques and sciences of communication. Arco is an Italian word for "arc", an interesting symbol with many implications.
Although many studies have linked sleep problems with symptoms of psychopathology, fewer studies have examined the relationship between sleep and dimensions of psychological health as well as depression. To fill this gap, 502 community residents were surveyed about sleep habits, symptoms of anxiety and depression, as well as Ryff's six dimensions
Hamilton, N. A.; Nelson, C. A.; Stevens, N.; Kitzman, Heather
One of the conceptual and definitional issues that has plagued the study of child maltreatment is the relationship between intention and outcome. This paper flows from the finding that the common developmentally destructive element in all forms of child maltreatment is psychological maltreatment, that the study of child abuse and neglect is the
Color filters humanitys perception of the world and alters peoples relationship with their surroundings. It influences human perception, preference, and psychology throughout the lifespan. Color preferences appear in infants as young as three months old, and typically change with age. Some responses to color may be innate, and some may be learned from nature or culture. Cool hues are relaxants,
This report discusses the relationship between the fields of early childhood education and developmental psychology. A historical overview focuses on the early influence of Freud's psychoanalytical principles on early childhood education. Developmental psychologists became involved with ECE on a large scale in the 1960's, encouraged largely by the
This research addresses significant relationships between the components of an individual's psychological type and cognitive style, as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), and preferences within the academic environment, as indicated on the...
Extant quantitative research on loneliness among homeless youth has grouped loneliness with other elements of psychological distress. The current study seeks to determine if loneliness has a different relationship with resilience than does psychological distress among street youth. Using data from 47 participants, linear regression was conducted. Results indicate that homeless youth experiencing higher psychological distress reported lower resilience scores. However, levels of resilience are not significantly associated with feelings of loneliness when psychological distress was accounted for. This study has implications for how researchers and clinicians conceptualize and address feelings of loneliness among homeless youth. PMID:25017554
This study compared gay men in monogamous ("closed") relationships (n = 98) and gay men in nonmonogamous ("open") relationships (n = 34). Partners in open relationships were living together significantly longer than partners in closed relationships. Partners in the two types of relationships did not differ in Psychological Adjustment. Controlling for length of time living together, partners in closed relationships reported higher Affiliation/Dependency, more Favorable Attitudes toward the Relationship, and lower Tension than partners in open relationships. Global relationship quality for both types of couples was related to many Attractions, many Barriers, and few Alternatives to the relationship; few beliefs regarding both Disagreement is Destructive and Partners Cannot Change; high Dyadic Attachment; high Shared Decision Making; and low Psychological Maladjustment. Partners in both types of relationships were more similar to each other than different from each other, especially on the variables of Relationship Quality, a belief in Partner Changeability, and Dyadic Attachment. PMID:3835204
Using the theoretical perspectives offered by stressor-stress-strain framework and fairness theory, the authors propose that psychological climate will mediate the positive relationship between interpersonal aggression and employee burnout. Data from a survey of 1893 hospital employees suggested that psychological climate partially mediated the relationship between interpersonal aggression and two of the three dimensions of burnout, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:23225579
Bedi, Akanksha; Courcy, Francois; Paquet, Maxime; Harvey, Steve
Examines the relationship among senior psychology student scores on the Major Field Test in Psychology (MFT), the student characteristics, and the effects of courses taken by the students. Finds that students' scores correlated with other measures of success and with the number of psychology courses already completed. (CMK)
The current study sought to explain a largely overlooked theme in psychological contract literature, that is, how individual factors are related to formation of psychological contract. It investigated the relationship between work centrality, psychological contracts, and job attitudes. It was expected that people with higher work centrality would be less likely to have a transactional contract and more likely to
Summary An increasing number of scholars and practitioners have emphasized the importance of 'feelings of ownership' for the organization (even when employees are not legal owners). In this exploratory study, we examine the relationships of psychological ownership with work attitudes and work behaviors. We start by developing hypotheses based on the psychology of possession and psychological ownership literatures. We then
This study examined the generalizability of psychological contract forms observed in the West (D. M. Rousseau, 2000) to China. Using 2 independent samples, results confirmed the generalizability of 3 psychological contract forms: transactional, relational, and balanced. This study also examined the nature of relationships of psychological contracts with organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). In particular, this study explored the role of
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MODESTO JUNIOR COLLEGE'S MULTIOCCUPATIONAL TRAINING PROJECT AT NEW HOPE SCHOOL WAS EVALUATED ON THE BASIS OF SUBSEQUENT EMPLOYMENT OF TRAINEES. DATA ON THE CURRENT EMPLOYMENT STATUSES OF TRAINEES AND DROPOUTS, REASONS FOR BEING OUT OF THE LABOR FORCE, ANTICIPATED EMPLOYMENT, EMPLOYMENT PATTERNS AND EARNING POWER OF EMPLOYED
A significant portion of teens work while in school and the consequences of that work are of potential concern to society. While there is widespread support for combining work and school, and some evidence that employment has positive effects on youth development, previous research has revealed some potentially harmful consequences of employment among teens. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between teen employment and substance use. We extended this literature by studying two different cohorts of youth, and by exploiting arguably exogenous variation in youth employment and earnings caused by changes in minimum wages and the business cycle (unemployment). Estimates suggest that hours of work are positively associated with alcohol and cigarette use. However, if selection on unobserved variables were equal to selection on observed variables, these associations would be close to zero. With respect to the association between earnings and substance use, the evidence is less clear. PMID:23146605
Kaestner, Robert; Sasso, Anthony Lo; Callison, Kevin; Yarnoff, Benjamin
This study attempts to identify the drivers and inhibitors of employment for people with disabilities in Malaysia. It explores the skills and psychological traits needed by people with disabilities in order to get jobs and the barriers to their employment. Data include interviews detailing the viewpoints of 24 teachers with visual impairments.
This three-year longitudinal study investigated whether low-wage employment was associated with improved psychological and parenting outcomes in a sample of 178 single mothers who were employed and unemployed current and former welfare recipients both before and subsequent to the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity
Jackson, Aurora P.; Bentler, Peter M.; Franke, Todd M.
This phenomenological study used a series of three in-depth interviews with seven African American participants, for a total of 21 interviews, to explore their experiences in the specialist and doctoral level school psychology programs they left prior to obtaining a professional entry-level degree. The study's purpose was to investigate what factors contributed to participants' attrition. Findings indicate that misalignment between participants' career aims and the practice of school psychology (as presented in the programs they left) contributed to attrition. Poor relationships with school psychology faculty and program cohort peers also played a role in participants' decisions to leave school psychology programs. Results offer a unique lens into racial issues in school psychology. Recommendations for faculty and others interested in preventing African Americans' attrition from school psychology graduate education are discussed. PMID:23040761
We introduce a special issue of Ethos devoted to the work of Jerome Bruner and his careerlong attempts to seek innovative ways to foster a dialogue between psychology and anthropology. The articles in this special issue situate Bruner's meaning-centered approach to psychology and his groundbreaking work on narrative in the broader context of the developmental trajectory of both of fields of inquiry. Bruner's work has been enormously influential in the subfields of cultural psychology and psychological anthropology, especially because of his important contributions to our understanding of the intimate relationship between culture and mind. We examine Bruner's past and ongoing engagement with such luminary figures as Lev Vygotsky, Jean Piaget, Alfred Kroeber, Claude Lévi-Strauss, and Clifford Geertz to highlight points of convergence and tension between his version of cultural psychology and contemporary theorizing and practice in psychological anthropology. We also review his practical and theoretical contributions to the fields of medicine, law, and education.
Mattingly, Cheryl; Lutkehaus, Nancy C.; Throop, C. Jason
We systematically mistreat psychological phenomena, both logically and clinically. This article explores three contentions: that the dominant discourse in modern cognitive, affective, and clinical neuroscience assumes that we know how psychology/biology causation works when we do not; that there are serious intellectual, clinical, and policy costs to pretending we do know; and that crucial scientific and clinical progress will be stymied as long as we frame psychology, biology, and their relationship in currently dominant ways. The arguments are developed with emphasis on misguided attempts to localize psychological function via neuroimaging, misunderstandings about the role of genetics in psychopathology, and unfortunate constraints on health-care policy and clinical service delivery. A particular challenge, articulated but not resolved in this article, is determining what constitutes adequate explanation in the relationship between psychology and biology.
Table of Contents: Employment Services: A Definition and Policy Framework; Core Programs; Support Policies and Programs; Organization and Administration of Public Employment Services; Private Employment Services; Conclusions and Issues for Further Study; ...
Community psychology's twin goals of prevention and empowerment are ill-served when researchers and practitioners restrict their activities to traditional mental health settings. This paper echoes the call of the Swampscott conference for expanding community psychology's domain of inquiry and action. It reviews examples from the research literature of efforts at prevention and empowerment in five classes of behavior settings identified
The general decline of radical empiricism has led to a renewed appreciation of the role of nonempirical contributions to the advancement of science. In psychology, this has meant the development of a theoretical wing comparable to the well-established theoretical traditions that exist in other scientific disciplines. Theoretical psychology is no longer the collection of vague generalities that once made up
Little of the work in critical and hermeneutical psychology has been linked to instructional technology (IT). This article provides a discussion in order to fill the gap in this direction. The article presents a brief genealogy of American IT in relation to the influence of psychology. It also provides a critical and hermeneutical framework for
Discusses need for anomalistic psychology courses (the occult, astrology, ESP, or those phenomena inexplicable in terms of orthodox science) in the college psychology curriculum. A study of an anomalistics course indicates that student belief in the paranormal was associated with greater learning which was then followed by significant reductions
This special issue of P & G provides an overview of the psychological education movement and its implications for the practicing counselor. Psychological education is a relatively new discipline, but it is already providing important levers to help counselors refocus their efforts and increase their effectiveness. (Author)
Describes the experience of teaching psychology at Tartu University and Tallinn Pedagogical University in Estonia. Discusses the lessons learned by teaching in Estonia and applies those lessons to teaching psychology in the United States, focusing on the benefits teachers reap when they become more aware of themselves and their audiences. (CMK)
Phenomenology, hermeneutics and experiential psychology form the backbone of an emerging paradigm within psychology known as human science. Human science's use of phenomenology provides a way to set aside the naturalistic presupposition and directly study the irreducible involvement of human existence within a meaningful world, as it is given in
The Online Psychology Laboratory (OPL) consists of (1) highly interactive, web-deliverable psychology experiments and demonstrations, (2) a cumulative data archive from which students can retrieve datasets for analysis, and (3) user-controlled data extraction and analysis tools designed for the diverse needs of end users. One of the goals of the collection is to offer support for student research and educators who are not adept in experimental design and data analysis. Psychology students will be able to collect data, analyze data, and report their findings for class assignments or individual projects. Because psychology is allied to many disciplines--biology, sociology, and political science among them--OPL will contribute to the set of experiments available to students who wish to study psychologically-based issues in related scientific disciplines.
The evolution of animal communication is a complex issue and one that attracts much research and debate. 'Receiver psychology' has been highlighted as a potential selective force, and we review how avian psychological processes and biases can influence the evolution and design of signals as well as the progress that has been made in testing these ideas in behavioural studies. Interestingly, although birds are a focal group for experimental psychologists and behavioural ecologists alike, the integration of theoretical ideas from psychology into studies of communication has been relatively slow. However, recent operant experiments are starting to address how birds perceive and respond to complex natural signals in an attempt to answer evolutionary problems in communication. This review outlines how a psychological approach to understanding communication is useful, and we hope that it stimulates further research addressing the role of psychological mechanisms in signal evolution.
A study examined various characteristics of the employment of illegal aliens, including wages, job training, job mobility, workplace conditions, and employer characteristics. The study was largely based on data transcribed from a sample of Immigration and Naturalization Service apprehension reports on illegal aliens in the Chicago (Illinois)
What constitutes graduate employability is discursively framed. In this paper we argue that whilst universities in the UK have long had an involvement in producing useful and productive citizens, the ongoing neoliberalisation of higher education has engendered a discursive shift in definitions of employability. Traditionally, universities regarded
How can the advances of social and developmental psychology be integrated? This conceptual paper proposes to examine four basic theoretical models of social situations through which learning and development have been observed in the post-piagetian tradition: the psychosocial triangle, the frame, models of transfer and transitions, and models
Human beings have always tackled their problems and the adversities of life by drawing on their own resources, resilience, and values, and yet the focus on pathology has effectively long dominated the cognitive approach of psychologists to ill-being. Psychological interventions in rehabilitation medicine were formed around the codification and containment of the ill-being, in an almost surgical or antibiotic sense of "correcting" the negativity: identifying and removing or combating the ill-being, or, if possible, its sources; the distance to be covered was from negativity to zero: absence of ill-being as a synonym for well-being. But what makes a 20-year-old tetraplegic look to the future? Where does someone who has been waiting for heart transplant for one, two or three years find the strength to carry on while living on 18 drugs and no more than two little bottles of water a day? In its use in the context of health care, positive psychology is that part of psychology that takes on the task--among others--of deciphering the mechanisms through which it becomes possible to adapt to a chronic illness. But not only. Positive psychology also offers the opportunity to systematise knowledge concerning the possibility of overreaching the distance from negativity to zero, of going beyond, of nourishing positivity, enriching and improving oneself, despite the presence of an organic disease or a disability. Positive psychotherapy does not negate painful or unpleasant experiences, but encourages the use of resources to understand weaknesses and it is contributing substantially to drawing our attention back to optimism, courage, positive emotions, flexibility, creativity, faith, hopes, honesty, perseverance, flourishing and on their relationships with physical health. A different language from the one that years of pragmatism have accustomed us to. If positive psychology can help our patients to see, through the pain, anger and fear, something that makes their life still worth living, it only remains to add it to the tools of our trade. PMID:21488485
Research has compared employed and non-employed women in the areas of depression, reported psychological problems, alienation, role conflict, marital problems, life satisfaction, job satisfaction, and anxiety. A review of this research generally revealed no differences between employed and non-employed women. Those studies which reported
Students bring many misconceptions about psychology to the introductory psychology course. We investigated whether scores on a 10-item Knowledge of Psychology Test (adapted from Vaughan, 1977) taken on the first class day were related to final class grades in 11 introductory psychology classes taught by the same instructor at three colleges. A
Kuhle, Barry X.; Barber, Jessica M.; Bristol, Adam S.
The report provides national statistics on municipal government employment and payrolls for the month of October 1988. Statistics presented in the report are based on a mail canvass survey that includes a sample of approximately 5,200 municipal government...
The report provides national statistics on municipal government employment and payrolls for the month of October 1989. Statistics are based on a mail canvass survey that includes a sample of approximately 4,750 municipal governments. The surveys measure t...
This study explores the role of informal mentoring (i.e., developing an important relationship with a non-parental adult) in the transition to full time employment among young adults (age 2328). Multivariate analysis of the Add Health data reveals that mentoring is positively related to the likelihood of full time employment, and the relationship involves both selection and causation processes. Entrance into
Steve McDonald; Lance D. Erickson; Monica Kirkpatrick Johnson; Glen H. Elder
Darwin's views on various psychological behaviors were significant. Basing his conclusions on empirical research, he wrote extensively on the phylogeny of behavior, emotional expression, sexual selection, instincts, evolution of morals, ontogeny of behavior, and genetics of behavior. (PS)
Identifies the doctoral psychology programs producing the most mentors (identified as dissertation supervisors). Assesses the quality of these programs as rated in past research. Discovers a strong correlation between those programs assigning mentors and those rated highest in quality. (MJP)
The objective of this paper is to introduce and emphasize the importance of psychological interventions for those with dermatological conditions. In keeping with the current literature, the author envisages a two-tier approach in the provision of such psychological interventions. Firstly, most patients with dermatology conditions may not require psychological change. Instead, they could be approached with effective doctorpatient communication skills, within a context of empathy and positive regard. At the second tier, however, based on the clinical interview, some patients may require varying degrees of psychological change in order to better manage their illness. In such a context, a dermatologist with training in psychotherapy would be required. In the absence of such a person, the patient may be referred to a psychologist or another mental health professional trained in psychotherapy.
Based at the Millersville University of Pennsylvania, Teaching Educational Psychology (TEP) is an online, peer-refereed journal that is "devoted to increasing our shared knowledge base about the teaching of educational psychology to a variety of educational constituencies" including administrators, policy-makers, parents, and the public. The journal started publication in 2005 and is published twice a year. Visitors to the site can access all of the back issues of the journal, and they should also take a look at their reviewing guidelines and submission materials. Recent articles include "Using Student Interviews to Understand Theories of Motivation" and "Narrative as a Basis for Teaching Educational Psychology" Moving on, the site also includes links to related educational psychology sites and a list of reviewers.
This slide presentation reviews the history of long duration spaceflight, and the changes in the International Space Station crew and the effect that this has had on the psychology of astronaut selection and training.
Published eleven times a year by the American Psychological Association, the Monitor on Psychology contains a number of helpful pieces for those persons interested in the broad field of psychology, and for those who may be thinking about going into the field as well. Each month features a number of helpful features, including a commentary from the APA's president, an update on psychology and public policy, discussion of ethical practices, and an editorial from a working professional in the field. Each month the publication also contains a number of extended articles on such topics as personality disorders, the importance of psychologists' in troubled schools, and the role of psychologists in homeland security. Visitors to the site also have access to an archive of previous issues that stretches back to January 1998.
Teaching Clinical Psychology, created by Dr. John Suler of Rider University, is devoted to Ã¯Â¿Â½sharing ideas and resources for teaching clinical psychology.Ã¯Â¿Â½ Helpful for students and educators in the fields of mental health and human services counseling, this site contains practical in-class exercises, such as an exercise which illustrates what it is like to share secrets with strangers, and syllabi for courses in the clinical psychology curriculum. There are also larger projects for students, including an in-depth analysis of a psychotherapy case study and a role-play project which has students administer, score, and interpret a series of psychological tests given to a classmate.
The issue of how forensic psychology is defined has taken on a new urgency in the context of an application to have forensic psychology designated a specialty by the American Psychological Association. To provide a historical perspective, I briefly review early attempts to apply psychological concepts to legal issues, beginning with the McNaughten trial in England in 1843. I then
Reviews status of school psychology in Saudi Arabia. Describes rapidity of social change in Saudi Arabia, Saudi system of education, school psychology services, administration, training facilities, and school psychology's contributions to Saudi society. Presents plan for future development of school psychology and describes challenges confronting