Note: This page contains sample records for the topic psychological theory from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results. Last update: November 12, 2013.
This text is based on the hypothesis that every theory on the psychology of personality must inevitably, in one manner or another, have a sociological referent, that is to say, it must refer to a body of knowledge which deals with a diversity of social contexts and their relations to individuals. According to this working hypothesis, such a sociology is implicit. This text then discusses a group of theoretical approaches in an effort to verify this hypothesis. This approach allows the extrication of diverse forms or diverse expressions of this implicit sociology within this context several currents are rapidly explored : psychoanalysis, behaviorism, gestalt, classical theory of needs. The author also comments on the approach, inspired by oriental techniques or philosophies, which employs the notion of myth to deepen self awareness. Finally, from the same perspective, he comments at greater length on the work of Carl Rogers, highlighting the diverse form of implicit sociology. In addition to Carl Rogers, this text refers to Freud, Jung, Adler, Reich, Perls, Goodman, Skinner as well as to Ginette Paris and various analysts of Taoism. In conclusion, the author indicates the significance of his analysis from double viewpoint of psychologicaltheory and practice. PMID:17093766
Several psychologicaltheories have been used to understand crime and delinquency. This literature review categorizes these perspectives into five areas, provides a brief overview of each, and analyzes and synthesizes the relevant, elements within each area. The major perspectives reviewed are learning theories, intelligence theories, personality theories, theories of psychopathy, and cognitive and social development theories. These are included in
Objective: Although rehabilitation psychology is more focused on empirical evidence and clinical application than theory development, the authors argue for the primacy of theory and explain why theories are needed in and useful for rehabilitation psychology. Impediments to theory development are discussed, including the difficulties of applying psychologicaltheories in multidisciplinary enterprises and the difficulties in developing a theory-driven research
Underlying assumptions and rationale of psychological climate are addressed from the perspectives of cognitive social learning theory and interactional psychology. Major emphasis was placed on the implications of these theoretical models for psychological...
This article presents a brief overview of developments in educational psychology over the last twenty?five years. It firstly presents an historical context by reviewing four basic emphases in educational psychology; cognitive psychology, behavioural psychology, social cognitive theory and humanism. The article then reviews the growth in cognitive psychology research by briefly examining developments arising from Piagetian, Vygotskian and information processing
Argues for a greater and more explicit use of evolutionary theory in psychology courses. Provides examples of ways that this strategy can help students think critically about classic psychologicaltheories, understand the importance of narrower domain-specific theories, and comprehend the rationales behind cross-species comparison in psychology.…
|American functionalist psychology constituted an effort to model scientific psychology on the successes of English evolutionary theory. In part it was a response to the stagnation of Wundt's psychological research program, which had been grounded in German experimental physiology. In part it was an attempt to make psychology more appealing within…
|This article argues that vocational psychology is, and has been, positive psychology. It provides an overview of the theory of work adjustment (TWA), one of the most robust and best validated theories in vocational psychology. It also provides an introduction to person-environment-correspondence (PEC) counseling, an extension of the TWA concepts…
American functionalist psychology constituted an effort to model scientific psychology on the successes of English evolutionary theory. In part it was a response to the stagnation of Wundt's psychological research program, which had been grounded in German experimental physiology. In part it was an attempt to make psychology more appealing within the highly pragmatic American context and to facilitate the application of psychology to domains outside of the scientific laboratory. Applications of psychology that emerged from the functionalist ethos included child and developmental psychology, clinical psychology, psychological testing, and industrial/vocational psychology. Functionalism was also the ground within which behaviorism rooted and grew into the dominant form of psychology through the middle of the 20th century. PMID:19203139
Focusing on the impact of advertisers' persuasive selling messages on consumers, this paper discusses topics relating to the theory of psychological type congruence. Based on an examination of persuasion theory and relevant psychological concepts, including recent cognitive stability and personality and needs theory and the older concept of…
|Focusing on the impact of advertisers' persuasive selling messages on consumers, this paper discusses topics relating to the theory of psychological type congruence. Based on an examination of persuasion theory and relevant psychological concepts, including recent cognitive stability and personality and needs theory and the older concept of…
\\u000a Psychological type theory, originally proposed by Carl Jung and developed by instruments like the Myers–Briggs Type Indicator,\\u000a the Keirsey Temperament Sorter, and the Francis Psychological Type Scales, provides a rich theoretical framework and a useful\\u000a practical guide within which to understand and to promote religious and spiritual learning. This chapter defines and critiques\\u000a psychological type theory, describes and evaluates measures
\\u000a This chapter discusses both the positive psychology movement (PPM) and self-determination theory (SDT), arguing that SDT is\\u000a a prototypical example of a positive psychologytheory. SDT provides a nuanced, integrated, and scientifically supported framework\\u000a for understanding optimal functioning, while also addressing “negative” processes that can get in the way of optimal functioning.\\u000a Two primary prescriptions for positive psychology researchers are
This article develops an evolutionary theory of conflict over the construction of culture that is informed by current knowledge of psychological mechanisms. Psychological mechanisms important for the production of culture include (1) general intelligence (including the ability to engender hypothetical scenarios and means-end reasoning necessary for constructing tools and other exemplars of technology); (2) explicit processing mechanisms (e.g., symbolic representations
|People are capable of thinking about the future, the past, remote locations, another person's perspective, and counterfactual alternatives. Without denying the uniqueness of each process, it is proposed that they constitute different forms of traversing psychological distance. Psychological distance is egocentric: Its reference point is the self…
This paper proposes an innovative teaching and learning theoretical framework based on psychological incentive mechanism and Artificial Psychologytheory. Related works about these two areas will be addressed in section 2. This framework includes three type pedagogical agents, namely the Expert agent, the Mentor agent and the Motivator agent. This framework is intended to create a positive and personalized study
|THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF 21 AUTHORS IN THIS VOLUME ARE DEVOTED TO ASSESSING THE STATUS OF RESEARCH AND THEORY IN MENTAL DEFICIENCY, FOCUSING ATTENTION ON THE BEHAVIOR OF THE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED. PART ONE IS CONCERNED WITH RESEARCH FINDINGS AND THEORIES TO EXPLAIN MENTAL DEFICIENCY. COMPREHENSIVE PSYCHOLOGICALTHEORIES REPRESENTED INCLUDE FIELD…
The paper is intended to be a statement of current thinking regarding the basic core of psychometric concepts relevant for research and practice in industrial and organizational psychology. The developmental history of each relevant problem is described a...
|Three psychotherapy theories are summarized and critiqued for their applicability to counseling psychology. The lack of attention to psychodynamic and experiential theories in the special section and the lack of theorizing by counseling psychologists in general are lamented. A plea is made for encouraging counseling psychologists to construct…
Three psychotherapy theories are summarized and critiqued for their applicability to counseling psychology. The lack of attention to psychodynamic and experiential theories in the special section and the lack of theorizing by counseling psychologists in general are lamented. A plea is made for encouraging counseling psychologists to construct more…
Game models can contribute to understanding of how social biases and pressures to conform can lead to puzzling behaviour in social groups. A model of the psychological biases false uniqueness and false consensus is set out. The model predicts the phenomenon of pluralistic ignorance, which is well-studied in social psychology, showing how it arises as a result of the prevalence of false uniqueness and the desire to conform. An efficient method is developed for finding Nash equilibria of the model under certain restrictions.
The analysis of the different articles in this special issue gives a rather promising but complex image of a dialogical approach to psychology. Mikael Leiman proposed utterances as the object of study for psychotherapy research, semiotic mediation as the explanatory principle, and semiotic position as the unit of analysis. Frank Richardson cautioned us about how dialogical proposals can become entrapped
Buddhism and Psychology are great disciplines, which have concerned themselves with the highest development of human potential and the alleviation of suffering. This chapter has attempted to look at some of the contrasts and commonalities from the perspective of the issues of self-controland addiction. Drug and alcohol addiction continues to ravage our communities, particularly those that are most vulnerable. Research
The current paper argues that a Relational Frame Theory account of complex human behavior including an analysis of relational frames, relational networks, rules and the concept of self can provide a potentially powerful new perspective on phenomena in the applied science of industrial\\/organizational (I\\/O) psychology. In this article, we first provide a brief description of I\\/O psychology itself. We then
Ian Stewart; Dermot Barnes-Holmes; Yvonne Barnes-Holmes; Frank W. Bond; Steven C. Hayes
Explanations of psychological reactions to physical disability have recently tended to ascribe maladjustment to environmental rather than to personal causes. Historically, common-sense theories were first replaced by metalistic doctrines. These, in turn, were later supplemented by theories that integrated mentalism with environmentalism and by approaches that recognized only environmental causes of behavior. Each theory makes a unique contribution to rehabilitation. Consequently, unification rather than elimination should be the goal of future theoretical development. PMID:149525
Examines various psychodynamic and behavioral theories in a discussion about obesity and mental health. It is revealed that modern theory finds no identifiable personality profile, behavior, or family structure influencing large weight gain thus discounting psychopathology as the cause of obesity. Individual assessments for causes of obesity are…
Examined developmental theory and its relevance for the practice of clinical child psychology. Following a brief review of basic principles of developmental psychology and developmental psychopathology, implications of a developmental perspective are explored for the diagnosis, assessment, and treatment of childhood disorders. Although it is obvious that many developmental issues confront the clinical child psychologist and that we have learned much about translating developmental theory into clinical practice, we conclude we have a long way to go before we can assert that a true developmental-clinical child interface has been realized. PMID:10587895
Examines the value and importance of theory in child psychology, particularly with respect to clinical practice. Although it is readily apparent that theory is not an essential element of treatment, the role of theory is to provide a coherent framework for clinical intervention. Theory provides a foundation for understanding the presenting pathology, the factors that affect it, the patient's and therapist's roles within the context of treatment, and the specific intervention strategies to be utilized. Therapeutic commonalities are considered as they may affect treatment outcome, but they are not viewed as the essential factors in efficacy. The value and meaning of eclecticism are also discussed. PMID:10587906
Although evolutionary psychology is typically associated with "selfish gene theory," numerous other approaches to the study of mind and behavior provide a wealth of concepts for theorizing about psychology, culture, and development. These include general evolutionary approaches and theories focused on sociality, dual inheritance, multilevel selection, and developmental systems. Most evolutionary accounts use the same methods as Darwin-the "fit among facts"-to use natural selection as an explanation for behavior. Scientific standards for constraining and evaluating such accounts, research into the mutual influence of science and society on the understanding of evolution, and computational technologies for modeling species-typical processes are important considerations. Coevolutionary theories and developmental systems theories may eventually give rise to unification in a broad and general sense. Such a unification would be interdisciplinary and problem centered rather than discipline centered. PMID:11148319
|Although social class plays a salient and significant role in career development and occupational attainment, social class is underrepresented in vocational psychologytheory, scholarship, and practice. Vocational psychologists are in a unique position to meet the career development needs of persons from all social classes by integrating a fuller…
In a previous article we have shown that Kuhn's theory of concepts is independently supported by recent research in cognitive psychology. In this paper we propose a cognitive re?reading of Kuhn's cyclical model of scientific revolutions: all of the important features of the model may now be seen as consequences of a more fundamental account of the nature of concepts
Although social class plays a salient and significant role in career development and occupational attainment, social class is underrepresented in vocational psychologytheory, scholarship, and practice. Vocational psychologists are in a unique position to meet the career development needs of persons from all social classes by integrating a fuller…
The theory of psychological reversals asserts that there are two levels of preferred felt arousal, one high and one low. Only one of them is preferred at a given time, although discrete switches (“reversals”) occur from time to time, so that each level is preferred at different times. In order to document such changes in preferred levels of arousal, 75
|The current paper argues that a Relational Frame Theory account of complex human behavior including an analysis of relational frames, relational networks, rules and the concept of self can provide a potentially powerful new perspective on phenomena in the applied science of industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology. In this article, we first…
Stewart, Ian; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Bond, Frank W.; Hayes, Steven C.
The present article examines the person-centered personality theory of Carl Rogers in light of recent developments in theory and research within the emergent discipline of positive psychology. In particular, the theoretical observations and research findings from selfdetermination theory are reviewed. It is argued that at the metatheoretical level, person-centered theory and self-determination theory provide similar perspectives, and thus the empirical
|This handbook is designed to acquaint readers with the practical and applied aspects of the field of vocational psychology and the variety of techniques, procedures, and theories available for vocational assessment. The following chapters are included: "Preface" and "Introduction" (W. Bruce Walsh, Samuel H. Osipow); "Current Theoretical Issues in…
In this paper, the perspective of situated cognition, which gave rise both to the pragmatic theories and the so-called semantic theories of learning and has probably become the most representative standpoint of constructivism, is examined. We consider the claim of situated cognition to provide alternative explanations of the learning phenomenon to those of psychology and, especially, to those of the symbolic perspective, currently predominant in cognitive psychology. The level of analysis of situated cognition (i.e., global interactive systems) is considered an inappropriate approach to the problem of learning. From our analysis, it is concluded that the pragmatic theories and the so-called semantic theories of learning which originated in situated cognition can hardly be considered alternatives to the psychological learning theories, and they are unlikely to add anything of interest to the learning theory or to contribute to the improvement of our knowledge about the learning phenomenon. PMID:16255385
In this paper, the perspective of situated cognition, which gave rise both to the pragmatic theories and the so-called semantic theories of learning and has probably become the most representative standpoint of constructivism, is examined. We consider the claim of situated cognition to provide alternative explanations of the learning phenomenon to those of psychology and, especially, to those of the
The aims of this commentary are two-fold: First, to amplify some of the points that Aspinwall, Tedeschi, Coyne, Tennen, and Ranchor have raised, noting the importance of a return to basics. Second, to posit next steps in theory development and methods at the intersection of health psychology, positive psychology, and cancer. Additional theory development, more applications of large prospective studies, and instrument refinements are warranted to understand the effects of positive constructs on health outcomes and adaptation to cancer. This area of research would be strengthened by studies that incorporate survival, health-related quality of life, and well-being outcome measures, using cancer registries and/or multiple raters. More observational studies are necessary. Attention to social justice questions is suggested in future studies at the intersection of these fields. PMID:20393819
The debate over psychology is one that divides the lesbian feminist community. In spite-or perhaps because-of widespread lesbian participation in therapies and recovery programs of all varieties, many prominent lesbian feminists reject the practice of psychotherapy for lesbians and criticize potential uses of psychological and psychoanalytic theory by lesbians. But the lesbian feminist critique of psychology is theoretically questionable because
Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory is a popular but controversial theory of employee satisfaction. The theory was at the center of a long debate that focused on conceptual and methodological problems with the theory. Now, more than 30 years after the debate and despite multiple claims that Herzberg's theory is dead, emerging research from the field of positive psychology is surprisingly consistent
Previous analysis of Richard Whately's theory of presumption and burden of proof have been unable to resolve the apparent difficulty posed by his treatment of both legal (rule?assigned) and psychological (audience?determined) presumptions. Critics have either avoided this question entirely or have attempted to reconcile the dual forms of presumption in a legal interpretation of the theory, denigrating the psychological aspects,
|The author has proposed a new theory of suicidal behavior--the interpersonal-psychologicaltheory of suicidal behavior (Joiner, 2005)--which attempts to answer the question "Why do people die by suicide?" In this commentary, he briefly describes the theory, and then argues that the theory's constructs may allow a new level of focus and…
Contends that control theory provides a model of self-regulation that is useful in the analysis of human behavior. As an illustration of the breadth of its applicability, the basic construct of control theory––the discrepancy-reducing feedback loop––is presented, and certain implications for theory in 3 areas of human psychology are discussed. In personality-social, clinical, and health psychology, the construct proves to
Two studies examined correlates of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory among Malays in Malaysia, a culture in which state-directed conspiracism as a means of dealing with perceived external and internal threats is widespread. In Study 1, 368 participants from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed a novel measure of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and anomie. Initial analysis showed that the novel scale factorially reduced to a single dimension. Further analysis showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was only significantly associated with general conspiracist ideation, but the strength of the association was weak. In Study 2, 314 participants completed the measure of belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and ideological attitudes. Results showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was associated with anti-Israeli attitudes, modern racism directed at the Chinese, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. General conspiracist ideation did not emerge as a significant predictor once other variables had been accounted for. These results suggest that there may be specific cultural and social psychological forces that drive belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory within the Malaysian context. Specifically, belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory among Malaysian Malays appears to serve ideological needs and as a mask for anti-Chinese sentiment, which may in turn reaffirm their perceived ability to shape socio-political processes.
Two studies examined correlates of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory among Malays in Malaysia, a culture in which state-directed conspiracism as a means of dealing with perceived external and internal threats is widespread. In Study 1, 368 participants from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed a novel measure of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and anomie. Initial analysis showed that the novel scale factorially reduced to a single dimension. Further analysis showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was only significantly associated with general conspiracist ideation, but the strength of the association was weak. In Study 2, 314 participants completed the measure of belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and ideological attitudes. Results showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was associated with anti-Israeli attitudes, modern racism directed at the Chinese, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. General conspiracist ideation did not emerge as a significant predictor once other variables had been accounted for. These results suggest that there may be specific cultural and social psychological forces that drive belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory within the Malaysian context. Specifically, belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory among Malaysian Malays appears to serve ideological needs and as a mask for anti-Chinese sentiment, which may in turn reaffirm their perceived ability to shape socio-political processes. PMID:22888323
Asserts that the Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler should be used as a foundational theory for student affairs work. The success of community building programs is explained and the concepts of Individual Psychology are summarized. Also asserts that the current drive to develop programs to develop community on college campuses is firmly rooted…
ObjectivesThis paper urges revision of the way attributions are conceptualised, investigated, and applied in sport psychology. There has been a recent decline in attribution research in sport psychology, despite the generally accepted relevance of attributions in applied settings. In seeking closer links between attribution theory, research, and practice, we argue that there is a mismatch between research and practice in
Previous research has demonstrated that all 16 psychological types are preparing for or engaged in the exercise of Christian ministry. Drawing on Jungian psychological-type theory, this paper suggests that each of the 16 types may approach ministry in ways that reflect both the unique strengths and the unique weaknesses of that type. The thesis is tested by developing a detailed
This article represents a tribute to the late Helen Block Lewis's commitment to integrating psychology and psychoanalysis. The current status of the formal structure of psychoanalytic theory was reviewed in relation to recent developments in general psychology. Specific attention was paid to the psychodynamic or motivational perspective, the structural perspective, and the genetic or developmental perspective as proposed by Rapaport.
This article critically reviews the current body of grounded theory research within exercise psychology. Previous evidence has questioned the quality of grounded theory research within this academic domain. Guidelines for assessing grounded theory research are presented based on the common defining characteristics of the methodology and other published recommendations for assessing qualitative research. The review identified 21 articles that report
Typically, human decision making is emotionally "hot" and does not conform to "cold" classical probability (CP) theory. As quantum probability (QP) theory emphasises order, context, superimposition states, and nonlinear dynamic effects, one of its major strengths may be its power to unify formal modeling and realistic psychologicaltheory (e.g., information uncertainty, anxiety, and indecision, as seen in the Prisoner's Dilemma). PMID:23673029
|Background: After a century of educational psychology, eminent commentators are still lamenting problems besetting the appropriate relating of psychological insights to teaching design, a situation not helped by the persistence of crude assumptions concerning the nature of pedagogical effectiveness. Aims: To propose an analytical or…
This paper presents a middle-range theory of psychological adaptation in death and dying that was abstracted from a series of quantitative and qualitative studies. The findings from these studies are described, a conceptual definition for end-of-life psychological adaptation is given, evidence is synthesized into a limited number of assumptions, testable hypotheses are derived, and the constructed middle-range theory is linked to the conceptual-theoretical framework of the Roy adaptation model. PMID:21975486
We cast the psychology of human-computer interaction (HCI) in terms of task analysis and the invention of artifacts. We consider the implications of this for attempts to define HCI in terms of a priori conceptions of psychology. We suggest that artifacts can be considered theory-like in HCI, and observe that they do play a theory-like role in the field as
This paper gives an account of some of the major aspects of Buddhist psychology. The survey is confined to the texts of Early,\\u000a or Theravada, Buddhism — that is, the canonical texts and their early Pali commentaries and related expository texts. The\\u000a importance of psychological concepts in the philosophy and practice of Buddhism is highlighted. The problems inherent in the
A slide-tape series developed for introduction of developmental and learning theories in freshman dental curriculum is described. Theories of social-emotional development, cognitive development, and theories of conditioning and observational learning are included. (MSE)
The purpose of the article is to emphasize why social-psychological be practical for both theory and practice. As investigators attempt to which theories are most parsimonious, there is often encouragement to pit against each other rather than also examining their similarities and their mentary nature. The former strategy may lead to fragmentation of illustrate the benefit of the latter strategy,
ObjectivesThe aims of this article are: to examine the application of grounded theory in sport and exercise psychology; to locate such applications within broader grounded theory methodological debates and; to support the future use and evolution of the method in the field.
This exploratory study conceptualizes psychological ownership (PO)—a state in which individuals feel as though the target of ownership is theirs—and investigates how customers form PO toward a company. Considering the PO is a new concept to hospitality research, the study develops and empirically validates a conceptual model of PO and a PO measurement scale in the context of the restaurant
|The process of psychological adaptation to chronic illness and disability (CID) has been extensively studied by rehabilitation professionals for more than 50 years, yet it is still fraught with misunderstanding and often contradictory views. In this paper, the authors seek to expand on earlier suggestions by Parker, Schaller, and Hansmann (2003)…
Evolutionary Psychology is based on the idea that the mind is a set of special purpose thinking devices or modules whose domain-specific structure is an adaptation to ancestral environments. The modular view of the mind is an uncontroversial description of the periphery of the mind, the input-output sensorimotor and affective subsystems. The novelty of EP is the claim that higher
Coaches and athletes utilize sports psychology as a part of training and preparation for competition. A linear, individualistic epistemology is generally subscribed to by sports psychologists. Marriage and family therapists, with their systems epistemology, can apply their training to working with athletic teams. This article revisits an innovative approach to working with athletic teams from a systems perspective. It presents
|This book provides students, researchers, and practitioners with access to major theoretical and empirical issues in the field of Hispanic psychology. The book is divided into six parts: acculturation and adaptation, ethnic identity and behavior, clinical research and services, health and AIDS research, gender studies research, and education and…
Loneliness is a common problem (Weiss, 1973). This is apparently as true in the British Isles and Europe as it is in America. Although numerous articles and books have been written about loneliness, the empirically based, social psychological study of loneliness is in its infancy. In 1975 the senior author of the present paper began a program of loneliness research
This book provides students, researchers, and practitioners with access to major theoretical and empirical issues in the field of Hispanic psychology. The book is divided into six parts: acculturation and adaptation, ethnic identity and behavior, clinical research and services, health and AIDS research, gender studies research, and education and…
Psychological type was developed by Carl Jung and expanded by Katherine Briggs and Isabel Myers into the Myers-Briggs-Type Indicator. The MBTI® is now frequently used by churches in several contexts. This article explores ways in which psychological-type theory might be applied to aspects of faith, including spirituality, prayer, worship and scripture. Each aspect of faith is considered separately and explored
Evolutionary theories regarding shamanism and schizophrenia provide hypotheses testable through analysis of survey data. A questionnaire, administered to a predominately African-American sample in North Carolina (N?=?965), surveyed schizotypal experience and other psychological symptoms, absorption and related psychological variables, childhood and adolescent difficulty, and incidence of unusual experiences (apparitions, paranormal dreams, waking ESP, out-of-body experience, near-death experience, sleep paralysis, UFOs, spiritual
This article presents a social-psychological model of teacher stress and burnout which emphasizes the importance of teacher performance variables and cycles of teacher-student interactions that develop over time. The theoretical statements that serve as the basis of the framework proposed in this report have been extracted and refinedfrom the Teacher Performance-Motivation Theory (TP-M Theory), a data-based, grounded theory developed directlyfrom
Suicide among veterans is a pressing public health concern. The interpersonal-psychologicaltheory of suicide proposes that perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness lead to suicidal desire, whereas the acquired capability for suicide leads to suicide attempt in the presence of suicidal desire (Joiner, 2005). Two hypotheses derived from the interpersonal-psychologicaltheory of suicide were tested in 185 veterans (96 women) entering inpatient psychiatric treatment. Burdensomeness and its interaction with belongingness significantly predicted current suicidal ideation. The three-way interaction between burdensomeness, belongingness, and acquired capability did not significantly predict number of past suicide attempts. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:23556542
Monteith, Lindsey L; Menefee, Deleene S; Pettit, Jeremy W; Leopoulos, Wendy L; Vincent, John P
Interactions between evolutionary psychologists and developmental systems theorists have been largely antagonistic. This is unfortunate because potential synergies between the two approaches remain unexplored. This article presents a method that may help to bridge the divide, and that has proven fruitful in biology: dynamic optimization. Dynamic optimization integrates developmental systems theorists' focus on dynamics and contingency with the 'design stance' of evolutionary psychology. It provides a theoretical framework as well as a set of tools for exploring the properties of developmental systems that natural selection might favor, given particular evolutionary ecologies. We also discuss limitations of the approach. PMID:23786476
Frankenhuis, Willem E; Panchanathan, Karthik; Clark Barrett, H
The report attempts to develop a theoretical framework for understanding firesetting behavior in terms of social learning theory. Three major aspects of the interaction between a person's behavior and the social environment are considered. (1) At the beha...
BACKGROUND: Psychological models can be used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings. However, they have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of differing theories is not clear. The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of a range of psychologicaltheories to predict health professional behaviour relating to
Martin P Eccles; Jeremy M Grimshaw; Marie Johnston; Nick Steen; Nigel B Pitts; Ruth Thomas; Elizabeth Glidewell; Graeme Maclennan; Debbie Bonetti; Anne Walker
|A functional model of the acquired capability for suicide, a component of Joiner's (2005) Interpersonal-PsychologicalTheory of Suicide, is presented. A component of Joiner's (2005) Interpersonal-PsychologicalTheory of Suicide a functional model of the acquired capability for suicide is presented. The model integrates the points discussed by…
This article is an attempt to understand ethical theory not just as a set of well-developed philosophical perspectives but\\u000a as a range of moral capacities that human beings more or less grow into over the course of their lives. To this end, we explore\\u000a the connection between formal ethical theories and stage developmental psychologies, showing how individuals mature morally,\\u000a regarding
Three experiments investigated the contrasting predictions of the evolutionary and decision-theoretic approaches to deontic reasoning. Two experiments embedded a hazard management (HM) rule in a social contract scenario that should lead to competition between innate modules. A 3rd experiment used a pure HM task. Threatening material was also introduced into the antecedent, p, of a deontic rule, if p then must q. According to the evolutionary approach, more HM responses (Cosmides & Tooby, 2000) are predicted when p is threatening, whereas decision theory predicts fewer. All 3 experiments were consistent with decision theory. Other theories are discussed, and it is concluded that they cannot account for the behavior observed in these experiments. PMID:21702790
Most social and psychological phenomena occur not as the result of isolated decisions by individuals but rather as the result of repeated interactions between multiple individuals over time. Yet the theory-building and mod- eling techniques most commonly used in social psychol- ogy are less than ideal for understanding such dynamic and interactive processes. This article describes an alter- native approach
This appreciation of Wittrock's contributions to educational psychology suggests that his 1974 article describing generative learning theory was remarkably prescient. In that article Wittrock set the stage for the subsequent paradigm shift from cognitive to constructivist approaches to instruction. Furthermore, his suggestion that schools were the most appropriate contexts for testing learning principles is widely shared among contemporary educational psychologists;
Although social class plays a salient and significant role in career development and occupational attainment, social class is underrepresented in vocational psychologytheory, scholarship, and practice. Vocational psychologists are in a unique position to meet the career development needs of persons from all social classes by integrating a fuller understanding of social class into their scholarship and practice. This article
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common and highly heritable neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder. Here, we critically review four major psychologicaltheories of ADHD – the Executive Dysfunction, the State Regulation, the Delay Aversion and the Dynamic Developmental – on their abilities to explain all the symptoms of ADHD, their testability and their openness to falsification. We conclude that theoreticians
Contributes to communication theory and research by adding to a discussion of a computational model called latent semantic analysis (LSA). Argues that LSA does not handle all aspects of language processing, but offers a biologically and psychologically plausible mechanistic explanation of the acquisition, induction, and representation of verbal…
Main tenets, issues, and controversies for evolutionary psychology (EP), particularly its cognitive aspects, are introduced, clarified, and applied to the theory and philosophy of rational-emotive therapy (RET). Specifically, key concepts in EP are applied to Ellis' genetic postulate for cognitive demandingness and grandiosity, and are incorporated into Ruth's (1992) RET evolutionary proposal. The following issues are examined for demanding and
\\u000a Within marketing contexts, messages are effective when consumers find them both believable and relevant. An understanding\\u000a of signaling theory and signal design features, derived from the study of animal and human behavioral ecology, can help marketers\\u000a overcome the first challenge of crafting believable signals. Effective signals must fundamentally overcome the skepticism\\u000a of receivers and generally accomplish this by linkage, either
Obviously, the negative impact of online games has received much attention as well as having become a popular research topic. This research explored, from flow theory and humanistic needs theory, the psychological motivations of Taiwanese adolescents who are addicted to online games. The purpose of Study 1 was to investigate the relationship between players' flow state and their online games addiction. The results indicated that flow state was negatively correlated with addictive inclination and it was not a significant predictor for players' subsequent additive inclination. Findings also revealed that the addicts' flow state was significantly lower than the nonaddicts. Thus, flow state might not be the key psychological mechanism of players' addiction. In Study 2, the results showed that the psychological needs of players of online games were close to the two-factor theory which depicts satisfaction and dissatisfaction dimensions. Addicted players' need-gratification was similar to the feature of dissatisfactory factor. That is, the absence of playing online games is more likely to generate sense of dissatisfaction; the addicts' compulsive use of online games seems to stem from the relief of dissatisfaction rather than the pursuit of satisfaction. In contrast, online games tend to provide the nonaddicts with a sense of satisfaction rather than a sense of dissatisfaction. PMID:16780399
This article develops an integrative theory of the mind by examining how the mind, understood as a set of skills and dispositions,\\u000a depends upon four sources of mediators. Harré’s hybrid psychology is taken as a meta-theoretical starting point, but is expanded\\u000a significantly by including the four sources of mediators that are the brain, the body, social practices and technological\\u000a artefacts.
This paper presents an approach to moral behavior based on some theoretical notions drawn largely from the sociological tradition in social psychology that is quite similar to the research and theory of recent interest in a number of areas of psychology. ...
|The author attempts to integrate Terror Management Theory (TMT) and R. W. Firestone's Separation Theory (1984, 1994). Both theories emphasize defense against death anxiety as a key human motive. Whereas TMT focuses extensively on self-esteem and cultural worldview, Firestone posited additional defenses such as gene survival, self-nourishing…
This review documents two themes of emphasis found in phenotypic descriptions of pathological narcissism across clinical theory, social\\/personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Clinical theories of narcissism spanning 35 years consistently describe variations in the expression of pathological narcissism that emphasize either grandiosity or vulnerable affects and self-states. Recent research in social\\/personality psychology examining the structure of narcissistic personality traits consistently finds
Drawing from self-determination theory, three studies explored the social-environmental conditions that satisfy versus thwart psychological needs and, in turn, affect psychological functioning and well-being or ill-being. In cross-sectional Studies 1 and 2, structural equation modeling analyses supported latent factor models in which need satisfaction was predicted by athletes' perceptions of autonomy support, and need thwarting was better predicted by coach control. Athletes' perceptions of need satisfaction predicted positive outcomes associated with sport participation (vitality and positive affect), whereas need thwarting more consistently predicted maladaptive outcomes (disordered eating, burnout, depression, negative affect, and physical symptoms). In addition, athletes' perceptions of psychological need thwarting were significantly associated with perturbed physiological arousal (elevated levels of secretory immunoglobulin A) prior to training. The final study involved the completion of a diary and supported the relations observed in the cross-sectional studies at a daily level. These findings have important implications for the operationalization and measurement of interpersonal styles and psychological needs. PMID:21700794
Bartholomew, Kimberley J; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Ryan, Richard M; Bosch, Jos A; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie
Focuses on the developmental periods of infancy, childhood, and adolescence to offer illustrations of the advantages of using developmental theory and research to establish targets for research on intervention, assessment and treatment planning, and evaluation of effective strategies for prevention of childhood and later adult disorders. The importance for training clinical graduate students in developmental approaches to research is stressed, and hopes for a future of mutual contributions of developmental and clinical psychology are expressed in light of the fact that, after a troubled history of isolation from one another and even active denigration of one another's goals and methods, developmental and clinical psychology are exhibiting joint recognition of the advantages of collaborative research. PMID:10587894
Because it focuses on the interactions between students and their environments, Holland's theory of vocational choice provides a powerful framework for studying college experiences. The present study assessed the relative merits of psychological and sociological interpretations of Holland's theory by examining the relationships among students' …
The interpersonal–psychologicaltheory of suicidal behavior (T. E. Joiner, 2005) proposes that an individual will not die by suicide unless he or she has both the desire to die by suicide and the ability to do so. Three studies test the theory's hypotheses. In Study 1, the interaction of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness predicted current suicidal ideation. In Study
Kimberly A. Van Orden; Tracy K. Witte; Kathryn H. Gordon; Theodore W. Bender; Thomas E. Joiner
Prediction has been central in the development of both science and society. Chaos theory, however, has given rise to the widespread belief that in all but the most stable situations prediction of the future is impossible. But this belief is contradicted by theory and findings over many years of the psychology of prediction as well as by the findings of
|In this review, the history of the theory of mind (ToM) theory of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is outlined (in which ToM is indexed by success on false belief tasks), and the explanatory power and psychological causes of impaired ToM in ASD are critically discussed. It is concluded that impaired ToM by itself has only limited explanatory…
In this review, the history of the theory of mind (ToM) theory of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is outlined (in which ToM is indexed by success on false belief tasks), and the explanatory power and psychological causes of impaired ToM in ASD are critically discussed. It is concluded that impaired ToM by itself has only limited explanatory…
ObjectiveThe purposes of this paper were to respond to and expand upon Weed's (2009) critique of the use of grounded theory methodology in sport and exercise psychology. Our objectives were to clarify and correct some issues and suggest solutions to the valid problems identified.
While both sociologists and organizational theorists have incorporated qualitative data into theory building, contemporary social psychologists have resisted this trend. This resistance may be the product of long-standing perceptions of the discipline of social psychology that equate it with controlled experimentation. Yet, this was not always the case. Many respected social psychologists, including Muzafer Sherif, Edgar Schein, and Leon Festinger,
|This study investigated the usefulness of social cognitive career theory--SCCT (Lent, Brown, and Hackett, 1994) in predicting interests and goals relating to statistics among psychology students. The participants were 1036 Spanish students who completed measurements of statistics-related mastery experiences, self-efficacy, outcome expectations,…
Researches on core employees' loyalty on Tourism enterprises have been an increasing concern. To explore the two under-researched antecedent conditions ---the dimension and intensity of loyalty, this study, based on the one-shot games theory and infinitely repeated games one, analyzes the process for the performance of psychological contract between the core employees and tourism enterprise. It is found that there
Heart feilure and psychological intervention: from theory to clinical practice. G.L. Balestroni. The management of chronic heart failure patients is complicated by the presence of multiple comorbid conditions, polypharmacy, psychosocial concerns and difficulties with adherence to complex medication, dietary regimen, smoking cessation and correct physical activity. Taken together, these factors contribute to the persistently high hospitalization and mortality rates as
This article is a response to Adams-Webber's (1990) critique of my discussion of the relation between personal construct theory and cognitive psychology (Warren, 7990). Several points of specific disagreement are raised in an effort to clarify my own position. Furthermore, this clarification highlights the need for “integrationist” perspectives to clearly and directly address the problems, as well as the prospects,
Discusses recent developments in instructional psychology relative to cognitive task analysis, individual difference variables, and cognitive models of interactive instructional decision making, which use constructs developed within the field of cognitive/information processing psychology. (Author/WBC)
Program evaluation coursework is commonly housed in educational psychology departments. Often, however, it is presented as a topic separate from learning, motivation, development, and curricular design. Some students who major in evaluation and methodology are not encouraged to take courses in these substantive areas of educational psychology, and the field of educational psychology is not presented to students as an
|Philosophers tend to assume that theoretical frameworks in psychology suffer from conceptual confusion and that any influence that philosophy might have on psychology should be positive. Going against this grain, Dan Lapsley and Darcia Narvaez attribute the Kohlbergian paradigm's current state of marginalization within psychology to Lawrence…
|To test whether students' knowledge about psychology undergoes a conceptual change when learning about the discipline, 227 Introductory Psychology students from six different classes were given the Psychology as a Science (PAS) Scale in one of two conditions. Students were randomly assigned to complete the questionnaire from their own (Self…
By accepting psychology’s borders of concern, some histories of psychology tend to mute significant interfaces between research and society. The alternative approach of critical theory provides histories more sensitive to these relations. Critical theory’s conceptual problems with regress of explanation and with determining adequate criteria for evaluating differing historical narratives are considered. By using this approach, the study of history
This study examined the impact of the actual environment on changes in psychological adjustment over time. According to Self-Determination\\u000a Theory (SDT; Deci and Ryan, Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior, 1985a, Plenum, New York; J Res\\u000a Pers 19:109–134, 1985b; Psychol Inq 11:227–268, 2000), environments that are objectively supportive of autonomy should facilitate\\u000a psychological adjustment through their impact on people’s
The success of much of dental practice is linked to patient behavior. Understanding the issues that influence patients' decisions when they choose to not follow preventive or therapeutic dental recommendations is instrumental to improving adherence, and ultimately, to improving dental health outcomes. Multiattribute Utility Theory (MAU) provides a methodology for systematically exploring these issues. It is based on a well-established body of knowledge in the psychological literature, and currently represents a state-of-the-art model for predicting behavior and delineating potentially modifiable behavioral determinants. Two examples are presented to illustrate how MAU can be used in clinical settings. In the first example, MAU is used to identify key reasons why nearly 70 percent high-risk patients did not obtain flu shots, a behavioral problem comparable to many confronted in dentistry. MAU correctly predicted the vaccination behavior of 82 percent of patients, and an intervention based on MAU findings nearly doubled vaccination rates. The second example used MAU to identify physician behaviors that influenced patients' satisfaction with an ambulatory care visit. MAU findings from this study identified specific behaviors in a provider's style that if modified may improve patient satisfaction. These MAU applications also emphasize the importance of soliciting the patient's perspective in clinical interactions since some of the most important determinants of patient behavior are not represented in traditional clinical decision models. PMID:1487582
Venous thrombosis is a common and life-threatening disease that has received little attention in health psychology. The present study applied the theory of cognitive adaptation (TCA) to examine patients’ reactions to venous thrombosis. Patients (N=123) aged 16–84 recruited from anticoagulation units in the north of England completed measures of TCA constructs (meaning, mastery, self-esteem and optimism) and various outcome variables
Tria Moore; Paul Norman; Peter R. Harris; Michael Makris
This paper critically reviews and integrates multidisciplinary literature informing conceptualization and determination of\\u000a disability and return to work from a psychological injury perspective. It focuses on dissecting and disentangling the ambiguities\\u000a and complexities of theories and definitions of disability, impairment, and return to work, highlighting the conceptual quagmires\\u000a that affect both research and clinical methodology in the field. The paper
Hartmann's monograph was one of four works which produced a major revision of psychoanalytic theory. Following a brief summary of the monograph, this essay assesses its impact on contemporary psychoanalytic thinking. It considers some confusions about and revisions of Hartmann's ideas and explores terrain first broached in this work which has become very influential but which has not yet been fully exploited. Lastly, this essay will consider Hartmann's hope that psychoanalysis would become a general psychology. PMID:2587684
This study investigated the utility of combining achievement goal and self-efficacy theories to gain a broader understanding of the psychological benefits of youth sport participation. The first purpose of this study was to examine the mediating effect of self-efficacy on the relationship between ego-orientation and self-esteem. The second aim was to examine the mediating effect of self-efficacy on the relationship
After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious phenomena are discussed.
Prior findings show that men as a group seek psychological help at relatively low rates. The current study sought to provide preliminary evidence that Ajzen's (1991) Theory of Planned Behavior can integrate prior research findings and help explain men's psychological help-seeking by testing a mediation model among a young adult sample. Structural equation modeling was utilized to investigate the impact
Theories that posit multiplicative relationships between variables are common in psychology. A. G. Greenwald et al. (2002) recently presented a theory that explicated relationships between group identification, group attitudes, and self-esteem. Their theory posits a multiplicative relationship between concepts when predicting a criterion variable. Greenwald et al. suggested analytic strategies to test their multiplicative model that researchers might assume are
Throughout its existence, transpersonal psychology has held a strong interest in exploring the implications of consciousness and spirituality for health, both physical and mental. This article provides a brief overview of the theoretical, empirical, and clinical contributions of transpersonal psychology to the understanding and facilitation of human health and well?being. It also critiques the methodological basis of some of these
Lori D. Elmer; Douglas A. MacDonald; Harris L. Friedman
For too long, nuclear deterrence theorists have remained apart from the revolution in the life sciences, and particularly evolutionary psychology, which has fundamentally changed the scientific understanding of the human mind. As a result of advances in evolutionary psychology, we now know that how the brain interprets actions and makes decisions is complicated, imperfect, greatly dependent upon emotions, and varied
|This article reviews Vygotsky's writings on arts (particularly logocentric art including the theater) and emotions, drawing on his initial exploration in "The Psychology of Art" and his final considerations set forth in a set of essays, treatises, and lectures produced in the last years of his life. The review of "The Psychology of Art" includes…
Practitioners in helping professions have recognized the importance of philosophy of service as a fundamental factor driving the process of behavior change. This article explores professional philosophy as an underlying element of successful sport psychology service delivery. A hierarchical structure of professional philosophy is proposed that delineates important components both overtly discussed and implied in the sport psychology literature. These
Volumes of research show that people in differ- ent geographic regions differ psychologically. Most of that work converges on the conclusion that there are geographic differencesin personality and values, but little attention has been paid to developing an integrative account of how those differences emerge, persist, and become expressed at the geographic level. Drawing from research in psychology and other
|As a growing movement in the larger field of mental health, positive psychology has much to offer the art therapy profession, which in turn is uniquely poised to contribute to the study of optimal functioning. This article discusses the relationship of positive psychology to art therapy and its capacity to mobilize client strengths, to induce…
Background Careful hand hygiene (HH) is the single most important factor in preventing the transmission of infections to patients, but compliance is difficult to achieve and maintain. A lack of understanding of the processes involved in changing staff behaviour may contribute to the failure to achieve success. The purpose of this study was to identify nurses’ and administrators’ perceived barriers and facilitators to current HH practices and the implementation of a new electronic monitoring technology for HH. Methods Ten key informant interviews (three administrators and seven nurses) were conducted to explore barriers and facilitators related to HH and the impact of the new technology on outcomes. The semi structured interviews were based on the Theoretical Domains Framework by Michie et al. and conducted prior to intervention implementation. Data were explored using an inductive qualitative analysis approach. Data between administrators and nurses were compared. Results In 9 of the 12 domains, nurses and administrators differed in their responses. Administrators believed that nurses have insufficient knowledge and skills to perform HH, whereas the nurses were confident they had the required knowledge and skills. Nurses focused on immediate consequences, whereas administrators highlighted long-term outcomes of the system. Nurses concentrated foremost on their personal safety and their families’ safety as a source of motivation to perform HH, whereas administrators identified professional commitment, incentives, and goal setting. Administrators stated that the staff do not have the decision processes in place to judge whether HH is necessary or not. They also highlighted the positive aspects of teams as a social influence, whereas nurses were not interested in group conformity or being compared to others. Nurses described the importance of individual feedback and self-monitoring in order to increase their performance, whereas administrators reported different views. Conclusions This study highlights the benefits of using a structured approach based on psychologicaltheory to inform an implementation plan for a behavior change intervention. This work is an essential step towards systematically identifying factors affecting nurses’ behaviour associated with HH.
This article is a contribution to the debate about eudaimonism started by Kashdan et al. and Waterman in a previous issue of The Journal of Positive Psychology [Kashdan, T.B., Biswas-Diener, R., & King, L.A. (2008). Reconsidering happiness: The costs of distinguishing between hedonics and eudaimonia. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 3(4), 219–233; Waterman, A.S. (2008). Reconsidering happiness: A eudaimonist's perspective.
Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.
Background Psychological models are used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings, but have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of differing theories is not clear. This study explored the usefulness of a range of models to predict an evidence-based behaviour -- the placing of fissure sealants. Methods Measures were collected by postal questionnaire from a random sample of general dental practitioners (GDPs) in Scotland. Outcomes were behavioural simulation (scenario decision-making), and behavioural intention. Predictor variables were from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), Common Sense Self-regulation Model (CS-SRM), Operant Learning Theory (OLT), Implementation Intention (II), Stage Model, and knowledge (a non-theoretical construct). Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the predictive value of each theoretical model individually. Significant constructs from all theories were then entered into a 'cross theory' stepwise regression analysis to investigate their combined predictive value Results Behavioural simulation - theory level variance explained was: TPB 31%; SCT 29%; II 7%; OLT 30%. Neither CS-SRM nor stage explained significant variance. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT), timeline acute (CS-SRM), and outcome expectancy (SCT) entered the equation, together explaining 38% of the variance. Behavioural intention - theory level variance explained was: TPB 30%; SCT 24%; OLT 58%, CS-SRM 27%. GDPs in the action stage had significantly higher intention to place fissure sealants. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT) and attitude (TPB) entered the equation, together explaining 68% of the variance in intention. Summary The study provides evidence that psychological models can be useful in understanding and predicting clinical behaviour. Taking a theory-based approach enables the creation of a replicable methodology for identifying factors that may predict clinical behaviour and so provide possible targets for knowledge translation interventions. Results suggest that more evidence-based behaviour may be achieved by influencing beliefs about the positive outcomes of placing fissure sealants and building a habit of placing them as part of patient management. However a number of conceptual and methodological challenges remain.
In this paper, comparisons are made between a newly developed Qura'nic theory of personality and the Freudian and Jungian theories of the mind. Notable similarities were found between the Freudian id, ego, superego and neurosis and the Qura'nic nafs ammarah besoa' (evil-commanding psyche), a'ql (intellect), al-nafs al-lawammah (the reproachful psyche) and al-nafs al-marid'a (the sick psyche), respectively. Noteworthy resemblances were detected also between the Jungian concepts collective unconscious, archetypes, Self and individuation and the Qura'nic constructs roh (spirit), al-asmaa' (the names), qalb (heart), and al-nafs al-mutmainnah (the serene psyche), respectively. These parallels, as well as the departure points, between the models are thoroughly discussed and analyzed. The comparisons performed in this paper open new avenues for dialogue between western models of the psyche and their Muslim counterparts, a dialogue that can enrich both perspectives and advance the field of psychology. PMID:22739812
Reflecting on his wartime government service, Walter Lippmann (1922) developed a theory of policy formulation and error. Introducing the constructs of stereotype, mental model, blind spots, and the process of manufacturing consent, his theory prescribed interdisciplinary social science as a tool for enhancing policy making in business and government. Lippmann used his influence with the Rockefeller foundations, business leaders, Harvard and the University of Chicago to gain support for this program. Citation analysis of references to "stereotype" and Lippmann reveals the rapid spread of the concept across the social sciences and in public discourse paralleled by obliteration by incorporation of the wider theory in behavioral science. "Stereotype" is increasingly invoked in anthropology, economics, and sociology though Lippmann and his wider theory ceased being cited decades ago. In psychology, citations are increasing but content analysis revealed blind spots and misconceptions about the theory and prescription. Studies of heuristics, biases, and organizational decision substantiate Lippmann's theory of judgment and choice. But his model for social science failed to consider the bounded rationality and blind spots of its practitioners. Policy formulation today is supported by research from narrow disciplinary silos not interdisciplinary science that reflects an awareness of history. PMID:22936385
Three studies (total N=403 participants; M age = 31.1 yr.; SD = 13.8) are reported on the development, psychometric properties, and convergent and discriminant validities of two individual differences dimensions of Vigor (constructive arousal and energy that drives the general intensity of behavior) and Deliberation (prudence in the delay of immediate action and consideration of competing motives, emotions, and consequences of action that promote convergence of behavior toward socially desirable outcomes). These dimensions are part of Bernard, Mills, Swenson, and Walsh's evolutionary psychologytheory of human motivation. Analysis suggests Vigor and Deliberation scales have reasonably good psychometric properties and may aid research on motivation from an evolutionary perspective. PMID:18982957
Introduction: This issue expands the Llorens’ Developmental Theory of Occupational Therapy. Llorens drew from multiple theorists from the disciplines of sociology, neurophysiology, biology, ecology, psychology, occupational science, and psychodynamics to provide the profession of occupational therapy with a unified theory to facilitate growth and development for people of all ages—from infancy to old age.Purpose: The purpose of this issue is
The mechanism of color perception has intrigued scholars from antiquity. However, the understanding of this phenomena only came with the recognition of the nature of light and visual perception. Ancient concepts, present in science until the Renaissance, were based more on philosophical considerations and theoretical speculations than on anatomical studies and a matter-of-fact assessment of physiological functions of the visual system. From antiquity to 17th century scientific approach to the concept of vision was dominated by two theories: intromission and extramission (emanation). Intromission theory, propagated by Alhazen (lbn al.-Haythama), Vitello, John Peckham, Roger Bacon and Leonardo da Vinci, assumed that the light was transmitted from the observed object perpendicularly to the transparent eye structures. Johannes Kepler was the first scholar to propose that the retina was the receptive part of the eye. In the first half of the 17th century, Kepler's groundbreaking optical achievements and anatomical discoveries of many other scientists cast new light on the understanding of the role of different eye structures, finally wiping out the intromission theory. A further major achievement contributing to the recognition of the true nature of colors was a theory presented by Newton in 1688. He argued that they were colored rays, and not white light, that were composed of homogenous and pure light. It was, however, not until the 19th century when two modern theories of color appeared, i.e. a trichromatic theory mostly associated with the names of Young and Hemlholtz, and an opponent colors theory of Hering. In the 20th century, the two theories--previously assumed as contradictory--were joined into the zone theories of color vision. Colors have their cultural and social meanings, as far as a very individual and personal interpretation. In the former function they are used to illustrate some cultural and sociological phenomena; in the latter, they are helpful in psychological analyses of patients. The paper outlines major historical concepts of color perception and the present usefulness of color vision tests in psychology. PMID:18669099
Recent public health research has consistently reported that self-identified multiracial adolescents tend to display more problem behaviors and psychological difficulties than monoracial adolescents. Relying on insights from qualitative analyses using small or clinical samples to interpret these empirical patterns, these studies implicitly assume…
The concept of a group as comparable to a single organism has had a long and turbulent history. Currently, methodological individualism dominates in many areas of psychology and evolution, but natural selection is now known to operate at multiple levels of the biological hierarchy. When between-group selection dominates within-group selection, a major evolutionary transition occurs and the group becomes a
The promise of a synthesized basic and applied psychology has been most strongly realized and appreciated in behavior analysis. The traditional model for this relationship has been largely unidirectional in that the experimental analysis of behavior has fed applied behavior analysis with its principles. Despite the relative strength of this relationship, which should lead to a more coherent and broadly
|P. R. Peluso, J. P. Peluso, J. F. White, and R. M. Kern (2004) reviewed the theoretical constructs underlying the similarities between lifestyle and attachment style. Specifically, they suggested that the individual psychology construct of lifestyle (or style of life) and attachment style should be empirically investigated. The present research…
Peluso, Paul R.; Peluso, Jennifer P.; Buckner, Janine P.; Kern, Roy M.; Curlette, William
The cognitive frame in which most neuropsychological research on the neural basis of behavior is conducted contains the assumption that brain mechanisms per se fully suffice to explain all psychologically described phenomena. This assumption stems from the idea that the brain is made up entirely of material particles and fields, and that all causal mechanisms must therefore be formulated solely
This article uses Sedgwick's distinction between minoritizing and universalizing theories of sexuality to analyze variability in social psychologists' studies of anti-homosexual prejudice, focusing on studies of attitudes. Anti-homosexual prejudice was initially defined in conversation with gay liberationists and presumed, among other things, that fear of homoerotic potential was present in all persons. Later social psychologists theorized anti-homosexual prejudice in strict minoritizing terms: as prejudice towards a distinct out-group. In the first section of this paper we discuss corresponding shifts in the conceptualization of anti-homosexual attitudes. Next, using a universalizing framework, we re-interpret experiments on behavioral aspects of anti-homosexual attitudes which were originally conceptualized using a minoritizing framework, and suggest avenues for future research. Finally, we examine how queer theory might enrich this area of social psychological inquiry by challenging assumptions about the politics of doing scientific work and the utility of identity-based sexual politics. PMID:17287186
This study examined implicit theories in ongoing, enduring relationships in order to elucidate the cognitive outcomes of marital communication. A random, urban sample of 207 married couples assessed how the dimensions of instrumentality and expressivity applied to their mates. Predictions of how mates would weight these two dimensions were based on Sandra Bem's gender schema theory. This theory posits that
|This article reviews issues associated with the education of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. It offers a definition of this population and compares practical classroom applications of commonsense attribution theory and information processing theory. It proposes a pragmatic learning theory that takes into account cognitive,…
This paper juxtaposes the expectations of event managers and sports event volunteers in a case study organisation. These are\\u000a understood within the theoretical framework of the psychological contract. Results show the distinctive contribution volunteers\\u000a can make to events but also the distinctive challenges they present to event managers. For event managers, volunteers bring:\\u000a enthusiasm, a good relationship and empathy with
The cognitive frame in which most neuropsychological research on the neural\\u000abasis of behavior is conducted contains the assumption that brain mechanisms\\u000aper se fully suffice to explain all psychologically described phenomena. This\\u000aassumption stems from the idea that the brain is made up entirely of material\\u000aparticles and fields, and that all causal mechanisms must therefore be\\u000aformulated solely
Jeffrey M. Schwartz; Henry P. Stapp; Mario Beauregard
Contents: Introduction to forensic psychology; Psychological structure of the administration of justice; The methods of forensic psychology; Psychological fundamentals of preliminary investigation; Psychological fundamentals of court proceedings; Psycholo...
Social learning theory began as an attempt by Robert Sears and others to meld psychoanalytic and stimulus-response learning theory into a comprehensive explanation of human behavior, drawing on the clinical richness of the former and the rigor of the latter. Albert Bandura abandoned the psychoanalytic and drive features of the approach, emphasizing instead cognitive and information-processing capacities that mediate social
The theory of probabilistic mental models (PMM; G. Gigerenzer, U. Hoffrage, & H. Kleinbolting, 1991) has had a major influence on the field of judgment and decision making, with the most recent important modifications to PMM theory being the identification of several fast and frugal heuristics (G. Gigerenzer & D. G. Goldstein, 1996). These…
Dougherty, Michael R.; Franco-Watkins, Ana M.; Thomas, Rick
|This research paper proposes several mathematical models which help clarify Piaget's theory of cognition on the concrete and formal operational stages. Some modified lattice models were used for the concrete stage and a combined Boolean Algebra and group theory model was used for the formal stage. The researcher used experiments cited in the…
|Fredrickson and Roberts (1997) proposed objectification theory as an integrative framework for understanding how women's socialization and experiences of sexual objectification are translated into mental health problems. This article reviews the past decade of research grounded in objectification theory and highlights needed directions for future…
An undergraduate harmony course is presented that is grounded in recent research on the perception of harmony and tonality, and makes relevant aspects of that research accessible to music students. Perceptual theory can shed light on such general basic issues as intonation and the role of acoustics in harmonic theory, principles of chord construction, voicing and voice- leading in diatonic
The tension reduction hypothesis regarding the reinforcing properties of alcohol consumption has never provided good explanatory power. It was hypothesized that the effects of alcohol use on cognition would offer some clarification. Two cognitive theories of how alcohol affects individuals were outlined, and differing predictions were made on the basis of each. The self-focus theory suggests that alcohol is reinforcing
In this article, activity theory is analysed. Specific examples for the analysis are taken from Ratner’s (2000) article on emotions. It is concluded that activity theory in general and Ratner’s approach in particular are deficient at three different levels of analysis: from a general theoretical approach to the study of mind to specific details of how particular mental phenomena and
This article relies upon structural symbolic interactionism and five of its organizing concepts (i.e. symbols, the definition of the situation, roles, socialization and role-taking, and the self) to put forth a novel conceptual framework for understanding the terrorist identity. In order to demonstrate the practical utility of the framework, applications to various terrorist groups around the globe are incorporated into the analysis. Overall, both the theoretical and application work help reorient the academic and practitioner behavioral science communities to the importance of culture, self, and society when investigating one's membership in and identity through militant extremist organizations. Given the unique approach taken by this article, several provisional implications are delineated. In particular, future research on terrorism, strategies linked to counter-terrorism, legal and public policy reform, and the relevance of utilizing a sociologically animated social psychology in the assessment of other forms of criminal behavior are all very tentatively explored. PMID:16094631
|This article analyzes latent variable models from a cognitive psychology perspective. We start by discussing work by Tuerlinckx and De Boeck (2005), who proved that a diffusion model for 2-choice response processes entails a 2-parameter logistic item response theory (IRT) model for individual differences in the response data. Following this line…
van der Maas, Han L. J.; Molenaar, Dylan; Maris, Gunter; Kievit, Rogier A.; Borsboom, Denny
This article consists of an analytical overview of theories from Social Psychology with respect to knowledge behavior in development agencies. This provides a theoretical background for the presentation of the results of a cross-cultural study towards the frequencies and predictors of six types of knowledge behavior. In this research 445 people from 89 nationalities participated. The results of the analysis
In this article I discuss Doctors's (2006) inclusive model presented in her paper, “Notes on Incorporating Attachment Theory and Research Into Self Psychological\\/Intersubjective Clinical Work.” I distinguish between linear stabilities of patterning emphasized by many attachment researchers and nonlinear properties of dyadic systems emphasized by relational and intersubjective systems, self–psychologists, and infant researchers, noting that Doctors brings both sensibilities into
Abstract Studying human behavior in the light of evolutionary theory involves studying the comparative evolutionary history of behaviors (phylogeny), the psychological machinery that generates them (mechanisms), and the adaptive value of that machinery in past reproductive competition (natural selection). To show the value of a phylogenetic perspective, I consider the ethology of emotional expression and the cladistics of primate social
Presents an Adlerian vocational theory with several hypotheses and corollaries regarding: (a) life style, (b) work as life task, (c) family atmosphere and relationships, and (d) early recollections. Develops predictive vocational statements and offers the resulting framework as a stimulant to generate further study of Adlerian vocational…
|Based on extensive research with children and young adults, this book examines adaptive and maladaptive cognitive-motivational patterns and shows how these patterns originate in people's self theories; their consequences for one's achievement, social relationships, and emotional well-being; their consequences for society; and the experiences that…
Three laboratory studies and one field study show that people generally hold lay theories which contain anextrinsic incentives bias—people predict that others are more motivated than themselves by extrinsic incentives (job security, pay) and less motivated by intrinsic incentives (learning new things). The extrinsic incentives bias can be separated from a self-serving bias and it provides an empirical counterexample to
In this paper, we explore the teaching of ethics in computing related fields. The article intends to share ideas on moral development and the nature of morality, specifically as it relates to changes that educators may be trying to elicit within students when teaching ethics. The paper then addresses educational theories that are better suited to enabling moral development with
This study investigates how means - end chain theory and laddering can be used to represent consumers' reasons for supporting or not supporting abstract marketing products such as ideas, goals, or perceptions. The specific empirical context used to illustrate the approach was the public's perceptions of President Clinton. Six hundred and three respondents in a national random sample of the
|Addresses generalizability theory (GT), which offers a flexible framework for assessing dependability of measurement. GT allows for consideration of multiple sources of error, allowing investigators to assess the overall impact of measurement error. Illustrative analyses demonstrate the special advantages of GT for planning studies in which…
A fundamental claim associated with parallel distributed processing (PDP) theories of cognition is that knowledge is coded in a distributed manner in mind and brain. This approach rejects the claim that knowledge is coded in a localist fashion, with words, objects, and simple concepts (e.g. "dog"), that is, coded with their own dedicated…
Sociocultural research and activity theory (SCRAT) are developments of the work of Vygotsky, which aim to capture how minds and actions are shaped by, and shape the opportunities for thinking and action available. SCRAT requires a rethinking of commonly held interpretations of relationships between culture and mind, and knowledge and action, so that attention is paid to how learners interpret
A fundamental claim associated with parallel distributed processing (PDP) theories of cognition is that knowledge is coded in a distributed manner in mind and brain. This approach rejects the claim that knowledge is coded in a localist fashion, with words, objects, and simple concepts (e.g. \\
This article provides a survey of the applications of nonlinear dynamical systems theory to substantive problems encountered in the full scope of psychological science. Applications are organized into three topical areas - cognitive science, social and organizational psychology, and personality and clinical psychology. Both theoretical and empirical studies are considered with an emphasis on works that capture the broadest scope
This article reviews a major new subject encyclopedia, the Encyclopedia of Psychology, jointly published by the American Psychological Association and Oxford University Press. This comprehensive and scholarly reference tool encompasses the discipline's theory, research, practice, and history. All of the articles are signed and include bibliographies. The author describes important features of the set, including biographies, articles about psychology in
Many psychological tests have arbitrary metrics but are appropriate for testing psychologicaltheories. Metric arbitrariness is a concern, however, when researchers wish to draw inferences about the true, absolute standing of a group or individual on the latent psychological dimension being measured. The authors illustrate this in the context of 2…
|Many psychological tests have arbitrary metrics but are appropriate for testing psychologicaltheories. Metric arbitrariness is a concern, however, when researchers wish to draw inferences about the true, absolute standing of a group or individual on the latent psychological dimension being measured. The authors illustrate this in the context of…
The interpersonal-psychologicaltheory of suicidal behavior (Joiner, 2005) makes two overarching predictions: 1) that perceptions of burdening others and of social alienation combine to instill the desire for death; and 2) that individuals will not act on the desire for death unless they have developed the capability to do so – a capability that develops through exposure and thus habituation to painful and/or fearsome experiences, and which is posited by the theory to be necessary to overcome powerful self-preservation pressures. Two studies test these predictions. In Study 1, the interaction of (low) family social support (cf. social alienation or low belonging) and feeling like one does not matter (cf. perceived burdensomeness) predicted current suicidal ideation, beyond depression indices. In Study 2, the three-way interaction between a measure of low belonging, a measure of perceived burdensomeness, and lifetime number of suicide attempts (viewed as a strong predictor of the level of acquired capability for suicide) predicted current suicide attempt (vs. ideation) among a clinical sample of suicidal young adults, again beyond depression indices and other key covariates. Implications for the understanding, treatment, and prevention of suicidal behavior are discussed.
Joiner, Thomas E.; Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Witte, Tracy K.; Selby, Edward A.; Ribeiro, Jessica D.; Lewis, Robyn; Rudd, M. David
|A review of recent school psychology publications was conducted to discover the espoused theory of contemporary school psychology, as distinct from school psychology practice. We considered that identification of the espoused theory of school psychology, the story of school psychology, would support professional reflection and the identification…
Background The Internet can provide a confidential and convenient medium for sexual health promotion for young people. Objective This paper describes the development of an interactive, theory-based website (Sexunzipped) aimed at increasing safe sexual behavior of young people, as well as an outline of the evaluation protocol. Methods The website focuses on safer sex, relationships, and sexual pleasure. An overview of the site is provided, including a description of the theoretical constructs which form the basis of the site development. An integrated behavioral model was chosen as the guiding theory for the Sexunzipped intervention. A randomized trial design will be used to evaluate the site quantitatively. Results The content of the site is described in detail with examples of the main content types: information pages, quizzes, and decision-making activities. We describe the protocol for quantitative evaluation of the website using a randomized trial design and discuss the principal challenges involved in developing the site, including the challenge of balancing the requirements of theory with young people’s views on website content and design. Conclusions Considerations for future interventions are discussed. Developing an online behavior-change intervention is costly and time consuming. Given the large public health potential, the cost involved in developing online interventions, and the need for attractive design, future interventions may benefit from collaborating with established sites that already have a user base, a brand, and a strong Internet presence. It is vital to involve users in decisions about intervention content, design, and features, paying attention to aspects that will attract and retain users’ interest. A central challenge in developing effective Internet-based interventions for young people is to find effective ways to operationalize theory in ways that address the views and perspectives of young people.
Using generalizability theory to evaluate the reliability of child and adolescent measures enables researchers to enhance precision of measurement and consequently increase confidence in research findings. With an observer-rated measure of child self-regulation, we illustrate how multiple sources of error variance (e.g., raters, items) affect the dependability (replicability) of scores and demonstrate methods for enhancing dependability of observer ratings. Using
Sketches, the development of the field of social psychology from the coincidental work of Tarde (1890-1900). The aim is to make others aware of how social psychology grew in spite of a numbers of inhibitory influences. Foresees a return of focus from social to general psychology. Implications for theory of psychology and society are mentioned.
Theory of Mind (ToM) has been proposed to explain social interactions, with real people but also with fictional characters, by interpreting their mind as well as our own. “Perspective embedding” exploits ToM by placing events in characters’ minds (e.g., “he remembered she was home”). Three levels of embedment, common in literature, may be a “sweet spot” that provides enough information about a character’s motivation, but not a confusing over-abundance. Here, we use short vignettes with 1 or 3 characters and 0-5 levels of perspective embedding in two reading studies to see whether these preferences might be related to processing ease. Self-paced readers were fastest with one level of embedment, increasingly slower as embedment increased; vignettes without embedment were approximately as slow as level 4. With both self-paced and imposed timing, error rates on probe questions increased only at the fifth level. Readers seem to prefer literary texts in which ToM operations are obvious due to embedding of perspectives within the narrative but still somewhat challenging.
The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) plus moral norms, anticipated regret, past behaviour, self-identity and perceived susceptibility was applied to predicting motorcyclists' intention to ride above the speed limit and ride at inappropriate speeds. Past behaviour, control beliefs, attitudes, moral norm, normative beliefs, age and self-identity explained 60% of the variance in motorcyclists' intention to exceed the speed limit on motorways (N=1381). A total of 62% of the variance in motorcyclists' intention to really go for it on rural roads was accounted for, with past behaviour, attitudes, control beliefs, age, normative beliefs, anticipated regret, self-identity, behavioural beliefs and training status being significant (N=1116). Finally, attitudes, past behaviour, control beliefs, moral norm, anticipated regret, behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs, engine size and self-identity explained 57% of the variance in motorcyclists' intention to ride faster than felt safe in order to keep up with the group (N=1940). The belief-based measures also successfully differentiated between those who intended to speed and those who did not. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:23036391
Background Psychological models predict behaviour in a wide range of settings. The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of a range of psychological models to predict the health professional behaviour 'referral for lumbar spine x-ray in patients presenting with low back pain' by UK primary care physicians. Methods Psychological measures were collected by postal questionnaire survey from a random sample of primary care physicians in Scotland and north England. The outcome measures were clinical behaviour (referral rates for lumbar spine x-rays), behavioural simulation (lumbar spine x-ray referral decisions based upon scenarios), and behavioural intention (general intention to refer for lumbar spine x-rays in patients with low back pain). Explanatory variables were the constructs within the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), Common Sense Self-Regulation Model (CS-SRM), Operant Learning Theory (OLT), Implementation Intention (II), Weinstein's Stage Model termed the Precaution Adoption Process (PAP), and knowledge. For each of the outcome measures, a generalised linear model was used to examine the predictive value of each theory individually. Linear regression was used for the intention and simulation outcomes, and negative binomial regression was used for the behaviour outcome. Following this 'theory level' analysis, a 'cross-theoretical construct' analysis was conducted to investigate the combined predictive value of all individual constructs across theories. Results Constructs from TPB, SCT, CS-SRM, and OLT predicted behaviour; however, the theoretical models did not fit the data well. When predicting behavioural simulation, the proportion of variance explained by individual theories was TPB 11.6%, SCT 12.1%, OLT 8.1%, and II 1.5% of the variance, and in the cross-theory analysis constructs from TPB, CS-SRM and II explained 16.5% of the variance in simulated behaviours. When predicting intention, the proportion of variance explained by individual theories was TPB 25.0%, SCT 21.5%, CS-SRM 11.3%, OLT 26.3%, PAP 2.6%, and knowledge 2.3%, and in the cross-theory analysis constructs from TPB, SCT, CS-SRM, and OLT explained 33.5% variance in intention. Together these results suggest that physicians' beliefs about consequences and beliefs about capabilities are likely determinants of lumbar spine x-ray referrals. Conclusions The study provides evidence that taking a theory-based approach enables the creation of a replicable methodology for identifying factors that predict clinical behaviour. However, a number of conceptual and methodological challenges remain.
Because of advances in technology, the non-invasive study of the human brain has enhanced the knowledge base within the neurosciences, resulting in an increased impact on the psychological study of human behaviour. We argue that application of this knowledge base should be considered in theoretical modelling within sport psychology and motor behaviour alongside existing ideas. We propose that interventions founded
Paul Holmes; Simon Bennett; Keith Davids; Nick Smith
Describes the founding of the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI), which was initially a reaction to the unemployment of psychologists during the 1930's. Soon after its formal inauguration, the SPSSI Council became active in antiwar activities as well. A committee on the psychology of war and peace was formed; at that time 90% of psychologists surveyed
Despite evidence of widespread belief in conspiracy theories, there remains a dearth of research on the individual difference correlates of conspiracist ideation. In two studies, we sought to overcome this limitation by examining correlations between conspiracist ideation and a range of individual psychological factors. In Study 1, 817 Britons indicated their agreement with conspiracist ideation concerning the July 7, 2005 (7/7), London bombings, and completed a battery of individual difference scales. Results showed that stronger belief in 7/7 conspiracy theories was predicted by stronger belief in other real-world conspiracy theories, greater exposure to conspiracist ideation, higher political cynicism, greater support for democratic principles, more negative attitudes to authority, lower self-esteem, and lower Agreeableness. In Study 2, 281 Austrians indicated their agreement with an entirely fictitious conspiracy theory and completed a battery of individual difference measures not examined in Study 1. Results showed that belief in the entirely fictitious conspiracy theory was significantly associated with stronger belief in other real-world conspiracy theories, stronger paranormal beliefs, and lower crystallized intelligence. These results are discussed in terms of the potential of identifying individual difference constellations among conspiracy theorists. PMID:21751999
This article provides a historical context of evolutionary psychology and feminism, and evaluates the contributions to this\\u000a special issue of Sex Roles within that context. We briefly outline the basic tenets of evolutionary psychology and articulate its meta-theory of the\\u000a origins of gender similarities and differences. The article then evaluates the specific contributions: Sexual Strategies Theory\\u000a and the desire for
|Discusses positive psychology, which focuses on health and well-being utilizing the elements of belief, hope, self-esteem, responsibility, elation, and wisdom as the basis of psychologicaltheory and practice. Describes efforts to change the psychology field, including identifying promising young professionals, establishing monetary prizes, and…
Many scholars criticize constructivist approaches to psychology for culminating in a nihilistic relativism. This article reviews the problem of relativism within per- sonal construct psychology and social constructionism. It argues that labeling constructivist approaches to psychology as essentially relativist or nonrelativist simplifies the debate by assigning indisputable characteristics to a family of theories. Both relativ- ist and nonrelativist interpretations of
The confusion between cognitive states and the content of cognitive states that gives rise to psychologism also gives rise to reverse psychologism. Weak reverse psychologism says that we can study cognitive states by studying content – for instance, that we can study the mind by studying linguistics or logic. This attitude is endemic in cognitive science and linguistic theory. Strong
The theoretical model presented in this paper emerged from several different disciplines. This model proposes that the attainment of happiness is linked to the self, and more particularly to the structure of the self. We support the idea that the perception of a structured self, which takes the form of a permanent, independent and solid entity leads to self-centered psychological
|This article celebrates the 50th anniversary of the introduction of John L. Holland's (1959) theory of vocational personalities and work environments by describing the theory's development and evolution, its instrumentation, and its current status. Hallmarks of Holland's theory are its empirical testability and its user-friendliness. By…
This article celebrates the 50th anniversary of the introduction of John L. Holland's (1959) theory of vocational personalities and work environments by describing the theory's development and evolution, its instrumentation, and its current status. Hallmarks of Holland's theory are its empirical testability and its user-friendliness. By…
In this paper, it is argued that efforts to devise a unified theory of psychological knowledge are problematic, and that the cultivation of multiple theoretical lenses contributes to a more useful and self-aware psychology. Various forms of unificationism, and the rationales behind such efforts, are discussed. Two drawbacks of unified theories are then explored, along with the virtues of multiplicity.
Healthcare decisions, particularly those involving weighing benefits and harms that may significantly affect quality and/or length of life, should reflect patients' preferences. To support patients in making choices, patient decision aids and values clarification methods (VCM) in particular have been developed. VCM intend to help patients to determine the aspects of the choices that are important to their selection of a preferred option. Several types of VCM exist. However, they are often designed without clear reference to theory, which makes it difficult for their development to be systematic and internally coherent. Our goal was to provide theory-informed recommendations for the design of VCM. Process theories of decision making specify components of decision processes, thus, identify particular processes that VCM could aim to facilitate. We conducted a review of the MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases and of references to theories included in retrieved papers, to identify process theories of decision making. We selected a theory if (a) it fulfilled criteria for a process theory; (b) provided a coherent description of the whole process of decision making; and (c) empirical evidence supports at least some of its postulates. Four theories met our criteria: Image Theory, Differentiation and Consolidation theory, Parallel Constraint Satisfaction theory, and Fuzzy-trace Theory. Based on these, we propose that VCM should: help optimize mental representations; encourage considering all potentially appropriate options; delay selection of an initially favoured option; facilitate the retrieval of relevant values from memory; facilitate the comparison of options and their attributes; and offer time to decide. In conclusion, our theory-based design recommendations are explicit and transparent, providing an opportunity to test each in a systematic manner. PMID:23219164
Pieterse, Arwen H; de Vries, Marieke; Kunneman, Marleen; Stiggelbout, Anne M; Feldman-Stewart, Deb
Professionally significant enhancement of music and dance performance and mood has followed training with an EEG-neurofeedback\\u000a protocol which increases the ratio of theta to alpha waves using auditory feedback with eyes closed. While originally the\\u000a protocol was designed to induce hypnogogia, a state historically associated with creativity, the outcome was psychological\\u000a integration, while subsequent applications focusing on raising the theta–alpha
Scientific realism holds that scientific theories are approximations of universal truths about reality, whereas scientific instrumentalism posits that scientific theories are intellectual structures that provide adequate predictions of what is observed and useful frameworks for answering questions and solving problems in a given domain. These…
Cacioppo, John T.; Semin, Gun R.; Berntson, Gary G.
This study tested M. Deutsch's theory of cooperation and conflict resolution using an intervention project at an inner city alternative high school in New York City. The study was designed to test the theory by confirmatory structural modeling and by evaluating the intervention. The procedure involved a pre- and post-test procedure administered…
|Scientific realism holds that scientific theories are approximations of universal truths about reality, whereas scientific instrumentalism posits that scientific theories are intellectual structures that provide adequate predictions of what is observed and useful frameworks for answering questions and solving problems in a given domain. These…
Cacioppo, John T.; Semin, Gun R.; Berntson, Gary G.
Archaeological and historical data from M. W. Allen's (1994) thesis on the development of sociopolitical complexity in Maori chiefdoms in Hawke's Bay from 1500–1625 a.d. are presented as an explanatory challenge for social identity theory (SIT) and realistic group conflict theory (RGCT). Data indicate that the intensification of horticulture in response to population increases resulted in the construction of fortifications
|This study tested M. Deutsch's theory of cooperation and conflict resolution using an intervention project at an inner city alternative high school in New York City. The study was designed to test the theory by confirmatory structural modeling and by evaluating the intervention. The procedure involved a pre- and post-test procedure administered…
Discusses three articles of Mr. McDougall, on the subject of psychological method. The articles accomplish their purpose, if by method we mean (with Mr. McDougall) not so much ways and means of going to work in psychology, but the method of conceiving the scope of psychology and of psychological processes. By their contention that there can be \\
Once we abstract away,from questions about theory versus simulation and from questions about modularity, it can seem truistic that having a theory of mind ? being able to engage,in our everyday,folk psychological,practices or having,psychological understanding ? is fundamental to social functioning. Thus, for example, at the beginning of The Child’s Theory of Mind, Henry Wellman says (1990, p. 1): ‘Arriving
|Workplace and professional learning, lifelong learning, adult learning, learning in different contexts have become of more and more interest and now dominate all aspects of 21st century life. Learning is no longer about "storing and recall" but "development and flow". "Theories of Learning in the Workplace" offers fascinating overviews into some…
Dochy, Filip; Gijbels, David; Segers, Mien; Van den Bossche, Piet
Cognitive science of the last half-century has been dominated by the computational theory of mind and its picture of thought as information processing. Taking this picture for granted, the most prominent evolutionary theories of religion of the last fifteen years have sought to understand human religiosity as the product or by-product of universal information processing mechanisms that were adaptive in our ancestral environment. The rigidity of such explanations is at odds with the highly context-sensitive nature of historical studies of religion, and thus contributes to the apparent tug-of-war between scientific and humanistic perspectives. This essay argues that this antagonism stems in part from a deep flaw of computational theory, namely its notion of information as pre-given and context-free. In contrast, non-computational theories that picture mind as an adaptive, interactive process in which information is jointly constructed by organism and environment offer an alternative approach to an evolutionary understanding of human religiosity, one that is compatible with historical studies and amenable to a wide range of inquiries, including some limited kinds of theological inquiry. PMID:20879191
Workplace and professional learning, lifelong learning, adult learning, learning in different contexts have become of more and more interest and now dominate all aspects of 21st century life. Learning is no longer about "storing and recall" but "development and flow". "Theories of Learning in the Workplace" offers fascinating overviews into some…
Dochy, Filip; Gijbels, David; Segers, Mien; Van den Bossche, Piet
Histories of psychology regularly celebrate the foundational role played in the development of early American psychology by Darwin's theory of evolution through natural selection, and in particular the development of functional psychology and behaviorism. In this article it is argued that although Darwin's theory did play an influential role, early American psychology did not generally reflect the hereditarian determinism of
This article reviews the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) in model selection and the appraisal of psychologicaltheory. The focus is on latent variable models, given their growing use in theory testing and construction. Theoretical statistical results in regression are discussed, and more important issues are illustrated with novel simulations involving latent variable models including factor analysis, latent profile analysis, and factor mixture models. Asymptotically, the BIC is consistent, in that it will select the true model if, among other assumptions, the true model is among the candidate models considered. The AIC is not consistent under these circumstances. When the true model is not in the candidate model set the AIC is efficient, in that it will asymptotically choose whichever model minimizes the mean squared error of prediction/estimation. The BIC is not efficient under these circumstances. Unlike the BIC, the AIC also has a minimax property, in that it can minimize the maximum possible risk in finite sample sizes. In sum, the AIC and BIC have quite different properties that require different assumptions, and applied researchers and methodologists alike will benefit from improved understanding of the asymptotic and finite-sample behavior of these criteria. The ultimate decision to use the AIC or BIC depends on many factors, including the loss function employed, the study's methodological design, the substantive research question, and the notion of a true model and its applicability to the study at hand. PMID:22309957
This article reviews the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) in model selection and the appraisal of psychologicaltheory. The focus is on latent variable models given their growing use in theory testing and construction. We discuss theoretical statistical results in regression and illustrate more important issues with novel simulations involving latent variable models including factor analysis, latent profile analysis, and factor mixture models. Asymptotically, the BIC is consistent, in that it will select the true model if, among other assumptions, the true model is among the candidate models considered. The AIC is not consistent under these circumstances. When the true model is not in the candidate model set the AIC is effcient, in that it will asymptotically choose whichever model minimizes the mean squared error of prediction/estimation. The BIC is not effcient under these circumstances. Unlike the BIC, the AIC also has a minimax property, in that it can minimize the maximum possible risk in finite sample sizes. In sum, the AIC and BIC have quite different properties that require different assumptions, and applied researchers and methodologists alike will benefit from improved understanding of the asymptotic and finite-sample behavior of these criteria. The ultimate decision to use AIC or BIC depends on many factors, including: the loss function employed, the study's methodological design, the substantive research question, and the notion of a true model and its applicability to the study at hand.
Suicide rates have been increasing in military personnel since the start of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom, and it is vital that efforts be made to advance suicide risk assessment techniques and treatment for members of the military who may be experiencing suicidal symptoms. One potential way to advance the understanding of suicide in the military is through the use of the Interpersonal-PsychologicalTheory of Suicide. This theory proposes that three necessary factors are needed to complete suicide: feelings that one does not belong with other people, feelings that one is a burden on others or society, and an acquired capability to overcome the fear and pain associated with suicide. This review analyzes the various ways that military service may influence suicidal behavior and integrates these findings into an overall framework with relevant practical implications. Findings suggest that although there are many important factors in military suicide, the acquired capability may be the most impacted by military experience because combat exposure and training may cause habituation to fear of painful experiences, including suicide. Future research directions, ways to enhance risk assessment, and treatment implications are also discussed.
Selby, Edward A.; Anestis, Michael D.; Bender, Theodore W.; Ribeiro, Jessica D.; Nock, Matthew K.; Rudd, M. David; Bryan, Craig J.; Lim, Ingrid C.; Baker, Monty T.; Gutierrez, Peter M.; Joiner, Thomas E.
This study investigated the role of autonomy satisfaction in the development of suicidal ideation by integrating two theoretical models of suicide-related behaviors. The first hypothesized a direct effect of autonomy on suicidal ideation. The second hypothesized an indirect effect of autonomy on suicidal ideation via perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. This was a cross-sectional study of 449 college students, who were predominantly female (73.1%) and Hispanic (70.6%), with a mean age of 20.40 years (SD = 4.38, range 18-50 years). Participants were recruited from a psychology participant pool and completed self-report survey measures for course credit. The model of indirect effects provided the best fit to the data; relatedness, autonomy, and competence were significantly associated with higher thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, which, in turn, were significantly associated with higher suicidal ideation. Future studies should test this model longitudinally and consider autonomy as a possible avenue for the prevention of suicide-related behaviors. PMID:23889577
|This book provides a critical account of the psychologicaltheories that have informed contemporary adult education theory and practice. Chapter 1 discusses the importance of balancing description, critique, and comments on each theory's influence on adult education and the need to understand psychological development throughout the life span.…
This article explores psychological avenues to reconciliation between groups. It describes the psychological changes in survivors, perpetrators, and passive bystanders in the course of the evolution of increasing violence and points to healing from the psychological wounds created as an essential component of reconciliation. It also explores the role of understand- ing the roots of genocide, and of violence between
|Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…
Positive psychology is the study of human strength, resilience, and optimal human functioning. The goal of positive psychology is to make people happier by understanding and building positive emotion, gratification and meaning. The constructs of happiness, hope, optimism, well-being, resilience and flow are examined in how they relate to positive psychology. The \\
Citation: Brigham, J., & Grisso, T. (2003). Forensic Psychology. In D.K. Friedheim & I.B. Weiner (eds.), Comprehensive handbook of psychology. Vol. 1: The history of psychology, (pp. 391-411). New York: John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0471383201, 9780471383208.\\u000aLimited preview available via Google Books.
Professionally significant enhancement of music and dance performance and mood has followed training with an EEG-neurofeedback protocol which increases the ratio of theta to alpha waves using auditory feedback with eyes closed. While originally the protocol was designed to induce hypnogogia, a state historically associated with creativity, the outcome was psychological integration, while subsequent applications focusing on raising the theta-alpha ratio, reduced depression and anxiety in alcoholism and resolved post traumatic stress syndrome (PTSD). In optimal performance studies we confirmed associations with creativity in musical performance, but effects also included technique and communication. We extended efficacy to dance and social anxiety. Diversity of outcome has a counterpart in wide ranging associations between theta oscillations and behaviour in cognitive and affective neuroscience: in animals with sensory-motor activity in exploration, effort, working memory, learning, retention and REM sleep; in man with meditative concentration, reduced anxiety and sympathetic autonomic activation, as well as task demands in virtual spatial navigation, focussed and sustained attention, working and recognition memory, and having implications for synaptic plasticity and long term potentiation. Neuroanatomical circuitry involves the ascending mescencephalic-cortical arousal system, and limbic circuits subserving cognitive as well as affective/motivational functions. Working memory and meditative bliss, representing cognitive and affective domains, respectively, involve coupling between frontal and posterior cortices, exemplify a role for theta and alpha waves in mediating the interaction between distal and widely distributed connections. It is posited that this mediation in part underpins the integrational attributes of alpha-theta training in optimal performance and psychotherapy, creative associations in hypnogogia, and enhancement of technical, communication and artistic domains of performance in the arts. PMID:19082646
|This paper responds to the article by Wiegand and Geller which advocates broadening the content of OBM by assimilating content from non-behavioral psychologies. I argue that these psychologies have theories and aims so incompatible with OBM that no added value will be obtained by forming an interconnection. Specific problems with positive…
The relationship between psychology and education has waxed and waned over the past century. In addition, a core issue for psychologists is how to bridge the gap between theory and practice in applied settings such as schools. While acknowledging the work that has been done, it is apparent that the effective dissemination of psychology to…
Explores the field of medicine as an area for psychological inquiry. Evidence for the growth of medical psychology is presented, though relatively few psychologists are engaged in its pursuit. Medical topics of interest to psychologists are discussed, and the importance of more rigorous research methodologies being used in this area is stressed. It is suggested that psychology and medicine need
We have argued that the evolutionary perspective to social psychology is not untestable, not reductionist, not a theory about rigid genetic determinism, not a justification for the status quo, and not incompatible with sociocultural or cognitive analyses. What it is, instead, is a set of ideas that have proved quite useful in generating novel hypotheses, and parsimoniously connecting findings from
|The "APA Educational Psychology Handbook" reflects the broad nature of the field today, with state-of-the-science reviews of the diverse critical theories driving research and practice; in-depth investigation of the range of individual differences and cultural/contextual factors that affect student achievement, motivation, and beliefs; and close…
Harris, Karen R., Ed.; Graham, Steve, Ed.; Urdan, Tim, Ed.
Critiques the prominent color theories by - Franklin, Hering and Young-Helmholtz theories, as being unable to satisfy the psychological requirements of sensational realism. Discusses the various theoretical concepts given by the theories. Also suggests modifications of the Helmholtz theory in such a way so as to make it compatible with sensory realism. Possibilities of psychological research in the area of
Evolutionary psychology has emerged over the past 15 years as a major theoretical perspective, generating an increasing volume of empirical studies and assuming a larger presence within psychological science. At the same time, it has generated critiques and remains controversial among some psychologists. Some of the controversy stems from hypotheses that go against traditional psychologicaltheories; some from empirical findings
Jaime C. Confer; Judith A. Easton; Diana S. Fleischman; Cari D. Goetz; David M. G. Lewis; Carin Perilloux; David M. Buss
In this study, we analyzed the physiological and psychological states of female college students using the typological theory of Carl Jung. It was suggested that the expression of psychological typological characteristics (psychotypological actualization) is associated with the actual autonomic, somatic, and psychological condition of the subject. The analysis of the relationships of the psychotypological actualization with the psychophysiological state pointed
A. I. Nesterenko; V. N. Vasilyev; M. A. Medvedev; T. V. Robenkova
Describes the psychological processes that lead to academic and social integration based on a retention model proposed by the authors. Describes how successful retention programs such as learning communities, freshman interest groups, tutoring, and orientation rely on psychological processes. Four psychologicaltheories form the basis for…
Most psychological phenomena are intrinsically culture bound. Psychologicaltheories developed in one culture may not automatically be generalizable to the behavior of the people of another culture. The psychology as a science primarily developed in Europe and America, based on the behavioral data of Western people studied by the psychologists grew in the Western culture. This obviously limits the applicability
In Self-Determination Theory, basic psychological needs for relatedness, autonomy and competence are distinguished. Basic psychological need-fulfilment is considered to be critical for human development and intrinsic motivation. In the Netherlands, the concept of basic psychological need-fulfilment is introduced in the curricula of many teacher…
Vermeulen, Marjan; Castelijns, Jos; Kools, Quinta; Koster, Bob
Proposes an alternative approach to understanding personal selling performance based on personal construct psychology, a cognitively based personality paradigm, originally formulated in clinical psychology by George Kelly. Explains how personal construct psychologytheory (PCT), which reflects a constructivist epistemology, provides a conceptual framework for understanding and predicting sales performance. Demonstrates how PCT can be integrated with existing theoretical models of
Sexual selection theory provides a powerful model for the analysis of psychological sex differences. This research examined (a) tests of several sex differences in mating psychology predicted from sexual selection theory, (b) broad developmental hypotheses about sex differences in mating psychology—through the relationship of mating psychology to sexual orientation, and (c) the structure of within-sex differences in mating psychology. Scales
J. Michael Bailey; Steven Gaulin; Yvonne Agyei; Brian A. Gladue
\\u000a Does the appearance of pruritus always necessitate psychological treatment? The answer to this question remains subordinate\\u000a to the dermatologist’s clinical examination, including the psychological component (cf. Part II, Subchapter 4, Psychological\\u000a Approach). The dermatologist’s entire observational and clinical sense is mobilized. ‘What is the patient telling me about\\u000a his pruritus?’ ‘Is he psychically and physically overwhelmed by the itching?’ ‘Did
In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects. PMID:23587541
Comments on Notes on the Psychic Development of the Young White Rat, by Willard S. Small (American Journal of Psychology, Vol. XI., No. I, Oct., 1899. Pp. 80-100; ; An Experimental Study of the Mental Processes of the Rat, by Willard S. Small (American Journal of Psychology, Vol. XI., No. 2, Jan., 1900. Pp. 133-165; ; Notes on the Individual
This article concerns itself with the four factors in preparing psychological profiles of perpetrators of crimes. The author provides a brief background of psychological profiling and its application to biographical studies and law enforcement. The author's perspective is that of a psychoanalytical orientation. He emphasizes the need to integrate neurological understanding when preparing the profile of a suspect.
|Discusses the power of media psychology, particularly that of the PC, CD-ROM, and television, and its effect on learning and behavior. By merging it with relevant concepts and research findings from such areas as learning theory, cognitive psychology, neuroscience, and systems theory, educators can create a sharper tool for learning. (VWC)|
What form would an ideal merger of ecological and social psychology take? Is that ideal attainable? Many researchers and theorists are working to answer these questions. Charles (2009, 2011a) offered insights from E. B. Holt, one of James J. Gibson's mentors, who argued that minds-mental kinds, processes, states, etc.-are observable aspects of the environment. Phrasing that in Ecological terms, the minds of other organisms are specified in the structure of ambient energy extended over time and space; they are directly perceivable by a properly attuned organism. Ecological Psychology enhances Holt's story, by brining to the table a sophisticated theory of direct perception; Holt enhances the Ecological story by brining to the table a sophisticated theory about the nature of minds. The two combine to form the long-sought ideal merger. Thus, I claimed, Ecological Psychology will either rediscover its roots, or go through the trouble of re-creating them. This paper further develops those ideas, by presenting a simpler version of the argument, suggesting easy ways of dismissing that argument, and addressing the concerns expressed by Castro and Lafuente (2011). PMID:21809179
Psychologists are increasingly interested in embodiment based on the assumption that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are grounded in bodily interaction with the environment. We examine how embodiment is used in social psychology, and we explore the ways in which embodied approaches enrich traditional theories. Although research in this area is burgeoning, much of it has been more descriptive than explanatory. We provide a critical discussion of the trajectory of embodiment research in social psychology. We contend that future researchers should engage in a phenomenon-based approach, highlight the theoretical boundary conditions and mediators involved, explore novel action-relevant outcome measures, and address the role of individual differences broadly defined. Such research will likely provide a more explanatory account of the role of embodiment in general terms as well as how it expands the knowledge base in social psychology. PMID:22777820
Meier, Brian P; Schnall, Simone; Schwarz, Norbert; Bargh, John A
Psychology has made significant strides in developing applications relevant to public health. However, improvements are still needed to integrate psychology into the public health infrastructure. The challenge for public health is to recognize psychology's special contributions to policy and practice, especially to prevention of disease and injury. The challenge for psychology is to assure coherent integration of relevant theories, knowledge
Background Psychological models predict behaviour in a wide range of settings. The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of\\u000a a range of psychological models to predict the health professional behaviour 'referral for lumbar spine x-ray in patients\\u000a presenting with low back pain' by UK primary care physicians.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Psychological measures were collected by postal questionnaire survey from a random
Jeremy M Grimshaw; Martin P Eccles; Nick Steen; Marie Johnston; Nigel B Pitts; Liz Glidewell; Graeme Maclennan; Ruth Thomas; Debbie Bonetti; Anne Walker
Most theories of crime have not explored intensively biological and especially evolutionary explanations for criminal behavior. Ellis presents a valuable new perspective that proposes that attention to physiological mechanisms shaped by evolutionary forces can provide insights into the causes of crime and sex differences in the patterns of crime. We discuss other theories and research relevant to Ellis' theory. We also propose that an evolutionary psychological perspective of crime will help to invigorate research and lead to a better understanding of criminality. An integrated evolutionary forensic psychology will help to explain sources of conflict between individuals, situations in which conflict leads to victimization, and victim defenses and coping mechanisms. PMID:17019829
Scholars have argued that racial?cultural issues should be given more attention in psychological research. The American Psychological Association (APA) has instituted guidelines and policies about how to include race and culture in research, theory, and practice. Members of racial minority groups are overrepresented in populations served by forensic psychologists. This article reviews content analyses of racial?cultural issues in psychology and
Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)
Comments on a recent article in The Reporter (Feb. 16, 1962), where Marya Mannes, a staff writer of this publication, praises Joyce Brothers for her ability to answer complex psychological problems in simple language \\
Two types of harassment are distinguished: sexual and psychological. In the private sector, according to French labour laws and the penal code, psychological harassment is actionable. It is up to the employer to prove the absence of harassment. The sanctions incurred can be up to 5 years imprisonment and a 150,000 euro fine and various measures of compensation for damages can be envisaged. PMID:23672157
Psychological or emotional maltreatment of children may be the most challenging and prevalent form of child abuse and neglect. Caregiver behaviors include acts of omission (ignoring need for social interactions) or commission (spurning, terrorizing); may be verbal or nonverbal, active or passive, and with or without intent to harm; and negatively affect the child's cognitive, social, emotional, and/or physical development. Psychological maltreatment has been linked with disorders of attachment, developmental and educational problems, socialization problems, disruptive behavior, and later psychopathology. Although no evidence-based interventions that can prevent psychological maltreatment have been identified to date, it is possible that interventions shown to be effective in reducing overall types of child maltreatment, such as the Nurse Family Partnership, may have a role to play. Furthermore, prevention before occurrence will require both the use of universal interventions aimed at promoting the type of parenting that is now recognized to be necessary for optimal child development, alongside the use of targeted interventions directed at improving parental sensitivity to a child's cues during infancy and later parent-child interactions. Intervention should, first and foremost, focus on a thorough assessment and ensuring the child's safety. Potentially effective treatments include cognitive behavioral parenting programs and other psychotherapeutic interventions. The high prevalence of psychological abuse in advanced Western societies, along with the serious consequences, point to the importance of effective management. Pediatricians should be alert to the occurrence of psychological maltreatment and identify ways to support families who have risk indicators for, or evidence of, this problem. PMID:22848125
Diagnostic criteria for stress reactions and adjustment disorders are summarized. Existing psychological treatments are outlined with a focus on evidence-based methods, and recommendations for treatment are described. The conclusion is that there is no evidence for the effect of psychological debriefing or other professional treatment in the immediate aftermath of traumatic events. On the other hand, cognitive behavioural therapy, EMDR and similar methods with focus on exposure can be recommended, both as a preventive strategy and for patients with post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:19284905
Supports the view that children's developmental status and varied family, school, and cultural contexts all caution overgeneralization on empirically supported treatments. Supports Hughes' notion of developmental psychopathology as a relevant asset for school psychology practice and intervention research. Discusses several obstacles when applying…
|Describes the design of the University of Texas Austin's Seay Psychology and Child Development & Family Relationships building. With modern technique and materials, the Seay building adds to the established architectural language of the campus, offering a richly tactile structure and adjoining outdoor space embracing the tenets of successful…
Discusses trivia related to the history of psychology (with many fun examples such as: What are the names of Pavlov's original dogs?) and the relationship of this game to students learning how to use library resources (in attempts to answer such trivia questions), as well as the relevance of such knowledge.
This volume comprehensively reviews the research on the psychology of the middle aged (ages 40-65). Topics include the concept of maturity and maturation models, the measurement and influences of adult self image; marriage and sexual patterns; intergenerational relationships between and children; vocations and avocations (work, retirement, play,…
The contents of the present volume, designed to bring together in a single place writings by the new black psychologists and other black social and behavioral scientists, are organized in seven parts, as follows: Part I, "Black Psychology: Perspectives," includes articles by Cedric Clark, Wade W. Nobles, Doris P. Mosby, Joseph White, and William…
In this chapter we focus on teacher emotion from an educational psychology lens. In doing so, we explicate some of the current\\u000a theories related to the nature of emotion. In recent years, there has been renewed interest in the debates about the nature\\u000a and structure of emotion in psychology and educational psychology. In other words, are there distinct categories of
Paul A. Schutz; Lori P. Aultman; Meca R. Williams-Johnson
It is now nearly seventy years since George Kelly commenced writing what became his major work defining the theory and practice of personal construct psychology (PCP). In those years much has changed in psychology and in the scientific ethos. The book was completed in the initial stages of what became termed the cognitive revolution. If we are to fully appreciate
The purpose of this study was to integrate constructs from positive psychology with constructs from motivation theories that have received most of the attention in studies of academic motivation. Achievement goals, expectancy beliefs, and value were predictive of the positive psychology variables. Task goals were associated positively with optimism and with invitations, whereas performance-avoid goals were associated negatively with optimism
For some evolutionary psychology is merely a field of inquiry, but for others it is a robust paradigm involving specific theories about the nature and evolution of the human mind. Proponents of this paradigm claim to have made several important discoveries regarding the evolved architecture of the mind. Highly publicized discoveries include a cheater-detection module, a psychological sex difference in
To test predictions derived from balance theory, the effects of positive versus negative interpersonal attraction and of communications similarity versus discrepancy upon S's responses to a counselor and to psychological treatment were investigated. 3 male counselor-accomplices interviewed 72 male Ss. In a laboratory situation made manifestly similar to that of psychological treatment, a client's responses to a counselor who attempts
Indicates that although the lie detector industry is already a major area of applied psychology, few professional polygraphers have psychological training and few psychologists know enough about the industry to monitor its practices. The theory and methods of polygraphic interrogation are analyzed. It is argued that although it is unlikely that the polygraphic lie detector could have the claimed near-perfect
|"Psychology for the Classroom: E-Learning" is a lively and accessible introduction to the field of technology-supported teaching and learning and the educational psychology associated with those developments. Offering a substantial and useful analysis of e-learning, this practical book includes current research, offers a grounding in both theory…
|Examines philosophical theories produced by two ancient civilizations (Eastern Mediterranean and Chinese) for applications to an applied psychology of work. Includes analysis of Egyptians, Semites, and Greeks, with a special emphasis on Plato. Suggests that many basic elements of vocational psychology were present during the first millennium B.C.…
Reviews psychological perspectives of Buddhism and the universal human problem and its subsequent cures that can be applied to interactions in a counseling relationship. Suggests that meditation techniques can be integrated into current counseling theories. (JAC)
In this article, the author presents his comments on "Realism, Instrumentalism, and Scientific Symbiosis: PsychologicalTheory as a Search for Truth and the Discovery of Solutions" by John T. Cacioppo, Gun R. Semin and Gary G. Berntson. In the original article, the authors recommended the combined use of the philosophies of scientific realism and…
Reviews theory and methods used by the field of biological psychology to study stress that have potential for understanding how behavioral and biological adaptations to the stress of exercise are integrated. The overview focuses on anxiety, depression, and physiological responsiveness to nonexercise stressors from the perspective of biological…
|In this article, the author presents his comments on "Realism, Instrumentalism, and Scientific Symbiosis: PsychologicalTheory as a Search for Truth and the Discovery of Solutions" by John T. Cacioppo, Gun R. Semin and Gary G. Berntson. In the original article, the authors recommended the combined use of the philosophies of scientific realism and…
The heterodox nature of the Freudian psychology and the authoritative, dogmatic manner of its presentation, both favored the rise of spirited opposition in its train. Prominent among the secessionists are Jung and Adler. Jung has gained a wide audience for his theories through the attractive literary form in which they have been advanced. Adler has been less fortunate in a
|This paper describes the application of game theory and its implications for the analysis of interpersonal interactions to supervision in school psychology. Both supervisor- and supervisee-initiated games are presented with examples of their influence upon supervision. Lastly, methods of minimizing the negative impact of games are discussed.…
The question of mechanism vs teleology in psychology should be approached disinterestedly and the conditions for an experimental test should, if possible, be determined. The teleologist believes in the efficacy of consciousness as, for example, in the case of intuition. The burden of proof for this doctrine lies with the teleologist. Professor Warren discusses the mind-body theories and various other
This paper reviews current theory and research that indicates that attitudes held with strong moral conviction ('moral mandates') represent something psychologically distinct from other constructs (e.g., attitude strength, partisanship, or religiosity), and that variance in moral conviction has impor- tant social and political consequences, such as increased intolerance of attitudinally dissimilar others, difficulties in conflict resolution, increased political participation, willingness
Evolutionary psychology has emerged over the past 15 years as a major theoretical perspective, generating an increasing volume of empirical studies and assuming a larger presence within psychological science. At the same time, it has generated critiques and remains controversial among some psychologists. Some of the controversy stems from hypotheses that go against traditional psychologicaltheories; some from empirical findings that may have disturbing implications; some from misunderstandings about the logic of evolutionary psychology; and some from reasonable scientific concerns about its underlying framework. This article identifies some of the most common concerns and attempts to elucidate evolutionary psychology's stance pertaining to them. These include issues of testability and falsifiability; the domain specificity versus domain generality of psychological mechanisms; the role of novel environments as they interact with evolved psychological circuits; the role of genes in the conceptual structure of evolutionary psychology; the roles of learning, socialization, and culture in evolutionary psychology; and the practical value of applied evolutionary psychology. The article concludes with a discussion of the limitations of current evolutionary psychology. PMID:20141266
Confer, Jaime C; Easton, Judith A; Fleischman, Diana S; Goetz, Cari D; Lewis, David M G; Perilloux, Carin; Buss, David M
|The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university…
D Canter and P. Larkin's (1993) Circle Theory of Environmental Range was designed as a means of using the geographical locations of an individual offender's known offences to predict the approximate site of the offender's residential base. Canter and Larkin obtained support for their theory from an investigation of spatial patterns in serial rapists' offences in a few British cities.
Personality psychology is the broadest of all psychological subdisciplines in that it seeks a conceptually integrated understanding of both human nature and important individual differences. Cultural differences pose a unique set of problems for any comprehensive theory of personality—how can they be reconciled with universals of human nature on the one hand and within-cultural variation on the other? Evolutionary psychology
AbstractI propose here the psychological attraction theory of financial regulation – that regulation is the result of psychological biases on the part of political participants – voters, politicians, bureaucrats, and media commentators; and of regulatory ideologies that exploit these biases. Some key elements of the psychological attraction approach are: salience and vividness, omission bias, scapegoating and xenophobia, fairness and reciprocity
I propose here the psychological attraction theory of financial regulation—that regulation is the result of psychological biases on the part of political participants—voters, politicians, bureaucrats, and media commentators; and of regulatory ideologies that exploit these biases. Some key elements of the psychological attraction approach are: salience and vividness, omission bias, scapegoating and xenophobia, fairness and reciprocity norms, overconfidence, and mood
Although feminist and community psychology share a number of epistemological and methodological perspectives that guide their respective theories and research practices, it has been argued that community psychology has not fully integrated a feminist perspective into the discipline. This paper examines how community psychology and feminist research methods might combine to help us better understand women's experiences without essentializing or
By establishing William James' The Principles of Psychology as a significant work in the history of psychology, Streams of Thought: The Psychology of William James secures the criticisms of the traditional approaches to the theory of mind and paths a productive course for the study of the human being and his or her relation to the world. Streams of Thought
|This digest highlights several psychological dimensions of user-computer interfaces. First, the psychologicaltheory behind interface design and the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) are discussed. Two psychological models, the information processing model of cognition and the mental model--both of which contribute to interface…
OBJECTIVE To investigate the psychological sequelae of acne vulgaris. DESIGN Qualitative study using a grounded-theory approach. SETTING General practices and specialty dermatology practices in Newcastle, Australia. PARTICIPANTS Patients with current acne recruited from the practices. METHOD We used semistructured interviews and recorded participants’ comments verbatim. Data analysis was cumulative and concurrent throughout the data-collection period. Coding and analysis was done in the inductive tradition. MAIN FINDINGS Interviews were conducted with 26 subjects who represented a range of ages and acne severity. Psychological morbidity was considerable. Though participants had mood and anxiety symptoms, these symptoms tended to be subsyndromal and evanescent. More prominent symptoms were embarrassment, impaired self-image, low self-esteem, self-consciousness, frustration, and anger. Some subjects thought that acne had affected their personalities permanently and adversely. Psychological sequelae were attributed to the effects of facial acne on appearance. CONCLUSION The psychological effects of acne can be considerable. The psychological morbidity is complex and often does not conform to standard psychiatric disease criteria. Recognition and management of the psychological sequelae of acne by general practitioners is of considerable importance.
Magin, Parker; Adams, Jon; Heading, Gaynor; Pond, Dimity; Smith, Wayne
Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between “two of the most powerful forces” operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Orientalist Alan Watts wrote ‘if we look deeply into such ways of life as Buddhism, we do not find either philosophy or religion as these are understood in the West. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy’. Buddha was a unique psychotherapist. His therapeutic methods helped millions of people throughout the centuries. This essay is just an expression of what little the current author has understood on Buddha philosophy and an opportunity to offer his deep tribute to one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced!
Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between "two of the most powerful forces" operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Orientalist Alan Watts wrote 'if we look deeply into such ways of life as Buddhism, we do not find either philosophy or religion as these are understood in the West. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy'. Buddha was a unique psychotherapist. His therapeutic methods helped millions of people throughout the centuries. This essay is just an expression of what little the current author has understood on Buddha philosophy and an opportunity to offer his deep tribute to one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced! PMID:23858249
\\u000a The purpose of this chapter is to explore the psychological nature of the human–animal bond, using a theory called self psychology.\\u000a In self psychology, animals who serve an essential function in maintaining a person’s cohesion and psychological well-being\\u000a are said to be serving a selfobject function. Companion animals can provide any of the three selfobject functions—mirroring,\\u000a idealizing, and twinship. This
This paper proposes two theories for distinguishing scientific from non?scientific evidence. Under one theory, scientific evidence is based on verifiable experimentation, while non?scientific evidence is based on education, training, and experience. Under the second theory, scientific evidence provides a generalizable theory, while non?scientific testimony applies only to a particular case. Most psychiatric and psychological testimony has scientific and non?scientific elements.Courts
This paper reviews theory and research on the evolutionary psychology of violence. First, I examine evidence suggesting that humans have experienced an evolutionary history of violence. Next, I discuss violence as a context-sensitive strategy that might have provided benefits to our ancestors under certain circumstances. I then focus on the two most common forms of violence that plague humans -violence over status contests and intimate partner violence- outlining psychological mechanisms involved in each. Finally, I suggest that greater progress will be made by shifting the study from contexts to mechanisms. PMID:20100422
According to Bayesian theories in psychology and neuroscience, minds and brains are (near) optimal in solving a wide range of tasks. We challenge this view and argue that more traditional, non-Bayesian approaches are more promising. We make 3 main arguments. First, we show that the empirical evidence for Bayesian theories in psychology is weak.…
This article draws upon the authors' experience in developing cognitive information processing theory in order to examine three important questions facing vocational psychology and assessment: (a) Where should new knowledge for vocational psychology come from? (b) How do career theories and research find their way into practice? and (c) What is…
Reardon, Robert C.; Lenz, Janet G.; Sampson, James P., Jr.; Peterson, Gary W.
A predominate motivation theory used to predict exercise behavior is self-determination theory, which posits that motivation is driven by satisfaction of three basic psychological needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. This study investigates the relationship between motivation, basic psychological needs satisfaction, and exercise in a sample of older adults. Significant differences were found between older adult exercisers and nonexercisers in intrinsic
Rena A. Kirkland; Nancy J. Karlin; Megan Babkes Stellino; Steven Pulos
While acknowledging the psychological experience of intimacy, evolutionary theory postulates proliferation as the underlying grounds for human relationships. Intimacy, according to evolutionary theory, is merely a psychological mechanism whereby sexual selection and parental investment are facilitated. Unfortunately, the assumption of an underlying evolutionary mechanism which governs human relationships is fraught with problematic consequences. Unlike the evolutionary understanding of intimacy, the
I argue that intentional psychology does not stand in need of vindication by a lower-level implementation theory from cognitive science, in particular the representational theory of mind (RTM), as most famously Jerry Fodor has argued. The stance of the paper is novel in that I claim this holds even if one, in line with Fodor, views intentional psychology as an
|This article draws upon the authors' experience in developing cognitive information processing theory in order to examine three important questions facing vocational psychology and assessment: (a) Where should new knowledge for vocational psychology come from? (b) How do career theories and research find their way into practice? and (c) What is…
Reardon, Robert C.; Lenz, Janet G.; Sampson, James P., Jr.; Peterson, Gary W.
|According to Bayesian theories in psychology and neuroscience, minds and brains are (near) optimal in solving a wide range of tasks. We challenge this view and argue that more traditional, non-Bayesian approaches are more promising. We make 3 main arguments. First, we show that the empirical evidence for Bayesian theories in psychology is weak.…
|The recently fashionable theories of positive psychology have educational ramifications at virtually every level of engagement, culminating in the model of positive education. In this critical review, I scrutinize positive education as a potential theory in educational psychology. Special attention is given to conceptual controversies and…
The psychometric structure of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18; Derogatis, 2001) was investigated using Mokken scaling and parametric item response theory. Data of 487 outpatients, 266 students, and 207 prisoners were analyzed. Results of the Mokken analysis indicated that the BSI-18 formed a strong Mokken scale for outpatients and prisoners, indicating strong unidimensionality. For students, only the depression and anxiety items formed a medium Mokken scale. Parametric item response theory analyses showed that the best discriminating items came from the depression and anxiety subscales. PMID:21280957
Meijer, Rob R; de Vries, Rivka M; van Bruggen, Vincent
... and Cognitive Sciences Social Psychology Description The Social Psychology Program at NSF ... emotion, social comparison and social influence, and the psychophysiological and neurophysiological ...
The distinction between purposive and mechanical psychology cuts across both introspective and behavioristic psychology. Although behaviorism is actually mechanistic, a teleological behaviorism is theoretically possible. \\
This lesson includes a theory-evaluation activity. A set of five scenarios (theories for how diverse life came into existence on Earth) is divided evenly throughout the class, so each student is asked to evaluate one theory. Students then come together in groups of five, so that all theories are represented in each group, where they are compared and evaluated. Each group reports to the entire class for further discussion and clarifications.
Pragmatic psychology is a psychological framework developed to advance pragmatic principles and ideas in various domains of applied psychology. It involves adopting a holistic, pluralistic, and dynamic approach to knowledge generation and proposes that psychological methods and strategies should be evaluated in terms of their ability to solve problems in specific contexts. Therapeutic jurisprudence is a legal theory that utilizes
The field of sport and exercise psychology explores the relation between psychologic factors and optimal performance. Sport psychology is slowly becoming an integral aspect of the holistic care of sports medicine and phys- ical rehabilitation patients. The physician specialist should have some knowledge regarding the various facets of sport and performance psychol- ogy, because many of these skills are relevant
Historically, sport psychology has been identified with physical education; however, recent developments in the field toward applied issues have substantially expanded psychologists' interests and opportunities. Unfortunately, little is known about professional psychologists' involvement in sport psychology practice, research, and training. Therefore, a national survey of 500 male and 500 female psychologists (American Psychological Association Division 12members) was conducted. Based on
Educational psychology mediates between the disciplines of psychology and education. Scholars have seldom agreed on a single definition of the field but have incorporated knowledge from several areas. The discipline of educational psychology was fostered primarily in the United States by such eminent psychologists as William James, Edward L. Thorndike, and James McKeen Cattell. Over the past century, several philosophical
|The psychometric structure of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18; Derogatis, 2001) was investigated using Mokken scaling and parametric item response theory. Data of 487 outpatients, 266 students, and 207 prisoners were analyzed. Results of the Mokken analysis indicated that the BSI-18 formed a strong Mokken scale for outpatients and…
Meijer, Rob R.; de Vries, Rivka M.; van Bruggen, Vincent
This article explores the contribution of evolutionary theory to the understanding of causation and motive in filicide cases and also reviews special issues in the forensic evaluation of alleged perpetrators of filicide. Evolutionary social psychology seeks to understand the context in which our brains evolved, to understand human behaviors. The authors propose evolutionary theory as a framework theory to meaningfully appreciate research about filicide. Using evolutionary psychology as a theoretical lens, this article reviews the research on filicide over the past 40 years, and describes epidemiologic and typologic studies of filicide, and theoretical analyses from a range of disciplines. PMID:23107563
Friedman, Susan Hatters; Cavney, James; Resnick, Phillip J
Presented for practitioners is a history of the development of abnormal psychology. Areas covered include the following: Early medical concepts, ideas carried over from literature, early treatment of the mentally ill, development of the psychological viewpoint, Freud's psychoanalytic theory, Jung's analytic theory, the individual psychology of…
Many adult educators do not consider developmental psychology relevant to adult education because the bulk of developmental theory offers little for practical ap- plication. This paper describes a different perspective of adult psychology—life span developmental psychology—which holds great promise for educators in understanding better adult learning. We attempt to make explicit and to strengthen connections between developmental theory and adult
Expectancy-value theory (EVT) is a dominant theory of human motivation. Historically, the Expectancy × Value interaction, in which motivation is high only if both expectancy and value are high, was central to EVT. However, the Expectancy × Value interaction mysteriously disappeared from published research more than 25 years ago. Using large representative samples of 15-year-olds (N = 398,750) from 57 diverse countries, we attempted to solve this mystery by testing Expectancy × Value interactions using latent-variable models with interactions. Expectancy (science self-concept), value (enjoyment of science), and the Expectancy × Value interaction all had statistically significant positive effects on both engagement in science activities and intentions of pursuing scientific careers; these results were similar for the total sample and for nearly all of the 57 countries considered separately. This study, apparently the strongest cross-national test of EVT ever undertaken, supports the generalizability of EVT predictions--including the "lost" Expectancy × Value interaction. PMID:21750248
Nagengast, Benjamin; Marsh, Herbert W; Scalas, L Francesca; Xu, Man K; Hau, Kit-Tai; Trautwein, Ulrich
Three studies used the symbolic theory of history and identity to examine the impact of social representations of the 1986\\u000a EDSA I “People Power” revolution on participation in subsequent protest social movements in the Philippines. Study 1 found\\u000a that in 4 state universities scattered across the archipelago of the Philippines, the first EDSA revolution was nominated\\u000a as the most important
A critical review is presented of the formulation, the experimental basis, and recent modifications of a theory in behavioral psychology known as cognitive dissonance. Thirty-seven experiments conducted by scientists in support of the 'theory' are analyze...
|Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…
Reviews the state of psychology in 1908: Describes the developments in animal psychology and the mnemic conception of evolution proposed by Darwin; conflicting views on consciousness, especially its physical conditions had been proposed, and the chemical nature of nervous impulses, mechanism of audition, and cerebral localization were studied; assessing the requirements of experimental psychology was emphasized; the psychology of temperature
|Analyzes the relationship between cognitive psychology as a broad theoretical framework, and the psychology of mathematics education. Argues that mathematics education should not simply borrow from cognitive psychology; rather, it should provide its own psychological research problems, adapted investigation strategies, and adequate original…
Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an overview of…
|Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an overview of…
In this address to the American Psychological Association, the President examines the relation of psychology to social practice, focusing primarily on the relation of psychology to education. The main point is whether the standpoint of psychological science, as a study of mechanism, is indifferent and opposed to the demands of education with its free interplay of personalities in their vital
The quest for a psychologicaltheory to explain the effects of aesthetic surgery reached its high point in the 1920s with the adoption of Alfred Adler's theory of the inferiority complex. The basis for this theory was Adler's early work in the psychological response of the body to disease and "degeneration". Aesthetic surgeons sought out the Adlerian model rather than a Freudian one as purely psychological while its roots, and their own theories, were clearly somatic in origin. PMID:11791189
\\u000a Individuals act differently within the political process; behavior can range from passive acceptance of a situation to violent\\u000a riots. This chapter outlines various theoretical explanations as to why these differences in behavior occur and what psychological\\u000a processes mediate them. In the social psychological explanations of collective political protest the emphasis has changed\\u000a in recent years. Traditional theories concerned individual decision
Bonini et al.  present psychological data that they take to support an 'epistemic' account of how vague predicates are used in natural language. We argue that their data more strongly supports a 'gap' theory of vagueness, and that their arguments against gap theories are flawed. Additionally, we present more experimental evidence that supports gap theories, and argue for a semantic/pragmatic alternative that unifies super- and subvaluationary approaches to vagueness.
Provides brief descriptions of adult education from technological, psychological, ideological, and sociological perspectives. Author examines the psychological perspective, highlighting the work of Jack Mezirow (transformation theory), Roger Gould (seven-step adult development process), Patricia Cranton (Understanding and Promoting Transformative…
|Reviews technological, psychological, ideological, and sociological (descriptive and prescriptive) perspectives of education and school reform, and elaborates the psychological, highlighting the theories and influences of Howard Gardner (assessment, curriculum, teacher education, community support), William Glasser (human needs, staff development…
|Provides brief descriptions of adult education from technological, psychological, ideological, and sociological perspectives. Author examines the psychological perspective, highlighting the work of Jack Mezirow (transformation theory), Roger Gould (seven-step adult development process), Patricia Cranton (Understanding and Promoting Transformative…
According to the theorytheory of folk psychology, our engagement in the folk psychological practices of prediction, interpretation and explanation draws on a rich body of knowledge about psychological matters. According to the simulation theory, in contrast, a fundamental role is played by our ability to identify with another person in imagination and to replicate or re-enact aspects of the
This article has briefly highlighted the area of sport psychology as it relates to performance psychology skills (mental training), including a historical overview and current topics overview. The use of mental training skills may be of interest to the practicing physical medicine and rehabilitation professional in the treatment of his or her patients. It is important that the physical medicine professional recognize what sport or performance psychology represents within the paradigm of psychologic interventions. Referring to an individual based on his or her training (licensed psychologist versus mental training consultant) is essential for the appropriate management of psychologic issues related to performance. The issues related to the psychologic rehabilitation of the injured athlete are of importance to the medical staff; the overview of affective responses can assist in understanding the normal and adaptive responses of the injured athlete. Finally, a brief description of a psychologist's role within a sports medicine and rehabilitation practice is presented. The psychologic issues that are present in the world of sport and elite performance are numerous, and not all are mentioned in this article. Issues of eating disorders, substance abuse, and psychologic health with athletes should be further explored within the physical medicine and rehabilitation discipline as well as in the sports medicine discipline. The ever-evolving psychologic dynamics of individuals involved in sport and elite performance are intriguing and unique. A specialized knowledge base, training, and experience in providing psychologic services are required to treat this unique population. Counseling and clinical issues of the athlete and elite performer require further attention in the realm of psychologic interventions, including further exploration of the efficacy of interventions for performance enhancement. The field of applied sport psychology may offer the physical medicine professional a unique perspective into the care of patients who are athletes and elite performers. PMID:16952750
Cognitive science is the scientific domain which studies, analyses, simulates and infers for various aspects, functions and\\u000a procedures of human mentality such as, thinking, logic, language, knowledge, memory, learning, perception and the ability\\u000a to solve problems. E-psychology is in a close relation with the cognitive science domain, but expands beyond it, as e-psychology\\u000a is the efficient convergence of Psychology and
The field of psychology remains a divided one. Several different sub-disciplines (e.g., developmental, cognitive, behaviorism, social, etc.) form what could be a unified scientific area. However, there is no widely accepted theory of unification. Charles Darwin once theorized that evolutionary theory would change the foundation of psychology; but over the years, evolutionary psychology has been met with hostile resistance from some of the prominent psychologists within the other sub-disciplines. Yet in recent years, all of the divided sub-disciplines of psychology have been slowly implementing evolutionary principles into their literature and research. This slow integration of evolutionary psychology into the other sub-disciplines indicates the possibility of a unified psychology with evolution as its foundation. This paper briefly reviews the literature within each major sub-discipline of psychology to show their implementation of evolutionary psychologicaltheories, indicating the possibility of evolutionary psychology becoming the unifying paradigm upon which the entire field of psychology can be based. A call for action to continue this process is also discussed. PMID:22947797
The authors surveyed 347 public sector employees on 4 measurement occasions to investigate the conceptual distinctiveness of the psychological contract and perceived organizational support (POS) and how they are associated over time. Results support the distinctiveness of the 2 concepts. In terms of their interrelationships over time, by drawing on psychological contract theory the authors found little support for a reciprocal relationship between POS and psychological contract fulfillment. Under an alternative set of hypotheses, by drawing on organizational support theory and by separating psychological contract fulfillment into its 2 components (perceived employer obligations and inducements), the authors found that perceived employer inducements were positively related to POS, which, in turn, was negatively related to perceived employer obligations. The results suggest that POS and the components of psychological contract fulfillment are more important in predicting organizational citizenship behavior than psychological contract fulfillment. PMID:16060794
Psychological Operations - targeting not just the physical capabilities of an opponent but the psychological dimensions as well is a key military consideration. The direct and almost instantaneous communication available with today's technology provides a...
Arguments associated with trait psychology are reviewed with an application in the field of sport psychology. The role of cognition and perception in sport and physical activities is also discussed. (CJ)
The paper proposes that the Navy develop an Aviation Clinical Psychology (ACP) program that would complement the Flight Surgeon Program by providing mental health services tailored to the aviation community. Using a community psychology model, it is argue...
Darwin envisioned a scientific revolution for psychology. His theories of natural and sexual selection identified two classes of struggles—the struggle for existence and the struggle for mates. The emergence of evolutionary psychology and related disciplines signals the fulfillment of Darwin's vision. Natural selection theory guides scientists to discover adaptations for survival. Sexual selection theory illuminates the sexual struggle, highlighting mate
\\u000a Psychology’s most explicitly direct involvement with religion has obviously been the sub-discipline Psychology of Religion.\\u000a While enjoying an early flourishing in North America and mainland Europe, this went into a serious decline during the 1920s\\u000a and by 1930 appeared to have run into the ground in anglophone Psychology, despite occasional fitful revivals for the rest\\u000a of the century. Although C.
This article explores the common ground between positive and humanistic psychology and responds to positive psychology’s challenges to humanistic psychology about research and a concern for social values. It begins with a brief review of the humanistic psychology movement and shows how its many developments in fact constitute a “positive psychology.” Next, the article moves into an exploration of the
Psychologists have been interested in their public image since the organization of the American Psychological Association nearly 100 years ago. Yet formal surveys of the public's opinions about and understanding of psychology are more recent, dating from the 1940s. This article reviews the published and unpublished surveys of psychology's public image to date and describes new data from a recent
Medical psychology in Australia is heavily influenced by British and American thought. The dominant model for clinical training and practice is the scientist–practitioner model, yet a gulf exists between academic and practice settings. Membership of the professional society requires 6 years of university study in psychology. However, registration requires only 4 years training in psychology. Medical psychologists provide a broad
This article introduces the special section of the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology on empirically supported psychological therapies. After a discussion of the rationale for the selection of the specific terms in the label, several justifications are considered for conducting and learning from empirical evaluations of psychological therapies. Finally, the process that guided the special section is described.
|This book published in 1986 introduces students to psychology and its related subject areas. Students learn that psychology has matured through the centuries from its taboo beginnings in supernatural beliefs and magic to its current status as a scientific discipline. Sections of the book include: (1) "What is Psychology?"; (2) "Human…
This article describes medical psychology in Russia. A particular emphasis is placed upon a historical description of the changes that have occurred since the 1930s when the scientific development of psychology was “interrupted” by the policies of Stalin's government. These changes have included the development of psychology faculties at St. Petersburg State University and Moscow State University in the 1960s
Tatiana N. Balachova; Sheldon Levy; Galina L. Isurina; Ludvig I. Wasserman
Of all the male sexual dysfunctions, delayed ejaculation (DE) is the least understood, least common and least studied. This paper aims to review and integrate the diverse psychologicaltheories and proposed psychological interventions for DE. Clinicians will then be able to more clearly discern the relevant psychological/interpersonal issues of the patient/couple and implement systematically based effective interventions. After reviewing the literature, it is clear that no one theory accounts for all the varied presentations of DE, and no theory by itself has strong empirical support. However, awareness of the diverse points of view helps clinicians conduct better assessments and broaden their understanding of the patient's ejaculatory dysfunction. Similarly, no one psychological intervention works for all patients, nor will unsystematic random selection of interventions. This paper stresses on the need to clearly identify the source of the dysfunction and select treatments based upon the precipitating and maintaining factors. Much work remains to be done with regard to our understanding and treatment of DE. Specifically, we need to craft an evidence-based definition, assess the true prevalence of the dysfunction, demonstrate the efficacy of psychological interventions and design validated outcome measures. PMID:22378496
For some evolutionary psychology is merely a field of inquiry, but for others it is a robust paradigm involving specific theories about the nature and evolution of the human mind. Proponents of this paradigm claim to have made several important discoveries regarding the evolved architecture of the mind. Highly publicized discoveries include a cheater-detection module, a psychological sex difference in jealousy, and motivational mechanisms underlying parental love and its lapses, which purportedly result in child maltreatment. In this article, I argue that the empirical evidence for these "discoveries" is inconclusive, at best. I suggest that, as the reigning paradigm in evolutionary psychology has produced questionable results, the evolutionary study of human psychology is still in need of a guiding paradigm. PMID:15925806
This symposium is devoted to the question of whether and to what extent action may constitute a useful paradigm for developmental psychology, where ‘action’ is understood as voluntary behavior employed by the agent as a means of attaining certain ends. In the first contribution, Brandtstädter enlarges upon this definition, summarizes the multiple roots of action theory in psychology, and discusses
Since teaching and learning has become a major economic activity of modern society, different learning models can be considered in order to increase its effectiveness and efficiency. For a long time infant cognitive psychology was influenced by nativist theories and, thus, early learning has been underestimated and insufficiently studied. However, in recent years, infant psychology has described developmental sequences, learning
The constructs associated with primary prevention are used to consider the tenets of positive psychology. At the same time, issues from the literature on positive psychology can help to expand and strengthen research on primary prevention. Conclusions are reached about the potential bi-directional influences that these fields can have on each other that may serve to augment theory, research, and
|The syllabus contains detailed information concerning an introductory college course in psychology. The primary objectives are to help the student acquire basic knowledge of vocabulary, concepts, methods and theories used by psychologists, and skills in interpreting psychological knowledge and applying it to daily life, everyday problems, and…
Addressing psychological literature's deficiency in research on the early development of leaders in everyday life (e.g., leaders in the workplace, leaders in social settings, leaders in organizational settings), this study assumed that central psychological capacities required for such leaders can be predicted and explained by J. Bowlby's (1969) attachment theory concerning developmental processes in infancy. The authors administered a series
Community health psychology is concerned with the theory and method of working with communities to combat disease and to promote health. This introductory article outlines key assumptions and debates underlying this area of research and practice—in the interests of framing the papers in this special edition of the Journal of Health Psychology. Attention is given to the value of emphasizing
|The Midwestern University Clinical Psychology Program--Glendale Campus (MWU) created a Comprehensive Assessment Method in Psychology (CAMP) comprised of 35 different "tasks" of authentic work products representing a variety of assessment techniques based on pedagogical theory. Each task assesses one or more components of one of the program's five…
Argues that social psychologists in Canada have an important role to play in policy analysis and evaluation. The multiculturalism policy of the federal government is proposed as one policy area for which social psychologicaltheory and research may be particularly relevant. The policy is outlined and a number of social psychological issues and assumptions in the policy are identified, including
|Profiles the disabled population and raises questions concerning discrepancies in education, income, and treatment of disabled and nondisabled populations. Shows how social-psychologicaltheories explain these circumstances; concludes that answers to questions are obtainable through psychological research that views disabilities from a civil…
|Counseling psychology has a historical commitment to enhancing human strengths, a focus that has enjoyed broader interest with the recent emergence of positive psychology. However, theory and evidence linking strength enhancement to counseling goals are still relatively nascent. The authors outline rationales and practical strategies for…
Harris, Alex H. S.; Thoresen, Carl E.; Lopez, Shane J.
Recent interest and inquiry into constructivism, pedagogical content knowledge, and case study methodology are influencing the content and goals of educational psychology in teacher preparation. The reasons seem clear: The content of educational psychology lends itself to authentic, active, and pragmatic applications of theory to school practices, as well as to investigations of a variety of educational issues, perspectives, and
A comprehensive evolutionary theory of sex differences will benefit from an accurate assessment of their magnitude across different psychological domains. This article shows that mainstream research has severely underestimated the magnitude of psychological sex differences; the reason lies in the common practice of measuring multidimensional differences one dimension at a time, without integrating them into a proper multivariate effect size
In 1925, the German biologist and philosopher Hans Driesch published a booklet entitled The Crisis in Psychology. It was originally published in English and was based on lectures given at various universities in China, Japan and the USA. The "crisis" in psychology of that time, in Driesch's opinion, lies in the necessity to decide about "the road which psychology is to follow in the future". This necessity refers to five "critical points", namely (1) to develop the theory of psychic elements to a theory of meaning by phenomenological analysis, (2) the overcoming of association theory, (3) to acknowledge that the unconscious is a fact and a "normal" aspect of mental life, (4) to reject "psychomechanical parallelism" or any other epiphenomenalistic solution of the mind-body problem, and (5) the extension of psychical research to new facts as described by parapsychology, for instance. Driesch saw close parallels between the development of modern psychology and that of biology, namely in a theoretical shift from "sum-concepts" like association and mechanics, to "totality-concepts" like soul and entelechy. The German translation of 1926 was entitled Grundprobleme der Psychologie (Fundamental Problems of Psychology) while "the crisis in psychology" forms just the subtitle of this book. This underlines that Driesch's argumentation--in contrast to that of Buehler--dealt with ontological questions rather than with paradigms. PMID:22520194
|Describes qualitative techniques and their use in industrial and vocational psychology for theory generation, elaboration, and testing. Discusses research design, data analysis, and best practices using qualitative methods. Contains 54 references. (SK)|
Lee, Thomas W.; Mitchell, Terence R.; Sablynski, Chris J.
In this paper we argue that previous models of cognitive abilities (e.g. memory, analogy) have been constructed to satisfy functional requirements of implicit commonsense psychologicaltheories held by researchers and nonresearchers alike. Rather than wor...
This report reviews the research conducted in connection with a project to apply psychologicaltheory and procedures to the problems of encouraging residential energy conservation. A major part of the project involved surveys of residents' energy-related ...
This report reviews major psychological models of competence for their potential applicability to research on ethnocultural factors in social competence assessment. Historical background is provided on trait, environmentalist, and interactional theories w...
The first goal of this study was to look at the representation of educational and school psychology in introductory psychology textbooks. Research into the representation of other sub?fields of psychology has been conducted but no research has looked specifically at educational or school psychology. The second goal was to compare the representation of educational and school psychology in introductory psychology
Jennifer L. Lucas; Melissa A. Blazek; Amber B. Raley; Christi Washington
This Special Issue of Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research identifies challenges and drivers for change in the educational sector, with the purpose of highlighting current theory, training, research and practice in this arena. A brief history of consulting in education is outlined as well as skill sets that educational consultants have in common with consulting psychologists who work in
Discusses the inadequacy of experimental evidence and logical considerations in current theories of intellectual deficits caused by cultural deprivation. Reports on the presence or absence of competence have been based on noncomparable experimental situations. Deficit interpretations have assumed that absence of performance reflects absence of a particular psychological process. A strategy is proposed which combines usual experimental approaches with ethnographic
Framing is the process by which a communication source constructs and defines a social or political issue for its audience. While many observers of political communication and the mass media have discussed framing, few have explicitly described how framing affects public opinion. In this paper we offer a theory of framing effects, with a specific focus on the psychological mechanisms
Thomas E. Nelson; Zoe M. Oxley; Rosalee A. Clawson
|This volume contains 19 essays on current research in representative areas of psychology. All of the authors are professors and researchers at universities in the United States. A wide range of topics is discussed. Included among these are human learning and memory; behavioral decision theory; categorization of natural objects; developmental…
|Gaining a perspective on the evolution of psychological concepts can show students the power of theory and societal perspective in shaping scientific ideas across time. In this article, the author uses two constructs, the broad concept of intelligence and the narrow concept of combat stress reaction, to illustrate how psychologists have grappled…
|Dabrowski's theory that sensitivity and intensity are characteristic of the psychological makeup of young gifted children was investigated in a qualitative study with five gifted children (ages 4 through 6). The study found the five overexcitabilities postulated by Dabrowski were manifested in the children's classroom and home behaviors. (DB)|
Emotional sensitivity and emotional intensity are well documented in gifted children. Dabrowski (1967, 1972) proposed that sensitivity and intensity were a part of these children's psychological makeup and instead of being indicators of neurotic imbalances, were positive potentials for further growth. These characteristics were displayed in gifted children through 5 overexcitabilities: psychomotor, sensual, intellectual, imaginational, and emotional. This theory was
Although emotions elicited by the fictional world or the artefact play a part in story-driven video games, they are certainly not the focus of the experience. From a cognitive psychological perspective, this paper studies the appraisal and action dimensions of emotions arising from gameplay. As it relies on cognitive film theories about popular narrative movies, it also revisits their conceptual
What is the greatest contribution that ecological psychologists can offer social psychology? Ideally, ecological psychologists could explain how people directly perceive the unique properties of their social partners. But social partners are distinguished from mundane objects because they possess mental traits, and tradition tells us that minds cannot be seen. When considering the ideal possibility, we reject that doctrine and posit minds as perceivable. For ecological psychology, this entails asserting that minds are the types of things able to structure ambient energy. Contemporary research and theory suggests distinctly ecological ways of attacking this problem, but the problem is not new. Almost 100 years ago, Holt argued for the visibility of minds. Thus when considering these ideas, ecological psychologists face a choice that is at once about their future and their past. Extending ecological psychology's first principles into the social realm, we come to the point where we must either accept or reject Holt's arguments, and the wider context they bring. In doing so, we accept or reject our ability to study the uniquely social. PMID:20440585
In the past, mainstream Western mental health professionals tended to ignore or dismiss Asian psychologies. However, in recent years they have attracted increasing attention and growing evidence suggests that we may have underestimated their potential contributions. This paper provides an introduction to two classical Asian psychologies and certain of their key concepts about human nature, pathology, and potential and psychotherapeutic techniques. Relevant Western research and theory are reviewed, and the implications of these Asian psychologies for, and areas of possible interface with, Western psychology, psychotherapy, and science are examined. PMID:3063118
Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks. PMID:23163473
|Integrated a psychosocial developmental theory (the Kubler-Ross Stage Theory) and a psychological stage theory (the Ross Stage Theory) and a psychological stage theory (the Chickering and Reisser psychosocial and developmental theory) for challenging injured collegiate student-athletes' personal development. A search of online databases from…
Integrated a psychosocial developmental theory (the Kubler-Ross Stage Theory) and a psychological stage theory (the Ross Stage Theory) and a psychological stage theory (the Chickering and Reisser psychosocial and developmental theory) for challenging injured collegiate student-athletes' personal development. A search of online databases from…
Personality psychology studies how psychological systems work together. Consequently, the field can act as a unifying resource for the broader discipline of psychology. Yet personality's current fieldwide organization promotes a fragmented view of the person, seen through such competing theories as the psychodynamic, trait, and humanistic. There…
Dynamical systems and evolutionary theories have both been proposed as integrative approaches to psychology. These approaches are typically applied to different sets of questions. Dynamical systems models address the properties of psychological systems as they emerge and change over time; evolutionary models address the specific functions and contents of psychological structures. New insights can be achieved by integrating these two
Douglas T. Kenrick; Jon K. Maner; Jon Butner; Norman P. LI; D. Vaughn Becker; Mark Schaller
|This handbook offers psychology students, as well as professional psychologists, a central resource for the construction and organization of psychological test reports. It aims to help the reader conceptualize the theory of psychological report development by examining the integration of the concepts and data of personality analysis and the logic…
The focus to date has been in the psychological contract between employer and employee. Based on the organizational behavior studies, this paper translates this theory to marketing relationships and develops a theoretical model involving psychological contract, customer trust, customer commitment, and customer loyalty, i.e., the relationship marketing mechanism based upon psychological contract. This relationship marketing mechanism is validated by an
Evolutionary psychology provides a cogent metatheory for psychological science. It has furnished compelling theories of major domains of human functioning, including mating, parenting, kinship, morality, cooperation, conflict, aggression, and aesthetics. It has produced hundreds of empirical discoveries missed entirely by prior psychologists. Developmental dynamics, properly conceived, can add to the theoretical foundation of evolutionary psychology. But it has not provided
This article examines the nexus between modern psychologicaltheory (especially contextual or situational models of behavior), contemporary prison policy, and the legal concept of cruel and unusual punishment. It briefly reviews the history of imprisonment in the United States and the role of psychology in the development of prison punishment. An analysis of research on the psychological effects of imprisonment
Evolutionary developmental psychology involves the expression of evolved, epigenetic programs, as described by the developmental systems approach, over the course of ontogeny. There have been different selection pressures on organisms at different times in ontogeny, and some characteristics of infants and children were selected in evolution to serve an adaptive function at that time in their life history rather than to prepare individuals for later adulthood. Examples of such adaptive functions of immaturity are provided from infancy, play, and cognitive development. Most evolved psychological mechanisms are proposed to be domain specific in nature and have been identified for various aspects of children's cognitive and social development, most notably for the acquisition of language and for theory of mind. Differences in the quality and quantity of parental investment affect children's development and influence their subsequent reproductive and childcare strategies. Some sex differences observed in childhood, particularly as expressed during play, are seen as antecedents and preparations for adult sex differences. Because evolved mechanisms were adaptive to ancestral environments, they are not always adaptive for contemporary people, and this mismatch of evolved mechanisms with modern environments is seen in children's maladjustment to some aspects of formal schooling. We argue that an evolutionary perspective can be valuable for developing a better understanding of human ontogeny in contemporary society and that a developmental perspective is important for a better understanding of evolutionary psychology. PMID:11194266
|Why has the specialty of counseling psychology been overlooked in the larger conversation about positive psychology? Is it reasonable that counseling psychology claims positive psychology as its own? What are some of the problems in defining "positive psychology," and how does the lack of consensus around operationalization thwart discourse on…
Mollen, Debra; Ethington, Lanaya L.; Ridley, Charles R.
Social influence is an elementary aspect of human societies. People influence others and are influenced by friends, work colleagues, neighbours and even chance acquaintances. In this way, personal attitudes, the attitudes of groups and the attitudes of larger aggregates (like societies) are formed. This makes social influence a constitutive element of societies and one that must be taken into account
The intellectual tension between the virtues of basic versus applied research that characterized an earlier era of psychology is being replaced by an appreciation of creative applications of all research essential to improving the quality of human life. Psychologists are positioned to "give psychology away" to all those who can benefit from our wisdom. Psychologists were not there 35 years ago when American Psychological Association (APA) President George Miller first encouraged us to share our knowledge with the public. The author argues that psychology is indeed making a significant difference in people's lives; this article provides a sampling of evidence demonstrating how and why psychology matters, both in pervasive ways and specific applications. Readers are referred to a newly developed APA Web site that documents current operational uses of psychological research, theory, and methodology (its creation has been the author's primary presidential initiative): www.psychologymatters.org. PMID:15511121
A close scrutiny of the psychological literature reveals that many psychologists favor a ‘segregative’ approach to theory development. One theory is pitted against another, and the one that accounts for the data most successfully is deemed the theory of choice. However, an examination of the theoretical debates in which the segregative approach has been pursued reveals a variety of weaknesses
Designed and maintained by Professor Michael E. Nielsen of the Psychology Department at Georgia Southern University, this site offers numerous resources for people interested in psychological aspects of religious belief and behavior. The site is designed as an introduction to the psychology of religion, rather than a comprehensive treatment. Resources are grouped into three main categories: general resource pages, science and religion pages, and pages devoted to new religious movements. Contents include notable people in the psychology of religion; a bibliography; course syllabi; journal TOCs; essays on the field, on science and religion, and on several aspects of new religious movements; and related links.
\\u000a Social learning theory utilizes precise descriptions of dyadic relationships and other larger system dynamics that are present\\u000a in families with adolescents. Similar to other theoretical perspectives that claim more individual psychological origins,\\u000a however, this theoretical approach is not given extensive coverage in the family theory literature. The present chapter discusses\\u000a how social learning theory focuses attention on the ways in
The present paper presents a conceptualization of human behavior involved in terrorism from a Relational Frame Theory perspective. Relational frame theory is a contemporary behavior analytic account of human language and cognition. This account has yielded answers to many substantial empirical and theoretical psychological questions that have puzzled psychologists for some time. We believe that relational frame theory can and
On recommendation of the Committee on Evaluation, the Education and Training Board with the concurrence of the Board of Directors of the American Psychological Association has approved the doctoral training programs in clinical psychology and in counseling psychology\\
Measures of psychological attributes abound in the social sciences as much as measures of physical properties do in the physical sciences. However, there are crucial differences between the scientific underpinning of measurement. While measurement in the physical sciences is supported by empirical evidence that demonstrates the quantitative nature of the property assessed, measurement in the social sciences is, in large part, made possible only by a vague, discretionary definition of measurement that places hardly any restrictions on empirical data. Traditional psychometric analyses fail to address the requirements of measurement as defined more rigorously in the physical sciences. The construct definitions do not allow for testable predictions; and content validity becomes a matter of highly subjective judgment. In order to improve measurement of psychological attributes, it is suggested to, first, readopt the definition of measurement in the physical sciences; second, to devise an elaborate theory of the construct to be measured that includes the hypothesis of a quantitative attribute; and third, to test the data for the structure implied by the hypothesis of quantity as well as predictions derived from the theory of the construct.
Opportunities are expanding rapidly for health psychologists to work in Australia in a wider range of health-care settings, and on challenging aspects of community disease prevention and public health. Published material in psychological journals in Australia does not suggest that there is a trend towards more health psychology research being reported in this country; however, research reported at conferences, and
|This book is a collection of classic and recent papers (published between 1964 and 1994) reprinted from the "Journal of Juvenile Psychology""Individual Psychologist," and "Individual Psychology." Each of the five sections is introduced by the editor's comments. "General Techniques" contains the following articles: (1) "I-Thou Relationship Versus…
Suggests that school psychologists and teachers ought to begin teaching school children about psychology, using as an example the author's experiences in teaching psychology to 4th, 5th, and 6th graders. The need for mental health education is also suggested.
|Discusses how psychologists have established themselves as integral health care providers in rehabilitation. Discusses how psychologists and the psychological associations have failed to recognize the importance of public policy for the practice of psychology. Explores the role of Medicare, and the effects of the inclusion of psychologists in…
This book provides a comprehensive review of the branch of sport and exercise science that focuses on the psychological aspects of human behavior. Part I presents a general orientation to the field, including an introduction and description of sport psychology and a discussion of the history and current status of the field. Individual differences…
Discusses need for anomalistic psychology courses (the occult, astrology, ESP, or those phenomena inexplicable in terms of orthodox science) in the college psychology curriculum. A study of an anomalistics course indicates that student belief in the paranormal was associated with greater learning which was then followed by significant reductions…
The introduction to this booklet states that transpersonal psychology focuses attention on the human capacity for self-transcendence as well as self-realization, and is concerned with the optimum development of consciousness. This booklet attempts to illustrate the value of this psychology in education, not as a complete substitute for traditional…
This publication is intended to help make secondary and college students aware of careers in psychology. Approximately one-half of the booklet contains sketches of 16 jobs in psychology emphasizing teaching, research, and public service. For each job sketch there is a general description of the types of work involved and the educational background…
|The introduction to this booklet states that transpersonal psychology focuses attention on the human capacity for self-transcendence as well as self-realization, and is concerned with the optimum development of consciousness. This booklet attempts to illustrate the value of this psychology in education, not as a complete substitute for…
|Describes the experience of teaching psychology at Tartu University and Tallinn Pedagogical University in Estonia. Discusses the lessons learned by teaching in Estonia and applies those lessons to teaching psychology in the United States, focusing on the benefits teachers reap when they become more aware of themselves and their audiences. (CMK)|
In rheumatology practice and applied research, there are numerous psychologic issues that merit special attention, including depression, helplessness, self-efficacy, and coping. A wide variety of measures are available for addressing these issues. The tests themselves must meet the psychometric criteria of reliability and validity. Psychologic tests must be administered under standardized conditions. PMID:7631039
One of the major changes in developmental psychology during the past 50 years has been the acceptance of the important role of nature (genetics) as well as nurture (environment). Past research consisting of twin and adoption studies has shown that genetic influence is substantial for most domains of developmental psychology. Present research…
The practice of psychology in general hospitals has evolved from a few isolated practitioners operating primarily within psychiatry to several thousand psychologists, organized administratively and providing a wide range of services to various hospital departments. This article reviews major developments in the practice of hospital psychology. Four current influences on hospital psychologists are particularly noted: the deinstitutionalization of chronic mental
In this chapter I will try to provide a brief overview of the concepts and techniques that are most widely used in the psychology of memory. Although it may not appear to be the case from sampling the literature, there is in fact a great deal of agreement as to what constitutes the psychology of memory, much of it developed
|In "Psychology in its place" (2008) John Radford explores and attempts to initiate a debate on what is or should be the place and role of psychology in Higher Education, primarily as a main subject for a first degree. In this paper, the author raises the stakes, and argues that Higher Education should provide a certain form of practical…
This article discusses the state of medical psychology in Canada and explores some current controversies and challenges for the future of the field. The practice of psychology in Canadian medical settings is influenced by the country's universal healthcare system and by the need to provide adequate care to a diverse and widely dispersed population. Although Canada's licensing system does not
Community psychology's twin goals of prevention and empowerment are ill-served when researchers and practitioners restrict their activities to traditional mental health settings. This paper echoes the call of the Swampscott conference for expanding community psychology's domain of inquiry and action. It reviews examples from the research literature of efforts at prevention and empowerment in five classes of behavior settings identified
The ‘affective turn’ is a contemporary movement within the humanities, social science, and psychology to investigate affect, emotion, and feeling as hybrid phenomena jointly constituted from both biological and social influences. Health and illness are themselves jointly constituted in this way, and many of the topics, concerns, and methods of health psychology are strongly permeated by affective phenomena. Qualitative research
How have spokespersons for the positive psychology movement presented the movement to the public and to the profession of psychology? Moreover, what are the consequences for psychology of that presentation? These questions inform my assessment of the \\
This essay explores the constructions of the child developed in the psychologicaltheories of Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung. These child-constructs constitute important psychological source-theories for spiritualities of childhood as each embodies a particular understanding of what childhood means, within the author's understandings of human personhood. After addressing an initial period of agreement between the two thinkers in which both
|Darwin envisioned a scientific revolution for psychology. His theories of natural and sexual selection identified two classes of struggles--the struggle for existence and the struggle for mates. The emergence of evolutionary psychology and related disciplines signals the fulfillment of Darwin's vision. Natural selection theory guides scientists…
Despite the large amount of research on aggression in sport psychology, the underlying dynamics of how aggression functions in sport are not well-understood. This paper uses developments in symbolic interactionism (Blumer, 1966; Mead, 1934) to extend positivist forms of conceptualizing and theorizing about aggression (e.g., social learning theory, moral reasoning theory) within the sport psychology aggression literature. We further suggest
This article provides a broad overview of an exploratory thesis designed to enhance an understanding of perturbations and rigidities of psychological functioning a set-point hypothesis of psychological functioning. Historical precedents and parallels with Keesey's set-point theory of obesity are offered. Basic tenets of the hypothesis are detailed, and relevance to clinical behavioral theory is outlined. It is concluded that the
Purpose – The paper seeks to investigate the effects of psychological contract on control mechanisms in outsourced ISD projects, based on control theories and psychological contract theories. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper is a multiple case study involving five outsourced projects completed by one of the largest and most successful telecommunication vendors in China. The company was the client in three
Case-based Reasoning (CBR) began as a theory of human cognition, but has attracted relatively little direct experimental or theoretical investigation in psychology. However, psychologists have developed a range of instance-based theories of cognition and have extensively studied how similarity to past cases can guide categorization of new cases. This paper considers the relation between CBR and psychological research, focussing on
Case-based Reasoning (CBR) began as a theory of human cognition, but has attracted relatively little direct experimental or theoretical investigation in psychology. However, psy- chologists have developed a range of instance-based theories of cognition and have extensively studied how similarity to past cases can guide categorization of new cases. This paper considers the relation between CBR and psychological research, focussing
The recent incorporation of sexual selection theories into the rubric of Evolutionary Psychology has produced an important framework from which to examine human mating behavior. Here we review the extant empirical and theoretical work regarding heterosexual human mating preferences and reproductive strategies. Initially, we review contemporary Evolutionary Psychology's adaptationism, including the incorporation of modern theories of sexual selection, adaptive genetic
Jon A. Sefcek; Barbara H. Brumbach; Geneva Vasquez; Geoffrey F. Miller
Distributive and procedural justice are of central importance to past and current theories of the psychology of moral development and the social psychology of justice. In order to explicate the relationships among theories, participants responded to both a measure of moral reasoning and a measure of 15 various justice criteria. Analyses showed that each schema of moral reasoning was significantly
Craig A. Wendorf; Sheldon Alexander; Ira J. Firestone
The evolution of animal communication is a complex issue and one that attracts much research and debate. 'Receiver psychology' has been highlighted as a potential selective force, and we review how avian psychological processes and biases can influence the evolution and design of signals as well as the progress that has been made in testing these ideas in behavioural studies. Interestingly, although birds are a focal group for experimental psychologists and behavioural ecologists alike, the integration of theoretical ideas from psychology into studies of communication has been relatively slow. However, recent operant experiments are starting to address how birds perceive and respond to complex natural signals in an attempt to answer evolutionary problems in communication. This review outlines how a psychological approach to understanding communication is useful, and we hope that it stimulates further research addressing the role of psychological mechanisms in signal evolution.
Jonathan Haidt's Moral Foundations Theory is an influential scientific account of morality incorporating psychological, developmental, and evolutionary perspectives. The theory proposes that morality is built upon five innate \\
This paper explores some key aspects of cognitive psychology that may be mapped onto user interfaces. Major focus in existing user interface guidelines is on consistency, simplicity, feedback, system messages, display issues, navigation, colors, graphics, visibility and error prevention [8-10]. These guidelines are effective indesigning user interfaces. However, these guidelines do not handle the issues that may arise due to the innate structure of human brain and human limitations. For example, where to place graphics on the screen so that user can easily process them and what kind of background should be given on the screen according to the limitation of human motor system. In this paper we have collected some available guidelines from the area of cognitive psychology [1, 5, 7]. In addition, we have extracted few guidelines from theories and studies of cognitive psychology [3, 11] which may be mapped to user interfaces.
Placebo effects are widely recognized as having a potent impact upon treatment outcomes in both medical and psychological interventions, including hypnosis. In research utilizing randomized clinical trials, there is usually an effort to minimize or control placebo effects. However, in clinical practice there may be significant benefits in enhancing placebo effects. Prior research from the field of social psychology has identified three factors that may enhance placebo effects, namely: priming, client perceptions, and the theory of planned behavior. These factors are reviewed and illustrated via a case example. The consideration of social-psychological factors to enhance positive expectancies and beliefs has implications for clinical practice as well as future research into hypnotic interventions. PMID:23488251
|Aimed at primary care physicians and nurses, educators, and parents, this book reviews media effects on adolescent behavior and psychology. The book notes that television is a powerful medium to which adolescents are uniquely susceptible and how studies have shown television's ability to shape social attitudes. Theories of how television affects…
For 3 decades, counseling psychologists have drawn ideas from social psychology about the social process of counseling, integrated the ideas into counseling theories, and assessed them in research. This article traces the history of this interface, examines its products, and projects its future. Three propositions have guided and have been supported by much of the research: (a) Successful counseling relationships
Stanley R. Strong; Josephine A. Welsh; Jean L. Corcoran; William T. Hoyt
A method for eliciting extended explanations was used to evaluate predictions from the "theory-theory" account of developing psychological reasoning. Children were repeatedly asked to explain the actions or emotions of story characters with false beliefs. Questioning elicited false belief attributions in half of 3-year-olds (Study 1, N = 16, age M…
Bartsch, Karen; Campbell, Michelle D.; Troseth, Georgene L.
Social psychologicaltheory on relations between production technology and work satisfaction was combined with arousal theory based on psychophysiological stress research in a study of workers in a highly mechanised production industry. A group of workers whose tasks were characterised by rcpetitiveness, physical constraint, machine-regulation of work pace and high demands for continuous attention (high-risk group) was compared to a
I argue that an activity theory --which regards emotions as interdependent and interpenetrating with other cultural phenomena-- is central for the cultural psychology of emotions. Activity theory maintains that the cultural characteristics, development, and functions of emotions are shaped by social activities and cultural concepts. I explain the relation of biological to cultural factors in shaping the characteristics and development
Four studies explored the motivational and experiential dynamics of psychological needs, applying both self-determination theory and motive disposition theory. In all 4 studies, motive dispositions toward achievement and affiliation (\\
Arguments in the current debate between “positive psychology” and humanistic psychology are reviewed with particular emphasis on Martin Seligman’s comment that humanistic psychologists do not represent “positive psychology” because they have generated no research tradition, are narcissistic, and are antiscientific. Each one of these claims is dispelled with specific references to the larger humanistic tradition in American psychology, which includes
Counseling psychology can make a contribution to the newly emerging fields of health-related behavioral science, but the nature of that contribution will depend on counseling psychology's willingness to develop new perspectives and practices. The present authors compare 2 of these health orientations, behavioral medicine and health psychology, in an effort to establish counseling psychology's relationship with either of these approaches.
The growth of evolutionary psychology as a theoretical framework for the study of human behavior has been spectacular. However, evolutionary psychology has been largely ignored by clinical psychology. This article is an attempt to encourage greater dialogue between the two. First, some of the major principles of evolutionary psychology are outlined, followed by consideration of some of the criticisms that
|International school psychology is discussed in reference to scholarly and professional development within psychology, the emergence of an international association of school psychology, its efforts to promote school psychology, prevailing characteristics of school psychologists, and additional efforts needed to further enhance its development.…
Does a high school course in psychology influence students to take further work in the subject? Is high school psychology of assistance to those who take psychology in a university? In an attempt to answer these questions, 13 university departments of psychology (Denver, Florida State, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Missouri, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Purdue, Southern California, Texas, Vermont) were
Reacts to four previous articles on counseling psychology and sport psychology. Voices concerns about coherence and boundaries of counseling psychology's scientific and practice bases, efficient use of training resources, how much can be accomplished within predoctoral curricula, and how to work in tandem with those in other psychological…
The future of pediatric psychology is reviewed and placed in brief historical context in relation to children's psychological health care. Contemporary trends affecting the delivery of psychological services, research, and clinical training are highlighted, with suggestions for future development. Pediatric psychology is a child-based, developmentally-focused multidisciplinary practice directed toward psychosocial and neuropsychological issues of health and illness in children and
In compiling this annotated bibliography on the psychology of terrorism, the author has defined terrorism as 'acts of violence intentionally perpetrated on civilian noncombatants with the goal of furthering some ideological, religious or political objecti...
The objective of this paper is to introduce and emphasize the importance of psychological interventions for those with dermatological conditions. In keeping with the current literature, the author envisages a two-tier approach in the provision of such psychological interventions. Firstly, most patients with dermatology conditions may not require psychological change. Instead, they could be approached with effective doctor–patient communication skills, within a context of empathy and positive regard. At the second tier, however, based on the clinical interview, some patients may require varying degrees of psychological change in order to better manage their illness. In such a context, a dermatologist with training in psychotherapy would be required. In the absence of such a person, the patient may be referred to a psychologist or another mental health professional trained in psychotherapy.
Overweight and obesity is associated with a broad variety of stigmatization and discrimination in every day live. Obese people have more difficulties in finding a job, have a lower income, and are less often seen in leadership positions. In society, responsibility for the weight situation in seen as lying by the individuals affected altogether, leading to chronic stress, problems with self esteem and perception of loss of control. As a consequence, there is an increased risk for developing serious psychological problems such as affective and anxiety disorders. As a reaction, coping strategies to deal with the psychological pressure such as dysfunctional eating behavior, binge eating and physical inactivity are used. Females, people belonging to another ethnic or social minority, adolescents and people with eating disorders are considered at increased risk of psychological distress. Psychological vulnerabilities and the consequences of stigmatization need to be considered. Moreover, perceived behavioral control and self esteem are key aspects of to be addressed on the treatment. PMID:23385186
Criminal psychological profiling is potentially one of the most innovative new techniques available to criminal investigators. However, profiling is viewed skeptically by many criminal justice practitioners and academicians, which has limited the use of t...
This slide presentation reviews the history of long duration spaceflight, and the changes in the International Space Station crew and the effect that this has had on the psychology of astronaut selection and training.
Discusses contributions of psychology to dental education; a description of the functions of the department of behavioral science in one dental school is presented. A model for training more psychologists in this area is proposed. (19 ref)
Robert H. Sachs; Charles R. Eigenbrode; Donald C. Kruper
The issue of how “forensic psychology” is defined has taken on a new urgency in the context of an application to have forensic psychology designated a “specialty” by the American Psychological Association. To provide a historical perspective, I briefly review early attempts to apply psychological concepts to legal issues, beginning with the McNaughten trial in England in 1843. I then
This article presents comments on "Does Psychology make a significant difference in our lives?" by P. Zimbardo. We deeply appreciate the documentation and inspiration provided by Zimbardo on how psychology is reaching out to the public by "giving psychology away" (p. 340). We totally agree that psychology has much, much more to offer that could be…
|This article presents comments on "Does Psychology make a significant difference in our lives?" by P. Zimbardo. We deeply appreciate the documentation and inspiration provided by Zimbardo on how psychology is reaching out to the public by "giving psychology away" (p. 340). We totally agree that psychology has much, much more to offer that could…
Provides information on programs and activities relevant to psychology and World War II. The Advisory Board on Clinical Psychology announces the creation of a clinical psychology program in the hospitals of the Army. The Office of War Information has instituted monthly newsletters in a number of fields such as psychology, physics, and medicine through their Overseas Branch. These newsletters are
|Chapters in this textbook for college students in introductory psychology courses are: (1) What is Psychology?; (2) Scientific Methods in Psychology; (3) Biological Psychology; (4) Sensation and Perception; (5) Altered States; (6) Learning; (7) Memory; (8) Cognition and Language; (9) Intelligence and Its Measurement; (10) Development; (11)…
The purpose of this paper is to review the literature relating to the positive aspects of organizational psychology research in sport. To this end, the narrative is divided into three main sections. The first section defines and delimits relevant concepts, including organizational psychology, positive psychology and positive organizing. The second section presents the background to positive organizational psychology in sport
Christopher Robert David Wagstaff; David Fletcher; Sheldon Hanton
The purpose of this paper is to review the literature relating to the positive aspects of organizational psychology research in sport. To this end, the narrative is divided into three main sections. The first section defines and delimits relevant concepts, including organizational psychology, positive psychology and positive organizing. The second section presents the background to positive organizational psychology in sport
Christopher Robert David Wagstaff; David Fletcher; Sheldon Hanton
Analysis of whole families is delineated as a field of psychological study. Relevance to psychology of personality and social psychology is shown. Emergence of the field is traced, and major current approaches are examined. A general conceptual framework, growing out of and integrating data from psychology and other behavioral sciences, is shown to be developing. Evidence suggests that a great
Surveyed various aspects of 1,314 5th–22th grade children's perceptions concerning what psychologists do and their attraction to the field of psychology. It was found that children strongly conceive of psychology as a therapeutic enterprise, with a minority of Ss citing the research roles of the psychologist. A factor analysis of attraction ratings also revealed this clinical emphasis. Grade trends were
In the mid-eighteenth century David Hartley published a treatise that combined ideas about the psychology of mental associations\\u000a with conjectures drawn broadly from neuroanatomy, mechanics, optics and electricity. Recognizing that a complete mechanistic\\u000a theory must consider not only causally related mental associations but also their physiological substrates, Hartley conceived\\u000a of neural activity as vibrations, suggested earlier by Isaac Newton, Thomas
The theories and practices of peace psychology in Asia are conditioned by a host of cultural, historical, and social-political\\u000a factors in this part of the world. Christie, Wagner, and Winter (2001), Christie (2006), and Christie, Tint, Wagner, and Winter\\u000a (2008) claim that violence and peace are expressions of the interactions among these macro factors. Montiel, in the introductory\\u000a chapter of
\\u000a From its very beginning, modern scientific psychology has dealt with issues regarding mind-body, health-disease relationships;\\u000a in particular, clinical psychology, in its various applications, has tried to provide a structure to psychological concepts\\u000a tied to organic disease. Clinical psychology is described as the “area of psychology whose objectives are the explanation,\\u000a understanding, interpretation and reorganization of dysfunctional or pathological mental processes,
This article reviews the role of positive psychology–based research and application in advancing the science and practice of military psychology. The role of positive psychology in military training, clinical application, and enhancing the welfare and well-being of military spouses and children is reviewed. Early research suggests that positive psychology–derived constructs may offer substantial advances across the spectrum of military psychology.
This chapter addresses the psychological effects of social stigma. Stigma directly affects the stigmatized via mechanisms of discrimination, expectancy confirmation, and automatic stereotype activation, and indirectly via threats to personal and social identity. We review and organize recent theory and empirical research within an identity threat model of stigma. This model posits that situational cues, collective representations of one's stigma status, and personal beliefs and motives shape appraisals of the significance of stigma-relevant situations for well-being. Identity threat results when stigma-relevant stressors are appraised as potentially harmful to one's social identity and as exceeding one's coping resources. Identity threat creates involuntary stress responses and motivates attempts at threat reduction through coping strategies. Stress responses and coping efforts affect important outcomes such as self-esteem, academic achievement, and health. Identity threat perspectives help to explain the tremendous variability across people, groups, and situations in responses to stigma. PMID:15709941
Abstract Knowledge acquisition research supports the generation of knowledge-based systems through the development of principles, techniques, methodologies and tools. What differentiates knowledge- based system development,from conventional system development,is the emphasis,on in-depth understanding and formalization of the relations between,the conceptual structures underlying expert performance,and the computational,structures capable of emulating that performance. Personal construct psychology,is a theory of individual and group psychological
Arguments for the autonomy of psychology or other higher-level sciences have often taken the form of denying the possibility of reduction. The form of reduction most proponents and critics of the autonomy of psychology have in mind is theory reduction. Mechanistic explanations provide a different perspective. Mechanistic explanations are reductionist insofar as they appeal to lower-level entities—the component parts of
After a brief introduction of a cultural psychological perspective, this paper turns to the concept of self. The paper proposes to conceive of that reality to which the concepts of self refer as a narrative, employing especially autobiographies and other ego-documents in empirical exploration. After discussing some psychologicaltheories about “self,” the paper points out that they may well be applied in research on personal religiosity.
|The twin objectives of the series Psychological Perspectives on Contemporary Educational Issues are: (1) to identify issues in education that are relevant to professional educators and researchers; and (2) to address those issues from research and theory in educational psychology, psychology, and related disciplines. The present volume,…
Although Piaget’s psychologicaltheory is developmental and ‘dialectical’ in a general way, lack of a developed philosophical basis leads to the subordination of a dialectical approach to static, anti-dialectical concepts. A study of Hegel’s theory of interaction and contradiction shows that the dialectical theory has a more precise meaning. Because Piaget regards mastery of formal-logical categories of identity, noncontradiction and
Harzem recently expressed the opinions that, beginning in the 1960s, the progress of scientific psychology has been deferred and that psychological research has failed to address important social issues. He proposed that progress be resumed by taking up, anew, the experimental analysis of behavior. The present reply provides evidence inconsistent with Harzem's assertions regarding the state of contemporary, scientific psychology and questions the wisdom of disregarding the significant body of data and theory that currently are available to pursue the, as yet, unfulfilled promises of the experimental analysis of human behavior.
Although the Americas and Caribbean region are purported to comprise different ethnic groups, this article’s focus is on people of African descent, who represent the largest ethnic group in many countries. The emphasis on people of African descent is related to their family structure, ethnic identity, cultural, psychohistorical, and contemporary psychosocial realities. This article discusses the limitations of Western psychology for theory, research, and applied work on people of African descent in the Americas and Caribbean region. In view of the adaptations that some people of African descent have made to slavery, colonialism, and more contemporary forms of cultural intrusions, it is argued that when necessary, notwithstanding Western psychology’s limitations, Caribbean psychologists should reconstruct mainstream psychology to address the psychological needs of these Caribbean people. The relationship between theory and psychological interventions for the optimal development of people of African descent is emphasized throughout this article. In this regard, the African-centered and constructionist viewpoint is argued to be of utility in addressing the psychological growth and development of people of African descent living in the Americas and Caribbean region. PMID:22013618
Evolutionary psychology provides a cogent metatheory for psychological science. It has furnished compelling theories of major domains of human functioning, including mating, parenting, kinship, morality, cooperation, conflict, aggression, and aesthetics. It has produced hundreds of empirical discoveries missed entirely by prior psychologists. Developmental dynamics, properly conceived, can add to the theoretical foundation of evolutionary psychology. But it has not provided alternative theories capable of explaining the many detailed empirical discoveries made by evolutionary' psychologists. Nor has it generated a comparable bounty of new empirical discoveries. By critical scientific standards--theoretical cogency, predictive accuracy, interdisciplinary consistency, and empirical harvest--modern evolutionary psychology fares well compared with alternatives. PMID:14599282
Expectation states theory is, in many ways, a textbook example of a theoretical research program. It is deductive, programmatic,\\u000a formalized mathematically, cumulative, precise, and predictive; and its propositions have been subjected to rigorous evaluation.\\u000a More importantly, however, it is a theory that illuminates core issues in social psychology and sociology more broadly. It\\u000a is fundamentally a “macro-micro-macro” explanation about one
|We initiate a dialog between two central areas in the field of psychology today: attachment theory/research and mindfulness studies. The impact of the early mother-infant relationship on child development has been well established in the literature, with attachment theorists having focused on the correlation between a mother's capacity for…
The role of psychological factors in IVF is complex. Psychological issues intertwine with physical ones, often with additive effects. The very diagnosis of infertility is likely to cause stress. In addition, the many investigations and procedures may have compounded distress. There are probably a small number of patients in whom psychological factors may induce infertility. But in the majority, psychological factors may exacerbate infertility and influence the patient's and partner's responses. Mental, sexual, marital and social adjustment may all be affected. The procedure of IVF is likely to have a further impact. A pilot study of couples entering an IVF programme revealed the women to be highly anxious and to conform strongly to feminine stereotypes. Many had received psychiatric help in the past. The idiopathic group appeared to cope less well with stress and had higher anxiety and neuroticism scores. Follow-up revealed that IVF had a profound impact on many of the women. Most had received no counselling in the interim. In those who completed questionnaires at follow-up, a differential effect was observed between the organic and idiopathic groups. State anxiety fell in the idiopathic group but so did marital adjustment. The clinician is advised to incorporate consideration of the psychological aspects of IVF into every aspect of the programme. The addition of a psycho-social team may assist the gynaecologist in this and help the couple to make an optimal adjustment. PMID:3833441
Retirement as a research topic has become increasingly prominent in the psychology literature. This article provides a review of both theoretical development and empirical findings in this literature in the past two decades. We first discuss psychological conceptualizations of retirement and empirical operationalizations of retirement status. We then review three psychological models for understanding the retirement process and associated antecedents and outcomes, including the temporal process model of retirement, the multilevel model of retirement, and the resource-based dynamic model for retirement adjustment. We next survey the empirical findings regarding how various individual attributes, job and organizational factors, family factors, and socioeconomic context are related to the retirement process. We also discuss outcomes associated with retirement in terms of retirees' financial well-being, physical well-being, and psychological well-being. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology Volume 65 is January 03, 2014. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates. PMID:23751036
|This research investigated the role of children's implicit theories of peer relationships in their psychological, emotional, and behavioral adjustment. Participants included 206 children (110 girls; 96 boys; M age = 10.13 years, SD = 1.16) who reported on their implicit theories of peer relationships, social goal orientation, need for approval,…
In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists, 1991). These Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology were developed by the American Psychology-Law Society (Division 41 of the American Psychological Association [APA]) and the American Academy of Forensic Psychology. They were adopted by the APA Council of Representatives on August 3, 2011. PMID:23025747
Asthma has long been considered a condition in which psychological factors have a role. As in many illnesses, psychological variables may affect outcome in asthma via their effects on treatment adherence and symptom reporting. Emerging evidence suggests that the relation between asthma and psychological factors may be more complex than that, however. Central cognitive processes may influence not only the interpretation of asthma symptoms but also the manifestation of measurable changes in immune and physiologic markers of asthma. Furthermore, asthma and major depressive disorder share several risk factors and have similar patterns of dysregulation in key biologic systems, including the neuroendocrine stress response, cytokines, and neuropeptides. Despite the evidence that depression is common in people with asthma and exerts a negative impact on outcome, few treatment studies have examined whether improving symptoms of depression do, in fact, result in better control of asthma symptoms or improved quality of life in patients with asthma.
In this article, we address a number of issues surrounding biological models of personality traits. Most traditional and many contemporary biological models of personality traits assume that biological systems underlying personality traits are causal and immutable. In contrast, sociogenomic biology, which we introduce to readers in this article, directly contradicts the widely held assumption that something that is biological, heritable, or temperamental, is unchangeable. We provide examples of how seemingly unchanging biological systems, such as DNA, are both dependent on environments for elicitation and can be modified by environmental changes. Finally, we synthesize sociogenomic biology with personality psychology in a model of personality traits that integrates this more modern perspective on biology, physiology, and environment that we term sociogenomic personality psychology. We end the article with a discussion of the future directions of sociogenomic personality psychology.
|A psychology course in which students are required to apply learned principles to their interpersonal experiences is the instructors answer to the need to make psychological principles and methods generally available for a wider impact on human existence. (JH)|
Psychologic is an attempt to systematize the commonsense psychology embedded in ordinary language. In this system, the concepts of respect, anger, and guilt, are directly linked, since messages of disrespect, and only those, create anger in the receiver and guilt in the sender. This paper deals with the process of forgiving, whereby respect is reaffirmed and anger and guilt are alleviated. Forgiving depends on clarification of misunderstanding as well as on apology and atonement. The distinction between forgiving others and forgiving oneself is treated. It is concluded that what goes on inside persons and between persons has the same structure. PMID:2068550
Psychology is a vast and complex area of inquiry, and students entering the field may be confounded by the number of subfields within the discipline. Professor Russell A. Dewey of Georgia Southern University has created this fine online introductory textbook that covers everything from states of consciousness to social psychology. The online text includes sixteen chapters, and each chapter contains a number of parts that break each topic into smaller subtopics. The text is well-written and it draws on a number of examples and well-known experiments that will keep readers engaged. The site is rounded out by the inclusion of Professor Dewey's contact information and links to additional resources.
SUMMARY When individuals reason in an essentialist way about social categories, they assume that group differences reflect inherently different natures (Gelman, 2003; Rothbart & Taylor, 1992). This paper describes the psychological and social implications of essentialist beliefs, and examines the extent to which children exhibit psychological essentialism when reasoning about gender. The authors discuss reasons young children as well as older children show essentialist reasoning in some contexts, but not in others. Finally, the authors suggest directions for future research, and discuss a primary challenge to many working in this field: reduction of rigid gender beliefs.
Psychological essentialism is the idea that certain categories, such as "lion" or "female", have an underlying reality that cannot be observed directly. Where does this idea come from? This article reviews recent evidence suggesting that psychological essentialism is an early cognitive bias. Young children look beyond the obvious in many converging ways: when learning words, generalizing knowledge to new category members, reasoning about the insides of things, contemplating the role of nature versus nurture, and constructing causal explanations. These findings argue against the standard view of children as concrete thinkers, instead claiming that children have an early tendency to search for hidden, non-obvious features. PMID:15350241
Surveyed counseling psychologists on their involvement in sport psychology research, training, and practice; their affiliation with sport psychology professional organizations; and their attitudes toward current professional sport psychology issues. Found that counseling psychologists were minimally involved, and had received little formal…
|Many psychology majors indicate helping others as a reason for majoring in psychology, yet many enter positions not closely related to the field. This discrepancy may be due to a lack of student knowledge of the applied areas of psychology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the coverage of clinical, counseling,…
Internationalizing psychology is an important component of current globalization trends. American textbooks on the history of psychology and introductory psychology were surveyed for the presence of historical and contemporary important Russian psychologists to assess the current status of Russian–American crossfertilization. Of a list of 97 important Russian psychologists, as determined by the editors of the Russian journal Methodology and History
Maria Aleksandrova-Howell; Charles I. Abramson; David Philip Arthur Craig
Internationalizing psychology is an important component of current globalization trends. American textbooks on the history of psychology and introductory psychology were surveyed for the presence of historical and contemporary important Russian psychologists to assess the current status of Russian–American crossfertilization. Of a list of 97 important Russian psychologists, as determined by the editors of the Russian journal Methodology and History
Maria Aleksandrova-Howell; Charles I. Abramson; David Philip Arthur Craig
Discusses psychology's emphasis on the individual organism, an emphasis that ill prepared psychology in the post-World War II period for the public arena. One of the consequences for clinical psychology was that it became embroiled in the traditions of American medicine. The adverse effects of this are explored and discussed. (10 ref)
Clarifying the factors which influence choice of counselling orientation is important. This study investigated whether psychological type is associated with choice of orientation in counselling psychology trainees. Sets of questionnaires were sent to 210 counselling psychology trainees in four universities, which resulted in a sample of 84 participants. The measures were the Keirsey Temperament Sorter II and a short demographic
Cognitive science is the scientific domain which studies, analyzes, simulates and infers for various aspects, functions and procedures of human mentality such as, thinking, logic, language, knowledge, memory, learning, perception and the ability to solve problems. E-psychology is in close relation with the cognitive science domain, but expands beyond it, as e-psychology is the efficient convergence of psychology and Information
The growth of evolutionary psychology as a theoretical framework for the study of human behavior has been spectacular. However, evolutionary psychology has been largely ignored by clinical psychology. This article is an attempt to encourage greater dialogue between the two. First, some of the major principles of evolutionary psychol- ogy are outlined, followed by consideration of some of the criticisms
Objective: This research examined links between adolescents' experiences of psychological and physical relationship aggression and their psychological distress. Experiences of psychological and physical aggression were expected to correlate positively with symptoms of psychological distress, but experiences of psychological aggression were…
Jouriles, Ernest N.; Garrido, Edward; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee
|Objective: This research examined links between adolescents' experiences of psychological and physical relationship aggression and their psychological distress. Experiences of psychological and physical aggression were expected to correlate positively with symptoms of psychological distress, but experiences of psychological aggression were…
Jouriles, Ernest N.; Garrido, Edward; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee
This article considers the appropriateness of applying college student development theories that are based on European\\/European American psychology to the development of African American college students. It suggests that theories for the development of African American college students should be Afrocentric in nature, that is, they should be based on African psychology.
This column reviews the Psychology & Behavioral Sciences Collection, published by EBSCO. This database contains a large number of full text scholarly journal articles in psychology and the behavioral sciences.
The use of computer simulations as teaching devices in two psychology courses (statistics and research design and physiological psychology) is discussed. In the statistics and design course the primary pupose of simulation activities was to provide a prob...
Human cognition is characterized by enormous variability and structured by universal psychological constraints. The focus of this chapter is on the development of knowledge acquisition because it provides important insight into how the mind interprets new information and constructs new ways of understanding. We propose that mental content can be productively approached by examining the intuitive causal explanatory “theories” that people construct to explain, interpret, and intervene on the world around them, including theories of mind, of biology, or of physics. A substantial amount of research in cognitive developmental psychology supports the integral role of intuitive theories in human learning and provides evidence that they structure, constrain, and guide the development of human cognition.
Contrasts and derives different predictions from 2 social psychologicaltheories on the relation between self- and interpersonal evaluation. Self-esteem theory predicts that the higher an individual's self-evaluation, the less his tendency to reciprocate evaluations from others, whereas self-consistency theory predicts that the higher the individual's self-evaluation the greater his tendency to reciprocate evaluations from others. Studies bearing on these predictions
Debate has been growing in developmental psychology over how much the cognitive development of children is like theory change in science. Useful debate on this topic requires a clear understanding of what it would be for a child to have a theory. I argue that existing accounts of theories within philosophy of science and developmental psychology either are less precise than is ideal for the task or cannot capture everyday theorizing of the sort that children, if they theorize, must do. I then propose an account of theories that ties theories and explanation very closely together, treating theories primarily as products of a drive to explain. I clarify some of the positions people have taken regarding the theorytheory of development, and I conclude by proposing that psychologists interested in the ''theorytheory'' look for patterns of affect and arousal in development that would accompany the existence of a drive to explain.
|Adolescence is a multiplicity of events, experiences, behavior, people, and cultural meanings. This book attempts to provide detailed and in-depth analysis of the central issues related to adolescent psychology, while taking this multiplicity into account. A comprehensive representation of the topic is provided through integration of historical,…
Self psychology is maintaining continuity with Kohut's last work, How Does Analysis Cure? and his vision of human nature, as well as exploring a multiplicity of new directions. This paper discusses the expansion of Kohut's contributions in terms of the “figure?ground”; dimensions of transference: a selfobject dimension and representational configurations. On the basis of empirical studies of infancy, the paper
Perhaps one of the best criteria of a book's present significance is whether or not it is deemed important enough to be chosen to appear on the reading lists for graduate students preparing for their doctoral examinations. With this criterion in mind, letters were sent to all American and Canadian psychology departments granting doctor's degrees in 1953-54 and again, five
Creativity, personality assessment and social attitudes are the three primary interests listed by Ronald Taft in the International Directory of Psychologists. He took his Ph.D. at the University of Berkeley, California, USA and is now at the University of Melbourne, Australia. He is also Consulting Editor of Australian Journal of Psychology. The International Platform asked him to review the new
PURPOSE: One of the main problems in coloproctology is chronic idiopathic anal pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychosomatic components of proctalgia to identify which, if any, component is associated with this pain and to what extent. METHODS: Twenty patients with proctalgia were observed (mean age, 46 years). Psychologic consultations were required by the surgeons, because
This document is a reference guide to the laws, rules, and regulations of the State Education Department that govern the profession of psychology in the state of New York. The requirements and procedures for obtaining licensure and first registration as a psychologist are also highlighted. General regulations for the licensed professions as well…
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Cultural Education Center.
Certain psychological treatments should be avoided, and a list of such treatments would provide valuable guidance for counselors, as well as potential clients. It is well established that some therapies are potentially dangerous, and some fringe therapies are highly unlikely to help clients beyond a placebo effect. This article provides an…
|William James, the turn of the century psychologist, philospher, and educator, was avidly interested in the relationship between psychology and teaching. This paper considers operant conditioning, timing of reinforcers, and programmed instruction--touchstones of B.F. Skinner in the teaching/learning milieu. Of course, materials not just methods…
In a recent study of advertising by means of the association test (J. of Experimental Psychol., 1923, ^W6,^n 357-365) Laird finds that there is a discrepancy between brand name recalled and brand used, or between association and use. On the basis on these findings he condemns the association test as worthless in studying the psychology of advertising. Professor Poffenberger points
Color is a ubiquitous perceptual experience, yet little scientific information about the influence of color on affect, cognition, and behavior is available. Accordingly, we have developed a general model of color and psychological functioning, which we present in this article. We also describe a hypothesis derived from this model regarding the influence of red in achievement contexts. In addition, we
|Comments on the original article, "Many forms of culture," by A. B. Cohen. Cohen offered an eye-opening review of how culture means much more than ethnicity within a nation or differences between nations. After developing a much-expanded definition of culture, he concluded, "I have lamented the fact that psychology has focused on some important…
Adolescence is a multiplicity of events, experiences, behavior, people, and cultural meanings. This book attempts to provide detailed and in-depth analysis of the central issues related to adolescent psychology, while taking this multiplicity into account. A comprehensive representation of the topic is provided through integration of historical,…
Abnormal psychology is the scientific study of the mental pathology that underlies the symptomatology of psychiatric diseases. It is general when the symptoms studied are common to a number of diseases; and special, when the symptoms studied are idiopathic to particular diseases.
Character may be defined in terms of ethically effective organization of all the forces of an individual. Such a definition takes account of modern ethical conceptions and seems to express the fundamental interest of all students of abnormal psychology. It serves to distinguish character from other aspects of personality.
Discusses the psychology of understanding delusions. Two types of delusions have been proposed: positive wish-fulfilling delusions of grandeur; and negative delusions of persecution and depreciation. The 2 kinds of understanding are: (1) retrospective understanding consisting in an essentially reductive method, and (2) prospective understanding consisting of a constructive method. Constructive understanding is explained as subjective, not scientific, and as decomposing
Manual therapy is based on a biomedical model of illness and places considerable reliance on the patient's report of pain. Reported pain intensity is assumed to bear a close relationship with underlying nociception but research has shown that the experience of pain is also influenced by a wide range of psychological factors. Firstly, response to pain provocation (whether palpation or
|Comparison of the psychological types, as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), of 966 students at a public residential magnet high school for academically talented students with other gifted and traditional high school students found both magnet school students and gifted students showed a particular MBTI distribution. (DB)|
|This supplement provides teachers with tests, quizzes, answers to questions in the text, and general teaching information for using the student text, "Psychology," by Rebecca Stark. Quizzes included are on the topics of human development; the nervous system; the brain; cognitive development; sensation and perception; conditioning; learning;…
Canadian hospital psychology is examined in terms of the existing organizational models, professional practices, academic activities, and professional orientations of hospital psychologists. The survey reveals that psychologists are active clinically and academically in Canadian hospitals in a wide variety of health care areas in addition to traditional mental health areas. In the majority of hospitals, psychologists are organized in independent
JOHN L. ARNETT; ROBERT M. MARTIN; DAVID L. STREINER; JOHN T. GOODMAN
Asthma can be affected by stress, anxiety, sadness, and suggestion, as well as by environmental irritants or allergens, exercise, and infection. It also is associated with an elevated prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders. Asthma and these psychological states and traits may mutually potentiate each other through direct psychophysiological mediation, nonadherence to medical regimen, exposure to asthma triggers, and inaccuracy
Paul Lehrer; Jonathan Feldman; Nicholas Giardino; Hye-Sue Song; Karen Schmaling
Asthma can be affected by stress, anxiety, sadness, and suggestion, as well as by environmental irritants or allergens, exercise, and infection. It also is associated with an elevated prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders. Asthma and these psychological states and traits may mutually potentiate each other through direct psychophysiological mediation, nonadherence to medical regimen, exposure to asthma triggers, and inaccuracy
Paul Lehrer; Jonathan Feldman; Nicholas Giardino; Hye-Sue Song; Karen Schmaling
This paper is a critical review of researches in psychology of poverty in India. In spite of the fact that poverty remains to be the foremost problem of India, there seems to be a general negligence on the part of the Indian behavioral scientists in studying it with researcher’s rigour. Poverty in India is typically a unique Indian problem deeply
Surrogate motherhood arrangements have increased in recent years and yet the practice remains controversial. The present paper evaluates the limited available research evidence. Issues discussed include: psychological stressors associated with surrogacy, attitudes towards the practice, motives of surrogate and commissioning couple and issues pertaining to their relationship, the question of the surrogate relinquishing the child to the commissioning couple and
Hirsutism, i.e. ‘excess’ body hair in the ‘male’ distribution, is a medical term applied only to women. Although associated with social and psychological difficulties including anxiety, social avoidance and a confusion of gender identity and although it raises important gender issues, there has been little systematic study. No prior research has focussed on the relationship between women’s perceived degree of