This text is based on the hypothesis that every theory on the psychology of personality must inevitably, in one manner or another, have a sociological referent, that is to say, it must refer to a body of knowledge which deals with a diversity of social contexts and their relations to individuals. According to this working hypothesis, such a sociology is implicit. This text then discusses a group of theoretical approaches in an effort to verify this hypothesis. This approach allows the extrication of diverse forms or diverse expressions of this implicit sociology within this context several currents are rapidly explored : psychoanalysis, behaviorism, gestalt, classical theory of needs. The author also comments on the approach, inspired by oriental techniques or philosophies, which employs the notion of myth to deepen self awareness. Finally, from the same perspective, he comments at greater length on the work of Carl Rogers, highlighting the diverse form of implicit sociology. In addition to Carl Rogers, this text refers to Freud, Jung, Adler, Reich, Perls, Goodman, Skinner as well as to Ginette Paris and various analysts of Taoism. In conclusion, the author indicates the significance of his analysis from double viewpoint of psychological theory and practice. PMID:17093766
My primary goal is to assess whether, and in what sense, the rules or principles of grammar are psychologically real. I begin by casting doubt on a received view in generative linguistics, according to which a true theory of the syntax of natural language would, ipso facto, be a theory of a psychological state or mechanism. I argue that a…
Edinburgh, University of
MSc/Dip in the History and Theory of Psychology PROGRAMME HANDBOOK 2011-2012 Psychology The School of Philosophy, Psychology and Language Sciences, University of Edinburgh #12;MSc in the History and Theory of Psychology 2011/12 2 MSc/Dip in the History and Theory of Psychology 2011-2012 This booklet is a guide
Dennis M McInerney
This article presents a brief overview of developments in educational psychology over the last twenty?five years. It firstly presents an historical context by reviewing four basic emphases in educational psychology; cognitive psychology, behavioural psychology, social cognitive theory and humanism. The article then reviews the growth in cognitive psychology research by briefly examining developments arising from Piagetian, Vygotskian and information processing
Green, Christopher D.
American functionalist psychology constituted an effort to model scientific psychology on the successes of English evolutionary theory. In part it was a response to the stagnation of Wundt's psychological research program, which had been grounded in German experimental physiology. In part it was an attempt to make psychology more appealing within…
Hobbs, Jerry R.
Goals in a Formal Theory of Commonsense Psychology Jerry R. HOBBS and Andrew GORDON University of commonsense psychology, or how peole think they think, we have developed a formal theory of goals. In it we, intactness, and importance. Keywords. Goals, commonsense psychology, commonsense reasoning, intention
Hannele Seeck; Marjo-Riitta Parzefall
Purpose – The purpose of this study is to examine what employee agency entails for psychological contract theory. The paper aims to explore how employee agency manifests itself, how it is reflected in employees' perceptions of their psychological contract obligations, and what it implies for psychological contract theory. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study draws on a qualitative interview study of employees
Paul Sheldon Davies
This is a special-topic issue of Minds and Machines. The special topic is evolutionary psychology, an emerging research program within cognitive psychology. Like cognitive psychology in general, the domain or field of inquiry with which evolutionary psychology is concerned is the discovery of the mechanisms that underwrite our psychological capacities. But unlike cognitive psychology in general, the research program that
Green, Christopher D
American functionalist psychology constituted an effort to model scientific psychology on the successes of English evolutionary theory. In part it was a response to the stagnation of Wundt's psychological research program, which had been grounded in German experimental physiology. In part it was an attempt to make psychology more appealing within the highly pragmatic American context and to facilitate the application of psychology to domains outside of the scientific laboratory. Applications of psychology that emerged from the functionalist ethos included child and developmental psychology, clinical psychology, psychological testing, and industrial/vocational psychology. Functionalism was also the ground within which behaviorism rooted and grew into the dominant form of psychology through the middle of the 20th century. PMID:19203139
This eprint server is "offered as a free service to the community of scholarly historians and theoreticians of psychology with the goal of promoting the rapid dissemination of new work in the field." Christopher D. Green of the History & Theory of Psychology Program at York University (Toronto, Canada), maintains HTP Prints with support from York's Arts Technology Support Group, and the papers here are both preprints and final versions. Users can browse or search the archive and also sign up to receive updates when new papers are added. While there are a large number of subjects (in the browseable tree) that have no papers at this time, HTP Prints is only a few months old, and over time it will undoubtedly grow.
McBride, Michael H.; And Others
Focusing on the impact of advertisers' persuasive selling messages on consumers, this paper discusses topics relating to the theory of psychological type congruence. Based on an examination of persuasion theory and relevant psychological concepts, including recent cognitive stability and personality and needs theory and the older concept of…
Landrine, Hope, Ed.
This book focuses on the theoretical, empirical and practice-based implications of recognizing cultural diversity in the psychology of women. Contributors to this volume share the common objective of keeping feminist psychology robust and useful. Chapters in the first section, "Cultural Diversity in Theory and Methodology in Feminist Psychology,"…
Burns, Matthew K.
The current article comments on the importance of theoretical implications within school psychological research, and proposes that ecological theory and prevention science could provide the conceptual framework for school psychology research and practice. Articles published in "School Psychology Review" should at least discuss potential…
ELLIS, NORMAN R.
THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF 21 AUTHORS IN THIS VOLUME ARE DEVOTED TO ASSESSING THE STATUS OF RESEARCH AND THEORY IN MENTAL DEFICIENCY, FOCUSING ATTENTION ON THE BEHAVIOR OF THE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED. PART ONE IS CONCERNED WITH RESEARCH FINDINGS AND THEORIES TO EXPLAIN MENTAL DEFICIENCY. COMPREHENSIVE PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES REPRESENTED INCLUDE FIELD…
This article develops an evolutionary theory of conflict over the construction of culture that is informed by current knowledge of psychological mechanisms. Psychological mechanisms important for the production of culture include (1) general intelligence (including the ability to engender hypothetical scenarios and means-end reasoning necessary for constructing tools and other exemplars of technology); (2) explicit processing mechanisms (e.g., symbolic representations
Created and maintained by G. Scott Acton, a PhD in psychology from Northwestern University, this site functions as a gateway to materials relating to personality theory. The Website offers introductory, often hypertext essays on various topics in personality theory followed by an annotated listing of relevant links. Some of the topics covered include attachment theory, basic emotions, behavior genetics, behaviorism, cognitive social theory, evolutionary psychology, the five-factor model, intelligence, interpersonal theory, personality disorders, psychoanalysis, and others. There are also sections specifically geared for students and professionals as well as listings of links to papers, Websites, readings, and scholars available on the Web.
Schermer, V L
Object relations theory and self psychology are psychoanalytic perspectives that are especially concerned with interpersonal relations and their mental representations. Object relations theory began as an intrapsychic "singleton" psychology with the work of Freud and Melanie Klein. It subsequently evolved into a multi-person psychology with the work of Bion on groups, as well as the clinical and theoretical contributions of Winnicott and Fairbairn. Kohutian self psychology, which emerged later, has been interested in the relations between the self and significant others as mirroring and idealizing "self-objects." Stolorow's "inter-subjective perspective" emerged from self psychology as a full-fledged multi-person point of view. This article considers the significance of contemporary object relations theory and self psychology as relational, multi-person perspectives in terms of their application to group psychotherapy, focusing upon the group-as-a-whole, projective identification, transitional space and object, and self/self-object relations as particularly useful constructs. A clinical vignette is provided. PMID:10778012
Alessio, Danielle; Kilgour, D. Marc
Game models can contribute to understanding of how social biases and pressures to conform can lead to puzzling behaviour in social groups. A model of the psychological biases false uniqueness and false consensus is set out. The model predicts the phenomenon of pluralistic ignorance, which is well-studied in social psychology, showing how it arises as a result of the prevalence of false uniqueness and the desire to conform. An efficient method is developed for finding Nash equilibria of the model under certain restrictions.
Cognitive psychology's most useful contribution to dramatic theory is the concept of schemata, or the mental structures that make up part of the perceptual cycle. In regard to an audience-oriented dramatic theory, this suggests that analysis of a script ought to identify the sorts of schemata that are to be aroused in the audience's minds and the…
Horowitz, Sandra V.
Several psychological theories are viable when examining the victims of intimate violence, specifically battered women. Although cognitive consistency models view individuals as striving toward balanced cognitive states, battered women can exist with the cognitive inconsistency of being harmed by men who love them. The theory of cognitive arousal…
Hill, Clara E.
Three psychotherapy theories are summarized and critiqued for their applicability to counseling psychology. The lack of attention to psychodynamic and experiential theories in the special section and the lack of theorizing by counseling psychologists in general are lamented. A plea is made for encouraging counseling psychologists to construct more…
Shontz, F C
Explanations of psychological reactions to physical disability have recently tended to ascribe maladjustment to environmental rather than to personal causes. Historically, common-sense theories were first replaced by metalistic doctrines. These, in turn, were later supplemented by theories that integrated mentalism with environmentalism and by approaches that recognized only environmental causes of behavior. Each theory makes a unique contribution to rehabilitation. Consequently, unification rather than elimination should be the goal of future theoretical development. PMID:149525
Trope, Yaacov; Liberman, Nira
People are capable of thinking about the future, the past, remote locations, another person’s perspective, and counterfactual alternatives. Without denying the uniqueness of each process, it is proposed that they constitute different forms of traversing psychological distance. Psychological distance is egocentric: Its reference point is the self in the here and now, and the different ways in which an object might be removed from that point—in time, in space, in social distance, and in hypotheticality—constitute different distance dimensions. Transcending the self in the here and now entails mental construal, and the farther removed an object is from direct experience, the higher (more abstract) the level of construal of that object. Supporting this analysis, research shows (a) that the various distances are cognitively related to each other, (b) that they similarly influence and are influenced by level of mental construal, and (c) that they similarly affect prediction, preference, and action. PMID:20438233
The Second Law of Thermodynamics Is the First Law of Psychology: Evolutionary Developmental for their research. The goal in evolutionary developmental psychology is to move beyond such bland general statements Psychology and the Theory Of Tandem, Coordinated Inheritances: Comment on Lickliter and Honeycutt (2003) John
Walsh, W. Bruce, Ed.; Osipow, Samuel H., Ed.
This handbook is designed to acquaint readers with the practical and applied aspects of the field of vocational psychology and the variety of techniques, procedures, and theories available for vocational assessment. The following chapters are included: "Preface" and "Introduction" (W. Bruce Walsh, Samuel H. Osipow); "Current Theoretical Issues in…
Examines various psychodynamic and behavioral theories in a discussion about obesity and mental health. It is revealed that modern theory finds no identifiable personality profile, behavior, or family structure influencing large weight gain thus discounting psychopathology as the cause of obesity. Individual assessments for causes of obesity are…
Diemer, Matthew A.; Ali, Saba Rasheed
Although social class plays a salient and significant role in career development and occupational attainment, social class is underrepresented in vocational psychology theory, scholarship, and practice. Vocational psychologists are in a unique position to meet the career development needs of persons from all social classes by integrating a fuller…
Stewart, Ian; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Bond, Frank W.; Hayes, Steven C.
The current paper argues that a Relational Frame Theory account of complex human behavior including an analysis of relational frames, relational networks, rules and the concept of self can provide a potentially powerful new perspective on phenomena in the applied science of industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology. In this article, we first…
Delprato, Dennis J.; Smith, Noel W.
We provide a sketch of J. R. Kantor's (1959, 1971) psychological interbehavioral field (IBF) theory by identifying 9 essential points and briefly discussing each. The main emphasis of this sketch is on the foundation of Kantor's thinking, the IBF. Suggestions for further study are provided.
Gordon H. Bower
In this paper, I will try to reveal some of the orienting beliefs of cognitive psychology about the organization of the mind and mental skills, and then try to relate that to social learning theory, which is a popular orientation of behavior therapists. A problem here is that cognitive psychologists seldom try to think about how to put together a
To account for observed sex differences on tasks such as the rod and frame test, the embedded figures test, and other related measures, the theory is advanced that a sex-linked recessive gene mediates or facilitates certain performances. This assumption is coupled with the concept of "a mixture of density functions" to provide a theoretical…
McInerney, Dennis M.
This article presents a brief overview of developments in educational psychology over the last twenty-five years. It firstly presents an historical context by reviewing four basic emphases in educational psychology; cognitive psychology, behavioural psychology, social cognitive theory and humanism. The article then reviews the growth in cognitive…
Ewart, C K
Many illnesses can be prevented or limited by altering personal behavior, and public health planners have turned to psychology for guidance in fostering self-protective activity. A social theory of personal action provides an integrative framework for applying psychology to public health, disclosing gaps in our current understanding of self-regulation, and generating guidelines for improving health promotion at the population level. A social action view emphasizes social interdependence and interaction in personal control of health-endangering behavior and proposes mechanisms by which environmental structures influence cognitive action schemas, self-goals, and problem-solving activities critical to sustained behavioral change. Social action theory clarifies relationships between social and personal empowerment and helps explain stages of self-change. PMID:1958012
Westaby, James D; Pfaff, Danielle L; Redding, Nicholas
Research on social networks has grown exponentially in recent years. However, despite its relevance, the field of psychology has been relatively slow to explain the underlying goal pursuit and resistance processes influencing social networks in the first place. In this vein, this article aims to demonstrate how a dynamic network theory perspective explains the way in which social networks influence these processes and related outcomes, such as goal achievement, performance, learning, and emotional contagion at the interpersonal level of analysis. The theory integrates goal pursuit, motivation, and conflict conceptualizations from psychology with social network concepts from sociology and organizational science to provide a taxonomy of social network role behaviors, such as goal striving, system supporting, goal preventing, system negating, and observing. This theoretical perspective provides psychologists with new tools to map social networks (e.g., dynamic network charts), which can help inform the development of change interventions. Implications for social, industrial-organizational, and counseling psychology as well as conflict resolution are discussed, and new opportunities for research are highlighted, such as those related to dynamic network intelligence (also known as cognitive accuracy), levels of analysis, methodological/ethical issues, and the need to theoretically broaden the study of social networking and social media behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24750076
The article sets out the value of theorizing collective action from a social science perspective that engages with the messy actuality of practice. It argues that community health psychology relies on an abstract version of Paulo Freire's earlier writing, the Pedagogy of the Oppressed, which provides scholar-activists with a 'map' approach to collective action. The article revisits Freire's later work, the Pedagogy of Hope, and argues for the importance of developing a 'journey' approach to collective action. Theories of practice are discussed for their value in theorizing such journeys, and in bringing maps (intentions) and journeys (actuality) closer together. PMID:24155187
Zhu, Song Chun
UCLA Psychology, 2003. Song-Chun Zhu A Mathematical Theory for Texture, Texton, Primal Sketch Angeles Joint work with Y.Wu, C.Guo and D. Mumford, 1995-2003 UCLA Psychology, 2003. Song-Chun Zhu Julesz visual perception?" ---1960s #12;UCLA Psychology, 2003. Song-Chun Zhu Psychophysics Experiments Texture
Odle-Dusseau, Heather N; Herleman, Hailey A; Britt, Thomas W; Moore, Dewayne D; Castro, Carl A; McGurk, Dennis
Based on the Job Demands-Resources (JDR) model (E. Demerouti, A. B. Bakker, F. Nachreiner, & W. B. Schaufeli, 2001, The job demands-resources model of burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 499-512) and Conservation of Resources (COR) theory (S. E. Hobfoll, 2002, Social and psychological resources and adaptation. Review of General Psychology, 6, 307-324), we tested three competing models that predict different directions of causation for relationships over time between family-supportive work environments (FSWE) and psychological strain, with two waves of data from a military sample. Results revealed support for both the JDR and COR theories, first in the static model where FSWE at Time 1 predicted psychological strain at Time 2 and when testing the opposite direction, where psychological strain at Time 1 predicted FSWE at Time 2. For change models, FSWE predicted changes in psychological strain across time, although the reverse causation model was not supported (psychological strain at Time 1 did not predict changes in FSWE). Also, changes in FSWE across time predicted psychological strain at Time 2, whereas changes in psychological strain did not predict FSWE at Time 2. Theoretically, these results are important for the work-family interface in that they demonstrate the application of a systems approach to studying work and family interactions, as support was obtained for both the JDR model with perceptions of FSWE predicting psychological strain (in both the static and change models), and for COR theory where psychological strain predicts FSWE across time. PMID:23276196
Barrett, Jeffrey A.
journal of mathematical psychology 40, 109 129 (1996) A Theory of Ratio Magnitude Estimation* Louis Narens University of California, Irvine Various axiomatic theories of magnitude estimation are presented magnitude estimations; and psychobehavioral, in which the relationships are theoretical and describe
Wininger, Steven R.; Norman, Antony D.
Although Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory (HNT) is one of the most prevalent theories in psychology, the authors argued that it is also one of the most misinterpreted or misrepresented, particularly in educational psychology textbooks. Therefore, after carefully reading Maslow's writings on HNT they conducted a content analysis of 18 educational…
Cultural evolutionary theory is an interdisciplinary field in which human culture is viewed as a Darwinian process of variation, competition, and inheritance, and the tools, methods, and theories developed by evolutionary biologists to study genetic evolution are adapted to study cultural change. It is argued here that an integration of the theories and findings of mainstream social psychology and of cultural evolutionary theory can be mutually beneficial. Social psychology provides cultural evolution with a set of empirically verified microevolutionary cultural processes, such as conformity, model-based biases, and content biases, that are responsible for specific patterns of cultural change. Cultural evolutionary theory provides social psychology with ultimate explanations for, and an understanding of the population-level consequences of, many social psychological phenomena, such as social learning, conformity, social comparison, and intergroup processes, as well as linking social psychology with other social science disciplines such as cultural anthropology, archaeology, and sociology. PMID:19839691
We show that a path not yet considered exists in the parameter space of the cusp catastrophe that constitutes a 'target-trajectory,' along which psychological change may be achieved in a variety of situations by taking advantage of the protagonists' resistance. The parameters Pathogen - the pathogenic agent - and Therapy, or Dissent and Remedy, are used depending on whether the theory is applied to psychotherapy or conflict, respectively. This proposed target-trajectory offers: (a) conditions optimised in therapy with regard to the intrinsic limitations for the reduction of a patient's pathogenic agent, and in conflict with regard to the 'red-lines' of the protagonists, and (b) the benefit of a step of rapid decrease in the potential barrier to change. Questions raised concern the benefit that a patient may obtain from performing his cognitive task in psychotherapy with minimal requirement for the reduction of his pathogen, and the role that a step of rapid decrease in a potential barrier may play in decision-making, in particular when it comes to end a conflict. The argument is developed in detail for psychoanalytic resistance, relying on principles and procedures described in numerous texts of psychoanalysis. The theory deals with scaling laws - power laws - rather than strict equalities. PMID:25575557
Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Buss, David M
Conceptually integrating Selfish Goal Theory with modern evolutionary psychology amplifies theoretical power. Inconsistency, a key principle of Selfish Goal Theory, illustrates this insight. Conflicting goals of seeking sexual variety and successful mate retention furnish one example. Siblings have evolved goals to cooperate and compete, a second example. Integrating Selfish Goal Theory with evolutionary theory can explain much inconsistent goal-directed behavior. PMID:24775126
Jeffery A. Thompson; David W. Hart
Social contract theory has been criticized as a “theory in search of application.” We argue that incorporating the nano, or individual, level of analysis into social contract inquiry will yield more descriptive theory. We draw upon the psychological contract perspective to address two critiques of social contract theory: its rigid macro-orientation and inattention to the process of contract formation. We
Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.
The author has proposed a new theory of suicidal behavior--the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (Joiner, 2005)--which attempts to answer the question "Why do people die by suicide?" In this commentary, he briefly describes the theory, and then argues that the theory's constructs may allow a new level of focus and specificity…
Chaper: A model for mind relations - An application of knot theory to psychology Akio KAWAUCHI, Personality, Human mind, Psychology, Knot, Link, Self-releasability relation 1. Introduction The purpose in daily life by strings. Besides, the author knew by R. Rucker's book  that B. Stewart and P. G. Tait1
Jerome L. Singer
This article represents a tribute to the late Helen Block Lewis's commitment to integrating psychology and psychoanalysis. The current status of the formal structure of psychoanalytic theory was reviewed in relation to recent developments in general psychology. Specific attention was paid to the psychodynamic or motivational perspective, the structural perspective, and the genetic or developmental perspective as proposed by Rapaport.
Chou, Chih-Chin; Chan, Fong; Chan, Jacob Yui Chung; Phillips, Brian; Ditchman, Nicole; Kaseroff, Ashley
Positive psychology is a scientific study that explores what makes life most worth living and applies psychological theory to understand the human strengths that are important for enhancing overall well-being and happiness. The rehabilitation counseling philosophy shares a similar emphasis on personal strengths and the importance of enhancing what…
Habarth, Janice; Hansell, James; Grove, Tyler
Previous studies have raised concerns about the quality of the coverage of psychoanalytic content in undergraduate psychology textbooks. The authors investigated the accuracy and currency of psychoanalytic content in top-selling introductory psychology textbooks. Across the textbooks, 2% to 18% of the paragraphs with psychoanalytic content…
This is a constructivist grounded theory study of the impact of the clinical psychology flexible training scheme on the development of professional identity. Professional identity development involves the acquisition of ...
Leung, Wilson (Wilson Wan Shun)
I evaluate the practical utility of psychological bias theory by examining two historical cases - the US decision to cross the 38th parallel in 1950 and the British policy of appeasement towards Germany in the 1930s - ...
Two studies examined correlates of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory among Malays in Malaysia, a culture in which state-directed conspiracism as a means of dealing with perceived external and internal threats is widespread. In Study 1, 368 participants from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed a novel measure of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and anomie. Initial analysis showed that the novel scale factorially reduced to a single dimension. Further analysis showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was only significantly associated with general conspiracist ideation, but the strength of the association was weak. In Study 2, 314 participants completed the measure of belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and ideological attitudes. Results showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was associated with anti-Israeli attitudes, modern racism directed at the Chinese, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. General conspiracist ideation did not emerge as a significant predictor once other variables had been accounted for. These results suggest that there may be specific cultural and social psychological forces that drive belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory within the Malaysian context. Specifically, belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory among Malaysian Malays appears to serve ideological needs and as a mask for anti-Chinese sentiment, which may in turn reaffirm their perceived ability to shape socio-political processes. PMID:22888323
Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick
Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…
E. D. Vol
We propose the consistent statistical approach for the quantitative description of simple psychological phenomena using the methods of quantum theory of open systems (QTOS). Taking as the starting point the K. Lewin's psychological field theory we show that basic concepts of this theory can be naturally represented in the language of QTOS. In particular provided that all stimuli acting on psychological system (that is individual or group of interest) are known one can associate with these stimuli corresponding operators and after that to write down the equation for evolution of density matrix of the relevant open system which allows one to find probabilities of all possible behavior alternatives. Using the method proposed we consider in detail simple model describing such interesting psychological phenomena as cognitive dissonance and the impact of competition among group members on its unity.
Humoralism, the view that the human body is composed of a limited number of elementary fluids, is one of the most characteristic aspects of ancient medicine. The psychological dimension of humoral theory in the ancient world has thus far received a relatively small amount of scholarly attention. Medical psychology in the ancient world can only be correctly understood by relating it to psychological thought in other fields, such as ethics and rhetoric. The concept that ties these various domains together is character (êthos), which involves a view of human beings focused on clearly distinguishable psychological types that can be recognized on the basis of external signs. Psychological ideas based on humoral theory remained influential well into the early modern period. Yet, in 17th-century medicine and philosophy, humoral physiology and psychology started to lose ground to other theoretical perspectives on the mind and its relation to the body. This decline of humoralist medical psychology can be related to a broader reorientation of psychological thought in which the traditional concept of character lost its central position. Instead of the focus on types and stable character traits, a perspective emerged that was primarily concerned with individuality and transient passions. PMID:20213950
Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.
The widespread and increasing use of cooperative learning is one of the great success stories of social and educational psychology. Its success largely rests on the relationships among theory, research, and practice. Social interdependence theory provides a foundation on which cooperative learning is built. More than 1,200 research studies have…
George, James M.; McIver, F. Thomas
A slide-tape series developed for introduction of developmental and learning theories in freshman dental curriculum is described. Theories of social-emotional development, cognitive development, and theories of conditioning and observational learning are included. (MSE)
Sprott, Julien Clinton
Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, Vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 271-278. © 2009 Society for Chaos Theory in Psychology & Life Sciences Simplifications of the Lorenz Attractor J. C. Sprott1.5723). This system has been widely studied, and there is a whole book devoted to it (Sparrow, 1982
Sprott, Julien Clinton
for Chaos Theory in Psychology & Life Sciences Book Review Images of a Complex World: The Art and Poetry405 Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, Vol.10, No.3, pp.405-407. © 2006 Society Longino extended these methods to the social sciences in her book Science as Social Knowledge: Values
Sprott, Julien Clinton
for Chaos Theory in Psychology & Life Sciences Book Review Chaos and Time-Series Analysis. By Julien ClintonNonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, Vol.8, No.1, January, 2004. © 2004 Society 5 (hardback),0 19850840 9 (paperback). This book is the most comprehensive and clear text
Sprott, Julien Clinton
Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 223-232.1 © 2013 Society for Chaos Theory in Psychology & Life Sciences.2 3 Is Chaos Good for Learning?4 5 J. C. Sprott 1 chaos allows the exploration of a wider range of conditions while26 still retaining a degree of memory
Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 117-129. © 2008 Society for Chaos Theory in Psychology & Life Sciences Biophilic Fractals and the Visual Journey of Organic Screen, Draves regards his images as evolving artificial life forms and the parameters that generate them
Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp.91-96. © 2012 Society for Chaos Theory in Psychology & Life Sciences. The Transience of Virtual Fractals R. P. Taylor 1 to life. This will be done by incorporating her prints of fractal patterns into zoetropes
Padilla, Amado M., Ed.
This book provides students, researchers, and practitioners with access to major theoretical and empirical issues in the field of Hispanic psychology. The book is divided into six parts: acculturation and adaptation, ethnic identity and behavior, clinical research and services, health and AIDS research, gender studies research, and education and…
Vogel, Carl M
of particular inheritance networks. There has not been an accepted semantics for inheritance which unifies the set of possible proof theories, which would help identify truly ill motivated proof theories. This thesis attempts to clarify the inheritance...
Condom use for HIV prevention has been very inconsistent in most sub-Saharan African countries. Studies from around the continent report that knowledge about HIV transmission is variable and seems to be related to gender, socioeconomic and educational status. There is a large body of psychological knowledge about HIV prevention which has been applied to condom promotion campaigns in developed countries. These approaches to condom promotion, based on formal theory, have not been used on a wide scale in African countries and this paper explores ways in which psychological theory might be appropriately applied in a situation of high HIV prevalence. PMID:9195835
Wong, Ting Yat; Yuen, Kenneth S. L.; Li, Wang On
The Internet provides an easily accessible way to meet certain needs. Over-reliance on it leads to problematic use, which studies show can be predicted by psychological distress. Self-determination theory proposes that we all have the basic need for autonomy, competency, and relatedness. This has been shown to explain the motivations behind problematic Internet use. This study hypothesizes that individuals who are psychologically disturbed because their basic needs are not being met are more vulnerable to becoming reliant on the Internet when they seek such needs satisfaction from online activities, and tests a model in which basic needs predict problematic Internet use, fully mediated by psychological distress. Problematic Internet use, psychological distress, and basic needs satisfaction were psychometrically measured in a sample of 229 Hong Kong University students and structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesized model. All indices showed the model has a good fit. Further, statistical testing supported a mediation effect for psychological distress between needs satisfaction and problematic Internet use. The results extend our understanding of the development and prevention of problematic Internet use based on the framework of self-determination theory. Psychological distress could be used as an early predictor, while preventing and treating problematic Internet use should emphasize the fulfillment of unmet needs. PMID:25642201
Martin P Eccles; Jeremy M Grimshaw; Marie Johnston; Nick Steen; Nigel B Pitts; Ruth Thomas; Elizabeth Glidewell; Graeme Maclennan; Debbie Bonetti; Anne Walker
BACKGROUND: Psychological models can be used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings. However, they have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of differing theories is not clear. The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of a range of psychological theories to predict health professional behaviour relating to
For many years various labels have been used when referring to the theories of L. S. Vygotsky, all of which have resulted in a most interesting, yet con- fusing, phenomenon. Why isn't there one label for Vygotsky's psychology? Although this type of diversity reflects a flexible and robust nature of cur- rent Vygotskian thinking internationally, it has led to confusion,
This appreciation of Wittrock's contributions to educational psychology suggests that his 1974 article describing generative learning theory was remarkably prescient. In that article Wittrock set the stage for the subsequent paradigm shift from cognitive to constructivist approaches to instruction. Furthermore, his suggestion that schools were the…
William J. Ruth
Main tenets, issues, and controversies for evolutionary psychology (EP), particularly its cognitive aspects, are introduced, clarified, and applied to the theory and philosophy of rational-emotive therapy (RET). Specifically, key concepts in EP are applied to Ellis' genetic postulate for cognitive demandingness and grandiosity, and are incorporated into Ruth's (1992) RET evolutionary proposal. The following issues are examined for demanding and
Katherine A Johnson; Jan R Wiersema; Jonna Kuntsi
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common and highly heritable neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder. Here, we critically review four major psychological theories of ADHD – the Executive Dysfunction, the State Regulation, the Delay Aversion and the Dynamic Developmental – on their abilities to explain all the symptoms of ADHD, their testability and their openness to falsification. We conclude that theoreticians
Charles J. Gelso
This article offers a revised and updated theory of the research training environment (RTE) in graduate education in professional psychology. Ingredients of the RTE that are theorized to enhance students' research attitudes and eventual productivity are proposed. Six primary ingredients have been supported by research as \\
Johnson, Katherine A; Wiersema, Jan R; Kuntsi, Jonna
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common and highly heritable neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder. Here, we critically review four major psychological theories of ADHD - the Executive Dysfunction, the State Regulation, the Delay Aversion and the Dynamic Developmental - on their abilities to explain all the symptoms of ADHD, their testability and their openness to falsification. We conclude that theoreticians should focus, to a greater extent than currently practiced, on developing refutable theories of ADHD. PMID:19257888
Johnson, Katherine A; Wiersema, Jan R; Kuntsi, Jonna
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common and highly heritable neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder. Here, we critically review four major psychological theories of ADHD – the Executive Dysfunction, the State Regulation, the Delay Aversion and the Dynamic Developmental – on their abilities to explain all the symptoms of ADHD, their testability and their openness to falsification. We conclude that theoreticians should focus, to a greater extent than currently practiced, on developing refutable theories of ADHD. PMID:19257888
Gonsiorek, John C.
This paper discusses the importance and dangers of causal theories of sexual orientation, noting that, in recent years, the illness model of homosexuality has been thoroughly discredited and replaced with a variety of gay and lesbian affirmative constructs which explore the effects of a disparaging and hostile society on the development and…
Yehuda Baruch; Rod Lambert
Purpose – This paper seeks to present a dual-level framework for developing change management theory, based on the concept of anxiety as an organizational phenomenon and its potential for prevention, recognition and treatment. When encountering crisis, confusion, and difficulties, both individuals and organizations can suffer from anxiety-related problems. The paper aims to argue that organizational anxiety can be diagnosed and
\\u000a Within marketing contexts, messages are effective when consumers find them both believable and relevant. An understanding\\u000a of signaling theory and signal design features, derived from the study of animal and human behavioral ecology, can help marketers\\u000a overcome the first challenge of crafting believable signals. Effective signals must fundamentally overcome the skepticism\\u000a of receivers and generally accomplish this by linkage, either
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
in cognitive science, such as the development of mentalisation, the psychology of action and of reasoning1 In: Biological Theory, 2007, 2 Why evolution has to matter to cognitive psychology, psycholinguistics, cognitive anthropology and A.I. Growing suspicions were raised however that an exclusively
Wan, Chin-Sheng; Chiou, Wen-Bin
Obviously, the negative impact of online games has received much attention as well as having become a popular research topic. This research explored, from flow theory and humanistic needs theory, the psychological motivations of Taiwanese adolescents who are addicted to online games. The purpose of Study 1 was to investigate the relationship between players' flow state and their online games addiction. The results indicated that flow state was negatively correlated with addictive inclination and it was not a significant predictor for players' subsequent additive inclination. Findings also revealed that the addicts' flow state was significantly lower than the nonaddicts. Thus, flow state might not be the key psychological mechanism of players' addiction. In Study 2, the results showed that the psychological needs of players of online games were close to the two-factor theory which depicts satisfaction and dissatisfaction dimensions. Addicted players' need-gratification was similar to the feature of dissatisfactory factor. That is, the absence of playing online games is more likely to generate sense of dissatisfaction; the addicts' compulsive use of online games seems to stem from the relief of dissatisfaction rather than the pursuit of satisfaction. In contrast, online games tend to provide the nonaddicts with a sense of satisfaction rather than a sense of dissatisfaction. PMID:16780399
Smith, Eliot R; Conrey, Frederica R
Most social and psychological phenomena occur not as the result of isolated decisions by individuals but rather as the result of repeated interactions between multiple individuals over time. Yet the theory-building and modeling techniques most commonly used in social psychology are less than ideal for understanding such dynamic and interactive processes. This article describes an alternative approach to theory building, agent-based modeling (ABM), which involves simulation of large numbers of autonomous agents that interact with each other and with a simulated environment and the observation of emergent patterns from their interactions. The authors believe that the ABM approach is better able than prevailing approaches in the field, variable-based modeling (VBM) techniques such as causal modeling, to capture types of complex, dynamic, interactive processes so important in the social world. The article elaborates several important contrasts between ABM and VBM and offers specific recommendations for learning more and applying the ABM approach. PMID:18453457
Helmreich, Robert L.
What psychological theory and research can reveal about training in Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is summarized. A framework is provided for the critical analysis of current approaches to CRM training. Background factors and definitions critical to evaluating CRM are reviewed, followed by a discussion of issues directly related to CRM training effectiveness. Some of the things not known about the optimization of crew performance and the research needed to make these efforts as effective as possible are described.
Bird, Anne Marie; Ross, Diane
A brief history of research in sport psychology based on Lander's (1982) analysis is presented. A systematic approach to theory building is offered. Previous methodological inadequacies are identified using examples of observational learning and anxiety. (Author/DF)
Nicole M. Cain; Aaron L. Pincus; Emily B. Ansell
This review documents two themes of emphasis found in phenotypic descriptions of pathological narcissism across clinical theory, social\\/personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Clinical theories of narcissism spanning 35 years consistently describe variations in the expression of pathological narcissism that emphasize either grandiosity or vulnerable affects and self-states. Recent research in social\\/personality psychology examining the structure of narcissistic personality traits consistently finds
Background There is a large burden of psychological distress in low and middle-income countries, and culturally relevant interventions must be developed to address it. This requires an understanding of how distress is experienced. We conducted a qualitative grounded theory study to understand how mothers experience and manage distress in Dhanusha, a low-resource setting in rural Nepal. We also explored how distressed mothers interact with their families and the wider community. Methods Participants were identified during a cluster-randomised controlled trial in which mothers were screened for psychological distress using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We conducted 22 semi-structured interviews with distressed mothers (GHQ-12 score ?5) and one with a traditional healer (dhami), as well as 12 focus group discussions with community members. Data were analysed using grounded theory methods and a model was developed to explain psychological distress in this setting. Results We found that distress was termed tension by participants and mainly described in terms of physical symptoms. Key perceived causes of distress were poor health, lack of sons, and fertility problems. Tension developed in a context of limited autonomy for women and perceived duty towards the family. Distressed mothers discussed several strategies to alleviate tension, including seeking treatment for perceived physical health problems and tension from doctors or dhamis, having repeated pregnancies until a son was delivered, manipulating social circumstances in the household, and deciding to accept their fate. Their ability to implement these strategies depended on whether they were able to negotiate with their in-laws or husbands for resources. Conclusions Vulnerability, as a consequence of gender and social disadvantage, manifests as psychological distress among mothers in Dhanusha. Screening tools incorporating physical symptoms of tension should be envisaged, along with interventions to address gender inequity, support marital relationships, and improve access to perinatal healthcare. PMID:24581309
Van Lange, Paul A M
The construction and development of theory is one of the central routes to scientific progress. But what exactly constitutes a good theory? What is it that people might expect from an ideal theory? This article advances a new model, which delineates truth, abstraction, progress, and applicability as standards (TAPAS) for a good theory. After providing the rationale for TAPAS, this article evaluates several social-psychological theories in terms of TAPAS, especially classic theories, and illustrates its utility with some more recent theoretical contributions of social psychology. This article concludes by outlining recommendations for effective theory construction and development, such as the utility of meta-analytic approaches for pursuing truth, the utility of theory-oriented courses and journals for pursuing abstraction, and the utility of adversarial collaboration for pursuing progress, and reaching out to major personal or societal issues for pursuing applicability. PMID:22854861
Bassett, Jonathan F.
The author attempts to integrate Terror Management Theory (TMT) and R. W. Firestone's Separation Theory (1984, 1994). Both theories emphasize defense against death anxiety as a key human motive. Whereas TMT focuses extensively on self-esteem and cultural worldview, Firestone posited additional defenses such as gene survival, self-nourishing…
Pike, Gary R.
Because it focuses on the interactions between students and their environments, Holland's theory of vocational choice provides a powerful framework for studying college experiences. The present study assessed the relative merits of psychological and sociological interpretations of Holland's theory by examining the relationships among students' …
Zhang, Jie; Lester, David
As a comprehensive and parsimonious theory explaining the socio-psychological mechanism prior to suicidal behavior, strain theory of suicide postulates that conflicting and competing pressures in an individual's life usually precede a suicide. The theory proposes four sources of strain leading to suicide: (1) value strain from conflicting values, (2) aspiration strain from the discrepancy between aspiration and reality, (3) deprivation strain from relative deprivation such as poverty, and (4) coping strain from deficient coping skills in the face of a crisis. This research has content-analyzed 40 suicide notes (20 by suicide completers and 20 by suicide attempters) and found strong support for the strain theory of suicide. Although little difference is found in the number and pattern of strains between the completers and attempters, both groups have many aspirations and coping strains and few value and deprivation strains. Also, the older a suicidal victim is, the more he/she feels deprived and lacks coping skills and feels less bothered with value conflicts. Although the study has offered some support for the new theory, future research with more rigorous quantitative data needs to be conducted to further test the theory on a more comprehensive level. PMID:18240036
Developmental Psychology Developmental psychology is concerned with both physical and psychological changes throughout life-- from conception until death. www.uwindsor.ca/psychology A Rigorous, Enriching Program Developmental Psychology is a specialized major within Psychology that focuses on child
Barbara L. Fredrickson
In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought–action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources.
Jonathan F. Bassett
The author attempts to integrate Terror Management Theory (TMT) and R. W. Firestone's Separation Theory (19841994). Both theories emphasize defense against death anxiety as a key human motive. Whereas TMT focuses extensively on self-esteem and cultural worldview, Firestone posited additional defenses such as gene survival, self-nourishing behaviors, addictive couple bonds, and adopting an anti-sexual approach to life. TMT offers a
Miglino, Orazio; Gigliotta, Onofrio; Cardaci, Maurizio; Ponticorvo, Michela
In the 1930s and 1940s, Edward Tolman developed a psychological theory of spatial orientation in rats and humans. He expressed his theory as an automaton (the "schematic sowbug") or what today we would call an "artificial organism." With the technology of the day, he could not implement his model. Nonetheless, he used it to develop empirical predictions which tested with animals in the laboratory. This way of proceeding was in line with scientific practice dating back to Galileo. The way psychologists use artificial organisms in their work today breaks with this tradition. Modern "artificial organisms" are constructed a posteriori, working from experimental or ethological observations. As a result, researchers can use them to confirm a theoretical model or to simulate its operation. But they make no contribution to the actual building of models. In this paper, we try to return to Tolman's original strategy: implementing his theory of "vicarious trial and error" in a simulated robot, forecasting the robot's behavior and conducting experiments that verify or falsify these predictions. PMID:17665237
Kelley, Thomas M.
Describes the refined principles of Psychology of Mind and shows how their logical interaction can help explain the comparative amounts of deviant and conforming behavior of youthful offenders. The logic of these principles is used to examine the major assumptions of social bonding and control theory of delinquency focusing predominantly on the…
This study investigated the usefulness of social cognitive career theory--SCCT (Lent, Brown, and Hackett, 1994) in predicting interests and goals relating to statistics among psychology students. The participants were 1036 Spanish students who completed measurements of statistics-related mastery experiences, self-efficacy, outcome expectations,…
Kahn, Jeffrey H.
The author reacts to the three core articles in the Scientific Forum of the May 2005 issue of "The Counseling Psychologist" about institutional research productivity, the use of theory-driven research, and the application of structural equation modeling to research in counseling psychology. To have a research base that maximizes divergent…
Gallagher, John P.
Discusses recent developments in instructional psychology relative to cognitive task analysis, individual difference variables, and cognitive models of interactive instructional decision making, which use constructs developed within the field of cognitive/information processing psychology. (Author/WBC)
Philosophers tend to assume that theoretical frameworks in psychology suffer from conceptual confusion and that any influence that philosophy might have on psychology should be positive. Going against this grain, Dan Lapsley and Darcia Narvaez attribute the Kohlbergian paradigm's current state of marginalization within psychology to Lawrence…
Amsel, Eric; Johnston, Adam; Alvarado, Elly; Kettering, Jack; Rankin, Lauren; Ward, Melissa
To test whether students' knowledge about psychology undergoes a conceptual change when learning about the discipline, 227 Introductory Psychology students from six different classes were given the Psychology as a Science (PAS) Scale in one of two conditions. Students were randomly assigned to complete the questionnaire from their own (Self…
Czyz, Ewa K; Berona, Johnny; King, Cheryl A
The challenge of identifying suicide risk in adolescents, and particularly among high-risk subgroups such as adolescent inpatients, calls for further study of models of suicidal behavior that could meaningfully aid in the prediction of risk. This study examined how well the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior (IPTS)-with its constructs of thwarted belongingness (TB), perceived burdensomeness (PB), and an acquired capability (AC) for lethal self-injury-predicts suicide attempts among adolescents (N = 376) 3 and 12 months after hospitalization. The three-way interaction between PB, TB, and AC, defined as a history of multiple suicide attempts, was not significant. However, there were significant 2-way interaction effects, which varied by sex: girls with low AC and increasing TB, and boys with high AC and increasing PB, were more likely to attempt suicide at 3 months. Only high AC predicted 12-month attempts. Results suggest gender-specific associations between theory components and attempts. The time-limited effects of these associations point to TB and PB being dynamic and modifiable in high-risk populations, whereas the effects of AC are more lasting. The study also fills an important gap in existing research by examining IPTS prospectively. PMID:25263410
Laghi, Fiorenzo; Cotugno, Armando; Cecere, Francesco; Sirolli, Arianna; Palazzoni, David; Bosco, Francesca M
This study aimed to investigate psychosocial functioning and different dimensions of theory of mind (ToM) in people with bulimia nervosa (BN) and Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified-BN type (EDNOS-BN). Psychosocial functioning and ToM were assessed in a sample of young adult females, 16 BN and 16 EDNOS-BN outpatients and 16 healthy controls (HCs). They were assessed using the Eating Disorder Inventory-Symptom Checklist-2 (EDI-2 SC) for evaluating psychological traits associated with eating disorders; the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) for evaluating psychopathological status; and the Theory of Mind Assessment Scale (Th.o.m.a.s.), a semi-structured interview aimed at assessing a person's different dimensions of ToM. The BN and EDNOS-BN groups exhibited worse performance than the control group on all dimensions of the SCL-90-R, and on all dimensions of the EDI-2 SC. The only difference for perfectionism was that BN obtained higher scores than EDNOS-BN group. Our results also revealed an impairment of third-person and second-order ToM in patients with bulimia (BN and EDNOS-BN) with respect to control subjects. These preliminary data have important implications for future empirical work, in that they provide valuable information regarding the importance of investigating the various facets of ToM ability separately, in order to provide a more detailed profile of ToM functioning in the clinical samples. PMID:24117350
Counseling Psychology Educational Psychology College of Education Phone: (313) 577-1618, 577-1743 Fax: (313) 577-5235 http://coe.wayne.edu/tbf/edp/counseling-psychology COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY WITH AN EMPHASIS IN COUPLE AND FAMILY PSYCHOLOGY May, 2012 The program area of Educational Psychology offers
Ellis, B Heidi; Lankau, Emily W; Ao, Trong; Benson, Molly A; Miller, Alisa B; Shetty, Sharmila; Lopes Cardozo, Barbara; Geltman, Paul L; Cochran, Jennifer
Attention has been drawn to high rates of suicide among refugees after resettlement and in particular among the Bhutanese refugees. This study sought to understand the apparent high rates of suicide among resettled Bhutanese refugees in the context of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior (IPTS). Expanding on a larger investigation of suicide in a randomly selected sample of Bhutanese men and women resettled in Arizona, Georgia, New York, and Texas (Ao et al., 2012), the current study focused on 2 factors, thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, examined individual and postmigration variables associated with these factors, and explored how they differed by gender. Overall, factors such as poor health were associated with perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. For men, stressors related to employment and providing for their families were related to feeling burdensome and/or alienated from family and friends, whereas for women, stressors such as illiteracy, family conflict, and being separated from family members were more associated. IPTS holds promise in understanding suicide in the resettled Bhutanese community. PMID:25642653
Offspring of individuals with psychoses sometimes display an abnormal development of cognition, language, motor performance, social adaptation, and emotional functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of children of mothers with schizophrenia (n = 28) and bipolar disorder (n = 23) to understand mental states of others using the Eyes Test (folk psychology or “theory of mind”) and physical causal interactions of inanimate objects (folk physics). Compared with healthy controls (n = 29), the children of mothers with schizophrenia displayed significantly impaired performances on the Eyes Test but not on the folk physics test when corrected for IQ. The children of mothers with bipolar disorder did not differ from the controls. The folk physics test showed a significant covariance with IQ, whereas the Eyes Test did not exhibit such covariance. These results suggest that the attribution of mental states, but not the interpretation of causal interaction of objects, is impaired in offspring of individuals with schizophrenia, which may contribute to social dysfunctions. PMID:24749009
Maróthi, Rebeka; Kéri, Szabolcs
Offspring of individuals with psychoses sometimes display an abnormal development of cognition, language, motor performance, social adaptation, and emotional functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of children of mothers with schizophrenia (n = 28) and bipolar disorder (n = 23) to understand mental states of others using the Eyes Test (folk psychology or "theory of mind") and physical causal interactions of inanimate objects (folk physics). Compared with healthy controls (n = 29), the children of mothers with schizophrenia displayed significantly impaired performances on the Eyes Test but not on the folk physics test when corrected for IQ. The children of mothers with bipolar disorder did not differ from the controls. The folk physics test showed a significant covariance with IQ, whereas the Eyes Test did not exhibit such covariance. These results suggest that the attribution of mental states, but not the interpretation of causal interaction of objects, is impaired in offspring of individuals with schizophrenia, which may contribute to social dysfunctions. PMID:24749009
This article reviews Vygotsky's writings on arts (particularly logocentric art including the theater) and emotions, drawing on his initial exploration in "The Psychology of Art" and his final considerations set forth in a set of essays, treatises, and lectures produced in the last years of his life. The review of "The Psychology of Art" includes…
Wilkinson, Rebecca A.; Chilton, Gioia
As a growing movement in the larger field of mental health, positive psychology has much to offer the art therapy profession, which in turn is uniquely poised to contribute to the study of optimal functioning. This article discusses the relationship of positive psychology to art therapy and its capacity to mobilize client strengths, to induce…
This essay reviews Vygotsky's writings on arts (particularly logocentric art including the theater) and emotions, drawing on his initial exploration in The Psychology of Art and his final considerations set forth in a set of essays, treatises, and lectures produced in the last years of his life. The review of The Psychology of Art includes attention to the limits of
Heath, Nicole M.; Hall, Brian J.; Russ, Eric U.; Canetti, Daphna; Hobfoll, Stevan E.
We conducted a four-wave prospective study of Palestinian adults living in the West Bank, Gaza Strip, and East Jerusalem, interviewed between 2007 and 2009 at 6-month intervals to explore transactional relationships among resource loss (i.e., intra- and inter-personal resource loss) and psychological distress (i.e., PTSD and depression symptoms). Initially, 1196 Palestinians completed the first wave interview and 752 of these participants completed all four interviews. A cross-lagged panel design was constructed to model the effects of trauma exposure on both resource loss and psychological distress and the subsequent reciprocal effects of resource loss and psychological distress across four time waves. Specifically, resource loss was modeled to predict distress, which in turn was expected to predict further resource loss. Structural equation modeling was used to test this design. We found that psychological distress significantly predicts resource loss across shorter, 6-month time waves, but that resource loss predicts distress across longer, 12-month intervals. These findings support the Conservation of Resources theory’s corollary of loss spirals. PMID:22091974
The purpose of this study was to analyze selected cognitive theories in the areas of artificial intelligence (A.I.) and psychology to determine the role of emotions in the cognitive or intellectual processes. Understanding the relationship of emotions to processes of intelligence has implications for constructing theories of aesthetic response and A.I. systems in art. Psychological theories were examined that demonstrated the changing nature of the research in emotion related to cognition. The basic techniques in A.I. were reviewed and the A.I. research was analyzed to determine the process of cognition and the role of emotion. The A.I. research emphasized the digital, quantifiable character of the computer and associated cognitive models and programs. In conclusion, the cognitive-emotive research in psychology and the cognitive research in A.I. emphasized quantification methods over analog and qualitative characteristics required for a holistic explanation of cognition. Further A.I. research needs to examine the qualitative aspects of values, attitudes, and beliefs on influencing the creative thinking processes. Inclusion of research related to qualitative problem solving in art provides a more comprehensive base of study for examining the area of intelligence in computers.
text book: Taylor, S. E. & Daniel, E. L. (2012). PSY 320 Health Psychology: Selected Material from1 Health Psychology Psychology 320 Zaje Harrell, Ph.D. Fall 2011 134B Psychology Building Tu/Th 8:30-9:50 a.m. 432-1811 office Psychology Building 118 353-5015 floor office firstname.lastname@example.org Office Hours
1 Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280 1st Summer Session 2013 May 13June 27, 2013 Tuesday" Kalibatseva, M.A. Office: 127B Psychology Building Email: email@example.com Phone Psychology PhD program at Michigan State University. I completed my bachelor's dual degree in psychology
Eccles, Martin P; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Johnston, Marie; Steen, Nick; Pitts, Nigel B; Thomas, Ruth; Glidewell, Elizabeth; Maclennan, Graeme; Bonetti, Debbie; Walker, Anne
Background Psychological models can be used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings. However, they have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of differing theories is not clear. The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of a range of psychological theories to predict health professional behaviour relating to management of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) without antibiotics. Methods Psychological measures were collected by postal questionnaire survey from a random sample of general practitioners (GPs) in Scotland. The outcome measures were clinical behaviour (using antibiotic prescription rates as a proxy indicator), behavioural simulation (scenario-based decisions to managing URTI with or without antibiotics) and behavioural intention (general intention to managing URTI without antibiotics). Explanatory variables were the constructs within the following theories: Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), Common Sense Self-Regulation Model (CS-SRM), Operant Learning Theory (OLT), Implementation Intention (II), Stage Model (SM), and knowledge (a non-theoretical construct). For each outcome measure, multiple regression analysis was used to examine the predictive value of each theoretical model individually. Following this 'theory level' analysis, a 'cross theory' analysis was conducted to investigate the combined predictive value of all significant individual constructs across theories. Results All theories were tested, but only significant results are presented. When predicting behaviour, at the theory level, OLT explained 6% of the variance and, in a cross theory analysis, OLT 'evidence of habitual behaviour' also explained 6%. When predicting behavioural simulation, at the theory level, the proportion of variance explained was: TPB, 31%; SCT, 26%; II, 6%; OLT, 24%. GPs who reported having already decided to change their management to try to avoid the use of antibiotics made significantly fewer scenario-based decisions to prescribe. In the cross theory analysis, perceived behavioural control (TPB), evidence of habitual behaviour (OLT), CS-SRM cause (chance/bad luck), and intention entered the equation, together explaining 36% of the variance. When predicting intention, at the theory level, the proportion of variance explained was: TPB, 30%; SCT, 29%; CS-SRM 27%; OLT, 43%. GPs who reported that they had already decided to change their management to try to avoid the use of antibiotics had a significantly higher intention to manage URTIs without prescribing antibiotics. In the cross theory analysis, OLT evidence of habitual behaviour, TPB attitudes, risk perception, CS-SRM control by doctor, TPB perceived behavioural control and CS-SRM control by treatment entered the equation, together explaining 49% of the variance in intention. Conclusion The study provides evidence that psychological models can be useful in understanding and predicting clinical behaviour. Taking a theory-based approach enables the creation of a replicable methodology for identifying factors that predict clinical behaviour. However, a number of conceptual and methodological challenges remain. PMID:17683558
Lesnik-Oberstein, M; Koers, A J; Cohen, L
A revised version of the three-factor theory of child abuse (Lesnik-Oberstein, Cohen, & Koers, 1982) is presented. Further, we report on a research designed to test three main hypotheses derived from Factor I (1) (a high level of hostility in abusive parents) and its sources. The three main hypotheses are: (1) that psychologically abusive mothers have a high level of hostile feelings (Factor I); (2) that the high level of hostile feelings in abusive mothers is associated with low marital coping skills (resulting in affectionless, violent marriages), a negative childhood upbringing (punitive, uncaring, over controlling), a high level of stress (objective stress), and a high level of strain (low self-esteem, depression, neurotic symptoms, social anxiety, feelings of being wronged); and (3) that maternal psychological child abuse is associated with low marital coping skills, a negative childhood upbringing, a high level of stress and a high level of strain. Forty-four psychologically abusing mothers were compared with 128 nonabusing mothers on a variety of measures and were matched for age and educational level. All the mothers had children who were hospitalized for medical symptoms. The three hypotheses were supported, with the exception of the component of hypothesis 2 concerning the association between objective stress and maternal hostility. The positive results are consistent with the three-factor theory. PMID:7895143
The emergence of grief as a topic worthy of psychological study is an early 20th century invention. Freud published his influential essay on mourning and melancholia in 1917. Since he proposed the concept of \\
Grotstein, J S
The Kleinian theory of ego psychology rests largely on the theory of internal object relations formed through projective identification and re-introjection, and how they undergo transformations from the paranoid-schizoid to the depressive positions via the capacity of the maternal container to transform her infant's "paranoid" content into sobering awareness of truth. It differs from the classical theory in terms of the initial emphasis on projective identification and the only gradually developing importance of introjection of the external world of reality. This contribution develops the Kleinian metapsychology of ego formation from the succession of the paranoid-schizoid and depressive positions, which are the phenomenological-experimental equivalents of Mahler's autistic, symbiotic, and separation-individuation phases of development. It seeks also to develop the Kleinian conception of narcissism and compare it to the classical one. PMID:6759433
Background Careful hand hygiene (HH) is the single most important factor in preventing the transmission of infections to patients, but compliance is difficult to achieve and maintain. A lack of understanding of the processes involved in changing staff behaviour may contribute to the failure to achieve success. The purpose of this study was to identify nurses’ and administrators’ perceived barriers and facilitators to current HH practices and the implementation of a new electronic monitoring technology for HH. Methods Ten key informant interviews (three administrators and seven nurses) were conducted to explore barriers and facilitators related to HH and the impact of the new technology on outcomes. The semi structured interviews were based on the Theoretical Domains Framework by Michie et al. and conducted prior to intervention implementation. Data were explored using an inductive qualitative analysis approach. Data between administrators and nurses were compared. Results In 9 of the 12 domains, nurses and administrators differed in their responses. Administrators believed that nurses have insufficient knowledge and skills to perform HH, whereas the nurses were confident they had the required knowledge and skills. Nurses focused on immediate consequences, whereas administrators highlighted long-term outcomes of the system. Nurses concentrated foremost on their personal safety and their families’ safety as a source of motivation to perform HH, whereas administrators identified professional commitment, incentives, and goal setting. Administrators stated that the staff do not have the decision processes in place to judge whether HH is necessary or not. They also highlighted the positive aspects of teams as a social influence, whereas nurses were not interested in group conformity or being compared to others. Nurses described the importance of individual feedback and self-monitoring in order to increase their performance, whereas administrators reported different views. Conclusions This study highlights the benefits of using a structured approach based on psychological theory to inform an implementation plan for a behavior change intervention. This work is an essential step towards systematically identifying factors affecting nurses’ behaviour associated with HH. PMID:22929925
Background Psychological models are used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings, but have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of differing theories is not clear. This study explored the usefulness of a range of models to predict an evidence-based behaviour -- the placing of fissure sealants. Methods Measures were collected by postal questionnaire from a random sample of general dental practitioners (GDPs) in Scotland. Outcomes were behavioural simulation (scenario decision-making), and behavioural intention. Predictor variables were from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), Common Sense Self-regulation Model (CS-SRM), Operant Learning Theory (OLT), Implementation Intention (II), Stage Model, and knowledge (a non-theoretical construct). Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the predictive value of each theoretical model individually. Significant constructs from all theories were then entered into a 'cross theory' stepwise regression analysis to investigate their combined predictive value Results Behavioural simulation - theory level variance explained was: TPB 31%; SCT 29%; II 7%; OLT 30%. Neither CS-SRM nor stage explained significant variance. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT), timeline acute (CS-SRM), and outcome expectancy (SCT) entered the equation, together explaining 38% of the variance. Behavioural intention - theory level variance explained was: TPB 30%; SCT 24%; OLT 58%, CS-SRM 27%. GDPs in the action stage had significantly higher intention to place fissure sealants. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT) and attitude (TPB) entered the equation, together explaining 68% of the variance in intention. Summary The study provides evidence that psychological models can be useful in understanding and predicting clinical behaviour. Taking a theory-based approach enables the creation of a replicable methodology for identifying factors that may predict clinical behaviour and so provide possible targets for knowledge translation interventions. Results suggest that more evidence-based behaviour may be achieved by influencing beliefs about the positive outcomes of placing fissure sealants and building a habit of placing them as part of patient management. However a number of conceptual and methodological challenges remain. PMID:20377849
Describes the development of the ways in which psychology has been used in the fictional world of the mystery\\/detective novel. Application of psychology has included (1) the use of experimental techniques, such as laboratory techniques and deductive reasoning, and (2) the use of applied theories, such as those on motivation or personality, by detectives, psychological consultants, and psychologist-detectives to solve
Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James
Many psychological tests have arbitrary metrics but are appropriate for testing psychological theories. Metric arbitrariness is a concern, however, when researchers wish to draw inferences about the true, absolute standing of a group or individual on the latent psychological dimension being measured. The authors illustrate this in the context of 2…
Wilks, Duffy; Ratheal, Juli D'Ann
The authors provide a historical overview of the development of contemporary theories of counseling and psychology in relation to determinism, probabilistic causality, indeterminate free will, and moral and legal responsibility. They propose a unique model of behavioral causality that incorporates a theory of indeterminate free will, a concept…
Gray, W. D. (1997). A view of schema theory. [Review of the book: Schemas in problem solving.] Contemporary Psychology, 42(2), 158-159. Page 1 Title: A view of schema theory Author: Sandra P. Marshall.95 hardback. Review by Wayne D. Gray Sandra P. Marshall has written a solid and interesting book, but one
Vrieze, Scott I.
This article reviews the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) in model selection and the appraisal of psychological theory. The focus is on latent variable models, given their growing use in theory testing and construction. Theoretical statistical results in regression are discussed, and more important…
New and Expanded Concepts in Neurophysiology, Psychology, and Sociology Complementary to Llorens' Developmental Theory: Achieving Growth and Development through Occupation for Neonatal Infants and their Families
Lynne F. La Corte
Introduction: This issue expands the Llorens’ Developmental Theory of Occupational Therapy. Llorens drew from multiple theorists from the disciplines of sociology, neurophysiology, biology, ecology, psychology, occupational science, and psychodynamics to provide the profession of occupational therapy with a unified theory to facilitate growth and development for people of all ages—from infancy to old age.Purpose: The purpose of this issue is
This paper examines rational and psychological decision-making models. Descriptive and normative methodologies such as attribution theory, schema theory, prospect theory, ambiguity model, game theory, and expected utility theory are discussed. The definition of culture is reviewed, and the relation- ship between culture and decision making is also highlighted as many organizations use a cultural-ethical decision-making model. The study of decision-making
Annan, Jean; Priestley, Anna
A review of recent school psychology publications was conducted to discover the espoused theory of contemporary school psychology, as distinct from school psychology practice. We considered that identification of the espoused theory of school psychology, the story of school psychology, would support professional reflection and the identification…
Wood, Michael J.; Douglas, Karen M.
Recent research into the psychology of conspiracy belief has highlighted the importance of belief systems in the acceptance or rejection of conspiracy theories. We examined a large sample of conspiracist (pro-conspiracy-theory) and conventionalist (anti-conspiracy-theory) comments on news websites in order to investigate the relative importance of promoting alternative explanations vs. rejecting conventional explanations for events. In accordance with our hypotheses, we found that conspiracist commenters were more likely to argue against the opposing interpretation and less likely to argue in favor of their own interpretation, while the opposite was true of conventionalist commenters. However, conspiracist comments were more likely to explicitly put forward an account than conventionalist comments were. In addition, conspiracists were more likely to express mistrust and made more positive and fewer negative references to other conspiracy theories. The data also indicate that conspiracists were largely unwilling to apply the “conspiracy theory” label to their own beliefs and objected when others did so, lending support to the long-held suggestion that conspiracy belief carries a social stigma. Finally, conventionalist arguments tended to have a more hostile tone. These tendencies in persuasive communication can be understood as a reflection of an underlying conspiracist worldview in which the details of individual conspiracy theories are less important than a generalized rejection of official explanations. PMID:23847577
Bottom, William P; Kong, Dejun Tony
Reflecting on his wartime government service, Walter Lippmann (1922) developed a theory of policy formulation and error. Introducing the constructs of stereotype, mental model, blind spots, and the process of manufacturing consent, his theory prescribed interdisciplinary social science as a tool for enhancing policy making in business and government. Lippmann used his influence with the Rockefeller foundations, business leaders, Harvard and the University of Chicago to gain support for this program. Citation analysis of references to "stereotype" and Lippmann reveals the rapid spread of the concept across the social sciences and in public discourse paralleled by obliteration by incorporation of the wider theory in behavioral science. "Stereotype" is increasingly invoked in anthropology, economics, and sociology though Lippmann and his wider theory ceased being cited decades ago. In psychology, citations are increasing but content analysis revealed blind spots and misconceptions about the theory and prescription. Studies of heuristics, biases, and organizational decision substantiate Lippmann's theory of judgment and choice. But his model for social science failed to consider the bounded rationality and blind spots of its practitioners. Policy formulation today is supported by research from narrow disciplinary silos not interdisciplinary science that reflects an awareness of history. PMID:22936385
Consumer psychology provides enough evidence that consumer behavior is not just one side of our existence, but, as a matter of fact, it is a central dimension of our everyday lives, engaging us into changing and defining our identity, beliefs, attitudes and practices. In relation to this, commodification has reached us on all levels: everything that people created, produced and
. Indeed it is claimed that an ant colony exhibits intelligent behavior comparable to a vertebrate animal evolutionary psychology, we know the importance of comparative studies in understanding human behavior networks. Theoretical as well as empirical research will be needed to close this gap. Finally, I
Cheng, Simon; Lively, Kathryn J.
Recent public health research has consistently reported that self-identified multiracial adolescents tend to display more problem behaviors and psychological difficulties than monoracial adolescents. Relying on insights from qualitative analyses using small or clinical samples to interpret these empirical patterns, these studies implicitly assume…
To whatever school of psychology we lay claim, it makes modest sense as pastors engaging in counseling as an act of faithfulness to the God who created the creature with the capacity to change, that we remain first and foremost the theologians we are called to be. We may lament that legions of priests and priestesses from the pantheon of
Peluso, Paul R.; Peluso, Jennifer P.; Buckner, Janine P.; Kern, Roy M.; Curlette, William
P. R. Peluso, J. P. Peluso, J. F. White, and R. M. Kern (2004) reviewed the theoretical constructs underlying the similarities between lifestyle and attachment style. Specifically, they suggested that the individual psychology construct of lifestyle (or style of life) and attachment style should be empirically investigated. The present research…
Hegarty, Peter; Massey, Sean
This article uses Sedgwick's distinction between minoritizing and universalizing theories of sexuality to analyze variability in social psychologists' studies of anti-homosexual prejudice, focusing on studies of attitudes. Anti-homosexual prejudice was initially defined in conversation with gay liberationists and presumed, among other things, that fear of homoerotic potential was present in all persons. Later social psychologists theorized anti-homosexual prejudice in strict minoritizing terms: as prejudice towards a distinct out-group. In the first section of this paper we discuss corresponding shifts in the conceptualization of anti-homosexual attitudes. Next, using a universalizing framework, we re-interpret experiments on behavioral aspects of anti-homosexual attitudes which were originally conceptualized using a minoritizing framework, and suggest avenues for future research. Finally, we examine how queer theory might enrich this area of social psychological inquiry by challenging assumptions about the politics of doing scientific work and the utility of identity-based sexual politics. PMID:17287186
Mary Anne Fitzpatrick; Julie Indvik
This study examined implicit theories in ongoing, enduring relationships in order to elucidate the cognitive outcomes of marital communication. A random, urban sample of 207 married couples assessed how the dimensions of instrumentality and expressivity applied to their mates. Predictions of how mates would weight these two dimensions were based on Sandra Bem's gender schema theory. This theory posits that
Howell, Ryan T.; Kurai, Mark; Tam, Leona
The most prominent theory to explain the curvilinear relationship between income and subjective well-being (SWB) is need theory, which proposes that increased income and wealth can lead to increased well-being in poverty because money is used to satisfy basic physiological needs. The present study tests the tenets of need theory by proposing that…
"Psychologists in the People's Republic of China are engaged in research concerning theory, Chinese language, child development, vision, audition, and areas of physiological psychology including acupuncture, pain, memory, and central nervous system functioning. The Institute of Psychology within the Chinese Academy of Sciences represents the…
The perception-related origins of physical measures and standards are considered within the framework of the general observer theory. The impact of observer characteristics on the development of observer-centric physics, physical concepts and metrics are analyzed. A preliminary theoretical approach is suggested for the construction of a general observer theory and formulation of its relationship to observer-centered physical concepts and theories. The approach makes it possible to construct a theory of the observer, intrinsic in any theory of physics.
Haslam, S Alexander
Social identity research was pioneered as a distinctive theoretical approach to the analysis of intergroup relations but over the last two decades it has increasingly been used to shed light on applied issues. One early application of insights from social identity and self-categorization theories was to the organizational domain (with a particular focus on leadership), but more recently there has been a surge of interest in applications to the realm of health and clinical topics. This article charts the development of this Applied Social Identity Approach, and abstracts five core lessons from the research that has taken this forward. (1) Groups and social identities matter because they have a critical role to play in organizational and health outcomes. (2) Self-categorizations matter because it is people's self-understandings in a given context that shape their psychology and behaviour. (3) The power of groups is unlocked by working with social identities not across or against them. (4) Social identities need to be made to matter in deed not just in word. (5) Psychological intervention is always political because it always involves some form of social identity management. Programmes that seek to incorporate these principles are reviewed and important challenges and opportunities for the future are identified. PMID:24627990
Handy, Todd C.
of human sexuality, covering relevant theory, research, and cultural facets. Topics include: · a brief history · sex education · anatomy, physiology, and sexual Psychology 350A: The Psychology of Human Sexuality Section 901
Weckowicz, T. E.
Discusses the differences and similarities between Dabrowski's theory of positive disintegration and the theories of the American humanistic psychologists. Stresses the suffering associated with attaining higher levels of spiritual development. Suggests that Dabrowski and humanists followed different theodicies. (Author/ABL)
Cultural evolutionary theory is an interdisciplinary field in which human culture is viewed as a Darwinian process of variation, competition, and inheritance, and the tools, methods, and theories developed by evolutionary biologists to study genetic evolution are adapted to study cultural change. It is argued here that an integration of the…
and decision making, with the most recent important modifications to PMM theory being the identification dominated behavioral decision theory for the past several decades. This approach characterizes decision insights con- cerning the factors affecting judgment and decision making, it has been criticized
van der Maas, Han L. J.; Molenaar, Dylan; Maris, Gunter; Kievit, Rogier A.; Borsboom, Denny
This article analyzes latent variable models from a cognitive psychology perspective. We start by discussing work by Tuerlinckx and De Boeck (2005), who proved that a diffusion model for 2-choice response processes entails a 2-parameter logistic item response theory (IRT) model for individual differences in the response data. Following this line…
Susan Hrisos; Martin P Eccles; Jill J Francis; Marije Bosch; Rob Dijkstra; Marie Johnston; Richard Grol; Eileen FS Kaner; Ian N Steen
BACKGROUND: Long term management of patients with Type 2 diabetes is well established within Primary Care. However, despite extensive efforts to implement high quality care both service provision and patient health outcomes remain sub-optimal. Several recent studies suggest that psychological theories about individuals' behaviour can provide a valuable framework for understanding generalisable factors underlying health professionals' clinical behaviour. In the
Brian L. Quick; Benjamin R. Bates
The present study applies psychological reactance theory (PRT) to examine the effectiveness of a 2 (frame: gain, loss) × 2 (efficacy: present, not present) experiment to determine best practices in dissuading excessive alcohol consumption among college students. Results from the structural model revealed no association between a perceived threat to choose and message frame or efficacy appeals. As anticipated, a perceived threat
Arena, Michael P; Arrigo, Bruce A
This article relies upon structural symbolic interactionism and five of its organizing concepts (i.e. symbols, the definition of the situation, roles, socialization and role-taking, and the self) to put forth a novel conceptual framework for understanding the terrorist identity. In order to demonstrate the practical utility of the framework, applications to various terrorist groups around the globe are incorporated into the analysis. Overall, both the theoretical and application work help reorient the academic and practitioner behavioral science communities to the importance of culture, self, and society when investigating one's membership in and identity through militant extremist organizations. Given the unique approach taken by this article, several provisional implications are delineated. In particular, future research on terrorism, strategies linked to counter-terrorism, legal and public policy reform, and the relevance of utilizing a sociologically animated social psychology in the assessment of other forms of criminal behavior are all very tentatively explored. PMID:16094631
1 Professional Psychology PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Offered through the Columbian College of Arts and Sciences' social and behavioral sciences discipline, the professional psychology program teaches students that combines extensive practical experience with classes on scientific foundations of psychology taught
The purpose of this study is to expand research on persuasion 1) by examining psychological reactance as a function of threats to positive identity above and beyond threats to freedom and 2) by examining the role of positive emotions. An online survey recruited 478 students from undergraduate courses at several universities in the U.S. The study…
Gallo, Linda C.
://www.gdcada.org/statistics/teens.htm): (1) Binge drinking (having five or more drinks in a sitting) is common in most segments of society in the U.S., and is climbing fastest among 18 to 20-year-olds, who are too young to drink legally (2 in Psychology 301. Proof of completion of prerequisite required: Copy of transcript. Note: Students electing
Gallo, Linda C.
Psychology 340 Social Psychology Spring 2009 Syllabus and Class Requirements Class meetings and how individuals behave in social situations. I would like every person to come out of this class Office Hours: By appointment; usually available after class E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org TAs: Alexandra
Gallo, Linda C.
Psychology 340 Social Psychology Spring 2008 Syllabus and Class Requirements Class meetings situations. I would like every person to come out of this class with two things: 1) a knowledge of social Office Hours: By appointment; usually available after class E-mail: email@example.com TA: Jennifer
DiScipio, William J.; Crohn, Joan
An innovative approach to teaching learning theory to undergraduates was tested by comparing a modified Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) group process class (n=19) to a traditional teacher-centered control class (n=32). Predictions were that academic performance and motivation would be improved by the PSI method, and student satisfaction…
Ruth E. Fassinger
In this article, the author presents an overview of the qualitative research approach termed grounded theory (B. G. Glaser, 1978, 1992; B. G. Glaser & A. L. Strauss, 1967; A. L. Strauss, 1987; A. L. Strauss & J. Corbin, 1990, 1998). The author first locates the method conceptually and paradigmatically (paradigms) and then outlines the procedures for implementing it and
Fassinger, Ruth E.
In this article, the author presents an overview of the qualitative research approach termed grounded theory (B. G. Glaser, 1978, 1992; B. G. Glaser & A. L. Strauss, 1967; A. L. Strauss, 1987; A. L. Strauss & J. Corbin, 1990, 1998). The author first locates the method conceptually and paradigmatically (paradigms) and then outlines the procedures…
Bowers, Jeffrey S.
A fundamental claim associated with parallel distributed processing (PDP) theories of cognition is that knowledge is coded in a distributed manner in mind and brain. This approach rejects the claim that knowledge is coded in a localist fashion, with words, objects, and simple concepts (e.g. "dog"), that is, coded with their own dedicated…
Dweck, Carol S.
Based on extensive research with children and young adults, this book examines adaptive and maladaptive cognitive-motivational patterns and shows how these patterns originate in people's self theories; their consequences for one's achievement, social relationships, and emotional well-being; their consequences for society; and the experiences that…
Randy Katz; Til Wykes
Eighty female volunteers participated in an experiment in which we varied temporal information about the onset of an aversive stimulus (shock). Our main purpose was to test the hypothesis, implied by information control theories, that predictable aversive events are more beneficial than unpredictable ones. We used a within-subjects design whereby each subject acted as her own control and received six
Dunbar, Norah E.; Abra, Gordon
Smith, Vogel, Madon, and Edwards' (2011) recent article tested dyadic power theory (DPT) by examining the use of touch as a compliance-gaining tactic in the conflicts of married couples. In this response, we raise a methodological issue about the touch behaviors examined by Smith et al. and also pose a theoretical critique that their test of DPT…
Lakes, Kimberley D.; Hoyt, William T.
Using generalizability theory to evaluate the reliability of child and adolescent measures enables researchers to enhance precision of measurement and consequently increase confidence in research findings. With an observer-rated measure of child self-regulation, we illustrate how multiple sources of error variance (e.g., raters, items) affect the dependability (replicability) of scores and demonstrate methods for enhancing dependability of observer ratings. Using ratings of 181 children, we illustrate the use of two-facet (i.e., raters and items as sources of error) and three-facet (i.e., raters, items and occasions) analyses to optimize design features of future studies using this measure. In addition, we show how generalizability theory provides a useful conceptual framework for thinking about determinants of scores on acquaintance (e.g., teacher or parent) ratings, as well as observer ratings, and sheds light on the strengths and limitations of both types of data for child and adolescent clinical research. PMID:19130364
Background The Internet can provide a confidential and convenient medium for sexual health promotion for young people. Objective This paper describes the development of an interactive, theory-based website (Sexunzipped) aimed at increasing safe sexual behavior of young people, as well as an outline of the evaluation protocol. Methods The website focuses on safer sex, relationships, and sexual pleasure. An overview of the site is provided, including a description of the theoretical constructs which form the basis of the site development. An integrated behavioral model was chosen as the guiding theory for the Sexunzipped intervention. A randomized trial design will be used to evaluate the site quantitatively. Results The content of the site is described in detail with examples of the main content types: information pages, quizzes, and decision-making activities. We describe the protocol for quantitative evaluation of the website using a randomized trial design and discuss the principal challenges involved in developing the site, including the challenge of balancing the requirements of theory with young people’s views on website content and design. Conclusions Considerations for future interventions are discussed. Developing an online behavior-change intervention is costly and time consuming. Given the large public health potential, the cost involved in developing online interventions, and the need for attractive design, future interventions may benefit from collaborating with established sites that already have a user base, a brand, and a strong Internet presence. It is vital to involve users in decisions about intervention content, design, and features, paying attention to aspects that will attract and retain users’ interest. A central challenge in developing effective Internet-based interventions for young people is to find effective ways to operationalize theory in ways that address the views and perspectives of young people. PMID:23612122
The study of scientific discovery—where do new ideas come from?—has long been denigrated by philosophers as irrelevant to analyzing the growth of scientific knowledge. In particular, little is known about how cognitive theories are discovered, and neither the classical accounts of discovery as either probabilistic induction (e.g., Reichenbach, 1938) or lucky guesses (e.g., Popper, 1959), nor the stock anecdotes about
Out of the eight points of methodological criticism against contemporary psychology formulated by Watson (Psychological Bulletin 31:755-776, 1934) and put forward by Toomela in this issue, the overemphasis on prediction, the neglect of individual differences, the habit of the differences between the mental states of subjects in objective experimental conditions are particularly important. Modem cognitive psychology has began to remedy those problems, in part by proposing broad, integrative theories. It is not useful to subdivide psychology into "schools of thought" defined by their methodological practices. PMID:17992866
Page 370 Courses: Psychology (PSY) Sonoma State University 2014-2015 Catalog Psychology (PSY) pSy 250 introduCtion to pSyCHoLogy (3) Theories, research, and applications that constitute psychology. An important goal is to help students become informed consumers of psychological knowledge. The role of culture
1 Psychology PSYCHOLOGY Psychology is one of the most popular majors at GW and the second largest sciences division within the school, the program exposes students to basic psychological theory, helps them develop research skills, and teaches them how to approach psychological and social issues within
Gerjo Kok; Herman Schaalma; Hein De Vries; Guy Parcel; Theo Paulussen
This chapter addresses the contribution of social psychology to the field of health education. After a short introduction to health education, the role of social psychology is addressed. This role is referred to as problem-driven applied social psychology. Subsequently, the chapter describes general and specific theories that can be applied to the analysis of psychosocial determinants of health related behaviours,
Walters, Glenn D
An item response theory (IRT) analysis of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) was performed on 26,831 (19,067 male and 7,764 female) federal probationers and compared with results obtained on 3,266 (3,039 male and 227 female) prisoners from previous research. Despite the fact male and female federal probationers scored significantly lower on the PICTS thinking style scales than male and female prisoners, discrimination and location parameter estimates for the individual PICTS items were comparable across sex and setting. Consistent with the results of a previous IRT analysis conducted on the PICTS, the current results did not support sentimentality as a component of general criminal thinking. Findings from this study indicate that the discriminative power of the individual PICTS items is relatively stable across sex (male, female) and correctional setting (probation, prison) and that the PICTS may be measuring the same criminal thinking construct in male and female probationers and prisoners. PMID:24978132
Christensen, Helen; Batterham, Philip James; Mackinnon, Andrew J; Donker, Tara; Soubelet, Andrea
The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS) has been supported by recent research. However, the nature of the models? three major constructs--perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness and acquired capability - requires further investigation. In this paper, we test a number of hypotheses about the predictors and correlates of the IPTS constructs. Participants aged 32-38 from an Australian population-based longitudinal cohort study (n=1167) were assessed. IPTS constructs were measured by items from the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (INQ) and Acquired Capability for Suicide Scale (ACSS), alongside demographic and additional measures, measured concurrently or approximately 8 years earlier. Cross-sectional analyses evaluating the IPTS supported earlier work. Mental health was significantly related to all three IPTS constructs, but depression and anxiety caseness were associated only with perceived burdensomeness. Various social support measures were differentially associated with the three constructs. Stressful events and lifetime traumas had robust independent associations with acquired capability for suicide only. The IPTS model provides a useful framework for conceptualising suicide risk. The findings highlight the importance of perceived social support in suicide risk, identify the importance of personality and other factors as new avenues of research, and provide some validation for the independence of the constructs. PMID:24947914
Zuromski, Kelly L; Witte, Tracy K
Though some preliminary research within the framework of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPTS; Joiner, 2005) has postulated that restrictive eating may contribute to increased risk for suicide through its effect on the acquired capability for suicide (ACS; i.e., increased fearlessness about death and heightened physical pain tolerance), existing studies have not conducted direct tests of this relationship. To enhance understanding of this relationship, we compared undergraduates who endorsed one form of restrictive eating, fasting, (n=99) to controls endorsing no forms of eating pathology over the lifetime (n=94). We hypothesized that the fasting group would have higher ACS and higher likelihood of suicide attempt history. Contrary to hypotheses, no differences emerged between groups on ACS, and frequency of fasting within the fasting group was not significantly associated with ACS. Consistent with hypotheses, the fasting group was more likely to have suicide attempt history. Though results were not entirely consistent with hypotheses, the current study represents the first attempt at isolating and examining one form of restrictive eating (i.e., fasting) within the context of the IPTS. Results suggest that, in isolation, fasting may not be directly contributing to increases in ACS. PMID:25530417
David Michael Buss; David P. Schmitt
This article provides a historical context of evolutionary psychology and feminism, and evaluates the contributions to this\\u000a special issue of Sex Roles within that context. We briefly outline the basic tenets of evolutionary psychology and articulate its meta-theory of the\\u000a origins of gender similarities and differences. The article then evaluates the specific contributions: Sexual Strategies Theory\\u000a and the desire for
Roth, Byron M.
Examines the following theories proposed by social psychologists to explain popular resistance to affirmative action strategies: (1) the naivete explanation; (2) the symbolic racism theory; and (3) the "realistic" group-conflict theory. Argues that social psychology ignores the public's perception of Blacks as members of a social underclass. (FMW)
1 HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY Psychology 405 Department of Psychology Michigan State University Spring, 2011 Class meeting times: Tuesday, Thursday, 12:40-2:00 p.m. Place: 119 Psychology Building Instructor: L.J. Harris Office: 217 Psychology Building Office Hours: Mondays, 3:00 - 5 p.m.; other times
1 HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY Psychology 805 Department of Psychology Michigan State University Fall, 2012 Class meeting times: Tuesday, Thursday, 12:40-2:30 p.m. Place: 120 Psychology Building Instructor: L.J. Harris Office: 217 Psychology Building Office Hours: Mondays, 3:00 - 5 p.m.; other times
1 HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY Psychology 805 Department of Psychology Michigan State University Spring, 2011 Class meeting times: Tuesday, Thursday, 12:40-2:30 p.m. Place: 119 Psychology Building Instructor: L.J. Harris Office: 217 Psychology Building Office Hours: Mondays, 3:00 - 5 p.m.; other times
Burton, Geoffrey R.
Economics Psychology Undergraduate BSc (Hons) Psychology MSci (Hons) Psychology #12;Welcome from the Head of Department The University of Bath is a world-class institution. In the Department of Psychology we offer high-quality undergraduate degrees in Psychology our BSc (Hons) has consistently ranked
Molden, Daniel C.; Dweck, Carol S.
Much of psychology focuses on universal principles of thought and action. Although an extremely productive pursuit, this approach, by describing only the "average person," risks describing no one in particular. This article discusses an alternate approach that complements interests in universal principles with analyses of the unique psychological…
Burton, Geoffrey R.
Psychology Undergraduate MSci (Hons) Psychology #12;The University of Bath is to offer an exciting new MSci (Hons) programme in Psychology, available from autumn 2014 onwards (subject to final approval with the opportunity to advance your knowledge of the field of psychology, while gaining a masters level qualification
Richard A. Kasschau
Abstract We compare certain trains of thought in philosophy of mind and artificial intelligence which lead to a remarkable convergence of ideas. Demands from philosophy that psy- chological theories have predictive power join with demands from artificial intelligence that machines adaptively maintain their own mental state to suggest a conception of minds as narrowly realized psychological theories. We use this
Morris, Michael W; Chiu, Chi-yue; Liu, Zhi
We review limitations of the traditional paradigm for cultural research and propose an alternative framework, polyculturalism. Polyculturalism assumes that individuals' relationships to cultures are not categorical but rather are partial and plural; it also assumes that cultural traditions are not independent, sui generis lineages but rather are interacting systems. Individuals take influences from multiple cultures and thereby become conduits through which cultures can affect each other. Past literatures on the influence of multiple cultural identities and cultural knowledge legacies can be better understood within a polyculturalist rubric. Likewise, the concept elucidates how cultures are changed by contact with other cultures, enabling richer psychological theories of intercultural influence. Different scientific paradigms about culture imply different ideologies and policies; polyculturalism's implied policy of interculturalism provides a valuable complement to the traditional policy frames of multiculturalism and colorblindness. PMID:25251481
Gallo, Linda C.
1&2 plus lecture notes Feb 2 Major Mental Disorders Ch 11 Feb 9 Anxiety Disorders Ch 7 Feb 16: Abnormal Psychology by Susan Holen-Hoeksema 4th edition This course covers the history, theories, assessment, and treatments of Abnormal Behavior Final grades are based exclusively on total points. All
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND PSYCHOLOGICAL SERVICES (HDPS) CURRICULUM The Human Development and Psychological Services concentration explores how human development is influenced by family, schools, community, and the workplace. HDPS courses focus on theories of individual development and family, group, and organizational
1 | P a g e Philosophy of Psychology Edouard Machery Abstract: Philosophy of psychology takes various forms. Some philosophers of psychology use psychological findings and theories to develop new answers to traditional philosophical issues. A smaller number of philosophers of psychology take their cue
Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…
Swami, Viren; Coles, Rebecca; Stieger, Stefan; Pietschnig, Jakob; Furnham, Adrian; Rehim, Sherry; Voracek, Martin
Despite evidence of widespread belief in conspiracy theories, there remains a dearth of research on the individual difference correlates of conspiracist ideation. In two studies, we sought to overcome this limitation by examining correlations between conspiracist ideation and a range of individual psychological factors. In Study 1, 817 Britons indicated their agreement with conspiracist ideation concerning the July 7, 2005 (7/7), London bombings, and completed a battery of individual difference scales. Results showed that stronger belief in 7/7 conspiracy theories was predicted by stronger belief in other real-world conspiracy theories, greater exposure to conspiracist ideation, higher political cynicism, greater support for democratic principles, more negative attitudes to authority, lower self-esteem, and lower Agreeableness. In Study 2, 281 Austrians indicated their agreement with an entirely fictitious conspiracy theory and completed a battery of individual difference measures not examined in Study 1. Results showed that belief in the entirely fictitious conspiracy theory was significantly associated with stronger belief in other real-world conspiracy theories, stronger paranormal beliefs, and lower crystallized intelligence. These results are discussed in terms of the potential of identifying individual difference constellations among conspiracy theorists. PMID:21751999
Joan G. Miller
D. Oyserman, H. M. Coon, and M. Kemmelmeir (2002) offered a comprehensive literature review on individualism and collectivism that forwards valuable suggestions for ways to enhance future research conducted within this framework. The author argues that although their criticisms of much contemporary social psychological research on individualism and collectivism are valid, even more fundamental problems need to be recognized as
Michaël Dambrun; Matthieu Ricard
The theoretical model presented in this paper emerged from several different disciplines. This model proposes that the attainment of happiness is linked to the self, and more particularly to the structure of the self. We support the idea that the perception of a structured self, which takes the form of a permanent, independent and solid entity leads to self-centered psychological
Educators employed in devoutly religious institutions often teach students who view even their secular higher education through a uniquely religious lens. Based on his own experiences teaching psychological science at a Jewish university, the author suggests enhancing student interest and enthusiasm by wedding secular curricula with religious…
Gallo, Linda C.
Psychology 675 Applied Psychological Measurement Spring 2011 Instructor: Kate Hattrup, Ph.D. Office' ascription of others' work to themselves is to condone dishonesty, to deny the purpose of formal education
Based at the Millersville University of Pennsylvania, Teaching Educational Psychology (TEP) is an online, peer-refereed journal that is "devoted to increasing our shared knowledge base about the teaching of educational psychology to a variety of educational constituencies" including administrators, policy-makers, parents, and the public. The journal started publication in 2005 and is published twice a year. Visitors to the site can access all of the back issues of the journal, and they should also take a look at their reviewing guidelines and submission materials. Recent articles include "Using Student Interviews to Understand Theories of Motivation" and "Narrative as a Basis for Teaching Educational Psychology" Moving on, the site also includes links to related educational psychology sites and a list of reviewers.
The relationship between psychology and education has waxed and waned over the past century. In addition, a core issue for psychologists is how to bridge the gap between theory and practice in applied settings such as schools. While acknowledging the work that has been done, it is apparent that the effective dissemination of psychology to…
Greeks note the role of the body in health and illness Hippocrates Galen Humoral Theory (4 circulating is Health Psychology Greeks: Galen & Hippocrates #12;Galen's Four Humors Melancholic black bile moody glum
Among the various forms of violence inflicted on a child, psychological violence holds a significant place in terms of frequency, diversity and damage done, as serious and pervasive consequences can be observed on the child's development. This article highlights and assesses the psychological consequences provoked by psychological violences perpetrated by parents, teachers or other children in different situations, such as domestic violence, divorce and school bullying. It also gives some indications for intervention and prevention in those situations. PMID:25449447
Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás
In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects. PMID:23587541
Adams, Mark James
Differential psychologists rightly identified evolutionary theory as a unifying framework for explaining the origins and persistence of individual differences in a wide array of human psychological characteristics. ...
Harris, Karen R., Ed.; Graham, Steve, Ed.; Urdan, Tim, Ed.
The "APA Educational Psychology Handbook" reflects the broad nature of the field today, with state-of-the-science reviews of the diverse critical theories driving research and practice; in-depth investigation of the range of individual differences and cultural/contextual factors that affect student achievement, motivation, and beliefs; and close…
MA Psychology Optional Modules Students choose 30 credits worth of optional modules. The optional. Understanding Emotion (20 credits) The modules would explore the main debates in the neuro-cognitive research a diverse set of example artworks, the module explores how contemporary theory, methods and knowledge from
Locke, Don C.; Ciechalski, Joseph C.
This book emphasizes the application of counseling, guidance, and counseling psychology principles in the classroom. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the role of counseling and guidance in schools, and chapter 2 presents basic theoretical models applicable to teachers, including the theories of Piaget, Kohlberg, Erikson, and Havighurst. Chapter 3…
Luskin, Bernard J.
Considers the psychology of multimedia. Topics include software development, including decisions about sound and image quality; theories of multiple intelligences; the psychology of learning; a model that includes semantics, semiotics, and synthetics; and the impact of media psychology on the use of multimedia for learning. (LRW)
Satoshi Kanazawa; Joanne Savage
We present an evolutionary psychological perspective on social capital. We first suggest that evolutionary psychology provides the most ultimate (as opposed to proximate) theoretical definition and most theoretically driven measures of social capital, by providing a theory of values and specifying what human actors value and want. We then suggest that evolutionary psychology can illuminate certain cognitive constraints and biases
Bean, John; Eaton, Shevawn Bogdan
Describes the psychological processes that lead to academic and social integration based on a retention model proposed by the authors. Describes how successful retention programs such as learning communities, freshman interest groups, tutoring, and orientation rely on psychological processes. Four psychological theories form the basis for…
Attempts to express certain views about the relationship that Robbins advocates between economics and psychology. Develops two main conclusions: first, Robbins maintains that economic theories are independent of psychological theories, even in those cases in which the economist has tried to present his economic conclusions as grounded on specific psychological theories. This procedure, however, is greatly misleading and can damage
J. Michael Bailey; Steven Gaulin; Yvonne Agyei; Brian A. Gladue
Sexual selection theory provides a powerful model for the analysis of psychological sex differences. This research examined (a) tests of several sex differences in mating psychology predicted from sexual selection theory, (b) broad developmental hypotheses about sex differences in mating psychology—through the relationship of mating psychology to sexual orientation, and (c) the structure of within-sex differences in mating psychology. Scales
Abbott, Angela; Collins, Dave
It is acknowledged that appropriate support and training are essential if talented individuals are to fulfil their potential. The early identification of talented athletes is an increasingly important consideration for researchers and practitioners alike. Once talented individuals have been detected, crucial but limited support resources can be optimally deployed to ensure that their needs are met and that their gifts are developed. However, there is considerable disagreement among experts on what talent is, and which factors can reliably be used within talent identification processes. This paper explores prerequisites to success in sport, and the comparative efficacy of employing these prerequisites within talent identification schemes. It is proposed that talent needs to be reconceptualized so that talent identification and talent development processes are perceived to be dynamic and interrelated. Additionally, the need to place greater emphasis on the capacity of a child to develop in sport and the psychological factors that underpin this process is highlighted. To this end, it is advocated that talent identification and development schemes, while emphasizing the multidimensional nature of talent, need to recognize the essential role of psychology in the ability of individuals to fulfil their sporting potential. PMID:15160593
This study tested M. Deutsch's theory of cooperation and conflict resolution using an intervention project at an inner city alternative high school in New York City. The study was designed to test the theory by confirmatory structural modeling and by evaluating the intervention. The procedure involved a pre- and post-test procedure administered…
Gallo, Linda C.
=EmailImport #12;10 11/3 Midterm #2 11/5 Eating disorders, sleep disorders Chap. 10 11/7 Gender identity disorder, and treatment 10/17 Integrative theory 8 10/20-22 Anxiety disorders Chap. 6 10/24 Mood disorders Chap. 8 9 10/27 Mood disorders 10/29-31 Substance abuse disorders, impulse control Chap. 9, 13 disorders (pg. 465
Department of Psychology Psychology Minor Requirements The minor program in Psychology is designed to expose students to a variety of content areas in the field of Psychology and to provide the student with the ability to evaluate Psychology researcher as a consumer. To declare a Psychology minor, the student must
Cynthia D. Belar; Eugenie Wilson; Howard Hughes
Presents the results of a Division 38 (the health psychology division of the American Psychological Association) survey of graduate training programs in psychology, along with facility-specific information on doctoral training opportunities in health psychology as of Fall 1981. 310 questionnaires were returned from psychology programs; 53 indicated that doctoral training in health psychology was available at their institution. It was
PROGRAM HANDBOOK SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY SPECIALIZATION (NASP-Approved) IN EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY information specific to the School Psychology Specialization. This specialization is fully approved ................................................................................................ 3 THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY .............................. 3 SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY
Charles, Eric P
What form would an ideal merger of ecological and social psychology take? Is that ideal attainable? Many researchers and theorists are working to answer these questions. Charles (2009, 2011a) offered insights from E. B. Holt, one of James J. Gibson's mentors, who argued that minds-mental kinds, processes, states, etc.-are observable aspects of the environment. Phrasing that in Ecological terms, the minds of other organisms are specified in the structure of ambient energy extended over time and space; they are directly perceivable by a properly attuned organism. Ecological Psychology enhances Holt's story, by brining to the table a sophisticated theory of direct perception; Holt enhances the Ecological story by brining to the table a sophisticated theory about the nature of minds. The two combine to form the long-sought ideal merger. Thus, I claimed, Ecological Psychology will either rediscover its roots, or go through the trouble of re-creating them. This paper further develops those ideas, by presenting a simpler version of the argument, suggesting easy ways of dismissing that argument, and addressing the concerns expressed by Castro and Lafuente (2011). PMID:21809179
This article explores psychological avenues to reconciliation between groups. It describes the psychological changes in survivors, perpetrators, and passive bystanders in the course of the evolution of increasing violence and points to healing from the psychological wounds created as an essential component of reconciliation. It also explores the role of understand- ing the roots of genocide, and of violence between
Meier, Brian P; Schnall, Simone; Schwarz, Norbert; Bargh, John A
Psychologists are increasingly interested in embodiment based on the assumption that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are grounded in bodily interaction with the environment. We examine how embodiment is used in social psychology, and we explore the ways in which embodied approaches enrich traditional theories. Although research in this area is burgeoning, much of it has been more descriptive than explanatory. We provide a critical discussion of the trajectory of embodiment research in social psychology. We contend that future researchers should engage in a phenomenon-based approach, highlight the theoretical boundary conditions and mediators involved, explore novel action-relevant outcome measures, and address the role of individual differences broadly defined. Such research will likely provide a more explanatory account of the role of embodiment in general terms as well as how it expands the knowledge base in social psychology. PMID:22777820
in that book was (philosophers') folk psychology, not the actual results experimental psychology (see CorballisThe Brain's "New" Science: Psychology, Neurophysiology, and Constraint* Gary Hatfield University that brain science will or should provide for any future possible psychological theories. Hempel (1949
Luskin, Bernard J.
Discusses the power of media psychology, particularly that of the PC, CD-ROM, and television, and its effect on learning and behavior. By merging it with relevant concepts and research findings from such areas as learning theory, cognitive psychology, neuroscience, and systems theory, educators can create a sharper tool for learning. (VWC)
Selby, Edward A.; Anestis, Michael D.; Bender, Theodore W.; Ribeiro, Jessica D.; Nock, Matthew K.; Rudd, M. David; Bryan, Craig J.; Lim, Ingrid C.; Baker, Monty T.; Gutierrez, Peter M.; Joiner, Thomas E.
Suicide rates have been increasing in military personnel since the start of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom, and it is vital that efforts be made to advance suicide risk assessment techniques and treatment for members of the military who may be experiencing suicidal symptoms. One potential way to advance the understanding of suicide in the military is through the use of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide. This theory proposes that three necessary factors are needed to complete suicide: feelings that one does not belong with other people, feelings that one is a burden on others or society, and an acquired capability to overcome the fear and pain associated with suicide. This review analyzes the various ways that military service may influence suicidal behavior and integrates these findings into an overall framework with relevant practical implications. Findings suggest that although there are many important factors in military suicide, the acquired capability may be the most impacted by military experience because combat exposure and training may cause habituation to fear of painful experiences, including suicide. Future research directions, ways to enhance risk assessment, and treatment implications are also discussed. PMID:20051309
Puech, Paloma; Pitcho, Benjamin
Two types of harassment are distinguished: sexual and psychological. In the private sector, according to French labour laws and the penal code, psychological harassment is actionable. It is up to the employer to prove the absence of harassment. The sanctions incurred can be up to 5 years imprisonment and a 150,000 euro fine and various measures of compensation for damages can be envisaged. PMID:23672157
Dochy, Filip; Gijbels, David; Segers, Mien; Van den Bossche, Piet
Workplace and professional learning, lifelong learning, adult learning, learning in different contexts have become of more and more interest and now dominate all aspects of 21st century life. Learning is no longer about "storing and recall" but "development and flow". "Theories of Learning in the Workplace" offers fascinating overviews into some…
Eckart Scheerer; Universitiit Oldenburg
The work of Wilhelm Wundt and his students in the psychology of memory is reviewed. Wundt rarely used the concept ‘memory’, but he dealt extensively with a number of problems that today are often discussed under the heading of ‘memory’. Four components of his theory are distinguished and traced through the successive stages of the evolution of the theory: the
1 HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY Psychology 405, Section 001 Department of Psychology Michigan State University Fall, 2012 Class meeting times: Tuesday, Thursday, 12:40-2:00 p.m. Place: 120 Psychology Building Instructor: L.J. Harris Office: 217 Psychology Building Office Hours: Mondays, 3:00 - 5 p.m.; other times
PSYCHOLOGY MAJORS -- 1 #12;PSYCHOLOGY MAJORS -- 2 Handbook for Undergraduate Psychology Majors......................................................................................................................................2 A. Psychology Program Goals and Purpose B. Declaration of Major C. History of Marquette University D. Facilities E. Graduate Program in Clinical Psychology 2. Department Faculty and Staff
Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S.
We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices. PMID:25852628
Hibbard, Roberta; Barlow, Jane; Macmillan, Harriet
Psychological or emotional maltreatment of children may be the most challenging and prevalent form of child abuse and neglect. Caregiver behaviors include acts of omission (ignoring need for social interactions) or commission (spurning, terrorizing); may be verbal or nonverbal, active or passive, and with or without intent to harm; and negatively affect the child's cognitive, social, emotional, and/or physical development. Psychological maltreatment has been linked with disorders of attachment, developmental and educational problems, socialization problems, disruptive behavior, and later psychopathology. Although no evidence-based interventions that can prevent psychological maltreatment have been identified to date, it is possible that interventions shown to be effective in reducing overall types of child maltreatment, such as the Nurse Family Partnership, may have a role to play. Furthermore, prevention before occurrence will require both the use of universal interventions aimed at promoting the type of parenting that is now recognized to be necessary for optimal child development, alongside the use of targeted interventions directed at improving parental sensitivity to a child's cues during infancy and later parent-child interactions. Intervention should, first and foremost, focus on a thorough assessment and ensuring the child's safety. Potentially effective treatments include cognitive behavioral parenting programs and other psychotherapeutic interventions. The high prevalence of psychological abuse in advanced Western societies, along with the serious consequences, point to the importance of effective management. Pediatricians should be alert to the occurrence of psychological maltreatment and identify ways to support families who have risk indicators for, or evidence of, this problem. PMID:22848125
Robert L. Randall
This article provides a general explication of how a pastoral counselor might use the self psychology perspective in conjunction with theological and ethical approaches. A particularly appropriate structure for this explication is self psychology's theory and practice of psychoanalytic psychotherapy as a two-phase process: an observation-understanding phase, in which empathic introspection is the central method, and an explanation-interpretation phase, in
A host of online educational initiatives during the past few years have brought lectures from all over the world into the homes into many persons who may not have access to such programs in their own local communities. One such website brings the insights and collected knowledge of various members of Stanford University's renowned psychology department to the Internet-browsing public. The lectures address such topics as the psychology of evil, the role of parents in their children's lives, and the role of personal and collective efficacy. Along with these individual talks presented by various members of the psychology faculty, there are several nice panel sessions on the nature of language and the cultural shaping of emotion. Finally, the site also contains the lively question-and-answer sessions that followed each panel session.
Morris, Edward K.; Higgins, Stephen T.; Bickel, Warren K.
psychology to the field of behavior analysis. Contemporary behavior analytic research and theory are evolving in directions either influenced by, or consonant with Kantor's approach. It is concluded that Kantor's interbehavioral psychology and his writings...
Ehtibar N. Dzhafarov
The problem considered is how to map the concepts of Quantum Theory (QT) to elements of a psychological experiment. The QT concepts are "measurement," "state," and "observable". The elements of a psychological experiment are trial, stimulus, instructions, questions, and responses.
There are currently very few discussions of moral psychology in the animal ethics literature. This dissertation aims to fill this void. My main contention is that many theories in animal ethics hold mistaken views about the moral psychology of human...
Arendt, Mikkel; Rosenberg, Raben
Diagnostic criteria for stress reactions and adjustment disorders are summarized. Existing psychological treatments are outlined with a focus on evidence-based methods, and recommendations for treatment are described. The conclusion is that there is no evidence for the effect of psychological debriefing or other professional treatment in the immediate aftermath of traumatic events. On the other hand, cognitive behavioural therapy, EMDR and similar methods with focus on exposure can be recommended, both as a preventive strategy and for patients with post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:19284905
van Rooij, Robert
Research Review Psychology 2011 QANU July 2012 #12;QANU / Psychology research assessment 20122;QANU / Psychology Research assessment 2012 3 CONTENTS 1. The Review Committee and review procedures...............................................166 Appendix D: Additional information regarding the Leiden Institute of Psychology ..............169
Psychology is an experimental and observational science, in which evidence from research studies is used to develop and evaluate theories. If you are expecting psychology to tell you how to read other will probably enjoy psychology. Why study Psychology at Edinburgh? Research in Psychology at the University
M. Brinton Lykes
This article explores the possible contributions of a psychology of liberation for the practice of health psychology. It explores alternative psychological ‘practices’, for example participatory action research, with groups historically marginalized from access to power and resources. Selected lenses for crafting a liberatory psychology include: discourse of human rights and mental health; cultural and constructivist psychological theory; and reflexivity. Specific
Jones, Reginald L., Ed.
The contents of the present volume, designed to bring together in a single place writings by the new black psychologists and other black social and behavioral scientists, are organized in seven parts, as follows: Part I, "Black Psychology: Perspectives," includes articles by Cedric Clark, Wade W. Nobles, Doris P. Mosby, Joseph White, and William…
McGraw, Ken; Tew, Mark D.; Williams, John E.
A goal of the PsychExperiments project was to reduce the financial burden on psychology departments for hardware/software used in their laboratories. In its third year, the PsychExperiments site now hosts 39 experiments. Over 200 classrooms worldwide have signed up as official site users and there have been nearly 10,000 data sessions conducted.…
Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.
Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.
In "Psychology in its place" (2008), John Radford considers "what is or should be the "place" of Psychology in education, more particularly Higher Education". In this article, the author looks at the possible inclusion of coaching psychology within undergraduate psychology programmes. Coaching psychology as an applied area of psychology…
Lucas, Ann F.
Efforts to enhance student motivation can be more effective if they are approached from the perspective of psychological models of what drives human behavior including social learning theory, personal growth as a primary goal, cognitive development theory, self-efficacy theory, and expectancy-value theory. (Author/MLW)
Liberman, Nira; Trope, Yaacov
Traversing psychological distance involves going beyond direct experience, and includes planning, perspective taking, and contemplating counterfactuals. Consistent with this view, temporal, spatial, and social distances as well as hypotheticality are associated, affect each other, and are inferred from one another. Moreover, traversing all distances involves the use of abstraction, which we define as forming a belief about the substitutability for a specific purpose of subjectively distinct objects. Indeed, across many instances of both abstraction and psychological distancing, more abstract constructs are used for more distal objects. Here, we describe the implications of this relation for prediction, choice, communication, negotiation, and self-control. We ask whether traversing distance is a general mental ability and whether distance should replace expectancy in expected-utility theories. PMID:24726527
College of Psychology College of Psychology Life Sciences Building 3105 S. Dearborn St. Chicago, IL 60616 312.567.3500 firstname.lastname@example.org www.iit.edu/colleges/psych Dean: M. Ellen Mitchell Associate Dean: Scott B. Morris Division Head, Clinical Psychology: Michael Young Division Head, Industrial
The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…
Dumont, Frank; Carson, Andrew D.
Examines philosophical theories produced by two ancient civilizations (Eastern Mediterranean and Chinese) for applications to an applied psychology of work. Includes analysis of Egyptians, Semites, and Greeks, with a special emphasis on Plato. Suggests that many basic elements of vocational psychology were present during the first millennium B.C.…
"Psychology for the Classroom: E-Learning" is a lively and accessible introduction to the field of technology-supported teaching and learning and the educational psychology associated with those developments. Offering a substantial and useful analysis of e-learning, this practical book includes current research, offers a grounding in both theory…
Hulshof, Casper D.; Eysink, Tessa H. S.; Loyens, Sofie; de Jong, Ton
ZAPs are short, self-contained computer programs that encourage students to experience psychological phenomena in a vivid, self-explanatory way, and that are meant to evoke enthusiasm about psychological topics. ZAPs were designed according to principles that originate from experiential and discovery learning theories. The interactive approach…
Lisa Tsoi Hoshmand
Narratological research is defined in relation to narrative theory and a cultural psychology perspective. Narrative concepts and methodology are explained, including the configural mode of understanding and principles of narrative analysis. Examples of application in psychological and counseling research are presented, with a discussion of issues of validity and voice. Suggestions are made on how narrative studies are to be
Psychology 202 - Mind and Society ONLINE COURSE Summer 2014 (CRN # 48083) Instructor: Dr. Jordan processes. 3. Demonstrate knowledge of the basic vocabulary of psychology. 4. Describe the basic theories of basic process such as motivation, learning, emotions, group processes, personality, and human
David J. Buller
For some evolutionary psychology is merely a field of inquiry, but for others it is a robust paradigm involving specific theories about the nature and evolution of the human mind. Proponents of this paradigm claim to have made several important discoveries regarding the evolved architecture of the mind. Highly publicized discoveries include a cheater-detection module, a psychological sex difference in
Yontef, Gary M.
When adequately elaborated, the basic method of Gestalt therapy can be traced to the phenomenological field theory of Gestalt psychology. Gestalt therapy differs from Gestalt psychology not because of a difference in philosophy or method, but because of different contexts; the clinical context has different demands than those of basic research.…
Miller, Joan G.
This chapter argues for the essential role of culture in forming the basic constructs and theories of developmental psychology. The case is made for the need to overcome the cultural insularity of core developmental concepts and methods in order to create a psychology that is more truly universal.
Frank W. Bond; Steven C. Hayes; Dermot Barnes-Holmes
This paper offers organizational behavior management (OBM) a behavior analytically consistent way to expand its analysis of, and methods for changing, organizational behavior. It shows how Relational Frame Theory (RFT) suggests that common, problematic, psychological processes emerge from language itself, and they produce psychological inflexibility. Research suggests that an applied extension of RFT, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, has led to
Bond, Frank W.; Hayes, Steven C.; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot
This paper offers organizational behavior management (OBM) a behavior analytically consistent way to expand its analysis of, and methods for changing, organizational behavior. It shows how Relational Frame Theory (RFT) suggests that common, problematic, psychological processes emerge from language itself, and they produce psychological…
Edward L. Thorndike
Outlines the contributions of psychology to an understanding of the aims, materials, means and methods of education. The three ways in which psychology contributes to a knowledge of methods of teaching are delineated. The work done by psychologists which is of special significance to the theory and practice of education have also been discussed. Incidental contributions from studies of sensory
Noting that the previous two decades have seen Lev Vygotsky's psychology become highly influential while the psychology of other theoretical giants has faded, this book provides a major intellectual biography about Vygotsky's theories and their relationship to twentieth-century Russian and Western intellectual culture. The book traces Vygotsky's…
Michael C. Stallings; Charlotte C. Dunham; Margaret Gatz; Laura A. Baker; Vern L. Bengtson
Relationships between 11 major life events and changes in psychological well-being were examined in a three-generation sample: grandparents, their adult children, and their young adult grandchildren. Psychological well-being was measured using the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale. Life events included marriages; divorces; births of children; deaths of spouses, children, and parents; health declines; hospitalizations; improved standard of living; retirement; and retirement
Holton, Richard, 1962-
The course is an examination of philosophical theories of action and motivation in the light of empirical findings from social psychology, sociology and neuroscience. Topics include Belief, Desire, and Moral Motivation; ...
Vassallo, Janice N.
Reviews psychological perspectives of Buddhism and the universal human problem and its subsequent cures that can be applied to interactions in a counseling relationship. Suggests that meditation techniques can be integrated into current counseling theories. (JAC)
The four papers of this symposium on social psychology and gerontology are critically discussed: Babchuk on primary relations; Shaver on attribution theory; Marris on conservation and innovation; and Lieberman on adaptation. (Author)
Dishman, Rod K.
Reviews theory and methods used by the field of biological psychology to study stress that have potential for understanding how behavioral and biological adaptations to the stress of exercise are integrated. The overview focuses on anxiety, depression, and physiological responsiveness to nonexercise stressors from the perspective of biological…
A comparative psychology course oriented around the themes of phylogeny and ontogeny is described. The course emphasizes the evolution and development of behavioral processes and includes a discussion of the concept of integrative levels and Schneirla's approach/withdrawal theory. The course evaluates genetic determinism and stresses the principle…
Opening with a discussion of the role of computer simulation in cognitive psychology, this paper proceeds to examine the major perspectives on computer simulation as a tool for theoretical research on cognitive processes. The claim that computer simulation enforces rigor in theory specification is analyzed; the use of simulation as a method for…
Langford, Peter E.
Vygotsky is widely considered one of the most significant and influential psychologists of the twentieth century. Nevertheless, true appreciation of his theories has been hindered by a lack of understanding of the background to his thought. "Vygotsky's Developmental and Educational Psychology" aims to demonstrate how we can come to a new and…
This digest highlights several psychological dimensions of user-computer interfaces. First, the psychological theory behind interface design and the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) are discussed. Two psychological models, the information processing model of cognition and the mental model--both of which contribute to interface design--are…
David M. Buss
Personality psychology is the broadest of all psychological subdisciplines in that it seeks a conceptually integrated understanding of both human nature and important individual differences. Cultural differences pose a unique set of problems for any comprehensive theory of personality—how can they be reconciled with universals of human nature on the one hand and within-cultural variation on the other? Evolutionary psychology
Goldmeier, John; Fandetti, Donald V.
The use of self-psychology, a theory first developed by Heinz Kohut, is discussed and illustrated with case examples from child welfare practice. The cases demonstrate that self-psychology can enhance an ecological model. The ways in which self-psychology can enrich the social worker's therapeutic role in permanency planning are emphasized.…
1 PSYC S158: Developmental Psychology Summer 2013, Session A Instructor: Dr. Annie E. Wertz Email in developmental psychology and learn their implications for various theories of development. Evaluation: 25% Exam to give you first hand exposure to scientific journal articles in the field of developmental psychology
Aich, Tapas Kumar
Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between “two of the most powerful forces” operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Orientalist Alan Watts wrote ‘if we look deeply into such ways of life as Buddhism, we do not find either philosophy or religion as these are understood in the West. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy’. Buddha was a unique psychotherapist. His therapeutic methods helped millions of people throughout the centuries. This essay is just an expression of what little the current author has understood on Buddha philosophy and an opportunity to offer his deep tribute to one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced! PMID:23858249
Green Christopher D.
Developed by Christopher D. Green, associate professor of psychology at York University, this site currently compiles the full text of over 80 works considered classics in the history of psychology. The historically significant texts, written by nearly 50 different authors, reside on a York University server and are fully searchable by keyword(s). Users may also access the texts through an author index or a topical index, which arranges the text into twelve subject areas: Ancient Psychology, Behaviorism, Cognition, Evolutionary Theory, Functionalism & Pragmatism, Gestalt Theory, Intelligence Testing, Neuropsychology, Psychoanalysis & Psychotherapy, Social Psychology, Statistics & Methodology, and Wundt & Structuralism. In addition, the site links to more than 120 online documents related to the history of psychology posted on other Websites.
HANDBOOK SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY SPECIALIZATION (APA-Accredited and NASP-Approved) IN EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY DOCTORAL PROGRAM University of Wisconsin -Milwaukee For students, faculty, and supervisors 2013 to provide information specific to the School Psychology specialization. This specialization is fully
Jeremy N. Bailenson; Kathryn Y. Segovia
For a decade, the Virtual Human Interaction Lab has been creating doppelgangers, virtual versions of the self, for research purposes. This chapter considers how humans may be affected by confrontation with virtual versions of themselves, on the basis of well-established psychological theories, including social cognitive theory (social learning theory), media richness theory (information richness theory), and self-perception theory. Experiments carried
Handy, Todd C.
Psychology 460 1 Psychology 460 Â Behavioural Neuroendocrinology When: Tuesdays/ Thursdays 11 to the field of behavioral neuroendocrinology, which is the study of how hormones affect behaviour and brain
Zamo?teanu, Alina Oana
The computer-assisted analysis is not currently a novelty, but a necessity in all areas of psychology. A number of studies that examine the limits of the computer assisted and analyzed interpretations, also its advantages. A series of studies aim to assess how the computer assisting programs are able to establish a diagnosis referring to the presence of certain mental disorders. We will present the results of one computer application in clinical psychology regarding the assessment of Theory of Mind capacity by animation.
Trent A. Petrie; Nancy S. Diehl
Historically, sport psychology has been identified with physical education; however, recent developments in the field toward applied issues have substantially expanded psychologists' interests and opportunities. Unfortunately, little is known about professional psychologists' involvement in sport psychology practice, research, and training. Therefore, a national survey of 500 male and 500 female psychologists (American Psychological Association Division 12members) was conducted. Based on
Bruce R. Fretz
Surveyed psychology course offerings of 44 counseling graduate programs as well as the preferences of students and faculty (program directors) for a wide range of psychology course work. Mailed questionnaires were returned by directors of 23 programs and by 33 students in the programs. Responses for actual and preferred courses in American Psychological Association approved and nonapproved programs were similar.
Department of Psychology Institute for Educational Psychology Armin Weinberger, Markus Reiserer: Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Institute for Empirical Pedagogy and Pedagogical Psychology. Research report No. 158, February 2003 To appear in: Bromme, R. Hesse, F., & Spada, H. (2003). Barriers and biases
Zucchero, Renee' A.
Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…
Gillard, Ellen; Van Dooren, Wim; Schaeken, Walter; Verschaffel, Lieven
Research in the psychology of mathematics education has been confronted with the fact that people blatantly fail to solve tasks they are supposed to be able to solve correctly given their available domain-specific knowledge and skills. Also researchers in cognitive psychology have encountered such phenomena. In this paper, theories that have been…
Based on the psychology theory and the leadership definition, the author designed questionnaires of psychological constructs of learning and leadership characters to investigate the correlation between four psychological constructs of learning and leadership characters and to inquire into whether changing students' psychological constructs of…
C. Michael Levy
Development of theory and methodology related to the psychology of reading and mathematical problem solving has far outpaced\\u000a progress in the realm of the psychology of writing. However, recently published theories may serve to link written language\\u000a production research with mainstream psychology, and new computer-based methodologies may help to make conducting research\\u000a in writing more tractable. This paper describes several
Cheung, Fanny M.
Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…
Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an overview of…
Gallo, Linda C.
in cultural psychology to everyday life (including personal, social, or organizational issues or problems) 5 with this course are: 1. Use the concepts, language, and major theories of the field to account for psychological linked to specific social, cultural, and historical contexts. This course provides an overview of theory
Marissa S. Beyers; Jeffrey S. Reber
While acknowledging the psychological experience of intimacy, evolutionary theory postulates proliferation as the underlying grounds for human relationships. Intimacy, according to evolutionary theory, is merely a psychological mechanism whereby sexual selection and parental investment are facilitated. Unfortunately, the assumption of an underlying evolutionary mechanism which governs human relationships is fraught with problematic consequences. Unlike the evolutionary understanding of intimacy, the
Bowers, Jeffrey S.; Davis, Colin J.
According to Bayesian theories in psychology and neuroscience, minds and brains are (near) optimal in solving a wide range of tasks. We challenge this view and argue that more traditional, non-Bayesian approaches are more promising. We make 3 main arguments. First, we show that the empirical evidence for Bayesian theories in psychology is weak.…
Rena A. Kirkland; Nancy J. Karlin; Megan Babkes Stellino; Steven Pulos
A predominate motivation theory used to predict exercise behavior is self-determination theory, which posits that motivation is driven by satisfaction of three basic psychological needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. This study investigates the relationship between motivation, basic psychological needs satisfaction, and exercise in a sample of older adults. Significant differences were found between older adult exercisers and nonexercisers in intrinsic
Reardon, Robert C.; Lenz, Janet G.; Sampson, James P., Jr.; Peterson, Gary W.
This article draws upon the authors' experience in developing cognitive information processing theory in order to examine three important questions facing vocational psychology and assessment: (a) Where should new knowledge for vocational psychology come from? (b) How do career theories and research find their way into practice? and (c) What is…
The recently fashionable theories of positive psychology have educational ramifications at virtually every level of engagement, culminating in the model of positive education. In this critical review, I scrutinize positive education as a potential theory in educational psychology. Special attention is given to conceptual controversies and…
I analyze the historical background and philosophical considerations of Karl Bühler and his student Karl Popper regarding the crisis of psychology. They share certain Kantian questions and methods for reflection on the state of the art in psychology. Part 1 outlines Bühler's diagnosis and therapy for the crisis in psychology as he perceived it, leading to his famous theory of language. I also show how the Kantian features of Bühler's approach help to deal with objections to his crisis diagnosis and to aspects of his linguistic theory. Part 2 turns to Popper's dissertation, completed in 1928 under Bühler. I analyze Popper's disapproval of Schlick's physicalism in psychology, as well as Popper's attempt to extend Bühler's Kantian strategy to the domain of the psychology of thinking. In conclusion, I indicate how these approaches to the crisis in psychology differ from Thomas Kuhn's notions of crisis and revolution, which are still all too popular in current philosophical discussions of psychology. PMID:22520195
Posted by the American Psychological Society (see the May 6, 1994 Scout Report), this Website presents an extensive annotated list of psychological research currently being conducted on the Web. In addition to a new studies section, topics include health psychology, industrial and organizational psychology, personality studies, psychology and religion, sensation and perception, social psychology, neural psychology, clinical psychology, developmental psychology, cognition, emotions, and others. Links are provided to the listed Websites.
Barrett, Jeffrey A.
of psychology (e.g., decision making and psychophysics) in which AMT has had consider- ably more impact than) to provide qual- itative theories underlying quantitative models that relate several variables, and (2 MEASUREMENT THEORY Louis Narens and R. Duncan Luce Institute for Mathematical Behavioral Science, University
Carr, Christopher M
This article has briefly highlighted the area of sport psychology as it relates to performance psychology skills (mental training), including a historical overview and current topics overview. The use of mental training skills may be of interest to the practicing physical medicine and rehabilitation professional in the treatment of his or her patients. It is important that the physical medicine professional recognize what sport or performance psychology represents within the paradigm of psychologic interventions. Referring to an individual based on his or her training (licensed psychologist versus mental training consultant) is essential for the appropriate management of psychologic issues related to performance. The issues related to the psychologic rehabilitation of the injured athlete are of importance to the medical staff; the overview of affective responses can assist in understanding the normal and adaptive responses of the injured athlete. Finally, a brief description of a psychologist's role within a sports medicine and rehabilitation practice is presented. The psychologic issues that are present in the world of sport and elite performance are numerous, and not all are mentioned in this article. Issues of eating disorders, substance abuse, and psychologic health with athletes should be further explored within the physical medicine and rehabilitation discipline as well as in the sports medicine discipline. The ever-evolving psychologic dynamics of individuals involved in sport and elite performance are intriguing and unique. A specialized knowledge base, training, and experience in providing psychologic services are required to treat this unique population. Counseling and clinical issues of the athlete and elite performer require further attention in the realm of psychologic interventions, including further exploration of the efficacy of interventions for performance enhancement. The field of applied sport psychology may offer the physical medicine professional a unique perspective into the care of patients who are athletes and elite performers. PMID:16952750
This paper considers one theme in the contemporary legacy of Potter and Wetherell's (1987) Discourse and Social Psychology. It overviews the context that led to that book and considers a series of critical responses from both experimental and critical/qualitative social psychologists. It refutes criticisms and corrects confusions. Focusing on contemporary discursive psychology, it highlights (a) its rigorous use of records of actual behaviour; (b) its systematic focus on normative practices. In methodological terms, it (a) highlights limitations in the use of open-ended interviews; (b) considers the way naturalistic materials provide access to participants' own orientations and displays; (c) builds a distinctive logic of sampling and generalization. In theoretical terms, it (a) highlights the way discourse work can identify foundational psychological matters; (b) offers a novel approach to emotion and embodiment; (c) starts to build a matrix of dimensions which are central to the constructing and recognizing of different kinds of social actions. It now offers a fully formed alternative social psychology which coordinates theory and method and a growing body of empirical work. PMID:22168901
Renwick, Louisa Catherine
This study aimed to determine the effects of psychological needs on states of authenticity. Self-determination theory proposes three basic psychological needs, for autonomy, competence and relatedness (Deci & Ryan, 1985). ...
Donlevy, James G.; Donlevy, Tia Rice
Provides brief descriptions of adult education from technological, psychological, ideological, and sociological perspectives. Author examines the psychological perspective, highlighting the work of Jack Mezirow (transformation theory), Roger Gould (seven-step adult development process), Patricia Cranton (Understanding and Promoting Transformative…
Fitzgerald, Carey J; Whitaker, Mitchell B
The field of psychology remains a divided one. Several different sub-disciplines (e.g., developmental, cognitive, behaviorism, social, etc.) form what could be a unified scientific area. However, there is no widely accepted theory of unification. Charles Darwin once theorized that evolutionary theory would change the foundation of psychology; but over the years, evolutionary psychology has been met with hostile resistance from some of the prominent psychologists within the other sub-disciplines. Yet in recent years, all of the divided sub-disciplines of psychology have been slowly implementing evolutionary principles into their literature and research. This slow integration of evolutionary psychology into the other sub-disciplines indicates the possibility of a unified psychology with evolution as its foundation. This paper briefly reviews the literature within each major sub-discipline of psychology to show their implementation of evolutionary psychological theories, indicating the possibility of evolutionary psychology becoming the unifying paradigm upon which the entire field of psychology can be based. A call for action to continue this process is also discussed. PMID:22947797
1 Psychology 302 Statistical Methods in Psychology Fall 2012 TR 4:00-5:20pm Gerlinger 302) 346-4966 Office Hours: TBD Course Overview: Understanding statistics and statistical reasoning classes and hopefully for some of you in the world beyond, will present statistical data. This data
i School Psychology Handbook for 2014-15 School Psychology Program Department of Psychology 430 Huntington Hall Syracuse, NY 13244-2340 Doctoral Degree (Ph.D.) in School Psychology Accredited by the American Psychological Association (APA)* Approved by the National Association of Psychology Psychologists
Hardy, Christopher R.
1 8/12/2011 PSYCHOLOGY 685: Practicum in School Psychology 3 credits Millersville University and Practicum in School Psychology (Psychology 685) are in accordance with two important documents; the NASP Standards for School Psychology Training Programs (2000) and the School Psychology; A Blueprint Training
www.mcmaster.ca/psychology What is Psychology, Neuroscience & Behaviour? Psychology, Neuroscience, speech pathology, clinical psychology, and the business world. HERE'S A QUICK LOOK AT THE PROGRAMS AVAILABLE THROUGH THE DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY, NEUROSCIENCE & BEHAVIOUR (PNB) · Honours B.Sc. Psychology
Psychology Major www.psychology.pitt.edu/undergraduate Revised: 01/2014 The undergraduate psychology major introduces students to a breadth of psychological topics, including the biological, social for a variety of career and graduate school paths. Required courses for the Psychology major The psychology
... Organizations Resources: FAQs › FAQs - The Psychological Component of Infertility -- written by the ASRM Mental Health Professional Group ( ... Professional in your area ) Q1. What impact does infertility have on psychological well being? Infertility often creates ...
Amiram Raviv; Mira Zeira; Keren Sharvit
The chapter reviews activities by Israeli psychologists in which community psychology principles are applied. It is argued\\u000a that despite the small number of publications using the term community psychology and the absence of formal specialization and training in community psychology, many Israeli psychologists have internalized\\u000a the principles of community psychology and implement them in their work. Specifically, we suggest that
Objectives The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial factors related to the onset of bipolar I disorder (BD). To do so, the Bipolar Disorder Etiology Scale (BDES), based on psychological behaviorism, was developed and validated. Using the BDES, common factors related to both major depressive disorder (MDD) and BD and specific factors related only to BD were investigated. Method The BDES, which measures 17 factors based on psychological behaviorism hypotheses, was developed and validated. This scale was administered to 113 non-clinical control subjects, 30 subjects with MDD, and 32 people with BD. ANOVA and post hoc analyses were conducted. Subscales on which MDD and BD groups scored higher than controls were classified as common factors, while those on which the BD group scored higher than MDD and control groups were classified as specific factors. Results The BDES has acceptable reliability and validity. Twelve common factors influence both MDD and BD and one specific factor influences only BD. Common factors include the following: learning grandiose self-labeling, learning dangerous behavior, reinforcing impulsive behavior, exposure to irritability, punishment of negative emotional expression, lack of support, sleep problems, antidepressant problems, positive arousal to threat, lack of social skills, and pursuit of short-term pleasure. The specific factor is manic emotional response. Conclusions Manic emotional response was identified as a specific factor related to the onset of BD, while parents’ grandiose labeling is a candidate for a specific factor. Many factors are related to the onset of both MDD and BD. PMID:25549262
Webster, Sandra K.; Kelliher, Thomas P.
Psychology and computer science were clustered into a course in "Internet Psychology" with the goal of enabling students to use electronic networks responsibly and creatively and to understand the principles of psychology as they operate in the electronic context. Fourteen students from a variety of majors registered for the class. Course content,…
Because psychology systematically explores human judgment, behavior, and well-being, it can teach us important lessons about how humans differ from the way they are traditionally described by economists. This essay discusses a selection of psychological findings relevant to economics. While standard economics assumes that each person maximizes stable and coherent preferences given rationally-formed probabilistic beliefs, psychological research teaches us about
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology (SNP) I t is an exciting challenge for us to launch a new interdisciplinary journal, Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology. We believe the journal will appeal to a wide within cogni- tive neuroscience and psychology have started to emerge: (1) affective neurosciences
Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G.
Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts…
Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio
The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…
Discusses what elements of educational psychology are useful in elementary school education and how educational practices can enrich research and development in educational psychology. Educational psychology is ready to assume interactive relationships with methods of scientific application, development, and research, as practiced in the traditional sciences. These interactions would be helpful for studying subject-matter learning, the teaching of basic abilities,
MacDonald, Paul S
Francis Bacon offers two accounts of the nature and function of the human mind: one is a medical-physical account of the composition and operation of spirits specific to human beings, the other is a behavioral account of the character and activities of individual persons. The medical-physical account is a run-of-the-mill version of the late Renaissance model of elemental constituents and humoral temperaments. The other, less well-known, behavioral account represents an unusual position in early modern philosophy. This theory espouses a form of behavioral psychology according to which (a) supposed mental properties are "hidden forms" best described in dispositional terms, (b) the true character of an individual can be discovered in his observable behavior, and (c) an "informed" understanding of these properties permits the prediction and control of human behavior. Both of Bacon's theories of human nature fall under his general notion of systematic science: his medical-physical theory of vital spirits is theoretical natural philosophy and his behavioral theory of disposition and expression is operative natural philosophy. Because natural philosophy as a whole is "the inquiry of causes and the production of effects," knowledge of human nature falls under the same two-part definition. It is an inquisition of forms that pertains to the patterns of minute motions in the vital spirits and the production of effects that pertains both to the way these hidden motions produce behavioral effects and to the way in which a skillful agent is able to produce desired effects in other persons' behavior. PMID:17623872
Klein, William M P; Shepperd, James A; Suls, Jerry; Rothman, Alexander J; Croyle, Robert T
The theories, phenomena, empirical findings, and methodological approaches that characterize contemporary social psychology hold much promise for addressing enduring problems in public health. Indeed, social psychologists played a major role in the development of the discipline of health psychology during the 1970s and 1980s. The health domain allows for the testing, refinement, and application of many interesting and important research questions in social psychology, and offers the discipline a chance to enhance its reach and visibility. Nevertheless, in a review of recent articles in two major social-psychological journals (Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin and Journal of Personality and Social Psychology), we found that only 3.2% of 467 studies explored health-related topics. In this article, we identify opportunities for research at the interface of social psychology and health, delineate barriers, and offer strategies that can address these barriers as the discipline continues to evolve. PMID:24981514
This article examines utopian elements in Wilhelm Reich's writings in his American phase (1939-1957) in order to illustrate utopian sources of dynamic psychology. Although there are scholars who have used the term "psychological utopia" and applied it to individual thinkers (Reich, Marcuse, Fromm) and to specific psychological disciplines (psychoanalysis, behaviorism, cognitive psychology), the term itself has remained elusive and vague. Furthermore, there have been few attempts to systematically examine utopian elements in twentieth-century psychology in general and the basic assumptions of psychological utopianism in particular. While pointing out that Reich's orgonomic theories have no scientific merit, this article argues for the relevancy of his ideas for understanding the nature of utopianism in dynamic psychology. PMID:11954039
Created and maintained by Professor John Suler of Rider University, The Psychology of Cyberspace is a frequently updated interactive document that provides "an evolving conceptual framework for understanding the various psychological components of cyberspace." Currently, the site contains six major components: The Fundamental Psychological Qualities of Cyberspace, The Psychology of the Individual in Cyberspace, The Psychology of Cyberspace Relationships, Group Dynamics in Cyberspace, Research Methods in Cyberpsychology, and The Palace Study, an ongoing case study of an online multimedia community. This extensive site also includes a subject index to aid information retrieval, and a modest annotated webliography of cyberpsychology resources.
Robert A. Hinde
Certain characteristics of psychology that have been instrumental to its success, such as emphases on an experimental approach, on group means, on theory-driven research, and on analysis but not synthesis, can be detrimental to progress if taken too far. In addition, psychology’s success has led to its fragmentation into subdisciplines, with too little cross-fertilization. Future progress may depend on a
Paul Mulholland; Stuart Watt
ABSTRACT Cognitive modelling,involves building computational models,of psychological,theories in order to learn more about them, and is a major research areaallied to psychology and artificial intelligence. The main,problem,is that few psychology,students have previous programming,experience. The course lecturer can avoid the problem,by presentingthe area only in general terms. This leaves the process of building and testing models, which is central to the
Even as the neuro-psychoanalytic field has matured, from a naturalist point of view, the epistemological status of Freudian interpretations still remains problematic at a naturalist point of view. As a result of the resurgence of hermeneutics, the claim has been made that psychoanalysis is an extension of folk psychology. For these “extensionists,” asking psychoanalysis to prove its interpretations would be as absurd as demanding the proofs of the scientific accuracy of folk psychology. I propose to show how Dennett’s theory of the intentional stance allows us to defend an extensionist position while sparing us certain hermeneutic difficulties. In conclusion, I will consider how Shevrin et al. (1996) experiments could turn extensionist conceptual considerations into experimentally testable issues. PMID:23525879
Even as the neuro-psychoanalytic field has matured, from a naturalist point of view, the epistemological status of Freudian interpretations still remains problematic at a naturalist point of view. As a result of the resurgence of hermeneutics, the claim has been made that psychoanalysis is an extension of folk psychology. For these "extensionists," asking psychoanalysis to prove its interpretations would be as absurd as demanding the proofs of the scientific accuracy of folk psychology. I propose to show how Dennett's theory of the intentional stance allows us to defend an extensionist position while sparing us certain hermeneutic difficulties. In conclusion, I will consider how Shevrin et al. (1996) experiments could turn extensionist conceptual considerations into experimentally testable issues. PMID:23525879
In this very personal writing, I describe my experiences with self psychology in general and with Heinz Kohut in particular, from its beginnings in the early 1970s until Kohut's death and my own subsequent development. The discovery of self psychology in the context of my beginnings as a new, rather disillusioned, candidate in a classical institute affiliated with the American Psychoanalytic Association is described, with the sense of relief that comes with finding a theoretical perspective that matched my own views about human beings. My experiences as a member of the small study group that met in Chicago under the leadership of Kohut, what that was like for me, and how I came to both grow under his influence and then to find my own voice from within that influence forms the majority of this essay of deep appreciation for Kohut the man and Kohut the founder of a psychoanalytic theory. PMID:19379244
This activity will help the students understand that science theories change in the face of new evidence, but those changes can be slow in coming. Students will observe how scientific theories change over time, Be introduced to the sophistication of the geocentric model and the time it took to change the theory underpinning the heliocentric model, Compare the heliocentric model to the geocentric model.
Gallo, Linda C.
available as an ebook) Optional: Study Guide for Kalat's Biological Psychology, Elaine M. Hull The Kalat feel free to set up meeting times with me or the T.A.s if you are having difficulty with concepts
Jeremy N. Bailenson; Kathryn Y. Segovia
\\u000a For a decade, the Virtual Human Interaction Lab has been creating doppelgangers, virtual versions of the self, for research\\u000a purposes. This chapter considers how humans may be affected by confrontation with virtual versions of themselves, on the basis\\u000a of well-established psychological theories, including social cognitive theory (social learning theory), media richness theory\\u000a (information richness theory), and self-perception theory. Experiments carried
Humanistic psychology shone most brightly during the revolutionary 1960s and 1970s. Referred to as “the encounter culture,” with a “sensitivity to others’ needs” including emotional self-expression, it was characterized by Carl Rogers as hunger for close relationships with fully-expressed emotions. One of the contributions of humanistic psychology to our culture was Rogers’ approach to conflict resolution using his emotionally honest
Gallo, Linda C.
, to introduce you to the field of social psychology. As such, there are three major sub-goals: (1) To introduce of behavior 4. Demonstrate an ability to apply concepts, principles, theories, and research findings in social psychology to everyday life (including personal, social, or organizational issues or problems) 5. Demonstrate
Gallo, Linda C.
is to acquaint you with the psychology of infants and children. We will cover the theories of developmentPsychology of Infant and Child Development, PSY 331 Spring 2009 Instructor: Barbara A. McDonald, Ph, toddlers, preschool children and children in the elementary school years. The course is organized around
Richardson, Michael J.; Slife, Brent D.
We explore the possibility that a priori philosophical commitments continue to result in a narrowing of inquiry in moral psychology and education where theistic worldviews are concerned. Drawing from the theories of Edward L. Thorndike and John Dewey, we examine naturalistic philosophical commitments that influenced the study of moral psychology…
This symposium is devoted to the question of whether and to what extent action may constitute a useful paradigm for developmental psychology, where ‘action’ is understood as voluntary behavior employed by the agent as a means of attaining certain ends. In the first contribution, Brandtstädter enlarges upon this definition, summarizes the multiple roots of action theory in psychology, and discusses
Morrow, Susan L.
Reacts to earlier articles concerning lesbian, gay, bisexual (LGB) issues in graduate psychology programs. Emphasizes these articles contribute to the literature regarding LGB issues and addresses implications for research, theory, and practice. Extends Laura Brown's lesbian-gay paradigm for psychology as it applies to these articles. (MKA)
Child Psychology Child psychology is one of the many branches of psychology and one of the most prenatal development through adolescence. Child psychology deals not only with how children grow physically, but with their mental, emotional and social development, as well. www.uwindsor.ca/psychology A Rigorous, Enriching
Psychology Insight Taster Day with British Psychology Society (ID:325) Outline The `Psychology and Lecturers aim to give a detailed picture of the various work within Psychology and the career/training options available. These are run in conjunction with the Welsh Branch of the British Psychological Society
School of Psychology Psychology explores how people think, feel, behave and interact with each. An understanding of contemporary psychological science is essential to shape current and emerging societal issues. Dr Beth Grunfeld Programme Leader, MA Psychology 1 year full-time 2 years part-time MA Psychology #12
Meijer, Rob R; de Vries, Rivka M; van Bruggen, Vincent
The psychometric structure of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18; Derogatis, 2001) was investigated using Mokken scaling and parametric item response theory. Data of 487 outpatients, 266 students, and 207 prisoners were analyzed. Results of the Mokken analysis indicated that the BSI-18 formed a strong Mokken scale for outpatients and prisoners, indicating strong unidimensionality. For students, only the depression and anxiety items formed a medium Mokken scale. Parametric item response theory analyses showed that the best discriminating items came from the depression and anxiety subscales. PMID:21280957
Charles, Eric P
What is the greatest contribution that ecological psychologists can offer social psychology? Ideally, ecological psychologists could explain how people directly perceive the unique properties of their social partners. But social partners are distinguished from mundane objects because they possess mental traits, and tradition tells us that minds cannot be seen. When considering the ideal possibility, we reject that doctrine and posit minds as perceivable. For ecological psychology, this entails asserting that minds are the types of things able to structure ambient energy. Contemporary research and theory suggests distinctly ecological ways of attacking this problem, but the problem is not new. Almost 100 years ago, Holt argued for the visibility of minds. Thus when considering these ideas, ecological psychologists face a choice that is at once about their future and their past. Extending ecological psychology's first principles into the social realm, we come to the point where we must either accept or reject Holt's arguments, and the wider context they bring. In doing so, we accept or reject our ability to study the uniquely social. PMID:20440585
Meijer, Rob R.; de Vries, Rivka M.; van Bruggen, Vincent
The psychometric structure of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18; Derogatis, 2001) was investigated using Mokken scaling and parametric item response theory. Data of 487 outpatients, 266 students, and 207 prisoners were analyzed. Results of the Mokken analysis indicated that the BSI-18 formed a strong Mokken scale for outpatients and…
Psychological Society 525 STEREOSCOPIC SURFACE INTERPOLATION SUPPORTS LIGHTNESS CONSTANCY Laurie M. Wilcox- tations from very sparse information, as evidenced by the formation of subjective surfaces in regions
Nielsen, Michael E.
Designed and maintained by Professor Michael E. Nielsen of the Psychology Department at Georgia Southern University, this site offers numerous resources for people interested in psychological aspects of religious belief and behavior. The site is designed as an introduction to the psychology of religion, rather than a comprehensive treatment. Resources are grouped into three main categories: general resource pages, science and religion pages, and pages devoted to new religious movements. Contents include notable people in the psychology of religion; a bibliography; course syllabi; journal TOCs; essays on the field, on science and religion, and on several aspects of new religious movements; and related links.
Suler, John R., 1955-
Teaching Clinical Psychology, created by Dr. John Suler of Rider University, is devoted to ï¿½sharing ideas and resources for teaching clinical psychology.ï¿½ Helpful for students and educators in the fields of mental health and human services counseling, this site contains practical in-class exercises, such as an exercise which illustrates what it is like to share secrets with strangers, and syllabi for courses in the clinical psychology curriculum. There are also larger projects for students, including an in-depth analysis of a psychotherapy case study and a role-play project which has students administer, score, and interpret a series of psychological tests given to a classmate.
The works of the London School of Psychology continued the racist presuppositions of Francis Galton and Karl Pearson discussed in the first part of Michael Billig's article. The eugenicists manipulated the evidence of IQ tests to prove their theories about racial inferiority and said those who disagreed were not scientists.
Hoyt, William T.; Warbasse, Rosalia E.; Chu, Erica Y.
Counseling psychology researchers devote little attention to theory-based measurement validation, as evidenced by cursory mention of validity issues in the method and discussion sections of published research reports. Especially, many researchers appear unaware of the limitations of correlations between pairs of self-report measures as evidence of…
Beins, Bernard C.
Gaining a perspective on the evolution of psychological concepts can show students the power of theory and societal perspective in shaping scientific ideas across time. In this article, the author uses two constructs, the broad concept of intelligence and the narrow concept of combat stress reaction, to illustrate how psychologists have grappled…
Michael Cole; Jerome S. Bruner
Discusses the inadequacy of experimental evidence and logical considerations in current theories of intellectual deficits caused by cultural deprivation. Reports on the presence or absence of competence have been based on noncomparable experimental situations. Deficit interpretations have assumed that absence of performance reflects absence of a particular psychological process. A strategy is proposed which combines usual experimental approaches with ethnographic
Au-Deane S. Cowley; David Derezotes
Social workers in the 1990s are facing a postmodern world, with unique practice challenges in both the micro and macro levels of practice. Because psychological services are reactive, serving the clients that come out of a particular social context, different theories have emerged over time to address the ills of the day. Many of the practice challenges for social work
Moran, Michael G.
Joseph Priestley, in his "A Course of Lectures on Oratory and Criticism," developed a psychological theory of style. The "Course" covers three main topics: traditional rhetorical arts of invention, arrangement, and style. Borrowing from the ideas of David Hartley, the association psychologist; Joseph Addison, the aesthetician; and Adam Smith, the…
Charlesworth, William R.
Darwin's weak influence on developmental psychology is traced. It is explained by (1) developmentalists' commitment to an ideology of meliorism; (2) conceptual issues relating to ontogeny and phylogeny; and (3) methodological problems. Suggests that developmentalists use evolutionary theory as a heuristic for structuring new research. (BC)
Good, Thomas L.; Brophy, Jere E.
The purpose of this book is to improve instruction by helping future teachers understand the realities of teaching, understand and organize relevant psychological theory, and become competent at tasks instructors perform. There are 29 chapters which deal with the following topics: (1) teacher decision making; (2) student physical development; (3)…
David H. Krantz
A controversy concerning the usefulness of “null” hypothesis tests in scientific inference has continued in articles within psychology since 1960 and has recently come to a head, with serious proposals offered for a test ban or something close to it. This article sketches some of the views of statistical theory and practice among different groups of psychologists, reviews a recent
Diane M. Hogan
The study of 'the child' has been, for more than a century, the territory of developmental psychology. In recent decades, the hegemony of develop- mental theory and methods has been challenged by critics within the now well-established field of the sociology of childhood that has emerged primarily in Europe in the course of the last two decades (see for example,
Health education is largely informed by psychological theories and practices that pursue reductionist views of people learning. However, critical attention is moving to understand health in ways that reconsider relationships to context and the forms of life within which everyday living takes place. This shift is apparent in theoretical…
Knowledge of statistics is important in the curricula of students in psychology and education. Reasons are twofold. First, in other courses they deal with theories and research studies which rely on statistical analysis. Second, they have to undertake research in which they have to handle, analyse and interpret data Statistics is for these students a tool, a means of communicating
Gallo, Linda C.
SYLLABUS Psychology 452 Introduction to Counseling and Psychotherapy Fall 2008 EBA 343 Th 3 is to acquaint you with the major theories of counseling and psychotherapy, including some modern approaches. I in the practice of counseling and psychotherapy. I will also show several videotapes of counseling sessions (part
Gallo, Linda C.
SYLLABUS Psychology 452 Introduction to Counseling and Psychotherapy Fall 2008 AL 105 M 4 is to acquaint you with the major theories of counseling and psychotherapy, including some modern approaches. I in the practice of counseling and psychotherapy. I will also show several videotapes of counseling sessions (part
Gallo, Linda C.
SYLLABUS Psychology 452 Introduction to Counseling and Psychotherapy Fall 2009 PS 130 MWF 9 is to acquaint you with the major theories of counseling and psychotherapy, including some modern approaches. I in the practice of counseling and psychotherapy. I will also show several videotapes of counseling sessions (part
Gallo, Linda C.
SYLLABUS Psychology 452 Introduction to Counseling and Psychotherapy Spring 2008 LS 244 T 3 is to acquaint you with the major theories of counseling and psychotherapy, including some modern approaches. I in the practice of counseling and psychotherapy. I will also show several videotapes of counseling sessions (part
predict how and why everyday social psychology theories will be wrong. This class promotes respectSubject to Change 1 Social Psychology PSY 456 / Winter 2009 / CRN 25983 Monday/Wednesday 2:00 3:15 & by appt. Required Texts: Aronson, E., Wilson, T. D., & Akert, R. M. (2007). Social Psychology (6th ed
Gallo, Linda C.
-O) Psychology, including major theories and research in the field as well as some practical applications as issues in industrial psychology (e.g., personnel selection, training and development, and performance appraisal) and organizational psychology (e.g., work motivation, justice, leadership, and stress). Learning
Adaptationist accounts of our physiology and psychology form the basis of Machian physics. The newly matured sciences of physiology, psychology, and evolutionary theory suggested that space, time and matter are psychological phenomena as well as physical ones. Mach's critique of Newtonian space and time which inspired Einstein arose out of this tradition, and thus, in a limited yet important sense,
HENDERIKUS J. STAM
This paper has two aims. First, to argue that constructionist positions may provide important answers to certain critiques of psychological theories in the twentieth century. Second, to examine the constructionist argument in psychology by tracing its roots in the sociology of knowledge and antifoundational philosophy. The problems of language bear centrally on the constructionist thesis, particularly the view that psychological
1 PSYCHOLOGY 302 Â STATISTICAL METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY SUMMER 2013 Methods) learn a variety of statistical terms and procedures. To successfully LIBRARY COMPUTERS. OVERVIEW Students of Psychology 302 (Statistical
What is Counselling Psychology? Counselling psychology focuses on the emotional, social, vocational, educational, health-related, developmental, and organizational concerns as they promote personal the path to becoming a counselling psychologist includes a 4-year undergraduate degree in psychology
Nagengast, Benjamin; Marsh, Herbert W; Scalas, L Francesca; Xu, Man K; Hau, Kit-Tai; Trautwein, Ulrich
Expectancy-value theory (EVT) is a dominant theory of human motivation. Historically, the Expectancy × Value interaction, in which motivation is high only if both expectancy and value are high, was central to EVT. However, the Expectancy × Value interaction mysteriously disappeared from published research more than 25 years ago. Using large representative samples of 15-year-olds (N = 398,750) from 57 diverse countries, we attempted to solve this mystery by testing Expectancy × Value interactions using latent-variable models with interactions. Expectancy (science self-concept), value (enjoyment of science), and the Expectancy × Value interaction all had statistically significant positive effects on both engagement in science activities and intentions of pursuing scientific careers; these results were similar for the total sample and for nearly all of the 57 countries considered separately. This study, apparently the strongest cross-national test of EVT ever undertaken, supports the generalizability of EVT predictions--including the "lost" Expectancy × Value interaction. PMID:21750248
This paper examines the theories and methods involved in the study of the impact of private governance on residents in two\\u000a distinct kinds of middle class housing schemes: gated community residents in New York and Texas living in single family attached\\u000a and detached houses, and cooperative apartment dwellers in New York City. The studies employed a range of methodologies drawing
Barrett, Louise; Pollet, Thomas V; Stulp, Gert
Does evolutionary theorizing have a role in psychology? This is a more contentious issue than one might imagine, given that, as evolved creatures, the answer must surely be yes. The contested nature of evolutionary psychology lies not in our status as evolved beings, but in the extent to which evolutionary ideas add value to studies of human behavior, and the rigor with which these ideas are tested. This, in turn, is linked to the framework in which particular evolutionary ideas are situated. While the framing of the current research topic places the brain-as-computer metaphor in opposition to evolutionary psychology, the most prominent school of thought in this field (born out of cognitive psychology, and often known as the Santa Barbara school) is entirely wedded to the computational theory of mind as an explanatory framework. Its unique aspect is to argue that the mind consists of a large number of functionally specialized (i.e., domain-specific) computational mechanisms, or modules (the massive modularity hypothesis). Far from offering an alternative to, or an improvement on, the current perspective, we argue that evolutionary psychology is a mainstream computational theory, and that its arguments for domain-specificity often rest on shaky premises. We then go on to suggest that the various forms of e-cognition (i.e., embodied, embedded, enactive) represent a true alternative to standard computational approaches, with an emphasis on "cognitive integration" or the "extended mind hypothesis" in particular. We feel this offers the most promise for human psychology because it incorporates the social and historical processes that are crucial to human "mind-making" within an evolutionarily informed framework. In addition to linking to other research areas in psychology, this approach is more likely to form productive links to other disciplines within the social sciences, not least by encouraging a healthy pluralism in approach. PMID:25161633
Barrett, Louise; Pollet, Thomas V.; Stulp, Gert
Does evolutionary theorizing have a role in psychology? This is a more contentious issue than one might imagine, given that, as evolved creatures, the answer must surely be yes. The contested nature of evolutionary psychology lies not in our status as evolved beings, but in the extent to which evolutionary ideas add value to studies of human behavior, and the rigor with which these ideas are tested. This, in turn, is linked to the framework in which particular evolutionary ideas are situated. While the framing of the current research topic places the brain-as-computer metaphor in opposition to evolutionary psychology, the most prominent school of thought in this field (born out of cognitive psychology, and often known as the Santa Barbara school) is entirely wedded to the computational theory of mind as an explanatory framework. Its unique aspect is to argue that the mind consists of a large number of functionally specialized (i.e., domain-specific) computational mechanisms, or modules (the massive modularity hypothesis). Far from offering an alternative to, or an improvement on, the current perspective, we argue that evolutionary psychology is a mainstream computational theory, and that its arguments for domain-specificity often rest on shaky premises. We then go on to suggest that the various forms of e-cognition (i.e., embodied, embedded, enactive) represent a true alternative to standard computational approaches, with an emphasis on “cognitive integration” or the “extended mind hypothesis” in particular. We feel this offers the most promise for human psychology because it incorporates the social and historical processes that are crucial to human “mind-making” within an evolutionarily informed framework. In addition to linking to other research areas in psychology, this approach is more likely to form productive links to other disciplines within the social sciences, not least by encouraging a healthy pluralism in approach. PMID:25161633
Duchowski, Andrew T.
Clemson University Department of Psychology ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Psychology Undergraduate Handbook 2014-2015 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Dr. Pamela Alley www.clemson.edu/psych #12;2 Table of Contents Section I: Psychology Department 4
Walla Walla Coll., WA.
Recognizing the need for trained teachers to enter the classroom with confidence and professional capacity, Walla Walla College introduced a Child Psychology Experience program. Personnel from several departments contribute to this program. In connection with the child psychology courses, the project features a laboratory/demonstration center…
PSYCHOLOGY FUNDAMENTALS Course Syllabus Fall, 2007 Course: Psych 9A; Psy Beh 11A Lecture: TuTh 2:003:20 Code: 68040 Room: PSLH 100 TEXT: Gleitman, Psychology, 7th Edition PROFESSOR: Don Hoffman SECRETARY at http://www.cogsci.uci.edu/ddhoff/HoffmanPubs.html or his book Visual Intelligence (Norton Press, 2000
1 PSYCHOLOGY FUNDAMENTALS Course Syllabus Fall, 2014 Course: Psych 9A/Psy Beh 11A Lecture: TuTh 12:30-1:50 Code: 68030/54030 Room: PSLH 100 TEXT: Gleitman, Psychology, 8th Edition PROFESSOR: Don Hoffman's research, you can see his webpage, his publications, his book Visual Intelligence, his paper
Carlson, Jon, Ed.; Slavik, Steven, Ed.
This book is a collection of classic and recent papers (published between 1964 and 1994) reprinted from the "Journal of Juvenile Psychology""Individual Psychologist," and "Individual Psychology." Each of the five sections is introduced by the editor's comments. "General Techniques" contains the following articles: (1) "I-Thou Relationship Versus…
Study Abroad in Psychology Studying abroad is increasingly important for psychology majors of global issues gained are critical to the companies' success. Why should I go abroad? Studying abroad that will significantly enhance your studies and career. Some of the potential benefits of going abroad include: Gain
Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen
Examines the influence of globalization on psychological functioning, describing globalization worldwide and its psychological consequences. Notes that most people now develop bicultural identities that combine local identity with global culture-related identity. Identity confusion is increasing among young people in non-western cultures because…
Alan D. Baddeley
In this chapter I will try to provide a brief overview of the concepts and techniques that are most widely used in the psychology of memory. Although it may not appear to be the case from sampling the literature, there is in fact a great deal of agreement as to what constitutes the psychology of memory, much of it developed
Gill, Diane L.
This book provides a comprehensive review of the branch of sport and exercise science that focuses on the psychological aspects of human behavior. Part I presents a general orientation to the field, including an introduction and description of sport psychology and a discussion of the history and current status of the field. Individual differences…
The ‘affective turn’ is a contemporary movement within the humanities, social science, and psychology to investigate affect, emotion, and feeling as hybrid phenomena jointly constituted from both biological and social influences. Health and illness are themselves jointly constituted in this way, and many of the topics, concerns, and methods of health psychology are strongly permeated by affective phenomena. Qualitative research
George Stricker; James W. Hull; Jan Woodring
Surveyed 371 departments that offer graduate programs in psychology to determine their current respecialization efforts. Program directors from 43 departments indicated that they are currently involved in respecialization efforts, 26 of these in clinical psychology. A 2nd questionnaire was sent to the 149 students identified as having been involved in clinical respecialization, and responses were received from 65. Results show
Gur, Bekir S.; Wiley, David A.
Little of the work in critical and hermeneutical psychology has been linked to instructional technology (IT). This article provides a discussion in order to fill the gap in this direction. The article presents a brief genealogy of American IT in relation to the influence of psychology. It also provides a critical and hermeneutical framework for…
Jones, Warren; Zusne, Leonard
Discusses need for anomalistic psychology courses (the occult, astrology, ESP, or those phenomena inexplicable in terms of orthodox science) in the college psychology curriculum. A study of an anomalistics course indicates that student belief in the paranormal was associated with greater learning which was then followed by significant reductions…
Paul L. Wachtel
Argues that both purposive and causal perspectives on behavior are essential to a mature psychology. Focus upon the meaning of behavior may be an efficient strategy for using psychoanalytic data but, for other data, process descriptions often seem more useful. It is concluded that the lack of measures in psychology quantifiable on an interval scale prevents energy constructs from having
Rowe, Candy; Skelhorn, John
The evolution of animal communication is a complex issue and one that attracts much research and debate. 'Receiver psychology' has been highlighted as a potential selective force, and we review how avian psychological processes and biases can influence the evolution and design of signals as well as the progress that has been made in testing these ideas in behavioural studies. Interestingly, although birds are a focal group for experimental psychologists and behavioural ecologists alike, the integration of theoretical ideas from psychology into studies of communication has been relatively slow. However, recent operant experiments are starting to address how birds perceive and respond to complex natural signals in an attempt to answer evolutionary problems in communication. This review outlines how a psychological approach to understanding communication is useful, and we hope that it stimulates further research addressing the role of psychological mechanisms in signal evolution. PMID:15306314
DEPARTMENTAL CODE Department of Psychology Colorado State University Approved May 13, 2009 #12........................................................................... 3 II. Mission of the Department of Psychology
Compiled by the American Psychological Association (APA) Adult Development and Aging division, this site contains twenty-six syllabi from undergraduate courses taught throughout the United States. Course topics include theory and research in adult development, the psychology of aging, and gerontology. The syllabi contain course descriptions, reading lists, assignments, and project descriptions. Helpful for those who teach adult development and aging courses at the undergraduate level, this site can be used in order to keep abreast of what peers are teaching their students, the methods of student learning evaluation they employ, and what literature is being discussed.
Zittoun, Tania; Perret-Clermont, Anne-Nelly
How can the advances of social and developmental psychology be integrated? This conceptual paper proposes to examine four basic theoretical models of social situations through which learning and development have been observed in the post-piagetian tradition: the psychosocial triangle, the frame, models of transfer and transitions, and models…
: Prenatal Through Middle Childhood (7 th Edition). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon 2. Pearson's My in developmental psychology. A number of themes guide the integration of the material. These themes, which-mail, or write them down during class and give them to me, or talk with me after class, during office hours
Moral psychology once regarded ethics of care as a promising theory. However, there is evidence to suggest that nowadays moral psychology completely ignores ethics of care's various insights. Moreover, ethics of care's core concepts - compassion, dependence, and the importance of early relations to moral development- are no longer considered to be relevant to the development of new theories in the field. In this paper, I will firstly discuss some of the reasons which, over recent years, have contributed to the marginalization of the role of ethics of care in moral psychology. Next, I will show that ethics of care's most promising idea centered on the care given to an infant and the importance of that care to the development of moral thinking. In this context, I will be describing the implications of John Bowlby's attachment theories, infant research, findings in moral psychology and neuroscience. I will argue that ethics of care needs to be radically re-thought and replaced by a psychology of care, an attachment approach to moral judgment, which would establish the centrality of the caregiver's role in moral development. The philosophical implications of this approach to the understanding of the "rationalists" and "intuitionists" debate about the true nature of moral judgment is also discussed. PMID:25368588
Moral psychology once regarded ethics of care as a promising theory. However, there is evidence to suggest that nowadays moral psychology completely ignores ethics of care’s various insights. Moreover, ethics of care’s core concepts – compassion, dependence, and the importance of early relations to moral development– are no longer considered to be relevant to the development of new theories in the field. In this paper, I will firstly discuss some of the reasons which, over recent years, have contributed to the marginalization of the role of ethics of care in moral psychology. Next, I will show that ethics of care’s most promising idea centered on the care given to an infant and the importance of that care to the development of moral thinking. In this context, I will be describing the implications of John Bowlby’s attachment theories, infant research, findings in moral psychology and neuroscience. I will argue that ethics of care needs to be radically re-thought and replaced by a psychology of care, an attachment approach to moral judgment, which would establish the centrality of the caregiver’s role in moral development. The philosophical implications of this approach to the understanding of the “rationalists” and “intuitionists” debate about the true nature of moral judgment is also discussed. PMID:25368588
Hill, Wendell T.
James S. Jackson Professor, Department of Psychology Director, Institute for Social Research. Jackson is the Daniel Katz Distinguished University Professor of Psychology, Profes- sor of Afroamerican Psychology, the American Psychological Association, the Association of Psychological Sciences, AAAS
This paper reviews the progress of discourse-analytic approaches in social psychology from the late 1980s to the present day, with a particular focus on the way conceptual and methodological contributions from within the Discourse and Rhetoric Group at Loughborough University have negotiated a positive role for innovative studies of language in the discipline of psychology. Social psychology has become a key site for the accumulation of a series of empirical studies that have seen the flourishing of a distinctive form of 'discursive social psychology' that has succeeded in moving from the margins of the discipline to a more accepted position. The paper traces this trajectory of discourse analysis from the limits to the centre of social psychology attending to five features that now characterise its contribution to psychology; an emphasis on everyday conversation, a concern with interpersonal interaction, explication of formal sequences; an insistence on empirical claims; and fidelity to the ethos of its host discipline. The paper concludes with some comments on the wider context of this new approach inside psychology today. PMID:21790666
232 Psychology 395 (1, 2, or 3)--Special Topics in Psychology Prerequisite: Permission,inpart,bystudentdemand.Mayberepeated fordegreecreditwithpermissionandifthetopicsare different.Staff. Psychology 403 (3)--Directed Individual Study Prerequisites: Six credits in psychology, junior stand- ing, and permission of the head of the department
Doctoral Study in Applied Developmental Psychology Department of Psychology University of New Orleans College of Sciences New Orleans, LA With a Ph.D. in Applied Developmental Psychology from professional psychological services. Graduates from our program are currently in academic positions in higher
Hardy, Christopher R.
10/2009 Psychology 685: Practicum in School Psychology Millersville University "Getting to Know Your District" Student's Name Practicum Site Practicum Supervisor Section 1: 1. What psychological is the ratio of student/psychologist? 5. Who is in charge of Psychological Services? 6. Do School Psychologists
The Department of Psychology Presents A Path into Clinical Psychology Tuesday, March 18, 2014 5:30 PM 7:00 PM Room 118 Psychology Building This program will provide you insights from graduate students and faculty in the field of clinical psychology. Panel experts will discuss the following: What
Richard J. Siegert; Tony Ward
The growth of evolutionary psychology as a theoretical framework for the study of human behavior has been spectacular. However, evolutionary psychology has been largely ignored by clinical psychology. This article is an attempt to encourage greater dialogue between the two. First, some of the major principles of evolutionary psychology are outlined, followed by consideration of some of the criticisms that
T. L. Engle
Does a high school course in psychology influence students to take further work in the subject? Is high school psychology of assistance to those who take psychology in a university? In an attempt to answer these questions, 13 university departments of psychology (Denver, Florida State, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Missouri, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Purdue, Southern California, Texas, Vermont) were
Patel, Aniruddh D.
1 Questionnaire for Seniors Majoring in General Psychology, Clinical Psychology, Biopsychology, Engineering Psychology, or Cognitive & Brain Science Congratulations on (almost, at least) completing college and your major in Psychology. We would greatly appreciate your views on your experience with the major
SLIWINSKI, JIM; ELKINS, GARY R.
Placebo effects are widely recognized as having a potent impact upon treatment outcomes in both medical and psychological interventions, including hypnosis. In research utilizing randomized clinical trials, there is usually an effort to minimize or control placebo effects. However, in clinical practice there may be significant benefits in enhancing placebo effects. Prior research from the field of social psychology has identified three factors that may enhance placebo effects, namely: priming, client perceptions, and the theory of planned behavior. These factors are reviewed and illustrated via a case example. The consideration of social-psychological factors to enhance positive expectancies and beliefs has implications for clinical practice as well as future research into hypnotic interventions. PMID:23488251
Sliwinski, Jim; Elkins, Gary R
Placebo effects are widely recognized as having a potent impact upon treatment outcomes in both medical and psychological interventions, including hypnosis. In research utilizing randomized clinical trials, there is usually an effort to minimize or control placebo effects. However, in clinical practice there may be significant benefits in enhancing placebo effects. Prior research from the field of social psychology has identified three factors that may enhance placebo effects, namely: priming, client perceptions, and the theory of planned behavior. These factors are reviewed and illustrated via a case example. The consideration of social-psychological factors to enhance positive expectancies and beliefs has implications for clinical practice as well as future research into hypnotic interventions. PMID:23488251
To elucidate how differing theories of rationality lead to differing practices, their social rules must be analyzed. This is true not merely in science but also in society at large. This analysis of social thinking requires both the identification of innate cognitive social psychological processes and explanations of their relations with differing rules of rational practice. These new tasks can enable social psychologists to contribute to the study of how social situations facilitate or inhibit rational practice and enable cognitive psychologists to improve social psychological theory. In contrast to dominant current research strategies, social and cognitive psychologists can integrate social studies of rational practices and their consequences with studies of underlying cognitive psychological processes. In this article I do not attempt to carry out these tasks but rather point to both their lack of recognition and their importance. PMID:25603578
Renee’ A. Zucchero
This study evaluated the integration of psychology ethics into an introductory psychology course. Students in two general\\u000a psychology sections were exposed to an infusion of psychology ethics in teaching, research, and clinical practice, whereas\\u000a students in two sections were exposed to traditional course content. Students completed a pre and post-test assessment including\\u000a a psychology ethics questionnaire and open-ended responses to
Gorsuch, Richard L.; Wallace, William L.
This article presents comments on "Does Psychology make a significant difference in our lives?" by P. Zimbardo. We deeply appreciate the documentation and inspiration provided by Zimbardo on how psychology is reaching out to the public by "giving psychology away" (p. 340). We totally agree that psychology has much, much more to offer that could be…
Undergraduate Programmes School of Psychology We are one of the UK's strongest Psychology as being `internationally excellent', third in the UK. Head of School of Psychology Create impact. #12;Contents Why study Psychology? 3 Our school 3 Our programmes 4 The third year 5 MSci opportunities 6 How
Burton, Geoffrey R.
Professional Doctorate in Clinical Psychology Programme information #12;www.bath.ac.uk/psychology/clinical #12;Professional Doctorate in Clinical Psychology Introduction and overview from the Programme Director As the most recently established Doctorate in Clinical Psychology the Bath team has combined well
Kalat, James W.
Chapters in this textbook for college students in introductory psychology courses are: (1) What is Psychology?; (2) Scientific Methods in Psychology; (3) Biological Psychology; (4) Sensation and Perception; (5) Altered States; (6) Learning; (7) Memory; (8) Cognition and Language; (9) Intelligence and Its Measurement; (10) Development; (11)…
Christopher Robert David Wagstaff; David Fletcher; Sheldon Hanton
The purpose of this paper is to review the literature relating to the positive aspects of organizational psychology research in sport. To this end, the narrative is divided into three main sections. The first section defines and delimits relevant concepts, including organizational psychology, positive psychology and positive organizing. The second section presents the background to positive organizational psychology in sport
Christopher Robert David Wagstaff; David Fletcher; Sheldon Hanton
The purpose of this paper is to review the literature relating to the positive aspects of organizational psychology research in sport. To this end, the narrative is divided into three main sections. The first section defines and delimits relevant concepts, including organizational psychology, positive psychology and positive organizing. The second section presents the background to positive organizational psychology in sport
Patel, Aniruddh D.
DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY The Psychology Department at Tufts University is seeking applicants at the assistant professor level for a tenure-track position in Cognitive Developmental Psychology to begin September, 2014TUFTS UNIVERSITY Department of Psychology FACULTY POSITION: ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF COGNITIVE
Gosling, Samuel D; Mason, Winter
Today the Internet plays a role in the lives of nearly 40% of the world's population, and it is becoming increasingly entwined in daily life. This growing presence is transforming psychological science in terms of the topics studied and the methods used. We provide an overview of the literature, considering three broad domains of research: translational (implementing traditional methods online; e.g., surveys), phenomenological (topics spawned or mediated by the Internet; e.g., cyberbullying), and novel (new ways to study existing topics; e.g., rumors). We discuss issues (e.g., sampling, ethics) that arise when doing research online and point to emerging opportunities (e.g., smartphone sensing). Psychological research on the Internet comes with new challenges, but the opportunities far outweigh the costs. By integrating the Internet, psychological research has the ability to reach large, diverse samples and collect data on actual behaviors, which will ultimately increase the impact of psychological research on society. PMID:25251483
This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies. PMID:25343628
de Zoysa, Piyanjali
The objective of this paper is to introduce and emphasize the importance of psychological interventions for those with dermatological conditions. In keeping with the current literature, the author envisages a two-tier approach in the provision of such psychological interventions. Firstly, most patients with dermatology conditions may not require psychological change. Instead, they could be approached with effective doctor–patient communication skills, within a context of empathy and positive regard. At the second tier, however, based on the clinical interview, some patients may require varying degrees of psychological change in order to better manage their illness. In such a context, a dermatologist with training in psychotherapy would be required. In the absence of such a person, the patient may be referred to a psychologist or another mental health professional trained in psychotherapy. PMID:23372215
... Psychology Topics Addictions ADHD Anger Anxiety Bipolar Disorder Bullying Depression Eating Disorders Emotional Health Ethics Marriage & Divorce ... ADHD Aging Alzheimer's Anger Anxiety Autism Bipolar Disorder Bullying Children Death & Dying Depression Disability Eating Disorders Education ...
Ghiselin, Michael T.
Darwin's views on various psychological behaviors were significant. Basing his conclusions on empirical research, he wrote extensively on the phylogeny of behavior, emotional expression, sexual selection, instincts, evolution of morals, ontogeny of behavior, and genetics of behavior. (PS)
Gallo, Linda C.
Psychology 333 Developmental Psychopathology Instructor: Amy Spilkin, Ph.D. Office Hours: Before 270 is acceptable) Materials: Wenar & Kerig (2010). Developmental Psychopathology with Additional of developmental psychopathology and will focus on major forms of developmental psychopathology, including mood
This slide presentation reviews the history of long duration spaceflight, and the changes in the International Space Station crew and the effect that this has had on the psychology of astronaut selection and training.
Published eleven times a year by the American Psychological Association, the Monitor on Psychology contains a number of helpful pieces for those persons interested in the broad field of psychology, and for those who may be thinking about going into the field as well. Each month features a number of helpful features, including a commentary from the APA's president, an update on psychology and public policy, discussion of ethical practices, and an editorial from a working professional in the field. Each month the publication also contains a number of extended articles on such topics as personality disorders, the importance of psychologists' in troubled schools, and the role of psychologists in homeland security. Visitors to the site also have access to an archive of previous issues that stretches back to January 1998.
J. C. Nunnally
The classic text is Psychometric Theory. Like the previous edition, this text is designed as a comprehensive text in measurement for researchers and for use in graduate courses in psychology, education and areas of business such as management and marketing. It is intended to consider the broad measurement problems that arise in these areas and is written for a reader
Joyce Ann Mercer
This essay explores the constructions of the child developed in the psychological theories of Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung. These child-constructs constitute important psychological source-theories for spiritualities of childhood as each embodies a particular understanding of what childhood means, within the author's understandings of human personhood. After addressing an initial period of agreement between the two thinkers in which both
Gallo, Linda C.
in industrial psychology (e.g., personnel selection, training and development, and performance appraisal, including major theories and research in the field as well as some practical applications for work's website): 1. Summarize recent developments in research and theory in I-O psychology. 2. Apply recent
Buss, David M.
Darwin envisioned a scientific revolution for psychology. His theories of natural and sexual selection identified two classes of struggles--the struggle for existence and the struggle for mates. The emergence of evolutionary psychology and related disciplines signals the fulfillment of Darwin's vision. Natural selection theory guides scientists to…
Strasburger, Victor C.
Aimed at primary care physicians and nurses, educators, and parents, this book reviews media effects on adolescent behavior and psychology. The book notes that television is a powerful medium to which adolescents are uniquely susceptible and how studies have shown television's ability to shape social attitudes. Theories of how television affects…
Stanley R. Strong; Josephine A. Welsh; Jean L. Corcoran; William T. Hoyt
For 3 decades, counseling psychologists have drawn ideas from social psychology about the social process of counseling, integrated the ideas into counseling theories, and assessed them in research. This article traces the history of this interface, examines its products, and projects its future. Three propositions have guided and have been supported by much of the research: (a) Successful counseling relationships
Blustein, David L.
Building on diverse influences from critical perspectives in vocational psychology and the relational movement in contemporary psychological discourse, this article introduces the relational theory of working. Attending to the full array of people who work and who want to work, the relational theory conceptualizes working as an inherently…
Mind is hidden from direct observation; it can be studied only by observing behavior. Variables encode information about behaviors. There is no one-to-one correspondence between behaviors and mental events underlying the behaviors, however. In order to understand mind it would be necessary to understand exactly what information is represented in variables. This aim cannot be reached after variables are already encoded. Therefore, statistical data analysis can be very misleading in studies aimed at understanding mind that underlies behavior. In this article different kinds of information that can be represented in variables are described. It is shown how informational ambiguity of variables leads to problems of theoretically meaningful interpretation of the results of statistical data analysis procedures in terms of hidden mental processes. Reasons are provided why presence of dependence between variables does not imply causal relationship between events represented by variables and absence of dependence between variables cannot rule out the causal dependence of events represented by variables. It is concluded that variable-psychology has a very limited range of application for the development of a theory of mind-psychology. PMID:18528738
Tong, Jiajin; Wang, Lei
Psychological work maturity is an important concept in situational leadership theory. The present research revised the Psychological Work Maturity Scale for use in Chinese organizations. Three samples of full-time employees (Ns = 205, 266, and 283) from different companies and industries participated in the present study. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a single-factor structure fit the data. The scale had acceptable reliabilities, convergent and criterion-related validities, and was shown to be an appropriate measure of psychological work maturity in Chinese employees. Maturity differences in several demographic variables were not found, but employees with longer tenure in Sample 2 scored higher on maturity, which shows that psychological work maturity may be dependent on personal development in the interaction with the varying situational factors, especially in the work domain. Implications for research and practice on psychological work maturity in China are discussed. PMID:21323139
Doudna, Jennifer A.
to purchase Gleitman's book, and be sure to purchase the 8th edition; other sections of Psychology 1 and 2 mayUniversity of California, Berkeley Department of Psychology Psychology 1 General Psychology Summer in the Department of Psychology. Psychology 1 (or its equivalent) is required for prospective majors in Psychology
René V. Dawis
Counseling psychology developed in the 1950s out of applied psychology, which at that time was the application of the psychology of individual differences. The present article traces this historical development, from individual differences psychology through psychological testing, vocational counseling, and student personnel work, to counseling psychology. The individual differences tradition in counseling psychology research and practice is described, and the
Brewin, Chris R.; Gregory, James D.; Lipton, Michelle; Burgess, Neil
Involuntary images and visual memories are prominent in many types of psychopathology. Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, other anxiety disorders, depression, eating disorders, and psychosis frequently report repeated visual intrusions corresponding to a small number of real or imaginary events, usually extremely vivid, detailed, and with highly distressing content. Both memory and imagery appear to rely on common networks involving medial prefrontal regions, posterior regions in the medial and lateral parietal cortices, the lateral temporal cortex, and the medial temporal lobe. Evidence from cognitive psychology and neuroscience implies distinct neural bases to abstract, flexible, contextualized representations (C-reps) and to inflexible, sensory-bound representations (S-reps). We revise our previous dual representation theory of posttraumatic stress disorder to place it within a neural systems model of healthy memory and imagery. The revised model is used to explain how the different types of distressing visual intrusions associated with clinical disorders arise, in terms of the need for correct interaction between the neural systems supporting S-reps and C-reps via visuospatial working memory. Finally, we discuss the treatment implications of the new model and relate it to existing forms of psychological therapy. PMID:20063969
PSYCHOLOGY 478/578 SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Â FALL 2010 Dr. Jennifer Pfeifer 393 Straub Â no phone calls developmental change in phenomena like attachment to parents, emotion regulation, peer relationships, self understand the context of the question, and/or talk about the theory(s) that guide the research. After
PSYCHOLOGY 478/578 SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Â SPRING 2010 Dr. Jennifer Pfeifer 393 Straub Â no phone developmental change in phenomena like attachment to parents, peer relationships, self-understanding, and social understand the context of the question, and talk about the theory(s) that guide the research. After building
Dunn, Dana S
A little-recognized fact is that social psychology and rehabilitation psychology share a common theoretical ancestry in the situation perspective of Kurt Lewin. Theory and research in both fields assumes that situational influences often override the impact of personal factors, including dispositions. Situational analyses led to the development of a variety of cognitive explanations capturing people's phenomenal accounts for the causes of behavior and concomitant interpretation of social problems. Teachers can explore reasons why, despite the fields' having a shared theoretical perspective and topics of common interest (e.g., attitudes, prejudice, discrimination), little scholarly intradisciplinary contact currently occurs between them. PMID:22332292
Psychology is a science that seeks to understand and explain thoughts, emotions and behavior. There are many specialties within the field of psychology and there are two different general approaches. Some individuals in psychology do experiments and theorize, while others focus on applying theory to real
Carlson, Jerry, Ed.; Levin, Joel R., Ed.
The twin objectives of the series Psychological Perspectives on Contemporary Educational Issues are: (1) to identify issues in education that are relevant to professional educators and researchers; and (2) to address those issues from research and theory in educational psychology, psychology, and related disciplines. The present volume, consisting…
Sarah J. Gervais
\\u000a The purpose of this chapter was to integrate social psychological theories of prejudice with considerations of disability\\u000a laws to shed light on when people with disabilities will experience prejudice and the forms that disability prejudice may\\u000a take. Drawing on Chapter 7 by M. Selmi (this volume) and Chapter 3 by P. Blanck (this volume), I examined the prejudices that\\u000a people
Pais, Alexandre; Valero, Paola
What is the place of social theory in mathematics education research, and what is it for? This special issue of "Educational Studies in Mathematics" offers insights on what could be the role of some sociological theories in a field that has historically privileged learning theories coming from psychology and mathematics as the main…
Major, Brenda; O'Brien, Laurie T
This chapter addresses the psychological effects of social stigma. Stigma directly affects the stigmatized via mechanisms of discrimination, expectancy confirmation, and automatic stereotype activation, and indirectly via threats to personal and social identity. We review and organize recent theory and empirical research within an identity threat model of stigma. This model posits that situational cues, collective representations of one's stigma status, and personal beliefs and motives shape appraisals of the significance of stigma-relevant situations for well-being. Identity threat results when stigma-relevant stressors are appraised as potentially harmful to one's social identity and as exceeding one's coping resources. Identity threat creates involuntary stress responses and motivates attempts at threat reduction through coping strategies. Stress responses and coping efforts affect important outcomes such as self-esteem, academic achievement, and health. Identity threat perspectives help to explain the tremendous variability across people, groups, and situations in responses to stigma. PMID:15709941
Bedi, Akanksha; Courcy, Francois; Paquet, Maxime; Harvey, Steve
Using the theoretical perspectives offered by stressor-stress-strain framework and fairness theory, the authors propose that psychological climate will mediate the positive relationship between interpersonal aggression and employee burnout. Data from a survey of 1893 hospital employees suggested that psychological climate partially mediated the relationship between interpersonal aggression and two of the three dimensions of burnout, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:23225579
Abraham Carmeli; Meyrav Yitzhak-Halevy; Jacob Weisberg
Purpose – Theory suggests that highly emotionally intelligent individuals are likely to experience psychological wellbeing at a higher level than individuals who are low in emotional intelligence. This study aims to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence and four aspects of psychological wellbeing (self-acceptance, life satisfaction, somatic complaints and self-esteem). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data were collected from employees through two different
After a brief introduction of a cultural psychological perspective, this paper turns to the concept of self. The paper proposes to conceive of that reality to which the concepts of self refer as a narrative, employing especially autobiographies and other ego-documents in empirical exploration. After discussing some psychological theories about “self,” the paper points out that they may well be applied in research on personal religiosity. PMID:20694039
Teachers of psychology looking for high-quality resources to augment their students' classroom experience need look no further than this collection of online materials. Compiled by the American Psychological Society, the links are divided into topical sections that include health psychology, statistics, clinical psychology, research methods, and a dozen other topics. Visitors to the site will find links that lead to course materials for an introductory class on physiological psychology and a set of materials on educational psychology from Miami University. Finally, the site is rounded out by a very extensive section on statistics, including links to several online statistics glossaries and calculators.
1 Psychology 303: Research Methods in Psychology Winter 2014 Lecture Instructor must learn how psychologists know what they know. Research Methods is a critical thinking skills class for success in lab. Course Books Required Book: Morling, B. (2012). Research methods
, physiological psychology, psychopharmacology, social psychology and child development. We also have several University departments, industrial companies and departments of local and national government, both), Nijmegen (Netherlands), Copenhagen, Paris and Padova (Italy). Besides the School's own equipment
Roberts, Brent W.; Jackson, Joshua J.
In this article, we address a number of issues surrounding biological models of personality traits. Most traditional and many contemporary biological models of personality traits assume that biological systems underlying personality traits are causal and immutable. In contrast, sociogenomic biology, which we introduce to readers in this article, directly contradicts the widely held assumption that something that is biological, heritable, or temperamental, is unchangeable. We provide examples of how seemingly unchanging biological systems, such as DNA, are both dependent on environments for elicitation and can be modified by environmental changes. Finally, we synthesize sociogenomic biology with personality psychology in a model of personality traits that integrates this more modern perspective on biology, physiology, and environment that we term sociogenomic personality psychology. We end the article with a discussion of the future directions of sociogenomic personality psychology. PMID:19012657
This appraisal highlights the productive engagement between feminism and discursive psychology (DP). It discusses some of the confluence and tensions between DP and feminism. The two share critical perspectives on science and psychology, a concern with prejudice, and have ideas in common about the constructed nature of social categories, such as gender. One difficulty arises from the relativism associated with the post-structural theoretical underpinnings of DP, which can be understood as politically paralyzing. Another problem comes from an endorsement of a conversation analytic mentality, where identity categories such as gender can only be legitimately used in an analysis when participants' orient to their relevance. The high-profile debates and literature in DP shows it has made a notable contribution to social psychology and its influence can also be found in other areas. A particular influence of DP highlighted in the present appraisal is on gender and language research. PMID:21992501
Asthma has long been considered a condition in which psychological factors have a role. As in many illnesses, psychological variables may affect outcome in asthma via their effects on treatment adherence and symptom reporting. Emerging evidence suggests that the relation between asthma and psychological factors may be more complex than that, however. Central cognitive processes may influence not only the interpretation of asthma symptoms but also the manifestation of measurable changes in immune and physiologic markers of asthma. Furthermore, asthma and major depressive disorder share several risk factors and have similar patterns of dysregulation in key biologic systems, including the neuroendocrine stress response, cytokines, and neuropeptides. Despite the evidence that depression is common in people with asthma and exerts a negative impact on outcome, few treatment studies have examined whether improving symptoms of depression do, in fact, result in better control of asthma symptoms or improved quality of life in patients with asthma. PMID:20525122
Jouriles, Ernest N.; Garrido, Edward; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee
Objective: This research examined links between adolescents' experiences of psychological and physical relationship aggression and their psychological distress. Experiences of psychological and physical aggression were expected to correlate positively with symptoms of psychological distress, but experiences of psychological aggression were…
Dewey, Russell A.
Psychology is a vast and complex area of inquiry, and students entering the field may be confounded by the number of subfields within the discipline. Professor Russell A. Dewey of Georgia Southern University has created this fine online introductory textbook that covers everything from states of consciousness to social psychology. The online text includes sixteen chapters, and each chapter contains a number of parts that break each topic into smaller subtopics. The text is well-written and it draws on a number of examples and well-known experiments that will keep readers engaged. The site is rounded out by the inclusion of Professor Dewey's contact information and links to additional resources.
Heyman, Gail D.; Giles, Jessica W.
SUMMARY When individuals reason in an essentialist way about social categories, they assume that group differences reflect inherently different natures (Gelman, 2003; Rothbart & Taylor, 1992). This paper describes the psychological and social implications of essentialist beliefs, and examines the extent to which children exhibit psychological essentialism when reasoning about gender. The authors discuss reasons young children as well as older children show essentialist reasoning in some contexts, but not in others. Finally, the authors suggest directions for future research, and discuss a primary challenge to many working in this field: reduction of rigid gender beliefs. PMID:21528097
Richard J. Siegert; Tony Ward
The growth of evolutionary psychology as a theoretical framework for the study of human behavior has been spectacular. However, evolutionary psychology has been largely ignored by clinical psychology. This article is an attempt to encourage greater dialogue between the two. First, some of the major principles of evolutionary psychol- ogy are outlined, followed by consideration of some of the criticisms
preparation. The website can be found at: www.mhhe.com/cozby10e Recommended Book: American PsychologicalPSY 303; page 1 Psychology 303: Research Methods in Psychology Winter 2012 Monday/Wednesday 10:45-9:45AM Office hours: TBA Texts: Required Book: Cozby, P. (2009). Methods in Behavioral Research (10th ed
Wolfe, Patrick J.
Psychology 15: Social Psychology Spring, 2012 Joshua Greene M, W, 12:30, Sci Center D 1480 William of the mind in social life, the nature of social interaction, and the application of psychology to social% of your grade. It has four components: a. A commentary on a project source book (one you choose from
: Familiarity with basic psychological concepts is essential. WR 122 or 123: To focus on APA style writing we. Attendance and participation in lectures and labs will be an essential part of your success in this course and interpret scientific writing about psychology (e.g. peer-reviewed journal articles). Write about psychology
William B. Swann Jr; Conor Seyle
Psychology's early allegiance to behaviorism and experimental methods led many to disparage personality approaches through- out much of last century. Doubts about personality psychology's viability culminated in Mischel's assertion that measures of per- sonality account for modest amounts of variance in behavior. In the years immediately following this critique, interest in person- ality research waned and many psychology departments dropped
Evi Varlami; Rowan Bayne
Clarifying the factors which influence choice of counselling orientation is important. This study investigated whether psychological type is associated with choice of orientation in counselling psychology trainees. Sets of questionnaires were sent to 210 counselling psychology trainees in four universities, which resulted in a sample of 84 participants. The measures were the Keirsey Temperament Sorter II and a short demographic
This paper argues for community psychology to be included within the discipline boundaries of psychology. In doing this, it will enable psychology to begin to address some of the large scale social issues affecting people's well-being. It will be necessary, however, to incorporate aspects of other disciplines, make explicit the political…
10/2011 Psychology Department Mandatory Advising Requirement Instructions 1) Student completes Part advisor's signature. 4) Once the form is signed, submit form to Psychology Department, EP 301 to clear
Morris, Edward K.; And Others
Examines relationships between the fields of behavior analysis and developmental psychology, surveying the influence of behavior-analytic research within developmental psychology and investigating the integration of the two approaches with respect to metatheory and methodology. (Author/MP)
Bermúdez, José Luis
COLLEGE OF LIBERAL ARTS DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY Undergraduate Advising Office Zuleika Carrasco Senior Academic Advisor II Jennifer Fleming Senior Academic Advisor I http://psychology.tamu.edu Program Honors in Psychology The Psychology Honors Program provides individual instruction and advanced
Assistant Professor Position In Applied Social Psychology Applied Social Psychology Program Department of Psychology Colorado State University Job Description and Qualifications The Department of Psychology at Colorado State University invites applications for one tenure- track position in Applied Social
Graduates of 2001 Jenny L. Alindogan --- Psychology Traci M. Anderson --- Dental Hygiene Brian H --- Psychology Kristin Bentivogli --- Pyschology Amy Bierowski Bowles --- Psychology Jonathan R. Briggs --- Psychology Michelle R. Broyles --- Dental Hygiene Christopher Burri --- Biology Justin G. Castagne
] activation and cortisol) in women with CSA (N 136) and without CSA histories (NSA, N 102). In CSA survivors, cortisol response to sexual stimuli did not significantly predict sexual functioning; however, in NSA women stimuli predicted higher sexual functioning in NSA women with low lifetime exposure to traumatic events
Thomason, Timothy C.
Certain psychological treatments should be avoided, and a list of such treatments would provide valuable guidance for counselors, as well as potential clients. It is well established that some therapies are potentially dangerous, and some fringe therapies are highly unlikely to help clients beyond a placebo effect. This article provides an…
Farrell, B. A.
Koch (1974) has argued that psychology is an imitation science, because it has failed to build an edifice of positive knowledge; and that it cannot logically do any better in the future. This research rejects this skeptical argument but suggests that we should think in a different way about the subject. (Editor/RK)
BSc (Hons) Neuroscience with Psychology Degree Programme Guide 2014-15 SchoolofMedicalSciences #12 Course Requirements Year 1 - Year 2 - Year 3 - Year 4 Introduction Neuroscience is the study of nerve and delicate organ. By unravelling the mysteries of normal brain function, Neuroscience promotes our
Graesser, Arthur C.; Swamer, Shane S.; Hu, Xiangen
Defines quantitative-discourse psychology. Illustrates its practice in five research projects, all of which examined naturalistic discourse, investigating: reading time; inference generation; construction of multiple agents (narrators, characters) in literary short stories; tutorial dialog; and dialog patterns in two-party conversations. Notes a…
The absence of strict criteria on which to base the acceptance of science shows that the acceptance of scientific knowledge is based on nonstrict criteria. This nonstrict logic rests to an extent on informal elements derived from psychological observations. In these informal elements of science, one can discern the indeterminacy of scientific knowledge, including its indeterminate content and that the
Galef Jr., Bennett G.
-motor modules. The techniquesofoperant conditioningcanbeused to explore, differentiate, and link modulesCONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGY Edited by Donald A. Dewsbury UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA the animal and the environment. However, the fact that most researchers halt not explored this fit
David C. Geary; David F. Bjorklund
Evolutionary developmental psychology is the study of the genetic and ecological mechanisms that govern the development of social and cognitive competencies common to all human beings and the epigenetic (geneÐ environment interactions) processes that adapt these competencies to local conditions. The basic assumptions and domains of this emerging Þeld, as related to human life history and social and cognitive development,
Paul Lehrer; Jonathan Feldman; Nicholas Giardino; Hye-Sue Song; Karen Schmaling
Asthma can be affected by stress, anxiety, sadness, and suggestion, as well as by environmental irritants or allergens, exercise, and infection. It also is associated with an elevated prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders. Asthma and these psychological states and traits may mutually potentiate each other through direct psychophysiological mediation, nonadherence to medical regimen, exposure to asthma triggers, and inaccuracy
Paul Lehrer; Jonathan Feldman; Nicholas Giardino; Hye-Sue Song; Karen Schmaling
Asthma can be affected by stress, anxiety, sadness, and suggestion, as well as by environmental irritants or allergens, exercise, and infection. It also is associated with an elevated prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders. Asthma and these psychological states and traits may mutually potentiate each other through direct psychophysiological mediation, nonadherence to medical regimen, exposure to asthma triggers, and inaccuracy
Kanas, N.; Manzey, D.
This book deals with psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial issues that affect people who live and work in space. Unlike other books that focus on anecdotal reports and ground-based simulation studies, this book emphasizes the findings from psychological research conducted during actual space missions. Both authors have been active in such research. What is presented in this readable text has previously been found only in scientific journal articles. Topics that are discussed include: behavioral adaptation to space; human performance and cognitive effects; crewmember interactions; psychiatric responses; psychological counter-measures related to habitability factors, work-design, selection, training, and in-flight monitoring and support; and the impact of expeditionary missions to Mars and beyond. People finding this book of interest will include: psychology and social science students and professors in universities; medical students and residents in psychiatry and aerospace medicine; human factors workers in space and aviation professions; individuals involved with isolated environments on Earth (e.g., the Antarctic, submarines); aerospace workers in businesses and space agencies such as NASA and ESA; and anyone who is interested in learning the facts about the human side of long-duration space missions. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1341-8
Barbara A. Kirk; Arnold H. Chin
Surveyed the current status of internships in counseling psychology through a questionnaire distributed to 583 organizations in 4 categories: (a) university and college counseling centers, (b) veterans administration hospitals and regional centers, (c) rehabilitation centers, and (d) jewish vocational services. The questionnaire covered all aspects of internship experience including sponsorship, format, content, facilities, qualifications of those responsible, future plans, and
Isaac Prilleltensky (this issue, pp. 116-136) seeks to make community psychology a more effective force for social justice. His discussion of psychopolitical validity raises a number of questions: How perfect must the theoretical framework be to usefully oppose unjust power? In what way is the notion of "psychopolitical validity" most useful? How…
Comments on the original article, "Many forms of culture," by A. B. Cohen. Cohen offered an eye-opening review of how culture means much more than ethnicity within a nation or differences between nations. After developing a much-expanded definition of culture, he concluded, "I have lamented the fact that psychology has focused on some important…
The liberation of oppressed people involves a kind of subjective or psychological liberation as well as an objective (political, economic, and social) one. It is time to define what such subjective liberation involves, how it can be achieved, and its relationship to objective liberation and other objective social conditions. (RJ)
Stone, J. V.
and small group practical work, visual perception and motor skills experimental laboratories, a room" rating in the last review of teaching by the QAA and in the recent Research Assessment Exercise our efficiency. As a student in our department you are at the heart of groundbreaking discoveries in psychology
McNulty, James K.; Fincham, Frank D.
The field of positive psychology rests on the assumption that certain psychological traits and processes are inherently beneficial for well-being. We review evidence that challenges this assumption. First, we review data from 4 independent longitudinal studies of marriage revealing that 4 ostensibly positive processes—forgiveness, optimistic expectations, positive thoughts, and kindness—can either benefit or harm well-being depending on the context in which they operate. Although all 4 processes predicted better relationship well-being among spouses in healthy marriages, they predicted worse relationship well-being in more troubled marriages. Then, we review evidence from other research that reveals that whether ostensibly positive psychological traits and processes benefit or harm well-being depends on the context of various noninterpersonal domains as well. Finally, we conclude by arguing that any movement to promote well-being may be most successful to the extent that it (a) examines the conditions under which the same traits and processes may promote versus threaten well-being, (b) examines both healthy and unhealthy people, (c) examines well-being over substantial periods of time, and (d) avoids labeling psychological traits and processes as positive or negative. PMID:21787036
Office of Naval Research, Washington, DC. Psychological Sciences Div.
This booklet describes research carried out under sponsorship of the Psychological Sciences Division of the U.S. Office of Naval Research during Fiscal Year 1985. The booklet is divided into three programmatic research areas: (1) Engineering Psychology; (2) Personnel and Training; and (3) Group Psychology. Each program is described by an overview…
to Psychology (Cengage, 10th ed., 2014), by James W. Kalat Be sure to purchase the Kalat book, and be sure options Hardcover, paperback, loose leaf, rental or eBook ZAPS: The Norton Psychology Labs (2009), by TonStudent Orientation Guide PSYC W1 General Psychology June 22-August 14, 2015 Summer Session Online
Collins, Gary S.
1 Educational Psychology Bylaws Pullman Campus Department of Educational Leadership, Sports Studies, and Educational \\ Counseling Psychology, College of Education Washington State University Last Revised by Faculty.ED B. Discipline: Educational Psychology is a general reference to the fields of Educational
Dept. of Psychology Majors Advising Summer 2011 Whether you are choosing courses or deciding on Psychology as your major, a faculty advisor can help you plan your degree and ensure you meet email@example.com E-mail for an appt. Contact the Psychology Department Assistant for info
F. Wayne Blann; Greg Shelley; Sarah C. Gates
The field of applied sport psychology continues to increase in popularity and offers new and exciting career opportunities. In addition to offering consulting services to athletes, coaches, and teams, applied sport psychology professionals also serve military, dance, and business clients (Lloyd & Foster, 2006). This article outlines a 10-step process that sport psychology professionals can use to successfully market their
and research. Degrees are offered in two specialty areas: Social Psychology and Cognitive and Biological Psychology. Students develop research skills and conduct research in one of these areas, but also acquire perform laboratory research in the fields of animal behavior, social psychology, perception and cognition
American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.
This information packet contains eight two- to three-page publications from the American Psychological Association series "Psychological Services for the 21st Century, Psychology's Role in Health Care: Studying Human Behavior; Promoting Health; Saving Health Care Dollars; Providing Mental Health Services." The focus of the series is the connection…
W. H. Mikesell
The 227 high schools in Kansas that have a course in psychology were twice surveyed by questionnaires. The first survey revealed that many teachers had little training, no careful technique of teaching was followed, practical psychology was wanted, and there was need for a high school textbook in psychology. The second survey sought to discover what the high schools wanted
Patel, Aniruddh D.
& Language PSY 028 PSYC2209: Developmental Psychology PSY 011 PSYC2301: Computing for Psychologists PSY 110TUFTS IN LONDON PSYCHOLOGY EQUIVALENCIES Tufts in London Tufts Medford PSYC6001: Intro to Social to the ... PSY 001 PSYC1102: Methods and Approaches ... not recommended for Psychology majors PSYC1103
Molony, Terry; Henwood, Maureen
Positive psychology can be thought of as the scientific study of what is "right about people" as opposed to the traditional focus on the healing of psychological pain or trauma. The philosophical roots of positive psychology can be traced back to Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, as well as Islamic and Athenian…
Dalal, Ajit K.
Academic psychology which made a new beginning in India in the early part of 20th century was modelled on the Western scientific tradition. The teaching of psychology was very much on the British pattern since the colonial rule, whereas the research was mostly an extension of the Western work in India. Psychology went through massive expansion…
This article seeks to unify two subfields of psychology that have hitherto stood separately: evolutionary psychology and intelligence research/differential psychology. I suggest that general intelligence may simultaneously be an evolved adaptation and an individual-difference variable. Tooby and Cosmides's (1990a) notion of random quantitative…
Energy psychology utilizes cognitive operations such as imaginal exposure to traumatic memories or visualization of optimal performance scenarios—combined with physical interventions derived from acupuncture, yoga, and related systems—for inducing psychological change. While a controversial approach, this combination purportedly brings about, with unusual speed and precision, therapeutic shifts in affective, cognitive, and behavioral patterns that underlie a range of psychological concerns.
This Website "provides access to work that was discussed at, inspired by, or is otherwise relevant to the seminar 'Folk Psychology vs. Mental Simulation: How Minds Understand Minds,' a National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Seminar for College Teachers held at the University of Missouri-St. Louis" last July. Folk Psychology and Mental Simulation are two competing theories designed to explain how "people understand, predict, and explain one another's actions, thoughts, and motivations"; both have implications for the understanding and possible treatment of Autism among other conditions. The site currently features fifteen articles and papers -- some with abstracts -- with another ten to be added soon. Titles include "Autism and the 'Theory of Mind' Debate," "Developing Commonsense Psychology: Experimental Data and Philosophical Data," and "A Cognitive Theory of Pretense." Articles are available in .pdf or HTML formats.
Although Piaget’s psychological theory is developmental and ‘dialectical’ in a general way, lack of a developed philosophical basis leads to the subordination of a dialectical approach to static, anti-dialectical concepts. A study of Hegel’s theory of interaction and contradiction shows that the dialectical theory has a more precise meaning. Because Piaget regards mastery of formal-logical categories of identity, noncontradiction and
1 Studying Psychology at Strathclyde Dr Kellyanne Findlay firstname.lastname@example.org What is Psychology? I study Psychology Tell me what I'm thinking then Psychology's all just common sense What is Psychology? Psychology is the study of the mind and behaviour. There are five main goals, 1. Describe how
Maxwell, Bruce D.
1 MSU Departmental Assessment Plan 2007-2009 Department: Psychology Department Head: Richard A.S. in Psychology with options in Psychological Science and Applied Psychology M.S. in Applied Psychology #12;2 Departmental Assessment Plan Department of Psychology, Montana State University April 2007 Degree Objectives
Maxwell, Bruce D.
MSU Departmental Assessment Report May, 2009 Department: Psychology Department Chair: Richard A by Department B.S. in Psychology (with options in Psychological Science and Applied Psychology) M.S. in Psychology (with emphasis on Psychological Science) 1 #12;Summary of Undergraduate Survey Data Since Fall
Maxwell, Bruce D.
1 MSU Departmental Assessment Plan Department: Psychology Department Chair: Richard A. Block/Majors/Options Offered by Department B.S. in Psychology (with options in Psychological Science and Applied Psychology) M.S. in Psychological Science #12;2 Departmental Assessment Plan Department of Psychology, Montana State University July
in the basic knowledge and skills necessary for research in psychology, and to sensitize students296 Department of Psychology Undergraduate Catalogue 2014Â15 Department of Psychology Chairperson of Psychology offers programs leading to a BA degree in psychology, and to an MA degree in psychology. BA
Steptoe, Andrew; Deaton, Angus; Stone, Arthur A.
Summary Psychological wellbeing and health are closely linked at older ages. Three aspects of psychological wellbeing can be distinguished: evaluative wellbeing (or life satisfaction), hedonic wellbeing (feelings of happiness, sadness, etc), and eudemonic wellbeing (sense of purpose and meaning in life). We review recent advances in this field, and present new analyses concerning the pattern of wellbeing across ages and the association between wellbeing and survival at older ages. The Gallup World Poll, an ongoing survey in more than 160 countries, shows a U-shaped relationship between evaluative wellbeing and age in rich, English speaking countries, with the lowest levels of wellbeing around ages 45-54. But this pattern is not universal: for example, respondents from the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe show a large progressive decline in wellbeing with age; Latin America also shows falling wellbeing with age, while wellbeing in sub-Saharan Africa shows little change with age. The relationship between physical health and subjective wellbeing is bidirectional. Older people suffering from illnesses such as coronary heart disease, arthritis and chronic lung disease show both raised levels of depressed mood and impaired hedonic and eudemonic wellbeing. Wellbeing may also have a protective role in health maintenance. In an illustrative analyses from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), we find that eudemonic wellbeing is associated with longer survival; 29.3% of people in the lowest wellbeing quartile died over the average follow-up period of 8.5 years compared with 9.3% of those in the highest quartile. Associations were independent of age, gender, demographic factors, and baseline mental and physical health. We conclude that the wellbeing of the elderly is an important objective for both economic and health policy. Current psychological and economic theories do not adequately account for the variations in pattern of wellbeing with age across different parts of the world. The apparent association between wellbeing and survival is consistent with a protective role of high wellbeing, but alternative explanations cannot be ruled out at this stage. PMID:25468152
Gonçalves, Oscar F; Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M
Recent advances in the field of neuroscience have dramatically changed our understanding of brain-behavior relationships. In this article, we illustrate how neuroscience can provide a conceptual and methodological framework to understand our clients within a transdiagnostic developmental perspective. We provide directions for integrating neuroscience into future process and outcome research. We present examples on how neuroscience can be integrated into researching the effects of contextual counseling interventions. We posit that interpersonal and environmental factors, such as neurotoxic factors (e.g., emotional neglect, stress), positive neurodevelopmental factors (e.g., nurturing and caring, environmental enrichment), and therapeutic interventions influence psychological processes (executive control, behavioral flexibility, reinforcement learning and approach motivation, emotional expression and regulation, self-representation and theory of mind). These psychological processes influence brain networks (attention, motivational, emotional regulation, social cognition), which influence cognitive, social, emotional, identity, and vocational development. PMID:25285708
Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262
Environmental psychology examines transactions between individuals and their built and natural environments. This includes investigating behaviors that inhibit or foster sustainable, climate-healthy, and nature-enhancing choices, the antecedents and correlates of those behaviors, and interventions to increase proenvironmental behavior. It also includes transactions in which nature provides restoration or inflicts stress, and transactions that are more mutual, such as the development of place attachment and identity and the impacts on and from important physical settings such as home, workplaces, schools, and public spaces. As people spend more time in virtual environments, online transactions are coming under increasing research attention. Every aspect of human existence occurs in one environment or another, and the transactions with and within them have important consequences both for people and their natural and built worlds. Environmental psychology matters. PMID:24050189
With over 1,000 annotated links, this Website offers a valuable directory of online resources in the broad and burgeoning field of school psychology. Resources are divided into two broad categories: Specific Conditions, Disorders, and Disabilities, and Other Information. The first includes listings for such topics as Attention Deficit Disorders, Deafness, Eating Disorders, Learning Disabilities, Mental Retardation, Substance Abuse, and Tourette's Syndrome. The second catch-all category includes such topics as Adolescence, Assessment/Evaluation, ERIC Clearinghouses, Law and Education, Mental Health, Professional Organizations, and about a dozen others. The links are authoritative, and the Website is updated daily. A features section also includes an online bookstore, daily cartoon, and jobs information. The site is created and maintained by Sandra Steingart, who holds a doctorate in education and works in the Office of Psychological Services in the Baltimore County Public Schools.
Francisco J. Martínez-López; Claudia C. Cabal; Juan C. Gázquez-Abad; Inma Rodríguez-Ardura
This paper presents and discusses a conceptual model for understanding the consumer's adoption, use and main psychological outcomes related to a particular website recommendation system, with the emphasis on the psychological perspective of the research problem. We base our work on, adapt and integrate classical theories of consumer behavior with specific theories developed within the framework of computer-mediated environments. The
Nadine F. Marks; Heyjung Jun; Jieun Song
Guided by a life course perspective, attachment theory, and gender theory, this study aims to examine the impact of death of a father, a mother, or both parents, as well as continuously living with one or both parents dead (in contrast to having two parents alive) on multiple dimensions of psychological well-being (depressive symptoms, happiness, self-esteem, mastery, and psychological wellness),
R. Oberpenning; F. A. Muthny; F. Oberpenning
\\u000a The World Health Organisation (WHO), which, as early as 1967, recognized unwanted childlessness as a disease, anticipates\\u000a an approximate increase of two million new infertile couples. Many couples try to overcome this difficult crisis with the\\u000a help of reproductive medicine. The medical and psychological opportunities regarding treatment, consultation and therapy available\\u000a to the couple to overcome this crisis are extremely
Meier, Brian P.; Schnall, Simone; Schwarz, Norbert; Bargh, John, A.
., & Zabelina, D. L. (2008). Personality dominance and preferential use of the vertical dimension of space: Evidence from spatial attention paradigms. Psychological Science, 19, 355–361. Niedenthal, P. M., Barsalou, L. W., Winkielman, P., Krauth-Gruber, S... - ogy. From addressing how physiological arousal affects emotions (Schachter, 1959) to examining the influence of high temperatures on aggressive behaviors (Griffit & Veitch, 706 B. P. Meier et al. ?Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (2012) 1971), social...
Noba is an online tool that allows teachers to create their own free psychology textbooks by using provided content. Noba consists of nearly 90 short (2500-4000 word) chapters authored by leading instructors and researchers including 7 winners of the William James Award. Chapters are organized in familiar categories (Development, Learning & Memory, Personality, etc.) for easy reference. All Noba materials are licensed through Creative Commons under the CC BY-NA-SA license terms.
With over 11,000 links contained within its pages, the Social Psychology Network site is arguably the largest social psychology database on the Internet. Maintained by Professor Scout Plous of Wesleyan University, the site has been generously supported by the National Science Foundation. Visitors will appreciate the very clean layout of the siteâ??s homepage, as they are presented with a search engine, along with a number of electronic forums, and a listing of related topics. To delve into the siteâ??s contents, visitors may wish to select from any one of the areas on the left-hand side of the homepage, which include listings of doctoral programs in social psychology and teaching resources. There are numerous other options for interested parties, and they lead to such offerings as rankings of doctoral programs in the field and distance learning options in the field. Finally, visitors can also view many of the siteâ??s documents in a number of languages, including Spanish, French, Italian, and German.
Gering, Jon C.
, of the following courses; social psychology, personality, developmental psychology, and abnormal psychology, personality, developmental psychology, APA-accredited clinical psychology, or APA-accredited counselingTEMPORARY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN PSYCHOLOGY Truman State University Position: Temporary Assistant
This lesson includes a theory-evaluation activity. A set of five scenarios (theories for how diverse life came into existence on Earth) is divided evenly throughout the class, so each student is asked to evaluate one theory. Students then come together in groups of five, so that all theories are represented in each group, where they are compared and evaluated. Each group reports to the entire class for further discussion and clarifications.