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1

Psychological facts and psychological theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological facts and their place in psychological theory are described. The future of facts and theory in the development of psychology as a science is discussed. Theory must be produced, amended, and used continuously to guide the collection of fact. The rules of science must be observed.

E. R. Guthrie

1946-01-01

2

THE THEORY DEBATE IN PSYCHOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a conceptual analysis of the theory debate in psychology, as carried out by cognitivists and radical behaviorists. The debate has focused on the necessity of theories in psychology. However, the logically primary issue is the nature of theories, or what theories are. This claim stems from the fact that cognitivists and radical behaviorists adopt disparate accounts of

José E. Burgos

2007-01-01

3

Self Psychology as Feminist Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the "self psychology" theories of Heinz Kohut tend to neglect gender, they hold promise for feminist theory because they avoid some problems and limitations of the object-relations theory, especially its conflation of femininity with heterosexuality and apparent closure to historical change. Feminist self-psychology theory, in contrast,…

Gardiner, Judith Kegan

1987-01-01

4

Theories of the Psychological Refractory Period  

Microsoft Academic Search

When 2 stimuli are presented in rapid succession, reaction time to the 2nd stimulus is typically delayed. Various theories of this phenomenon, commonly referred to as the psychological refractory period, have been proposed. The theories have been placed into 3 categories: (a) central refractoriness theories, which postulate a refractoriness in the system following the 1st response selection; (b) preparatory state

Marilyn C. Smith

1967-01-01

5

Socio-Psychological Theories of Outdoor Adventure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews socio-psychological theories regarding human motivation in adventure education. A synthesis of these theories produces a model of participant behavior based on combinations of varying degrees of perceived risk and competence, and resulting outcomes. Includes suggestions for modifying experiences so that all participants can achieve "peak…

Short, Karen; Priest, Simon

1993-01-01

6

On the Universality of Social Psychological Theories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is no a priori basis for assuming that theories of social psychology are universal. For theories to be universal, the meaning of the stimulus would have to be consistent across cultures, but this cannot be taken for granted. Cross-cultural variations in social behavior may be "surface" expressions of deep structure norms that are universal.…

Pepitone, Albert; Triandis, Harry C.

1987-01-01

7

Psychological Climate: Implications from Cognitive Social Learning Theory and Interactional Psychology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Underlying assumptions and rationale of psychological climate are addressed from the perspectives of cognitive social learning theory and interactional psychology. Major emphasis was placed on the implications of these theoretical models for psychological...

L. R. James J. J. Hater M. J. Gent J. R. Bruni

1977-01-01

8

Educational PsychologyTheory, Research, and Teaching: A 25?year retrospective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a brief overview of developments in educational psychology over the last twenty?five years. It firstly presents an historical context by reviewing four basic emphases in educational psychology; cognitive psychology, behavioural psychology, social cognitive theory and humanism. The article then reviews the growth in cognitive psychology research by briefly examining developments arising from Piagetian, Vygotskian and information processing

Dennis M McInerney

2005-01-01

9

Attachment Theory: Implications for School Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effective practice of school psychology requires a strong research and theoretical base, a framework that encompasses developmental processes and outcomes, both adaptive and maladaptive, which facilitates assessment and intervention and offers insight into classroom and family dynamics. Attachment theory provides the school psychologist with…

Kennedy, Janice H.; Kennedy, Charles E.

2004-01-01

10

Darwinian Theory, Functionalism, and the First American Psychological Revolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American functionalist psychology constituted an effort to model scientific psychology on the successes of English evolutionary theory. In part it was a response to the stagnation of Wundt's psychological research program, which had been grounded in German experimental physiology. In part it was an attempt to make psychology more appealing within…

Green, Christopher D.

2009-01-01

11

From Theory of Work Adjustment to Person-Environment Correspondence Counseling: Vocational Psychology as Positive Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues that vocational psychology is, and has been, positive psychology. It provides an overview of the theory of work adjustment (TWA), one of the most robust and best validated theories in vocational psychology. It also provides an introduction to person-environment-correspondence (PEC) counseling, an extension of the TWA concepts…

Eggerth, Donald E.

2008-01-01

12

Application of Chaos Theory to Psychological Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation shows that an alternative theoretical approach from physics--chaos theory--offers a viable basis for improved understanding of human beings and their behavior. Chaos theory provides achievable frameworks for potential identification, assessment, and adjustment of human behavior patterns. Most current psychological models fail to address the metaphysical conditions inherent in the human system, thus bringing deep errors to psychological practice and empirical research. Freudian, Jungian and behavioristic perspectives are inadequate psychological models because they assume, either implicitly or explicitly, that the human psychological system is a closed, linear system. On the other hand, Adlerian models that require open systems are likely to be empirically tenable. Logically, models will hold only if the model's assumptions hold. The innovative application of chaotic dynamics to psychological behavior is a promising theoretical development because the application asserts that human systems are open, nonlinear and self-organizing. Chaotic dynamics use nonlinear mathematical relationships among factors that influence human systems. This dissertation explores these mathematical relationships in the context of a sample model of moral behavior using simulated data. Mathematical equations with nonlinear feedback loops describe chaotic systems. Feedback loops govern the equations' value in subsequent calculation iterations. For example, changes in moral behavior are affected by an individual's own self-centeredness, family and community influences, and previous moral behavior choices that feed back to influence future choices. When applying these factors to the chaos equations, the model behaves like other chaotic systems. For example, changes in moral behavior fluctuate in regular patterns, as determined by the values of the individual, family and community factors. In some cases, these fluctuations converge to one value; in other cases, they diverge in still other cases, they oscillate periodically among two or more precise values. At certain values, the equations iterate random results, with no convergence, divergence or periodicity: "chaos." At still other values, the equations behave chaotically for many iterations; then a periodic oscillation emerges from the chaos. These emergent patterns provide a significantly better model fit to the dynamic reality of psychological behavior because qualitatively reorganized behavior is logically possible and incorporated in the model's metaphysical assumptions.

Blackerby, Rae Fortunato

13

Toward a Theory of Psychological Type Congruence for Advertisers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on the impact of advertisers' persuasive selling messages on consumers, this paper discusses topics relating to the theory of psychological type congruence. Based on an examination of persuasion theory and relevant psychological concepts, including recent cognitive stability and personality and needs theory and the older concept of…

McBride, Michael H.; And Others

14

School Psychology Research: Combining Ecological Theory and Prevention Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current article comments on the importance of theoretical implications within school psychological research, and proposes that ecological theory and prevention science could provide the conceptual framework for school psychology research and practice. Articles published in "School Psychology Review" should at least discuss potential…

Burns, Matthew K.

2011-01-01

15

Social Action Theory for a Public Health Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many illnesses can be prevented or limited by altering personal behavior, and public health planners have turned to psychology for guidance in fostering self-protective activity. A social theory of personal action provides an integrative framework for applying psychology to public health, disclosing gaps in our current understanding of self-regulation, and generating guidelines for improving health promotion at the population level.

Craig K. Ewart

1991-01-01

16

Great Ideas in Personality: Psychology Theory and Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created and maintained by G. Scott Acton, a PhD in psychology from Northwestern University, this site functions as a gateway to materials relating to personality theory. The Website offers introductory, often hypertext essays on various topics in personality theory followed by an annotated listing of relevant links. Some of the topics covered include attachment theory, basic emotions, behavior genetics, behaviorism, cognitive social theory, evolutionary psychology, the five-factor model, intelligence, interpersonal theory, personality disorders, psychoanalysis, and others. There are also sections specifically geared for students and professionals as well as listings of links to papers, Websites, readings, and scholars available on the Web.

1997-01-01

17

HANDBOOK OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY, PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY AND RESEARCH. MCGRAW-HILL SERIES IN PSYCHOLOGY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF 21 AUTHORS IN THIS VOLUME ARE DEVOTED TO ASSESSING THE STATUS OF RESEARCH AND THEORY IN MENTAL DEFICIENCY, FOCUSING ATTENTION ON THE BEHAVIOR OF THE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED. PART ONE IS CONCERNED WITH RESEARCH FINDINGS AND THEORIES TO EXPLAIN MENTAL DEFICIENCY. COMPREHENSIVE PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES REPRESENTED INCLUDE FIELD…

ELLIS, NORMAN R.

18

A Social Extension of a Psychological Interest Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on an individual interest theory as a sensitising theory, empirical data are used to gain social interest concepts, as there are situated collective interest and interest-dense situation. These concepts serve as a basis for a social extension of a psychological interest theory. Its construction combines social interactions, the dynamic of…

Bikner-Ahsbahs, Angelika

2003-01-01

19

Linking Psychological Theory and Instructional Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Based on the assumption that the design of instruction and the selection of technological supports can be based upon psychological understandings of what makes for a meaningful learning experience, this paper examines meaning in the context of two proposi...

J. Kurfiss

1980-01-01

20

Psychometric Theory in Industrial and Organizational Psychology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper is intended to be a statement of current thinking regarding the basic core of psychometric concepts relevant for research and practice in industrial and organizational psychology. The developmental history of each relevant problem is described a...

J. P. Campbell

1974-01-01

21

Shopping around for Theories for Counseling Psychology Practice: Reaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three psychotherapy theories are summarized and critiqued for their applicability to counseling psychology. The lack of attention to psychodynamic and experiential theories in the special section and the lack of theorizing by counseling psychologists in general are lamented. A plea is made for encouraging counseling psychologists to construct more…

Hill, Clara E.

2012-01-01

22

The role of competence theories in cognitive psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses several common misunderstandings regarding theories of competence. Such theories are characterized as being concerned with the epistemological side of cognitive psychology and as being based primarily on evidence of a special kind: intuitions of competent performers. The nature of such evidence is examined in relation to the question of objectivity. The position that competence may be described

Zenon W. Pylyshyn

1973-01-01

23

Toward a psychological theory of crowding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postulated a broad psychological correlate of population size, overall level of social stimulation, as the variable controlling human judgments of crowding. 30 male and 30 female undergraduates and 10 male graduate students were presented with scaled-down rooms and human figures and asked to place as many people as possible in the rooms without overcrowding them. Room area was constant, while

J. A. Desor

1972-01-01

24

[Social psychological implications of the narcissism theory].  

PubMed

The author recapitulates various conceptions of narcissism that are in psychoanalytic discussion and attempts to set up a new theoretical frame for the socio-psychological topoi "authoritarian character" and "narcissistic personality" by means of Kohut's conceptions of the "grandiose self" and the "idealized parental imago". Based on M. Mahler's observations, Kernberg's critique of Kohut is rejected. PMID:1546178

Breuer, S

1992-01-01

25

Buddhism, Psychology, and Addiction Theory in Psychotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buddhism and Psychology are great disciplines, which have concerned themselves with the highest development of human potential and the alleviation of suffering. This chapter has attempted to look at some of the contrasts and commonalities from the perspective of the issues of self-controland addiction. Drug and alcohol addiction continues to ravage our communities, particularly those that are most vulnerable. Research

G. Rita Dudley-Grant

26

Construal-Level Theory of Psychological Distance  

PubMed Central

People are capable of thinking about the future, the past, remote locations, another person’s perspective, and counterfactual alternatives. Without denying the uniqueness of each process, it is proposed that they constitute different forms of traversing psychological distance. Psychological distance is egocentric: Its reference point is the self in the here and now, and the different ways in which an object might be removed from that point—in time, in space, in social distance, and in hypotheticality—constitute different distance dimensions. Transcending the self in the here and now entails mental construal, and the farther removed an object is from direct experience, the higher (more abstract) the level of construal of that object. Supporting this analysis, research shows (a) that the various distances are cognitively related to each other, (b) that they similarly influence and are influenced by level of mental construal, and (c) that they similarly affect prediction, preference, and action.

Trope, Yaacov; Liberman, Nira

2011-01-01

27

Psychological adjustment to physical disability: trends in theories.  

PubMed

Explanations of psychological reactions to physical disability have recently tended to ascribe maladjustment to environmental rather than to personal causes. Historically, common-sense theories were first replaced by metalistic doctrines. These, in turn, were later supplemented by theories that integrated mentalism with environmentalism and by approaches that recognized only environmental causes of behavior. Each theory makes a unique contribution to rehabilitation. Consequently, unification rather than elimination should be the goal of future theoretical development. PMID:149525

Shontz, F C

1978-06-01

28

Prospect theory or construal level theory? Diminishing sensitivity vs. psychological distance in risky decisions.  

PubMed

Attitudes toward risks are central to organizational decisions. These attitudes are commonly modeled by prospect theory. Construal level theory has been proposed as an alternative theory of risky choice, accounting for psychological distance deriving from temporal, spatial and social aspects of risk that are typical of agency situations. Unnoticed in the literature, the two theories make contradicting predictions. The current study investigates which theory provides a better description of risky decisions in the presence of temporal, spatial, and social factors. We find that the psychophysical effects modeled by prospect theory dominate the psychological distance effects of construal level theory. PMID:22011526

Trautmann, Stefan T; van de Kuilen, Gijs

2012-01-01

29

Lay Theories of Suicide Among Austrian Psychology Undergraduates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lester and Bean's (1992) Attribution of Causes to Suicide Scale gauges lay theories of suicide including intrapsychic problems, interpersonal conflicts, and societal forces as causes. Results obtained with its German form (n = 165 Austrian psychology undergraduates) showed no sex differences and no social-desirability effects. Intriguingly, all three subscales were moderately intercorrelated, thereby indicating respondents' general agreement (or disagreement) with

Martin Voracek; Lisa Mariella Loibl; David Lester

2007-01-01

30

A Hyper-Emotion Theory of Psychological Illnesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hyper-emotion theory of psychological illnesses is presented. It postulates that these illnesses have an onset in which a cognitive evaluation initiates a sequence of unconscious transitions yielding a basic emotion. This emotion is appropriate for the situation but inappropriate in its intensity. Whenever it recurs, it leads individuals to a focus on the precipitating situation and to characteristic patterns

P. N. Johnson-Laird; Francesco Mancini; Amelia Gangemi

2006-01-01

31

A Hyper-Emotion Theory of Psychological Illnesses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A hyper-emotion theory of psychological illnesses is presented. It postulates that these illnesses have an onset in which a cognitive evaluation initiates a sequence of unconscious transitions yielding a basic emotion. This emotion is appropriate for the situation but inappropriate in its intensity. Whenever it recurs, it leads individuals to a…

Johnson-Laird, P. N.; Mancini, Francesco; Gangemi, Amelia

2006-01-01

32

Vygotsky's Theory of the Higher Psychological Processes: Some Criticisms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Criticizes the distinction between lower and higher psychological processes in Vygotsky's cultural-historical theory. Shows that Vygotsky separated these processes too sharply and that his conception of lower processes as "natural" and "passive" is false. Suggests that these shortcomings can be overcome within the cultural-historical framework.…

Van der Veer, R.; IJzendoorn, M. H. van

1985-01-01

33

Integrating Social Class into Vocational Psychology: Theory and Practice Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although social class plays a salient and significant role in career development and occupational attainment, social class is underrepresented in vocational psychology theory, scholarship, and practice. Vocational psychologists are in a unique position to meet the career development needs of persons from all social classes by integrating a fuller…

Diemer, Matthew A.; Ali, Saba Rasheed

2009-01-01

34

Relational Frame Theory and Industrial/Organizational Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current paper argues that a Relational Frame Theory account of complex human behavior including an analysis of relational frames, relational networks, rules and the concept of self can provide a potentially powerful new perspective on phenomena in the applied science of industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology. In this article, we first…

Stewart, Ian; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Bond, Frank W.; Hayes, Steven C.

2006-01-01

35

A Strong Theory of Psychological Differentiation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To account for observed sex differences on tasks such as the rod and frame test, the embedded figures test, and other related measures, the theory is advanced that a sex-linked recessive gene mediates or facilitates certain performances. This assumption is coupled with the concept of "a mixture of density functions" to provide a theoretical…

Thomas, Hoben

36

psychology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The discipline--historical, introductory, overall aspects; Abnormal psychology--criminal, pathological, psychiatric, sexual; Child psychology--abnormal, adolescent, delinquent, gifted; Experimental psychology--applied, educational, physiological...

1967-01-01

37

Psychology and social networks: a dynamic network theory perspective.  

PubMed

Research on social networks has grown exponentially in recent years. However, despite its relevance, the field of psychology has been relatively slow to explain the underlying goal pursuit and resistance processes influencing social networks in the first place. In this vein, this article aims to demonstrate how a dynamic network theory perspective explains the way in which social networks influence these processes and related outcomes, such as goal achievement, performance, learning, and emotional contagion at the interpersonal level of analysis. The theory integrates goal pursuit, motivation, and conflict conceptualizations from psychology with social network concepts from sociology and organizational science to provide a taxonomy of social network role behaviors, such as goal striving, system supporting, goal preventing, system negating, and observing. This theoretical perspective provides psychologists with new tools to map social networks (e.g., dynamic network charts), which can help inform the development of change interventions. Implications for social, industrial-organizational, and counseling psychology as well as conflict resolution are discussed, and new opportunities for research are highlighted, such as those related to dynamic network intelligence (also known as cognitive accuracy), levels of analysis, methodological/ethical issues, and the need to theoretically broaden the study of social networking and social media behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24750076

Westaby, James D; Pfaff, Danielle L; Redding, Nicholas

2014-04-01

38

Towards a new theory of practice for community health psychology.  

PubMed

The article sets out the value of theorizing collective action from a social science perspective that engages with the messy actuality of practice. It argues that community health psychology relies on an abstract version of Paulo Freire's earlier writing, the Pedagogy of the Oppressed, which provides scholar-activists with a 'map' approach to collective action. The article revisits Freire's later work, the Pedagogy of Hope, and argues for the importance of developing a 'journey' approach to collective action. Theories of practice are discussed for their value in theorizing such journeys, and in bringing maps (intentions) and journeys (actuality) closer together. PMID:24155187

Nolas, Sevasti-Melissa

2014-01-01

39

Sexism in the theory and practice of clinical psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examines the major schools of clinical psychology with regard to implications for the psychology of women. Theoretical orientations are compared in terms of the emphasis placed on biographical vs social determinants of personality development and psychopathology. It is concluded that a purely psychological approach is indadequate and that a model integrating sociological and psychological factors is necessary for understanding and

Jacqueline Voss; Linda Gannon

1978-01-01

40

Family-supportive work environments and psychological strain: a longitudinal test of two theories.  

PubMed

Based on the Job Demands-Resources (JDR) model (E. Demerouti, A. B. Bakker, F. Nachreiner, & W. B. Schaufeli, 2001, The job demands-resources model of burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 499-512) and Conservation of Resources (COR) theory (S. E. Hobfoll, 2002, Social and psychological resources and adaptation. Review of General Psychology, 6, 307-324), we tested three competing models that predict different directions of causation for relationships over time between family-supportive work environments (FSWE) and psychological strain, with two waves of data from a military sample. Results revealed support for both the JDR and COR theories, first in the static model where FSWE at Time 1 predicted psychological strain at Time 2 and when testing the opposite direction, where psychological strain at Time 1 predicted FSWE at Time 2. For change models, FSWE predicted changes in psychological strain across time, although the reverse causation model was not supported (psychological strain at Time 1 did not predict changes in FSWE). Also, changes in FSWE across time predicted psychological strain at Time 2, whereas changes in psychological strain did not predict FSWE at Time 2. Theoretically, these results are important for the work-family interface in that they demonstrate the application of a systems approach to studying work and family interactions, as support was obtained for both the JDR model with perceptions of FSWE predicting psychological strain (in both the static and change models), and for COR theory where psychological strain predicts FSWE across time. PMID:23276196

Odle-Dusseau, Heather N; Herleman, Hailey A; Britt, Thomas W; Moore, Dewayne D; Castro, Carl A; McGurk, Dennis

2013-01-01

41

Biological priority and psychological supremacy: a new integrative paradigm derived from process theory.  

PubMed

Process theory is a comprehensive theory of physical and psychological processes that can serve to integrate biological, social, and psychodynamic psychiatry. Process theory uses concepts derived from mathematical dynamics and Heraclitus's process philosophy. It provides three novel and clinically applicable concepts: 1) biological priority and psychological supremacy (as contrasted to theories of biological or psychological primacy), 2) union of opposites (as contrasted to psychoanalytic and dialectic conflicts and to systems homeostasis), and 3) creative bifurcations (as contrasted to determinism and developmental theories). PMID:2686474

Sabelli, H C; Carlson-Sabelli, L

1989-12-01

42

Do Basic Psychological Needs Moderate Relationships Within the Theory of Planned Behavior?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of basic psychological need satisfaction from the self-determination theory on relationships within the theory of planned behavior (TPB) were examined in a prospective study. It was hypothesized that need satisfaction would moderate the relationship between intention and behavior and between intention and its proximal determinants. Participants (n = 250) completed measures of the TPB and psychological need satisfaction

Jemma Harris; Martin S. Hagger

2007-01-01

43

Assessing Coverage of Maslow's Theory in Educational Psychology Textbooks: A Content Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory (HNT) is one of the most prevalent theories in psychology, the authors argued that it is also one of the most misinterpreted or misrepresented, particularly in educational psychology textbooks. Therefore, after carefully reading Maslow's writings on HNT they conducted a content analysis of 18 educational…

Wininger, Steven R.; Norman, Antony D.

2010-01-01

44

Suicide Prevention in Schools as Viewed through the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author has proposed a new theory of suicidal behavior--the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (Joiner, 2005)--which attempts to answer the question "Why do people die by suicide?" In this commentary, he briefly describes the theory, and then argues that the theory's constructs may allow a new level of focus and specificity…

Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

2009-01-01

45

A deeper integration of Selfish Goal Theory and modern evolutionary psychology.  

PubMed

Conceptually integrating Selfish Goal Theory with modern evolutionary psychology amplifies theoretical power. Inconsistency, a key principle of Selfish Goal Theory, illustrates this insight. Conflicting goals of seeking sexual variety and successful mate retention furnish one example. Siblings have evolved goals to cooperate and compete, a second example. Integrating Selfish Goal Theory with evolutionary theory can explain much inconsistent goal-directed behavior. PMID:24775126

Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Buss, David M

2014-04-01

46

Social psychological origins of conspiracy theories: the case of the jewish conspiracy theory in malaysia.  

PubMed

Two studies examined correlates of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory among Malays in Malaysia, a culture in which state-directed conspiracism as a means of dealing with perceived external and internal threats is widespread. In Study 1, 368 participants from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed a novel measure of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and anomie. Initial analysis showed that the novel scale factorially reduced to a single dimension. Further analysis showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was only significantly associated with general conspiracist ideation, but the strength of the association was weak. In Study 2, 314 participants completed the measure of belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and ideological attitudes. Results showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was associated with anti-Israeli attitudes, modern racism directed at the Chinese, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. General conspiracist ideation did not emerge as a significant predictor once other variables had been accounted for. These results suggest that there may be specific cultural and social psychological forces that drive belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory within the Malaysian context. Specifically, belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory among Malaysian Malays appears to serve ideological needs and as a mask for anti-Chinese sentiment, which may in turn reaffirm their perceived ability to shape socio-political processes. PMID:22888323

Swami, Viren

2012-01-01

47

Social Psychological Origins of Conspiracy Theories: The Case of the Jewish Conspiracy Theory in Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Two studies examined correlates of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory among Malays in Malaysia, a culture in which state-directed conspiracism as a means of dealing with perceived external and internal threats is widespread. In Study 1, 368 participants from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed a novel measure of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and anomie. Initial analysis showed that the novel scale factorially reduced to a single dimension. Further analysis showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was only significantly associated with general conspiracist ideation, but the strength of the association was weak. In Study 2, 314 participants completed the measure of belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and ideological attitudes. Results showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was associated with anti-Israeli attitudes, modern racism directed at the Chinese, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. General conspiracist ideation did not emerge as a significant predictor once other variables had been accounted for. These results suggest that there may be specific cultural and social psychological forces that drive belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory within the Malaysian context. Specifically, belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory among Malaysian Malays appears to serve ideological needs and as a mask for anti-Chinese sentiment, which may in turn reaffirm their perceived ability to shape socio-political processes.

Swami, Viren

2012-01-01

48

Why Community Works: The Use of Alfred Adler's Individual Psychology as a Foundational Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that the Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler should be used as a foundational theory for student affairs work. The success of community building programs is explained and the concepts of Individual Psychology are summarized. Also asserts that the current drive to develop programs to develop community on college campuses is firmly rooted…

Glenn, Robert K.; Keith, Edwin M.

2002-01-01

49

Positive Psychology Theory, Research, and Practice: A Primer for Rehabilitation Counseling Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Positive psychology is a scientific study that explores what makes life most worth living and applies psychological theory to understand the human strengths that are important for enhancing overall well-being and happiness. The rehabilitation counseling philosophy shares a similar emphasis on personal strengths and the importance of enhancing what…

Chou, Chih-Chin; Chan, Fong; Chan, Jacob Yui Chung; Phillips, Brian; Ditchman, Nicole; Kaseroff, Ashley

2013-01-01

50

Theory and Research on `Race' as a Natural Kind Variable in Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines a portion of the theory about and research on 'race' in the field of psychology. Specifically, we examine whether the construct of 'race' can be used efficaciously as a natural kind variable that explains data in psychological inquiry. The foregoing consideration involves an exploration of the so-called 'biological\\/genetic' bases of 'race' from the conceptual paradigms of (a)

Chuck Tate; Diego Audette

2001-01-01

51

How Accurately Do Introductory Psychology Textbooks Present Psychoanalytic Theory?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies have raised concerns about the quality of the coverage of psychoanalytic content in undergraduate psychology textbooks. The authors investigated the accuracy and currency of psychoanalytic content in top-selling introductory psychology textbooks. Across the textbooks, 2% to 18% of the paragraphs with psychoanalytic content…

Habarth, Janice; Hansell, James; Grove, Tyler

2011-01-01

52

Psychological Tensions Found in Suicide Notes: A Test for the Strain Theory of Suicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a comprehensive and parsimonious theory explaining the socio-psychological mechanism prior to suicidal behavior, strain theory of suicide postulates that conflicting and competing pressures in an individual's life usually precede a suicide. The theory proposes four sources of strain leading to suicide: (1) value strain from conflicting values, (2) aspiration strain from the discrepancy between aspiration and reality, (3) deprivation

Jie Zhang; David Lester

2008-01-01

53

A Comparison of Attachment Theory and Individual Psychology: A Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors assert that the essential elements of attachment theory and Individual Psychology are similar to each other. In particular, both theories include a coherent and stable view of the self and the world and both acknowledge the importance of social interaction for the expression of these patterns. Additional suggestions for areas in which…

Peluso, Paul R.; Peluso, Jennifer P.; White, JoAnna F.; Kern, Roy M.

2004-01-01

54

Hispanic Psychology: Critical Issues in Theory and Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides students, researchers, and practitioners with access to major theoretical and empirical issues in the field of Hispanic psychology. The book is divided into six parts: acculturation and adaptation, ethnic identity and behavior, clinical research and services, health and AIDS research, gender studies research, and education and…

Padilla, Amado M., Ed.

55

A community survey of psychological symptoms: evaluating evolutionary theories regarding shamanism and schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary theories regarding shamanism and schizophrenia provide hypotheses testable through analysis of survey data. A questionnaire, administered to a predominately African-American sample in North Carolina (N?=?965), surveyed schizotypal experience and other psychological symptoms, absorption and related psychological variables, childhood and adolescent difficulty, and incidence of unusual experiences (apparitions, paranormal dreams, waking ESP, out-of-body experience, near-death experience, sleep paralysis, UFOs, spiritual

James McClenon

2012-01-01

56

Self-determination Theory and the psychology of exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the Self-determination Theory is to explain motivation and behaviour based on individual differences in motivational orientations, contextual influences, and interpersonal perceptions. The theory has shown utility in explaining the antecedents and processes that underpin exercise behaviour. This review will provide an overview of the theory and its application in explaining health-related exercise motivation, behaviour, and outcomes. Recent

Martin Hagger; Nikos Chatzisarantis

2008-01-01

57

How can psychological theory help to promote condom use in sub-Saharan African developing countries?  

PubMed

Condom use for HIV prevention has been very inconsistent in most sub-Saharan African countries. Studies from around the continent report that knowledge about HIV transmission is variable and seems to be related to gender, socioeconomic and educational status. There is a large body of psychological knowledge about HIV prevention which has been applied to condom promotion campaigns in developed countries. These approaches to condom promotion, based on formal theory, have not been used on a wide scale in African countries and this paper explores ways in which psychological theory might be appropriately applied in a situation of high HIV prevalence. PMID:9195835

Campbell, T

1997-06-01

58

TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGY AND CRIMINOLOGICAL THEORY: RETHINKING THE PARADIGM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Criminology, like other behavioral\\/social sciences, has an abundance of causal theories concerning why people do the things they do (or do not do the things that they do not). Also, like the other behavioral\\/social sciences, theories in criminology have been driven by very narrow and limited paradigms. Consequently, despite all of our theorizing we have been able to arrive at

Randy Martin

1993-01-01

59

Personality Theory and Firesetting: An Elaboration of a Psychological Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report attempts to develop a theoretical framework for understanding firesetting behavior in terms of social learning theory. Three major aspects of the interaction between a person's behavior and the social environment are considered. (1) At the beha...

R. G. Vreeland M. B. Waller

1980-01-01

60

A Close Examination of Trait Reactance and Issue Involvement as Moderators of Psychological Reactance Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used psychological reactance theory (PRT) to investigate (a) the effectiveness of 2 message features (freedom-threatening language and character frame) and (b) the role of trait reactance and issue involvement as moderators of a perceived freedom threat. Within the context of organ donation, the results indicated no differences for character frame among the donor, recipient, or waiting list narratives.

Brian L. Quick; Allison M. Scott; Andrew M. Ledbetter

2011-01-01

61

Spontaneous trait inference and construal level theory: Psychological distance increases nonconscious trait thinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can psychological distance affect how much perceivers form spontaneous trait inferences (STI) from others’ behaviors? On the basis of construal level theory (CLT) which posits that distant (vs. near) entities are represented more in terms of their abstract, global, and decontextualized features, we predicted that perceived distance would increase the tendency for perceivers to draw spontaneous trait inferences from behavioral

SoYon Rim; James S. Uleman; Yaacov Trope

2009-01-01

62

Using Motivational Theories as a Focus for the Educational Psychology Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide discusses personal causation theory (the initiation by an individual of behavior intended to produce a change in the environment) and its application in a theoretical framework for courses in educational psychology. The work of deCharms, Fielder, Koenigs, and Muir is explored as the theoretical background for classroom applications of…

Cohen, Margaret W.

63

The Role of Optimism in the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A possible relationship between Joiner's (2005) interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior and optimism was investigated by examining the ability of optimism to act as a moderator of perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and acquired capability to engage in self-injury in the prediction of suicidal ideation. Results…

Rasmussen, Kathy A.; Wingate, LaRicka R.

2011-01-01

64

Advances in Neuropsychoanalysis, Attachment Theory, and Trauma Research: Implications for Self Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1971, Heinz Kohut, trained in neurology and then psychoanalysis, published The Analysis of the Self, a detailed exposition of the central role of the self in human existence. This classic volume of both twentieth century psychoanalysis and psychology was more than a collection of various clinical observations—rather it represented an overarching integrated theory of the development, structuralization, psychopathogenesis, and

Allan N. Schore

2002-01-01

65

A Brief Review of Psychological Theories and Counseling Techniques for Outdoor Leaders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper is intended to provide resource information and an annotated bibliography on psychological theories and counseling techniques specifically written for outdoor educators, to stimulate research on the subject, and to stimulate outdoor leaders to make themselves aware of various options for solving interpersonal problems that might occur in…

Bankie, Brett; And Others

66

Generative Learning Theory, Paradigm Shifts, and Constructivism in Educational Psychology: A Tribute to Merl Wittrock  

Microsoft Academic Search

This appreciation of Wittrock's contributions to educational psychology suggests that his 1974 article describing generative learning theory was remarkably prescient. In that article Wittrock set the stage for the subsequent paradigm shift from cognitive to constructivist approaches to instruction. Furthermore, his suggestion that schools were the most appropriate contexts for testing learning principles is widely shared among contemporary educational psychologists;

SIGMUND TOBIAS

2010-01-01

67

Generative Learning Theory, Paradigm Shifts, and Constructivism in Educational Psychology: A Tribute to Merl Wittrock  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This appreciation of Wittrock's contributions to educational psychology suggests that his 1974 article describing generative learning theory was remarkably prescient. In that article Wittrock set the stage for the subsequent paradigm shift from cognitive to constructivist approaches to instruction. Furthermore, his suggestion that schools were the…

Tobias, Sigmund

2010-01-01

68

On the making of a scientist-practioner: A theory of research training in professional psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article offers a revised and updated theory of the research training environment (RTE) in graduate education in professional psychology. Ingredients of the RTE that are theorized to enhance students' research attitudes and eventual productivity are proposed. Six primary ingredients have been supported by research as \\

Charles J. Gelso

1993-01-01

69

Kohut's Psychology of the Self: Theory and Measures of Counseling Outcome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces Heinz Kohut's psychology of the self and its counseling implications and reports on the development of 10 eight-point rating scales of counseling outcome that are derived for his theory. Reports data on interrater reliability and agreement for the 10 scales. (Author)

Patton, Michael J.; And Others

1982-01-01

70

Agent-Based Modeling: A New Approach for Theory Building in Social Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most social and psychological phenomena occur not as the result of isolated decisions by individuals but rather as the result of repeated interactions between multiple individuals over time. Yet the theory-building and mod- eling techniques most commonly used in social psychol- ogy are less than ideal for understanding such dynamic and interactive processes. This article describes an alter- native approach

Eliot R. Smith; Frederica R. Conrey

2007-01-01

71

Personality Theory: Position and Derived Teaching Implications in Clinical Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A teaching model for personality theories based on and resulting from an evaluation and theoretical position of the field is described. After a review of the problems and diversity of the field and their limiting implications, especially for the professional psychologist teaching the graduate clinical student, some of the possible reasons behind the difficulties are explained. These include diminishing emphasis

Jacob Lomranz

1986-01-01

72

The Essential Role of Data in Psychological Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concurs with Hughes' target article that identification of empirically supported treatments (ESTs) is insufficient to help practitioners and researchers select effective interventions for children, and suggests it may be premature to adopt developmental psychopathology as a treatment model. Discusses differences in opinion on theory development in…

Martens, Brian K.; Eckert, Tanya L.

2000-01-01

73

Recent developments in the study of cardiovascular reactivity: contributions from psychometric theory and social psychology.  

PubMed

Two related ongoing research programs are described. The first examines optimal measurement strategies for assessing individual differences in cardiovascular reactivity, and the second investigates the effects of the social environment as a moderator of cardiovascular responding during psychological challenge. Models and evidence from related behavioral sciences (Psychometric Theory and Social Psychology, respectively) have provided useful guidance for this work. Relevant background and current data examining the measurement and determinants of cardiovascular reactivity are reviewed, with a focus on these multidisciplinary contributions. The implications of the work for the construct of reactivity and its possible role as a marker of disease risk are discussed. PMID:1410179

Kamarck, T W

1992-09-01

74

Situated Behavior and the Place of Measurement in Psychological Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measured values of human behavior may entail contradictory attributes of wave and particle by analogy with the wave\\/particle attributes of the electron. 1\\/f scaling is the wave attribute in this analogy and punctate data points are the particle attribute. One consequence of the wave\\/particle duality in physics was to elevate measurement to a primary place in physical theory, and one

Guy C. Van Orden; Christopher T. Kello; John G. Holden

2010-01-01

75

Theory underlying CRM training: Psychological issues in flight crew performance and crew coordination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

What psychological theory and research can reveal about training in Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is summarized. A framework is provided for the critical analysis of current approaches to CRM training. Background factors and definitions critical to evaluating CRM are reviewed, followed by a discussion of issues directly related to CRM training effectiveness. Some of the things not known about the optimization of crew performance and the research needed to make these efforts as effective as possible are described.

Helmreich, Robert L.

1987-01-01

76

Towards an Expansive Hybrid Psychology: Integrating Theories of the Mediated Mind  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article develops an integrative theory of the mind by examining how the mind, understood as a set of skills and dispositions,\\u000a depends upon four sources of mediators. Harré’s hybrid psychology is taken as a meta-theoretical starting point, but is expanded\\u000a significantly by including the four sources of mediators that are the brain, the body, social practices and technological\\u000a artefacts.

Svend Brinkmann

2011-01-01

77

The impact of Einsteinian relativity and quantum physics theories on conceptualizations of the self in psychology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prior to the 1600s c.e., the church was the final authority for theories about the universe and humanity's role within it. However, when the mathematical theories put forth by scientists such as Copernicus and Galileo refuted traditional theological explanations about the cosmos, a shift to science as the premiere authority for theories was established, a tradition which continues to this day. In the following century, the work of Newton set forth a theory of the universe operating as a machine, where all things were potentially knowable, measurable, and predictable. His mechanistic hypotheses helped substantiate a corollary philosophy known as modernism. In the early 1900s, Einstein's theories about light and relativity began to indicate a universe significantly less absolute. His work set the stage for the development of quantum physics theories, whose hallmarks are probability, uncertainty, and complementarity. Quantum physics theories helped substantiate the philosophy known as postmodernism, where truth is nonexistent, reality is a subjectively constructed phenomenon, and the concept of an individual self is considered an illusion. Given that developments in physics have had profound impact across academic disciplines, including psychology, this study examine the effect of major revolutions in physics to corollary developments in theories about the self in psychology. It is the assertion of this work that modernist conceptualization of the self is one that is highly individualistic and defined in mechanistic terms, whereas the postmodern conceptualization of the self is significantly more socially constructed and has more interpersonally fluid, amorphous boundaries. Implications for conceptualizations of the self from either the modern or postmodern paradigm are discussed, as well as suggestions for future theory development.

Rechberger, Elke Ruth

1999-11-01

78

Self-determination theory and diminished functioning: the role of interpersonal control and psychological need thwarting.  

PubMed

Drawing from self-determination theory, three studies explored the social-environmental conditions that satisfy versus thwart psychological needs and, in turn, affect psychological functioning and well-being or ill-being. In cross-sectional Studies 1 and 2, structural equation modeling analyses supported latent factor models in which need satisfaction was predicted by athletes' perceptions of autonomy support, and need thwarting was better predicted by coach control. Athletes' perceptions of need satisfaction predicted positive outcomes associated with sport participation (vitality and positive affect), whereas need thwarting more consistently predicted maladaptive outcomes (disordered eating, burnout, depression, negative affect, and physical symptoms). In addition, athletes' perceptions of psychological need thwarting were significantly associated with perturbed physiological arousal (elevated levels of secretory immunoglobulin A) prior to training. The final study involved the completion of a diary and supported the relations observed in the cross-sectional studies at a daily level. These findings have important implications for the operationalization and measurement of interpersonal styles and psychological needs. PMID:21700794

Bartholomew, Kimberley J; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Ryan, Richard M; Bosch, Jos A; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie

2011-11-01

79

Suicidal Desire and the Capability for Suicide: Tests of the Interpersonal–Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior Among Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interpersonal–psychological theory of suicidal behavior (T. E. Joiner, 2005) proposes that an individual will not die by suicide unless he or she has both the desire to die by suicide and the ability to do so. Three studies test the theory's hypotheses. In Study 1, the interaction of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness predicted current suicidal ideation. In Study

Kimberly A. Van Orden; Tracy K. Witte; Kathryn H. Gordon; Theodore W. Bender; Thomas E. Joiner

2008-01-01

80

Students' Personality Types, Intended Majors, and College Expectations: Further Evidence Concerning Psychological and Sociological Interpretations of Holland's Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because it focuses on the interactions between students and their environments, Holland's theory of vocational choice provides a powerful framework for studying college experiences. The present study assessed the relative merits of psychological and sociological interpretations of Holland's theory by examining the relationships among students' …

Pike, Gary R.

2006-01-01

81

Speeding for fun? Exploring the speeding behavior of riders of heavy motorcycles using the theory of planned behavior and psychological flow theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on a special segment of motorcyclists in Taiwan – riders of heavy motorcycles – and investigates their speeding behavior and its affecting factors. It extends the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explore motorcyclist speeding behavior by including the variables of psychological flow theory. The levels of sensation-seeking and riding experience are also used as grouping variables

Ching-Fu Chen; Cheng-Wen Chen

2011-01-01

82

The Role of Positive Emotions in Positive Psychology: The Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought–action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources.

Barbara L. Fredrickson

2001-01-01

83

Intuitive physics and intuitive psychology ("theory of mind") in offspring of mothers with psychoses  

PubMed Central

Offspring of individuals with psychoses sometimes display an abnormal development of cognition, language, motor performance, social adaptation, and emotional functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of children of mothers with schizophrenia (n = 28) and bipolar disorder (n = 23) to understand mental states of others using the Eyes Test (folk psychology or “theory of mind”) and physical causal interactions of inanimate objects (folk physics). Compared with healthy controls (n = 29), the children of mothers with schizophrenia displayed significantly impaired performances on the Eyes Test but not on the folk physics test when corrected for IQ. The children of mothers with bipolar disorder did not differ from the controls. The folk physics test showed a significant covariance with IQ, whereas the Eyes Test did not exhibit such covariance. These results suggest that the attribution of mental states, but not the interpretation of causal interaction of objects, is impaired in offspring of individuals with schizophrenia, which may contribute to social dysfunctions.

Marothi, Rebeka

2014-01-01

84

Institutional Research Productivity, Use of Theory-Driven Research, and Statistical Application in Counseling Psychology: Examining the Research Base. Reactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reacts to the three core articles in the Scientific Forum of the May 2005 issue of "The Counseling Psychologist" about institutional research productivity, the use of theory-driven research, and the application of structural equation modeling to research in counseling psychology. To have a research base that maximizes divergent…

Kahn, Jeffrey H.

2005-01-01

85

Applying Social Cognitive Career Theory to Predict Interests and Choice Goals in Statistics among Spanish Psychology Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the usefulness of social cognitive career theory--SCCT (Lent, Brown, and Hackett, 1994) in predicting interests and goals relating to statistics among psychology students. The participants were 1036 Spanish students who completed measurements of statistics-related mastery experiences, self-efficacy, outcome expectations,…

Blanco, Angeles

2011-01-01

86

The Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior to Prevention Science in Counseling Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The theory of reasoned action and planned behavior (TRA/PB) is a model of behavior change that has been extensively studied in the health sciences but has had limited exposure in the counseling psychology literature. The model offers counseling psychologists a framework to conceptualize prevention research and practice. The model is important to…

Romano, John L.; Netland, Jason D.

2008-01-01

87

A Critique of Social Bonding and Control Theory of Delinquency Using the Principles of Psychology of Mind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the refined principles of Psychology of Mind and shows how their logical interaction can help explain the comparative amounts of deviant and conforming behavior of youthful offenders. The logic of these principles is used to examine the major assumptions of social bonding and control theory of delinquency focusing predominantly on the…

Kelley, Thomas M.

1996-01-01

88

Normative Bias and Adaptive Challenges: A Relational Approach to Coalitional Psychology and a Critique of Terror Management Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adherence to ingroup ideology increases after exposure to death-related stimuli, a reaction that proponents of terror management theory (TMT) explain as a psychological defense against the uniquely human existential fear of death. We argue that existential concerns are not the relevant issue; rather, such concepts can be subsumed under a larger category of adaptive challenges that prime coalitional thinking. We

Carlos David Navarrete; Daniel M. T. Fessler

89

Applying psychological theory to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of taking intra-oral radiographs.  

PubMed

This study applies psychological theory to the implementation of evidence-based clinical practice. The first objective was to see if variables from psychological frameworks (developed to understand, predict and influence behaviour) could predict an evidence-based clinical behaviour. The second objective was to develop a scientific rationale to design or choose an implementation intervention. Variables from the Theory of Planned Behaviour, Social Cognitive Theory, Self-Regulation Model, Operant Conditioning, Implementation Intentions and the Precaution Adoption Process were measured, with data collection by postal survey. The primary outcome was the number of intra-oral radiographs taken per course of treatment collected from a central fee claims database. Participants were 214 Scottish General Dental Practitioners. At the theory level, the Theory of Planned Behaviour explained 13% variance in the number of radiographs taken, Social Cognitive Theory explained 7%, Operant Conditioning explained 8%, Implementation Intentions explained 11%. Self-Regulation and Stage Theory did not predict significant variance in radiographs taken. Perceived behavioural control, action planning and risk perception explained 16% of the variance in number of radiographs taken. Knowledge did not predict the number of radiographs taken. The results suggest an intervention targeting predictive psychological variables could increase the implementation of this evidence-based practice, while influencing knowledge is unlikely to do so. Measures which predicted number of radiographs taken also predicted intention to take radiographs, and intention accounted for significant variance in behaviour (adjusted R(2)=5%: F(1,166)=10.28, p<.01), suggesting intention may be a possible proxy for behavioural data when testing an intervention prior to a service-level trial. Since psychological frameworks incorporate methodologies to measure and change component variables, taking a theory-based approach enabled the creation of a methodology that can be replicated for identifying factors predictive of clinical behaviour and for the design and choice of interventions to modify practice as new evidence emerges. PMID:16843579

Bonetti, Debbie; Pitts, Nigel B; Eccles, Martin; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Johnston, Marie; Steen, Nick; Glidewell, Liz; Thomas, Ruth; Maclennan, Graeme; Clarkson, Jan E; Walker, Anne

2006-10-01

90

Putting Theory of Mind in Its Place: Psychological Explanations of the Socio-Emotional-Communicative Impairments in Autistic Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this review, the history of the theory of mind (ToM) theory of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is outlined (in which ToM is indexed by success on false belief tasks), and the explanatory power and psychological causes of impaired ToM in ASD are critically discussed. It is concluded that impaired ToM by itself has only limited explanatory…

Boucher, Jill

2012-01-01

91

Creating psychological and legal contracts through human resource practices: A signaling theory perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the surge in research on the psychological contract over the past two decades, there has been little integrative research that has examined psychological contracts in conjunction with legal contracts. We address this shortcoming by presenting a framework for understanding the differences between psychological contracts and legal contracts in the United States. This is done by presenting definitions and examples

Mark M. Suazo; Patricia G. Martínez; Rudy Sandoval

2009-01-01

92

The Effect of Perspective on Misconceptions in Psychology: A Test of Conceptual Change Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To test whether students' knowledge about psychology undergoes a conceptual change when learning about the discipline, 227 Introductory Psychology students from six different classes were given the Psychology as a Science (PAS) Scale in one of two conditions. Students were randomly assigned to complete the questionnaire from their own (Self…

Amsel, Eric; Johnston, Adam; Alvarado, Elly; Kettering, Jack; Rankin, Lauren; Ward, Melissa

2009-01-01

93

Does Ethical Theory Have a Place in Post-Kohlbergian Moral Psychology?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Philosophers tend to assume that theoretical frameworks in psychology suffer from conceptual confusion and that any influence that philosophy might have on psychology should be positive. Going against this grain, Dan Lapsley and Darcia Narvaez attribute the Kohlbergian paradigm's current state of marginalization within psychology to Lawrence…

Maxwell, Bruce

2010-01-01

94

Actual environments do affect motivation and psychological adjustment: A test of self-determination theory in a natural setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the impact of the actual environment on changes in psychological adjustment over time. According to Self-Determination\\u000a Theory (SDT; Deci and Ryan, Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior, 1985a, Plenum, New York; J Res\\u000a Pers 19:109–134, 1985b; Psychol Inq 11:227–268, 2000), environments that are objectively supportive of autonomy should facilitate\\u000a psychological adjustment through their impact on people’s

Frederick L. Philippe; Robert J. Vallerand

2008-01-01

95

Hope and the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior: replication and extension of prior findings.  

PubMed

The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (IPTS; Joiner, 2005) posits that suicidal behavior occurs when an individual has a desire for death (due to the combination of perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness) in addition to an acquired capacity for suicide, which is present when the individual has a low fear of death and high pain tolerance. Previous research has demonstrated an expected negative relation between trait hope and perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, as well as a more perplexing finding that hope is positively associated with the acquired capability. In a sample of 230 college students, measures of the three components of the IPTS were administered, along with measures of hope, depression, and painful and/or provocative events. Hierarchical regression analyses replicated the previously found associations between hope and burdensomeness and belongingness while controlling for depression and demographic variables. The positive association between hope and acquired capacity was also replicated, but a mediation analysis demonstrated that the effect was statistically accounted for by distress tolerance. The results further support the incremental validity of hope as a consideration in suicide risk assessments and suggest that hope may serve as a protective factor with respect to suicidal desire. PMID:24237390

Anestis, Michael D; Moberg, Fallon B; Arnau, Randolph C

2014-04-01

96

Clinical holistic medicine: a psychological theory of dependency to improve quality of life.  

PubMed

In this paper, we suggest a psychological theory of dependency as an escape from feeling existential suffering and a poor quality of life. The ways in which human beings escape hidden existential pains are multiple. The wide range of dependency states seems to be the most common escape strategy used. If the patient can be guided into the hidden existential pain to feel, understand, and integrate it, we believe that dependency can be cured. The problem is that the patient must be highly motivated, sufficiently resourceful, and supported to want such a treatment that is inherently painful. Often, the family and surrounding world is suffering more than the dependent person himself, because the pattern of behavior the patient is dependent on makes him or her rather insensitive and unable to feel. If the patient is motivated, resourceful, and trusts his physician, recovery from even a severe state of dependency is not out of reach, if the holistic medical tools are applied wisely. The patient must find hidden resources to take action, then in therapy confront and feel old emotional pain, understand the source and inner logic of it, and finally learn to let go of negative attitudes and beliefs. In this way, the person can be healed and released of the emotional suffering and no longer be a slave to the dependency pattern. PMID:15349506

Ventegodt, Soren; Morad, Mohammed; Kandel, Isack; Merrick, Joav

2004-08-13

97

Estimation of Psychological Stress in Humans: A Combination of Theory and Practice  

PubMed Central

Stress has long been known to increase susceptibility to health disorders. In 2009, American Psychological Association further established association of stress to serious health problems. However, a quantitative and accurate way to evaluate and estimate stress status of individuals is still a big challenge. It has been shown, in large animal models using cattle, that psychological stress can be quantified as well as disease susceptibility could be predicted through biomarker discovery. Taking cue from those studies, we have evaluated and estimated psychological stress level of individuals theoretically and validated experimentally. Various biomarkers have also been identified which can be associated to psychological stress to predict stress status of unknown individuals.

Sood, Parul; Priyadarshini, Sushri; Aich, Palok

2013-01-01

98

What Sources Contribute to Variance in Observer Ratings? Using Generalizability Theory to Assess Construct Validity of Psychological Measures  

PubMed Central

We illustrate the utility of generalizability theory (GT) as a conceptual framework that encourages psychological researchers to address this question and as a flexible set of analytic tools that can provide answers to inform both substantive theory and measurement practice. To illustrate these capabilities, we analyze observer ratings of 27 caregiver–child dyads, focusing on the importance of situational (contextual) factors as sources of variance in observer ratings of caregiver–child behaviors. Cross-situational consistency was relatively low for the categories of behavior analyzed, indicating that dyads vary greatly in their interactional patterns from one situation to the next, so that it is difficult to predict behavioral frequencies in one context from behaviors observed in a different context. Our findings suggest that single-situation behavioral measures may have limited generalizability, either to behavior in other contexts or as measures of global interaction tendencies. We discuss the implications of these findings for research and measurement design in developmental psychology.

Lakes, Kimberley D.; Hoyt, William T.

2013-01-01

99

Positive Art Therapy: Linking Positive Psychology to Art Therapy Theory, Practice, and Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a growing movement in the larger field of mental health, positive psychology has much to offer the art therapy profession, which in turn is uniquely poised to contribute to the study of optimal functioning. This article discusses the relationship of positive psychology to art therapy and its capacity to mobilize client strengths, to induce…

Wilkinson, Rebecca A.; Chilton, Gioia

2013-01-01

100

Philosophical Perspectives as a Dimension of the Psychological Modality in the Theory of Adult Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The long-held belief that a person became an adult at about 20 years of age and, henceforth, remained psychologically and physically on a plateau until old age, has recently been found unacceptable in the light of research contributed by developmental psychology. Adult development may be viewed as the function of the interaction of the…

Jones, Franklin Ross

101

Thinking about Nuclear Deterrence Theory: Why Evolutionary Psychology Undermines Its Rational Actor Assumptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

For too long, nuclear deterrence theorists have remained apart from the revolution in the life sciences, and particularly evolutionary psychology, which has fundamentally changed the scientific understanding of the human mind. As a result of advances in evolutionary psychology, we now know that how the brain interprets actions and makes decisions is complicated, imperfect, greatly dependent upon emotions, and varied

Bradley A. Thayer

2007-01-01

102

Narcissism at the crossroads: phenotypic description of pathological narcissism across clinical theory, social/personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis.  

PubMed

This review documents two themes of emphasis found in phenotypic descriptions of pathological narcissism across clinical theory, social/personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Clinical theories of narcissism spanning 35 years consistently describe variations in the expression of pathological narcissism that emphasize either grandiosity or vulnerable affects and self-states. Recent research in social/personality psychology examining the structure of narcissistic personality traits consistently finds two broad factors representing Grandiosity-Exhibitionism and Vulnerability-Sensitivity-Depletion respectively. However, the majority of psychiatric criteria for narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) emphasize expressions of grandiosity. By placing most of the diagnostic emphasis on overt grandiosity, DSM NPD has been limited by poor discriminant validity, modest levels of temporal stability, and the lowest prevalence rate on Axis II. Despite converging support for two phenotypic themes associated with pathological narcissism, psychiatric diagnosis and social/personality psychology research often focus only on grandiosity in the assessment of narcissism. In contrast, clinical theory struggles with a proliferation of labels describing these broad phenotypic variations. We conclude that the construct of pathological narcissism is at a crossroads and provide recommendations for diagnostic assessment, clinical conceptualization, and future research that could lead to a more integrated understanding of narcissistic personality and narcissistic personality pathology. PMID:18029072

Cain, Nicole M; Pincus, Aaron L; Ansell, Emily B

2008-04-01

103

Analysis of cognitive theories in artificial intelligence and psychology in relation to the qualitative process of emotion  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to analyze selected cognitive theories in the areas of artificial intelligence (A.I.) and psychology to determine the role of emotions in the cognitive or intellectual processes. Understanding the relationship of emotions to processes of intelligence has implications for constructing theories of aesthetic response and A.I. systems in art. Psychological theories were examined that demonstrated the changing nature of the research in emotion related to cognition. The basic techniques in A.I. were reviewed and the A.I. research was analyzed to determine the process of cognition and the role of emotion. The A.I. research emphasized the digital, quantifiable character of the computer and associated cognitive models and programs. In conclusion, the cognitive-emotive research in psychology and the cognitive research in A.I. emphasized quantification methods over analog and qualitative characteristics required for a holistic explanation of cognition. Further A.I. research needs to examine the qualitative aspects of values, attitudes, and beliefs on influencing the creative thinking processes. Inclusion of research related to qualitative problem solving in art provides a more comprehensive base of study for examining the area of intelligence in computers.

Semrau, P.

1987-01-01

104

Using psychological theory to inform methods to optimize the implementation of a hand hygiene intervention  

PubMed Central

Background Careful hand hygiene (HH) is the single most important factor in preventing the transmission of infections to patients, but compliance is difficult to achieve and maintain. A lack of understanding of the processes involved in changing staff behaviour may contribute to the failure to achieve success. The purpose of this study was to identify nurses’ and administrators’ perceived barriers and facilitators to current HH practices and the implementation of a new electronic monitoring technology for HH. Methods Ten key informant interviews (three administrators and seven nurses) were conducted to explore barriers and facilitators related to HH and the impact of the new technology on outcomes. The semi structured interviews were based on the Theoretical Domains Framework by Michie et al. and conducted prior to intervention implementation. Data were explored using an inductive qualitative analysis approach. Data between administrators and nurses were compared. Results In 9 of the 12 domains, nurses and administrators differed in their responses. Administrators believed that nurses have insufficient knowledge and skills to perform HH, whereas the nurses were confident they had the required knowledge and skills. Nurses focused on immediate consequences, whereas administrators highlighted long-term outcomes of the system. Nurses concentrated foremost on their personal safety and their families’ safety as a source of motivation to perform HH, whereas administrators identified professional commitment, incentives, and goal setting. Administrators stated that the staff do not have the decision processes in place to judge whether HH is necessary or not. They also highlighted the positive aspects of teams as a social influence, whereas nurses were not interested in group conformity or being compared to others. Nurses described the importance of individual feedback and self-monitoring in order to increase their performance, whereas administrators reported different views. Conclusions This study highlights the benefits of using a structured approach based on psychological theory to inform an implementation plan for a behavior change intervention. This work is an essential step towards systematically identifying factors affecting nurses’ behaviour associated with HH.

2012-01-01

105

Gestalt in social psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citations superficially suggest that the relationship between Gestalt theory and contemporary social psychology is hardly recognizable if we disregard the occasional homage to Kurt Lewin. Neither Gestalt nor field theory belongs to the present pool of social-psychological theories. On the other hand, it can be shown that basic concepts of Gestalt theory have survived under various names and are still

Carl F. Graumann

1989-01-01

106

Forensic Psychology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Introduction to forensic psychology; Psychological structure of the administration of justice; The methods of forensic psychology; Psychological fundamentals of preliminary investigation; Psychological fundamentals of court proceedings; Psycholo...

A. V. Dulov

1976-01-01

107

Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of placing preventive fissure sealants  

PubMed Central

Background Psychological models are used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings, but have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of differing theories is not clear. This study explored the usefulness of a range of models to predict an evidence-based behaviour -- the placing of fissure sealants. Methods Measures were collected by postal questionnaire from a random sample of general dental practitioners (GDPs) in Scotland. Outcomes were behavioural simulation (scenario decision-making), and behavioural intention. Predictor variables were from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), Common Sense Self-regulation Model (CS-SRM), Operant Learning Theory (OLT), Implementation Intention (II), Stage Model, and knowledge (a non-theoretical construct). Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the predictive value of each theoretical model individually. Significant constructs from all theories were then entered into a 'cross theory' stepwise regression analysis to investigate their combined predictive value Results Behavioural simulation - theory level variance explained was: TPB 31%; SCT 29%; II 7%; OLT 30%. Neither CS-SRM nor stage explained significant variance. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT), timeline acute (CS-SRM), and outcome expectancy (SCT) entered the equation, together explaining 38% of the variance. Behavioural intention - theory level variance explained was: TPB 30%; SCT 24%; OLT 58%, CS-SRM 27%. GDPs in the action stage had significantly higher intention to place fissure sealants. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT) and attitude (TPB) entered the equation, together explaining 68% of the variance in intention. Summary The study provides evidence that psychological models can be useful in understanding and predicting clinical behaviour. Taking a theory-based approach enables the creation of a replicable methodology for identifying factors that may predict clinical behaviour and so provide possible targets for knowledge translation interventions. Results suggest that more evidence-based behaviour may be achieved by influencing beliefs about the positive outcomes of placing fissure sealants and building a habit of placing them as part of patient management. However a number of conceptual and methodological challenges remain.

2010-01-01

108

"THE CASUAL CRUELTY OF OUR PREJUDICES": ON WALTER LIPPMANN'S THEORY OF STEREOTYPE AND ITS "OBLITERATION" IN PSYCHOLOGY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE.  

PubMed

Reflecting on his wartime government service, Walter Lippmann (1922) developed a theory of policy formulation and error. Introducing the constructs of stereotype, mental model, blind spots, and the process of manufacturing consent, his theory prescribed interdisciplinary social science as a tool for enhancing policy making in business and government. Lippmann used his influence with the Rockefeller foundations, business leaders, Harvard and the University of Chicago to gain support for this program. Citation analysis of references to "stereotype" and Lippmann reveals the rapid spread of the concept across the social sciences and in public discourse paralleled by obliteration by incorporation of the wider theory in behavioral science. "Stereotype" is increasingly invoked in anthropology, economics, and sociology though Lippmann and his wider theory ceased being cited decades ago. In psychology, citations are increasing but content analysis revealed blind spots and misconceptions about the theory and prescription. Studies of heuristics, biases, and organizational decision substantiate Lippmann's theory of judgment and choice. But his model for social science failed to consider the bounded rationality and blind spots of its practitioners. Policy formulation today is supported by research from narrow disciplinary silos not interdisciplinary science that reflects an awareness of history. PMID:22936385

Bottom, William P; Kong, Dejun Tony

2012-08-30

109

"What about building 7?" A social psychological study of online discussion of 9/11 conspiracy theories.  

PubMed

Recent research into the psychology of conspiracy belief has highlighted the importance of belief systems in the acceptance or rejection of conspiracy theories. We examined a large sample of conspiracist (pro-conspiracy-theory) and conventionalist (anti-conspiracy-theory) comments on news websites in order to investigate the relative importance of promoting alternative explanations vs. rejecting conventional explanations for events. In accordance with our hypotheses, we found that conspiracist commenters were more likely to argue against the opposing interpretation and less likely to argue in favor of their own interpretation, while the opposite was true of conventionalist commenters. However, conspiracist comments were more likely to explicitly put forward an account than conventionalist comments were. In addition, conspiracists were more likely to express mistrust and made more positive and fewer negative references to other conspiracy theories. The data also indicate that conspiracists were largely unwilling to apply the "conspiracy theory" label to their own beliefs and objected when others did so, lending support to the long-held suggestion that conspiracy belief carries a social stigma. Finally, conventionalist arguments tended to have a more hostile tone. These tendencies in persuasive communication can be understood as a reflection of an underlying conspiracist worldview in which the details of individual conspiracy theories are less important than a generalized rejection of official explanations. PMID:23847577

Wood, Michael J; Douglas, Karen M

2013-01-01

110

A Historical Overview and Contemporary Expansion of Psychological Theories of Determinism, Probabilistic Causality, Indeterminate Free Will, and Moral and Legal Responsibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors provide a historical overview of the development of contemporary theories of counseling and psychology in relation to determinism, probabilistic causality, indeterminate free will, and moral and legal responsibility. They propose a unique model of behavioral causality that incorporates a theory of indeterminate free will, a concept…

Wilks, Duffy; Ratheal, Juli D'Ann

2009-01-01

111

Model Selection and Psychological Theory: A Discussion of the Differences between the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) in model selection and the appraisal of psychological theory. The focus is on latent variable models, given their growing use in theory testing and construction. Theoretical statistical results in regression are discussed, and more important…

Vrieze, Scott I.

2012-01-01

112

Clinical Supervision and Psychological Functions: A New Direction for Theory and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relates Carl Jung's concept of psychological functions to four families of clinical supervision: the original clinical models, the humanistic/artistic models, the technical/didactic models, and the developmental/reflective models. Differences among clinical supervision models within these families are clarified as representing "communication…

Pajak, Edward

2002-01-01

113

Vygotskian theory: An emerging paradigm with implications for a synergistic psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

American psychologists often assume that scientific paradigms are autonomous. This leads to a “theoretical hegemony”; in which the major paradigms are treated as independent, or even rival ideological entities. This article presents an alternative approach in which certain aspects of each of the major paradigms are recombined into a comprehensive synergistic psychology. The importance of internalized social interaction as a

Larry W. Smolucha; Francine C. Smolucha

1992-01-01

114

The Improvement of Measurement in Education and Psychology: Contributions of Latent Trait Theories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational and psychological measurement has been a main area of work for the Australian Council for Educational (ACER) since its inception. The theoretical and practical contributions of latent trait measurement and commentary on the relatively recent use of these models in Australia were the focus of a seminar celebrating the 50th anniversary…

Spearritt, Donald, Ed.

115

Understanding the Management of Sports Events Volunteers Through Psychological Contract Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper juxtaposes the expectations of event managers and sports event volunteers in a case study organisation. These are\\u000a understood within the theoretical framework of the psychological contract. Results show the distinctive contribution volunteers\\u000a can make to events but also the distinctive challenges they present to event managers. For event managers, volunteers bring:\\u000a enthusiasm, a good relationship and empathy with

Geoff Nichols; Ellen Ojala

2009-01-01

116

Nonlinear Dynamics in Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a survey of the applications of nonlinear dynamical systems theory to substantive problems encountered in the full scope of psychological science. Applications are organized into three topical areas - cognitive science, social and organizational psychology, and personality and clinical psychology. Both theoretical and empirical studies are considered with an emphasis on works that capture the broadest scope

STEPHEN J. GUASTELLO

2000-01-01

117

Overcoming Tough Challenges: An Invitational Theory of Practice for Humanistic Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenge for humanistic psychologists is not so much the further development of theoretical constructs. The challenge is to develop theories of practice that move from abstract formulations to concrete models. “Invitational Education” is one humanistic theory of practice that was used to help transform 12 suffering inner-city schools. The story of how this was done follows.

William Watson Purkey; David Aspy

2003-01-01

118

Applied Systemic Theory and Educational Psychology: Can the Twain Ever Meet?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reflects on the potential benefits of applying systemic theory to the work of educational psychologists (EPs). It reviews developments in systemic thinking over time, and discusses the differences between more directive "first order" versus collaborative "second order" approaches. It considers systemic theories and illustrates their…

Pellegrini, Dario W.

2009-01-01

119

Kazimierz Dabrowski's Theory of Positive Disintegration and the American Humanistic Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the differences and similarities between Dabrowski's theory of positive disintegration and the theories of the American humanistic psychologists. Stresses the suffering associated with attaining higher levels of spiritual development. Suggests that Dabrowski and humanists followed different theodicies. (Author/ABL)

Weckowicz, T. E.

1988-01-01

120

What Must a Psychological Theory of Reasoning Explain? Comment on Barrouillet, Gauffroy, and Lecas (2008)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this comment, it is argued that the modification of mental models theory of conditional inference proposed by P. Barrouillet, C. Gauffroy, and J.-F. Lecas to deal with truth value gaps merely patches up a problem in the theory, rather than accomplishing the fundamental and systematic revision that is necessary. It is argued that P. Barrouillet…

Oberauer, Klaus; Oaksford, Mike

2008-01-01

121

How Cultural Evolutionary Theory Can Inform Social Psychology and Vice Versa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cultural evolutionary theory is an interdisciplinary field in which human culture is viewed as a Darwinian process of variation, competition, and inheritance, and the tools, methods, and theories developed by evolutionary biologists to study genetic evolution are adapted to study cultural change. It is argued here that an integration of the…

Mesoudi, Alex

2009-01-01

122

A Contemporary Story of School Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of recent school psychology publications was conducted to discover the espoused theory of contemporary school psychology, as distinct from school psychology practice. We considered that identification of the espoused theory of school psychology, the story of school psychology, would support professional reflection and the identification…

Annan, Jean; Priestley, Anna

2012-01-01

123

Making good theory practical: five lessons for an Applied Social Identity Approach to challenges of organizational, health, and clinical psychology.  

PubMed

Social identity research was pioneered as a distinctive theoretical approach to the analysis of intergroup relations but over the last two decades it has increasingly been used to shed light on applied issues. One early application of insights from social identity and self-categorization theories was to the organizational domain (with a particular focus on leadership), but more recently there has been a surge of interest in applications to the realm of health and clinical topics. This article charts the development of this Applied Social Identity Approach, and abstracts five core lessons from the research that has taken this forward. (1) Groups and social identities matter because they have a critical role to play in organizational and health outcomes. (2) Self-categorizations matter because it is people's self-understandings in a given context that shape their psychology and behaviour. (3) The power of groups is unlocked by working with social identities not across or against them. (4) Social identities need to be made to matter in deed not just in word. (5) Psychological intervention is always political because it always involves some form of social identity management. Programmes that seek to incorporate these principles are reviewed and important challenges and opportunities for the future are identified. PMID:24627990

Haslam, S Alexander

2014-03-01

124

Social psychology, terrorism, and identity: a preliminary re-examination of theory, culture, self, and society.  

PubMed

This article relies upon structural symbolic interactionism and five of its organizing concepts (i.e. symbols, the definition of the situation, roles, socialization and role-taking, and the self) to put forth a novel conceptual framework for understanding the terrorist identity. In order to demonstrate the practical utility of the framework, applications to various terrorist groups around the globe are incorporated into the analysis. Overall, both the theoretical and application work help reorient the academic and practitioner behavioral science communities to the importance of culture, self, and society when investigating one's membership in and identity through militant extremist organizations. Given the unique approach taken by this article, several provisional implications are delineated. In particular, future research on terrorism, strategies linked to counter-terrorism, legal and public policy reform, and the relevance of utilizing a sociologically animated social psychology in the assessment of other forms of criminal behavior are all very tentatively explored. PMID:16094631

Arena, Michael P; Arrigo, Bruce A

2005-01-01

125

The human factor in knowledge management for development: using theories from social psychology to investigate the predictors of knowledge behaviour in development organisations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article consists of an analytical overview of theories from Social Psychology with respect to knowledge behavior in development agencies. This provides a theoretical background for the presentation of the results of a cross-cultural study towards the frequencies and predictors of six types of knowledge behavior. In this research 445 people from 89 nationalities participated. The results of the analysis

Johan Lammers

2009-01-01

126

Cognitive Psychology Meets Psychometric Theory: On the Relation between Process Models for Decision Making and Latent Variable Models for Individual Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyzes latent variable models from a cognitive psychology perspective. We start by discussing work by Tuerlinckx and De Boeck (2005), who proved that a diffusion model for 2-choice response processes entails a 2-parameter logistic item response theory (IRT) model for individual differences in the response data. Following this line…

van der Maas, Han L. J.; Molenaar, Dylan; Maris, Gunter; Kievit, Rogier A.; Borsboom, Denny

2011-01-01

127

Psychological need satisfaction and well-being in adults aged 80years and older living in residential homes: Using a self-determination theory perspective.  

PubMed

Based on the self-determination theory (SDT), this study aims to examine the psychological needs satisfaction of the elderly living in residential homes and their relationship with indicators of well-being, and then to test the contribution of each need on these indicators. Participants (N=100; Mage=86.7 years, SD=3.78) completed the measures of psychological needs satisfaction, purpose in life, personal growth and geriatric depression. Cluster analyses showed two distinct profiles: one profile with a high satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs and another profile with a low satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs. These profiles did not differ in terms of residents' characteristics, health problems and functional limitations. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) results revealed that the participants with the profile of a high satisfaction of psychological needs have significantly higher levels of purpose in life and personal growth than participants with the profile of a low satisfaction of psychological needs, and no effect of cluster membership on depressive feelings was reported. Moreover, for all participants, relatedness need satisfaction was significantly and positively related to personal growth, and autonomy and relatedness needs satisfaction was related to purpose of life. In conclusion, our results offer evidence that old age can be fruitful and, in consistent with SDT, show that autonomy and relatedness need satisfaction is positively associated with indicators of well-being such as purpose in life and personal growth, considered as essential components of optimal functioning. PMID:24984913

Ferrand, Claude; Martinent, Guillaume; Durmaz, Neriman

2014-08-01

128

Exploring application of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behaviour to self-injurious behaviour among women prisoners: Proposing a new model of understanding.  

PubMed

The current study examines the application of capacity, psychological distress, coping and personality to an understanding of self-injurious behaviour, with a specific focus on testing the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behaviour (IPTSB). One hundred and ninety women prisoners took part, completing a history questionnaire and measures of personality, coping styles and psychological distress. It was expected that self-injurious behaviour would be predicted by higher levels of emotional functioning difficulties, by an increased capacity to engage in such behaviours, by previous self-injurious behaviour, decreased levels of emotional stability and increased levels of emotional coping behaviour. Results supported the capacity component of the IPTSB, indicating that an increased history of self-injurious behaviour and of engagement in reckless behaviour were particular predictors. Increased psychological distress in some domains was also a predictor although the exact domain varied across the type of self-injurious engagement Increased levels of extraversion and decreased emotional coping predicted increased self-injurious engagement, although emotional coping only related to threats and cognition. The results point to the applicability of Interpersonal-Psychological Theory to understanding self-injurious behaviour and the importance of developing a revised model. The paper presents this in the form of the Integrated Model of Self-Injurious Activity. PMID:22153833

Ireland, Jane L; York, Charlotte

2012-01-01

129

USING CASE-BASED INSTRUCTION TO BRIDGE THE GAP BETWEEN THEORY AND PRACTICE IN PSYCHOLOGY OF ADJUSTMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a means of promoting critical thinking and connections between theoretical and applied knowledge, case-based instruction (CBI) has been shown to be an effective teaching strategy in psychology and other disciplines. In the present investigation, I build on my earlier, exploratory success with CBI in introductory psychology (Mayo, 2002) by implementing this approach in teaching psychology of adjustment, where actual

JOSEPH A. MAYO

2004-01-01

130

Dyadic Power Theory, Touch, and Counseling Psychology: A Response to Smith, Vogel, Madon, and Edwards (2011)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Smith, Vogel, Madon, and Edwards' (2011) recent article tested dyadic power theory (DPT) by examining the use of touch as a compliance-gaining tactic in the conflicts of married couples. In this response, we raise a methodological issue about the touch behaviors examined by Smith et al. and also pose a theoretical critique that their test of DPT…

Dunbar, Norah E.; Abra, Gordon

2012-01-01

131

Paradigms, Praxis, Problems, and Promise: Grounded Theory in Counseling Psychology Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the author presents an overview of the qualitative research approach termed grounded theory (B. G. Glaser, 1978, 1992; B. G. Glaser & A. L. Strauss, 1967; A. L. Strauss, 1987; A. L. Strauss & J. Corbin, 1990, 1998). The author first locates the method conceptually and paradigmatically (paradigms) and then outlines the procedures for implementing it and

Ruth E. Fassinger

2005-01-01

132

THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY AND EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH TO THE TEACHING OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS ADDRESS, GIVEN AT THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MODERN FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING (BERLIN, SEPTEMBER 1964), PRESENTS A GENERAL DISCUSSION OF THE PRESENT SCOPE, ROLE, AND POTENTIAL USE OF RESEARCH IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODOLOGY, AND MAINTAINS THAT THE BEST RESEARCH IS THAT WHICH IS CLOSELY ALLIED WITH THEORY, AND THE HARDEST TO…

CARROLL, JOHN B.

133

The Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler: Toward an Adlerian Vocational Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an Adlerian vocational theory with several hypotheses and corollaries regarding: (a) life style, (b) work as life task, (c) family atmosphere and relationships, and (d) early recollections. Develops predictive vocational statements and offers the resulting framework as a stimulant to generate further study of Adlerian vocational…

Watkins, C. Edward, Jr.

1984-01-01

134

Paradigms, Praxis, Problems, and Promise: Grounded Theory in Counseling Psychology Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author presents an overview of the qualitative research approach termed grounded theory (B. G. Glaser, 1978, 1992; B. G. Glaser & A. L. Strauss, 1967; A. L. Strauss, 1987; A. L. Strauss & J. Corbin, 1990, 1998). The author first locates the method conceptually and paradigmatically (paradigms) and then outlines the procedures…

Fassinger, Ruth E.

2005-01-01

135

Self-Theories: Their Role in Motivation, Personality, and Development. Essays in Social Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on extensive research with children and young adults, this book examines adaptive and maladaptive cognitive-motivational patterns and shows how these patterns originate in people's self theories; their consequences for one's achievement, social relationships, and emotional well-being; their consequences for society; and the experiences that…

Dweck, Carol S.

136

On the Biological Plausibility of Grandmother Cells: Implications for Neural Network Theories in Psychology and Neuroscience  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental claim associated with parallel distributed processing (PDP) theories of cognition is that knowledge is coded in a distributed manner in mind and brain. This approach rejects the claim that knowledge is coded in a localist fashion, with words, objects, and simple concepts (e.g. \\

Jeffrey S. Bowers

2009-01-01

137

Contemporary Existentialist Tendencies in Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modem psychology?s relation to existentialism takes at least three discernible forms. Firstly, theory and practice (particularly in psychotherapy, but also in other areas of psychology) that is directly traceable to philosophers and other writers who are termed ?existentialist.? Secondly, theory and practice that is not traceable in this way, but which raises questions, uses concepts or interprets findings in ways

Stuart Hanscomb

138

Applications of Generalizability Theory to Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology Research  

PubMed Central

Using generalizability theory to evaluate the reliability of child and adolescent measures enables researchers to enhance precision of measurement and consequently increase confidence in research findings. With an observer-rated measure of child self-regulation, we illustrate how multiple sources of error variance (e.g., raters, items) affect the dependability (replicability) of scores and demonstrate methods for enhancing dependability of observer ratings. Using ratings of 181 children, we illustrate the use of two-facet (i.e., raters and items as sources of error) and three-facet (i.e., raters, items and occasions) analyses to optimize design features of future studies using this measure. In addition, we show how generalizability theory provides a useful conceptual framework for thinking about determinants of scores on acquaintance (e.g., teacher or parent) ratings, as well as observer ratings, and sheds light on the strengths and limitations of both types of data for child and adolescent clinical research.

Lakes, Kimberley D.; Hoyt, William T.

2013-01-01

139

AN ANLYSIS OF AFRICAN-CENTERED PSYCHOLOGY, DIVERSITY, AND CULTURAL TRENDS USING THE SOCIAL THEORY MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social Learning theory (SLT) is an avenue of behavior modification whose promotion of self reflection, proxy and collective agencies, serves as an excellent tool for dealing with diversity, self-esteem, self-identity and spirituality. These are all integral to the understanding and growth of the African American psyche. In implementing the SLT, scholar-practitioners challenged by the gap between the newly engendered African-

Camille Drake-Brassfield

140

From tools to theories: A heuristic of discovery in cognitive psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of scientific discovery—where do new ideas come from?—has long been denigrated by phi- losophers as irrelevant to analyzing the growth of scientific knowledge. In particular, little is known about how cognitive theories are discovered, and neither the classical accounts of discovery as either probabilistic induction (e.g., Reichenbach, 1938) or lucky guesses (e.g., Popper, 1959), nor the stock anecdotes

Gerd Gigerenzer

1991-01-01

141

Predictors of the risk factors for suicide identified by the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behaviour.  

PubMed

The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS) has been supported by recent research. However, the nature of the models? three major constructs - perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness and acquired capability - requires further investigation. In this paper, we test a number of hypotheses about the predictors and correlates of the IPTS constructs. Participants aged 32-38 from an Australian population-based longitudinal cohort study (n=1167) were assessed. IPTS constructs were measured by items from the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (INQ) and Acquired Capability for Suicide Scale (ACSS), alongside demographic and additional measures, measured concurrently or approximately 8 years earlier. Cross-sectional analyses evaluating the IPTS supported earlier work. Mental health was significantly related to all three IPTS constructs, but depression and anxiety caseness were associated only with perceived burdensomeness. Various social support measures were differentially associated with the three constructs. Stressful events and lifetime traumas had robust independent associations with acquired capability for suicide only. The IPTS model provides a useful framework for conceptualising suicide risk. The findings highlight the importance of perceived social support in suicide risk, identify the importance of personality and other factors as new avenues of research, and provide some validation for the independence of the constructs. PMID:24947914

Christensen, Helen; Batterham, Philip James; Mackinnon, Andrew J; Donker, Tara; Soubelet, Andrea

2014-10-30

142

Reciprocal Relationships between Resource Loss and Psychological Distress Following Exposure to Political Violence: An Empirical Investigation of COR Theory's Loss Spirals  

PubMed Central

We conducted a four-wave prospective study of Palestinian adults living in the West Bank, Gaza Strip, and East Jerusalem, interviewed between 2007 and 2009 at 6-month intervals to explore transactional relationships among resource loss (i.e., intra- and inter-personal resource loss) and psychological distress (i.e., PTSD and depression symptoms). Initially, 1196 Palestinians completed the first wave interview and 752 of these participants completed all four interviews. A cross-lagged panel design was constructed to model the effects of trauma exposure on both resource loss and psychological distress and the subsequent reciprocal effects of resource loss and psychological distress across four time waves. Specifically, resource loss was modeled to predict distress, which in turn was expected to predict further resource loss. Structural equation modeling was used to test this design. We found that psychological distress significantly predicts resource loss across shorter, 6-month time waves, but that resource loss predicts distress across longer, 12-month intervals. These findings support the Conservation of Resources theory’s corollary of loss spirals.

Heath, Nicole M.; Hall, Brian J.; Russ, Eric U.; Canetti, Daphna; Hobfoll, Stevan E.

2011-01-01

143

Identifying the psychological determinants of risky riding: an application of an extended Theory of Planned Behaviour.  

PubMed

The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) plus moral norms, anticipated regret, past behaviour, self-identity and perceived susceptibility was applied to predicting motorcyclists' intention to ride above the speed limit and ride at inappropriate speeds. Past behaviour, control beliefs, attitudes, moral norm, normative beliefs, age and self-identity explained 60% of the variance in motorcyclists' intention to exceed the speed limit on motorways (N=1381). A total of 62% of the variance in motorcyclists' intention to really go for it on rural roads was accounted for, with past behaviour, attitudes, control beliefs, age, normative beliefs, anticipated regret, self-identity, behavioural beliefs and training status being significant (N=1116). Finally, attitudes, past behaviour, control beliefs, moral norm, anticipated regret, behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs, engine size and self-identity explained 57% of the variance in motorcyclists' intention to ride faster than felt safe in order to keep up with the group (N=1940). The belief-based measures also successfully differentiated between those who intended to speed and those who did not. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:23036391

Chorlton, Kathryn; Conner, Mark; Jamson, Samantha

2012-11-01

144

Theory of Mind and embedding of perspective: A psychological test of a literary "sweet spot"  

PubMed

Theory of Mind (ToM) has been proposed to explain social interactions, with real people but also with fictional characters, by interpreting their mind as well as our own. "Perspective embedding" exploits ToM by placing events in characters' minds (e.g., "he remembered she was home"). Three levels of embedment, common in literature, may be a "sweet spot" that provides enough information about a character's motivation, but not a confusing over-abundance. Here, we use short vignettes with 1 or 3 characters and 0-5 levels of perspective embedding in two reading studies to see whether these preferences might be related to processing ease. Self-paced readers were fastest with one level of embedment, increasingly slower as embedment increased; vignettes without embedment were approximately as slow as level 4. With both self-paced and imposed timing, error rates on probe questions increased only at the fifth level. Readers seem to prefer literary texts in which ToM operations are obvious due to embedding of perspectives within the narrative but still somewhat challenging. PMID:23741659

Whalen, D H; Zunshine, Lisa; Holquist, Michael

2012-01-01

145

Psychological vulnerability and problem gambling: an application of Durand Jacobs' general theory of addictions to electronic gaming machine playing in Australia.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to conduct an empirical investigation of the validity of Jacobs' (in J Gambl Behav 2:15-31, 1986) general theory of addictions in relation to gambling problems associated with electronic gaming machines (EGM). Regular EGM gamblers (n = 190) completed a series of standardised measures relating to psychological and physiological vulnerability, substance use, dissociative experiences, early childhood trauma and abuse and problem gambling (the Problem Gambling Severity Index). Statistical analysis using structural equation modelling revealed clear relationships between childhood trauma and life stressors and psychological vulnerability, dissociative-like experiences and problem gambling. These findings confirm and extend a previous model validated by Gupta and Derevensky (in J Gambl Stud 14: 17-49, 1998) using an adolescent population. The significance of these findings are discussed for existing pathway models of problem gambling, for Jacobs' theory, and for clinicians engaged in assessment and intervention. PMID:22116713

McCormick, Jessica; Delfabbro, Paul; Denson, Linley A

2012-12-01

146

Theory and practice in sport psychology and motor behaviour needs to be constrained by integrative modelling of brain and behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of advances in technology, the non-invasive study of the human brain has enhanced the knowledge base within the neurosciences, resulting in an increased impact on the psychological study of human behaviour. We argue that application of this knowledge base should be considered in theoretical modelling within sport psychology and motor behaviour alongside existing ideas. We propose that interventions founded

Paul Holmes; Simon Bennett; Keith Davids; Nick Smith

2000-01-01

147

Software Science and Cognitive Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Halstead proposed a methodology for studying the process of programming known as software science. This methodology merges theories from cognitive psychology with theories from computer science. There is evidence that some of the assumptions of software science incorrectly apply the results of cognitive psychology studies. HAlstead proposed theories relative to human memory models that appear to be without support from

Neal S. Coulter

1983-01-01

148

Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of lumbar spine x-ray for low back pain in UK primary care practice  

PubMed Central

Background Psychological models predict behaviour in a wide range of settings. The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of a range of psychological models to predict the health professional behaviour 'referral for lumbar spine x-ray in patients presenting with low back pain' by UK primary care physicians. Methods Psychological measures were collected by postal questionnaire survey from a random sample of primary care physicians in Scotland and north England. The outcome measures were clinical behaviour (referral rates for lumbar spine x-rays), behavioural simulation (lumbar spine x-ray referral decisions based upon scenarios), and behavioural intention (general intention to refer for lumbar spine x-rays in patients with low back pain). Explanatory variables were the constructs within the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), Common Sense Self-Regulation Model (CS-SRM), Operant Learning Theory (OLT), Implementation Intention (II), Weinstein's Stage Model termed the Precaution Adoption Process (PAP), and knowledge. For each of the outcome measures, a generalised linear model was used to examine the predictive value of each theory individually. Linear regression was used for the intention and simulation outcomes, and negative binomial regression was used for the behaviour outcome. Following this 'theory level' analysis, a 'cross-theoretical construct' analysis was conducted to investigate the combined predictive value of all individual constructs across theories. Results Constructs from TPB, SCT, CS-SRM, and OLT predicted behaviour; however, the theoretical models did not fit the data well. When predicting behavioural simulation, the proportion of variance explained by individual theories was TPB 11.6%, SCT 12.1%, OLT 8.1%, and II 1.5% of the variance, and in the cross-theory analysis constructs from TPB, CS-SRM and II explained 16.5% of the variance in simulated behaviours. When predicting intention, the proportion of variance explained by individual theories was TPB 25.0%, SCT 21.5%, CS-SRM 11.3%, OLT 26.3%, PAP 2.6%, and knowledge 2.3%, and in the cross-theory analysis constructs from TPB, SCT, CS-SRM, and OLT explained 33.5% variance in intention. Together these results suggest that physicians' beliefs about consequences and beliefs about capabilities are likely determinants of lumbar spine x-ray referrals. Conclusions The study provides evidence that taking a theory-based approach enables the creation of a replicable methodology for identifying factors that predict clinical behaviour. However, a number of conceptual and methodological challenges remain.

2011-01-01

149

Psychology and Pluralism: Toward the Psychological Studies1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, it is argued that efforts to devise a unified theory of psychological knowledge are problematic, and that the cultivation of multiple theoretical lenses contributes to a more useful and self-aware psychology. Various forms of unificationism, and the rationales behind such efforts, are discussed. Two drawbacks of unified theories are then explored, along with the virtues of multiplicity.

Suzanne R. Kirschner

2006-01-01

150

Conspiracist ideation in Britain and Austria: evidence of a monological belief system and associations between individual psychological differences and real-world and fictitious conspiracy theories.  

PubMed

Despite evidence of widespread belief in conspiracy theories, there remains a dearth of research on the individual difference correlates of conspiracist ideation. In two studies, we sought to overcome this limitation by examining correlations between conspiracist ideation and a range of individual psychological factors. In Study 1, 817 Britons indicated their agreement with conspiracist ideation concerning the July 7, 2005 (7/7), London bombings, and completed a battery of individual difference scales. Results showed that stronger belief in 7/7 conspiracy theories was predicted by stronger belief in other real-world conspiracy theories, greater exposure to conspiracist ideation, higher political cynicism, greater support for democratic principles, more negative attitudes to authority, lower self-esteem, and lower Agreeableness. In Study 2, 281 Austrians indicated their agreement with an entirely fictitious conspiracy theory and completed a battery of individual difference measures not examined in Study 1. Results showed that belief in the entirely fictitious conspiracy theory was significantly associated with stronger belief in other real-world conspiracy theories, stronger paranormal beliefs, and lower crystallized intelligence. These results are discussed in terms of the potential of identifying individual difference constellations among conspiracy theorists. PMID:21751999

Swami, Viren; Coles, Rebecca; Stieger, Stefan; Pietschnig, Jakob; Furnham, Adrian; Rehim, Sherry; Voracek, Martin

2011-08-01

151

Psychological Science and Religious Education in a Devout University: The Case of Pain Overlap Theory and the Talmud  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators employed in devoutly religious institutions often teach students who view even their secular higher education through a uniquely religious lens. Based on his own experiences teaching psychological science at a Jewish university, the author suggests enhancing student interest and enthusiasm by wedding secular curricula with religious…

Schnall, Eliezer

2014-01-01

152

A theory of alpha\\/theta neurofeedback, creative performance enhancement, long distance functional connectivity and psychological integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Professionally significant enhancement of music and dance performance and mood has followed training with an EEG-neurofeedback\\u000a protocol which increases the ratio of theta to alpha waves using auditory feedback with eyes closed. While originally the\\u000a protocol was designed to induce hypnogogia, a state historically associated with creativity, the outcome was psychological\\u000a integration, while subsequent applications focusing on raising the theta–alpha

John Gruzelier

2009-01-01

153

Behavioral economics: Reunifying psychology and economics  

PubMed Central

“Behavioral economics” improves the realism of the psychological assumptions underlying economic theory, promising to reunify psychology and economics in the process. Reunification should lead to better predictions about economic behavior and better policy prescriptions.

Camerer, Colin

1999-01-01

154

Forensic Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citation: Brigham, J., & Grisso, T. (2003). Forensic Psychology. In D.K. Friedheim & I.B. Weiner (eds.), Comprehensive handbook of psychology. Vol. 1: The history of psychology, (pp. 391-411). New York: John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0471383201, 9780471383208.\\u000aLimited preview available via Google Books.

John C. Brigham; Thomas Grisso

2003-01-01

155

Social Psychological Consequences of Interpersonal Relations: A Confirmatory Approach to Testing Deutsch's Theory of Cooperation and Conflict Resolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested M. Deutsch's theory of cooperation and conflict resolution using an intervention project at an inner city alternative high school in New York City. The study was designed to test the theory by confirmatory structural modeling and by evaluating the intervention. The procedure involved a pre- and post-test procedure administered…

Zhang, Quahwu

156

Cognitive psychology meets psychometric theory: on the relation between process models for decision making and latent variable models for individual differences.  

PubMed

This article analyzes latent variable models from a cognitive psychology perspective. We start by discussing work by Tuerlinckx and De Boeck (2005), who proved that a diffusion model for 2-choice response processes entails a 2-parameter logistic item response theory (IRT) model for individual differences in the response data. Following this line of reasoning, we discuss the appropriateness of IRT for measuring abilities and bipolar traits, such as pro versus contra attitudes. Surprisingly, if a diffusion model underlies the response processes, IRT models are appropriate for bipolar traits but not for ability tests. A reconsideration of the concept of ability that is appropriate for such situations leads to a new item response model for accuracy and speed based on the idea that ability has a natural zero point. The model implies fundamentally new ways to think about guessing, response speed, and person fit in IRT. We discuss the relation between this model and existing models as well as implications for psychology and psychometrics. PMID:21401290

van der Maas, Han L J; Molenaar, Dylan; Maris, Gunter; Kievit, Rogier A; Borsboom, Denny

2011-04-01

157

Teaching Educational Psychology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at the Millersville University of Pennsylvania, Teaching Educational Psychology (TEP) is an online, peer-refereed journal that is "devoted to increasing our shared knowledge base about the teaching of educational psychology to a variety of educational constituencies" including administrators, policy-makers, parents, and the public. The journal started publication in 2005 and is published twice a year. Visitors to the site can access all of the back issues of the journal, and they should also take a look at their reviewing guidelines and submission materials. Recent articles include "Using Student Interviews to Understand Theories of Motivation" and "Narrative as a Basis for Teaching Educational Psychology" Moving on, the site also includes links to related educational psychology sites and a list of reviewers.

158

Psychology of Military Groups.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Ideology and social psychology: The subject of social psychology; Interdependence of ideology and social psychology; Class and national features of social psychology; Basic elements of social psychology. Study of the psychology of a military gro...

A. Campbell E. Fortunatov

1968-01-01

159

APA Educational Psychology Handbook  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "APA Educational Psychology Handbook" reflects the broad nature of the field today, with state-of-the-science reviews of the diverse critical theories driving research and practice; in-depth investigation of the range of individual differences and cultural/contextual factors that affect student achievement, motivation, and beliefs; and close…

Harris, Karen R., Ed.; Graham, Steve, Ed.; Urdan, Tim, Ed.

2011-01-01

160

The Foundations of Social Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically there have been three recent attempts to supply an adequate foundation for social psychology. (1) Spencer and Schaeffle have developed a metabiological theory which implies a superconsciousness. Although superconsciousness is far from dead, this theory has not been generally accepted by psychologists. (2) Tarde has set forth a theory which reduces social phenomena to invention, opposition and repetition. Tarde's

K. Dunlap

1923-01-01

161

[Political psychology].  

PubMed

In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects. PMID:23587541

Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

2013-04-21

162

Reconciliation after Genocide, Mass Killing, or Intractable Conflict: Understanding the Roots of Violence, Psychological Recovery, and Steps toward a General Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores psychological avenues to reconciliation between groups. It describes the psychological changes in survivors, perpetrators, and passive bystanders in the course of the evolution of increasing violence and points to healing from the psychological wounds created as an essential component of reconciliation. It also explores the role of understand- ing the roots of genocide, and of violence between

Ervin Staub

2006-01-01

163

Theories of Learning for the Workplace: Building Blocks for Training and Professional Development Programs. Routledge Psychology in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Workplace and professional learning, lifelong learning, adult learning, learning in different contexts have become of more and more interest and now dominate all aspects of 21st century life. Learning is no longer about "storing and recall" but "development and flow". "Theories of Learning in the Workplace" offers fascinating overviews into some…

Dochy, Filip; Gijbels, David; Segers, Mien; Van den Bossche, Piet

2011-01-01

164

Toward an Understanding of Media Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the psychology of multimedia. Topics include software development, including decisions about sound and image quality; theories of multiple intelligences; the psychology of learning; a model that includes semantics, semiotics, and synthetics; and the impact of media psychology on the use of multimedia for learning. (LRW)

Luskin, Bernard J.

1996-01-01

165

Measuring Student Teachers' Basic Psychological Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Self-Determination Theory, basic psychological needs for relatedness, autonomy and competence are distinguished. Basic psychological need-fulfilment is considered to be critical for human development and intrinsic motivation. In the Netherlands, the concept of basic psychological need-fulfilment is introduced in the curricula of many teacher…

Vermeulen, Marjan; Castelijns, Jos; Kools, Quinta; Koster, Bob

2012-01-01

166

Werner's Relevance for Contemporary Developmental Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the contributions of Heinz Werner to developmental psychology and identifies the tensions between Werner's theory and the practices of contemporary developmental psychology. Core issues of Werner's psychology concern: (1) development as heuristic, rather than phenomenon; (2) developmental process analysis; and (3) conceptions of the…

Glick, Joseph A.

1992-01-01

167

A theory of alpha/theta neurofeedback, creative performance enhancement, long distance functional connectivity and psychological integration.  

PubMed

Professionally significant enhancement of music and dance performance and mood has followed training with an EEG-neurofeedback protocol which increases the ratio of theta to alpha waves using auditory feedback with eyes closed. While originally the protocol was designed to induce hypnogogia, a state historically associated with creativity, the outcome was psychological integration, while subsequent applications focusing on raising the theta-alpha ratio, reduced depression and anxiety in alcoholism and resolved post traumatic stress syndrome (PTSD). In optimal performance studies we confirmed associations with creativity in musical performance, but effects also included technique and communication. We extended efficacy to dance and social anxiety. Diversity of outcome has a counterpart in wide ranging associations between theta oscillations and behaviour in cognitive and affective neuroscience: in animals with sensory-motor activity in exploration, effort, working memory, learning, retention and REM sleep; in man with meditative concentration, reduced anxiety and sympathetic autonomic activation, as well as task demands in virtual spatial navigation, focussed and sustained attention, working and recognition memory, and having implications for synaptic plasticity and long term potentiation. Neuroanatomical circuitry involves the ascending mescencephalic-cortical arousal system, and limbic circuits subserving cognitive as well as affective/motivational functions. Working memory and meditative bliss, representing cognitive and affective domains, respectively, involve coupling between frontal and posterior cortices, exemplify a role for theta and alpha waves in mediating the interaction between distal and widely distributed connections. It is posited that this mediation in part underpins the integrational attributes of alpha-theta training in optimal performance and psychotherapy, creative associations in hypnogogia, and enhancement of technical, communication and artistic domains of performance in the arts. PMID:19082646

Gruzelier, John

2009-02-01

168

Effects of Gender and Sexual Orientation on Evolutionarily Relevant Aspects of Human Mating Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual selection theory provides a powerful model for the analysis of psychological sex differences. This research examined (a) tests of several sex differences in mating psychology predicted from sexual selection theory, (b) broad developmental hypotheses about sex differences in mating psychology—through the relationship of mating psychology to sexual orientation, and (c) the structure of within-sex differences in mating psychology. Scales

J. Michael Bailey; Steven Gaulin; Yvonne Agyei; Brian A. Gladue

1994-01-01

169

The decade 1989-1998 in Spanish psychology: an analysis of research in statistics, methodology, and psychometric theory.  

PubMed

This paper presents an analysis of research published in the decade 1989-1998 by Spanish faculty members in the areas of statistical methods, research methodology, and psychometric theory. Database search and direct correspondence with faculty members in Departments of Methodology across Spain rendered a list of 193 papers published in these broad areas by 82 faculty members. These and other faculty members had actually published 931 papers over the decade of analysis, but 738 of them addressed topics not appropriate for description in this report. Classification and analysis of these 193 papers revealed topics that have attracted the most interest (psychophysics, item response theory, analysis of variance, sequential analysis, and meta-analysis) as well as other topics that have received less attention (scaling, factor analysis, time series, and structural models). A significant number of papers also dealt with various methodological issues (software, algorithms, instrumentation, and techniques). A substantial part of this report is devoted to describing the issues addressed across these 193 papers--most of which are written in the Spanish language and published in Spanish journals--and some representative references are given. PMID:11723638

García-Pérez, M A

2001-11-01

170

Strategic supplier partnering: a psychological contract perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological contract and organizational justice theories are used in the management literature to describe the relationship between employees and employers. Provides an exploratory study that applies these theories to strategic partnerships between buyers and suppliers, drawing on logistics examples. Uses empirical data from a survey to illustrate where such relationships are working well, and where potential problems lie. Uses psychological

Donna Blancero; Lisa Ellram

1997-01-01

171

Amateur Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comments on a recent article in The Reporter (Feb. 16, 1962), where Marya Mannes, a staff writer of this publication, praises Joyce Brothers for her ability to answer complex psychological problems in simple language \\

W. G. Eliasberg

1962-01-01

172

Psychological Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Unmet Needs IBS and Holidays Personal Stories IBS Awareness Month The Art of IBS Mobile App Who We Are Contact Us Donate Psychological ... ... | Privacy & Security | Terms of Use | Site Map | Help | Free Info ...

173

Examining Race and Culture in Psychology Journals: The Case of Forensic Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scholars have argued that racial?cultural issues should be given more attention in psychological research. The American Psychological Association (APA) has instituted guidelines and policies about how to include race and culture in research, theory, and practice. Members of racial minority groups are overrepresented in populations served by forensic psychologists. This article reviews content analyses of racial?cultural issues in psychology and

Robert T. Carter; Jessica M. Forsyth

2007-01-01

174

Subjective Probability and Information Retrieval: A Review of the Psychological Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the subjective probability estimation literature of six schools of human judgement and decision making: decision theory, behavioral decision theory, psychological decision theory, social judgement theory, information integration theory, and attribution theory. Implications for probabilistic information retrieval are discussed, including…

Thompson, Paul

1988-01-01

175

Stanford Psychology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A host of online educational initiatives during the past few years have brought lectures from all over the world into the homes into many persons who may not have access to such programs in their own local communities. One such website brings the insights and collected knowledge of various members of Stanford University's renowned psychology department to the Internet-browsing public. The lectures address such topics as the psychology of evil, the role of parents in their children's lives, and the role of personal and collective efficacy. Along with these individual talks presented by various members of the psychology faculty, there are several nice panel sessions on the nature of language and the cultural shaping of emotion. Finally, the site also contains the lively question-and-answer sessions that followed each panel session.

176

Using Psychological Models to Understand Student Motivation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Efforts to enhance student motivation can be more effective if they are approached from the perspective of psychological models of what drives human behavior including social learning theory, personal growth as a primary goal, cognitive development theory, self-efficacy theory, and expectancy-value theory. (Author/MLW)

Lucas, Ann F.

1990-01-01

177

Black Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contents of the present volume, designed to bring together in a single place writings by the new black psychologists and other black social and behavioral scientists, are organized in seven parts, as follows: Part I, "Black Psychology: Perspectives," includes articles by Cedric Clark, Wade W. Nobles, Doris P. Mosby, Joseph White, and William…

Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

178

Psychological Trivia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses trivia related to the history of psychology (with many fun examples such as: What are the names of Pavlov's original dogs?) and the relationship of this game to students learning how to use library resources (in attempts to answer such trivia questions), as well as the relevance of such knowledge.

Robert S. Harper

1970-01-01

179

Adult Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume comprehensively reviews the research on the psychology of the middle aged (ages 40-65). Topics include the concept of maturity and maturation models, the measurement and influences of adult self image; marriage and sexual patterns; intergenerational relationships between and children; vocations and avocations (work, retirement, play,…

Bischof, Ledford J.

180

Space psychology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

1974-01-01

181

The Psychological Need Satisfaction in Exercise Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to provide initial construct validity evidence for scores derived from the Psychological Need Satisfaction in Exercise (PNSE) scale, a multidimensional instrument designed to measure perceived psychological need satisfaction in line with Deci and Ryan?s (1985, 2002) self-determination theory (SDT). Participants in two studies (n1 = 426; n2 = 581) completed the PNSE along with

Philip M. Wilson; W. Todd Rogers; Wendy M. Rodgers; T. Cameron Wild

182

ZAPs: Using Interactive Programs for Learning Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ZAPs are short, self-contained computer programs that encourage students to experience psychological phenomena in a vivid, self-explanatory way, and that are meant to evoke enthusiasm about psychological topics. ZAPs were designed according to principles that originate from experiential and discovery learning theories. The interactive approach…

Hulshof, Casper D.; Eysink, Tessa H. S.; Loyens, Sofie; de Jong, Ton

2005-01-01

183

Evolutionary psychology: the emperor's new paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

For some evolutionary psychology is merely a field of inquiry, but for others it is a robust paradigm involving specific theories about the nature and evolution of the human mind. Proponents of this paradigm claim to have made several important discoveries regarding the evolved architecture of the mind. Highly publicized discoveries include a cheater-detection module, a psychological sex difference in

David J. Buller

2005-01-01

184

Psychological Flexibility, ACT, and Organizational Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers organizational behavior management (OBM) a behavior analytically consistent way to expand its analysis of, and methods for changing, organizational behavior. It shows how Relational Frame Theory (RFT) suggests that common, problematic, psychological processes emerge from language itself, and they produce psychological

Bond, Frank W.; Hayes, Steven C.; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

2006-01-01

185

Evolutionary psychology. Controversies, questions, prospects, and limitations.  

PubMed

Evolutionary psychology has emerged over the past 15 years as a major theoretical perspective, generating an increasing volume of empirical studies and assuming a larger presence within psychological science. At the same time, it has generated critiques and remains controversial among some psychologists. Some of the controversy stems from hypotheses that go against traditional psychological theories; some from empirical findings that may have disturbing implications; some from misunderstandings about the logic of evolutionary psychology; and some from reasonable scientific concerns about its underlying framework. This article identifies some of the most common concerns and attempts to elucidate evolutionary psychology's stance pertaining to them. These include issues of testability and falsifiability; the domain specificity versus domain generality of psychological mechanisms; the role of novel environments as they interact with evolved psychological circuits; the role of genes in the conceptual structure of evolutionary psychology; the roles of learning, socialization, and culture in evolutionary psychology; and the practical value of applied evolutionary psychology. The article concludes with a discussion of the limitations of current evolutionary psychology. PMID:20141266

Confer, Jaime C; Easton, Judith A; Fleischman, Diana S; Goetz, Cari D; Lewis, David M G; Perilloux, Carin; Buss, David M

2010-01-01

186

The Complexity of Development and Change: The Need for the Integration of Theory and Research Findings in Psychological Practice with Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Supports the view that children's developmental status and varied family, school, and cultural contexts all caution overgeneralization on empirically supported treatments. Supports Hughes' notion of developmental psychopathology as a relevant asset for school psychology practice and intervention research. Discusses several obstacles when applying…

Tharinger, Deborah

2000-01-01

187

Psychological Perspectives of Buddhism: Implications for Counseling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews psychological perspectives of Buddhism and the universal human problem and its subsequent cures that can be applied to interactions in a counseling relationship. Suggests that meditation techniques can be integrated into current counseling theories. (JAC)

Vassallo, Janice N.

1984-01-01

188

Pioneering a Non-Western Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the psychological theory of the Japanese psychiatrist Takeo Doi which accounts for the vertically structured, group-oriented society found in Japan today via the total dependence of Japanese children upon their mothers. (SL)

Douglas, John H.

1978-01-01

189

Learned helplessness and health psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews learned helplessness theory and its attributional reformulation for a health psychology audience. Particular emphasis is placed on the idea that not all instances of human helplessness are best described as learned helplessness. Some possible ways to apply the learned helplessness model to health and illness are discussed. (3½ p ref)

Christopher Peterson

1982-01-01

190

The cognitive psychology of gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of recent studies have shown there may be a strong cognitive bias in explaining persistent gambling. Theories that have been put forward include the illusion of control, “cognitive regret,” biased evaluations and the “psychology of the near miss.” Two exploratory studies examining the acquisition, development and maintenance of gambling behaviour involving adolescent fruit machine gamblers were carried out.

Mark D. Griffiths

1990-01-01

191

Contemporary Educational Psychology. Fifth Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprehensive coverage of the theories and basic concepts of educational psychology is provided. Also included are information on how they can be applied in a variety of learning situations and concrete advice for planning, implementing, and improving instruction. The focus is on teacher education. The chapters are: (1) "Classrooms, Teachers,…

Good, Thomas L.; Brophy, Jere

192

Theories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will help the students understand that science theories change in the face of new evidence, but those changes can be slow in coming. Students will observe how scientific theories change over time, Be introduced to the sophistication of the geocentric model and the time it took to change the theory underpinning the heliocentric model, Compare the heliocentric model to the geocentric model.

2010-01-01

193

Psychological Bias as a Driver of Financial Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractI propose here the psychological attraction theory of financial regulation – that regulation is the result of psychological biases on the part of political participants – voters, politicians, bureaucrats, and media commentators; and of regulatory ideologies that exploit these biases. Some key elements of the psychological attraction approach are: salience and vividness, omission bias, scapegoating and xenophobia, fairness and reciprocity

David Hirshleifer

2008-01-01

194

Psychological Dimensions of User-Computer Interfaces. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest highlights several psychological dimensions of user-computer interfaces. First, the psychological theory behind interface design and the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) are discussed. Two psychological models, the information processing model of cognition and the mental model--both of which contribute to interface design--are…

Marchionini, Gary

195

Practice Forum: Self Psychology in Child Welfare Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of self-psychology, a theory first developed by Heinz Kohut, is discussed and illustrated with case examples from child welfare practice. The cases demonstrate that self-psychology can enhance an ecological model. The ways in which self-psychology can enrich the social worker's therapeutic role in permanency planning are emphasized.…

Goldmeier, John; Fandetti, Donald V.

1991-01-01

196

Human Nature and Culture: An Evolutionary Psychological Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personality psychology is the broadest of all psychological subdisciplines in that it seeks a conceptually integrated understanding of both human nature and important individual differences. Cultural differences pose a unique set of problems for any comprehensive theory of personality—how can they be reconciled with universals of human nature on the one hand and within-cultural variation on the other? Evolutionary psychology

David M. Buss

2001-01-01

197

Personal Construct Psychology Foundations for Knowledge Acquisition and Representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personal construct psychology is a theory of individual and group psychological and social processes that has been used extensively in knowledge acquisition research to model the cognitive processes of human experts. The psychology has the advantage of taking a constructivist position appropriate to the modeling of specialist human knowledge but basing this on a positivist scientific position that characterizes human

Mildred L. G. Shaw; Brian R. Gaines

1993-01-01

198

Classics in the History of Psychology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by Christopher D. Green, associate professor of psychology at York University, this site currently compiles the full text of over 80 works considered classics in the history of psychology. The historically significant texts, written by nearly 50 different authors, reside on a York University server and are fully searchable by keyword(s). Users may also access the texts through an author index or a topical index, which arranges the text into twelve subject areas: Ancient Psychology, Behaviorism, Cognition, Evolutionary Theory, Functionalism & Pragmatism, Gestalt Theory, Intelligence Testing, Neuropsychology, Psychoanalysis & Psychotherapy, Social Psychology, Statistics & Methodology, and Wundt & Structuralism. In addition, the site links to more than 120 online documents related to the history of psychology posted on other Websites.

D., Green C.

1997-01-01

199

An evolutionary perspective on health psychology: new approaches and applications.  

PubMed

Although health psychologists' efforts to understand and promote health are most effective when guided by theory, health psychology has not taken full advantage of theoretical insights provided by evolutionary psychology. Here, we argue that evolutionary perspectives can fruitfully inform strategies for addressing some of the challenges facing health psychologists. Evolutionary psychology's emphasis on modular, functionally specialized psychological systems can inform approaches to understanding the myriad behaviors grouped under the umbrella of "health," as can theoretical perspectives used by evolutionary anthropologists, biologists, and psychologists (e.g., Life History Theory). We detail some early investigations into evolutionary health psychology, and we provide suggestions for directions for future research. PMID:23253791

Tybur, Joshua M; Bryan, Angela D; Hooper, Ann E Caldwell

2012-01-01

200

The theory of MindTime: The relationships between Future, Past, and Present thinking and psychological well-being and distress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on recent advances in cognitive and comparative psychology, we posit that the arguably unique human ability to decouple primary mental representations from the present moment and place them into different temporal localities (i.e., form secondary mental representations of objects) as well as the ability to form higher-order mental representations of secondary representations (meta-representations) gave rise to the development of

Vincent J. Fortunato; John T. Furey

2011-01-01

201

A Computational Theory of Executive Cognitive Processes and Multiple-Task Performance: Part 2. Accounts of Psychological Refractory-Period Phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

Further simulations of human multiple-task performance have been conducted with computational models that are based on the executive-process interactive control (EPIC) architecture introduced by D. E. Meyer and D. E. Kieras (1997a). These models account well for patterns of reaction times and psychological refractory-period phenomena (delays of overt responses after short stimulus onset asynchronies) observed in a variety of laboratory

David E. Meyer; David E. Kieras

1997-01-01

202

Sport Psychology in the Profession of Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, sport psychology has been identified with physical education; however, recent developments in the field toward applied issues have substantially expanded psychologists' interests and opportunities. Unfortunately, little is known about professional psychologists' involvement in sport psychology practice, research, and training. Therefore, a national survey of 500 male and 500 female psychologists (American Psychological Association Division 12members) was conducted. Based on

Trent A. Petrie; Nancy S. Diehl

1995-01-01

203

Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

Zucchero, Renee' A.

2011-01-01

204

SITUATIONS MATTER: Teaching the Lewinian Link Between Social Psychology and Rehabilitation Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A little-recognized fact is that social psychology and rehabilitation psychology share a common theoretical ancestry in the situation perspective of Kurt Lewin. Theory and research in both fields assumes that situational influences often override the impact of personal factors, including dispositions. Situational analyses led to the development of a variety of cognitive explanations capturing people's phenomenal accounts for the causes

Dana S. Dunn

2011-01-01

205

Dual Processes in the Psychology of Mathematics Education and Cognitive Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research in the psychology of mathematics education has been confronted with the fact that people blatantly fail to solve tasks they are supposed to be able to solve correctly given their available domain-specific knowledge and skills. Also researchers in cognitive psychology have encountered such phenomena. In this paper, theories that have been…

Gillard, Ellen; Van Dooren, Wim; Schaeken, Walter; Verschaffel, Lieven

2009-01-01

206

The science of forensic psychiatry and psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes two theories for distinguishing scientific from non?scientific evidence. Under one theory, scientific evidence is based on verifiable experimentation, while non?scientific evidence is based on education, training, and experience. Under the second theory, scientific evidence provides a generalizable theory, while non?scientific testimony applies only to a particular case. Most psychiatric and psychological testimony has scientific and non?scientific elements.Courts

David E. Bernstein

1995-01-01

207

Positive Psychology and Positive Education: Old Wine in New Bottles?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recently fashionable theories of positive psychology have educational ramifications at virtually every level of engagement, culminating in the model of positive education. In this critical review, I scrutinize positive education as a potential theory in educational psychology. Special attention is given to conceptual controversies and…

Kristjansson, Kristjan

2012-01-01

208

Does Intentional Psychology Need Vindicating by Cognitive Science?  

Microsoft Academic Search

I argue that intentional psychology does not stand in need of vindication by a lower-level implementation theory from cognitive science, in particular the representational theory of mind (RTM), as most famously Jerry Fodor has argued. The stance of the paper is novel in that I claim this holds even if one, in line with Fodor, views intentional psychology as an

Jonathan Knowles

2001-01-01

209

THE PSYCHOLOGY OF GEORGE GURDJIEFF: IMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELLING  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines aspects of the teaching of G. I. Gurdjieff in the light of the current knowledge base of contemporary applied psychology, and in particular, that of current counselling theory and practice. It focusses on enunciating relevant aspects of Gurdjieff's teaching in the idiom of modern day psychology and counselling theory so as to draw out the parallels between

Mark Stephen Cescato

2008-01-01

210

Big Questions Facing Vocational Psychology: A Cognitive Information Processing Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article draws upon the authors' experience in developing cognitive information processing theory in order to examine three important questions facing vocational psychology and assessment: (a) Where should new knowledge for vocational psychology come from? (b) How do career theories and research find their way into practice? and (c) What is…

Reardon, Robert C.; Lenz, Janet G.; Sampson, James P., Jr.; Peterson, Gary W.

2011-01-01

211

The Illusion of Intimacy: A Levinasian Critique of Evolutionary Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

While acknowledging the psychological experience of intimacy, evolutionary theory postulates proliferation as the underlying grounds for human relationships. Intimacy, according to evolutionary theory, is merely a psychological mechanism whereby sexual selection and parental investment are facilitated. Unfortunately, the assumption of an underlying evolutionary mechanism which governs human relationships is fraught with problematic consequences. Unlike the evolutionary understanding of intimacy, the

Marissa S. Beyers; Jeffrey S. Reber

1998-01-01

212

A Dependence-Regulation Account of Psychological Distancing in Response to Major Organizational Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building on previous studies that documented psychological withdrawal or distancing from one's employing organization as one kind of response to major organizational change, this study developed and tested a dependence-regulation account of psychological distancing responses. This account was derived from social psychological analysis of interpersonal relationships and interdependence theory. It emphasizes the self-protective function of psychological distancing when the employment

John L. Michela; Jeanetta Vena

2012-01-01

213

Introduction to Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an overview of…

Edwards, Lesley

214

Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

Cheung, Fanny M.

2012-01-01

215

Critical Contributions of Piaget to Humanistic Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Humanistic psychologists now embrace many of the same principles which served as the basis for Piaget's theory. These same theories were described earlier by John Locke and Immanuel Kant, and were the basis of the new "Humanism" movement in Germany in the 18th century. If one considers humanistic psychology as a kind of culmination of the…

Cassel, Russell N.

216

American Psychological Society: Psychological Research on the Net  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Posted by the American Psychological Society (see the May 6, 1994 Scout Report), this Website presents an extensive annotated list of psychological research currently being conducted on the Web. In addition to a new studies section, topics include health psychology, industrial and organizational psychology, personality studies, psychology and religion, sensation and perception, social psychology, neural psychology, clinical psychology, developmental psychology, cognition, emotions, and others. Links are provided to the listed Websites.

2001-01-01

217

A Brief History of the Development of Abnormal Psychology: A Training Guide. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented for practitioners is a history of the development of abnormal psychology. Areas covered include the following: Early medical concepts, ideas carried over from literature, early treatment of the mentally ill, development of the psychological viewpoint, Freud's psychoanalytic theory, Jung's analytic theory, the individual psychology of…

Phelps, William R.

218

Memory metaphors in cognitive psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In describing memory phenomena in natural language, a spatial metaphor is typically employed. Memories are considered to be\\u000a objects that are stored in a mind space, and the process of retrieval is conceived as a search for these objects. It is argued\\u000a that this metaphor has been carried over into many of the popular theories of memory in cognitive psychology

Henry L. Roediger

1980-01-01

219

Psychological Adjustment in Young Korean American Adolescents and Parental Warmth  

PubMed Central

Problem: The relation between parental warmth and psychological adjustment is not known for young Korean American adolescents. Methods: 103 adolescents' perceived parental warmth and psychological adjustment were assessed using, respectively, the Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire and the Child Personality Assessment Questionnaire. Findings: Low perceived maternal and paternal warmth were positively related to adolescents' overall poor psychological adjustment and almost all of its attributes. When maternal and paternal warmth were entered simultaneously into the regression equation, only low maternal warmth was related to adolescents' poor psychological adjustment. Conclusion: Perceived parental warmth is important in predicting young adolescents' psychological adjustment as suggested in the parental acceptance-rejection theory.

Kim, Eunjung

2008-01-01

220

An evaluation of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 using item response theory: which items are most strongly related to psychological distress?  

PubMed

The psychometric structure of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18; Derogatis, 2001) was investigated using Mokken scaling and parametric item response theory. Data of 487 outpatients, 266 students, and 207 prisoners were analyzed. Results of the Mokken analysis indicated that the BSI-18 formed a strong Mokken scale for outpatients and prisoners, indicating strong unidimensionality. For students, only the depression and anxiety items formed a medium Mokken scale. Parametric item response theory analyses showed that the best discriminating items came from the depression and anxiety subscales. PMID:21280957

Meijer, Rob R; de Vries, Rivka M; van Bruggen, Vincent

2011-03-01

221

[Alfred Adler and the psychology of aesthetic surgery in the United States].  

PubMed

The quest for a psychological theory to explain the effects of aesthetic surgery reached its high point in the 1920s with the adoption of Alfred Adler's theory of the inferiority complex. The basis for this theory was Adler's early work in the psychological response of the body to disease and "degeneration". Aesthetic surgeons sought out the Adlerian model rather than a Freudian one as purely psychological while its roots, and their own theories, were clearly somatic in origin. PMID:11791189

Gilman, S L

2002-01-01

222

On the Psychology of Truth-Gaps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bonini et al. [2] present psychological data that they take to support an 'epistemic' account of how vague predicates are used in natural language. We argue that their data more strongly supports a 'gap' theory of vagueness, and that their arguments against gap theories are flawed. Additionally, we present more experimental evidence that supports gap theories, and argue for a semantic/pragmatic alternative that unifies super- and subvaluationary approaches to vagueness.

Alxatib, Sam; Pelletier, Jeff

223

An Evaluation of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 Using Item Response Theory: Which Items Are Most Strongly Related to Psychological Distress?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The psychometric structure of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18; Derogatis, 2001) was investigated using Mokken scaling and parametric item response theory. Data of 487 outpatients, 266 students, and 207 prisoners were analyzed. Results of the Mokken analysis indicated that the BSI-18 formed a strong Mokken scale for outpatients and…

Meijer, Rob R.; de Vries, Rivka M.; van Bruggen, Vincent

2011-01-01

224

Psychological Component of Infertility  

MedlinePLUS

... Organizations Resources: FAQs › FAQs - The Psychological Component of Infertility -- written by the ASRM Mental Health Professional Group ( ... Professional in your area ) Q1. What impact does infertility have on psychological well being? Infertility often creates ...

225

Psychological contracts of hospice nurses.  

PubMed

Psychological contracts have been described as individuals' beliefs regarding the obligations, expectations, and contributions that exist between them and their employer. They can be influenced by the organization's culture and philosophy, through human resources policies, and through the employee's personality and characteristics. Owing to the recent economic crisis, hospices in the UK are currently in a transitional phase and are being expected to demonstrate efficiencies that might be more in line with a business model than a health-care environment. This may conflict with the philosophical views of hospice nurses. To support nurses through this transition, it might be helpful to understand the antecedents of hospice nurses' behaviour and how they construct their psychological contracts. Failure to offer adequate support might lead to negative outcomes such as a desire to leave the organisation, poorer quality work, or disruptive behaviour. This study used a modified grounded theory approach involving in-depth interviews to explore the context and content of the psychological contracts of hospice nurses in the UK. Four main themes emerged: the types of psychological contracts formed, how the contracts are formed, their contents, and the breaches and potential violations the nurses perceive. PMID:21240104

Jones, Audrey Elizabeth; Sambrook, Sally

2010-12-01

226

Industrialism and applied psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determines the relation between industrialism and applied psychology. Applied psychology can help to minimize the mental deterioration by changing old habits of carelessness and wastefulness. Applied psychology must consider: (1) the necessity of readjusting and adapting national habits to modern economical and social requirements (2) mental activity and initiative of workers atrophied by specialization of labor and monotony of repetitive

Paul Kreuzpointner

1917-01-01

227

The Introductory Psychology Textbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses an analysis of 10 common introductory psychology textbooks. Argues that the books tend to present psychology as tedious, even silly, and as a canned, multimedia, self-teaching program. Concludes that replacing textbooks with lectures based on the instructor's personal knowledge and experience would improve the teaching of psychology. (SG)

Blumenthal, Arthur L.

1991-01-01

228

What is Psychology?  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the present time there are in psychology three rival standpoints. (1) There is the traditional psychology of mental states. This type of psychology is objectionable since it seems to invert the standpoint of common sense, and since it rests upon an antiquated metaphysics. Having no objective standards, it leads nowhere. (2) Behaviorism arises as an extreme reaction to the

B. H. Bode

1922-01-01

229

Psychology for All  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "Psychology in its place" (2008) John Radford explores and attempts to initiate a debate on what is or should be the place and role of psychology in Higher Education, primarily as a main subject for a first degree. In this paper, the author raises the stakes, and argues that Higher Education should provide a certain form of practical psychology

Popovic, Nash

2008-01-01

230

Psychology in Mexico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

2011-01-01

231

Psychology in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts…

Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G.

2011-01-01

232

Psychology and Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because psychology systematically explores human judgment, behavior, and well-being, it can teach us important lessons about how humans differ from the way they are traditionally described by economists. This essay discusses a selection of psychological findings relevant to economics. While standard economics assumes that each person maximizes stable and coherent preferences given rationally-formed probabilistic beliefs, psychological research teaches us about

Matthew Rabin

1998-01-01

233

School Psychology in Denmark.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes education system of Denmark and reviews background and development of school psychology in that country. Discusses organization of school psychology work and practice. Explains qualifications and training of school psychologists and describes professional organizations, wages, and problems in school psychology. (NB)

Poulsen, Anders

1987-01-01

234

Who took the "x" out of expectancy-value theory? A psychological mystery, a substantive-methodological synergy, and a cross-national generalization.  

PubMed

Expectancy-value theory (EVT) is a dominant theory of human motivation. Historically, the Expectancy × Value interaction, in which motivation is high only if both expectancy and value are high, was central to EVT. However, the Expectancy × Value interaction mysteriously disappeared from published research more than 25 years ago. Using large representative samples of 15-year-olds (N = 398,750) from 57 diverse countries, we attempted to solve this mystery by testing Expectancy × Value interactions using latent-variable models with interactions. Expectancy (science self-concept), value (enjoyment of science), and the Expectancy × Value interaction all had statistically significant positive effects on both engagement in science activities and intentions of pursuing scientific careers; these results were similar for the total sample and for nearly all of the 57 countries considered separately. This study, apparently the strongest cross-national test of EVT ever undertaken, supports the generalizability of EVT predictions--including the "lost" Expectancy × Value interaction. PMID:21750248

Nagengast, Benjamin; Marsh, Herbert W; Scalas, L Francesca; Xu, Man K; Hau, Kit-Tai; Trautwein, Ulrich

2011-08-01

235

Exchange relationships: examining psychological contracts and perceived organizational support.  

PubMed

The authors surveyed 347 public sector employees on 4 measurement occasions to investigate the conceptual distinctiveness of the psychological contract and perceived organizational support (POS) and how they are associated over time. Results support the distinctiveness of the 2 concepts. In terms of their interrelationships over time, by drawing on psychological contract theory the authors found little support for a reciprocal relationship between POS and psychological contract fulfillment. Under an alternative set of hypotheses, by drawing on organizational support theory and by separating psychological contract fulfillment into its 2 components (perceived employer obligations and inducements), the authors found that perceived employer inducements were positively related to POS, which, in turn, was negatively related to perceived employer obligations. The results suggest that POS and the components of psychological contract fulfillment are more important in predicting organizational citizenship behavior than psychological contract fulfillment. PMID:16060794

Coyle-Shapiro, Jacqueline A-M; Conway, Neil

2005-07-01

236

Computer Administering of the Psychological Investigations: Set-Relational Representation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer administering of a psychological investigation is the computer representation of the entire procedure of psychological assessments - test construction, test implementation, results evaluation, storage and maintenance of the developed database, its statistical processing, analysis and interpretation. A mathematical description of psychological assessment with the aid of personality tests is discussed in this article. The set theory and the relational algebra are used in this description. A relational model of data, needed to design a computer system for automation of certain psychological assessments is given. Some finite sets and relation on them, which are necessary for creating a personality psychological test, are described. The described model could be used to develop real software for computer administering of any psychological test and there is full automation of the whole process: test construction, test implementation, result evaluation, storage of the developed database, statistical implementation, analysis and interpretation. A software project for computer administering personality psychological tests is suggested.

Yordzhev, Krasimir

237

The Psychology of Cyberspace  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created and maintained by Professor John Suler of Rider University, The Psychology of Cyberspace is a frequently updated interactive document that provides "an evolving conceptual framework for understanding the various psychological components of cyberspace." Currently, the site contains six major components: The Fundamental Psychological Qualities of Cyberspace, The Psychology of the Individual in Cyberspace, The Psychology of Cyberspace Relationships, Group Dynamics in Cyberspace, Research Methods in Cyberpsychology, and The Palace Study, an ongoing case study of an online multimedia community. This extensive site also includes a subject index to aid information retrieval, and a modest annotated webliography of cyberpsychology resources.

Suler, John.

1999-01-01

238

Marshall McLuhan and the Psychology of Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the origins and development of Marshall McLuhan's central ideas about television's effects on the human mind, and clarifies how he reached theoretical positions that were often diametrically opposed to psychological views of television. It also explores the psychological influences on McLuhan's work and the reasons why McLuhan was not well understood by psychologists, Social-psychological and learning theory-based

ROBERT D. MCILWRAITH

1994-01-01

239

Is Psychoanalysis a Folk Psychology?  

PubMed Central

Even as the neuro-psychoanalytic field has matured, from a naturalist point of view, the epistemological status of Freudian interpretations still remains problematic at a naturalist point of view. As a result of the resurgence of hermeneutics, the claim has been made that psychoanalysis is an extension of folk psychology. For these “extensionists,” asking psychoanalysis to prove its interpretations would be as absurd as demanding the proofs of the scientific accuracy of folk psychology. I propose to show how Dennett’s theory of the intentional stance allows us to defend an extensionist position while sparing us certain hermeneutic difficulties. In conclusion, I will consider how Shevrin et al. (1996) experiments could turn extensionist conceptual considerations into experimentally testable issues.

Arminjon, Mathieu

2013-01-01

240

Psychometric Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classic text is Psychometric Theory. Like the previous edition, this text is designed as a comprehensive text in measurement for researchers and for use in graduate courses in psychology, education and areas of business such as management and marketing. It is intended to consider the broad measurement problems that arise in these areas and is written for a reader

J. C. Nunnally

1978-01-01

241

Integrating Positive Psychology into Counseling: Why and (When Appropriate) How  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Counseling psychology has a historical commitment to enhancing human strengths, a focus that has enjoyed broader interest with the recent emergence of positive psychology. However, theory and evidence linking strength enhancement to counseling goals are still relatively nascent. The authors outline rationales and practical strategies for…

Harris, Alex H. S.; Thoresen, Carl E.; Lopez, Shane J.

2007-01-01

242

Using Online Psychological Consultation in Early Childhood Student Teacher Preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the incorporation of online psychological consultation regarding child behavior in an early childhood teacher education program. The authors discuss psychological consultation in terms of current theory and philosophy in early childhood teacher education in general, and in terms of the professional objectives of this specific program. The experiences and thinking that eventually resulted in the choice of

Ann Epstein; Judith A. Dygdon

2006-01-01

243

Practicing Psychologists’ Reflections on Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

An American Psychological Association (APA) policy definition of evidence-based practice in psychology (EBPP) states that practice based on evidence must consider the best available research, use clinical expertise, and consider client contextual variables (APA Presidential Task Force, 2006). The researchers qualitatively examined clinical and counseling psychologists’ attitudes toward EBPP using grounded theory. The study explored the extent to which the

Jennifer L. Wilson; Erin Armoutliev; Elena Yakunina; James L. Werth

2009-01-01

244

Exchange Relationships: Examining Psychological Contracts and Perceived Organizational Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors surveyed 347 public sector employees on 4 measurement occasions to investigate the conceptual distinctiveness of the psychological contract and perceived organizational support (POS) and how they are associated over time. Results support the distinctiveness of the 2 concepts. In terms of their interrelationships over time, by drawing on psychological contract theory the authors found little support for a

Jacqueline A. M. Coyle-Shapiro; Neil Conway

2005-01-01

245

The impact of psychological needs on office design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to summarise the main psychological theories that have implications for the design and management of successful workplaces. This will support real estate professionals in advising occupiers on how to enhance the quality of their workplaces to improve the performance of its occupants. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper summarises relevant psychological research and offers

Nigel Oseland

2009-01-01

246

Mainstreaming culture in psychology.  

PubMed

Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks. PMID:23163473

Cheung, Fanny M

2012-11-01

247

Ecological psychology and social psychology: it is Holt, or nothing!  

PubMed

What is the greatest contribution that ecological psychologists can offer social psychology? Ideally, ecological psychologists could explain how people directly perceive the unique properties of their social partners. But social partners are distinguished from mundane objects because they possess mental traits, and tradition tells us that minds cannot be seen. When considering the ideal possibility, we reject that doctrine and posit minds as perceivable. For ecological psychology, this entails asserting that minds are the types of things able to structure ambient energy. Contemporary research and theory suggests distinctly ecological ways of attacking this problem, but the problem is not new. Almost 100 years ago, Holt argued for the visibility of minds. Thus when considering these ideas, ecological psychologists face a choice that is at once about their future and their past. Extending ecological psychology's first principles into the social realm, we come to the point where we must either accept or reject Holt's arguments, and the wider context they bring. In doing so, we accept or reject our ability to study the uniquely social. PMID:20440585

Charles, Eric P

2011-03-01

248

Positive Psychology: Considerations and Implications for Counseling Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Why has the specialty of counseling psychology been overlooked in the larger conversation about positive psychology? Is it reasonable that counseling psychology claims positive psychology as its own? What are some of the problems in defining "positive psychology," and how does the lack of consensus around operationalization thwart discourse on…

Mollen, Debra; Ethington, Lanaya L.; Ridley, Charles R.

2006-01-01

249

The psychology of organizational structure in integrated health systems.  

PubMed

Examine a social learning theory model as a framework to guide health system leaders as they consider the psychology of organizational design as it pertains to the successful integration. PMID:21675313

Zismer, Daniel K

2011-01-01

250

School Counselors and Psychological Aspects of Learning Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of some of the more common psychological theories and behavioral variables associated with learning disabilities. Reviews Adlerian Rational Emotive and behavioral and hypnotherapy approaches as intervention strategies for the counselor confronted with learning disabled students. (LLL)

Fahey, David A.

1984-01-01

251

Darwin and Developmental Psychology: Past and Present.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Darwin's weak influence on developmental psychology is traced. It is explained by (1) developmentalists' commitment to an ideology of meliorism; (2) conceptual issues relating to ontogeny and phylogeny; and (3) methodological problems. Suggests that developmentalists use evolutionary theory as a heuristic for structuring new research. (BC)

Charlesworth, William R.

1992-01-01

252

Family Systems Practice in Pediatric Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To present a pediatric psychology consultation treatment framework based on family systems and developmental theories. Methods: After reviewing background relevant to family systems interventions, a five-step protocol (refer- ral, assessment, collaboration, outcome) for consultation is presented, using case examples from our pediat- ric oncology service, to illustrate joining, focusing, promoting competence and collaboration with patients, families, and staff. Results:

Anne E. Kazak; Steven Simms; Mary T. Rourke

2002-01-01

253

TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGY AND SOCIAL WORK EDUCATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social workers in the 1990s are facing a postmodern world, with unique practice challenges in both the micro and macro levels of practice. Because psychological services are reactive, serving the clients that come out of a particular social context, different theories have emerged over time to address the ills of the day. Many of the practice challenges for social work

Au-Deane S. Cowley; David Derezotes

1994-01-01

254

Researching 'the Child' in Developmental Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of 'the child' has been, for more than a century, the territory of developmental psychology. In recent decades, the hegemony of develop- mental theory and methods has been challenged by critics within the now well-established field of the sociology of childhood that has emerged primarily in Europe in the course of the last two decades (see for example,

Diane M. Hogan

2004-01-01

255

Construct Validation in Counseling Psychology Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Counseling psychology researchers devote little attention to theory-based measurement validation, as evidenced by cursory mention of validity issues in the method and discussion sections of published research reports. Especially, many researchers appear unaware of the limitations of correlations between pairs of self-report measures as evidence of…

Hoyt, William T.; Warbasse, Rosalia E.; Chu, Erica Y.

2006-01-01

256

Psychological Intensities in Young Gifted Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dabrowski's theory that sensitivity and intensity are characteristic of the psychological makeup of young gifted children was investigated in a qualitative study with five gifted children (ages 4 through 6). The study found the five overexcitabilities postulated by Dabrowski were manifested in the children's classroom and home behaviors. (DB)

Tucker, Brooke; Hafenstein, Norma Lu

1997-01-01

257

The Psychology of Judgment for Outdoor Leaders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Judgment is the process of making decisions with incomplete information concerning either the outcomes or the decision factors. Sound judgment that leads to good decisions is an essential skill needed by adventure education and outdoor leadership professionals. Cognitive psychology provides several theories and insights concerning the accuracy of…

Clement, Kent

258

The psychological insights that won a Nobel Prize in Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Nobel Prize in Economics was given to the psychologist Daniel Kahneman for his joint research with the late psychologist Amos Tversky on decision making under uncertainty and on subjective judgments of uncertainty. The two proposed Prospect Theory as a descriptive alternative to Utility Theory, the reigning normative theory of choice under uncertainty. Kahneman and Tversky argued that human psychology

Maya Bar-Hillel

2003-01-01

259

Perceived organizational support and psychological contracts: a theoretical integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Although organizational support theory and psychological contract theory both stress social exchange processes in the establishment and maintenance of the employee-employer rela- tionship, they have focused on different aspects of this relationship. We suggest that, far from being independent, the different parts of the employee-employer association considered by the two theories are mutually interdependent. Further, key processes identified by

Justin Aselage; Robert Eisenberger

2003-01-01

260

Psychology of Religion Pages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Designed and maintained by Professor Michael E. Nielsen of the Psychology Department at Georgia Southern University, this site offers numerous resources for people interested in psychological aspects of religious belief and behavior. The site is designed as an introduction to the psychology of religion, rather than a comprehensive treatment. Resources are grouped into three main categories: general resource pages, science and religion pages, and pages devoted to new religious movements. Contents include notable people in the psychology of religion; a bibliography; course syllabi; journal TOCs; essays on the field, on science and religion, and on several aspects of new religious movements; and related links.

Nielsen, Michael E.

1998-01-01

261

Computer technology-cognitive psychology interface and science performance assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerging interface between computer technology and cognitive psychology for performance assessment in science education\\u000a is explored. Cognitive theories of learning offer promises to transform computer technology from a test administration tool\\u000a into a process assessment tool, and computer technology offers a medium for studying the cognitive processes of learning.\\u000a Interface theories and interface technologies are briefly discussed. The technology-psychology

David D. Kumar; Stanley L. Helgeson; Arthur L. White

1994-01-01

262

Evolutionary Psychology and Developmental Dynamics: Comment on Lickliter and Honeycutt (2003)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary psychology provides a cogent metatheory for psychological science. It has furnished compelling theories of major domains of human functioning, including mating, parenting, kinship, morality, cooperation, conflict, aggression, and aesthetics. It has produced hundreds of empirical discoveries missed entirely by prior psychologists. Developmental dynamics, properly conceived, can add to the theoretical foundation of evolutionary psychology. But it has not provided

David M. Buss; H. Kern Reeve

2003-01-01

263

A Tale of Two Visions: Can a New View of Personality Help Integrate Psychology?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Personality psychology studies how psychological systems work together. Consequently, the field can act as a unifying resource for the broader discipline of psychology. Yet personality's current fieldwide organization promotes a fragmented view of the person, seen through such competing theories as the psychodynamic, trait, and humanistic. There…

Mayer, John D.

2005-01-01

264

Handbook of Psychodiagnostic Testing: Analysis of Personality in the Psychological Report. Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook offers psychology students, as well as professional psychologists, a central resource for the construction and organization of psychological test reports. It aims to help the reader conceptualize the theory of psychological report development by examining the integration of the concepts and data of personality analysis and the logic…

Kellerman, Henry; Burry, Anthony

265

Reflections on Activity Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is sometimes suggested that activity theory represents the most important legacy of Soviet philosophy and psychology. But what exactly "is" activity theory? The canonical account in the West is given by Engestrom, who identifies three stages in the theory's development: from Vygotsky's insights, through Leontiev's articulation of the…

Bakhurst, David

2009-01-01

266

Expanding community psychology's domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community psychology's twin goals of prevention and empowerment are ill-served when researchers and practitioners restrict their activities to traditional mental health settings. This paper echoes the call of the Swampscott conference for expanding community psychology's domain of inquiry and action. It reviews examples from the research literature of efforts at prevention and empowerment in five classes of behavior settings identified

Marybeth Shinn

1987-01-01

267

Nonempirical Issues in Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general decline of radical empiricism has led to a renewed appreciation of the role of nonempirical contributions to the advancement of science. In psychology, this has meant the development of a theoretical wing comparable to the well-established theoretical traditions that exist in other scientific disciplines. Theoretical psychology is no longer the collection of vague generalities that once made up

Andre Kukla

1989-01-01

268

Psychologism and Instructional Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little of the work in critical and hermeneutical psychology has been linked to instructional technology (IT). This article provides a discussion in order to fill the gap in this direction. The article presents a brief genealogy of American IT in relation to the influence of psychology. It also provides a critical and hermeneutical framework for…

Gur, Bekir S.; Wiley, David A.

2009-01-01

269

Teaching Anomalistic Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses need for anomalistic psychology courses (the occult, astrology, ESP, or those phenomena inexplicable in terms of orthodox science) in the college psychology curriculum. A study of an anomalistics course indicates that student belief in the paranormal was associated with greater learning which was then followed by significant reductions…

Jones, Warren; Zusne, Leonard

1981-01-01

270

Techniques in Adlerian Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a collection of classic and recent papers (published between 1964 and 1994) reprinted from the "Journal of Juvenile Psychology""Individual Psychologist," and "Individual Psychology." Each of the five sections is introduced by the editor's comments. "General Techniques" contains the following articles: (1) "I-Thou Relationship Versus…

Carlson, Jon, Ed.; Slavik, Steven, Ed.

271

Psychological Education Is...  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This special issue of P & G provides an overview of the psychological education movement and its implications for the practicing counselor. Psychological education is a relatively new discipline, but it is already providing important levers to help counselors refocus their efforts and increase their effectiveness. (Author)

Ivey, Allen E.; Alschuler, Alfred S.

1973-01-01

272

Teaching Psychology in Estonia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the experience of teaching psychology at Tartu University and Tallinn Pedagogical University in Estonia. Discusses the lessons learned by teaching in Estonia and applies those lessons to teaching psychology in the United States, focusing on the benefits teachers reap when they become more aware of themselves and their audiences. (CMK)

White, Lawrence T.; Ransdell, Sarah

2000-01-01

273

Foundations of Phenomenological Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phenomenology, hermeneutics and experiential psychology form the backbone of an emerging paradigm within psychology known as human science. Human science's use of phenomenology provides a way to set aside the naturalistic presupposition and directly study the irreducible involvement of human existence within a meaningful world, as it is given in…

Aanstoos, Christopher M.

274

Theory, Theory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson includes a theory-evaluation activity. A set of five scenarios (theories for how diverse life came into existence on Earth) is divided evenly throughout the class, so each student is asked to evaluate one theory. Students then come together in groups of five, so that all theories are represented in each group, where they are compared and evaluated. Each group reports to the entire class for further discussion and clarifications.

Kimmel, Michael

2007-12-12

275

Online Psychology Laboratory (OPL)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Online Psychology Laboratory (OPL) consists of (1) highly interactive, web-deliverable psychology experiments and demonstrations, (2) a cumulative data archive from which students can retrieve datasets for analysis, and (3) user-controlled data extraction and analysis tools designed for the diverse needs of end users. One of the goals of the collection is to offer support for student research and educators who are not adept in experimental design and data analysis. Psychology students will be able to collect data, analyze data, and report their findings for class assignments or individual projects. Because psychology is allied to many disciplines--biology, sociology, and political science among them--OPL will contribute to the set of experiments available to students who wish to study psychologically-based issues in related scientific disciplines.

2006-03-08

276

Avian psychology and communication.  

PubMed Central

The evolution of animal communication is a complex issue and one that attracts much research and debate. 'Receiver psychology' has been highlighted as a potential selective force, and we review how avian psychological processes and biases can influence the evolution and design of signals as well as the progress that has been made in testing these ideas in behavioural studies. Interestingly, although birds are a focal group for experimental psychologists and behavioural ecologists alike, the integration of theoretical ideas from psychology into studies of communication has been relatively slow. However, recent operant experiments are starting to address how birds perceive and respond to complex natural signals in an attempt to answer evolutionary problems in communication. This review outlines how a psychological approach to understanding communication is useful, and we hope that it stimulates further research addressing the role of psychological mechanisms in signal evolution.

Rowe, Candy; Skelhorn, John

2004-01-01

277

Topological approach of Jungian psychology.  

PubMed

In this work, we compare two global approaches which are usually considered as completely unconnected one with the other. The former is Thom's topology and the latter is Jung's psychology. More precisely, it seemed to us interesting to adapt some morphologies of Thom's catastrophe theory to some Jung's notions. Thus, we showed that the swallowtail, which is one of these morphologies, was able to describe geometrically the structural organisation of the psyche according to Jung, with its collective unconscious, personal unconscious and conscious. Moreover, we have correlated this morphology with Jung's evolutive processes like individualization and individuation. These comparisons incited us to think that some morphologies of Thom's catastrophe theory are the geometrical dealing of Jung's archetypes. PMID:20658172

Viret, Jacques

2010-09-01

278

Attempting Measurement of Psychological Attributes  

PubMed Central

Measures of psychological attributes abound in the social sciences as much as measures of physical properties do in the physical sciences. However, there are crucial differences between the scientific underpinning of measurement. While measurement in the physical sciences is supported by empirical evidence that demonstrates the quantitative nature of the property assessed, measurement in the social sciences is, in large part, made possible only by a vague, discretionary definition of measurement that places hardly any restrictions on empirical data. Traditional psychometric analyses fail to address the requirements of measurement as defined more rigorously in the physical sciences. The construct definitions do not allow for testable predictions; and content validity becomes a matter of highly subjective judgment. In order to improve measurement of psychological attributes, it is suggested to, first, readopt the definition of measurement in the physical sciences; second, to devise an elaborate theory of the construct to be measured that includes the hypothesis of a quantitative attribute; and third, to test the data for the structure implied by the hypothesis of quantity as well as predictions derived from the theory of the construct.

Salzberger, Thomas

2013-01-01

279

Four Social Psychological Lenses for Developmental Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How can the advances of social and developmental psychology be integrated? This conceptual paper proposes to examine four basic theoretical models of social situations through which learning and development have been observed in the post-piagetian tradition: the psychosocial triangle, the frame, models of transfer and transitions, and models…

Zittoun, Tania; Perret-Clermont, Anne-Nelly

2009-01-01

280

Predicting Students' Performance in Introductory Psychology from their Psychology Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students bring many misconceptions about psychology to the introductory psychology course. We investigated whether scores on a 10-item Knowledge of Psychology Test (adapted from Vaughan, 1977) taken on the first class day were related to final class grades in 11 introductory psychology classes taught by the same instructor at three colleges. A…

Kuhle, Barry X.; Barber, Jessica M.; Bristol, Adam S.

2009-01-01

281

Enhancing Placebo Effects: Insights From Social Psychology  

PubMed Central

Placebo effects are widely recognized as having a potent impact upon treatment outcomes in both medical and psychological interventions, including hypnosis. In research utilizing randomized clinical trials, there is usually an effort to minimize or control placebo effects. However, in clinical practice there may be significant benefits in enhancing placebo effects. Prior research from the field of social psychology has identified three factors that may enhance placebo effects, namely: priming, client perceptions, and the theory of planned behavior. These factors are reviewed and illustrated via a case example. The consideration of social-psychological factors to enhance positive expectancies and beliefs has implications for clinical practice as well as future research into hypnotic interventions.

SLIWINSKI, JIM; ELKINS, GARY R.

2012-01-01

282

Applying Cognitive Psychology to User Interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores some key aspects of cognitive psychology that may be mapped onto user interfaces. Major focus in existing user interface guidelines is on consistency, simplicity, feedback, system messages, display issues, navigation, colors, graphics, visibility and error prevention [8-10]. These guidelines are effective indesigning user interfaces. However, these guidelines do not handle the issues that may arise due to the innate structure of human brain and human limitations. For example, where to place graphics on the screen so that user can easily process them and what kind of background should be given on the screen according to the limitation of human motor system. In this paper we have collected some available guidelines from the area of cognitive psychology [1, 5, 7]. In addition, we have extracted few guidelines from theories and studies of cognitive psychology [3, 11] which may be mapped to user interfaces.

Durrani, Sabeen; Durrani, Qaiser S.

283

Psychology and Anthropology: Intersubjectivity and Epistemology in an Interpretive Cultural Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychology has been a deductive science where theory and hypotheses precede investigation of new knowledge. Data inform theory which then leads to more refined hypotheses. The recent move toward a cultural psychology calls for an unfurling of this perspective. This involves consideration of an epistemology at the core of anthropology, a shift toward first-person points of view, where ethnography is

Michael J. Kral

2007-01-01

284

Understanding Similarity: A Joint Project for Psychology, Case-Based Reasoning, and Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Case-based Reasoning (CBR) began as a theory of human cognition, but has attracted relatively little direct experimental or theoretical investigation in psychology. However, psychologists have developed a range of instance-based theories of cognition and have extensively studied how similarity to past cases can guide categorization of new cases. This paper considers the relation between CBR and psychological research, focussing on

Ulrike Hahn; Nick Chater

1998-01-01

285

Traps and Gaps in Action Explanation: Theoretical Problems of a Psychology of Human Action  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the question of whether human action can be explained empirically by a psychological theory that refers to intentions, expectancies, and evaluations as determinants. In contrast with the majority of action theories in psychology and philosophy, a logical connection between action and intention is defended and, consequently, a causal relationship between action and intention is refuted. This

Werner Greve

2001-01-01

286

The Great Struggles of Life: Darwin and the Emergence of Evolutionary Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Darwin envisioned a scientific revolution for psychology. His theories of natural and sexual selection identified two classes of struggles--the struggle for existence and the struggle for mates. The emergence of evolutionary psychology and related disciplines signals the fulfillment of Darwin's vision. Natural selection theory guides scientists to…

Buss, David M.

2009-01-01

287

Control in outsourced ISD projects based on psychological contract: a multiple case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper seeks to investigate the effects of psychological contract on control mechanisms in outsourced ISD projects, based on control theories and psychological contract theories. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper is a multiple case study involving five outsourced projects completed by one of the largest and most successful telecommunication vendors in China. The company was the client in three

Xiaoyan Li; Jiye Mao; Jing Qian

2010-01-01

288

Adolescents and the Media: Medical and Psychological Impact. Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, Volume 33.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aimed at primary care physicians and nurses, educators, and parents, this book reviews media effects on adolescent behavior and psychology. The book notes that television is a powerful medium to which adolescents are uniquely susceptible and how studies have shown television's ability to shape social attitudes. Theories of how television affects…

Strasburger, Victor C.

289

Social Psychology and Counseling Psychology: The History, Products, and Promise of an Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

For 3 decades, counseling psychologists have drawn ideas from social psychology about the social process of counseling, integrated the ideas into counseling theories, and assessed them in research. This article traces the history of this interface, examines its products, and projects its future. Three propositions have guided and have been supported by much of the research: (a) Successful counseling relationships

Stanley R. Strong; Josephine A. Welsh; Jean L. Corcoran; William T. Hoyt

1992-01-01

290

Darwin and Evolutionary Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Darwin's views on various psychological behaviors were significant. Basing his conclusions on empirical research, he wrote extensively on the phylogeny of behavior, emotional expression, sexual selection, instincts, evolution of morals, ontogeny of behavior, and genetics of behavior. (PS)

Ghiselin, Michael T.

1973-01-01

291

Producing Mentors in Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies the doctoral psychology programs producing the most mentors (identified as dissertation supervisors). Assesses the quality of these programs as rated in past research. Discovers a strong correlation between those programs assigning mentors and those rated highest in quality. (MJP)

Willis, Frank N.; Diebold, Charles T.

1997-01-01

292

American Psychological Association  

MedlinePLUS

... Psychology Topics Addictions ADHD Anger Anxiety Bipolar Disorder Bullying Depression Eating Disorders Emotional Health Ethics Learning & Memory ... ADHD Aging Alzheimer's Anger Anxiety Autism Bipolar Disorder Bullying Children Death & Dying Depression Disability Eating Disorders Education ...

293

Psychological Interventions in Dermatology  

PubMed Central

The objective of this paper is to introduce and emphasize the importance of psychological interventions for those with dermatological conditions. In keeping with the current literature, the author envisages a two-tier approach in the provision of such psychological interventions. Firstly, most patients with dermatology conditions may not require psychological change. Instead, they could be approached with effective doctor–patient communication skills, within a context of empathy and positive regard. At the second tier, however, based on the clinical interview, some patients may require varying degrees of psychological change in order to better manage their illness. In such a context, a dermatologist with training in psychotherapy would be required. In the absence of such a person, the patient may be referred to a psychologist or another mental health professional trained in psychotherapy.

de Zoysa, Piyanjali

2013-01-01

294

Operational Psychology Perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the history of long duration spaceflight, and the changes in the International Space Station crew and the effect that this has had on the psychology of astronaut selection and training.

Holland, Al

2009-01-01

295

Monitor on Psychology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Published eleven times a year by the American Psychological Association, the Monitor on Psychology contains a number of helpful pieces for those persons interested in the broad field of psychology, and for those who may be thinking about going into the field as well. Each month features a number of helpful features, including a commentary from the APA's president, an update on psychology and public policy, discussion of ethical practices, and an editorial from a working professional in the field. Each month the publication also contains a number of extended articles on such topics as personality disorders, the importance of psychologists' in troubled schools, and the role of psychologists in homeland security. Visitors to the site also have access to an archive of previous issues that stretches back to January 1998.

296

Teaching Clinical Psychology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching Clinical Psychology, created by Dr. John Suler of Rider University, is devoted to �sharing ideas and resources for teaching clinical psychology.� Helpful for students and educators in the fields of mental health and human services counseling, this site contains practical in-class exercises, such as an exercise which illustrates what it is like to share secrets with strangers, and syllabi for courses in the clinical psychology curriculum. There are also larger projects for students, including an in-depth analysis of a psychotherapy case study and a role-play project which has students administer, score, and interpret a series of psychological tests given to a classmate.

Suler, John R., 1955-

2006-12-02

297

What Is Forensic Psychology, Anyway?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of how “forensic psychology” is defined has taken on a new urgency in the context of an application to have forensic psychology designated a “specialty” by the American Psychological Association. To provide a historical perspective, I briefly review early attempts to apply psychological concepts to legal issues, beginning with the McNaughten trial in England in 1843. I then

John C. Brigham

1999-01-01

298

School Psychology in Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews status of school psychology in Saudi Arabia. Describes rapidity of social change in Saudi Arabia, Saudi system of education, school psychology services, administration, training facilities, and school psychology's contributions to Saudi society. Presents plan for future development of school psychology and describes challenges confronting…

el Sendiony, M. F. M.; And Others

1987-01-01

299

The Proper Study of Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Varying aspects of the study of psychology are discussed focusing on the shortcomings of the traditional definition of psychology as the study of behavior. Effects of cognitive, experimental, and applied psychology are examined, and a general concept of psychology as the study of the mind and mental processes is advanced. (BH)

Heim, Alice

1979-01-01

300

The cultural background of the non-academic concept of psychology in Japan: its implications for introductory education in psychology.  

PubMed

No research has empirically explored the non-academic concept of psychology itself (implicit theories) in non-Western cultures despite a widely held belief that this understanding differs cross-culturally. This study examined whether the non-academic concept of psychology among inexperienced Japanese students differed from the concept held by students of other countries. In Japanese, psychology is referred to as , which includes the ideographic character , literally meaning heart. This fact led us to hypothesize that psychology will be disproportionately associated with emotion among Japanese students. Indeed, our findings among Japanese students produced a J-curve, indicating that our prediction was true. We posit that this issue has never been discussed in Japan because a majority of people share this concept of psychology. In our second study, we examined not only preference in students' association of intelligence or emotion but also heart or mind with psychology. Finally, we identified whether students' believe that psychology encompasses both the heart and the mind. We conclude with a discussion of the importance of explicitly defining the non-academic concept of psychology in early psychology education in Japan. PMID:24821505

Ashitaka, Yuki; Shimada, Hiroyuki

2014-06-01

301

Integration and alternatives: Some current issues in psychoanalytic theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first great bridge between psychoanalysis and social work came with the concepts of ego psychology which provided a synthesis between the worlds of the social order and the psychological depths. Current psychoanalytic theorists now question whether any one psychological theory is sufficient to describe the complexity of human experience, and suggest that each theory has a piece of the

David G. Phillips

1993-01-01

302

The Lack of Representation of Educational Psychology and School Psychology in Introductory Psychology Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first goal of this study was to look at the representation of educational and school psychology in introductory psychology textbooks. Research into the representation of other sub-fields of psychology has been conducted but no research has looked specifically at educational or school psychology. The second goal was to compare the…

Lucas, Jennifer L.; Blazek, Melissa A.; Raley, Amber B.; Washington, Christi

2005-01-01

303

Relationships between work environments, psychological environments and psychological well-being.  

PubMed

Work environments appear to have both positive and negative impacts on the psychological well-being of workers. This paper reviews a number of models and theories that have addressed this issue. First, those aspects of the psychological work environment, which are thought to be most relevant to well-being, are described. Second, a number of models and theories are considered. How then is it possible to best understand how the work environment creates a psychological environment, which in turn may affect psychological well-being? While some of the available approaches are general and offer descriptive frameworks, others do attempt to explain the relationships between a more narrow set of work characteristics and well-being. Further, recent approaches focus on explaining emotional reactions at work and the role of the psychological contract. A sound understanding of work and well-being is still some way away. However, focusing on more specific kinds of well-being, taking account of other contextual influences, and looking at both the salubrious and harmful effects of the work environment are likely to bring about greater understanding. PMID:10975124

Briner, R B

2000-07-01

304

Modern Psychology and Ancient Heresy: The Rebirth of Pelagianism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychology has advanced from the naive application of animal behaviorism to humans, to an understanding that this simple deterministic model undervalues the mind of man. Modern theories recognize the importance of cognition, but fail to integrate all of the dimensions of man in their descriptions of him. These theories, like Pelagianism, interpret man's development in terms of learning and imitation

Gerald E. DeMauro; Deacon Voorheesville

305

Intrusive Images in Psychological Disorders  

PubMed Central

Involuntary images and visual memories are prominent in many types of psychopathology. Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, other anxiety disorders, depression, eating disorders, and psychosis frequently report repeated visual intrusions corresponding to a small number of real or imaginary events, usually extremely vivid, detailed, and with highly distressing content. Both memory and imagery appear to rely on common networks involving medial prefrontal regions, posterior regions in the medial and lateral parietal cortices, the lateral temporal cortex, and the medial temporal lobe. Evidence from cognitive psychology and neuroscience implies distinct neural bases to abstract, flexible, contextualized representations (C-reps) and to inflexible, sensory-bound representations (S-reps). We revise our previous dual representation theory of posttraumatic stress disorder to place it within a neural systems model of healthy memory and imagery. The revised model is used to explain how the different types of distressing visual intrusions associated with clinical disorders arise, in terms of the need for correct interaction between the neural systems supporting S-reps and C-reps via visuospatial working memory. Finally, we discuss the treatment implications of the new model and relate it to existing forms of psychological therapy.

Brewin, Chris R.; Gregory, James D.; Lipton, Michelle; Burgess, Neil

2010-01-01

306

The social psychology of stigma.  

PubMed

This chapter addresses the psychological effects of social stigma. Stigma directly affects the stigmatized via mechanisms of discrimination, expectancy confirmation, and automatic stereotype activation, and indirectly via threats to personal and social identity. We review and organize recent theory and empirical research within an identity threat model of stigma. This model posits that situational cues, collective representations of one's stigma status, and personal beliefs and motives shape appraisals of the significance of stigma-relevant situations for well-being. Identity threat results when stigma-relevant stressors are appraised as potentially harmful to one's social identity and as exceeding one's coping resources. Identity threat creates involuntary stress responses and motivates attempts at threat reduction through coping strategies. Stress responses and coping efforts affect important outcomes such as self-esteem, academic achievement, and health. Identity threat perspectives help to explain the tremendous variability across people, groups, and situations in responses to stigma. PMID:15709941

Major, Brenda; O'Brien, Laurie T

2005-01-01

307

Fundamentals of Media Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Media theory is a new branch of discrete applied mathematics originally developed in mid-nineties to deal with stochastic evolution of preference relations in political science and mathematical psychology. The theory focuses on a particular semigroup of 'messages' acting as transformations of a set of 'states', called a 'medium', whose axioms are both strong and natural. The term 'medium' stems from

Sergei Ovchinnikov

2007-01-01

308

Fundamentals of media theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Media theory is a new branch of discrete applied mathematics originally developed in mid-nineties to deal with stochastic evolution of preference relations in political science and mathematical psychology. The theory focuses on a particular semigroup of `messages' acting as transformations of a set of `states', called a `medium', whose axioms are both strong and natural. The term `medium' stems from

Sergei Ovchinnikov

2006-01-01

309

[Ibn Sina--psychology and psychological disorders].  

PubMed

Ebu Ali Husein Ibn Ali Ibn Sina (or Avicenna) was primarily a philosopher with amusing knowledge, who dealt in all aspects of art of medicine, astronomer, poet, musician and psychologist. This giant with an encyclopedic knowledge has dealt in almost all scientific branches or praxis with the great success. Numerous statements of his have been cornerstone of many sciences for centuries; and some of them are (in the era of computers and Internet) still current. The best known treatise on medicine of his is El-Kanun, consisting of five volumes, wherein all medical achievements (including psychology, psychiatry and neurology) of that period were described clearly. In his psychology, Ibn Sina (Avicenna) analyses the essence of human soul, mind, psychical streams, intellectum, dreams and prophecy, man's desires etc. in details. It is unnecessary to point out how much these items are actual in the contemporary psychology. Ibn al-Nefis has described systematically the symptoms and recovery of "head sick" (including headaches, cerebral sick like cranitis, letargy, coma, demency, melancholy, insomnia, nightmares, epilepsy, appoplexy, paralysis, spasm and many others) in his Mujez al-Kanun, that is synopsis of Ibn Sina Kanun. We need much time to see magnificance of this philosopher, that is best known as the great one among the physicians. His writings could be found in whole Bosnia, but there were many few that would study him and his works. It is out task to enable the future generations not only to know those works exist, but, also, to realize the essence of this marvelous genius; because there are very few people that can be compared to him. PMID:9324566

Ceri?, I; Mehi?-Basara, N

1997-01-01

310

Toward a Caribbean psychology: an African-centered approach.  

PubMed

Although the Americas and Caribbean region are purported to comprise different ethnic groups, this article’s focus is on people of African descent, who represent the largest ethnic group in many countries. The emphasis on people of African descent is related to their family structure, ethnic identity, cultural, psychohistorical, and contemporary psychosocial realities. This article discusses the limitations of Western psychology for theory, research, and applied work on people of African descent in the Americas and Caribbean region. In view of the adaptations that some people of African descent have made to slavery, colonialism, and more contemporary forms of cultural intrusions, it is argued that when necessary, notwithstanding Western psychology’s limitations, Caribbean psychologists should reconstruct mainstream psychology to address the psychological needs of these Caribbean people. The relationship between theory and psychological interventions for the optimal development of people of African descent is emphasized throughout this article. In this regard, the African-centered and constructionist viewpoint is argued to be of utility in addressing the psychological growth and development of people of African descent living in the Americas and Caribbean region. PMID:22013618

Sutherland, Marcia Elizabeth

2011-01-01

311

Psychological resilience and the well-being of widowed women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of older women in enduring relationships contend with conjugal bereavement. Although most experience considerable\\u000a distress in the immediate aftermath of this loss, the majority adjusts over the course of time. The current study applies\\u000a the theory of psychological resilience (or hardiness) to this topic. Results of this study suggest that psychological resilience\\u000a is significantly associated with both satisfaction

Norm O’Rourke

2004-01-01

312

Interpersonal aggression and burnout: the mediating role of psychological climate.  

PubMed

Using the theoretical perspectives offered by stressor-stress-strain framework and fairness theory, the authors propose that psychological climate will mediate the positive relationship between interpersonal aggression and employee burnout. Data from a survey of 1893 hospital employees suggested that psychological climate partially mediated the relationship between interpersonal aggression and two of the three dimensions of burnout, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:23225579

Bedi, Akanksha; Courcy, Francois; Paquet, Maxime; Harvey, Steve

2013-12-01

313

Religion and Self: Notions from a Cultural Psychological Perspective  

PubMed Central

After a brief introduction of a cultural psychological perspective, this paper turns to the concept of self. The paper proposes to conceive of that reality to which the concepts of self refer as a narrative, employing especially autobiographies and other ego-documents in empirical exploration. After discussing some psychological theories about “self,” the paper points out that they may well be applied in research on personal religiosity.

2009-01-01

314

Instructional Strategies for Improving Students' Learning: Focus on Early Reading and Mathematics. Psychological Perspectives on Contemporary Educational Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The twin objectives of the series Psychological Perspectives on Contemporary Educational Issues are: (1) to identify issues in education that are relevant to professional educators and researchers; and (2) to address those issues from research and theory in educational psychology, psychology, and related disciplines. The present volume, consisting…

Carlson, Jerry, Ed.; Levin, Joel R., Ed.

2012-01-01

315

American Psychological Society: Teaching Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers of psychology looking for high-quality resources to augment their students' classroom experience need look no further than this collection of online materials. Compiled by the American Psychological Society, the links are divided into topical sections that include health psychology, statistics, clinical psychology, research methods, and a dozen other topics. Visitors to the site will find links that lead to course materials for an introductory class on physiological psychology and a set of materials on educational psychology from Miami University. Finally, the site is rounded out by a very extensive section on statistics, including links to several online statistics glossaries and calculators.

316

Psychological factors in asthma.  

PubMed

: Asthma has long been considered a condition in which psychological factors have a role. As in many illnesses, psychological variables may affect outcome in asthma via their effects on treatment adherence and symptom reporting. Emerging evidence suggests that the relation between asthma and psychological factors may be more complex than that, however. Central cognitive processes may influence not only the interpretation of asthma symptoms but also the manifestation of measurable changes in immune and physiologic markers of asthma. Furthermore, asthma and major depressive disorder share several risk factors and have similar patterns of dysregulation in key biologic systems, including the neuroendocrine stress response, cytokines, and neuropeptides. Despite the evidence that depression is common in people with asthma and exerts a negative impact on outcome, few treatment studies have examined whether improving symptoms of depression do, in fact, result in better control of asthma symptoms or improved quality of life in patients with asthma. PMID:20525122

Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Macqueen, Glenda

2008-03-15

317

An Interdisciplinary Theory of Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Combines biological, biochemical, and psychological data toward the construction of a bio-psychological theory of behavior. Postulates that the presence of periodic stimuli in the environment have induced, through natural selection, the appearance of organisms capable of exploiting the environment by utilizing information in periodic stimuli. The…

Anderson, O. Roger

1969-01-01

318

Gender and Psychological Essentialism  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY When individuals reason in an essentialist way about social categories, they assume that group differences reflect inherently different natures (Gelman, 2003; Rothbart & Taylor, 1992). This paper describes the psychological and social implications of essentialist beliefs, and examines the extent to which children exhibit psychological essentialism when reasoning about gender. The authors discuss reasons young children as well as older children show essentialist reasoning in some contexts, but not in others. Finally, the authors suggest directions for future research, and discuss a primary challenge to many working in this field: reduction of rigid gender beliefs.

Heyman, Gail D.; Giles, Jessica W.

2010-01-01

319

Introduction to Psychology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Psychology is a vast and complex area of inquiry, and students entering the field may be confounded by the number of subfields within the discipline. Professor Russell A. Dewey of Georgia Southern University has created this fine online introductory textbook that covers everything from states of consciousness to social psychology. The online text includes sixteen chapters, and each chapter contains a number of parts that break each topic into smaller subtopics. The text is well-written and it draws on a number of examples and well-known experiments that will keep readers engaged. The site is rounded out by the inclusion of Professor Dewey's contact information and links to additional resources.

Dewey, Russell A.

2007-09-03

320

Clinical psychology and evolutionary psychology: Toward a dialogue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of evolutionary psychology as a theoretical framework for the study of human behavior has been spectacular. However, evolutionary psychology has been largely ignored by clinical psychology. This article is an attempt to encourage greater dialogue between the two. First, some of the major principles of evolutionary psychol- ogy are outlined, followed by consideration of some of the criticisms

Richard J. Siegert; Tony Ward

2002-01-01

321

The Representation of Applied Psychology Areas in Introductory Psychology Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many psychology majors indicate helping others as a reason for majoring in psychology, yet many enter positions not closely related to the field. This discrepancy may be due to a lack of student knowledge of the applied areas of psychology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the coverage of clinical, counseling,…

Haselhuhn, Charlotte W.; Clopton, Kerri L.

2008-01-01

322

Experiences of Psychological and Physical Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Links to Psychological Distress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This research examined links between adolescents' experiences of psychological and physical relationship aggression and their psychological distress. Experiences of psychological and physical aggression were expected to correlate positively with symptoms of psychological distress, but experiences of psychological aggression were…

Jouriles, Ernest N.; Garrido, Edward; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee

2009-01-01

323

Psychological Approaches to Organized Aggression.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this research note, the psychological aspects of terrorism are examined, the aspects examined are divided into six categories: 1) psychological analyses of terrorists, 2) the nature, timing, and effects of terrorist acts, 3) the behavior of terrorists,...

S. J. Rachman

1987-01-01

324

Psychological Deterrents to Nuclear Theft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1975 the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) and the National Bureau of Standards jointly conceived the psychological deterrents project as an on-going review of the unclassified and the classified literature relating to psychological factors that may have im...

G. Lapinsky

1981-01-01

325

Folk Psychology vs. Mental Simulation: How Minds Understand Minds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Website "provides access to work that was discussed at, inspired by, or is otherwise relevant to the seminar 'Folk Psychology vs. Mental Simulation: How Minds Understand Minds,' a National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Seminar for College Teachers held at the University of Missouri-St. Louis" last July. Folk Psychology and Mental Simulation are two competing theories designed to explain how "people understand, predict, and explain one another's actions, thoughts, and motivations"; both have implications for the understanding and possible treatment of Autism among other conditions. The site currently features fifteen articles and papers -- some with abstracts -- with another ten to be added soon. Titles include "Autism and the 'Theory of Mind' Debate," "Developing Commonsense Psychology: Experimental Data and Philosophical Data," and "A Cognitive Theory of Pretense." Articles are available in .pdf or HTML formats.

326

The Psychology of Procedural Justice: A Test of the Group-Value Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the psychology of procedural justice has been dominated by Thibaut and Walker's (1975) theory about the psychology of procedural preference. That theory suggests that people are concerned with their direct and indirect control over decisions. Lind and Tyler (1988) proposed a group-value theory that suggests that several noncontrol issues—the neutrality of the decision-making procedure, trust in the 3rd

Tom R. Tyler

1989-01-01

327

Psychology and Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article traces the historical development of Canadian medicare and its significant influence on shaping not only the clinical services provided within Canada's public health care system but also its major impact on the nation's overall health research agenda. Particular emphasis is placed on how this has influenced the development and role of psychology in the public health care system.

John L. Arnett

2006-01-01

328

Cycles of Psychological Nigrescence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expands the Cross model of psychological Nigrescence to hypothesize the changes in racial identity that a Black person can experience at various points in the life cycle. Describes how various stages of racial identity are manifest at three periods of life: late adolescence/early adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood. (Author/TE)

Parham, Thomas A.

1989-01-01

329

Psychological Adjustment and Homosexuality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, the diverse literature bearing on the topic of homosexuality and psychological adjustment is critically reviewed and synthesized. The first chapter discusses the most crucial methodological issue in this area, the problem of sampling. The kinds of samples used to date are critically examined, and some suggestions for improved…

Gonsiorek, John C.

330

Psychology of Deafness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nine conference papers discuss the psychology of deafness. They include seven papers from the United States: "Deafness: The Interdependent Variable" by M. Vernon and D. A. Rothstein, "The Reliability and Construct Validity of the Self-Concept of Academic Ability Scale-Form D for Hearing Impaired Students" by L. M. JOINER, "Studies of the…

World Federation of the Deaf, Rome (Italy).

331

Psychological Aspects of Asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asthma can be affected by stress, anxiety, sadness, and suggestion, as well as by environmental irritants or allergens, exercise, and infection. It also is associated with an elevated prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders. Asthma and these psychological states and traits may mutually potentiate each other through direct psychophysiological mediation, nonadherence to medical regimen, exposure to asthma triggers, and inaccuracy

Paul Lehrer; Jonathan Feldman; Nicholas Giardino; Hye-Sue Song; Karen Schmaling

2002-01-01

332

The Psychology of Channeling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theoretically analyzes phenomenon of channeling from perspective of C. G. Jung's analytic psychology. Hypothesizes that contact with otherworldly spiritual beings claimed by channelers is actually projected contact with contents of channeler's own unconscious mind. Suggests that channelers seek more constructive ways of contacting their…

Corey, Michael A.

1988-01-01

333

Civility and Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Media in the '70s stressed the importance of self and popularized psychology. Amidst self-help best sellers, encounter sessions, and special interest groups, the author asks, "What has happened to civility?" and "Can a culture without civility call itself civilized?" Condensed and reprinted from "Daedalus," Summer 1980. (Editor)

Coles, Robert

1981-01-01

334

Evolutionary Developmental Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes evolutionary developmental psychology as the study of the genetic and ecological mechanisms that govern the development of social and cognitive competencies common to all human beings and the epigenetic (gene-environment interactions) processes that adapt these competencies to local conditions. Outlines basic assumptions and domains of…

Geary, David C.; Bjorklund, David F.

2000-01-01

335

Positive Psychology Progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positive psychology has flourished in the last 5 years. The authors review recent developments in the field, including books, meetings, courses, and conferences. They also dis- cuss the newly created classification of character strengths and virtues, a positive complement to the various editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disor- ders (e. g., American Psychiatric Association, 1994), and

Martin E. P. Seligman; Tracy A. Steen; Christopher Peterson

336

Psychology and Anomalous Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Books by psychologists purporting to offer critical reviews of research in parapsychology do not use the scientific standards of discourse prevalent in psychology. Experiments at Maimonides Medical Center on possible extrasensory perception (ESP) in dreams are used to illustrate this point. The experiments have received little or no mention in some reviews to which they are clearly pertinent. In others,

Irvin L. Child

1985-01-01

337

Beyond Positive Psychology?  

PubMed Central

The field of positive psychology rests on the assumption that certain psychological traits and processes are inherently beneficial for well-being. We review evidence that challenges this assumption. First, we review data from 4 independent longitudinal studies of marriage revealing that 4 ostensibly positive processes—forgiveness, optimistic expectations, positive thoughts, and kindness—can either benefit or harm well-being depending on the context in which they operate. Although all 4 processes predicted better relationship well-being among spouses in healthy marriages, they predicted worse relationship well-being in more troubled marriages. Then, we review evidence from other research that reveals that whether ostensibly positive psychological traits and processes benefit or harm well-being depends on the context of various noninterpersonal domains as well. Finally, we conclude by arguing that any movement to promote well-being may be most successful to the extent that it (a) examines the conditions under which the same traits and processes may promote versus threaten well-being, (b) examines both healthy and unhealthy people, (c) examines well-being over substantial periods of time, and (d) avoids labeling psychological traits and processes as positive or negative.

McNulty, James K.; Fincham, Frank D.

2014-01-01

338

Cross-Cultural Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides references to the work of cross-cultural psychologists that can be integrated into regular undergraduate psychology courses. Discusses methodological problems, benefits, and difficulties of cross-cultural research. Reviews contributions of this field to the study of perception, cognition, motivation, interpersonal interaction, and group…

Triandis, Harry C.; Brislin, Richard W.

1984-01-01

339

Cross-Cultural Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cross-Cultural psychology refers to the collective efforts of researchers who work among people who live in different societies, with different languages and different forms of government. There are a number of benefits to the study of human behavior which can be accrued by carrying out research in various cultures, largely concerned with better…

Triandis, Harry C.; Brislin, Richard W.

340

A Psychology of Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

William James, the turn of the century psychologist, philospher, and educator, was avidly interested in the relationship between psychology and teaching. This paper considers operant conditioning, timing of reinforcers, and programmed instruction--touchstones of B.F. Skinner in the teaching/learning milieu. Of course, materials not just methods…

Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, B. C.

341

Color and Psychological Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color is a ubiquitous perceptual experience, yet little scientific information about the influence of color on affect, cognition, and behavior is available. Accordingly, we have developed a general model of color and psychological functioning, which we present in this article. We also describe a hypothesis derived from this model regarding the influence of red in achievement contexts. In addition, we

Andrew J. Elliot; Markus A. Maier

2007-01-01

342

Space Psychology and Psychiatry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book deals with psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial issues that affect people who live and work in space. Unlike other books that focus on anecdotal reports and ground-based simulation studies, this book emphasizes the findings from psychological research conducted during actual space missions. Both authors have been active in such research. What is presented in this readable text has previously been found only in scientific journal articles. Topics that are discussed include: behavioral adaptation to space; human performance and cognitive effects; crewmember interactions; psychiatric responses; psychological counter-measures related to habitability factors, work-design, selection, training, and in-flight monitoring and support; and the impact of expeditionary missions to Mars and beyond. People finding this book of interest will include: psychology and social science students and professors in universities; medical students and residents in psychiatry and aerospace medicine; human factors workers in space and aviation professions; individuals involved with isolated environments on Earth (e.g., the Antarctic, submarines); aerospace workers in businesses and space agencies such as NASA and ESA; and anyone who is interested in learning the facts about the human side of long-duration space missions. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1341-8

Kanas, N.; Manzey, D.

2003-09-01

343

Psychological Autopsies in Court.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The crucial concept for defining suicide is intention. A major purpose of the psychological autopsy is to clarify the pre-mortem intentions of the victim, now deceased. This article reports cases in which the issue of suicide vs. accident came to trial because insurance benefits were at issue. (Author/BL)

Litman, Robert E.

1984-01-01

344

Cognitive psychology as ideology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a critical analysis of some of the major work in cognitive social, personality, and developmental psychology. It is argued that cognitivism, by virtue of the primacy it gives to the individual knower, to subjective determinants of behavior, and to formal cognitive operations, represents a set of values and interests that reproduce and reaffirm the existing nature of the social

Edward E. Sampson

1981-01-01

345

Giftedness and Psychological Type.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparison of the psychological types, as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), of 966 students at a public residential magnet high school for academically talented students with other gifted and traditional high school students found both magnet school students and gifted students showed a particular MBTI distribution. (DB)

Hawkins, John

1998-01-01

346

Psychologically Correct Race Baiting?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is commonplace these days for those with axes to grind to hijack the organs of professional associations with diatribes on pet issues. When the American Psychological Association bestowed one of its most prestigious awards recently, the recipient launched into vitriol about past and continuing mistreatment of minorities to a degree that moved…

Thomas, Kenneth R.; Wubbolding, Robert E.; Jackson, Morris L.

2005-01-01

347

Psychological Research in Six Italian Institutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes liaison visits in the following institutions during October 1967: National Institute of Psychology, Rome; Psychological Institute, University of Naples; Laboratory of Applied Psychology, University of Palermo; Psychological Institute...

H. W. Sinaiko

1968-01-01

348

Can Innate, Modular “Foundations” Explain Morality? Challenges for Haidt's Moral Foundations Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jonathan Haidt's Moral Foundations Theory is an influential scientific account of morality incorporating psychological, developmental, and evolutionary perspectives. The theory proposes that morality is built upon five innate \\

Christopher L. Suhler; Patricia Churchland

2011-01-01

349

Energy Psychology in Disaster Relief  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy psychology utilizes cognitive operations such as imaginal exposure to traumatic memories or visualization of optimal performance scenarios—combined with physical interventions derived from acupuncture, yoga, and related systems—for inducing psychological change. While a controversial approach, this combination purportedly brings about, with unusual speed and precision, therapeutic shifts in affective, cognitive, and behavioral patterns that underlie a range of psychological concerns.

David Feinstein

2008-01-01

350

A Positive Psychology That Matters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Major Contribution intended to situate positive psychology in counseling psychology's past and future and in the complex world we live and work in today. The four reactions (Frazier, Lee,& Steger; Gerstein; Linley; Mollen, Ethington,& Ridley) provide new insights into how counseling psychology has and will contribute to the study of human…

Lopez, Shane L.; Magyar-Moe, Jeana L.

2006-01-01

351

Moving Ahead in Professional Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responds to Holloway and Roehlke's article on counseling psychologists'training by focusing on future directions for counseling psychology. Includes the place of "specialty" designations within psychology, the need for independence among psychology gatekeeping bodies, inclusion of nonpsychology trainees in counseling centers and timing of…

McKinely, Donna L.; Hayes, Maggie

1987-01-01

352

Psychological Sciences Division: 1985 Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet describes research carried out under sponsorship of the Psychological Sciences Division of the U.S. Office of Naval Research during Fiscal Year 1985. The booklet is divided into three programmatic research areas: (1) Engineering Psychology; (2) Personnel and Training; and (3) Group Psychology. Each program is described by an overview…

Office of Naval Research, Washington, DC. Psychological Sciences Div.

353

Marketing Sport Psychology Consulting Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of applied sport psychology continues to increase in popularity and offers new and exciting career opportunities. In addition to offering consulting services to athletes, coaches, and teams, applied sport psychology professionals also serve military, dance, and business clients (Lloyd & Foster, 2006). This article outlines a 10-step process that sport psychology professionals can use to successfully market their

F. Wayne Blann; Greg Shelley; Sarah C. Gates

2011-01-01

354

Ethics, Psychology, and Public Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An introduction to the Journal of Forensic Psychology's new section on “Ethics, Psychology, and Public Policy,” this essay outlines the contours that characterize the interrelationship between ethics, psychology, and public policy. Offering a broad and inclusive framework for understanding this interrelationship, it lays out and comments upon several spheres of analysis - the practical\\/professional, law, lawmaking, and public policy, justice

Christopher R. Williams

2009-01-01

355

Psychology and Phenomenology: A Clarification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Controversies are rampant in contemporary psychology concerning the appropriate method for observing consciousness and the role inner experience should play in psychological theorizing. These conflicting orientations reflect, in part, methodological differences between natural science and human science interpretations of psychology. Humanistic…

Kendler, Howard H.

2005-01-01

356

Psychology's Role in Health Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This information packet contains eight two- to three-page publications from the American Psychological Association series "Psychological Services for the 21st Century, Psychology's Role in Health Care: Studying Human Behavior; Promoting Health; Saving Health Care Dollars; Providing Mental Health Services." The focus of the series is the connection…

American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.

357

Social Justice and School Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite attention in other social sciences and within other areas of psychology, social justice has received minimal attention in school psychology literature. The two studies by Shriberg et al. (2008) and McCabe and Rubinson (2008) represent significant developments in exploring school psychology's commitment to social justice. In this…

Nastasi, Bonnie K.

2008-01-01

358

Indigenisation of Psychology in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academic psychology which made a new beginning in India in the early part of 20th century was modelled on the Western scientific tradition. The teaching of psychology was very much on the British pattern since the colonial rule, whereas the research was mostly an extension of the Western work in India. Psychology went through massive expansion…

Dalal, Ajit K.

2011-01-01

359

Evolutionary Psychology and Intelligence Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article seeks to unify two subfields of psychology that have hitherto stood separately: evolutionary psychology and intelligence research/differential psychology. I suggest that general intelligence may simultaneously be an evolved adaptation and an individual-difference variable. Tooby and Cosmides's (1990a) notion of random quantitative…

Kanazawa, Satoshi

2010-01-01

360

Wanting, Having, and Needing: Integrating Motive Disposition Theory and Self-Determination Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four studies explored the motivational and experiential dynamics of psychological needs, applying both self-determination theory and motive disposition theory. In all 4 studies, motive dispositions toward achievement and affiliation (\\

Kennon M. Sheldon; Julia Schüler

2011-01-01

361

Psychological evaluation of seafarers.  

PubMed

The CIA Factor Assessment is a psychological testing and related research activities carried out under auspices of Wartsila Land and Sea Academy at WLSA Regional Training Centre in the Philippines in June 2003. The purpose was to evaluate seafarers against their mental and physical health and obtain their charachteristic as individuals and as a group. The CIA (Consciousness, Intuition. Anticipation, professional psychometric testing) is a set of tests covering three essential values to determine one's suitability and fitness for work at sea developed in order to recognize and improve potentials of professional seafarers. The results of the evaluation were good. The examined persons had good or very good scores, only few of them were below average, requiring professional individual psychological attention/assistance, extended specialized training, or intensive pertinent testing. PMID:14974779

Jezewska, Maria

2003-01-01

362

School Psychology Resources Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With over 1,000 annotated links, this Website offers a valuable directory of online resources in the broad and burgeoning field of school psychology. Resources are divided into two broad categories: Specific Conditions, Disorders, and Disabilities, and Other Information. The first includes listings for such topics as Attention Deficit Disorders, Deafness, Eating Disorders, Learning Disabilities, Mental Retardation, Substance Abuse, and Tourette's Syndrome. The second catch-all category includes such topics as Adolescence, Assessment/Evaluation, ERIC Clearinghouses, Law and Education, Mental Health, Professional Organizations, and about a dozen others. The links are authoritative, and the Website is updated daily. A features section also includes an online bookstore, daily cartoon, and jobs information. The site is created and maintained by Sandra Steingart, who holds a doctorate in education and works in the Office of Psychological Services in the Baltimore County Public Schools.

363

Psychological aspects of asthma.  

PubMed

Asthma can be affected by stress, anxiety, sadness, and suggestion, as well as by environmental irritants or allergens, exercise, and infection. It also is associated with an elevated prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders. Asthma and these psychological states and traits may mutually potentiate each other through direct psychophysiological mediation, nonadherence to medical regimen, exposure to asthma triggers, and inaccuracy of asthma symptom perception. Defensiveness is associated with inaccurate perception of airway resistance and stress-related bronchoconstriction. Asthma education programs that teach about the nature of the disease, medications, and trigger avoidance tend to reduce asthma morbidity. Other promising psychological interventions as adjuncts to medical treatment include training in symptom perception, stress management, hypnosis, yoga, and several biofeedback procedures. PMID:12090377

Lehrer, Paul; Feldman, Jonathan; Giardino, Nicholas; Song, Hye-Sue; Schmaling, Karen

2002-06-01

364

Detecting psychological phenomena: taking bottom-up research seriously.  

PubMed

For more than 50 years, psychology has been dominated by a top-down research strategy in which a simplistic account of the hypothetico-deductive method is paired with null hypothesis testing in order to test hypotheses and theories. As a consequence of this focus on testing, psychologists have failed to pay sufficient attention to a complementary, bottom-up research strategy in which data-to-theory research is properly pursued.This bottom-up strategy has 2 primary aspects: the detection of phenomena, mostly in the form of empirical generalizations, and the subsequent understanding of those phenomena through the abductive generation of explanatory theories. This article provides a methodologically informative account of phenomena detection with reference to psychology. It begins by presenting the important distinctions between data, phenomena, and theory. It then identifies a number of different methodological strategies that are used to identify empirical phenomena. Thereafter, it discusses aspects of the nature of science that are prompted by a consideration of the distinction between data, phenomena, and explanatory theory. Taken together, these considerations press for significant changes in the way we think about and practice psychological research. The adoption of these changes would help psychology correct a number of its major current research deficiencies. PMID:23858950

Haig, Brian D

2013-01-01

365

Measurement equivalence and differential item functioning in family psychology.  

PubMed

Several hypotheses in family psychology involve comparisons of sociocultural groups. Yet the potential for cross-cultural inequivalence in widely used psychological measurement instruments threatens the validity of inferences about group differences. Methods for dealing with these issues have been developed via the framework of item response theory. These methods deal with an important type of measurement inequivalence, called differential item functioning (DIF). The authors introduce DIF analytic methods, linking them to a well-established framework for conceptualizing cross-cultural measurement equivalence in psychology (C.H. Hui and H.C. Triandis, 1985). They illustrate the use of DIF methods using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). Focusing on the Caregiver Warmth and Environmental Organization scales from the PHDCN's adaptation of the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment Inventory, the authors obtain results that exemplify the range of outcomes that may result when these methods are applied to psychological measurement instruments. PMID:16221024

Bingenheimer, Jeffrey B; Raudenbush, Stephen W; Leventhal, Tama; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

2005-09-01

366

Naturalizing Peirce’s Semiotics: Ecological Psychology’s Solution to the Problem of Creative Abduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The study of model-based reasoning (MBR) is one of the most interesting recent developments at the intersection of psychology\\u000a and the philosophy of science. Although a broad and eclectic area of inquiry, one central axis by which MBR connects these\\u000a disciplines is anchored at one end in theories of internal reasoning (in cognitive science), and at the other, in C.S.

Alex Kirlik; Peter Storkerson

367

Noba Psychology Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Noba is an online tool that allows teachers to create their own free psychology textbooks by using provided content. Noba consists of nearly 90 short (2500-4000 word) chapters authored by leading instructors and researchers including 7 winners of the William James Award. Chapters are organized in familiar categories (Development, Learning & Memory, Personality, etc.) for easy reference. All Noba materials are licensed through Creative Commons under the CC BY-NA-SA license terms.

368

Social Psychology Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With over 11,000 links contained within its pages, the Social Psychology Network site is arguably the largest social psychology database on the Internet. Maintained by Professor Scout Plous of Wesleyan University, the site has been generously supported by the National Science Foundation. Visitors will appreciate the very clean layout of the siteâÂÂs homepage, as they are presented with a search engine, along with a number of electronic forums, and a listing of related topics. To delve into the siteâÂÂs contents, visitors may wish to select from any one of the areas on the left-hand side of the homepage, which include listings of doctoral programs in social psychology and teaching resources. There are numerous other options for interested parties, and they lead to such offerings as rankings of doctoral programs in the field and distance learning options in the field. Finally, visitors can also view many of the siteâÂÂs documents in a number of languages, including Spanish, French, Italian, and German.

Plous, Scott

1996-01-01

369

The Concept of the Moral Domain in Moral Foundations Theory and Cognitive Developmental Theory: Horses for Courses?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Moral foundations theory chastises cognitive developmental theory for having foisted on moral psychology a restrictive conception of the moral domain which involves arbitrarily elevating the values of justice and caring. The account of this negative influence on moral psychology, referred to in the moral foundations theory literature as the…

Maxwell, Bruce; Beaulac, Guillaume

2013-01-01

370

The Association Between Psychological Distance and Construal Level: Evidence From an Implicit Association Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to construal level theory (N. Liberman, Y. Trope, & E. Stephan, in press; Y. Trope & N. Liberman, 2003), people use a more abstract, high construal level when judging, perceiving, and predicting more psychologically distal targets, and they judge more abstract targets as being more psychologically distal. The present research demonstrated that associations between more distance and higher level

Yoav Bar-Anan; Nira Liberman; Yaacov Trope

2006-01-01

371

Modularity and the Facilitation Effect: Psychological Mechanisms of Transfer in Bilingual Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article draws upon recent work in the cognitive neurosciences to suggest that the facilitation effect follows naturally within current psychological theory. A view of the mind as consisting of discrete mental modules, called psychological modularity, is defended with case study evidence of double dissociation. It is argued that transfer of academic subject knowledge occurs in bilingual settings as an

Jeff Macswan; Kellie Rolstad

2005-01-01

372

The elaboration likelihood model: Implications for the practice of school psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the formation and change of attitudes is important to the practice of school psychology. We review a contemporary theory of attitude change, the Elaboration Likelihood Model of persuasion (ELM, Petty & Cacioppo, 1981, 1986), and address its relevance to school psychology. The ELM provides an integrative framework for understanding the antecedents and consequences of attitude change and specifies the

Jan N. Hughes

1997-01-01

373

Ernst E. Boesch at 80: Reflections from a Student on the Culture of Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using recollections of Ernst Boesch as a teacher, the author summarizes Boesch's impact on his own thinking but also on psychology in general and cultural psychology in particular. Special attention is paid to the methodological and theoretical frame which Boesch espouses, including systematic methodological pluralism, functionalism, action theory, contextualism and the powerful application of introspective and hermeneutic methods. Achieving an

Paul B. Baltes

1997-01-01

374

Culture Tales: A Narrative Approach to Thinking, Cross-Cultural Psychology, and Psychotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Narrative (or storytelling) approaches to understanding human action have recently become more popular in several areas of psychology. Treating human thinking as instances of story elaboration offers numerous implications for many domains of psychological theory, research, and practice. For example, several instances of cultural diversity take on a different hue when viewed from a narrative perspective. Finally, several authors (e.g.,

George S. Howard

1991-01-01

375

Integrating Behavioral-Motive and Experiential-Requirement Perspectives on Psychological Needs: A Two Process Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychological need theories offer much explanatory potential for behavioral scientists, but there is considerable disagreement and confusion about what needs are and how they work. A 2-process model of psychological needs is outlined, viewing needs as evolved functional systems that provide both (a) innate psychosocial motives that tend to impel…

Sheldon, Kennon M.

2011-01-01

376

Integrating Behavioral-Motive and Experiential-Requirement Perspectives on Psychological Needs: A Two Process Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological need theories offer much explanatory potential for behavioral scientists, but there is considerable disagreement and confusion about what needs are and how they work. A 2-process model of psychological needs is outlined, viewing needs as evolved functional systems that provide both (a) innate psychosocial motives that tend to impel adaptive behavior and (b) innate experiential requirements that when met

Kennon M. Sheldon

2011-01-01

377

Psychological Contract Breach and Job Attitudes: A Meta-Analysis of Age as a Moderator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to examine the influence of age in the relation between psychological contract breach and the development of job attitudes. Based on affective events, social exchange, and lifespan theory, we hypothesized that (1) psychological contract breach would be related negatively to job attitudes, and (2) that age would moderate…

Bal, P. Matthijs; De Lange, Annet H.; Jansen, Paul G. W.; Van Der Velde, Mandy E. G.

2008-01-01

378

Feminism and Psychology: Analysis of a Half-Century of Research on Women and Gender  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Starting in the 1960s, feminists argued that the discipline of psychology had neglected the study of women and gender and misrepresented women in its research and theories. Feminists also posed many questions worthy of being addressed by psychological science. This call for research preceded the emergence of a new and influential body of research…

Eagly, Alice H.; Eaton, Asia; Rose, Suzanna M.; Riger, Stephanie; McHugh, Maureen C.

2012-01-01

379

Childhood Psychological Abuse and Adult Aggression: The Mediating Role of Self-Capacities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examines the utility of self-trauma theory for explaining the long-term impact of childhood psychological abuse on aggression. Specifically, the self-capacities of interpersonal relatedness, identity, and affect regulation are tested as mediators of the impact of psychological abuse on various types of aggression in adulthood.…

Allen, Brian

2011-01-01

380

The Association between Psychological Distance and Construal Level: Evidence from an Implicit Association Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to construal level theory (N. Liberman, Y. Trope, & E. Stephan, in press; Y. Trope & N. Liberman, 2003), people use a more abstract, high construal level when judging, perceiving, and predicting more psychologically distal targets, and they judge more abstract targets as being more psychologically distal. The present research…

Bar-Anan, Yoav; Liberman, Nira; Trope, Yaacov

2006-01-01

381

The Power of the Situation: The Impact of Milgram's Obedience Studies on Personality and Social Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few psychological studies, if any, can claim a legacy as imposing as the obedience studies of Stanley Milgram. Their impact was of notable consequence in the separate spheres of research ethics, research design, and theory in psychology, and they changed the ways that psychologists conceptualize and conduct their research. The authors discuss the…

Benjamin, Ludy T., Jr.; Simpson, Jeffry A.

2009-01-01

382

An Evolutionary Theory of Human Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors review psychology's historical, competing perspectives on human motivation and propose a new comprehensive theory. The new theory is based on evolutionary principles as proposed by C. Darwin (1859) and modified by W. D. Hamilton (1964, 1996), R. L. Trivers (1971, 1972), and R. Dawkins (1989). The theory unifies biological, behavioral, and cognitive approaches to motivation. The theory is

Larry C. Bernard; Michael Mills; Leland Swenson; R. Patricia Walsh

2005-01-01

383

An Evolutionary Theory of Human Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors review psychology's historical, competing perspectives on human motivation and propose a new comprehensive theory. The new theory is based on evolutionary principles as proposed by C. Darwin (1859) and modified by W. D. Hamil- ton (1964, 1996), R. L. Trivers (1971, 1972), and R. Dawkins (1989). The theory unifies biological, behavioral, and cognitive approaches to motivation. The theory

LARRY C. BERNARD; MICHAEL MILLS; LELAND SWENSON; R. PATRICIA WALSH

2006-01-01

384

Quantum Experimental Data in Psychology and Economics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We prove a theorem which shows that a collection of experimental data of probabilistic weights related to decisions with respect to situations and their disjunction cannot be modeled within a classical probabilistic weight structure in case the experimental data contain the effect referred to as the ‘disjunction effect’ in psychology. We identify different experimental situations in psychology, more specifically in concept theory and in decision theory, and in economics (namely situations where Savage’s Sure-Thing Principle is violated) where the disjunction effect appears and we point out the common nature of the effect. We analyze how our theorem constitutes a no-go theorem for classical probabilistic weight structures for common experimental data when the disjunction effect is affecting the values of these data. We put forward a simple geometric criterion that reveals the non classicality of the considered probabilistic weights and we illustrate our geometrical criterion by means of experimentally measured membership weights of items with respect to pairs of concepts and their disjunctions. The violation of the classical probabilistic weight structure is very analogous to the violation of the well-known Bell inequalities studied in quantum mechanics. The no-go theorem we prove in the present article with respect to the collection of experimental data we consider has a status analogous to the well known no-go theorems for hidden variable theories in quantum mechanics with respect to experimental data obtained in quantum laboratories. Our analysis puts forward a strong argument in favor of the validity of using the quantum formalism for modeling the considered psychological experimental data as considered in this paper.

Aerts, Diederik; D'Hooghe, Bart; Haven, Emmanuel

2010-12-01

385

Evolutionary psychology and intelligence research.  

PubMed

This article seeks to unify two subfields of psychology that have hitherto stood separately: evolutionary psychology and intelligence research/differential psychology. I suggest that general intelligence may simultaneously be an evolved adaptation and an individual-difference variable. Tooby and Cosmides's (1990a) notion of random quantitative variation on a monomorphic design allows us to incorporate heritable individual differences in evolved adaptations. The Savanna-IQ Interaction Hypothesis, which is one consequence of the integration of evolutionary psychology and intelligence research, can potentially explain why less intelligent individuals enjoy TV more, why liberals are more intelligent than conservatives, and why night owls are more intelligent than morning larks, among many other findings. The general approach proposed here will allow us to integrate evolutionary psychology with any other aspect of differential psychology. PMID:20455621

Kanazawa, Satoshi

2010-01-01

386

Association for Applied Sport Psychology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The three interrelated focus areas of the Association for Applied Sport Psychology (AASP) are health and exercise psychology, performance psychology and social psychology. The aim of the Association is to see how "participation in sport, exercise, and physical activity may enhance personal development and well-being throughout the life span." Visitors will find that the "About" section of their website has a "History" link, as well as links to "Awards & Grants," "Fellows," and "Special Interest Groups." The "Publications" link has position papers published by the AASP in PDF format at the bottom of the page; topics of the papers include unethical behavior, choosing a sport psychology consultant, and human diversity. Visitors can check out the "Resource Center" link for information for parents, coaches, and athletes, which cover such topics as mental skills training information and how to teach and apply sport psychology skills.

387

Program Participants' Positive Perceptions: Psychological Conflict of Interest in Social Program Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluation data frequently do not confirm program administrators' and recipients' perceptions of benefits; positive perceptions will occur without regard to actual behavioral and cognitive social psychological theory. Implications are drawn for program planning and for evaluation methodology. (Author/CTM)

Scheirer, Mary Ann

1978-01-01

388

Diversity Issues in Health Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

As medicine and psychology join forces in the rapidly growing field of health psychology, the opportunity arises for each\\u000a to benefit from the other. Research in medicine has typically focused on white males in their 30s, while research in psychology\\u000a has focused on upper-middle-class college sophomores. Both approaches tend to neglect issues of populations that differ from\\u000a these norms by

Traci Mann; Pamela M. Kato

389

Mentoring and Psychological Contract Breach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Mentoring and psychological contracts are related and important organizationally based social exchange relationships. Research\\u000a indicates that social support from internal mentors might buffer the negative effects of psychological contract breach (PCB),\\u000a but less is known about the possible negative influence that mentors might have on psychological contracts. This study investigates\\u000a protégés' perceptions of their mentors’ failure to fulfill mentoring obligations

Dana L. Haggard

390

Sustainability in Higher Education: Psychological Research for Effective Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychological theory and research can make key contributions to sustainability scholarship and practice, as is demonstrated here in the field of higher education pedagogy. College students undergo profound changes in epistemological assumptions and in identity during their undergraduate years. Data on the Measure of Intellectual Development for…

Myers, Olin Eugene, Jr.; Beringer, Almut

2010-01-01

391

Effects of Commitment and Psychological Centrality on Fathering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identity theory model was tested with fathers (N=186) to assess whether commitment to the fathering role identity affected the psychological centrality of that role. Results showed that fathers who perceived that their wives evaluated them positively as fathers were more likely to report higher levels of involvement in child-related activities and…

Pasley, Kay; Furtis, Ted G.; Skinner, Martie L.

2002-01-01

392

Intelligence and Cultural Environment, Methuen's Manuals of Modern Psychology Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book describes recent psychological theories on the nature of intelligence and the influence of environmental factors, and argues that culture and child rearing practices affect the development of abilities (linguistic, sensory motor and perceptual). Studies of intelligence, achievement, and environment in England are discussed, along with…

Vernon, Philip E.

393

Jung's Psychology and Deleuze's Philosophy: The Unconscious in Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses the unconscious dimension as articulated in Carl Jung's depth psychology and in Gilles Deleuze's philosophy. Jung's theory of the archetypes and Deleuze's pedagogy of the concept are two complementary resources that posit individuation as the goal of human development and self-education in practice. The paper asserts that…

Semetsky, Inna; Delpech-Ramey, Joshua A.

2012-01-01

394

Innocence Abroad: A Pocket Guide to Psychological Research on Tourism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces tourism as a neglected topic of study for psychologists and discusses how ventures into this area provide opportunities for pioneering research and innovative applications. A coherent body of theory, drawn from experimental, social, and health psychology and synthesized by cross-cultural psychologists for the study of…

Berno, Tracy; Ward, Colleen

2005-01-01

395

Psychological Approaches to Learner Centered Curriculum in Kerala  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major curricular innovations that have taken place in Kerala secondary education system in recent years is so revolutionary. This paper examines the basic psychological theories of the learner centered curriculum of school education in the state of Kerala. Initially the curriculum was based on the principles of behaviorism. The curriculum then…

Nath, Baiju K.; Sajitha, P. S.

2010-01-01

396

Effects of number of alternatives on the psychological refractory period  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of changing the number of choices in the first response on “psychological refractoriness” were found to be partially consistent with intermittency theory but modifications may be needed to explain the results when the number of choices in the second response is increased.

Lawrence Karlin; Richard Kestenbaum

1968-01-01

397

Psychological Antecedents of Heterosexuals' Pro-gay Activism Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research on heterosexuals' attitudes toward gays is characterized by a focus on negative attitudes and minimal use of behavioral dependent variables. In an attempt to rectify this situation, the present study explored the psychological antecedents of heterosexuals' pro-gay activism behavior in an undergraduate sample using the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991). Findings suggest that intentions predict activism behavior

Wayne W. Wilkinson; Brad J. Sagarin

2010-01-01

398

On the psychological cost of waiting in queues  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, building on the cognitive stress theories of waiting, we develop and test a model of the psychological cost of waiting in lines. In our model, we consider how the length of the queue, the mean waiting time, and the uncertainty in waiting time affect the accumulation of stress. We carry out an empirical test of the key

Cenk Kocas

2000-01-01

399

Are We There Yet? Stasis and Progress in Forensic Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in forensic psychology has been rapid in some areas and nonexistent in others. By contrasting technological and conceptual scientific progress in three areas—the legal disposition of mentally ill offenders, risk appraisal, and theories of individual differences in antisocial behaviour—I attempt to identify some determinants of progress. Conceptual progress appears to depend even more heavily than technological progress on developments

VERNON L. QUINSEY

2009-01-01

400

Using Astrology to Teach Research Methods to Introductory Psychology Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a classroom demonstration designed to test an astrological hypothesis and help teach introductory psychology students about research design and data interpretation. Illustrates differences between science and nonscience, the role of theory in developing and testing hypotheses, making comparisons among groups, probability and statistical…

Ward, Roger A.; Grasha, Anthony F.

1986-01-01

401

Researching Academic Identity: Using Discursive Psychology as an Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current thinking on academic identities is heavily influenced by developments in other disciplines, notably sociology. This accords with Haggis's (2007) challenge for educational researchers to engage with current theory and methods from across the social sciences. However, the traditional sister discipline to education, psychology, seems…

McLean, Neil

2012-01-01

402

Alternative Ways of Measuring Counselees' Jungian Psychological-Type Preferences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instruments measuring Carl Jung's (1921/1971) theory of psychological types have been widely used in various counseling contexts, including career counseling, marital and family therapy, and team building. The most popular measure of types, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), was developed by Katherine C. Briggs and her daughter, Isabel Briggs…

Vacha-Haase, Tammi; Thompson, Bruce

2002-01-01

403

The Contributions of Dialogal Psychology to Phenomenological Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe the emergence, application, and advantages of a dialogal approach to phenomenological research and show how it is rooted in a particular community of psychological theory and practice. This approach assumes that dialogue itself, interpersonal conversation, is critical not only in teaching and in therapy but also in research. Further, this approach overcomes the dichotomy between the personal

Steen Halling; Georg Kunz; Jan O. Rowe

1994-01-01

404

Work Separation Demands and Spouse Psychological Well-Being  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using family resilience and ecological theories, we examine the relationship between partner work-required travel separations and spouse psychological well-being. The study examines the role of work-organization-provided supports for families and of informal support networks, including marital satisfaction, as factors that can reduce the risks for…

Orthner, Dennis K.; Rose, Roderick

2009-01-01

405

Construal Levels and Psychological Distance: Effects on Representation, Prediction, Evaluation, and Behavior  

PubMed Central

Construal level theory (CLT) is an account of how psychological distance influences individuals’ thoughts and behavior. CLT assumes that people mentally construe objects that are psychologically near in terms of low-level, detailed, and contextualized features, whereas at a distance they construe the same objects or events in terms of high-level, abstract, and stable characteristics. Research has shown that different dimensions of psychological distance (time, space, social distance, and hypotheticality) affect mental construal and that these construals, in turn, guide prediction, evaluation, and behavior. The present paper reviews this research and its implications for consumer psychology.

Trope, Yaacov; Liberman, Nira; Wakslak, Cheryl

2011-01-01

406

Self-Esteem as a Moderator between Perceived Discrimination and Psychological Distress among Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological distress was investigated within a social comparison theory framework. Predictions of a variant of social comparison theory--relative deprivation theory--as well as predictions from the stress-buffering literature pertaining to the moderating effects of self-esteem were tested…

Corning, Alexandra F.

2002-01-01

407

What College Teachers Should Know about Memory: A Perspective from Cognitive Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive psychology has much to contribute to our understanding of the best ways to promote learning and memory in the college classroom. However, cognitive theory has evolved considerably in recent decades, and it is important for instructors to have an up-to-date understanding of these theories, particularly those--such as memory theories--that…

Miller, Michelle D.

2011-01-01

408

Psychology of Intelligence Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new full-length book from the CIA's center for the Study of Intelligence is an attempt to translate and make available to intelligence analysts selected cognitive psychology technical reports on the processing of incomplete and ambiguous information. Compiled by Richards J. Heuer, Jr., the volume "pulls together and republishes, with some editing, updating, and additions, articles written during 1978-86 for internal use within the CIA Directorate of Intelligence." Users can read the full text of the report by section and chapter in HTML format.

Heuer, Richards J.

409

Psychological issues in patient outcomes.  

PubMed

This article provides an overview of the psychological issues of facial plastic surgery patients. It begins with a review of the research on the preoperative psychological characteristics of cosmetic surgery patients. Results from the studies assessing postoperative changes in psychological status are reviewed. The psychological issues of specific patient groups, including adolescents and male patients, are discussed. Individuals who undergo plastic surgical procedures as a result of craniofacial anomalies or facial injuries often face a myriad of psychosocial challenges. These issues are outlined in brief. The article concludes with a discussion of two psychiatric conditions, body dysmorphic disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder, that may be frequently encountered by facial plastic surgeons. PMID:12063660

Sarwer, David B; Crerand, Canice E

2002-05-01

410

Evolutionary social psychology: Prospects and pitfalls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principles of evolutionary psychology and the traditional assumptions of social psychology are highly compatible. Both disciplines trace observed behavioral variability to situational variability. Both assume that psychological mechanisms sensitive to social information are central to causal accounts of social behavior. Questions about the origins and functions of these psychological mechanisms are indispensable for understanding social behavior. Evolutionary psychology provides

David M. Buss

1990-01-01

411

Positive psychology: Past, present, and (possible) future  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is positive psychology? Where has it come from? Where is it going? These are the questions we address in this article. In defining positive psychology, we distinguish between the meta-psychological level, where the aim of positive psychology is to redress the imbalance in psychology research and practice, and the pragmatic level, which is concerned with what positive psychologists do,

P. Alex Linley; Stephen Joseph; Susan Harrington; Alex M. Wood

2006-01-01

412

Proceeding of the sixth annual meeting of The American Psychological Association, Ithaca, New York, December 1897. Report of the secretary and treasurer for 1897  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports the proceedings and provides abstracts of papers on: selective thinking; fluctuation of attention; visual depth perception; time of perception as measure of intensity of sensation; muscular fatigue in relation to mental conditions; investigations at the Yale psychological laboratory; class experiments; time measurements of visual after-images; color theory; color saturation; psychology of perception; experimental psychology in undergraduate courses; immediacy and

Livingston Farrand

1898-01-01

413

"Giving Psychology Away": Some Experiences Teaching Undergraduates Practical Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the bulk of most undergraduate psychology curriculum is geared towards preparing students for graduate study. Proposes several specific curriculum changes designed to give the general undergraduate a working and useful knowledge of some of the fundamental concepts concerning psychology. Includes course outlines and structured…

Grasha, Anthony F.

1998-01-01

414

Counseling Psychology Doctoral Students' Training Experiences in Primary Care Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study focused on counseling psychology doctoral students' perspectives regarding their practicum training experience in primary care psychology. The four participants included three females and one male. Semi-structured individual and focus group interviews were used to explore participants' experiences. The participants described…

Cox, Jared

2011-01-01

415

The Window on Psychology's Literature: A History of Psychological Abstracts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the rapid expansion of scientific information at the end of the 19th century, disciplines sought ways to keep their members abreast of the relevant research. Those pressures were felt in the science of psychology in the United States, where psychologists developed a bibliographic aid, The Psychological Index, in 1895 only a little more than a…

Benjamin, Ludy T., Jr.; VandenBos, Gary R.

2006-01-01

416

Crisis discussions in psychology--New historical and philosophical perspectives.  

PubMed

In this introductory article, we provide a historical and philosophical framework for studying crisis discussions in psychology. We first trace the various meanings of crisis talk outside and inside of the sciences. We then turn to Kuhn's concept of crisis, which is mainly an analyst's category referring to severe clashes between theory and data. His view has also dominated many discussions on the status of psychology: Can it be considered a "mature" science, or are we dealing here with a pre- or multi-paradigmatic discipline? Against these Kuhnian perspectives, we point out that especially, but not only in psychology distinctive crisis declarations and debates have taken place since at least the late 19th century. In these, quite different usages of crisis talk have emerged, which can be determined by looking at (a) the content and (b) the dimensions of the declarations, as well as (c) the functions these declarations had for their authors. Thus, in psychology at least, 'crisis' has been a vigorous actor's category, occasionally having actual effects on the future course of research. While such crisis declarations need not be taken at face value, they nevertheless help to break the spell of Kuhnian analyses of psychology's history. They should inform ways in which the history and philosophy of psychology is studied further. PMID:22520191

Sturm, Thomas; Mülberger, Annette

2012-06-01

417

Health psychology in primary care: recent research and future directions.  

PubMed

Over the last decade, research about health psychology in primary care has reiterated its contributions to mental and physical health promotion, and its role in addressing gaps in mental health service delivery. Recent meta-analyses have generated mixed results about the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of health psychology interventions. There have been few studies of health psychology interventions in real-world treatment settings. Several key challenges exist: determining the degree of penetration of health psychology into primary care settings; clarifying the specific roles of health psychologists in integrated care; resolving reimbursement issues; and adapting to the increased prescription of psychotropic medications. Identifying and exploring these issues can help health psychologists and primary care providers to develop the most effective ways of applying psychological principles in primary care settings. In a changing health care landscape, health psychologists must continue to articulate the theories and techniques of health psychology and integrated care, to put their beliefs into practice, and to measure the outcomes of their work. PMID:22114536

Thielke, Stephen; Thompson, Alexander; Stuart, Richard

2011-01-01

418

Health psychology in primary care: recent research and future directions  

PubMed Central

Over the last decade, research about health psychology in primary care has reiterated its contributions to mental and physical health promotion, and its role in addressing gaps in mental health service delivery. Recent meta-analyses have generated mixed results about the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of health psychology interventions. There have been few studies of health psychology interventions in real-world treatment settings. Several key challenges exist: determining the degree of penetration of health psychology into primary care settings; clarifying the specific roles of health psychologists in integrated care; resolving reimbursement issues; and adapting to the increased prescription of psychotropic medications. Identifying and exploring these issues can help health psychologists and primary care providers to develop the most effective ways of applying psychological principles in primary care settings. In a changing health care landscape, health psychologists must continue to articulate the theories and techniques of health psychology and integrated care, to put their beliefs into practice, and to measure the outcomes of their work.

Thielke, Stephen; Thompson, Alexander; Stuart, Richard

2011-01-01

419

Personality Theory and TESOL  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, it is argued, based on evidence from psychological literature, that there are three major approaches to the study of personality, namely (1) situationism, (2) interactionism, and (3) constructivism. It is also noticed that these approaches have resulted in the emergence of three major types of personality theories: (i) type…

Al Shalabi, M. Fadi; Salmani Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

2009-01-01

420

Attachment Theory and Mindfulness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We initiate a dialog between two central areas in the field of psychology today: attachment theory/research and mindfulness studies. The impact of the early mother-infant relationship on child development has been well established in the literature, with attachment theorists having focused on the correlation between a mother's capacity for…

Snyder, Rose; Shapiro, Shauna; Treleaven, David

2012-01-01

421

[Hypospadias--a psychological view. Psychosocial and psychosexual implications].  

PubMed

This theoretical research paper refers to the psychological consequences ofhypospadias, a male congenital deficiency of the urethra. Hypospadias is defined as an abnormal opening of the urethra on the underside of the penis and is a frequently found malformation with an incidence of 1 per 300 males. This malformation affects one of the most personal parts of the male anatomy and its psychological repercussions are undeniable. The vast majority of studies concerning this condition are found in the medical domain: surgical and pediatric urology and endocrynology. The difficulty in finding data about psychological implications of hypospadias, along with the lack of opportunities for discussing it was an objective to contribute a modest advancement in the field of psychology. Because of the fact that hypospadias is a psychological condition as well as a physical one, this theoretical paper discusses the influenceses of the condition on the patient's psychosocial (in the view of E. H. Erikson's theory) and psychosexual development (relation to the object theory of O. F. Kernberg). PMID:22827116

Matuszkiewicz, Ewa; Bargiel-Matusiewicz, Kamilla

2012-01-01

422

Traveling Psychology Fair: Learner-Centered Outreach Activities to Stimulate Interest in Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Traveling Psychology Fair is designed to bridge the gap between secondary and college psychology education, encourage enthusiasm for the study of psychology, enhance teaching resources for high school psychology instructors, and promote a deeper understanding of psychological principles for psychology majors. Consisting of 24 outreach…

Johnson, Andrew T.; Mandernach, B. Jean

2006-01-01

423

School Psychology in South America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The literature discussing professional practices of school psychology in South America is very meager. This study attempted to identify demographic characteristics of school psychologists in four South American countries, their typical responsibilities, significant problems, and threats that jeopardize the delivery of psychological services within…

Wechsler, Solange; Oakland, Thomas

424

Psychology's influence on constitutional interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

When organized psychology files amicus briefs with the Supreme Court and other courts, it does so for a variety of reasons and seeks to advance a number of policy objectives. The thesis of this article is that pursuit of some of those objectives is improper and that their pursuit threatens to defeat other objectives. Psychology's expertise is not in constitutional

Thomas Grisso; Michael J. Sakst

1991-01-01

425

The first course in psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author reviews a literature of 112 titles. He discusses the published objectives of the course and concludes that three major objectives need emphasis: (1) acquaintance with most important and most generally accepted facts, principles, and hypotheses of psychology; (2) development of the habit of critical and objective analysis of psychological problems; (3) understanding on the part of the student

D. Wolfle

1942-01-01

426

Teaching Psychology to Computing Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this paper is two-fold. The first aim is to discuss some observations gained from teaching psychology to computing students, highlighting both the wide range of areas where psychology is relevant to computing education and the topics that are relevant at different stages of students' education. The second aim is to consider findings…

Taylor, Jacqui

2008-01-01

427

The Psychological Maltreatment Rating Scales.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Psychological Maltreatment Rating Scales (PMRS) were developed for assessing psychological maltreatment in the mother-child interaction, and were used to rate the videotaped interaction of 49 high-risk mother-child dyads and predict child protective service involvements. The PMRS was found to be a moderately reliable and valid measure.…

Brassard, Marla R.; And Others

1993-01-01

428

Psychological Anthropology and Educational Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article (1) recommends how psychological anthropologists might more effectively influence educational research; (2) delineates likely priority problems for such research; and (3) takes up a fundamental criticism that might appear to argue that psychological anthropology would not further the study of education. (MM)

Harrington, Charles

1976-01-01

429

Psychological models of mood disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of psychological models for depression and bipolar disorder have at least some empirical support, are in common use and spawned effective psychological treatments for mood disorder. The article will discuss cognitive behaviour therapy and life events and social support models for unipolar depressive episodes, and more briefly review psychodynamic and medication adherence models for depression, and the development

Richard Morriss

2006-01-01

430

Psychological models of mood disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different psychological models are reviewed for both unipolar depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. The psychological models are useful to understand and plan care. They have been developed into effective clinical interventions, although all of them have some limitations and none of them is suitable for every patient. The most useful general model of cognitive behaviour therapy is probably the Five

Richard Morriss

2009-01-01

431

Psychology Tomorrow: Explorations of Consciousness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychology is again revitalizing efforts to explore the nature and extent of human consciousness. Although consciousness has always been the central subject matter of psychology, various metholodological and ideological "schools" have often quarreled as to exactly what constitutes the appropriate measure of the subject. What is most significant…

Bancroft, Norris R.

432

Objective techniques for psychological assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A literature review and a pilot study are used to develop psychological assessment techniques for determining objectively the major aspects of the psychological state of an astronaut. Relationships between various performance and psychophysiological variables and between those aspects of attention necessary to engage successfully in various functions are considered in developing a paradigm to be used for collecting data in manned isolation chamber experiments.

Wortz, E.; Hendrickson, W.; Ross, T.

1973-01-01

433

Elementary psychology for eighth graders?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An elementary psychology course was offered at Amherst Central High School in Snyder, New York in 1954. Teaching methods included lectures, discussions and oral reports. The major topics studied included heredity and environment, personality types, frustrations and how to deal with them, the psychology of advertising, extrasensory perception, telepathy, parent-child relations, boy-girl relations, and family problems and how to solve

Joseph B. Patti

1956-01-01

434

New developments in forensic psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Briefly introduces the concept of forensic psychology, looking at areas such as stalking behaviour, self-mutilation, and execution competency. Suggests that the forensic psychiatrist needs to remain up to date with recent sexual harassment legislation, the use of neuropsychological testing and the assessment of child abuse. Covers other subjects including hate crime on the Internet, and psychological autopsy. Concludes that to

Suzanne David; Brian H. Kleiner

2001-01-01

435

Integrating Social Justice and Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article seeks to extend the model Goodman et al. advanced for making counseling psychology training more useful in the struggle for social justice. In addition to affirming the ideas of Goodman et al., this article offers some specific examples of how conventional, micro-level ideas in U.S. psychology can be scaled upward to be useful across…

Watts, Roderick J.

2004-01-01

436

Robots in Space -Psychological Aspects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viewgraph presentation on the psychological aspects of developing robots to perform routine operations associated with monitoring, inspection, maintenance and repair in space is shown. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Vision; 3) Current Robots in Space; 4) Ground Based Robots; 5) AERCam; 6) Rotating Bladder Robot (ROBLR); 7) DART; 8) Robonaut; 9) Full Immersion Telepresence Testbed; 10) ERA; and 11) Psychological Aspects

Sipes, Walter E.

2006-01-01

437

African-American Psychological Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of the study was to define psychological health from the individual perspectives of African-American women and men of different age groups, and to develop a global definition for all African-Americans. The findings suggest that characteristics of psychological health may be the same across race, although specific interpretations and…

Edwards, Karen L.

1989-01-01

438

Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic…

American Psychologist, 2013

2013-01-01

439

Psychological Dimensions of Cross-Cultural Differences.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project 'Psychological Dimensions of Cross-Cultural Differences' endeavored to answer key questions in cross-cultural psychology, including what psychological variables generate the largest differences. We created a 315-item online questionnaire repre...

G. Saucier

2013-01-01

440

Implicit Theories of Peer Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research investigated the role of children's implicit theories of peer relationships in their psychological, emotional, and behavioral adjustment. Participants included 206 children (110 girls; 96 boys; M age = 10.13 years, SD = 1.16) who reported on their implicit theories of peer relationships, social goal orientation, need for approval,…

Rudolph, Karen D.

2010-01-01

441

Psychologic outcomes in implant prosthodontics.  

PubMed

Consensus regarding outcomes of the treatment of tooth loss, especially the psychologic outcomes, is needed to guide discovery of best practices and enable a better understanding of patient management for this chronic condition. This paper presents the findings of the ORONet Psychological Working Group for prosthodontics and aims to identify psychologic outcomes with properties deemed critical to meet clinical trial and clinical practice needs for the future. References obtained using a PubMed/Medline search were reviewed for clinical outcomes measures of interest. Clinical outcomes measures were judged relative to the criteria of truth, discrimination, and feasibility. Of the psychologic outcome measures identified in this systematic review, only the OHIP-14 was thought to be suitable for use in general practice and multi-institutional outcome registries and clinical trials. Development of clinically useful psychologic outcomes for future use could benefit from developmental methods and tools outlined in the patient-related outcomes field of clinical care. PMID:23998140

Bassi, Francesco; Carr, Alan B; Chang, Ting-Ling; Estafanous, Emad W; Garrett, Neal R; Happonen, Risto-Pekka; Koka, Sreenivas; Laine, Juhani; Osswald, Martin; Reintsema, Harry; Rieger, Jana; Roumanas, Eleni; Salinas, Thomas J; Stanford, Clark M; Wolfaardt, Johan

2013-01-01

442

Conditional Fatherhood: Identity Theory and Parental Investment Theory as Alternative Sources of Explanation of Fathering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates identity theory and parental investment theory, two alternative theoretical models of parenting using telephone survey data drawn from a sample of 208 fathers. Identity theory predictors accounted for a greater proportion of variance than the parental investment theory predictors. Study underlines importance of social psychological

Fox, Greer Litton; Bruce, Carol

2001-01-01

443

Psychological aspects of pain.  

PubMed

Introduction. Pain is defined "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage". Pain is a sensation of the body, and is always an unpleasant emotional experience. The role of psychology is auxiliary and supplemental to medicine. This is an aid addressed to the patient, physician and patient's caregivers: professional caregivers, family members and significant others. At each stage of the diagnostic and therapeutic process, psychology offers help, both from the cognitive and practical aspects. Objective. The objective of the article is to present important psychological aspects of studies concerning pain, and the psychological methods and techniques of pain treatment. State of knowledge. Pain is the leading reason for patients seeking medical care and is one of the most disabling, burdensome, and costly conditions. Pain accompanies many diseases, each one of which generates unique/separate diagnostic, therapeutic and research problems. Depression and related psychical disorders. There is a significant relationship between depression and pain symptoms, as well as between pain and suicidal thoughts. Patients with a long history of pain disorders also have increased depression and anxiety symptoms, as well as suicidal thoughts. Patients with more severe depression and anxiety symptoms also have an increase in pain problems. The intensity of pain correlates with the intensity of psychopathological symptoms - both with mood lowering and with anxiety symptoms and worry. Active pain coping strategies strive to function in spite of pain, or to distract oneself from pain, are associated with adaptive functioning. Passive strategies involve withdrawal or relinquishing control to an external force or agent and are related to greater pain and depression. Pain catastrophizing is a negatively distorted perception of pain as awful, horrible and unbearable. Catastrophizing is strongly associated with depression and pain. Studies in which functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used showed that pain catastrophizing, independent of the influence of depression, was significantly associated with increased activity in brain areas related to anticipation of pain, attention to pain, emotional aspects of pain and motor control. Pain behaviour is a conditioned pain. Care and concern on the part of others, secondarily enhance a patient's pain behaviours, which lead to an increase in the intensity of the pain experienced. A history of early life adversity (ELA) - rejection, neglect, physical or sexual abuse is related to the development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in adulthood. Ovarian hormones have been shown to modulate pain sensitivity. Imaging of the human brain in chronic pain. Acute pain and chronic pain are encoded in different regions of the brain. Chronic pain can be considered a driving force that carves cortical anatomy and physiology, creating the chronic pain brain/ mind state. Cognitive-behavioural methods of pain treatment in domains of pain experience, cognitive coping and appraisal (positive coping measures), and reduced pain experience are effective in reducing pain in patients. PMID:25000837

Gorczyca, Rafa?; Filip, Rafa?; Walczak, Ewa

2013-12-30

444

Psychological diagnosis in sexology.  

PubMed

The author presents a model based on verbal and non-verbal instruments in order to elaborate a psychological diagnosis in troubles of sexual behavior. The instruments usually employed are the following: the map aimed at verifying harmony or conflict with significant people; family drawing, another means to check harmony or conflict in the nuclear family; genogram, in order to reconstruct family myths; body drawing aimed at discovering the body parts that give pleasure, uneasiness, annoyance-tickle and the problems connected with genitals; questionnaire on the couple aimed at finding out areas of mutual dissatisfaction; the drawing of the shared space in the couple, represented by the WE area, in order to identify the relational/emotional deficiencies. Using this model we can simplify the anamnesis, focus on the problematic areas, quickly check the unconscious contents and define a diagnosis with the subsequent hypothesis of intervention. PMID:12834033

Giommi, R

2003-01-01

445

Data Analysis Using Item Response Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to illustrate the power of item response theory (IRT) for the item analysis of measurement instruments in psychology. Through illustration, we show that IRT latent variable models fit data from a wide variety of sources and that interpretation of the features of these fitted models leads to interesting insights into the psychology underlying the

David Thissen; Lynne Steinberg

1988-01-01

446

A Theory of Change in Music Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this conceptual work was to provide a theory of curricular change in music education. The author introduced a "Model of Psychological Dimensions," and suggested how it might help the profession conceptualise the nexus between the individual and society. Identity as a manifestation of cultural psychology, and the role and…

Randles, Clint

2013-01-01

447

The Roots of Logo's Educational Theory: An Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines and comments on Logo's educational rationale in light of Piagetian theory and recent studies in information-processing psychology. Two educational problems from which Logo theory has been derived and Logo's responses to these problems are discussed. (MBR)

Bass, Joel E.

1985-01-01

448

Psychological Health in Cancer Survivors  

PubMed Central

Objectives The prevalence of both negative (distress) and positive responses (growth, well-being) to the cancer experience is examined and difficulties in establishing the prevalence of these responses discussed. A conceptual framework for understanding factors associated with psychological health in cancer survivors is presented. Finally, strategies for promoting psychological health in cancer survivors are examined. Data Sources Review of the literature. Conclusions Psychological health in cancer survivors is defined by the presence or absence of distress as well as the presence or absence of positive well-being and psychological growth. Furthermore, psychological health in cancer survivors is determined by the balance between two classes of factors: the stress and burden posed by the cancer experience and the resources available for coping with this stress and burden. Implications for nursing practice In general, promotion of psychological health is based upon the prevention or treatment of distress as well as the encouragement of growth and well-being. Periodic screening for psychological distress across the cancer trajectory is critical to appropriate management of distress.

Andrykowski, Michael A.; Lykins, Emily; Floyd, Andrea

2012-01-01

449

CAREER MOBILITY IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION: A SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

mobility phenomenon. An appealing approach for such an in-depth inquiry into turnover is social learning theory. Social learning theory posits that psychological functioning can be explained in terms of the interaction of personal characteristics, previous behavior (learning) and environmental determinants (Chapman, 1984). This psychological functioning involves valuing certain outcomes, discriminating among situations in terms of their potential to bring about

Tom Grady

1990-01-01

450

Responding mindfully to distressing psychosis: A grounded theory analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the psychological process involved when people with current distressing psychosis learned to respond mindfully to unpleasant psychotic sensations (voices, thoughts, and images). Sixteen participants were interviewed on completion of a mindfulness group program. Grounded theory methodology was used to generate a theory of the core psychological process using a systematically applied set of methods linking analysis with

Nicola Abba; Paul Chadwick; Chris Stevenson

2008-01-01

451

Concepts and folk theories  

PubMed Central

Human cognition is characterized by enormous variability and structured by universal psychological constraints. The focus of this chapter is on the development of knowledge acquisition because it provides important insight into how the mind interprets new information and constructs new ways of understanding. We propose that mental content can be productively approached by examining the intuitive causal explanatory “theories” that people construct to explain, interpret, and intervene on the world around them, including theories of mind, of biology, or of physics. A substantial amount of research in cognitive developmental psychology supports the integral role of intuitive theories in human learning and provides evidence that they structure, constrain, and guide the development of human cognition.

Gelman, Susan A.; Legare, Cristine H.

2013-01-01

452

Voluntarism in early psychology: the case of Hermann von Helmholtz.  

PubMed

The failure to recognize the programmatic similarity between (post-)Kantian German philosophy and early psychology has impoverished psychology's historical self-understanding to a great extent. This article aims to contribute to recent efforts to overcome the gaps in the historiography of contemporary psychology, which are the result of an empiricist bias. To this end, we present an analysis of the way in which Hermann von Helmholtz's theory of perception resonates with Johann Gottlieb Fichte's Ego-doctrine. It will be argued that this indebtedness is particularly clear when focusing on the foundation of the differential awareness of subject and object in perception. In doing so, the widespread reception of Helmholtz's work as proto-positivist or strictly empiricist is challenged, in favor of the claim that important elements of his theorizing can only be understood properly against the background of Fichte's Ego-doctrine. PMID:24818740

De Kock, Liesbet

2014-05-01

453

Sameness and the self: philosophical and psychological considerations  

PubMed Central

In this paper I examine the concept of cross-temporal personal identity (diachronicity). This particular form of identity has vexed theorists for centuries—e.g., how can a person maintain a belief in the sameness of self over time in the face of continual psychological and physical change? I first discuss various forms of the sameness relation and the criteria that justify their application. I then examine philosophical and psychological treatments of personal diachronicity (for example, Locke's psychological connectedness theory; the role of episodic memory) and find each lacking on logical grounds, empirical grounds or both. I conclude that to achieve a successful resolution of the issue of the self as a temporal continuant we need to draw a sharp distinction between the feeling of the sameness of one's self and the evidence marshaled in support of that feeling.

Klein, Stanley B.

2014-01-01

454

Review of the Application of Positive Psychology to Substance Use, Addiction, and Recovery Research  

PubMed Central

Advances in positive psychology have grown exponentially over the past decade. The addictions field has experienced its own growth in a positive direction, embodied by the recovery movement. Despite parallel developments, and great momentum on both sides, there has been little crosspollination. This review introduces positive psychology and the recovery movement, describes the research on positive psychology in the addictions, and discusses future avenues of theory, research, and intervention based on a positive-psychology framework. A systematic review of positive psychology applied to substance use, addiction, and recovery found nine studies which are discussed according to the following themes: theoretical propositions, character strengths and drinking, positive psychology and recovery, positive interventions, and addiction: feeling good and feeling bad. The current scholarship is scant, but diverse, covering a wide range of populations (adults, adolescents, those in and out of treatment), topics (character strengths, recovery, positive affect), and addictive behaviors (work addiction, cigarette smoking, and alcohol use disorders). There is diversity, too, in country of origin, with work originating in the US, UK, Poland, and Spain. The rigorous application of the lens, tools, and approaches of positive psychology to addiction research generally, and to the aims of the recovery movement specifically, has potential for the development of theory and innovation in prevention and intervention. Further, because the work in positive psychology has primarily focused on microsystems, it may be primed to make contributions to the predominantly macro-systems focus of the recovery movement.

Krentzman, Amy R.

2012-01-01

455

BACKGROUND ON THE PSYCHOLEGAL LEXIS PROPOSAL: Exploring the Potential of a Systematic Case Study Database in Forensic Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pragmatic psychology is a recently developed epistemological paradigm that integrates selected elements from each of the opposing sides in forensic psychology: a natural-scientific\\/positivist model that is experimental, group based, quantitatively focused, and deductively theory driven, and a clinical\\/hermeneutic model that is naturalistic, individual case based, qualitatively focused, and inductively description and discovery driven. Applying pragmatic psychology to the psycholegal domain

Daniel B. Fishman

2003-01-01

456

Pascual-Leone's Theory of Constructive Operators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an overview of Pascual-Leone's Theory of Constructive Operators and discusses its implications for issues in developmental psychology. The author concludes that the theory may resolve several anomalies in cognitive- developmental and learning theory approaches to development. One potential problem, the objectivity of task analysis, is…

Chapman, Michael

1981-01-01

457

Psychotherapy Integration: Contributions from Lifestyle Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lifestyle theory of intervention is evaluated with respect to its status as an integrated psychotherapy using theoretical integration, technical eclecticism, and the common factors approach as criteria. Because lifestyle theory integrates concepts from evolutionary biology, existential philosophy, cognitive psychology, social learning theory, and various therapeutic models it satisfies preliminary criteria for theoretical integration. To the extent that it provides

Glenn D. Walters

1998-01-01

458

Functional neuroimaging and psychology: what have you done for me lately?  

PubMed

Functional imaging has become a primary tool in the study of human psychology but is not without its detractors. Although cognitive neuroscientists have made great strides in understanding the neural instantiation of countless cognitive processes, commentators have sometimes argued that functional imaging provides little or no utility for psychologists. And indeed, myriad studies over the last quarter century have employed the technique of brain mapping-identifying the neural correlates of various psychological phenomena-in ways that bear minimally on psychological theory. How can brain mapping be made more relevant to behavioral scientists broadly? Here, we describe three trends that increase precisely this relevance: (i) the use of neuroimaging data to adjudicate between competing psychological theories through forward inference, (ii) isolating neural markers of information processing steps to better understand complex tasks and psychological phenomena through probabilistic reverse inference, and (iii) using brain activity to predict subsequent behavior. Critically, these new approaches build on the extensive tradition of brain mapping, suggesting that efforts in this area-although not initially maximally relevant to psychology-can indeed be used in ways that constrain and advance psychological theory. PMID:23469884

Moran, Joseph M; Zaki, Jamil

2013-06-01

459

A stone in the soup? Changes in sexual prejudice and essentialist beliefs among British students in a class on LGBT psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological theories of sexual orientation, typically presented in human sexuality classes, are considered by many social psychologists to cause reductions in students' sexual prejudice. Yet when biological theories were not presented to 36 psychology students in a 10-week seminar on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) psychology, both sexual prejudice and two forms of essentialist thinking reduced significantly. Prejudice reduction

Peter Hegarty

2010-01-01

460

Psychological Consequences of Sexual Trauma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The psychological consequences of sexual trauma among survivors have been widely studied, but research investigations continue, in part, because rates of violence against girls and women remain high. The National Violence Against Women Survey found that 1...

M. Stone M. P. Koss N. P. Yuan

2006-01-01

461

Interactional Psychology and Organizational Behavior.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper first reviews some of the classic recent writings on interactional psychology and then presents an interpretation of current thinking about job attitudes, socialization to work, and leadership from the interactionist perspective. In the review,...

B. Schneider

1982-01-01

462

Prospects for a Positive Psychology of Rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positive psychology explores factors that make life worth living and the human strengths that enable individuals to confront challenges, appreciate others, and regard daily experiences as meaningful. This nascent area's focus can inform the direction of future research and practice in rehabilitation psychology. The authors discuss rehabilitation psychology's positive core strengths, identify positive psychology's levels of analysis and the implications

Dana S. Dunn; Sarah B. Dougherty

2005-01-01

463

Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the 2005 American Psychological Association Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology. After describing the rationale and results of this task force, the authors review the literature that has appeared following the approval of the Policy Statement on Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology by the American Psychological Association Council of Representatives, with reference to the implications

Ronald F. Levant; Nadia T. Hasan

2008-01-01

464

The professional practice of educational psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the potential for the field of educational psychology to move beyond psychology-applied-to-education to develop a unique professional practice component. We argue that many of the things educational psychologists are trained to do and have been doing for years fall within the service provider domain. Educational psychology is the only subfield of psychology to focus on the design

John C. Houtz; Carol D. Lewis

1994-01-01

465

Raising Students' Awareness of Women in Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The near invisibility of women's contributions to psychology is a serious problem in the teaching of psychology. We tested the effectiveness of a teaching exercise aimed at increasing students' awareness of women's contributions to psychology. The exercise involved making, displaying, and examining posters about women in psychology. Students (a)…

Moradi, Bonnie; Townsend, Deborah T.

2006-01-01

466

The Three Faces of Social Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social psychology's current crisis largely reflects the division of the field into three increasingly isolated domains: psychological social psychology, symbolic interactionism, and psychological sociology. Brief critical discussion of these facets indicates that the strengths of each complement the weaknesses in the others, highlighting a need…

House, James S.

1977-01-01

467

A psychological approach to information technology security  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses from a psychological standpoint how human and more generally psychological dimensions were taken in consideration by the recent literature related to information technology security. We discuss three main psychologically relevant dimensions such as cognitive hacking, hackers profiling and human errors and distinguish four distinct levels of psychological approaches to information security.

Ivan Enrici; Mario Ancilli; Antonio Lioy

2010-01-01

468

An empirical analysis of trends in psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research examined trends in the prominence of 4 widely recognized schools in scientific psychology: psy- choanalysis, behaviorism, cognitive psychology, and neu- roscience. The results, which replicated across 3 measures of prominence, showed the following trends: (a) psychoan- alytic research has been virtually ignored by mainstream scientific psychology over the past several decades; (b) behavioral psychology has declined in

Richard W. Robins; Samuel D. Gosling; Kenneth H. Craik

1999-01-01

469

The Future of Feminist Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The future status of the field of the psychology of women can be examined by looking at the reasons for the existence of the field. Any field of exploration consists of three components, i.e., a set of scholars, a domain of inquiry, and a methodology. The scholars involved in the psychology of women form a group on the basis of both achieved and…

Reinharz, Shulamit

470

Psychological empowerment: Issues and illustrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussed several issues related to psychological empowerment. The thesis of this paper is that the development of a universal\\u000a and global measure of psychological empowerment may not be a feasible or appropriate goal. I begin by distinguishing between\\u000a empowerment processes and outcomes. Underlying assumptions are discussed including the notion that empowerment differs across\\u000a people, contexts, and times. A nomological network

Marc A. Zimmerman

1995-01-01

471

Psychological aspects of nuclear war  

SciTech Connect

Exploring the nature of nuclear war, this treatise examines human reaction to nuclear disaster and accidental explosions. The discussion is based on evidence of human fallibility that has emerged from the psychology of accidents and from research into decision-making in military and political contexts. The book draws on the psychology of negotiation and conflict resolution to suggest ways in which the threat of nuclear war might be reduced.

Thompson, J.

1985-01-01

472

American Psychology’s Struggles With Its Curriculum: Should a Thousand Flowers Bloom?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although discussions of a core curriculum in doctoral training in psychology can be heard in contemporary psychology, there is no such common core, nor has one ever existed in American psychology’s history. Advocates of a core curriculum argue that it ensures breadth of training, an outcome made even more important by growing specialization in psychology, and that it provides psychologists

Ludy T. Benjamin

2001-01-01

473

Publication and Research Trends in Police Psychology: A Review of Five Forensic Psychology Journals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Police psychology (PP) articles in five forensic psychology journals (Behavioral Sciences and the Law; Criminal Justice and Behavior; Law and Human Behavior; Legal and Criminological Psychology; Psychology, Crime, and Law) were identified in order to examine PP publication and research trends within the field of forensic psychology. A level\\u000a of interest (LI) score was calculated by dividing the total number

Brent Snook; Brandy Doan; Richard M. Cullen; Jennifer M. Kavanagh; Joseph Eastwood

2009-01-01

474

Reestablishing clinical psychology's subjective core.  

PubMed

Comments on the report by the APA Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice entitled Evidence-based practice in psychology. The Task Force is to be commended for their report valuing evidence from "clinical expertise" on a par with "research data" (p. 272) in guiding psychological practices. The current author suggests that the APA not only should make a place at psychology's policy making table for "clinical expertise" but should prioritize clinical and subjective sources of data -- the essence of the psychological -- and set policies to ensure that objective data, such as behaviors and DSM diagnoses, are considered in their subjective context. The APA should also encourage researchers to devise ways to preserve as much as possible the personal "feel" of the clinical encounter in their data analysis and published conclusions. The APA also needs to assign priority to subjective emotional and relational skills on a par with academic and analytic skills in the selection and training of clinical psychology students. Reconnecting clinical psychology with its subjective evidentiary roots in ways such as these should help to bring us out from under the dominance of medicine, to the benefit of our profession and our clients. PMID:17874915

Hunsberger, Peter Hume

2007-09-01

475

Teaching Clinical (and Nonclinical) Psychology through Applications to the Legal System: Violence Risk Assessment and the Insanity Defense  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prediction of dangerousness and the insanity defense are two areas where psychologists provide research-based expertise to the courts. Teachers of psychology can use these topics to capture the attention of students and to show how psychological research and theory can inform and influence the legal system. Specifically, teachers can use the…

Costanzo, Marina L.; Costanzo, Mark A.

2013-01-01

476

Introduction to the Special Section on Racial and Ethnic Identity in Counseling Psychology: Conceptual and Methodological Challenges and Proposed Solutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Racial and ethnic identity development have been important topics in counseling psychology research for the last four decades. At present, however, there appears to be some confusion and debate regarding the quality of theory and measurement in the topical area. The present article serves as an introduction to this Journal of Counseling Psychology

Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Mallinckrodt, Brent

2007-01-01

477

Implications of the Learner-Centered Psychological Principles and Self-Assessment Tools for Teacher Education Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Learner-Centered Battery was administered to 38 teachers and 655 students in grades 6 through 12 in a rural school district as part of a national validation study. This Battery, developed from the theory and research base represented in the "Learner-Centered Psychological Principles" (American Psychological Association and the Mid-continent…

Fasko, Daniel, Jr.; Grubb, Deborah J.

478

The Relationship between Self-Appraisal, Professional Training, and Diversity Awareness among Forensic Psychology Students: A Pilot Formative Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Currently, there is a growing need for formal training in forensic psychology. This pilot study examines the relational-behavior model (RBM) as a method of intrinsic motivational instruction, perceived academic competence, and program competency among a sample of forensic psychology students. In theory, the RBM suggests that self-appraisal,…

Chandler, Donald S., Jr.; Chandler, Michele D.; Clark, Quelanda C.

2009-01-01

479

A New Stress-Based Model of Political Extremism: Personal Exposure to Terrorism, Psychological Distress, and Exclusionist Political Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Does exposure to terrorism lead to hostility toward minorities? Drawing on theories from clinical and social psychology, we propose a stress-based model of political extremism in which psychological distress--which is largely overlooked in political scholarship--and threat perceptions mediate the relationship between exposure to terrorism and…

Canetti-Nisim, Daphna; Halperin, Eran; Sharvit, Keren; Hobfoll, Stevan E.

2009-01-01

480

Artifact as theory-nexus: hermeneutics meets theory-based design  

Microsoft Academic Search

We suggest that HCI designs characteristically embody multiple, distinct psychological claims, that virtually every aspect of a system's usability is overdetermined by independent psychological rationales inherent in its design. These myriad claims cohere in being implemented together in a running system. Thus, HCI artifacts themselves are perhaps the most effective medium for theory development in HCI. We advance a framework

John M. Carroll; Wendy A. Kellogg

1989-01-01

481

War, Death, and Cognitive Dissonance A Case Study for Social Psychology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case study explores cognitive dissonance theory, a theory proposed by psychologist Leon Festinger in 1956 to explain the tension that exists when peoples’ attitudes are incongruent with their behaviors. Students read a news article describing how residents of a town in Ohio are coping with the rising death toll among Ohio soldiers fighting in Iraq. They are then asked to evaluate the theory and to propose alternative explanations for the evidence in the article. Designed for use in social psychology courses, the case would also be appropriate for introductory psychology courses.

Mcminn, Jamie G.

2006-01-01

482

Stressful Work, Psychological Job Strain, and Turnover: A 2Year Prospective Cohort Study of Truck Drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a model that combines existing organizational stress theory and job transition theory, this 2-year longitudinal study examined antecedents and consequences of turnover among Dutch truck drivers. For this purpose, self-reported data on stressful work (job demands and control), psychological strain (need for recovery after work and fatigue), and turnover were obtained from 820 drivers in 1998 and 2000.

Einar M. de Croon; Judith K. Sluiter; Roland W. B. Blonk; Jake P. J. Broersen; Monique H. W. Frings-Dresen

2004-01-01

483

Creating a Psychological Foundation for the Evaluation of Pre-Packaged Software in Second Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper attempts to merge specific psychological theories of knowledge acquisition, the impact of pictures on cognitive processes, and theories of effective pedagogical approaches to foreign language learning, in order to assess commercially available software for its effectiveness, specific impact on learning, and classroom uses. The first…

Saury, Rachel E.

484

Quantum physics in neuroscience and psychology: A neurophysicalmodel o f mind/brain interaction  

SciTech Connect

Contemporary physical theory brings directly and irreducibly into the overall causal structure certain psychologically described choices made by human beings about how they will act. This key development in basic physical theory is applicable to neuroscience, and it provides neuroscientists and psychologists with an alternative conceptual structure for describing neural processes.

Stapp, Henry P.; Schwartz, Jeffrey M.; Beauregard, Mario

2004-06-01

485

The Psychology of Advanced Mathematical Thinking: Biological Brain and Mathematical Mind  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses attention on psychological evidence of relevance to advanced mathematical thinking. It considers Edelman's theory of neural Darwinism and Paivio's theory of dual coding and contemplates how they reveal different perspectives in mathematics education. The former is consonant with the notion of concept image with both supportive and conflicting mental resonances, the latter is consonant with the complementary

David Tall

1991-01-01

486

Towards a Psychological Frame for Explicating Student Unrest in Nigerian Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focused on three dominant psychological theories--Cognitive Dissonance, Relative Deprivation and Campus Ecology that have been evolved to explain student unrest, to determine their ability to account for the phenomenon in Nigerian universities. It found that none of the theories could all alone holistically account for all the causal…

Aluede, Oyaziwo; Imhanlahimi, Joseph E.

2004-01-01

487

Boosting the Potency of Resistance: Combining the Motivational Forces of Inoculation and Psychological Reactance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The efficacy of inoculation theory has been confirmed by decades of empirical research, yet optimizing its effectiveness remains a vibrant line of investigation. The present research turns to psychological reactance theory for a means of enhancing the core mechanisms of inoculation--threat and refutational preemption. Findings from a multisite…

Miller, Claude H.; Ivanov, Bobi; Sims, Jeanetta; Compton, Josh; Harrison, Kylie J.; Parker, Kimberly A.; Parker, James L.; Averbeck, Joshua M.

2013-01-01

488

Fulfilment of the Basic Psychological Needs of Student Teachers during Their First Teaching Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on an under-researched area, namely the fulfilment of basic psychological needs of student teachers during their first teaching experiences. Based on the Self-determination Theory of Ryan and Deci [(2002). Overview of self-determination theory: An organismic dialectical perspective. In E.L. Deci, R.M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of…

Evelein, Frits; Korthagen, Fred; Brekelmans, Mieke

2008-01-01

489

Essential Paul Meehl lessons for personality assessment psychology.  

PubMed

The author presents four essential Meehl lessons for personality assessment. First, Meehl's particular form of the integration of science and practice is described. Second, by outlining Meehl's Hedonic Capacity conjecture, Meehl's contribution to the inclusion of personality individual differences in generating the full clinical picture and in planning treatment is recognized. The third Meehl lesson is on the nature and importance of theory in test development and application programs. The fourth Meehl lesson is a more general epistemological lesson for psychology. Meehl's role in destroying the fantasy of an easy methodological formula for a scientific psychology is described. His program of taxometric research is shown to be an example of demanding greater material implications from theory. Meehl's corroboration index is described and contrasted with the p value of statistical significance testing. PMID:16041783

Harkness, Allan R

2005-10-01

490

A Model for a Doctor of Psychology Program in Forensic Psychology: Curriculum and Rationale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overview of the objectives and courses of a doctoral program in forensic psychology is provided. Forensic psychology is the application of psychological methods, principles, and skills to the relevant needs of the legal system. (DE)

Fenster, C. Abraham; And Others

1976-01-01

491

Evaluation of the Psychology Place: A Web-Based Instructional Tool for Psychology Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the results of a study that examined the effectiveness of assignments from the Web site "Psychology Place." Focuses on its use in an introductory psychology course," Psychology as a Natural Science" with undergraduate students (n=94). (CMK)

Wilson, Steffen Pope; Harris, Amy

2002-01-01

492

Affirmation of Personal Values Buffers Neuroendocrine and Psychological Stress Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress is implicated in the development and progressionofabroadarrayofmentalandphysicalhealth disorders. Theory and research on the self suggest that self-affirming activities may buffer these adverse effects. This study experimentally investigated whether affirma- tions of personal values attenuate physiological and psychological stress responses. Eighty-five participants completed either avalue-affirmationtaskoracontroltask prior to participating in a laboratory stress challenge. Participants who affirmed their values had significantly

J. David Creswell; William T. Welch; Shelley E. Taylor; David K. Sherman; Tara L. Gruenewald; Traci Mann

2005-01-01

493

Philosophy of Psychology at the Turn of the Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The philosophy of psychology at the turn of the century was an amalgam of perspectives and commitments—experimental science, Darwinian theory, positivism—forged partly out of achievements in experimental science and partly in response to transcendentalist (Hegelian) challenges. The amalgam itself appeared as an early version of the positivism that became developed and dominant early in the 20th century. For many psychologists

Daniel N. Robinson

2000-01-01

494

History of experimental psychology from an Estonian perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short review of the development of experimental psychology from an Estonian perspective is presented. The first rector after\\u000a the reopening of the University of Dorpat (Tartu) in 1802, Georg Friedrich Parrot (1767–1852) was interested in optical phenomena\\u000a which he attempted to explain by introducing the concept of unconscious inferences, anticipating a similar theory proposed\\u000a by Herman von Helmholtz 20 years

Jüri Allik

2007-01-01

495

The Self and the Psychology of Domestic Homicide-Suicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Men commit the vast majority of domestic homicide-suicides (H-Ss) wherein a person kills their intimate partner (and\\/or other family members) before taking their own life. Studies of men who commit H-S have looked at the act from psychopathology and evolutionary psychology viewpoints. To complement those approaches, this article presents additional views of domestic H-S. Applications of theories from social (escape

Andrew Starzomski; David Nussbaum

2000-01-01

496

Missed Opportunities: Speculation on What Japanese Psychology Could Have Been  

Microsoft Academic Search

Takasuna (Integr. Physiol. Behav. Sci. 41, 2007) mentioned the ease with which evolutionary theory was accepted by Japanese psychologists, and certainly this is admirable.\\u000a He also mentioned the stubborn force which had to be used to gain an understanding of the (thoroughly Western) subjective–objective\\u000a distinction. Alas, during the formative years of Japanese psychology, there was much philosophical work afoot attempting

Eric P. Charles

2007-01-01

497

Investor Psychology and Security Market Under and Overreactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a theory of securities market under- and overreactions based on two well-known psychological biases: investor overconfidence about the precision of private information; and biased self-attribution, which causes asymmetric shifts in investors' confidence as a function of their investment outcomes. We show that overconfidence implies negative long-lag autocorrelations, excess volatility, and, when managerial actions are correlated with stock mispricing,

Kent Daniel; David Hirshleifer; Avanidhar Subrahmanyam

1998-01-01

498

Phenomenological Approaches in Psychology and Health Sciences  

PubMed Central

A whole family of qualitative methods is informed by phenomenological philosophy. When applying these methods, the material is analyzed using concepts from this philosophy to interrogate the findings and to enable greater theoretical analysis. However, the phenomenological approach represents different approaches, from pure description to those more informed by interpretation. Phenomenological philosophy developed from a discipline focusing on thorough descriptions, and only descriptions, toward a greater emphasis on interpretation being inherent in experience. An analogous development toward a broader acknowledgment of the need for interpretation, the influence of the relationship and the researcher, and the co-construction of the narrative is mirrored in qualitative analytic theory and the description of newer analytic methods as, for example, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis and Critical Narrative Analysis, methods which are theoretically founded in phenomenology. This methodological development and the inevitable contribution of interpretation are illustrated by a case from my own research about psychological interventions and the process of understanding in general practice.

Davidsen, Annette Sofie

2013-01-01

499

Psychological effects of weight retained after pregnancy.  

PubMed

This study is a prospective investigation of the effect of weight retained after pregnancy on weight satisfaction, self-esteem and depressive affect, utilising the framework provided by expectancy-value theory. Self-report data were obtained from 115 women who were in the last month of their first pregnancy, and then again a month following the birth. On average women were heavier four weeks after having their baby than they were prior to becoming pregnant, and were less satisfied with their post-natal weight and shape. They were also slightly heavier than they had anticipated, particularly in the case of the younger women. Actual post-natal weight proved the most important predictor of psychological well-being following birth. PMID:9253140

Jenkin, W; Tiggemann, M

1997-01-01

500

E-Psychology: Consumers' Attitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Securing psychological supervision, consultations and help during long lasting flights is vital condition for success. That's why, knowing in details consumers (clients) attitude toward virtual psychology services is essential. Knowledge gained during nowadays studies on Earth will definitely help in the preparation for the future. The presentation focuses on results of a longitudinal survey assessing clients' attitudes toward e-psychology service. The first part of the survey was performed in spring 2006, while the second - in 2008. The study is part of an ongoing project OHN 1514/2005, funded by National Science Fund, Bulgaria. Project's strategic goal is to develop and offer a virtual high quality psychological service to people from remotes areas that have no contact with licensed psychologist. The project enables experts to communicate directly with clients and perform remote consultations, supervision, etc. The objective of this presentation is to report changes and trends in clients' attitude towards innovative virtual psychology care. Both parts of the survey involved men and women between 19 and 70 year, who defend various opinions on the application of virtual technologies for healthcare. The sample is stratifies for age, gender, education level.

Jordanova, Malina; Vasileva, Lidia; Rasheva, Maximka; Bojinova, Rumiana