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Sample records for psychological theory

  1. Theory and Motivational Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, John W.

    Motivational psychology and test theory are compared in this discussion, which focuses on distinguishing the effects of motivation and of ability on test performance and educational achievement. Recent theory in achievement motivation considers the motivational significance of future goals as they affect present activities that are instrumental in…

  2. Self Psychology as Feminist Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardiner, Judith Kegan

    1987-01-01

    Although the "self psychology" theories of Heinz Kohut tend to neglect gender, they hold promise for feminist theory because they avoid some problems and limitations of the object-relations theory, especially its conflation of femininity with heterosexuality and apparent closure to historical change. Feminist self-psychology theory, in contrast,…

  3. Judgment Theory and School Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Candace W.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews criticism of research on judgmental biases in cognitive psychology and recommends using caution in applying the findings of this research to research in school psychology. Provides suggestions regarding the potential of theory in cognitive psychology to reconcile discrepant findings in selected research on special education decision…

  4. Personality theory, abnormal psychology, and psychological measurement. A psychological behaviorism.

    PubMed

    Staats, A W

    1993-01-01

    Behaviorism, because it has not had a theory of personality, has been separated from the rest of psychology, unable in large part to draw from or contribute to it. Traditional psychology has not had a theory of personality that says what personality is, how it comes about, or how it functions. An antagonism has resulted that weakens rather than complements each tradition. Psychological behaviorism presents a new type of theory of personality. Derived from experimentation, it is constructed from basic theories of emotion, language, and sensory-motor behavior. It says personality is composed of learned basic behavioral repertoires (BBRs) that affect behavior. Personality measurement instruments are analyzed in terms of the BBRs, beginning the behaviorization of this field and calling for much additional research. These multilevel developments are then basic in psychological behaviorism's theory of abnormal behavior and of clinical treatment. The approach opens many new avenues of empirical and theoretical work. PMID:8439278

  5. The Psychology of Working Theory.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Ryan D; Blustein, David L; Diemer, Matthew A; Autin, Kelsey L

    2016-03-01

    In the current article, we build on research from vocational psychology, multicultural psychology, intersectionality, and the sociology of work to construct an empirically testable Psychology of Working Theory (PWT). Our central aim is to explain the work experiences of all individuals, but particularly people near or in poverty, people who face discrimination and marginalization in their lives, and people facing challenging work-based transitions for which contextual factors are often the primary drivers of the ability to secure decent work. The concept of decent work is defined and positioned as the central variable within the theory. A series of propositions is offered concerning (a) contextual predictors of securing decent work, (b) psychological and economic mediators and moderators of these relations, and (c) outcomes of securing decent work. Recommendations are suggested for researchers seeking to use the theory and practical implications are offered concerning counseling, advocacy, and public policy. PMID:26937788

  6. [Psychological theory and implicit sociology.].

    PubMed

    Sévigny, R

    1983-01-01

    This text is based on the hypothesis that every theory on the psychology of personality must inevitably, in one manner or another, have a sociological referent, that is to say, it must refer to a body of knowledge which deals with a diversity of social contexts and their relations to individuals. According to this working hypothesis, such a sociology is implicit. This text then discusses a group of theoretical approaches in an effort to verify this hypothesis. This approach allows the extrication of diverse forms or diverse expressions of this implicit sociology within this context several currents are rapidly explored : psychoanalysis, behaviorism, gestalt, classical theory of needs. The author also comments on the approach, inspired by oriental techniques or philosophies, which employs the notion of myth to deepen self awareness. Finally, from the same perspective, he comments at greater length on the work of Carl Rogers, highlighting the diverse form of implicit sociology. In addition to Carl Rogers, this text refers to Freud, Jung, Adler, Reich, Perls, Goodman, Skinner as well as to Ginette Paris and various analysts of Taoism. In conclusion, the author indicates the significance of his analysis from double viewpoint of psychological theory and practice. PMID:17093766

  7. The Psychological Import of Syntactic Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereplyotchik, David

    2012-01-01

    My primary goal is to assess whether, and in what sense, the rules or principles of grammar are psychologically real. I begin by casting doubt on a received view in generative linguistics, according to which a true theory of the syntax of natural language would, ipso facto, be a theory of a psychological state or mechanism. I argue that a…

  8. Applying Psychological Theories to Educational Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Two approaches to the application of psychological theories to education might be referred to as domain-general and domain-specific. The domain-general approach seeks a general theory of cognitive and other skills that apply across subject-matter areas. The domain-specific approach seeks to apply specific theories within given domains, such as…

  9. Toward an Integrative Theory of Psychological Defense.

    PubMed

    Hart, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    According to theories of "psychological defense," humans are motivated to protect themselves against various types of psychological threat, including death awareness, uncertainty, and other inherently anxiety-provoking experiences. Protective mechanisms include strengthening close relationships; maintaining appraisals of self-worth, accomplishment, and agency; and cultivating meaningful views of the world. Thus, defensiveness theories incorporate research from many areas of psychology (e.g., information-processing biases, attitudes, and interpersonal and intergroup relations), to help explain why people think, feel, and act in the diverse ways that they do. Currently, the study of psychological defense is hindered by contradictory empirical results and a proliferation of theories that make very similar predictions. This article examines a cross-section of defensiveness theories and research, highlighting conclusions that can be drawn and areas where conceptual and research problems linger. It suggests that the field needs methodological innovation (e.g., more reliable and valid manipulations and measures of unconscious constructs, more diverse methodological approaches), a more complete and reliable body of data, and some fresh new ideas from psychological scientists across disciplines. PMID:26173238

  10. Psychological theories of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Brewin, Chris R; Holmes, Emily A

    2003-05-01

    We summarize recent research on the psychological processes implicated in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as an aid to evaluating theoretical models of the disorder. After describing a number of early approaches, including social-cognitive, conditioning, information-processing, and anxious apprehension models of PTSD, the article provides a comparative analysis and evaluation of three recent theories: Foa and Rothbaum's [Foa, E. B. & Rothbaum, B. O. (1998). Treating the trauma of rape: cognitive behavioral therapy for PTSD. New York: Guilford Press] emotional processing theory; Brewin, Dalgleish, and Joseph's [Psychological Review 103 (1996) 670] dual representation theory; Ehlers and Clark's [Behaviour Research and Therapy 38 (2000) 319] cognitive theory. We review empirical evidence relevant to each model and identify promising areas for further research. PMID:12729677

  11. Incorporating Evolutionary Theory into the Teaching of Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Argues for a greater and more explicit use of evolutionary theory in psychology courses. Provides examples of ways that this strategy can help students think critically about classic psychological theories, understand the importance of narrower domain-specific theories, and comprehend the rationales behind cross-species comparison in psychology.…

  12. Darwinian Theory, Functionalism, and the First American Psychological Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Christopher D.

    2009-01-01

    American functionalist psychology constituted an effort to model scientific psychology on the successes of English evolutionary theory. In part it was a response to the stagnation of Wundt's psychological research program, which had been grounded in German experimental physiology. In part it was an attempt to make psychology more appealing within…

  13. Application of Chaos Theory to Psychological Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackerby, Rae Fortunato

    This dissertation shows that an alternative theoretical approach from physics--chaos theory--offers a viable basis for improved understanding of human beings and their behavior. Chaos theory provides achievable frameworks for potential identification, assessment, and adjustment of human behavior patterns. Most current psychological models fail to address the metaphysical conditions inherent in the human system, thus bringing deep errors to psychological practice and empirical research. Freudian, Jungian and behavioristic perspectives are inadequate psychological models because they assume, either implicitly or explicitly, that the human psychological system is a closed, linear system. On the other hand, Adlerian models that require open systems are likely to be empirically tenable. Logically, models will hold only if the model's assumptions hold. The innovative application of chaotic dynamics to psychological behavior is a promising theoretical development because the application asserts that human systems are open, nonlinear and self-organizing. Chaotic dynamics use nonlinear mathematical relationships among factors that influence human systems. This dissertation explores these mathematical relationships in the context of a sample model of moral behavior using simulated data. Mathematical equations with nonlinear feedback loops describe chaotic systems. Feedback loops govern the equations' value in subsequent calculation iterations. For example, changes in moral behavior are affected by an individual's own self-centeredness, family and community influences, and previous moral behavior choices that feed back to influence future choices. When applying these factors to the chaos equations, the model behaves like other chaotic systems. For example, changes in moral behavior fluctuate in regular patterns, as determined by the values of the individual, family and community factors. In some cases, these fluctuations converge to one value; in other cases, they diverge in

  14. From Theory of Work Adjustment to Person-Environment Correspondence Counseling: Vocational Psychology as Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggerth, Donald E.

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that vocational psychology is, and has been, positive psychology. It provides an overview of the theory of work adjustment (TWA), one of the most robust and best validated theories in vocational psychology. It also provides an introduction to person-environment-correspondence (PEC) counseling, an extension of the TWA concepts…

  15. Darwinian theory, functionalism, and the first American psychological revolution.

    PubMed

    Green, Christopher D

    2009-01-01

    American functionalist psychology constituted an effort to model scientific psychology on the successes of English evolutionary theory. In part it was a response to the stagnation of Wundt's psychological research program, which had been grounded in German experimental physiology. In part it was an attempt to make psychology more appealing within the highly pragmatic American context and to facilitate the application of psychology to domains outside of the scientific laboratory. Applications of psychology that emerged from the functionalist ethos included child and developmental psychology, clinical psychology, psychological testing, and industrial/vocational psychology. Functionalism was also the ground within which behaviorism rooted and grew into the dominant form of psychology through the middle of the 20th century. PMID:19203139

  16. Toward a Theory of Psychological Type Congruence for Advertisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Michael H.; And Others

    Focusing on the impact of advertisers' persuasive selling messages on consumers, this paper discusses topics relating to the theory of psychological type congruence. Based on an examination of persuasion theory and relevant psychological concepts, including recent cognitive stability and personality and needs theory and the older concept of…

  17. The Place and Promise of Theory in Rehabilitation Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Dana S.; Elliott, Timothy R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Although rehabilitation psychology is more focused on empirical evidence and clinical application than theory development, we argue for the primacy of theory, and explain why theories are needed in and useful for rehabilitation psychology. Impediments to theory development are discussed, including the difficulties of applying psychological theories in multidisciplinary enterprises, and the difficulties in developing a theory-driven research program. We offer suggestions by reviewing research settings, knowledge gained through controlled studies, grantsmanship, and then identify topical areas where new theories are needed. We remind researcher-practitioners that rehabilitation psychology benefits from a judicious mix of scientific rigor and real-world vigor. Conclusions We close by advocating for theory-driven research programs that embrace a methodological pluralism, which will in turn advance new theory, produce meaningful research programs that inform practice, and realize the goals of this special issue of Rehabilitation Psychology—advances in research and methodology. PMID:19649146

  18. School Psychology Research: Combining Ecological Theory and Prevention Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Matthew K.

    2011-01-01

    The current article comments on the importance of theoretical implications within school psychological research, and proposes that ecological theory and prevention science could provide the conceptual framework for school psychology research and practice. Articles published in "School Psychology Review" should at least discuss potential…

  19. Construal-Level Theory of Psychological Distance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trope, Yaacov; Liberman, Nira

    2010-01-01

    People are capable of thinking about the future, the past, remote locations, another person's perspective, and counterfactual alternatives. Without denying the uniqueness of each process, it is proposed that they constitute different forms of traversing psychological distance. Psychological distance is egocentric: Its reference point is the self…

  20. A Social Extension of a Psychological Interest Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bikner-Ahsbahs, Angelika

    2003-01-01

    Based on an individual interest theory as a sensitising theory, empirical data are used to gain social interest concepts, as there are situated collective interest and interest-dense situation. These concepts serve as a basis for a social extension of a psychological interest theory. Its construction combines social interactions, the dynamic of…

  1. HANDBOOK OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY, PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY AND RESEARCH. MCGRAW-HILL SERIES IN PSYCHOLOGY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ELLIS, NORMAN R.

    THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF 21 AUTHORS IN THIS VOLUME ARE DEVOTED TO ASSESSING THE STATUS OF RESEARCH AND THEORY IN MENTAL DEFICIENCY, FOCUSING ATTENTION ON THE BEHAVIOR OF THE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED. PART ONE IS CONCERNED WITH RESEARCH FINDINGS AND THEORIES TO EXPLAIN MENTAL DEFICIENCY. COMPREHENSIVE PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES REPRESENTED INCLUDE FIELD…

  2. Game Theory and Social Psychology: Conformity Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessio, Danielle; Kilgour, D. Marc

    2011-11-01

    Game models can contribute to understanding of how social biases and pressures to conform can lead to puzzling behaviour in social groups. A model of the psychological biases false uniqueness and false consensus is set out. The model predicts the phenomenon of pluralistic ignorance, which is well-studied in social psychology, showing how it arises as a result of the prevalence of false uniqueness and the desire to conform. An efficient method is developed for finding Nash equilibria of the model under certain restrictions.

  3. Shopping around for Theories for Counseling Psychology Practice: Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Clara E.

    2012-01-01

    Three psychotherapy theories are summarized and critiqued for their applicability to counseling psychology. The lack of attention to psychodynamic and experiential theories in the special section and the lack of theorizing by counseling psychologists in general are lamented. A plea is made for encouraging counseling psychologists to construct more…

  4. Cognitive Psychology and Audience-Oriented Dramatic Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratt, David

    Cognitive psychology's most useful contribution to dramatic theory is the concept of schemata, or the mental structures that make up part of the perceptual cycle. In regard to an audience-oriented dramatic theory, this suggests that analysis of a script ought to identify the sorts of schemata that are to be aroused in the audience's minds and the…

  5. The Myth of Cognitive Consistency: Psychological Theories and Intimate Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Sandra V.

    Several psychological theories are viable when examining the victims of intimate violence, specifically battered women. Although cognitive consistency models view individuals as striving toward balanced cognitive states, battered women can exist with the cognitive inconsistency of being harmed by men who love them. The theory of cognitive arousal…

  6. Prospect theory or construal level theory? Diminishing sensitivity vs. psychological distance in risky decisions.

    PubMed

    Trautmann, Stefan T; van de Kuilen, Gijs

    2012-01-01

    Attitudes toward risks are central to organizational decisions. These attitudes are commonly modeled by prospect theory. Construal level theory has been proposed as an alternative theory of risky choice, accounting for psychological distance deriving from temporal, spatial and social aspects of risk that are typical of agency situations. Unnoticed in the literature, the two theories make contradicting predictions. The current study investigates which theory provides a better description of risky decisions in the presence of temporal, spatial, and social factors. We find that the psychophysical effects modeled by prospect theory dominate the psychological distance effects of construal level theory. PMID:22011526

  7. Construal-Level Theory of Psychological Distance

    PubMed Central

    Trope, Yaacov; Liberman, Nira

    2011-01-01

    People are capable of thinking about the future, the past, remote locations, another person’s perspective, and counterfactual alternatives. Without denying the uniqueness of each process, it is proposed that they constitute different forms of traversing psychological distance. Psychological distance is egocentric: Its reference point is the self in the here and now, and the different ways in which an object might be removed from that point—in time, in space, in social distance, and in hypotheticality—constitute different distance dimensions. Transcending the self in the here and now entails mental construal, and the farther removed an object is from direct experience, the higher (more abstract) the level of construal of that object. Supporting this analysis, research shows (a) that the various distances are cognitively related to each other, (b) that they similarly influence and are influenced by level of mental construal, and (c) that they similarly affect prediction, preference, and action. PMID:20438233

  8. Psychological adjustment to physical disability: trends in theories.

    PubMed

    Shontz, F C

    1978-06-01

    Explanations of psychological reactions to physical disability have recently tended to ascribe maladjustment to environmental rather than to personal causes. Historically, common-sense theories were first replaced by metalistic doctrines. These, in turn, were later supplemented by theories that integrated mentalism with environmentalism and by approaches that recognized only environmental causes of behavior. Each theory makes a unique contribution to rehabilitation. Consequently, unification rather than elimination should be the goal of future theoretical development. PMID:149525

  9. Psychological Theory Seeks to Define Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgard, Debby

    1993-01-01

    Examines various psychodynamic and behavioral theories in a discussion about obesity and mental health. It is revealed that modern theory finds no identifiable personality profile, behavior, or family structure influencing large weight gain thus discounting psychopathology as the cause of obesity. Individual assessments for causes of obesity are…

  10. Psychoanalytic self psychology and its conceptual development in light of developmental psychology, attachment theory, and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Hans-Peter

    2009-04-01

    The chapter starts with a historical overview of the subject of narcissism in psychoanalysis. Some sociophilosophical definitions of narcissism are explained and the connection to self psychology is described. It is especially referred to Honneth's Struggle for Recognition, which is related to the need for selfobject experiences. An outline of different concepts concerning narcissism, especially in the European psychoanalytic tradition, follows and leads to a clearer understanding of Kohut's conception of the self and its selfobjects. Because self psychology can often be understood as applied developmental psychology, useful links to attachment research are described and the move to the level of representation by mentalization is clarified. Further development of self psychology in the direction of intersubjectivity helps to supply connections to systems theory. Recently developed theories of empathy with reference to neurobiological findings provide a dynamic perspective of the activation of empathy. Thus, empathy seems to be better understood as a sort of contagion on which cognitive cortical processes are superimposed. Finally, the therapeutic process in psychoanalytic self psychology is portrayed. This process implies a disruption and repair process by which transmuting internalization can take place. More current theories of self psychology view this process in its essence intersubjectively as a co-construction between patient and analyst. The paper concludes with some hints for a paradigm shift in the direction of a more holistic understanding of the self. PMID:19379234

  11. Personality Theory as Related to Counseling Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darley, John G.

    A review of the literature on personality as compiled by Adelson, Dahlstrom, Fiske and Pearson suggests that personality theory is a "swamp" through which one must tread carefully. The author recommends these cautions: (1) view carefully personality constructs and polarities from one experimenter which are reported with little regard for their…

  12. A Strong Theory of Psychological Differentiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Hoben

    To account for observed sex differences on tasks such as the rod and frame test, the embedded figures test, and other related measures, the theory is advanced that a sex-linked recessive gene mediates or facilitates certain performances. This assumption is coupled with the concept of "a mixture of density functions" to provide a theoretical…

  13. A Hyper-Emotion Theory of Psychological Illnesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Laird, P. N.; Mancini, Francesco; Gangemi, Amelia

    2006-01-01

    A hyper-emotion theory of psychological illnesses is presented. It postulates that these illnesses have an onset in which a cognitive evaluation initiates a sequence of unconscious transitions yielding a basic emotion. This emotion is appropriate for the situation but inappropriate in its intensity. Whenever it recurs, it leads individuals to a…

  14. Relational Frame Theory and Industrial/Organizational Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Ian; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Bond, Frank W.; Hayes, Steven C.

    2006-01-01

    The current paper argues that a Relational Frame Theory account of complex human behavior including an analysis of relational frames, relational networks, rules and the concept of self can provide a potentially powerful new perspective on phenomena in the applied science of industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology. In this article, we first…

  15. Integrating Social Class into Vocational Psychology: Theory and Practice Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diemer, Matthew A.; Ali, Saba Rasheed

    2009-01-01

    Although social class plays a salient and significant role in career development and occupational attainment, social class is underrepresented in vocational psychology theory, scholarship, and practice. Vocational psychologists are in a unique position to meet the career development needs of persons from all social classes by integrating a fuller…

  16. Sketch of J. R. Kantor's Psychological Interbehavioral Field Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delprato, Dennis J.; Smith, Noel W.

    2009-01-01

    We provide a sketch of J. R. Kantor's (1959, 1971) psychological interbehavioral field (IBF) theory by identifying 9 essential points and briefly discussing each. The main emphasis of this sketch is on the foundation of Kantor's thinking, the IBF. Suggestions for further study are provided.

  17. Handbook of Vocational Psychology. Theory, Research, and Practice. Second Edition. Contemporary Topics in Vocational Psychology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, W. Bruce, Ed.; Osipow, Samuel H., Ed.

    This handbook is designed to acquaint readers with the practical and applied aspects of the field of vocational psychology and the variety of techniques, procedures, and theories available for vocational assessment. The following chapters are included: "Preface" and "Introduction" (W. Bruce Walsh, Samuel H. Osipow); "Current Theoretical Issues in…

  18. Educational Psychology--Theory, Research, and Teaching: A 25-Year Retrospective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Dennis M.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a brief overview of developments in educational psychology over the last twenty-five years. It firstly presents an historical context by reviewing four basic emphases in educational psychology; cognitive psychology, behavioural psychology, social cognitive theory and humanism. The article then reviews the growth in cognitive…

  19. Psychology and social networks: a dynamic network theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Westaby, James D; Pfaff, Danielle L; Redding, Nicholas

    2014-04-01

    Research on social networks has grown exponentially in recent years. However, despite its relevance, the field of psychology has been relatively slow to explain the underlying goal pursuit and resistance processes influencing social networks in the first place. In this vein, this article aims to demonstrate how a dynamic network theory perspective explains the way in which social networks influence these processes and related outcomes, such as goal achievement, performance, learning, and emotional contagion at the interpersonal level of analysis. The theory integrates goal pursuit, motivation, and conflict conceptualizations from psychology with social network concepts from sociology and organizational science to provide a taxonomy of social network role behaviors, such as goal striving, system supporting, goal preventing, system negating, and observing. This theoretical perspective provides psychologists with new tools to map social networks (e.g., dynamic network charts), which can help inform the development of change interventions. Implications for social, industrial-organizational, and counseling psychology as well as conflict resolution are discussed, and new opportunities for research are highlighted, such as those related to dynamic network intelligence (also known as cognitive accuracy), levels of analysis, methodological/ethical issues, and the need to theoretically broaden the study of social networking and social media behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24750076

  20. Common sense, intuition, and theory in personality and social psychology.

    PubMed

    Cacioppo, John T

    2004-01-01

    Theoretical work in personality and social psychology benefits from a well-developed understanding of the prior empirical and theoretical work on a problem and from informed intuitions. Intuitions develop about a subject matter through years of study, investigation, and problem solving, just as chess masters develop a sophisticated set of cognitive structures that change the very appearance of the chess board. In part because the subject matter is so personal, students new to personality and social psychology arrive with many intuitions, prior beliefs, and naive theories about social processes and behavior based on unsystematic experiences and observations. These intuitions can hinder or foster theoretical progress. The role of mentors, critiques, and empirical tests in minimizing the deleterious effects of these entry biases is discussed. Refined scientific intuitions are also subject to error, however, so means of minimizing these errors are also discussed. PMID:15223510

  1. Suicidality among immigrants: Application of the interpersonal-psychological theory.

    PubMed

    Kene, Prachi; Brabeck, Kalina M; Kelly, Catherine; DiCicco, Brian

    2016-07-01

    Immigrants constitute a significant percentage of the total population living in the United States; however, there is a paucity of research unique to suicidality among immigrants. The present article examines the applicability of the three variables of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior-acquired capability for suicide, sense of thwarted belongingness, and perceived burdensomeness-to conceptualize, assess, and treat suicidality among immigrants. Risk and protective factors and mechanisms are discussed in the context of 2 case studies and immigrant paradox. Clinical implications include assessment and treatment of immigrant-specific experiences. Obstacles to treatment and future research directions are presented. PMID:26890379

  2. Towards a new theory of practice for community health psychology.

    PubMed

    Nolas, Sevasti-Melissa

    2014-01-01

    The article sets out the value of theorizing collective action from a social science perspective that engages with the messy actuality of practice. It argues that community health psychology relies on an abstract version of Paulo Freire's earlier writing, the Pedagogy of the Oppressed, which provides scholar-activists with a 'map' approach to collective action. The article revisits Freire's later work, the Pedagogy of Hope, and argues for the importance of developing a 'journey' approach to collective action. Theories of practice are discussed for their value in theorizing such journeys, and in bringing maps (intentions) and journeys (actuality) closer together. PMID:24155187

  3. Can Ausubel's Theory of Meaningful Learning Become an Alternative to Piagetian Psychology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Edna

    1979-01-01

    Discusses Novak's views that Ausubel's meaningful learning can become an alternative to Piagetian psychology and argues that Ausubel does not provide a theory that can be an alternative to Piaget's developmental psychology. (HM)

  4. Scientific Theories and Naive Theories as Forms of Mental Representation: Psychologism Revived

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, William F.

    This paper analyzes recent work in psychology on the nature of the representation of complex forms of knowledge with the goal of understanding how theories are represented. The analysis suggests that, as a psychological form of representation, theories are mental structures that include theoretical entities (usually nonobservable), relationships among the theoretical entities, and relationships of the theoretical entities to the phenomena of some domain. A theory explains the phenomena in its domain by providing a conceptual framework for the phenomena that leads to a feeling of understanding in the reader/hearer. The explanatory conceptual framework goes beyond the original phenomena, integrates diverse aspects of the world, and shows how the original phenomena follow from the framework. This analysis is used to argue that mental models are the subclass of theories that use causal/mechanical explanatory frameworks. In addition, an argument is made for a new psychologism in the philosophy of science, in which the mental representation of scientific theories must be taken into account.

  5. [Dream interpretation: theory of the "psychological apparatus" as initial consciousness theory in Freud's metapsychology].

    PubMed

    Weiss, H

    1983-01-01

    In the "Interpretation of Dreams" (1900 a) Freud presents for the first time a purely psychologically founded theory of psychic functioning, in the centre of which stands the model of the "psychic apparatus". In the detailed reconstruction of the statements of the "Interpretation" the present study tries to elaborate the meaning of "consciousness" within a psychology of the unconscious, in order to transfer--with reference to the early writings of J.-P. Sartre--the critique of Freudian unconscious to the level of the underlying conception of consciousness. PMID:6858289

  6. Distinguishing Intrapsychic From Interpersonal Motives in Psychological Theory and Research.

    PubMed

    Leary, Mark R; Raimi, Kaitlin Toner; Jongman-Sereno, Katrina P; Diebels, Kate J

    2015-07-01

    Many psychological phenomena have been explained primarily in terms of intrapsychic motives to maintain particular cognitive or affective states--such as motives for consistency, self-esteem, and authenticity--whereas other phenomena have been explained in terms of interpersonal motives to obtain tangible resources, reactions, or outcomes from other people. In this article, we describe and contrast intrapsychic and interpersonal motives, and we review evidence showing that these two distinct sets of motives are sometimes conflated and confused in ways that undermine the viability of motivational theories. Explanations that invoke motives to maintain certain intrapsychic states offer a dramatically different view of the psychological foundations of human behavior than those that posit motives to obtain desired interpersonal outcomes. Several phenomena are examined as exemplars of instances in which interpersonal and intrapsychic motives have been inadequately distinguished, if not directly confounded, including cognitive dissonance, the self-esteem motive, biases in judgment and decision making, posttransgression accounts, authenticity, and self-conscious emotions. Our analysis of the literature suggests that theorists and researchers should consider the relative importance of intrapsychic versus interpersonal motives in the phenomena they study and that they should make a concerted effort to deconfound intrapsychic and interpersonal influences in their research. PMID:26177950

  7. Autism: A Critical Review of Psychological Theories with Particular Reference to the Development of Social Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marris, Chris

    1999-01-01

    Considers theoretical approaches to the origins, diagnosis, and etiology of autism and focuses on the research and development of the psychological theories concerned with the theory of mind in both normally developing and autistic children. (Author/KB)

  8. Wade's and Gelso's Contribution to the New Psychology of Men: Male Reference Group Dependence Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, James M.

    1998-01-01

    Relates Wade's and Gelso's Male Reference Group Dependence Theory to past and present literature in the new psychology of men. Points out the strengths of the ideas and data; reflects on where the theory needs more clarification and extension. (MKA)

  9. Family-supportive work environments and psychological strain: a longitudinal test of two theories.

    PubMed

    Odle-Dusseau, Heather N; Herleman, Hailey A; Britt, Thomas W; Moore, Dewayne D; Castro, Carl A; McGurk, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Based on the Job Demands-Resources (JDR) model (E. Demerouti, A. B. Bakker, F. Nachreiner, & W. B. Schaufeli, 2001, The job demands-resources model of burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 499-512) and Conservation of Resources (COR) theory (S. E. Hobfoll, 2002, Social and psychological resources and adaptation. Review of General Psychology, 6, 307-324), we tested three competing models that predict different directions of causation for relationships over time between family-supportive work environments (FSWE) and psychological strain, with two waves of data from a military sample. Results revealed support for both the JDR and COR theories, first in the static model where FSWE at Time 1 predicted psychological strain at Time 2 and when testing the opposite direction, where psychological strain at Time 1 predicted FSWE at Time 2. For change models, FSWE predicted changes in psychological strain across time, although the reverse causation model was not supported (psychological strain at Time 1 did not predict changes in FSWE). Also, changes in FSWE across time predicted psychological strain at Time 2, whereas changes in psychological strain did not predict FSWE at Time 2. Theoretically, these results are important for the work-family interface in that they demonstrate the application of a systems approach to studying work and family interactions, as support was obtained for both the JDR model with perceptions of FSWE predicting psychological strain (in both the static and change models), and for COR theory where psychological strain predicts FSWE across time. PMID:23276196

  10. Assessing Coverage of Maslow's Theory in Educational Psychology Textbooks: A Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wininger, Steven R.; Norman, Antony D.

    2010-01-01

    Although Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory (HNT) is one of the most prevalent theories in psychology, the authors argued that it is also one of the most misinterpreted or misrepresented, particularly in educational psychology textbooks. Therefore, after carefully reading Maslow's writings on HNT they conducted a content analysis of 18 educational…

  11. Theory and Method in Cross-Cultural Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malpass, Roy S.

    1977-01-01

    Cross cultural psychology is considered as a methodological strategy, as a means of evaluating hypotheses of unicultural origins with evidence of more panhuman relevance, and as a means of developing new theoretical psychological phenomena. (Author)

  12. How cultural evolutionary theory can inform social psychology and vice versa.

    PubMed

    Mesoudi, Alex

    2009-10-01

    Cultural evolutionary theory is an interdisciplinary field in which human culture is viewed as a Darwinian process of variation, competition, and inheritance, and the tools, methods, and theories developed by evolutionary biologists to study genetic evolution are adapted to study cultural change. It is argued here that an integration of the theories and findings of mainstream social psychology and of cultural evolutionary theory can be mutually beneficial. Social psychology provides cultural evolution with a set of empirically verified microevolutionary cultural processes, such as conformity, model-based biases, and content biases, that are responsible for specific patterns of cultural change. Cultural evolutionary theory provides social psychology with ultimate explanations for, and an understanding of the population-level consequences of, many social psychological phenomena, such as social learning, conformity, social comparison, and intergroup processes, as well as linking social psychology with other social science disciplines such as cultural anthropology, archaeology, and sociology. PMID:19839691

  13. Social psychological origins of conspiracy theories: the case of the jewish conspiracy theory in malaysia.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined correlates of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory among Malays in Malaysia, a culture in which state-directed conspiracism as a means of dealing with perceived external and internal threats is widespread. In Study 1, 368 participants from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed a novel measure of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and anomie. Initial analysis showed that the novel scale factorially reduced to a single dimension. Further analysis showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was only significantly associated with general conspiracist ideation, but the strength of the association was weak. In Study 2, 314 participants completed the measure of belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and ideological attitudes. Results showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was associated with anti-Israeli attitudes, modern racism directed at the Chinese, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. General conspiracist ideation did not emerge as a significant predictor once other variables had been accounted for. These results suggest that there may be specific cultural and social psychological forces that drive belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory within the Malaysian context. Specifically, belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory among Malaysian Malays appears to serve ideological needs and as a mask for anti-Chinese sentiment, which may in turn reaffirm their perceived ability to shape socio-political processes. PMID:22888323

  14. Social Psychological Origins of Conspiracy Theories: The Case of the Jewish Conspiracy Theory in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Swami, Viren

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined correlates of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory among Malays in Malaysia, a culture in which state-directed conspiracism as a means of dealing with perceived external and internal threats is widespread. In Study 1, 368 participants from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed a novel measure of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and anomie. Initial analysis showed that the novel scale factorially reduced to a single dimension. Further analysis showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was only significantly associated with general conspiracist ideation, but the strength of the association was weak. In Study 2, 314 participants completed the measure of belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and ideological attitudes. Results showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was associated with anti-Israeli attitudes, modern racism directed at the Chinese, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. General conspiracist ideation did not emerge as a significant predictor once other variables had been accounted for. These results suggest that there may be specific cultural and social psychological forces that drive belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory within the Malaysian context. Specifically, belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory among Malaysian Malays appears to serve ideological needs and as a mask for anti-Chinese sentiment, which may in turn reaffirm their perceived ability to shape socio-political processes. PMID:22888323

  15. Field Theory in Organizational Psychology: An Analysis of Theoretical Approaches in Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Joseph E.

    This literature review examines Kurt Lewin's influence in leadership psychology. Characteristics of field theory are described in detail and utilized in analyzing leadership research, including the trait approach, leader behavior studies, contingency theory, path-goal theory, and leader decision theory. Important trends in leadership research are…

  16. Suicide Prevention in Schools as Viewed through the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The author has proposed a new theory of suicidal behavior--the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (Joiner, 2005)--which attempts to answer the question "Why do people die by suicide?" In this commentary, he briefly describes the theory, and then argues that the theory's constructs may allow a new level of focus and specificity…

  17. Observation and theory in psychoanalysis: the self psychology of Heinz Kohut.

    PubMed

    Balter, L; Spencer, J H

    1991-07-01

    The development of self psychology by Heinz Kohut illustrates the influence of observational method on theory formation in psychoanalysis. In 1959 Kohut began to emphasize empathy and introspection over the traditional combination of free association and evenly suspended attention. This became an important part of a process of revision in psychoanalytic theory which culminated in self psychology. This paper demonstrates how and why that particular change in observational method influenced that particular revision of theory. PMID:1924603

  18. How Accurately Do Introductory Psychology Textbooks Present Psychoanalytic Theory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habarth, Janice; Hansell, James; Grove, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have raised concerns about the quality of the coverage of psychoanalytic content in undergraduate psychology textbooks. The authors investigated the accuracy and currency of psychoanalytic content in top-selling introductory psychology textbooks. Across the textbooks, 2% to 18% of the paragraphs with psychoanalytic content…

  19. Psychological Theory and Pedagogical Effectiveness: The Learning Promotion Potential Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background: After a century of educational psychology, eminent commentators are still lamenting problems besetting the appropriate relating of psychological insights to teaching design, a situation not helped by the persistence of crude assumptions concerning the nature of pedagogical effectiveness. Aims: To propose an analytical or…

  20. Positive Psychology Theory, Research, and Practice: A Primer for Rehabilitation Counseling Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Chih-Chin; Chan, Fong; Chan, Jacob Yui Chung; Phillips, Brian; Ditchman, Nicole; Kaseroff, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Positive psychology is a scientific study that explores what makes life most worth living and applies psychological theory to understand the human strengths that are important for enhancing overall well-being and happiness. The rehabilitation counseling philosophy shares a similar emphasis on personal strengths and the importance of enhancing what…

  1. Why Community Works: The Use of Alfred Adler's Individual Psychology as a Foundational Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Robert K.; Keith, Edwin M.

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that the Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler should be used as a foundational theory for student affairs work. The success of community building programs is explained and the concepts of Individual Psychology are summarized. Also asserts that the current drive to develop programs to develop community on college campuses is firmly rooted…

  2. Learning to Teach Reading: A Theory-Practice Approach to Psychology Teaching in University Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drechsel, Barbara; Breunig, Katharina; Thurn, Daniela; Basten, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    The report portrays a theory-practice psychology course on reading education in a German teacher education programme. Having completed a theoretical course phase that is largely based on knowledge from cognitive and educational psychology, pre-service student-teachers applied their acquired knowledge by working with a fifth-grader in five…

  3. Cold and hot cognition: quantum probability theory and realistic psychological modeling.

    PubMed

    Corr, Philip J

    2013-06-01

    Typically, human decision making is emotionally "hot" and does not conform to "cold" classical probability (CP) theory. As quantum probability (QP) theory emphasises order, context, superimposition states, and nonlinear dynamic effects, one of its major strengths may be its power to unify formal modeling and realistic psychological theory (e.g., information uncertainty, anxiety, and indecision, as seen in the Prisoner's Dilemma). PMID:23673029

  4. 'What's Psychology got to do with it?' Applying psychological theory to understanding failures in modern healthcare settings.

    PubMed

    Rydon-Grange, Michelle

    2015-11-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) has, for over four decades, been beset with numerous 'scandals' relating to poor patient care across several diverse clinical contexts. Ensuing inquiries proceed as though each scandal is unique, with recommendations highlighting the need for more staff training, a change of culture within the NHS based upon a 'duty of candour', and proposed criminal sanctions for employees believed to breach good patient care. However, mistakes reoccur and failings in patient safety continue. While inquiries describe what went awry in each case, questions of how and why such failures came to be remain unanswered. Psychology has a role in answering these questions. Applying psychological theory can guide an understanding of the causes that lead to catastrophic failures in healthcare settings. Indeed, what is often neglected in inquiries is the role of human behaviour in contributing to these failures. Drawing upon behavioural, social and cognitive theories, a psychological analysis of key factors, typically present in clinical contexts where serious failures of care occur, is presented. Applying theory and models from the field of psychology can guide further understanding of the precipitants to poor care. PMID:26401049

  5. Investigation of social cognitive career theory for minority recruitment in school psychology.

    PubMed

    Bocanegra, Joel O; Gubi, Aaron A; Cappaert, Kevin J

    2016-06-01

    School psychology trainers have historically struggled to adequately increase the number of professionals from diverse backgrounds. An increase in diverse providers is important in meeting the needs of a burgeoning racial/ethnic minority student population. Previous research suggests that minority undergraduate psychology students have less knowledge and exposure to school psychology than for counseling and clinical psychology, and that students with greater exposure or knowledge of school psychology reported significantly greater choice intentions for school psychology. The purpose of this study is to test the applicability of the Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) in explaining minority undergraduate psychology students' choice intentions for school psychology. This study is an analysis of existing data and is based on a national sample of 283 minority undergraduate psychology students. All instruments used in this study were found to have internal consistency ranging from .83 to .91. Students' learning experiences, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and choice intentions for school psychology were evaluated by way of a mediator analysis. Results from a path analysis suggest that outcome expectations mediated the relationship between exposure and choice intentions for school psychology. Implications for minority recruitment practices are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27243246

  6. Three Theories of Psychological Development; Implications for Children's Dentistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, James M.; McIver, F. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    A slide-tape series developed for introduction of developmental and learning theories in freshman dental curriculum is described. Theories of social-emotional development, cognitive development, and theories of conditioning and observational learning are included. (MSE)

  7. IRSS Psychology Theory: Telling Experiences among Underrepresented IS Doctorates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payton, Fay Cobb; White, Sharon D.; Mbarika, Victor W. A.

    2006-01-01

    With the changing demographics of the American workforce, the National Science Foundation, along with the U.S. Department of Commerce, has highlighted the shortage of minorities in information technology (IT) careers (http://www.ta.doc.gov/Reports/itsw/itsw.pdf). Using data from a 6-year period and the psychology Involvement-Regimen-Self…

  8. Social Psychology and Gender: A New Direction through Feminist Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grella, Christine E.

    Traditionally, social psychology has conceptualized sex and gender as subject variables with sex as a biological substrate and gender as a sociocultural consequence of sex. These ideas rest on the assumption of two distinct biological categories. However, gender is better thought of in dialectical rather than oppositional terms. Gender is both…

  9. Perception Versus Cognition in Linguistic Theory and Developmental Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hass, Wilbur A.

    The author calls attention to a basic split between perception and cognition that psychologists or linguists tend to make either explicitly or implicitly. There is some psychological evidence to substantiate, at least for higher developmental levels, the functional importance of this split. The chief problems for psycholinguistics which arise out…

  10. Hispanic Psychology: Critical Issues in Theory and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Amado M., Ed.

    This book provides students, researchers, and practitioners with access to major theoretical and empirical issues in the field of Hispanic psychology. The book is divided into six parts: acculturation and adaptation, ethnic identity and behavior, clinical research and services, health and AIDS research, gender studies research, and education and…

  11. Psychological Adaptation to Disability: Perspectives From Chaos and Complexity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livneh, Hanoch; Parker, Randall M.

    2005-01-01

    The process of psychological adaptation to chronic illness and disability (CID) has been extensively studied by rehabilitation professionals for more than 50 years, yet it is still fraught with misunderstanding and often contradictory views. In this paper, the authors seek to expand on earlier suggestions by Parker, Schaller, and Hansmann (2003)…

  12. Theory, Not Cultural Context, Will Advance American Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haeffel, Gerald J.; Thiessen, Erik D.; Campbell, Matthew W.; Kaschak, Michael P.; McNeil, Nicole M.

    2009-01-01

    Comments on an article by J. J. Arnett regarding the assertion that American psychology focuses too narrowly on Americans while neglecting the other 95% of the world's population. The authors agree with Arnett's call for greater attention to this issue. However, they fundamentally disagree with his position on issues related to generalizability…

  13. Using health psychology to help patients: theories of behaviour change.

    PubMed

    Barley, Elizabeth; Lawson, Victoria

    2016-09-01

    Behaviour change theories and related research evidence highlight the complexity of making and sticking to health-related behaviour changes. These theories make explicit factors that influence behaviour change, such as health beliefs, past behaviour, intention, social influences, perceived control and the context of the behaviour. Nurses can use this information to understand why a particular patient may find making recommended health behaviour changes difficult and to determine factors that may help them. This article outlines five well-established theories of behaviour change: the health belief model, the theory of planned behaviour, the stages of change model, self-determination theory, and temporal self-regulation theory. The evidence for interventions that are informed by these theories is then explored and appraised. The extent and quality of evidence varies depending on the type of behaviour and patients targeted, but evidence from randomised controlled trials indicates that interventions informed by theory can result in behaviour change. PMID:27615529

  14. The Mind as Black Box: A Simulation of Theory Building in Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrandt, Carolyn; Oliver, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    Discusses an activity that uses the metaphor "the mind is a black box," in which students work in groups to discover what is inside a sealed, black, plastic box. States that the activity enables students to understand the need for theories in psychology and to comprehend how psychologists build, test, and refine those theories. (CMK)

  15. Design of Digital Learning Material on Social-Psychological Theories for Nutrition Behavior Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busstra, Maria C.; De Graaf, Cees; Hartog, Rob

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the design, implementation and evaluation of digital learning material on the social--psychological Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and its use in nutrition behavior research. The design is based on guidelines derived from theories on instructional design. The major component of the design challenge is to implement three…

  16. Hope Theory, Measurements, and Applications to School Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, C. R.; Lopez, Shane J.; Shorey, Hal S.; Rand, Kevin L.; Feldman, David B.

    2003-01-01

    The tenets of a cognitive, motivational model called hope theory (Snyder et al., 1991) are reviewed, along with the two accompanying instruments for measuring hope in children and adolescents. More than a decade of research on hope theory as it relates to students, teachers, and schools is summarized. Likewise, the applications of hope theory for…

  17. Bridging developmental systems theory and evolutionary psychology using dynamic optimization.

    PubMed

    Frankenhuis, Willem E; Panchanathan, Karthik; Clark Barrett, H

    2013-07-01

    Interactions between evolutionary psychologists and developmental systems theorists have been largely antagonistic. This is unfortunate because potential synergies between the two approaches remain unexplored. This article presents a method that may help to bridge the divide, and that has proven fruitful in biology: dynamic optimization. Dynamic optimization integrates developmental systems theorists' focus on dynamics and contingency with the 'design stance' of evolutionary psychology. It provides a theoretical framework as well as a set of tools for exploring the properties of developmental systems that natural selection might favor, given particular evolutionary ecologies. We also discuss limitations of the approach. PMID:23786476

  18. Psychological perspective for a theory of behavior during riots.

    PubMed

    Lachman, S J

    1996-12-01

    In a riot situation some individuals actively participate in antisocial behavior, but others do not, and still others act to discourage hostile activity. Four concepts from general psychology including (1) insufficiency of internal control or lack of internalized restraints acquired through learning, (2) effects of frustration, (3) emotional excitement, and (4) precipitating incidents (one or more) are proposed as contributors to the behavioral involvement of participants. Some hypotheses and the role of such variables as emotional contagion, imitation, opportunism, and anonymity are discussed. PMID:8969079

  19. A basic need theory approach to problematic Internet use and the mediating effect of psychological distress

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ting Yat; Yuen, Kenneth S. L.; Li, Wang On

    2015-01-01

    The Internet provides an easily accessible way to meet certain needs. Over-reliance on it leads to problematic use, which studies show can be predicted by psychological distress. Self-determination theory proposes that we all have the basic need for autonomy, competency, and relatedness. This has been shown to explain the motivations behind problematic Internet use. This study hypothesizes that individuals who are psychologically disturbed because their basic needs are not being met are more vulnerable to becoming reliant on the Internet when they seek such needs satisfaction from online activities, and tests a model in which basic needs predict problematic Internet use, fully mediated by psychological distress. Problematic Internet use, psychological distress, and basic needs satisfaction were psychometrically measured in a sample of 229 Hong Kong University students and structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesized model. All indices showed the model has a good fit. Further, statistical testing supported a mediation effect for psychological distress between needs satisfaction and problematic Internet use. The results extend our understanding of the development and prevention of problematic Internet use based on the framework of self-determination theory. Psychological distress could be used as an early predictor, while preventing and treating problematic Internet use should emphasize the fulfillment of unmet needs. PMID:25642201

  20. Roles for software technologies in advancing research and theory in educational psychology.

    PubMed

    Hadwin, Allyson F; Winne, Philip H; Nesbit, John C

    2005-03-01

    While reviews abound on theoretical topics in educational psychology, it is rare that we examine our field's instrumentation development, and what effects this has on educational psychology's evolution. To repair this gap, this paper investigates and reveals the implications of software technologies for researching and theorizing about core issues in educational psychology. From a set of approximately 1,500 articles published between 1999 and 2004, we sampled illustrative studies and organized them into four broad themes: (a) innovative ways to operationalize variables, (b) the changing nature of instructional interventions, (c) new fields of research in educational psychology, and (d) new constructs to be examined. In each area, we identify novel uses of these technologies and suggest how they may advance, and, in some instances, reshape theory and methodology. Overall, we demonstrate that software technologies hold significant potential to elaborate research in the field. PMID:15831178

  1. Single case studies as a means for developing psychological theories.

    PubMed

    Skvortsov, Anatoliy; Romashchuk, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    The Socratic function of single case studies (SCSs) is described in its relation to the problem of scientific theory development. Contrary to the traditional point of view, the single case study is not a demonstration or verification of theoretical concepts, but a method of their generation and opportunity for analysis of their interrelations. Considering the case study from the perspective of the Socratic function brings to light important conclusions about the ecological validity of theory development. The essential features of the Socratic function are illustrated using the example of the famous Romantic Essays of Alexandr Luria. PMID:26663629

  2. The Essential Role of Data in Psychological Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Brian K.; Eckert, Tanya L.

    2000-01-01

    Concurs with Hughes' target article that identification of empirically supported treatments (ESTs) is insufficient to help practitioners and researchers select effective interventions for children, and suggests it may be premature to adopt developmental psychopathology as a treatment model. Discusses differences in opinion on theory development in…

  3. What would Karl Popper say? Are current psychological theories of ADHD falsifiable?

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Katherine A; Wiersema, Jan R; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2009-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common and highly heritable neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder. Here, we critically review four major psychological theories of ADHD – the Executive Dysfunction, the State Regulation, the Delay Aversion and the Dynamic Developmental – on their abilities to explain all the symptoms of ADHD, their testability and their openness to falsification. We conclude that theoreticians should focus, to a greater extent than currently practiced, on developing refutable theories of ADHD. PMID:19257888

  4. Generative Learning Theory, Paradigm Shifts, and Constructivism in Educational Psychology: A Tribute to Merl Wittrock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Sigmund

    2010-01-01

    This appreciation of Wittrock's contributions to educational psychology suggests that his 1974 article describing generative learning theory was remarkably prescient. In that article Wittrock set the stage for the subsequent paradigm shift from cognitive to constructivist approaches to instruction. Furthermore, his suggestion that schools were the…

  5. Kohut's Psychology of the Self: Theory and Measures of Counseling Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Michael J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Introduces Heinz Kohut's psychology of the self and its counseling implications and reports on the development of 10 eight-point rating scales of counseling outcome that are derived for his theory. Reports data on interrater reliability and agreement for the 10 scales. (Author)

  6. The Role of Optimism in the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Kathy A.; Wingate, LaRicka R.

    2011-01-01

    A possible relationship between Joiner's (2005) interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior and optimism was investigated by examining the ability of optimism to act as a moderator of perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and acquired capability to engage in self-injury in the prediction of suicidal ideation. Results…

  7. A Brief Review of Psychological Theories and Counseling Techniques for Outdoor Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bankie, Brett; And Others

    The paper is intended to provide resource information and an annotated bibliography on psychological theories and counseling techniques specifically written for outdoor educators, to stimulate research on the subject, and to stimulate outdoor leaders to make themselves aware of various options for solving interpersonal problems that might occur in…

  8. Capable of Suicide: A Functional Model of the Acquired Capability Component of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Phillip N.; Cukrowicz, Kelly C.

    2010-01-01

    A functional model of the acquired capability for suicide, a component of Joiner's (2005) Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide, is presented. A component of Joiner's (2005) Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide a functional model of the acquired capability for suicide is presented. The model integrates the points discussed by…

  9. The Relevance of Kohut's Self Psychology to Theory and Research in Counseling Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Michael J.

    In terms of clinical practice, few differences exist between Freud and Heinz Kohut in the conduct of psychoanalysis. Kohut's style of theorizing facilitates the use of his ideas by counseling psychologists for both research and practice. According to Kohut's theory, the self is the fundamental constituent of mind. Development of the self proceeds…

  10. Learning disabilities theory and Soviet psychology: a comparison of basic assumptions.

    PubMed

    Coles, G S

    1982-09-01

    Critics both within and outside the Learning Disabilities (LD) field have pointed to the weaknesses of LD theory. Beginning with the premise that a significant problem of LD theory has been its failure to explore fully its fundamental assumptions, this paper examines a number of these assumptions about individual and social development, cognition, and learning. These assumptions are compared with a contrasting body of premises found in Soviet psychology, particularly in the works of Vygotsky, Leontiev, and Luria. An examination of the basic assumptions of LD theory and Soviet psychology shows that a major difference lies in their respective nondialectical and dialectical interpretation of the relationship of social factors and cognition, learning, and neurological development. PMID:7142423

  11. Common prescriptions for psychology derived from dialectical materialism and chaos theory.

    PubMed

    Gilgen, A R

    2000-04-01

    During the entire Soviet period (1917-1991), Russian psychologists labored to create a psychology which would be consonant with Marxist-Leninist assumptions derived from dialectical materialism. Some of their early prescriptions, in particular those put forward by Konstantin N. Kornilov in the 1920s and early 1930s, are identical to strategies being advanced by contemporary American psychologists who propose that chaos theory and nonlinear meta-modeling techniques in general, given advances in computer and television technologies, can be designed for research capable of dealing with the complexities, nonlinearities, self-organizational processes, and abrupt transformations characteristic of human psychological functioning. PMID:10840901

  12. Activity Theories and the Ontology of Psychology: Learning from Danish and Russian Experiences.

    PubMed

    Mammen, Jens; Mironenko, Irina

    2015-12-01

    Psychology has permanent problems of theoretical coherence and practical, analytic and critical efficiency. It is claimed that Activity Theory (AT) with roots in a long European philosophical tradition and continued in Russian AT is a first step to remedy this. A Danish version of AT may have a key to exceed some, mostly implicit, ontological restrictions in traditional AT and free it from an embracement of functionalism and mechanicism, rooted in Renaissance Physics. The analysis goes back to Aristotle's understanding of the freely moving animal in its ecology and introduces some dualities in the encounter between subject and object which replace the dualistic dichotomies traditionally splitting Psychology in Naturwissenschaft vs. Geisteswissenshaft. This also implies a "Copernican turn" of Cartesian dualism. The perspectives are to give place for a phenomenology of meaning without cutting human psyche out of Nature and to open Psychology to its domain. PMID:26001990

  13. Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  14. Health education and multimedia learning: educational psychology and health behavior theory (Part 1).

    PubMed

    Mas, Francisco G Soto; Plass, Jan; Kane, William M; Papenfuss, Richard L

    2003-07-01

    When health education researchers began to investigate how individuals make decisions related to health and the factors that influence health behaviors, they referred to frameworks shared by educational and learning research. Health education adopted the basic principles of the cognitive revolution, which were instrumental in advancing the field. There is currently a new challenge to confront: the widespread use of new technologies for health education. To better overcome this challenge, educational psychology and instructional technology theory should be considered. Unfortunately, the passion to incorporate new technologies too often overshadows how people learn or, in particular, how people learn through computer technologies. This two-part article explains how educational theory contributed to the early development of health behavior theory, describes the most relevant multimedia learning theories and constructs, and provides recommendations for developing multimedia health education programs and connecting theory and practice. PMID:14610999

  15. Agent-based modeling: a new approach for theory building in social psychology.

    PubMed

    Smith, Eliot R; Conrey, Frederica R

    2007-02-01

    Most social and psychological phenomena occur not as the result of isolated decisions by individuals but rather as the result of repeated interactions between multiple individuals over time. Yet the theory-building and modeling techniques most commonly used in social psychology are less than ideal for understanding such dynamic and interactive processes. This article describes an alternative approach to theory building, agent-based modeling (ABM), which involves simulation of large numbers of autonomous agents that interact with each other and with a simulated environment and the observation of emergent patterns from their interactions. The authors believe that the ABM approach is better able than prevailing approaches in the field, variable-based modeling (VBM) techniques such as causal modeling, to capture types of complex, dynamic, interactive processes so important in the social world. The article elaborates several important contrasts between ABM and VBM and offers specific recommendations for learning more and applying the ABM approach. PMID:18453457

  16. Psychological Defenses against Death Anxiety: Integrating Terror Management Theory and Firestone's Separation Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassett, Jonathan F.

    2007-01-01

    The author attempts to integrate Terror Management Theory (TMT) and R. W. Firestone's Separation Theory (1984, 1994). Both theories emphasize defense against death anxiety as a key human motive. Whereas TMT focuses extensively on self-esteem and cultural worldview, Firestone posited additional defenses such as gene survival, self-nourishing…

  17. Theory underlying CRM training: Psychological issues in flight crew performance and crew coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    What psychological theory and research can reveal about training in Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is summarized. A framework is provided for the critical analysis of current approaches to CRM training. Background factors and definitions critical to evaluating CRM are reviewed, followed by a discussion of issues directly related to CRM training effectiveness. Some of the things not known about the optimization of crew performance and the research needed to make these efforts as effective as possible are described.

  18. The impact of Einsteinian relativity and quantum physics theories on conceptualizations of the self in psychology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rechberger, Elke Ruth

    1999-11-01

    Prior to the 1600s c.e., the church was the final authority for theories about the universe and humanity's role within it. However, when the mathematical theories put forth by scientists such as Copernicus and Galileo refuted traditional theological explanations about the cosmos, a shift to science as the premiere authority for theories was established, a tradition which continues to this day. In the following century, the work of Newton set forth a theory of the universe operating as a machine, where all things were potentially knowable, measurable, and predictable. His mechanistic hypotheses helped substantiate a corollary philosophy known as modernism. In the early 1900s, Einstein's theories about light and relativity began to indicate a universe significantly less absolute. His work set the stage for the development of quantum physics theories, whose hallmarks are probability, uncertainty, and complementarity. Quantum physics theories helped substantiate the philosophy known as postmodernism, where truth is nonexistent, reality is a subjectively constructed phenomenon, and the concept of an individual self is considered an illusion. Given that developments in physics have had profound impact across academic disciplines, including psychology, this study examine the effect of major revolutions in physics to corollary developments in theories about the self in psychology. It is the assertion of this work that modernist conceptualization of the self is one that is highly individualistic and defined in mechanistic terms, whereas the postmodern conceptualization of the self is significantly more socially constructed and has more interpersonally fluid, amorphous boundaries. Implications for conceptualizations of the self from either the modern or postmodern paradigm are discussed, as well as suggestions for future theory development.

  19. Do theories of suicide play well together? Integrating components of the hopelessness and interpersonal psychological theories of suicide.

    PubMed

    Kleiman, Evan M; Law, Keyne C; Anestis, Michael D

    2014-04-01

    Given that suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide, there has been considerable research on theories of suicide risk. Despite the volume of such research, each theory is largely investigated in isolation and there has been little attempt to integrate them. Thus, the goal of the present study is to integrate two theories of suicide risk, Alloy and Abramson's hopelessness theory of suicide (HT) and Joiner's interpersonal psychological theory of suicide (IPTS), into one mediational model where the effects of the risk associated with the HT variables (i.e., a negative cognitive style) on suicidal ideation are transmitted by the IPTS (i.e., perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belonging) variables. Participants were 245 young adults with elevated levels of depressive symptoms who completed self-report measures of suicide risk at baseline and a measure of suicidal ideation eight weeks later. The results of a mediated model supported our hypothesis. The effects of the HT variables on suicidal ideation were mediated by the IPTS variables. Furthermore, results did not support the reverse model, suggesting specificity of the direction of our hypotheses. These findings imply that there may be merit in attempting to integrate theories of suicide risk rather than studying them in isolation. PMID:24332385

  20. Social psychological theories of disordered eating in college women: review and integration.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E

    2011-11-01

    Because peer interaction, weight/shape, and self-concept formation are particularly salient to college women, the implications of social psychological theories may be especially far-reaching during the college years. College women may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of social comparison, objectification, and uses and gratifications theories, which describe social-cognitive mechanisms that provide an individual with information regarding her own view of her body and how she perceives that others perceive her body. The current paper will review and integrate findings related to these three theories of disordered eating in college women in an effort to present a more comprehensive understanding of the social psychological mechanisms that play a role in the development and maintenance of such pathology for this group of young women. Limitations of and future directions for research on these theories will be discussed, as will their potential integration with other factors that contribute to disordered eating and implications for treatment and prevention. PMID:21903047

  1. What we should expect from theories in social psychology: truth, abstraction, progress, and applicability as standards (TAPAS).

    PubMed

    Van Lange, Paul A M

    2013-02-01

    The construction and development of theory is one of the central routes to scientific progress. But what exactly constitutes a good theory? What is it that people might expect from an ideal theory? This article advances a new model, which delineates truth, abstraction, progress, and applicability as standards (TAPAS) for a good theory. After providing the rationale for TAPAS, this article evaluates several social-psychological theories in terms of TAPAS, especially classic theories, and illustrates its utility with some more recent theoretical contributions of social psychology. This article concludes by outlining recommendations for effective theory construction and development, such as the utility of meta-analytic approaches for pursuing truth, the utility of theory-oriented courses and journals for pursuing abstraction, and the utility of adversarial collaboration for pursuing progress, and reaching out to major personal or societal issues for pursuing applicability. PMID:22854861

  2. Understanding psychological distress among mothers in rural Nepal: a qualitative grounded theory exploration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a large burden of psychological distress in low and middle-income countries, and culturally relevant interventions must be developed to address it. This requires an understanding of how distress is experienced. We conducted a qualitative grounded theory study to understand how mothers experience and manage distress in Dhanusha, a low-resource setting in rural Nepal. We also explored how distressed mothers interact with their families and the wider community. Methods Participants were identified during a cluster-randomised controlled trial in which mothers were screened for psychological distress using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We conducted 22 semi-structured interviews with distressed mothers (GHQ-12 score ≥5) and one with a traditional healer (dhami), as well as 12 focus group discussions with community members. Data were analysed using grounded theory methods and a model was developed to explain psychological distress in this setting. Results We found that distress was termed tension by participants and mainly described in terms of physical symptoms. Key perceived causes of distress were poor health, lack of sons, and fertility problems. Tension developed in a context of limited autonomy for women and perceived duty towards the family. Distressed mothers discussed several strategies to alleviate tension, including seeking treatment for perceived physical health problems and tension from doctors or dhamis, having repeated pregnancies until a son was delivered, manipulating social circumstances in the household, and deciding to accept their fate. Their ability to implement these strategies depended on whether they were able to negotiate with their in-laws or husbands for resources. Conclusions Vulnerability, as a consequence of gender and social disadvantage, manifests as psychological distress among mothers in Dhanusha. Screening tools incorporating physical symptoms of tension should be envisaged, along with

  3. The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide in College Student Suicide Screening.

    PubMed

    Ream, Geoffrey L

    2016-04-01

    Suicide screening on campus is limited by effectiveness of existing questionnaires. This study tests whether Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS) constructs may be more effective in screening than traditional risk factors measures like the Interactive Screening Protocol (ISP). Participants were 188 traditional-age students from three different campuses recruited through a subject pool and peer recruiters. IPTS risk variables as a set explained all likelihood of higher risk responses to suicidality questions that was otherwise explained by risk factors, plus additional likelihood besides. Current IPTS measures are no screening "magic bullet," but further inquiry into use of these constructs is warranted. PMID:26317690

  4. Use of Theory-Driven Research in Counseling: Investigating Three Counseling Psychology Journals from 1990 to 1999

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karr, Carolyn A.; Larson, Lisa M.

    2005-01-01

    Three major journals in counseling psychology were sampled from 1990 to 1999 to assess the percentage of quantitative, empirical articles that were theory driven. Only 43% of the studies utilized a theory or model, and 57% predicted the relation between the variables, with few studies specifying the strength of the relation. Studies sampled in the…

  5. Students' Personality Types, Intended Majors, and College Expectations: Further Evidence Concerning Psychological and Sociological Interpretations of Holland's Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Gary R.

    2006-01-01

    Because it focuses on the interactions between students and their environments, Holland's theory of vocational choice provides a powerful framework for studying college experiences. The present study assessed the relative merits of psychological and sociological interpretations of Holland's theory by examining the relationships among students' …

  6. Suicidal Desire and the Capability for Suicide: Tests of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior among Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Witte, Tracy K.; Gordon, Kathryn H.; Bender, Theodore W.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (T. E. Joiner, 2005) proposes that an individual will not die by suicide unless he or she has both the desire to die by suicide and the ability to do so. Three studies test the theory's hypotheses. In Study 1, the interaction of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness…

  7. Psyche=singularity: A comparison of Carl Jung's transpersonal psychology and Leonard Susskind's holographic string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmond, Timothy

    In this dissertation I discern what Carl Jung calls the mandala image of the ultimate archetype of unity underlying and structuring cosmos and psyche by pointing out parallels between his transpersonal psychology and Stanford physicist Leonard Susskind's string theory. Despite his atheistic, materialistically reductionist interpretation of it, I demonstrate how Susskind's string theory of holographic information conservation at the event horizons of black holes, and the cosmic horizon of the universe, corroborates the following four topics about which Jung wrote: (1) his near-death experience of the cosmic horizon after a heart attack in 1944; ( 2) his equation relating psychic energy to mass, "Psyche=highest intensity in the smallest space" (1997, 162), which I translate into the equation, Psyche=Singularity; (3) his theory that the mandala, a circle or sphere with a central point, is the symbolic image of the ultimate archetype of unity through the union of opposites, which structures both cosmos and psyche, and which rises spontaneously from the collective unconscious to compensate a conscious mind torn by irreconcilable demands (1989, 334-335, 396-397); and (4) his theory of synchronicity. I argue that Susskind's inside-out black hole model of our Big Bang universe forms a geometrically perfect mandala: a central Singularity encompassed by a two-dimensional sphere which serves as a universal memory bank. Moreover, in precise fulfillment of Jung's theory, Susskind used that mandala to reconcile the notoriously incommensurable paradigms of general relativity and quantum mechanics, providing in the process a mathematically plausible explanation for Jung's near-death experience of his past, present, and future life simultaneously at the cosmic horizon. Finally, Susskind's theory also provides a plausible cosmological model to explain Jung's theory of synchronicity--meaningful coincidences may be tied together by strings at the cosmic horizon, from which they

  8. Giving up on convergence and autonomy: Why the theories of psychology and neuroscience are codependent as well as irreconcilable.

    PubMed

    Hochstein, Eric

    2016-04-01

    There is a long-standing debate in the philosophy of mind and philosophy of science regarding how best to interpret the relationship between neuroscience and psychology. It has traditionally been argued that either the two domains will evolve and change over time until they converge on a single unified account of human behaviour, or else that they will continue to work in isolation given that they identify properties and states that exist autonomously from one another (due to the multiple-realizability of psychological states). In this paper, I argue that progress in psychology and neuroscience is contingent on the fact that both of these positions are false. Contra the convergence position, I argue that the theories of psychology and the theories of neuroscience are scientifically valuable as representational tools precisely because they cannot be integrated into a single account. However, contra the autonomy position, I propose that the theories of psychology and neuroscience are deeply dependent on one another for further refinement and improvement. In this respect, there is an irreconcilable codependence between psychology and neuroscience that is necessary for both domains to improve and progress. The two domains are forever linked while simultaneously being unable to integrate. PMID:27083093

  9. Artificial organisms as tools for the development of psychological theory: Tolman's lesson.

    PubMed

    Miglino, Orazio; Gigliotta, Onofrio; Cardaci, Maurizio; Ponticorvo, Michela

    2007-12-01

    In the 1930s and 1940s, Edward Tolman developed a psychological theory of spatial orientation in rats and humans. He expressed his theory as an automaton (the "schematic sowbug") or what today we would call an "artificial organism." With the technology of the day, he could not implement his model. Nonetheless, he used it to develop empirical predictions which tested with animals in the laboratory. This way of proceeding was in line with scientific practice dating back to Galileo. The way psychologists use artificial organisms in their work today breaks with this tradition. Modern "artificial organisms" are constructed a posteriori, working from experimental or ethological observations. As a result, researchers can use them to confirm a theoretical model or to simulate its operation. But they make no contribution to the actual building of models. In this paper, we try to return to Tolman's original strategy: implementing his theory of "vicarious trial and error" in a simulated robot, forecasting the robot's behavior and conducting experiments that verify or falsify these predictions. PMID:17665237

  10. Self psychology as a shift away from the paranoid strain in classical analytic theory.

    PubMed

    Terman, David M

    2014-12-01

    Classical psychoanalytic theory has a paranoid strain. There is, in effect, an "evil other"--the id--within each individual that must be tamed in development and confronted and worked through as resistance in treatment. This last has historically endgendered an adversarial relationship between patient and analyst. This paranoid strain came from a paranoid element in Freud's personality that affected his worldview, his relationships, and his theory. Self psychology offers a different view of development and conflict. It stresses the child's need for responsiveness from and admiration of caretakers in order to develop a well-functioning self. Though severe behavioral and character problems may result from faults in the process of self-construction, the essential need is not instinctual discharge but connection. Hence the long-assumed opposition between individual needs and social institutions or between patient and analyst is no longer inevitable or universal. Rather, an understanding of the primary need for connection creates both a different interpretive stance and a more cooperative ambience. These changes in theory and technique are traced to Kohut's personal struggles to emancipate himself from his paranoid mother. PMID:25339303

  11. Applying psychological theory to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of taking intra-oral radiographs.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, Debbie; Pitts, Nigel B; Eccles, Martin; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Johnston, Marie; Steen, Nick; Glidewell, Liz; Thomas, Ruth; Maclennan, Graeme; Clarkson, Jan E; Walker, Anne

    2006-10-01

    This study applies psychological theory to the implementation of evidence-based clinical practice. The first objective was to see if variables from psychological frameworks (developed to understand, predict and influence behaviour) could predict an evidence-based clinical behaviour. The second objective was to develop a scientific rationale to design or choose an implementation intervention. Variables from the Theory of Planned Behaviour, Social Cognitive Theory, Self-Regulation Model, Operant Conditioning, Implementation Intentions and the Precaution Adoption Process were measured, with data collection by postal survey. The primary outcome was the number of intra-oral radiographs taken per course of treatment collected from a central fee claims database. Participants were 214 Scottish General Dental Practitioners. At the theory level, the Theory of Planned Behaviour explained 13% variance in the number of radiographs taken, Social Cognitive Theory explained 7%, Operant Conditioning explained 8%, Implementation Intentions explained 11%. Self-Regulation and Stage Theory did not predict significant variance in radiographs taken. Perceived behavioural control, action planning and risk perception explained 16% of the variance in number of radiographs taken. Knowledge did not predict the number of radiographs taken. The results suggest an intervention targeting predictive psychological variables could increase the implementation of this evidence-based practice, while influencing knowledge is unlikely to do so. Measures which predicted number of radiographs taken also predicted intention to take radiographs, and intention accounted for significant variance in behaviour (adjusted R(2)=5%: F(1,166)=10.28, p<.01), suggesting intention may be a possible proxy for behavioural data when testing an intervention prior to a service-level trial. Since psychological frameworks incorporate methodologies to measure and change component variables, taking a theory-based approach

  12. Putting Theory of Mind in Its Place: Psychological Explanations of the Socio-Emotional-Communicative Impairments in Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Jill

    2012-01-01

    In this review, the history of the theory of mind (ToM) theory of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is outlined (in which ToM is indexed by success on false belief tasks), and the explanatory power and psychological causes of impaired ToM in ASD are critically discussed. It is concluded that impaired ToM by itself has only limited explanatory…

  13. The Disillusionment of Students Denied Admission to a Preferred Major Viewed from the Perspective of a Psychological Theory of Alienation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Clifton E.

    2014-01-01

    Why students respond differently when they are denied admission to a preferred academic major may be explained using a psychological theory of alienation. Using this theoretical perspective, three trajectories producing feelings of alienation are presented. The most intense of these trajectories, the process of disillusionment, is examined using a…

  14. Institutional Research Productivity, Use of Theory-Driven Research, and Statistical Application in Counseling Psychology: Examining the Research Base. Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Jeffrey H.

    2005-01-01

    The author reacts to the three core articles in the Scientific Forum of the May 2005 issue of "The Counseling Psychologist" about institutional research productivity, the use of theory-driven research, and the application of structural equation modeling to research in counseling psychology. To have a research base that maximizes divergent…

  15. Untangling Teachers' Diverse Aspirations for Student Learning: A Crossdisciplinary Strategy for Relating Psychological Theory to Pedagogical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirshner, David

    2002-01-01

    Introduces crossdisciplinarity as a strategy for highlighting the discrete notions of learning that psychology thus far has succeeded in coherently articulating. This strategy positions teachers to consult their own values, interests, and strengths in defining their own teaching priorities while at the same time marshaling accessible, theory-based…

  16. Does Physical Environment Contribute to Basic Psychological Needs? A Self-Determination Theory Perspective on Learning in the Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjöblom, Kirsi; Mälkki, Kaisu; Sandström, Niclas; Lonka, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    The role of motivation and emotions in learning has been extensively studied in recent years; however, research on the role of the physical environment still remains scarce. This study examined the role of the physical environment in the learning process from the perspective of basic psychological needs. Although self-determination theory stresses…

  17. Applying Social Cognitive Career Theory to Predict Interests and Choice Goals in Statistics among Spanish Psychology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Angeles

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the usefulness of social cognitive career theory--SCCT (Lent, Brown, and Hackett, 1994) in predicting interests and goals relating to statistics among psychology students. The participants were 1036 Spanish students who completed measurements of statistics-related mastery experiences, self-efficacy, outcome expectations,…

  18. Using the Theory of Successful Intelligence as a Basis for Augmenting AP Exams in Psychology and Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stemler, Steven E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Jarvin, Linda; Sternberg, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Sternberg's theory of successful intelligence was used to create augmented exams in Advanced Placement Psychology and Statistics. Participants included 1895 high school students from 19 states and 56 schools throughout the U.S. The psychometric results support the validity of creating examinations that assess memory, analytical, creative, and…

  19. The Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior to Prevention Science in Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, John L.; Netland, Jason D.

    2008-01-01

    The theory of reasoned action and planned behavior (TRA/PB) is a model of behavior change that has been extensively studied in the health sciences but has had limited exposure in the counseling psychology literature. The model offers counseling psychologists a framework to conceptualize prevention research and practice. The model is important to…

  20. The Effect of Perspective on Misconceptions in Psychology: A Test of Conceptual Change Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amsel, Eric; Johnston, Adam; Alvarado, Elly; Kettering, Jack; Rankin, Lauren; Ward, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    To test whether students' knowledge about psychology undergoes a conceptual change when learning about the discipline, 227 Introductory Psychology students from six different classes were given the Psychology as a Science (PAS) Scale in one of two conditions. Students were randomly assigned to complete the questionnaire from their own (Self…

  1. Does Ethical Theory Have a Place in Post-Kohlbergian Moral Psychology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Philosophers tend to assume that theoretical frameworks in psychology suffer from conceptual confusion and that any influence that philosophy might have on psychology should be positive. Going against this grain, Dan Lapsley and Darcia Narvaez attribute the Kohlbergian paradigm's current state of marginalization within psychology to Lawrence…

  2. Preliminary Examination of the Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide in an Adolescent Clinical Sample.

    PubMed

    Horton, Sarah E; Hughes, Jennifer L; King, Jessica D; Kennard, Betsy D; Westers, Nicholas J; Mayes, Taryn L; Stewart, Sunita M

    2016-08-01

    This study offers a preliminary examination of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS; Joiner 2005) in an adolescent clinical sample. The IPTS offers a nuanced framework that has many conceptual and practical merits. Although this theory has a growing base of evidence among adults, it has yet to be tested in adolescents using direct measures of its central constructs. Participants were 147 adolescents (76.2 % girls) on an inpatient psychiatric unit, who completed measures of key IPTS constructs of thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, acquired capability for suicide, as well as depression severity, hopelessness, and severity of suicidal symptoms. Our findings were largely consistent with hypotheses derived from the IPTS: perceived burdensomeness, and at a marginal level, thwarted belongingness, were independently associated with current suicidal ideation. The thwarted belongingness by perceived burdensomeness interaction marginally distinguished between adolescents with passive and active suicidal ideation. Acquired capability for suicide was associated with recent suicidal intent. Examination of all three IPTS constructs simultaneously revealed main effects of each construct (with a marginal effect of thwarted belongingness), and interaction effects for thwarted belongingness by perceived burdensomeness, and thwarted belongingness by perceived burdensomeness by acquired capability for suicide in association with suicidal symptom severity. Sex, age, depression severity, and hopelessness were controlled in all analyses. This study offers strong, albeit preliminary, support of the IPTS in a clinical adolescent sample. Assessment of IPTS constructs may be useful in determining persistent risk for suicide attempt. Prospective tests of the theory, and extensions to intervention and prevention should be considered in future IPTS research. PMID:26667025

  3. The role of positive emotions in positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions.

    PubMed

    Fredrickson, B L

    2001-03-01

    In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing. PMID:11315248

  4. Hope and the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior: replication and extension of prior findings.

    PubMed

    Anestis, Michael D; Moberg, Fallon B; Arnau, Randolph C

    2014-04-01

    The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (IPTS; Joiner, 2005) posits that suicidal behavior occurs when an individual has a desire for death (due to the combination of perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness) in addition to an acquired capacity for suicide, which is present when the individual has a low fear of death and high pain tolerance. Previous research has demonstrated an expected negative relation between trait hope and perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, as well as a more perplexing finding that hope is positively associated with the acquired capability. In a sample of 230 college students, measures of the three components of the IPTS were administered, along with measures of hope, depression, and painful and/or provocative events. Hierarchical regression analyses replicated the previously found associations between hope and burdensomeness and belongingness while controlling for depression and demographic variables. The positive association between hope and acquired capacity was also replicated, but a mediation analysis demonstrated that the effect was statistically accounted for by distress tolerance. The results further support the incremental validity of hope as a consideration in suicide risk assessments and suggest that hope may serve as a protective factor with respect to suicidal desire. PMID:24237390

  5. Understanding Bhutanese Refugee Suicide Through the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, B. Heidi; Lankau, Emily W.; Ao, Trong; Benson, Molly A.; Miller, Alisa B.; Shetty, Sharmila; Cardozo, Barbara Lopes; Geltman, Paul L.; Cochran, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Attention has been drawn to high rates of suicide among refugees after resettlement and in particular among the Bhutanese refugees. This study sought to understand the apparent high rates of suicide among resettled Bhutanese refugees in the context of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior (IPTS). Expanding on a larger investigation of suicide in a randomly selected sample of Bhutanese men and women resettled in Arizona, Georgia, New York, and Texas (Ao et al., 2012), the current study focused on 2 factors, thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, examined individual and postmigration variables associated with these factors, and explored how they differed by gender. Overall, factors such as poor health were associated with perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. For men, stressors related to employment and providing for their families were related to feeling burdensome and/or alienated from family and friends, whereas for women, stressors such as illiteracy, family conflict, and being separated from family members were more associated. IPTS holds promise in understanding suicide in the resettled Bhutanese community. PMID:25642653

  6. Understanding Bhutanese refugee suicide through the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Ellis, B Heidi; Lankau, Emily W; Ao, Trong; Benson, Molly A; Miller, Alisa B; Shetty, Sharmila; Lopes Cardozo, Barbara; Geltman, Paul L; Cochran, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Attention has been drawn to high rates of suicide among refugees after resettlement and in particular among the Bhutanese refugees. This study sought to understand the apparent high rates of suicide among resettled Bhutanese refugees in the context of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior (IPTS). Expanding on a larger investigation of suicide in a randomly selected sample of Bhutanese men and women resettled in Arizona, Georgia, New York, and Texas (Ao et al., 2012), the current study focused on 2 factors, thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, examined individual and postmigration variables associated with these factors, and explored how they differed by gender. Overall, factors such as poor health were associated with perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. For men, stressors related to employment and providing for their families were related to feeling burdensome and/or alienated from family and friends, whereas for women, stressors such as illiteracy, family conflict, and being separated from family members were more associated. IPTS holds promise in understanding suicide in the resettled Bhutanese community. PMID:25642653

  7. Intuitive physics and intuitive psychology (“theory of mind”) in offspring of mothers with psychoses

    PubMed Central

    Maróthi, Rebeka

    2014-01-01

    Offspring of individuals with psychoses sometimes display an abnormal development of cognition, language, motor performance, social adaptation, and emotional functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of children of mothers with schizophrenia (n = 28) and bipolar disorder (n = 23) to understand mental states of others using the Eyes Test (folk psychology or “theory of mind”) and physical causal interactions of inanimate objects (folk physics). Compared with healthy controls (n = 29), the children of mothers with schizophrenia displayed significantly impaired performances on the Eyes Test but not on the folk physics test when corrected for IQ. The children of mothers with bipolar disorder did not differ from the controls. The folk physics test showed a significant covariance with IQ, whereas the Eyes Test did not exhibit such covariance. These results suggest that the attribution of mental states, but not the interpretation of causal interaction of objects, is impaired in offspring of individuals with schizophrenia, which may contribute to social dysfunctions. PMID:24749009

  8. Grades, Student Satisfaction and Retention in Online and Face-to-Face Introductory Psychology Units: A Test of Equivalency Theory

    PubMed Central

    Garratt-Reed, David; Roberts, Lynne D.; Heritage, Brody

    2016-01-01

    There has been a recent rapid growth in the number of psychology courses offered online through institutions of higher education. The American Psychological Association has highlighted the importance of ensuring the effectiveness of online psychology courses (Halonen et al., 2013). Despite this, there have been inconsistent findings regarding student grades, satisfaction, and retention in online psychology units. Equivalency Theory (Simonson, 1999; Simonson et al., 1999) posits that online and classroom-based learners will attain equivalent learning outcomes when equivalent learning experiences are provided. We present a study of an online introductory psychology unit designed to provide equivalent learning experiences to the pre-existing face-to-face version of the unit. Using quasi-experimental methods, academic performance, student feedback, and retention data from 866 Australian undergraduate psychology students were examined to assess whether the online unit developed to provide equivalent learning experiences produced comparable outcomes to the ‘traditional’ unit delivered face-to-face. Student grades did not significantly differ between modes of delivery, except for a group-work based assessment where online students performed more poorly. Student satisfaction was generally high in both modes of the unit, with group-work the key source of dissatisfaction in the online unit. The results provide partial support for Equivalency Theory. The group-work based assessment did not provide an equivalent learning experience for students in the online unit highlighting the need for further research to determine effective methods of engaging students in online group activities. Consistent with previous research, retention rates were significantly lower in the online unit, indicating the need to develop effective strategies to increase online retention rates. While this study demonstrates successes in presenting students with an equivalent learning experience, we

  9. Grades, Student Satisfaction and Retention in Online and Face-to-Face Introductory Psychology Units: A Test of Equivalency Theory.

    PubMed

    Garratt-Reed, David; Roberts, Lynne D; Heritage, Brody

    2016-01-01

    There has been a recent rapid growth in the number of psychology courses offered online through institutions of higher education. The American Psychological Association has highlighted the importance of ensuring the effectiveness of online psychology courses (Halonen et al., 2013). Despite this, there have been inconsistent findings regarding student grades, satisfaction, and retention in online psychology units. Equivalency Theory (Simonson, 1999; Simonson et al., 1999) posits that online and classroom-based learners will attain equivalent learning outcomes when equivalent learning experiences are provided. We present a study of an online introductory psychology unit designed to provide equivalent learning experiences to the pre-existing face-to-face version of the unit. Using quasi-experimental methods, academic performance, student feedback, and retention data from 866 Australian undergraduate psychology students were examined to assess whether the online unit developed to provide equivalent learning experiences produced comparable outcomes to the 'traditional' unit delivered face-to-face. Student grades did not significantly differ between modes of delivery, except for a group-work based assessment where online students performed more poorly. Student satisfaction was generally high in both modes of the unit, with group-work the key source of dissatisfaction in the online unit. The results provide partial support for Equivalency Theory. The group-work based assessment did not provide an equivalent learning experience for students in the online unit highlighting the need for further research to determine effective methods of engaging students in online group activities. Consistent with previous research, retention rates were significantly lower in the online unit, indicating the need to develop effective strategies to increase online retention rates. While this study demonstrates successes in presenting students with an equivalent learning experience, we

  10. Estimation of Psychological Stress in Humans: A Combination of Theory and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Parul; Priyadarshini, Sushri; Aich, Palok

    2013-01-01

    Stress has long been known to increase susceptibility to health disorders. In 2009, American Psychological Association further established association of stress to serious health problems. However, a quantitative and accurate way to evaluate and estimate stress status of individuals is still a big challenge. It has been shown, in large animal models using cattle, that psychological stress can be quantified as well as disease susceptibility could be predicted through biomarker discovery. Taking cue from those studies, we have evaluated and estimated psychological stress level of individuals theoretically and validated experimentally. Various biomarkers have also been identified which can be associated to psychological stress to predict stress status of unknown individuals. PMID:23690978

  11. Speeding for fun? Exploring the speeding behavior of riders of heavy motorcycles using the theory of planned behavior and psychological flow theory.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ching-Fu; Chen, Cheng-Wen

    2011-05-01

    This paper focuses on a special segment of motorcyclists in Taiwan--riders of heavy motorcycles--and investigates their speeding behavior and its affecting factors. It extends the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explore motorcyclist speeding behavior by including the variables of psychological flow theory. The levels of sensation-seeking and riding experience are also used as grouping variables to investigate group differences from the influences of their affecting factors on speeding behavior. The results reveal that the psychological flow variables have greater predictive power in explaining speeding behavior than the TPB variables, providing useful insights into the unique nature of this group of motorcyclists, who are more prone to engage in speeding. Group differences with regard to both sensation-seeking and rider experience in speeding behavior are highlighted, and the implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21376891

  12. Using Achievement Goal Theory to Translate Psychological Principles into Practice in the Secondary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deemer, Sandra A.

    2004-01-01

    As teachers begin to respond to educational reform efforts that stipulate the use of research-based practices in the classroom and translate them into feasible everyday approaches in the secondary classroom, many have turned to the field of educational psychology for guidance. This article uses educational psychology research on achievement goal…

  13. Investigation of Social Cognitive Career Theory for Minority Recruitment in School Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bocanegra, Joel O.; Gubi, Aaron A.; Cappaert, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    School psychology trainers have historically struggled to adequately increase the number of professionals from diverse backgrounds. An increase in diverse providers is important in meeting the needs of a burgeoning racial/ethnic minority student population. Previous research suggests that minority undergraduate psychology students have less…

  14. Positive Art Therapy: Linking Positive Psychology to Art Therapy Theory, Practice, and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Rebecca A.; Chilton, Gioia

    2013-01-01

    As a growing movement in the larger field of mental health, positive psychology has much to offer the art therapy profession, which in turn is uniquely poised to contribute to the study of optimal functioning. This article discusses the relationship of positive psychology to art therapy and its capacity to mobilize client strengths, to induce…

  15. Vygotsky's Stage Theory: The Psychology of Art and the Actor under the Direction of "Perezhivanie"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smagorinsky, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews Vygotsky's writings on arts (particularly logocentric art including the theater) and emotions, drawing on his initial exploration in "The Psychology of Art" and his final considerations set forth in a set of essays, treatises, and lectures produced in the last years of his life. The review of "The Psychology of Art" includes…

  16. Analysis of cognitive theories in artificial intelligence and psychology in relation to the qualitative process of emotion

    SciTech Connect

    Semrau, P.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze selected cognitive theories in the areas of artificial intelligence (A.I.) and psychology to determine the role of emotions in the cognitive or intellectual processes. Understanding the relationship of emotions to processes of intelligence has implications for constructing theories of aesthetic response and A.I. systems in art. Psychological theories were examined that demonstrated the changing nature of the research in emotion related to cognition. The basic techniques in A.I. were reviewed and the A.I. research was analyzed to determine the process of cognition and the role of emotion. The A.I. research emphasized the digital, quantifiable character of the computer and associated cognitive models and programs. In conclusion, the cognitive-emotive research in psychology and the cognitive research in A.I. emphasized quantification methods over analog and qualitative characteristics required for a holistic explanation of cognition. Further A.I. research needs to examine the qualitative aspects of values, attitudes, and beliefs on influencing the creative thinking processes. Inclusion of research related to qualitative problem solving in art provides a more comprehensive base of study for examining the area of intelligence in computers.

  17. Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: Identifying factors predictive of managing upper respiratory tract infections without antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Eccles, Martin P; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Johnston, Marie; Steen, Nick; Pitts, Nigel B; Thomas, Ruth; Glidewell, Elizabeth; Maclennan, Graeme; Bonetti, Debbie; Walker, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Background Psychological models can be used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings. However, they have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of differing theories is not clear. The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of a range of psychological theories to predict health professional behaviour relating to management of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) without antibiotics. Methods Psychological measures were collected by postal questionnaire survey from a random sample of general practitioners (GPs) in Scotland. The outcome measures were clinical behaviour (using antibiotic prescription rates as a proxy indicator), behavioural simulation (scenario-based decisions to managing URTI with or without antibiotics) and behavioural intention (general intention to managing URTI without antibiotics). Explanatory variables were the constructs within the following theories: Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), Common Sense Self-Regulation Model (CS-SRM), Operant Learning Theory (OLT), Implementation Intention (II), Stage Model (SM), and knowledge (a non-theoretical construct). For each outcome measure, multiple regression analysis was used to examine the predictive value of each theoretical model individually. Following this 'theory level' analysis, a 'cross theory' analysis was conducted to investigate the combined predictive value of all significant individual constructs across theories. Results All theories were tested, but only significant results are presented. When predicting behaviour, at the theory level, OLT explained 6% of the variance and, in a cross theory analysis, OLT 'evidence of habitual behaviour' also explained 6%. When predicting behavioural simulation, at the theory level, the proportion of variance explained was: TPB, 31%; SCT, 26%; II, 6%; OLT, 24%. GPs who reported having already decided to change their management to try to avoid the

  18. The birth of experimental psychology in Germany between psychophysical methods and physiological theories.

    PubMed

    Sinatra, Maria

    2006-01-01

    In 1879 Wundt's laboratory of psychology was opened in Leipzig, and it has been the landmark ever since for the beginning of modern experimental psychology. Its founder, Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt, was the first to successfully demarcate the areas of scientific psychology as being distinct from either physiology or philosophy, thus guaranteeing the survival of psychology, which was regarded as an autonomous discipline set upon a secure institutional framework. This paper attempts to clarify the basic facts and concepts related to the roots of scientific psychology in Germany, i.e., the context in which the "Founding Father" worked, as well as of those predecessors who proposed the topics and apparatus of his laboratory. Attention will be paid in particular to the psychophysical methods of Weber and Fechner, especially in regard to colour perception. In this context, an outline is presented of the history of reaction time experiments in astronomy, physiology, and psychology, and of the role played by the scientific instruments. It is shown how the methodology of physics and physiology contributed to the emancipation of scientific psychology and to the formation of its orientation. PMID:19569432

  19. Sex Stereotypes and Implicit Personality Theory: Toward a Cognitive-Social Psychological Conceptualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, Richard D.; Del Boca, Frances K.

    1979-01-01

    The distinction between "stereotype" as a cognitive structure and "stereotyping" as a complex set of intra- and inter-personal processes is discussed in light of relevant research in cognitive and social psychology. (Author/EB)

  20. Re-conceptualizing Neurosis as a Degree of Egocentricity: Ethical Issues in Psychological Theory.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Segura, M; Echavarria, M F; Vitz, P C

    2015-10-01

    Psychology's historical rejection of ethics has led to an oversimplification of the origins and treatments of mental disorders. In this article, we present an analysis of how classical neurosis can be reformulated from an ethical and psychological interaction. We focus on the crucial role that egocentricity plays and argue that this term can help to clarify how ego defensive ethical decisions can undermine psychological capacities and contribute to a progressive depersonalization that can result in typical clinical disorders. In Christian anthropology, the virtues, especially humility and love have a crucial role in the positive growth of human affective and cognitive capacities. In addition, the person in his/her nature is endowed with the capacity to transcend the self and to escape egocentricity through self-giving love of God and of others. This capacity of self-giving is diametrically opposed to egocentricity and opens a new way for possible psychological recovery. PMID:25216966

  1. Western psychology and Muslim psychology in dialogue: comparisons between a Qura'nic theory of personality and Freud's and Jung's ideas.

    PubMed

    Abu-Raiya, Hisham

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, comparisons are made between a newly developed Qura'nic theory of personality and the Freudian and Jungian theories of the mind. Notable similarities were found between the Freudian id, ego, superego and neurosis and the Qura'nic nafs ammarah besoa' (evil-commanding psyche), a'ql (intellect), al-nafs al-lawammah (the reproachful psyche) and al-nafs al-marid'a (the sick psyche), respectively. Noteworthy resemblances were detected also between the Jungian concepts collective unconscious, archetypes, Self and individuation and the Qura'nic constructs roh (spirit), al-asmaa' (the names), qalb (heart), and al-nafs al-mutmainnah (the serene psyche), respectively. These parallels, as well as the departure points, between the models are thoroughly discussed and analyzed. The comparisons performed in this paper open new avenues for dialogue between western models of the psyche and their Muslim counterparts, a dialogue that can enrich both perspectives and advance the field of psychology. PMID:22739812

  2. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups—what do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    PubMed Central

    Hagmayer, York; Engelmann, Neele

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive psychological research focuses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets) were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic literature review on causal beliefs about depression was conducted, including original, quantitative research. Thirty-six studies investigating 13 non-Western and 32 Western cultural groups were analyzed by classifying assumed causes and preferred forms of treatment into common categories. Relations between beliefs and treatment preferences were assessed. Substantial agreement between cultural groups was found with respect to the impact of observable causes. Stress was generally rated as most important. Less agreement resulted for hidden, especially supernatural causes. Causal beliefs were clearly related to treatment preferences in Western groups, while evidence was mostly lacking for non-Western groups. Overall predictions were supported, but there were considerable methodological limitations. Pointers to future research, which may combine studies on causal beliefs with experimental paradigms on causal reasoning, are given. PMID:25505432

  3. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups-what do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    PubMed

    Hagmayer, York; Engelmann, Neele

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive psychological research focuses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets) were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic literature review on causal beliefs about depression was conducted, including original, quantitative research. Thirty-six studies investigating 13 non-Western and 32 Western cultural groups were analyzed by classifying assumed causes and preferred forms of treatment into common categories. Relations between beliefs and treatment preferences were assessed. Substantial agreement between cultural groups was found with respect to the impact of observable causes. Stress was generally rated as most important. Less agreement resulted for hidden, especially supernatural causes. Causal beliefs were clearly related to treatment preferences in Western groups, while evidence was mostly lacking for non-Western groups. Overall predictions were supported, but there were considerable methodological limitations. Pointers to future research, which may combine studies on causal beliefs with experimental paradigms on causal reasoning, are given. PMID:25505432

  4. "What about building 7?" A social psychological study of online discussion of 9/11 conspiracy theories.

    PubMed

    Wood, Michael J; Douglas, Karen M

    2013-01-01

    Recent research into the psychology of conspiracy belief has highlighted the importance of belief systems in the acceptance or rejection of conspiracy theories. We examined a large sample of conspiracist (pro-conspiracy-theory) and conventionalist (anti-conspiracy-theory) comments on news websites in order to investigate the relative importance of promoting alternative explanations vs. rejecting conventional explanations for events. In accordance with our hypotheses, we found that conspiracist commenters were more likely to argue against the opposing interpretation and less likely to argue in favor of their own interpretation, while the opposite was true of conventionalist commenters. However, conspiracist comments were more likely to explicitly put forward an account than conventionalist comments were. In addition, conspiracists were more likely to express mistrust and made more positive and fewer negative references to other conspiracy theories. The data also indicate that conspiracists were largely unwilling to apply the "conspiracy theory" label to their own beliefs and objected when others did so, lending support to the long-held suggestion that conspiracy belief carries a social stigma. Finally, conventionalist arguments tended to have a more hostile tone. These tendencies in persuasive communication can be understood as a reflection of an underlying conspiracist worldview in which the details of individual conspiracy theories are less important than a generalized rejection of official explanations. PMID:23847577

  5. Capable of Suicide: A Functional Model of the Acquired Capability Component of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Phillip N.; Cukrowicz, Kelly C.

    2016-01-01

    The current review aims to present a functional model of the acquired capability for suicide; a component of Joiner’s (2005) Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide. This review is aimed at integrating the points discussed by Joiner into a unified and specific conceptualization of acquired capability. Additionally, we offer some points of elaboration; such as the interaction between specific diatheses with life events, the role of short-term bolstering of the capability for suicide, and how contextual factors moderate the experience of painful and provocative life events; thereby leading to fearlessness and pain insensitivity to the actions and ideas involved in suicide. PMID:20560748

  6. [Colors and their meaning in culture and psychology--a historical outline and contemporary status of color vision theories].

    PubMed

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Lewicka, Romana; Torlińska, Teresa; Stelcer, Bogusław

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of color perception has intrigued scholars from antiquity. However, the understanding of this phenomena only came with the recognition of the nature of light and visual perception. Ancient concepts, present in science until the Renaissance, were based more on philosophical considerations and theoretical speculations than on anatomical studies and a matter-of-fact assessment of physiological functions of the visual system. From antiquity to 17th century scientific approach to the concept of vision was dominated by two theories: intromission and extramission (emanation). Intromission theory, propagated by Alhazen (lbn al.-Haythama), Vitello, John Peckham, Roger Bacon and Leonardo da Vinci, assumed that the light was transmitted from the observed object perpendicularly to the transparent eye structures. Johannes Kepler was the first scholar to propose that the retina was the receptive part of the eye. In the first half of the 17th century, Kepler's groundbreaking optical achievements and anatomical discoveries of many other scientists cast new light on the understanding of the role of different eye structures, finally wiping out the intromission theory. A further major achievement contributing to the recognition of the true nature of colors was a theory presented by Newton in 1688. He argued that they were colored rays, and not white light, that were composed of homogenous and pure light. It was, however, not until the 19th century when two modern theories of color appeared, i.e. a trichromatic theory mostly associated with the names of Young and Hemlholtz, and an opponent colors theory of Hering. In the 20th century, the two theories--previously assumed as contradictory--were joined into the zone theories of color vision. Colors have their cultural and social meanings, as far as a very individual and personal interpretation. In the former function they are used to illustrate some cultural and sociological phenomena; in the latter, they are helpful in

  7. The Improvement of Measurement in Education and Psychology: Contributions of Latent Trait Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spearritt, Donald, Ed.

    Educational and psychological measurement has been a main area of work for the Australian Council for Educational (ACER) since its inception. The theoretical and practical contributions of latent trait measurement and commentary on the relatively recent use of these models in Australia were the focus of a seminar celebrating the 50th anniversary…

  8. Measuring Lifestyle and Attachment: An Empirical Investigation Linking Individual Psychology and Attachment Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peluso, Paul R.; Peluso, Jennifer P.; Buckner, Janine P.; Kern, Roy M.; Curlette, William

    2009-01-01

    P. R. Peluso, J. P. Peluso, J. F. White, and R. M. Kern (2004) reviewed the theoretical constructs underlying the similarities between lifestyle and attachment style. Specifically, they suggested that the individual psychology construct of lifestyle (or style of life) and attachment style should be empirically investigated. The present research…

  9. Clinical Supervision and Psychological Functions: A New Direction for Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajak, Edward

    2002-01-01

    Relates Carl Jung's concept of psychological functions to four families of clinical supervision: the original clinical models, the humanistic/artistic models, the technical/didactic models, and the developmental/reflective models. Differences among clinical supervision models within these families are clarified as representing "communication…

  10. Autistic Children's Talk about Psychological States: Deficits in the Early Acquisition of a Theory of Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    1992-01-01

    Spontaneous speech samples collected from six autistic and Down's Syndrome children were analyzed for language referring to various psychological states. Autistic children were comparable to Down's Syndrome controls in their talk about desire, perception, and emotion. However, they used less language to call for attention and to refer to cognitive…

  11. The use of the effect size in JCR Spanish journals of psychology: from theory to fact.

    PubMed

    García García, Juan; Ortega Campos, Elena; De la Fuente Sánchez, Leticia

    2011-11-01

    In 1999, Wilkinson and the Task Force on Statistical Inference published "Statistical Methods and Psychology: Guidelines and Explanation." The authors made several recommendations about how to improve the quality of Psychology research papers. One of these was to report some effect-size index in the results of the research. In 2001, the fifth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association included this recommendation. In Spain, in 2003, scientific journals like Psicothema or the International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology (IJCHP) published editorials and papers expressing the need to calculate the effect size in the research papers. The aim of this study is to determine whether the papers published from 2003 to 2008 in the four Spanish journals indexed in the Journal Citation Reports have reported some effect-size index of their results. The findings indicate that, in general, the followup of the norm has been scanty, though the evolution over the analyzed period is different depending on the journal. PMID:22059347

  12. Model Selection and Psychological Theory: A Discussion of the Differences between the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrieze, Scott I.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) in model selection and the appraisal of psychological theory. The focus is on latent variable models, given their growing use in theory testing and construction. Theoretical statistical results in regression are discussed, and more important…

  13. A Historical Overview and Contemporary Expansion of Psychological Theories of Determinism, Probabilistic Causality, Indeterminate Free Will, and Moral and Legal Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilks, Duffy; Ratheal, Juli D'Ann

    2009-01-01

    The authors provide a historical overview of the development of contemporary theories of counseling and psychology in relation to determinism, probabilistic causality, indeterminate free will, and moral and legal responsibility. They propose a unique model of behavioral causality that incorporates a theory of indeterminate free will, a concept…

  14. Attention Deficits in Hyperactive Children: Connecting Psychological Theory with Classroom Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacAulay, D. J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews issues associated with the education of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. It offers a definition of this population and compares practical classroom applications of commonsense attribution theory and information processing theory. It proposes a pragmatic learning theory that takes into account cognitive,…

  15. Money Buys Financial Security and Psychological Need Satisfaction: Testing Need Theory in Affluence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Ryan T.; Kurai, Mark; Tam, Leona

    2013-01-01

    The most prominent theory to explain the curvilinear relationship between income and subjective well-being (SWB) is need theory, which proposes that increased income and wealth can lead to increased well-being in poverty because money is used to satisfy basic physiological needs. The present study tests the tenets of need theory by proposing that…

  16. “What about building 7?” A social psychological study of online discussion of 9/11 conspiracy theories

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Michael J.; Douglas, Karen M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research into the psychology of conspiracy belief has highlighted the importance of belief systems in the acceptance or rejection of conspiracy theories. We examined a large sample of conspiracist (pro-conspiracy-theory) and conventionalist (anti-conspiracy-theory) comments on news websites in order to investigate the relative importance of promoting alternative explanations vs. rejecting conventional explanations for events. In accordance with our hypotheses, we found that conspiracist commenters were more likely to argue against the opposing interpretation and less likely to argue in favor of their own interpretation, while the opposite was true of conventionalist commenters. However, conspiracist comments were more likely to explicitly put forward an account than conventionalist comments were. In addition, conspiracists were more likely to express mistrust and made more positive and fewer negative references to other conspiracy theories. The data also indicate that conspiracists were largely unwilling to apply the “conspiracy theory” label to their own beliefs and objected when others did so, lending support to the long-held suggestion that conspiracy belief carries a social stigma. Finally, conventionalist arguments tended to have a more hostile tone. These tendencies in persuasive communication can be understood as a reflection of an underlying conspiracist worldview in which the details of individual conspiracy theories are less important than a generalized rejection of official explanations. PMID:23847577

  17. Evidence for Intensive Aphasia Therapy: Consideration of Theories From Neuroscience and Cognitive Psychology.

    PubMed

    Dignam, Jade K; Rodriguez, Amy D; Copland, David A

    2016-03-01

    Treatment intensity is a critical component to the delivery of speech-language pathology and rehabilitation services. Within aphasia rehabilitation, however, insufficient evidence currently exists to guide clinical decision making with respect to the optimal treatment intensity. This review considers perspectives from 2 key bodies of research, the neuroscience and cognitive psychology literature, with respect to the scheduling of aphasia rehabilitation services. Neuroscience research suggests that intensive training is a key element of rehabilitation and is necessary to achieve functional and neurologic changes after a stroke occurs. In contrast, the cognitive psychology literature suggests that optimal long-term learning is achieved when training is provided in a distributed or nonintensive schedule. These perspectives are evaluated and discussed with respect to the current evidence for treatment intensity in aphasia rehabilitation. In addition, directions for future research are identified, including study design, methods of defining and measuring treatment intensity, and selection of outcome measures in aphasia rehabilitation. PMID:26107539

  18. How Cultural Evolutionary Theory Can Inform Social Psychology and Vice Versa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesoudi, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Cultural evolutionary theory is an interdisciplinary field in which human culture is viewed as a Darwinian process of variation, competition, and inheritance, and the tools, methods, and theories developed by evolutionary biologists to study genetic evolution are adapted to study cultural change. It is argued here that an integration of the…

  19. Social Learning Theory and Developmental Psychology: The Legacies of Robert Sears and Albert Bandura.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grusec, Joan E.

    1992-01-01

    Social learning theory is evaluated from a historical perspective that goes up to the present. Sears and others melded psychoanalytic and stimulus-response learning theory into a comprehensive explanation of human behavior. Bandura emphasized cognitive and information-processing capacities that mediate social behavior. (LB)

  20. Psychological Plausibility of the Theory of Probabilistic Mental Models and the Fast and Frugal Heuristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Michael R.; Franco-Watkins, Ana M.; Thomas, Rick

    2008-01-01

    The theory of probabilistic mental models (PMM; G. Gigerenzer, U. Hoffrage, & H. Kleinbolting, 1991) has had a major influence on the field of judgment and decision making, with the most recent important modifications to PMM theory being the identification of several fast and frugal heuristics (G. Gigerenzer & D. G. Goldstein, 1996). These…

  1. Objectification Theory and Psychology of Women: A Decade of Advances and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi, Bonnie; Huang, Yu-Ping

    2008-01-01

    Fredrickson and Roberts (1997) proposed objectification theory as an integrative framework for understanding how women's socialization and experiences of sexual objectification are translated into mental health problems. This article reviews the past decade of research grounded in objectification theory and highlights needed directions for future…

  2. Applied Systemic Theory and Educational Psychology: Can the Twain Ever Meet?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrini, Dario W.

    2009-01-01

    This article reflects on the potential benefits of applying systemic theory to the work of educational psychologists (EPs). It reviews developments in systemic thinking over time, and discusses the differences between more directive "first order" versus collaborative "second order" approaches. It considers systemic theories and illustrates their…

  3. An Investigation of the Mathematical Models of Piaget's Psychological Theory of Cognitive Learning. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalechofsky, Robert

    This research paper proposes several mathematical models which help clarify Piaget's theory of cognition on the concrete and formal operational stages. Some modified lattice models were used for the concrete stage and a combined Boolean Algebra and group theory model was used for the formal stage. The researcher used experiments cited in the…

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF A THEORY OF EDUCATION FROM PSYCHOLOGICAL AND OTHER BASIC RESEARCH FINDINGS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TAYLOR, CALVIN W.; AND OTHERS

    A BROAD EXPLORATORY AND THEORETICAL STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE IN A FUNDAMENTAL SENSE THE IMPLICATIONS AND IMPACT WHICH NEW RESEARCH IN THE BASIC BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE FIELDS HAD ON EDUCATIONAL PRACTICE AND THEORY. THE TOTAL TASK WAS TO BUILD A NEW EDUCATIONAL THEORY USING SAMPLINGS FROM ALL BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH AND TO INVESTIGATE WAYS TO REDUCE…

  5. The Role of Reactance and Positive Emotions in Persuasive Health Messages: Refining the Theory of Psychological Reactance and the Politeness Theory and Testing the Theories of Positive Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eunsoon

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to expand research on persuasion 1) by examining psychological reactance as a function of threats to positive identity above and beyond threats to freedom and 2) by examining the role of positive emotions. An online survey recruited 478 students from undergraduate courses at several universities in the U.S. The study…

  6. Ethnic-Racial Stigma and Health Disparities: From Psychological Theory and Evidence to Public Policy Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Luis M.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of diverse ethnic-racial groups in the United States today is a source of national pride. However, this cultural sentiment is overshadowed by the reality that those ethnic-racial groups that are stigmatized carry a disproportionate burden of negative physical health outcomes. These systematic differences are referred to as health disparities. Although this phenomenon is fairly well documented, relatively little is understood about the social contexts and the psychological processes they activate that contribute to poor health. More importantly, to demonstrate the processes underlying health disparities does not single-handedly address the issue of social injustice in the health of disadvantaged people. Scientists must assume the burden of facilitating the translation of their laboratory and community-based research to public policy recommendations. This volume of the Journal of Social Issues brings together social, developmental, cognitive, and clinical psychological research on the physical health of ethnic-racial stigmatized individuals in the United States. Each contribution explicitly discusses the implications of research for public health policy. PMID:25530632

  7. On the Psychological Reality of Cognitive Structures: A Tentative Synthesis of Piaget's and Bruner's Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Gerhard

    1974-01-01

    Piaget's concept of "internalization" is analyzed and related to Bruner's representational theories of cognitive development. Cognitive structures are shown to be real exclusively in an actual representation. (Author/SDH)

  8. From Years of Work in Psychology and Computer Science, Scientists Build Theories of Thinking and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, David L.

    1988-01-01

    Scientists feel that progress in artificial intelligence and the availability of thousands of experimental results make this the right time to build and test theories on how people think and learn, using the computer to model minds. (MSE)

  9. Serendipity in Relationship: A Tentative Theory of the Cognitive Process of Yuanfen and Its Psychological Constructs in Chinese Cultural Societies.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsin-Ping; Hwang, Kwang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to combine three important themes in Chinese cultural societies: serendipity in relationship (yuanfen), relational interactions, and psychological adaptation through self-cultivation. People who live in Chinese cultural societies are deeply affected by relationalism and tend to be very different from their Western counterparts, who adopt individualistic methods when dealing with interpersonal problems. They are highly likely to access the perspective of yuanfen as part of their cultural wisdom to convert negative feelings, awkwardness, or setbacks caused by interpersonal relationship incidents, into a type of cognitive belief that can be used to combat anxiety and actuate coping actions. Based on this, this article proposes the tentative theory of a dialectical model which comprises elements of the philosophies of Daoism, Buddhism and Confucianism, to analyze the cognitive operation process regarding yuanfen and to explain and predict how people in Chinese cultural societies differ from most Western people in terms of psychological adjustment and coping actions when dealing with interpersonal problems. Canonical correlation analysis was used in the empirical study to describe this model and resulted in two statistically significant canonical factor pairs. The hypothesized model has been partially verified. It is hoped that this framework can serve as a pilot perspective for future studies, and at the same time provide the Western academic world with a reference for understanding the concept and substantive effects of serendipity in relationship. Further suggestions for future research direction are offered. PMID:26973576

  10. Making good theory practical: five lessons for an Applied Social Identity Approach to challenges of organizational, health, and clinical psychology.

    PubMed

    Haslam, S Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Social identity research was pioneered as a distinctive theoretical approach to the analysis of intergroup relations but over the last two decades it has increasingly been used to shed light on applied issues. One early application of insights from social identity and self-categorization theories was to the organizational domain (with a particular focus on leadership), but more recently there has been a surge of interest in applications to the realm of health and clinical topics. This article charts the development of this Applied Social Identity Approach, and abstracts five core lessons from the research that has taken this forward. (1) Groups and social identities matter because they have a critical role to play in organizational and health outcomes. (2) Self-categorizations matter because it is people's self-understandings in a given context that shape their psychology and behaviour. (3) The power of groups is unlocked by working with social identities not across or against them. (4) Social identities need to be made to matter in deed not just in word. (5) Psychological intervention is always political because it always involves some form of social identity management. Programmes that seek to incorporate these principles are reviewed and important challenges and opportunities for the future are identified. PMID:24627990

  11. Serendipity in Relationship: A Tentative Theory of the Cognitive Process of Yuanfen and Its Psychological Constructs in Chinese Cultural Societies

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hsin-Ping; Hwang, Kwang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to combine three important themes in Chinese cultural societies: serendipity in relationship (yuanfen), relational interactions, and psychological adaptation through self-cultivation. People who live in Chinese cultural societies are deeply affected by relationalism and tend to be very different from their Western counterparts, who adopt individualistic methods when dealing with interpersonal problems. They are highly likely to access the perspective of yuanfen as part of their cultural wisdom to convert negative feelings, awkwardness, or setbacks caused by interpersonal relationship incidents, into a type of cognitive belief that can be used to combat anxiety and actuate coping actions. Based on this, this article proposes the tentative theory of a dialectical model which comprises elements of the philosophies of Daoism, Buddhism and Confucianism, to analyze the cognitive operation process regarding yuanfen and to explain and predict how people in Chinese cultural societies differ from most Western people in terms of psychological adjustment and coping actions when dealing with interpersonal problems. Canonical correlation analysis was used in the empirical study to describe this model and resulted in two statistically significant canonical factor pairs. The hypothesized model has been partially verified. It is hoped that this framework can serve as a pilot perspective for future studies, and at the same time provide the Western academic world with a reference for understanding the concept and substantive effects of serendipity in relationship. Further suggestions for future research direction are offered. PMID:26973576

  12. Perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and suicide ideation: Re-examination of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory in two samples.

    PubMed

    Cero, Ian; Zuromski, Kelly L; Witte, Tracy K; Ribeiro, Jessica D; Joiner, Thomas E

    2015-08-30

    The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS) proposes that suicide ideation is caused by the interaction of perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, in which each predictor amplifies the harm of the other. Though several studies support this synergy hypothesis, research has not considered potential quadratic effects of perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, which can distort the sign, size, and significance of interactions, if mistakenly neglected in a model. This investigation examined the synergy hypothesis in samples of university undergraduates and psychiatric inpatients, this time controlling for quadratic effects. Despite adequate power, results showed no interaction between perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness in either sample, regardless of the presence of quadratic effects. Additionally, no quadratic effects were observed. The lower-order, linear perceived burdensomeness term was positively associated with suicide ideation in both samples, but the thwarted belongingness term was not associated with suicide ideation in either sample. The discussion considers implications of current findings for the IPTS, highlighting a need to formally test the impact of sample characteristics on the estimation of theory parameters. Recommendations for systematic evaluation of such sample and theory parameters are offered and their clinical implications are discussed. PMID:26099656

  13. A Short-Term, Prospective Test of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Ideation in an Adolescent Clinical Sample.

    PubMed

    Miller, Adam Bryant; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Leichtweis, Richard N

    2016-06-01

    The present prospective study tested a portion of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPTS) in an adolescent clinical sample. Participants were 143 adolescents consecutively admitted to a partial hospitalization program who completed assessments at intake and discharge from the program. Results partially supported the IPTS and suggest that (1) perceived burdensomeness may be an important socially based cognition for understanding concurrent risk for suicidal ideation (SI); (2) thwarted belongingness affects depression symptom severity over time, which indirectly predicts SI over a short follow-up time frame; and (3) the IPTS constructs may function differently in a high-risk clinical adolescent sample, compared to adults, although findings are preliminary. PMID:26456085

  14. Understanding the Relationship Between Suicidality and Psychopathy: An Examination of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior.

    PubMed

    Anestis, Joye C; Anestis, Michael D; Rufino, Katrina A; Cramer, Robert J; Miller, Holly; Khazem, Lauren R; Joiner, Thomas E

    2016-07-01

    A number of studies have reported a bifurcated relationship between psychopathy and suicidality, such that suicidality is positively related to Factor 2 (impulsive-antisocial lifestyle) of psychopathy but negatively related or unrelated to Factor 1 (affective-interpersonal deficits). The present study aims to expand these findings by investigating this relationship through the lens of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior across both undergraduate and forensic samples. We hypothesized that, although both Factors 1 and 2 would be associated with the acquired capability for suicide, Factor 2 would exhibit a unique relationship with suicidal desire (perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness). Results were largely supportive of these hypotheses, although differences were noted across samples and measures. Findings highlight the importance of precision in the assessment of antisociality and suggest potential differences in the construct of psychopathy between non-criminal and criminal samples. PMID:26954611

  15. The typological approach in child and family psychology: a review of theory, methods, and research.

    PubMed

    Mandara, Jelani

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the theoretical underpinnings, major concepts, and methods of the typological approach. It was argued that the typological approach offers a systematic, empirically rigorous and reliable way to synthesize the nomothetic variable-centered approach with the idiographic case-centered approach. Recent advances in cluster analysis validation make it a promising method for uncovering natural typologies. This paper also reviewed findings from personality and family studies that have revealed 3 prototypical personalities and parenting styles: Adjusted/Authoritative, Overcontrolled/Authoritarian, and Undercontrolled/Permissive. These prototypes are theorized to be synonymous with attractor basins in psychological state space. The connection between family types and personality structure as well as future directions of typological research were also discussed. PMID:12836581

  16. Social psychology, terrorism, and identity: a preliminary re-examination of theory, culture, self, and society.

    PubMed

    Arena, Michael P; Arrigo, Bruce A

    2005-01-01

    This article relies upon structural symbolic interactionism and five of its organizing concepts (i.e. symbols, the definition of the situation, roles, socialization and role-taking, and the self) to put forth a novel conceptual framework for understanding the terrorist identity. In order to demonstrate the practical utility of the framework, applications to various terrorist groups around the globe are incorporated into the analysis. Overall, both the theoretical and application work help reorient the academic and practitioner behavioral science communities to the importance of culture, self, and society when investigating one's membership in and identity through militant extremist organizations. Given the unique approach taken by this article, several provisional implications are delineated. In particular, future research on terrorism, strategies linked to counter-terrorism, legal and public policy reform, and the relevance of utilizing a sociologically animated social psychology in the assessment of other forms of criminal behavior are all very tentatively explored. PMID:16094631

  17. On the biological plausibility of grandmother cells: implications for neural network theories in psychology and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Jeffrey S

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental claim associated with parallel distributed processing (PDP) theories of cognition is that knowledge is coded in a distributed manner in mind and brain. This approach rejects the claim that knowledge is coded in a localist fashion, with words, objects, and simple concepts (e.g. "dog"), that is, coded with their own dedicated representations. One of the putative advantages of this approach is that the theories are biologically plausible. Indeed, advocates of the PDP approach often highlight the close parallels between distributed representations learned in connectionist models and neural coding in brain and often dismiss localist (grandmother cell) theories as biologically implausible. The author reviews a range a data that strongly challenge this claim and shows that localist models provide a better account of single-cell recording studies. The author also contrast local and alternative distributed coding schemes (sparse and coarse coding) and argues that common rejection of grandmother cell theories in neuroscience is due to a misunderstanding about how localist models behave. The author concludes that the localist representations embedded in theories of perception and cognition are consistent with neuroscience; biology only calls into question the distributed representations often learned in PDP models. PMID:19159155

  18. The Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler: Toward an Adlerian Vocational Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, C. Edward, Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Presents an Adlerian vocational theory with several hypotheses and corollaries regarding: (a) life style, (b) work as life task, (c) family atmosphere and relationships, and (d) early recollections. Develops predictive vocational statements and offers the resulting framework as a stimulant to generate further study of Adlerian vocational…

  19. On the Biological Plausibility of Grandmother Cells: Implications for Neural Network Theories in Psychology and Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental claim associated with parallel distributed processing (PDP) theories of cognition is that knowledge is coded in a distributed manner in mind and brain. This approach rejects the claim that knowledge is coded in a localist fashion, with words, objects, and simple concepts (e.g. "dog"), that is, coded with their own dedicated…

  20. Dyadic Power Theory, Touch, and Counseling Psychology: A Response to Smith, Vogel, Madon, and Edwards (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Norah E.; Abra, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Smith, Vogel, Madon, and Edwards' (2011) recent article tested dyadic power theory (DPT) by examining the use of touch as a compliance-gaining tactic in the conflicts of married couples. In this response, we raise a methodological issue about the touch behaviors examined by Smith et al. and also pose a theoretical critique that their test of DPT…

  1. Self-Theories: Their Role in Motivation, Personality, and Development. Essays in Social Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dweck, Carol S.

    Based on extensive research with children and young adults, this book examines adaptive and maladaptive cognitive-motivational patterns and shows how these patterns originate in people's self theories; their consequences for one's achievement, social relationships, and emotional well-being; their consequences for society; and the experiences that…

  2. Test Anxiety: Theory, Assessment, and Treatment. The Series in Clinical and Community Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielberger, Charles D., Ed.; Vagg, Peter R., Ed.

    It is not surprising that a broad array of treatment programs have been developed to reduce test anxiety, since the consequences can be serious. The contributions in this volume review and evaluate the theory of test anxiety, its measurement, its manifestations, and possible treatments and their outcomes. The following chapters are included: (1)…

  3. Multidisciplinary Assessment and Treatment of Self-Injurious Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability: Integration of Psychological and Biological Theory and Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minshawi, Noha F.; Hurwitz, Sarah; Morriss, Danielle; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this review is to consider the psychological (largely behavioral) and biological [neurochemical, medical (including genetic), and pharmacological] theories and approaches that contribute to current thinking about the etiology and treatment of self-injurious behavior (SIB) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder and/or…

  4. The Impact of a Brief Training on Suicide for Graduate Students in Psychology, Incorporating Thomas Joiner's Theory of Why People Die by Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherbee, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that there is a lack of formal training in suicide for mental health professionals in graduate psychology programs (Bongar & Harmatz, 1991; Batista, 2007). Suicide is a public health issue, with one suicide occurring approximately every 16 minutes in the United States (www.cdc.gov). A recently developed theory on why people die…

  5. Cognitive Psychology Meets Psychometric Theory: On the Relation between Process Models for Decision Making and Latent Variable Models for Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Maas, Han L. J.; Molenaar, Dylan; Maris, Gunter; Kievit, Rogier A.; Borsboom, Denny

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes latent variable models from a cognitive psychology perspective. We start by discussing work by Tuerlinckx and De Boeck (2005), who proved that a diffusion model for 2-choice response processes entails a 2-parameter logistic item response theory (IRT) model for individual differences in the response data. Following this line…

  6. Some reflections on the influence of Chinese thought on Jung and his psychological theory.

    PubMed

    Stein, Murray

    2005-04-01

    Jung claimed that Richard Wilhelm, whose masterful translations of Chinese wisdom literature into a European language (German) and thence into Western consciousness have brought Chinese modes of thinking to so many, was one of the most important influences on his own life and work. The contacts between the two men, which took place from the early 1920's until Wilhelm's death in 1930, were few but intense and for Jung decisive in several ways. Wilhelm's translations of the I Ching and The Secret of the Golden Flower opened new avenues for Jung that had far-reaching consequences on his research and writing after 1930. The latter opened the door to the study of alchemy as a key to the archetypal process of individuation as rooted in the collective unconscious. 'Synchronicity' is a term that grew out of his contact with Chinese thought, in particular with the I Ching. From his contact with Chinese thought, additionally, he received confirmation of the view, independently arrived at, that adult psychological development is not linear but rather circular and spiral-like. The letters between Jung and Wilhelm illuminate the great importance Jung ascribed to Wilhelm's contribution toward bridging East and West and the potential value of Chinese philosophy for psychotherapy. PMID:15817043

  7. Main Predictions of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior: Empirical Tests in Two Samples of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Joiner, Thomas E.; Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Witte, Tracy K.; Selby, Edward A.; Ribeiro, Jessica D.; Lewis, Robyn; Rudd, M. David

    2010-01-01

    The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (Joiner, 2005) makes two overarching predictions: 1) that perceptions of burdening others and of social alienation combine to instill the desire for death; and 2) that individuals will not act on the desire for death unless they have developed the capability to do so – a capability that develops through exposure and thus habituation to painful and/or fearsome experiences, and which is posited by the theory to be necessary to overcome powerful self-preservation pressures. Two studies test these predictions. In Study 1, the interaction of (low) family social support (cf. social alienation or low belonging) and feeling like one does not matter (cf. perceived burdensomeness) predicted current suicidal ideation, beyond depression indices. In Study 2, the three-way interaction between a measure of low belonging, a measure of perceived burdensomeness, and lifetime number of suicide attempts (viewed as a strong predictor of the level of acquired capability for suicide) predicted current suicide attempt (vs. ideation) among a clinical sample of suicidal young adults, again beyond depression indices and other key covariates. Implications for the understanding, treatment, and prevention of suicidal behavior are discussed. PMID:19685959

  8. Integrating Psychological Theory Into the Design of an Online Intervention for Sexual Health: The Sexunzipped Website

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Internet can provide a confidential and convenient medium for sexual health promotion for young people. Objective This paper describes the development of an interactive, theory-based website (Sexunzipped) aimed at increasing safe sexual behavior of young people, as well as an outline of the evaluation protocol. Methods The website focuses on safer sex, relationships, and sexual pleasure. An overview of the site is provided, including a description of the theoretical constructs which form the basis of the site development. An integrated behavioral model was chosen as the guiding theory for the Sexunzipped intervention. A randomized trial design will be used to evaluate the site quantitatively. Results The content of the site is described in detail with examples of the main content types: information pages, quizzes, and decision-making activities. We describe the protocol for quantitative evaluation of the website using a randomized trial design and discuss the principal challenges involved in developing the site, including the challenge of balancing the requirements of theory with young people’s views on website content and design. Conclusions Considerations for future interventions are discussed. Developing an online behavior-change intervention is costly and time consuming. Given the large public health potential, the cost involved in developing online interventions, and the need for attractive design, future interventions may benefit from collaborating with established sites that already have a user base, a brand, and a strong Internet presence. It is vital to involve users in decisions about intervention content, design, and features, paying attention to aspects that will attract and retain users’ interest. A central challenge in developing effective Internet-based interventions for young people is to find effective ways to operationalize theory in ways that address the views and perspectives of young people. PMID:23612122

  9. Arbitrary Metrics in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James

    2006-01-01

    Many psychological tests have arbitrary metrics but are appropriate for testing psychological theories. Metric arbitrariness is a concern, however, when researchers wish to draw inferences about the true, absolute standing of a group or individual on the latent psychological dimension being measured. The authors illustrate this in the context of 2…

  10. Psychology and Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    1987-01-01

    Psychology and literature focus on human behavior. There are several points where the interests of psychologists and literary scholars converge. This convergence is evident in the use of literature to test psychological theories and to understand human behavior in historical times, in the psychological analyses of literature, and in psychological…

  11. Identifying the psychological determinants of risky riding: an application of an extended Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Chorlton, Kathryn; Conner, Mark; Jamson, Samantha

    2012-11-01

    The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) plus moral norms, anticipated regret, past behaviour, self-identity and perceived susceptibility was applied to predicting motorcyclists' intention to ride above the speed limit and ride at inappropriate speeds. Past behaviour, control beliefs, attitudes, moral norm, normative beliefs, age and self-identity explained 60% of the variance in motorcyclists' intention to exceed the speed limit on motorways (N=1381). A total of 62% of the variance in motorcyclists' intention to really go for it on rural roads was accounted for, with past behaviour, attitudes, control beliefs, age, normative beliefs, anticipated regret, self-identity, behavioural beliefs and training status being significant (N=1116). Finally, attitudes, past behaviour, control beliefs, moral norm, anticipated regret, behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs, engine size and self-identity explained 57% of the variance in motorcyclists' intention to ride faster than felt safe in order to keep up with the group (N=1940). The belief-based measures also successfully differentiated between those who intended to speed and those who did not. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:23036391

  12. A Contemporary Story of School Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annan, Jean; Priestley, Anna

    2012-01-01

    A review of recent school psychology publications was conducted to discover the espoused theory of contemporary school psychology, as distinct from school psychology practice. We considered that identification of the espoused theory of school psychology, the story of school psychology, would support professional reflection and the identification…

  13. Implicit theories of online trolling: Evidence that attention-seeking conceptions are associated with increased psychological resilience.

    PubMed

    Maltby, John; Day, Liz; Hatcher, Ruth M; Tazzyman, Sarah; Flowe, Heather D; Palmer, Emma J; Frosch, Caren A; O'Reilly, Michelle; Jones, Ceri; Buckley, Chloe; Knieps, Melanie; Cutts, Katie

    2016-08-01

    Three studies were conducted to investigate people's conceptions of online trolls, particularly conceptions associated with psychological resilience to trolling. In Study 1, a factor analysis of participants' ratings of characteristics of online trolls found a replicable bifactor model of conceptions of online trolls, with a general factor of general conceptions towards online trolls being identified, but five group factors (attention-conflict seeking, low self-confidence, viciousness, uneducated, amusement) as most salient. In Study 2, participants evaluated hypothetical profiles of online trolling messages to establish the validity of the five factors. Three constructs (attention-conflict seeking, viciousness, and uneducated) were actively employed when people considered profiles of online trolling scenarios. Study 3 introduced a 20-item 'Conceptions of Online Trolls scale' to examine the extent to which the five group factors were associated with resilience to trolling. Results indicated that viewing online trolls as seeking conflict or attention was associated with a decrease in individuals' negative affect around previous trolling incidents. Overall, the findings suggest that adopting an implicit theories approach can further our understanding and measurement of conceptions towards trolling through the identification of five salient factors, of which at least one factor may act as a resilience strategy. PMID:26403842

  14. Predictors of the risk factors for suicide identified by the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Helen; Batterham, Philip James; Mackinnon, Andrew J; Donker, Tara; Soubelet, Andrea

    2014-10-30

    The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS) has been supported by recent research. However, the nature of the models׳ three major constructs--perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness and acquired capability - requires further investigation. In this paper, we test a number of hypotheses about the predictors and correlates of the IPTS constructs. Participants aged 32-38 from an Australian population-based longitudinal cohort study (n=1167) were assessed. IPTS constructs were measured by items from the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (INQ) and Acquired Capability for Suicide Scale (ACSS), alongside demographic and additional measures, measured concurrently or approximately 8 years earlier. Cross-sectional analyses evaluating the IPTS supported earlier work. Mental health was significantly related to all three IPTS constructs, but depression and anxiety caseness were associated only with perceived burdensomeness. Various social support measures were differentially associated with the three constructs. Stressful events and lifetime traumas had robust independent associations with acquired capability for suicide only. The IPTS model provides a useful framework for conceptualising suicide risk. The findings highlight the importance of perceived social support in suicide risk, identify the importance of personality and other factors as new avenues of research, and provide some validation for the independence of the constructs. PMID:24947914

  15. Acute Psychological Benefits of Exercise Performed at Self-Selected Workloads: Implications for Theory and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Attila

    2003-01-01

    Given that most studies to date examined the connection between exercise and affect without considering the participants’ preferred exercise workload, in this research the affective-benefits of jogging or running at a participant-selected pace were investigated in a pilot field and a laboratory experiment. Ninety-six male and female students (19.5 yrs) took part in the pilot field experiment whereas 32 women (20.3 yrs) completed the laboratory experiment. In both experiments, the participants ran/jogged for 20 minutes at a self-selected pace. They completed an abbreviated version of a ‘right now form’ of the Profile of Mood States (POMS - Grove and Prapavessis, 1992) inventory before and after exercise. In both experiments all dependent measures changed significantly from pre- to post-exercise, except ‘fatigue’ and ‘vigor’ that did not change in the laboratory. Total mood disturbance (TMD) decreased significantly in both experiments (68% and 89%). No significant correlations were found between exercise intensity (expressed as percent (%) of maximal heart rate reserve) and the magnitude of changes seen in the dependent measures. It is concluded that exercising at a self-selected workload yields positive changes in affect that are unrelated to exercise intensity. These results suggest that the physiological theories linking exercise with positive changes in affect, in which exercise intensity is instrumental, could not account for the acute affective benefits of exercise. It is proposed that a ‘cognitive appraisal hypothesis’ may be more appropriate in explaining the acute affective benefits of exercise. PMID:24627659

  16. Psychological vulnerability and problem gambling: an application of Durand Jacobs' general theory of addictions to electronic gaming machine playing in Australia.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Jessica; Delfabbro, Paul; Denson, Linley A

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct an empirical investigation of the validity of Jacobs' (in J Gambl Behav 2:15-31, 1986) general theory of addictions in relation to gambling problems associated with electronic gaming machines (EGM). Regular EGM gamblers (n = 190) completed a series of standardised measures relating to psychological and physiological vulnerability, substance use, dissociative experiences, early childhood trauma and abuse and problem gambling (the Problem Gambling Severity Index). Statistical analysis using structural equation modelling revealed clear relationships between childhood trauma and life stressors and psychological vulnerability, dissociative-like experiences and problem gambling. These findings confirm and extend a previous model validated by Gupta and Derevensky (in J Gambl Stud 14: 17-49, 1998) using an adolescent population. The significance of these findings are discussed for existing pathway models of problem gambling, for Jacobs' theory, and for clinicians engaged in assessment and intervention. PMID:22116713

  17. Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of lumbar spine x-ray for low back pain in UK primary care practice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Psychological models predict behaviour in a wide range of settings. The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of a range of psychological models to predict the health professional behaviour 'referral for lumbar spine x-ray in patients presenting with low back pain' by UK primary care physicians. Methods Psychological measures were collected by postal questionnaire survey from a random sample of primary care physicians in Scotland and north England. The outcome measures were clinical behaviour (referral rates for lumbar spine x-rays), behavioural simulation (lumbar spine x-ray referral decisions based upon scenarios), and behavioural intention (general intention to refer for lumbar spine x-rays in patients with low back pain). Explanatory variables were the constructs within the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), Common Sense Self-Regulation Model (CS-SRM), Operant Learning Theory (OLT), Implementation Intention (II), Weinstein's Stage Model termed the Precaution Adoption Process (PAP), and knowledge. For each of the outcome measures, a generalised linear model was used to examine the predictive value of each theory individually. Linear regression was used for the intention and simulation outcomes, and negative binomial regression was used for the behaviour outcome. Following this 'theory level' analysis, a 'cross-theoretical construct' analysis was conducted to investigate the combined predictive value of all individual constructs across theories. Results Constructs from TPB, SCT, CS-SRM, and OLT predicted behaviour; however, the theoretical models did not fit the data well. When predicting behavioural simulation, the proportion of variance explained by individual theories was TPB 11.6%, SCT 12.1%, OLT 8.1%, and II 1.5% of the variance, and in the cross-theory analysis constructs from TPB, CS-SRM and II explained 16.5% of the variance in simulated behaviours. When predicting intention, the proportion of variance

  18. Psychology in Action: Psychology in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Sigmund

    1977-01-01

    "Psychologists in the People's Republic of China are engaged in research concerning theory, Chinese language, child development, vision, audition, and areas of physiological psychology including acupuncture, pain, memory, and central nervous system functioning. The Institute of Psychology within the Chinese Academy of Sciences represents the…

  19. Parental Hostility and Its Sources in Psychologically Abusive Mothers: A Test of the Three-Factor Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesnik-Oberstein, Max; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study of 44 psychologically abusing mothers and 128 nonabusing mothers determined that abusing mothers had higher levels of hostile feelings, associated with low marital coping skills, negative childhood upbringing, and high level of strain. (Author/JDD)

  20. Toward a Political and Social-Psychological Theory of Schooling: An Analysis of English Informal Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlak, Harold; Berlak, Ann

    1975-01-01

    Using the philosophical framework of G. H. Mead, the authors analyze research data from British informal primary schools concerning the political, social, and psychological ramifications of teachers' decision-making processes. (GW)

  1. Theory- and Evidence- Based Intervention: Practice-Based Evidence--Integrating Positive Psychology into a Clinical Psychological Assessment and Intervention Model and How to Measure Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nissen, Poul

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a model for assessment and intervention is presented. This model explains how to perform theory- and evidence- based as well as practice-based assessment and intervention. The assessment model applies a holistic approach to treatment planning, which includes recognition of the influence of community, school, peers, family and the…

  2. Conspiracist ideation in Britain and Austria: evidence of a monological belief system and associations between individual psychological differences and real-world and fictitious conspiracy theories.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Coles, Rebecca; Stieger, Stefan; Pietschnig, Jakob; Furnham, Adrian; Rehim, Sherry; Voracek, Martin

    2011-08-01

    Despite evidence of widespread belief in conspiracy theories, there remains a dearth of research on the individual difference correlates of conspiracist ideation. In two studies, we sought to overcome this limitation by examining correlations between conspiracist ideation and a range of individual psychological factors. In Study 1, 817 Britons indicated their agreement with conspiracist ideation concerning the July 7, 2005 (7/7), London bombings, and completed a battery of individual difference scales. Results showed that stronger belief in 7/7 conspiracy theories was predicted by stronger belief in other real-world conspiracy theories, greater exposure to conspiracist ideation, higher political cynicism, greater support for democratic principles, more negative attitudes to authority, lower self-esteem, and lower Agreeableness. In Study 2, 281 Austrians indicated their agreement with an entirely fictitious conspiracy theory and completed a battery of individual difference measures not examined in Study 1. Results showed that belief in the entirely fictitious conspiracy theory was significantly associated with stronger belief in other real-world conspiracy theories, stronger paranormal beliefs, and lower crystallized intelligence. These results are discussed in terms of the potential of identifying individual difference constellations among conspiracy theorists. PMID:21751999

  3. Multi-Level Discourse Analysis in a Physics Teaching Methods Course from the Psychological Perspective of Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieira, Rodrigo Drumond; Kelly, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present and apply a multi-level method for discourse analysis in science classrooms. This method is based on the structure of human activity (activity, actions, and operations) and it was applied to study a pre-service physics teacher methods course. We argue that such an approach, based on a cultural psychological perspective,…

  4. Psychological Science and Religious Education in a Devout University: The Case of Pain Overlap Theory and the Talmud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnall, Eliezer

    2014-01-01

    Educators employed in devoutly religious institutions often teach students who view even their secular higher education through a uniquely religious lens. Based on his own experiences teaching psychological science at a Jewish university, the author suggests enhancing student interest and enthusiasm by wedding secular curricula with religious…

  5. The Psychology of Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lickona, Thomas

    A basic quality of the open classroom is that children are encouraged to make choices. Psychological rationales for allowing children to make choices are taken from psychological theory: (1) the objective of education, stated by Piaget and others, is to develop creative and independent thinkers; (2) children are intrinsically motivated to learn:…

  6. Language and Psychological Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Jean Berko

    Input language may have an effect on child development that goes far beyond language development alone. Language is the medium by which children acquire at least a portion of their sex role and social class or group characteristics, world view, and emotional and psychological well-being. Existing theories of psychological development ignore…

  7. The Development, Evolution, and Status of Holland's Theory of Vocational Personalities: Reflections and Future Directions for Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nauta, Margaret M.

    2010-01-01

    This article celebrates the 50th anniversary of the introduction of John L. Holland's (1959) theory of vocational personalities and work environments by describing the theory's development and evolution, its instrumentation, and its current status. Hallmarks of Holland's theory are its empirical testability and its user-friendliness. By…

  8. Positive Psychology: The Emerging Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly

    2000-01-01

    Discusses positive psychology, which focuses on health and well-being utilizing the elements of belief, hope, self-esteem, responsibility, elation, and wisdom as the basis of psychological theory and practice. Describes efforts to change the psychology field, including identifying promising young professionals, establishing monetary prizes, and…

  9. Realism, Instrumentalism, and Scientific Symbiosis: Psychological Theory as a Search for Truth and the Discovery of Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacioppo, John T.; Semin, Gun R.; Berntson, Gary G.

    2004-01-01

    Scientific realism holds that scientific theories are approximations of universal truths about reality, whereas scientific instrumentalism posits that scientific theories are intellectual structures that provide adequate predictions of what is observed and useful frameworks for answering questions and solving problems in a given domain. These…

  10. Psychological knowledge in a colonial context: theories on the nature of the "native mind" in the former Dutch East Indies.

    PubMed

    Pols, Hans

    2007-05-01

    This article analyzes the views of 3 Dutch physicians working in the former Dutch East Indies during the first part of the 20th century. These physicians based ideas about the nature of the normal indigenous psyche on both their analysis of Indonesian individuals suffering from mental illness and on casual observations that represented widely shared cultural stereotypes. On that basis, they advocated a psychological colonial policy, which was to be based on a scientific understanding of the psyche of the Indonesian people. Using these ideas, they advocated political repression, justified inequality and racism, and limited educational opportunities for Indonesians. Representatives of the Indonesian nationalist movement vigorously protested against these ideas. PMID:17645127

  11. Critical Reflections on Evolutionary Psychology and Sexual Selection Theory as Explanatory Account of Emergence of Sex Differences in Psychopathology: Comment on Martel (2013)

    PubMed Central

    Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2014-01-01

    Martel (2013) proposed a meta-theory, based on sexual selection theory and broad evolutionary psychological (EP) principles, to account for well-known sex differences in the emergence of common behavioral and certain internalizing disorders across childhood and adolescence, respectively. This Comment first enumerates several strengths and then offers two primary critiques about Martel’s proposal. Martel provides an exceptional, integrative review that organizes several disparate literatures that hold promise to enhance understanding of such sex differences. At the same time, I raise critical questions regarding EP generally, and sexual selection theory specifically, as the meta-theoretical framework chosen to bind together these different influences and mechanisms as drivers of the sex difference in different psychopathologies. Indeed, it is not clear that EP is necessary—nor does it provide unique explanatory power—to explicate the emergence of sex differences in internalizing and externalizing disorders among youth. Moreover, Martel’s EP-based proposal pertains to adolescent-onset depression and social phobia but does not provide an explanation for known sex differences in other common childhood-onset and early adult-onset anxiety disorders. PMID:24188421

  12. Multi-level Discourse Analysis in a Physics Teaching Methods Course from the Psychological Perspective of Activity Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drumond Vieira, Rodrigo; Kelly, Gregory J.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we present and apply a multi-level method for discourse analysis in science classrooms. This method is based on the structure of human activity (activity, actions, and operations) and it was applied to study a pre-service physics teacher methods course. We argue that such an approach, based on a cultural psychological perspective, affords opportunities for analysts to perform a theoretically based detailed analysis of discourse events. Along with the presentation of analysis, we show and discuss how the articulation of different levels offers interpretative criteria for analyzing instructional conversations. We synthesize the results into a model for a teacher's practice and discuss the implications and possibilities of this approach for the field of discourse analysis in science classrooms. Finally, we reflect on how the development of teachers' understanding of their activity structures can contribute to forms of progressive discourse of science education.

  13. What Can Psychology Tell Us about Teaching Dance? The Potential Contribution of Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chedzoy, S. M.; Burden, R. L.

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the potential contribution of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to our understanding of student teachers' strength of intention to teach dance prior to and following an intensive eight-hour module before beginning their school-based practice. Students attending a primary Postgraduate Certificate in Education Course (PGCE)…

  14. A Grounded Theory of the Social Psychological Process of Involving College Students in a Course on Adolescent Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarbrough, Jane Harper

    Data gathered through ethnographic observations of 25 college students in an adolescent literature course were used to develop a substantive grounded theory of the process of involving students in a class. In addition to observation of the class, data were collected through teacher and student interviews and from lesson plans, class handouts,…

  15. Theories of Learning for the Workplace: Building Blocks for Training and Professional Development Programs. Routledge Psychology in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dochy, Filip; Gijbels, David; Segers, Mien; Van den Bossche, Piet

    2011-01-01

    Workplace and professional learning, lifelong learning, adult learning, learning in different contexts have become of more and more interest and now dominate all aspects of 21st century life. Learning is no longer about "storing and recall" but "development and flow". "Theories of Learning in the Workplace" offers fascinating overviews into some…

  16. Toward an alternative evolutionary theory of religion: looking past computational evolutionary psychology to a wider field of possibilities.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Nathaniel F

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive science of the last half-century has been dominated by the computational theory of mind and its picture of thought as information processing. Taking this picture for granted, the most prominent evolutionary theories of religion of the last fifteen years have sought to understand human religiosity as the product or by-product of universal information processing mechanisms that were adaptive in our ancestral environment. The rigidity of such explanations is at odds with the highly context-sensitive nature of historical studies of religion, and thus contributes to the apparent tug-of-war between scientific and humanistic perspectives. This essay argues that this antagonism stems in part from a deep flaw of computational theory, namely its notion of information as pre-given and context-free. In contrast, non-computational theories that picture mind as an adaptive, interactive process in which information is jointly constructed by organism and environment offer an alternative approach to an evolutionary understanding of human religiosity, one that is compatible with historical studies and amenable to a wide range of inquiries, including some limited kinds of theological inquiry. PMID:20879191

  17. Diet and psychological health.

    PubMed

    Miller, M

    1996-09-01

    This article reviews research that suggests a relationship between diet and psychological symptoms. Mind-body dualism (as it relates to clinical practice) and the limited role of nutrition in mainstream biomedical training and treatment are discussed as background issues. Two areas of inquiry that have generated relevant research findings in this area are reviewed: (1) orthomolecular theory and vitamin deficiencies, and (2) clinical ecology/environmental medicine theory and the impact of "food allergies." Although clinical case reports and promising research findings have been reported, the impact of diet on psychological health is neither widely accepted nor integrated into mental health treatment methods. Ongoing research findings in brain biochemistry and psychoneuroimmunology point to communication pathways that can provide a clearer understanding of the links between nutritional intake, central nervous system and immune function, and psychological health status. These findings may lead to greater acceptance of dietary treatment approaches among health practitioners addressing psychological disorders. PMID:8795935

  18. The role of autonomy needs in suicidal ideation: integrating the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide and self-determination theory.

    PubMed

    Hill, Ryan M; Pettit, Jeremy W

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the role of autonomy satisfaction in the development of suicidal ideation by integrating two theoretical models of suicide-related behaviors. The first hypothesized a direct effect of autonomy on suicidal ideation. The second hypothesized an indirect effect of autonomy on suicidal ideation via perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. This was a cross-sectional study of 449 college students, who were predominantly female (73.1%) and Hispanic (70.6%), with a mean age of 20.40 years (SD = 4.38, range 18-50 years). Participants were recruited from a psychology participant pool and completed self-report survey measures for course credit. The model of indirect effects provided the best fit to the data; relatedness, autonomy, and competence were significantly associated with higher thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, which, in turn, were significantly associated with higher suicidal ideation. Future studies should test this model longitudinally and consider autonomy as a possible avenue for the prevention of suicide-related behaviors. PMID:23889577

  19. Polycultural psychology.

    PubMed

    Morris, Michael W; Chiu, Chi-yue; Liu, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    We review limitations of the traditional paradigm for cultural research and propose an alternative framework, polyculturalism. Polyculturalism assumes that individuals' relationships to cultures are not categorical but rather are partial and plural; it also assumes that cultural traditions are not independent, sui generis lineages but rather are interacting systems. Individuals take influences from multiple cultures and thereby become conduits through which cultures can affect each other. Past literatures on the influence of multiple cultural identities and cultural knowledge legacies can be better understood within a polyculturalist rubric. Likewise, the concept elucidates how cultures are changed by contact with other cultures, enabling richer psychological theories of intercultural influence. Different scientific paradigms about culture imply different ideologies and policies; polyculturalism's implied policy of interculturalism provides a valuable complement to the traditional policy frames of multiculturalism and colorblindness. PMID:25251481

  20. Overcoming the Fear of Lethal Injury: Evaluating Suicidal Behavior in the Military through the Lens of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Selby, Edward A.; Anestis, Michael D.; Bender, Theodore W.; Ribeiro, Jessica D.; Nock, Matthew K.; Rudd, M. David; Bryan, Craig J.; Lim, Ingrid C.; Baker, Monty T.; Gutierrez, Peter M.; Joiner, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    Suicide rates have been increasing in military personnel since the start of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom, and it is vital that efforts be made to advance suicide risk assessment techniques and treatment for members of the military who may be experiencing suicidal symptoms. One potential way to advance the understanding of suicide in the military is through the use of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide. This theory proposes that three necessary factors are needed to complete suicide: feelings that one does not belong with other people, feelings that one is a burden on others or society, and an acquired capability to overcome the fear and pain associated with suicide. This review analyzes the various ways that military service may influence suicidal behavior and integrates these findings into an overall framework with relevant practical implications. Findings suggest that although there are many important factors in military suicide, the acquired capability may be the most impacted by military experience because combat exposure and training may cause habituation to fear of painful experiences, including suicide. Future research directions, ways to enhance risk assessment, and treatment implications are also discussed. PMID:20051309

  1. Model selection and psychological theory: A discussion of the differences between the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC)

    PubMed Central

    Vrieze, Scott I.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) in model selection and the appraisal of psychological theory. The focus is on latent variable models given their growing use in theory testing and construction. We discuss theoretical statistical results in regression and illustrate more important issues with novel simulations involving latent variable models including factor analysis, latent profile analysis, and factor mixture models. Asymptotically, the BIC is consistent, in that it will select the true model if, among other assumptions, the true model is among the candidate models considered. The AIC is not consistent under these circumstances. When the true model is not in the candidate model set the AIC is effcient, in that it will asymptotically choose whichever model minimizes the mean squared error of prediction/estimation. The BIC is not effcient under these circumstances. Unlike the BIC, the AIC also has a minimax property, in that it can minimize the maximum possible risk in finite sample sizes. In sum, the AIC and BIC have quite different properties that require different assumptions, and applied researchers and methodologists alike will benefit from improved understanding of the asymptotic and finite-sample behavior of these criteria. The ultimate decision to use AIC or BIC depends on many factors, including: the loss function employed, the study's methodological design, the substantive research question, and the notion of a true model and its applicability to the study at hand. PMID:22309957

  2. Prospect theory and body mass: characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices. PMID:25852628

  3. A theory of alpha/theta neurofeedback, creative performance enhancement, long distance functional connectivity and psychological integration.

    PubMed

    Gruzelier, John

    2009-02-01

    Professionally significant enhancement of music and dance performance and mood has followed training with an EEG-neurofeedback protocol which increases the ratio of theta to alpha waves using auditory feedback with eyes closed. While originally the protocol was designed to induce hypnogogia, a state historically associated with creativity, the outcome was psychological integration, while subsequent applications focusing on raising the theta-alpha ratio, reduced depression and anxiety in alcoholism and resolved post traumatic stress syndrome (PTSD). In optimal performance studies we confirmed associations with creativity in musical performance, but effects also included technique and communication. We extended efficacy to dance and social anxiety. Diversity of outcome has a counterpart in wide ranging associations between theta oscillations and behaviour in cognitive and affective neuroscience: in animals with sensory-motor activity in exploration, effort, working memory, learning, retention and REM sleep; in man with meditative concentration, reduced anxiety and sympathetic autonomic activation, as well as task demands in virtual spatial navigation, focussed and sustained attention, working and recognition memory, and having implications for synaptic plasticity and long term potentiation. Neuroanatomical circuitry involves the ascending mescencephalic-cortical arousal system, and limbic circuits subserving cognitive as well as affective/motivational functions. Working memory and meditative bliss, representing cognitive and affective domains, respectively, involve coupling between frontal and posterior cortices, exemplify a role for theta and alpha waves in mediating the interaction between distal and widely distributed connections. It is posited that this mediation in part underpins the integrational attributes of alpha-theta training in optimal performance and psychotherapy, creative associations in hypnogogia, and enhancement of technical, communication and

  4. A Theoretical Upgrade of the Concept of Parental Psychological Control: Proposing New Insights on the Basis of Self-Determination Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    Psychological control refers to manipulative parental behavior that intrudes upon the child's psychological world. During the past decade, socialization research has consistently demonstrated the negative effects of psychologically controlling parenting on children's and adolescents' development. However, there has been relatively little advance…

  5. Looking for a Symphony: A Sort of Essay with a Perspective on Activity Theories and the Ontology of Psychology: Learning from Danish and Russian Experiences by Jens Mammen & Irina Mironenko.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Asger

    2016-06-01

    As a perspective on Mammen and Miroenkos the article is reflecting on the possibility of Activity Theory being a foundation on which Psychology could be integrated. Mammen and Miroenkos point that directed activity not only is towards objects "defined as a sum of qualities, but by individual reference" is a starting point. As a specific example the phenomenon Love, as "significant object relations", is related to the concept "choice categories". It is stated that relations of affection and love can't be understood independent of history of common activity, and that this makes the concept "choice categories" central in a psychological understanding of what love is. PMID:26476531

  6. Psychological Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Psychology has recently identified itself as a health care profession and codified this change in the bylaws of the American Psychological Association. Although psychologists make a number of contributions to the nation's health-and mental health-the most identifiable activity focuses on treating physical or psychological pathology with…

  7. Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  8. Theory of Mind and embedding of perspective: A psychological test of a literary “sweet spot”

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, D. H.; Zunshine, Lisa; Holquist, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) has been proposed to explain social interactions, with real people but also with fictional characters, by interpreting their mind as well as our own. “Perspective embedding” exploits ToM by placing events in characters’ minds (e.g., “he remembered she was home”). Three levels of embedment, common in literature, may be a “sweet spot” that provides enough information about a character’s motivation, but not a confusing over-abundance. Here, we use short vignettes with 1 or 3 characters and 0-5 levels of perspective embedding in two reading studies to see whether these preferences might be related to processing ease. Self-paced readers were fastest with one level of embedment, increasingly slower as embedment increased; vignettes without embedment were approximately as slow as level 4. With both self-paced and imposed timing, error rates on probe questions increased only at the fifth level. Readers seem to prefer literary texts in which ToM operations are obvious due to embedding of perspectives within the narrative but still somewhat challenging. PMID:23741659

  9. Free Associations Mirroring Self- and World-Related Concepts: Implications for Personal Construct Theory, Psycholinguistics and Philosophical Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Kuška, Martin; Trnka, Radek; Kuběna, Aleš A.; Růžička, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    People construe reality by using words as basic units of meaningful categorization. The present theory-driven study applied the method of a free association task to explore how people express the concepts of the world and the self in words. The respondents were asked to recall any five words relating with the word world. Afterward they were asked to recall any five words relating with the word self. The method of free association provided the respondents with absolute freedom to choose any words they wanted. Such free recall task is suggested as being a relatively direct approach to the respondents’ self- and world-related conceptual categories, without enormous rational processing. The results provide us, first, with associative ranges for constructs of the world and the self, where some associative dimensions are defined by semantic polarities in the meanings of peripheral categories (e.g., Nature vs. Culture). Second, our analysis showed that some groups of verbal categories that were associated with the words world and self are central, while others are peripheral with respect to the central position. Third, the analysis of category networks revealed that some categories play the role of a transmitter, mediating the pathway between other categories in the network. PMID:27445940

  10. Psychology and Adult Learning. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Mark

    This book provides a critical account of the psychological theories that have informed contemporary adult education theory and practice. Chapter 1 discusses the importance of balancing description, critique, and comments on each theory's influence on adult education and the need to understand psychological development throughout the life span. The…

  11. Disconnecting Positive Psychology and OBM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyten, Cloyd

    2005-01-01

    This paper responds to the article by Wiegand and Geller which advocates broadening the content of OBM by assimilating content from non-behavioral psychologies. I argue that these psychologies have theories and aims so incompatible with OBM that no added value will be obtained by forming an interconnection. Specific problems with positive…

  12. Gestalt Psychology and Bilingual Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blomstedt, Bob; And Others

    Several concepts detailed in Gestalt psychology/therapy appear to have a close relationship with many concepts being applied in bilingual education. The primary contribution of Gestalt psychology to learning theory in the U.S. is an emphasis on perception and reintegration of relationships within an organized whole. To the teacher this means that…

  13. The Psychological Foundations of Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick

    1967-01-01

    This paper outlines problems which are central to the psychological foundations of mathematics. Discussed are the relations that exist between psychological and classical foundations of mathematics. It is shown how the inadequacies of current learning theories which account for complex mathematics learning may be made explicit for appropriate…

  14. The decade 1989-1998 in Spanish psychology: an analysis of research in social psychology.

    PubMed

    Blanco, A; de la Corte, L

    2001-11-01

    In this study, a detailed exploration is carried out of the production of research and theory in social psychology in the Spanish context. The main research areas are: Work and organizational psychology, social health psychology, community and social services psychology, environmental research, judicial and political psychology, psychosocial theory and meta-theory, social psychology of language, research on emotion, group processes and social identity. The growing importance of social psychology within the framework of Spanish psychology is emphasized, and the relation with specific social problems from the national context, and the paradoxically scarce originality of the theoretical perspectives and the leading research, strongly influenced by Anglo Saxon social psychology, is commented upon. PMID:11723642

  15. APA Educational Psychology Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Karen R., Ed.; Graham, Steve, Ed.; Urdan, Tim, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The "APA Educational Psychology Handbook" reflects the broad nature of the field today, with state-of-the-science reviews of the diverse critical theories driving research and practice; in-depth investigation of the range of individual differences and cultural/contextual factors that affect student achievement, motivation, and beliefs; and close…

  16. Learning Psychology by Doing Psychology: A High School Curriculum in the Psychology of Counseling. SEA Report 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprinthall, Norman A.

    The program described is an attempt to create regular classroom learning experiences for teenagers which promote psychological development. Based on concepts from stage theory, the objectives of the classes are to increase the level of psychological maturity of the pupils while teaching particular psychological skills. The course is designed as a…

  17. The Psychology Underlying Successful Retention Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, John; Eaton, Shevawn Bogdan

    2002-01-01

    Describes the psychological processes that lead to academic and social integration based on a retention model proposed by the authors. Describes how successful retention programs such as learning communities, freshman interest groups, tutoring, and orientation rely on psychological processes. Four psychological theories form the basis for…

  18. Werner's Relevance for Contemporary Developmental Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Joseph A.

    1992-01-01

    Considers the contributions of Heinz Werner to developmental psychology and identifies the tensions between Werner's theory and the practices of contemporary developmental psychology. Core issues of Werner's psychology concern: (1) development as heuristic, rather than phenomenon; (2) developmental process analysis; and (3) conceptions of the…

  19. Measuring Student Teachers' Basic Psychological Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeulen, Marjan; Castelijns, Jos; Kools, Quinta; Koster, Bob

    2012-01-01

    In Self-Determination Theory, basic psychological needs for relatedness, autonomy and competence are distinguished. Basic psychological need-fulfilment is considered to be critical for human development and intrinsic motivation. In the Netherlands, the concept of basic psychological need-fulfilment is introduced in the curricula of many teacher…

  20. [Psychological violences].

    PubMed

    Leray, M

    2014-12-01

    Among the various forms of violence inflicted on a child, psychological violence holds a significant place in terms of frequency, diversity and damage done, as serious and pervasive consequences can be observed on the child's development. This article highlights and assesses the psychological consequences provoked by psychological violences perpetrated by parents, teachers or other children in different situations, such as domestic violence, divorce and school bullying. It also gives some indications for intervention and prevention in those situations. PMID:25449447

  1. [Political psychology].

    PubMed

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects. PMID:23587541

  2. Psychology and phenomenology: a clarification.

    PubMed

    Kendler, Howard H

    2005-01-01

    Controversies are rampant in contemporary psychology concerning the appropriate method for observing consciousness and the role inner experience should play in psychological theorizing. These conflicting orientations reflect, in part, methodological differences between natural science and human science interpretations of psychology. Humanistic psychology and philosophical phenomenology both employ a human science approach to psychology that seeks to explain behavior in terms of a person's subjective existence. Maslow's and Heidegger's formulations are both fulfillment theories in that they specify moral values that suggest how life ought to be lived. Natural science methodology rejects the possibility that moral imperatives can be validated, whereas human science methodology allows phenomenological convictions to justify recommendations about a fulfilled life and a good society. The social role of psychology is analyzed within the framework of phenomenological convictions and scientific truth. PMID:15943524

  3. The Psychology of Mathematics Learning: Past and Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education and Urban Society, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Reviews trends in applying psychology to mathematics learning. Discusses the influence of behaviorism and other functionalist theories, Gestalt theory, Piagetian theory, and the "new functionalism" evident in computer-oriented theories of information processing. (GC)

  4. Theory of psychological adaptive modes.

    PubMed

    Lehti, Juha

    2016-05-01

    When an individual is facing a stressor and normal stress-response mechanism cannot guarantee sufficient adaptation, special emotional states, adaptive modes, are activated (for example a depressive reaction). Adaptive modes are involuntary states of mind, they are of comprehensive nature, they interfere with normal functioning, and they cannot be repressed or controlled the same way as many emotions. Their transformational nature differentiates them from other emotional states. The object of the adaptive mode is to optimize the problem-solving abilities according to the situation that has provoked the mode. Cognitions and emotions during the adaptive mode are different than in a normal mental state. These altered cognitions and emotional reactions guide the individual to use the correct coping skills in order to deal with the stressor. Successful adaptation will cause the adaptive mode to fade off since the adaptive mode is no longer necessary, and the process as a whole will lead to raised well-being. However, if the adaptation process is inadequate, then the transformation period is prolonged, and the adaptive mode will turn into a dysfunctional state. Many psychiatric disorders are such maladaptive processes. The maladaptive processes can be turned into functional ones by using adaptive skills that are used in functional adaptive processes. PMID:27063089

  5. A Marxist approach to psychology and psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Nahem, J

    1982-01-01

    Marxism considers psychology and psychiatry to be young and complex sciences which are powerfully affected by the nature of society. Marxism contributes to these sciences by applying dialectical and historical materialism to their study and development. The Marxist critique of psychology and psychiatry under capitalism identifies the immense harmful effect on them of capitalist class ideology in a number of areas: anti-working class theories, racism, national chauvinism, sexism, theories of fixed evil human nature, and false or one-sided theories. Socialism is held to provide a healthy environment for individual psychological development and to utilize psychology and psychiatry for scientific and humane ends. PMID:7076375

  6. Ecological psychology and social psychology: continuing discussion.

    PubMed

    Charles, Eric P

    2012-06-01

    What form would an ideal merger of ecological and social psychology take? Is that ideal attainable? Many researchers and theorists are working to answer these questions. Charles (2009, 2011a) offered insights from E. B. Holt, one of James J. Gibson's mentors, who argued that minds-mental kinds, processes, states, etc.-are observable aspects of the environment. Phrasing that in Ecological terms, the minds of other organisms are specified in the structure of ambient energy extended over time and space; they are directly perceivable by a properly attuned organism. Ecological Psychology enhances Holt's story, by brining to the table a sophisticated theory of direct perception; Holt enhances the Ecological story by brining to the table a sophisticated theory about the nature of minds. The two combine to form the long-sought ideal merger. Thus, I claimed, Ecological Psychology will either rediscover its roots, or go through the trouble of re-creating them. This paper further develops those ideas, by presenting a simpler version of the argument, suggesting easy ways of dismissing that argument, and addressing the concerns expressed by Castro and Lafuente (2011). PMID:21809179

  7. Embodiment in social psychology.

    PubMed

    Meier, Brian P; Schnall, Simone; Schwarz, Norbert; Bargh, John A

    2012-10-01

    Psychologists are increasingly interested in embodiment based on the assumption that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are grounded in bodily interaction with the environment. We examine how embodiment is used in social psychology, and we explore the ways in which embodied approaches enrich traditional theories. Although research in this area is burgeoning, much of it has been more descriptive than explanatory. We provide a critical discussion of the trajectory of embodiment research in social psychology. We contend that future researchers should engage in a phenomenon-based approach, highlight the theoretical boundary conditions and mediators involved, explore novel action-relevant outcome measures, and address the role of individual differences broadly defined. Such research will likely provide a more explanatory account of the role of embodiment in general terms as well as how it expands the knowledge base in social psychology. PMID:22777820

  8. Subjective Probability and Information Retrieval: A Review of the Psychological Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Paul

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the subjective probability estimation literature of six schools of human judgement and decision making: decision theory, behavioral decision theory, psychological decision theory, social judgement theory, information integration theory, and attribution theory. Implications for probabilistic information retrieval are discussed, including…

  9. Sport Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krotee, March L.

    1980-01-01

    Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)

  10. Gestalt psychology in Italy.

    PubMed

    Verstegen, I

    2000-01-01

    Graz gestalt psychology was introduced into Italy after World War I with Vittorio Benussi's emigration to Padua. His earliest adherent, Cesare Musatti, defended Graz theory, but after Benussi's premature death became an adherent of the Berlin gestalt psychology of Wertheimer-Köhler-Koffka. He trained his two most important students, Fabio Metelli and Gaetano Kanizsa, in orthodox Berlin theory. They established rigid "schools" in Padua and Trieste. The structure of Italian academics allowed for such strict orthodoxy, quite unlike the situation in America, where scientific objectivity mitigated against schools. In the 1960s, some of the students of Metelli and Kanizsa (above all Bozzi) initiated a realist movement-felt in Kanizsa's late work-that was quite independent of that of J. J. Gibson. Finally, more recently, Benussi and Graz theorizing have been embraced again, sentimentally, as a predecedent to Kanizsa-Bozzi. PMID:10653614