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Sample records for psychopathological hand disorders

  1. [Definition and psychopathology of chronic hand dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Lahfa, M

    2014-06-01

    Psychopathology in patients with DCM is as complex as its clinical forms where the factors are numerous and often intricate. It combines psychophysiological, psychopathological factors, behavioral disorders which can be the cause or the consequence of DCM but also the negative impact on quality of life and the simplest daily activities. DCM affects the quality of life of every patient, regardless of the severity. Women are more affected by the DCM that man older age, male sex, atopy and the existence of a contact sensitization are independent risk factors of severity. Depression may affect up to 10 % of patients, should involve greater attention from dermatologists and general practitioners. Health authorities and all health actors should be aware of interactions between secondary cognitive troubles or inherent to DCM and efforts required in terms of preventive measures. Thus, the presence of psychiatric comorbidity is more common in patients with chronic dermatoses. Today it is considered that the emotional environment, built by the mother - child relationship must be optimal, otherwise the mental stability of body image may be compromised. Diminished self-esteem, affects less well managed and somatic expression of emotional content. Recently, a surprising study showed that most patients with refractory occupational dermatitis were not able to recognize the warning sign of flare or the role of psychological factors in the formation and maintenance of the dermatose. In fact, they rejected their personal responsibility in the occurrence of the new flare. To address this public health problem, health authorities, trainers and caregivers should be aware of the cognitive impact of DCM in these patients and interactions with current means of prevention. The role of obsessive-compulsive washing as part of an anxiety disorder or personality disorder is most likely a contributing or maintaining factor systematically underestimated in the pathogenesis of DCM and in the

  2. Psychopathology and Psychogenic Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kranick, Sarah; Ekanayake, Vindhya; Martinez, Valeria; Ameli, Rezvan; Hallett, Mark; Voon, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Psychogenic movement disorder is defined as abnormal movements unrelated to a medical cause and presumed related to underlying psychological factors. Although psychological factors are of both clinical and pathophysiological relevance, very few studies to date have systematically assessed their role in psychogenic movement disorder. We sought to assess the role of previous life stress using validated quantitative measures in patients with psychogenic movement disorder compared with age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers as well as a convenience sample of patients with focal hand dystonia. Sixty-four patients with psychogenic movement disorder (72% female; mean age, 45.2 years [standard deviation, 15.2 years]), 38 healthy volunteers (74% female; mean age, 49 years [standard deviation, 13.7 years]), and 39 patients with focal hand dystonia (37% female; mean age, 48.7 years [standard deviation, 11.7 years]) were evaluated using a standardized psychological interview as well as validated quantitative scales to assess trauma and previous stressors, depression, anxiety, and personality traits. Patients with psychogenic movement disorder reported higher rates of childhood trauma, specifically greater emotional abuse and physical neglect, greater fear associated with traumatic events, and a greater number of traumatic episodes compared with healthy volunteers and patients with focal hand dystonia controlled for depressive symptoms and sex (Bonferroni corrected P < .005). There were no differences in categorical psychiatric diagnoses or scores on childhood physical or sexual abuse subscales, personality traits, or the dissociative experience scale. Our findings highlight a biopsychosocial approach toward the pathophysiology of psychogenic movement disorder, although the association with psychological issues is much less prominent than expected compared with the nonepileptic seizure population. A careful psychological assessment is indicated to optimize therapeutic

  3. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Psychopathology in Dancers.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Paula; Jaque, S Victoria

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in pre-professional and professional dancers (n=209) who were exposed to traumatic events. Nine self-report instruments assessed (1) adverse childhood experiences, (2) past traumatic events, (3) coping strategies under stressful situations, and (4) fantasy proneness. The psychopathology variables included (5) anxiety, (6) depression, (7) dissociation, (8) shame, and (9)) PTSD diagnostic scale. Statistical calculations included descriptive, distributional, and multivariate analysis of covariates (MANCOVA). Results indicate that dancers had a significantly higher distribution of PTSD (20.2%) compared to the normal population (7.8%). They also had a higher frequency of family members with mental illness, an inability to speak about their trauma, and more suicidal thoughts. The PTSD group of dancers had higher levels of psychopathology (anxiety, depression, dissociation, and shame) and they had more childhood adversity and adult trauma. Compared to the no-PTSD group, the PTSD group had higher scores on fantasy proneness and emotion-oriented coping strategies. These coping strategies may increase psychological instability. Addressing early abuse and trauma is recommended. Clinicians may help dancers alter their internal working models that their self is worthless, others are abusive, and the world is threatening and dangerous. By understanding PTSD in dancers, medical and mental health treatment protocols may be established to address the debilitating, and often hidden, symptoms of PTSD. PMID:26395617

  4. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Sören; Petermann, Franz

    2009-01-01

    Background Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. Method According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Results Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. Conclusion These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274. PMID:19761584

  5. Parents Psychopathology of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Lamanna, Annalinda; Matera, Emilia; Margari, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with extremely complex etiology, not yet well defined but certainly multi-factorial. This study investigated the possible etiopathogenetic role of ADHD symptoms and psychopathology disorders in parents of children with ADHD. We present a case-control study of parents of 50 children…

  6. [Dynamics of psychopathologic disorders in neuroinfectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Kutin, V P; Kutin, G V

    1981-01-01

    Data of dynamic observations of 212 patients with psychic disturbances of the neuroinfectious genesis are presented. The authors analyzed 1696 admissions, or 8 admissions per each patient. The analysis revealed a number of regularities in the alternation of the psychopathological syndromes on repeated admissions. These regularities were found to depend on the initial symptoms, the patient's age, and the character of additional exacerbation-provoking pathogenetic factors. A tendency to copying the initial psychopathological disturbances was revealed. PMID:7324696

  7. Hand Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a living, you are always using your hands. When there is something wrong with them, you ... not be able to do your regular activities. Hand problems include Carpal tunnel syndrome - compression of a ...

  8. Comorbid Psychopathology with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Nebel-Schwalm, Marie S.

    2007-01-01

    Comorbidity, the co-occurrence of two or more disorders in the same person, has been a topic receiving considerable attention in the child psychopathology literature overall. Despite many publications in the ADHD, depression and other child literatures, autism spectrum disorder has not received such scrutiny. The purpose of this review will be to…

  9. Preschoolers' Psychopathology and Temperament Predict Mothers' Later Mood Disorders.

    PubMed

    Allmann, Anna E S; Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C; Klein, Daniel N

    2016-04-01

    Considerable research exists documenting the relationship between maternal mood disorders, primarily major depressive disorder (MDD), and a variety of negative child outcomes. By contrast, research exploring the reverse pathway whereby child traits are associated with later maternal mood disorders is much more limited. We examined whether young children's temperament and psychopathology predicted maternal mood disorders approximately 6 years later. Child temperament and symptoms were assessed at age three using semi-structured diagnostic interviews and parent-report inventories. Maternal psychopathology was assessed with semi-structured interviews when children were 3 and 9 years old. Mothers also reported on their marital satisfaction when children were 3 and 6 years old. Child temperamental negative affectivity (NA), depressive symptoms, and externalizing behavior problems significantly predicted maternal mood disorders over and above prior maternal mood, anxiety, and substance disorders. The link between children's early externalizing symptoms and maternal mood disorders 6 years later was mediated by maternal marital satisfaction 3 years after the initial assessment. These findings suggest that early child temperament and psychopathology contribute to risk for later maternal mood disorders both directly and through their impact on the marital system. Research indicates that effective treatment of maternal depression is associated with positive outcomes for children; however, this study suggests that treating early child problems may mitigate the risk of later maternal psychopathology. PMID:26219263

  10. Thought disorder in the meta-structure of psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, K. M.; Eaton, N. R.; Krueger, R. F.; Skodol, A. E.; Wall, M. M.; Grant, B.; Siever, L. J.; Hasin, D. S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dimensional models of co-morbidity have the potential to improve the conceptualization of mental disorders in research and clinical work, yet little is known about how relatively uncommon disorders may fit with more common disorders. The present study estimated the meta-structure of psychopathology in the US general population focusing on the placement of five under-studied disorders sharing features of thought disorder: paranoid, schizoid, avoidant and schizotypal personality disorders, and manic episodes as well as bipolar disorder. Method Data were drawn from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a face-to-face interview of 34 653 non-institutionalized adults in the US general population. The meta-structure of 16 DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II psychiatric disorders, as assessed by the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule DSM-IV version (AUDADIS-IV), was examined using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Results We document an empirically derived thought disorder factor that is a subdomain of the internalizing dimension, characterized by schizoid, paranoid, schizotypal and avoidant personality disorders as well as manic episodes. Manic episodes exhibit notable associations with both the distress subdomain of the internalizing dimension as well as the thought disorder subdomain. The structure was replicated for bipolar disorder (I or II) in place of manic episodes. Conclusions As our understanding of psychopathological meta-structure expands, incorporation of disorders characterized by detachment and psychoticism grows increasingly important. Disorders characterized by detachment and psychoticism may be well conceptualized, organized and measured as a subdimension of the internalizing spectrum of disorders. Manic episodes and bipolar disorder exhibit substantial co-morbidity across both distress and thought disorder domains of the internalizing dimension. Clinically, these results

  11. Hand Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... the wrist, often making your fingers feel numb Injuries that result in fractures, ruptured ligaments and dislocations ... deformity Tendinitis - irritation of the tendons Disorders and injuries of your fingers and thumb

  12. Parents' personality clusters and eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Amianto, Federico; Ercole, Roberta; Marzola, Enrica; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2015-11-30

    The present study explores how parents' personality clusters relate to their eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology. Mothers and fathers were tested with the Temperament Character Inventory. Their daughters were assessed with the following: Temperament and Character Inventory, Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Symptom Checklist-90, Parental Bonding Instrument, Attachment Style Questionnaire, and Family Assessment Device. Daughters' personality traits and psychopathology scores were compared between clusters. Daughters' features were related to those of their parents. Explosive/adventurous mothers were found to relate to their daughters' borderline personality profile and more severe interoceptive awareness. Mothers' immaturity was correlated to their daughters' higher character immaturity, inadequacy, and depressive feelings. Fathers who were explosive/methodic correlated with their daughters' character immaturity, severe eating, and general psychopathology. Fathers' character immaturity only marginally related to their daughters' specific features. Both parents' temperament clusters and mothers' character clusters related to patients' personality and eating psychopathology. The cluster approach to personality-related dynamics of families with an individual affected by an eating disorder expands the knowledge on the relationship between parents' characteristics and daughters' illness, suggesting complex and unique relationships correlating parents' personality traits to their daughters' disorder. PMID:26315665

  13. The comparative psychopathology of affective disorders in animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Healy, D

    1987-01-01

    Reviews of animal models of affective disorders commonly concentrate on the behavioural features thereof, the supposed neurochemical substrates, the mode of production and the response to treatment of the state in question but ignore questions of psycho pathology. An attempt is made to deal critically with the psychopathology of human and animal affective disorders in the light of current operational criteria for the diagnosis of major depressive disorders. It is argued thatthe psychopathological tradition stemming from Jaspers may be more appropriate to a consideration of animal models of affective disorders than the psychopathological positions implicit in psychoanalysis, behaviourism or current cognitive psychologies and in addition more suited to meet these criteria. The adoption of such a perspective results in a shift of emphasis from abnormalities of psychological content to demonstrable neuropsychological deficits and a definition of affective disorders, whether in animals or humans, as psychosomatic illnesses, possibly involving a pathology of circadian rhythmicity. This perspective also suggests that animal models may be useful in the devel opment of more refined diagnostic criteria for affective disorders in humans. PMID:22158981

  14. [Psychopathology of miscarriages and psychic disorders following fertility treatments].

    PubMed

    Leal Herrero, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the psychic disorders that frequently follow miscarriages. We specify the clinical forms under which such disorders appear and argue in favour of establishing a "Post-Abortion Syndrome" which would include the symptoms that form the basis of the psychopathological reactions that follow miscarriages. We will also study the psychological and psychopathological reactions to be found in couples -in both men and women-, who undergo fertility treatments, offering a brief description of the psychodynamic aspects that affect the couple. Furthermore, we will stress the biological and psychological risks that appear as a consequence of fertility treatments and offer an ethical evaluation of these risks, warning of the long-term consequences of human reproductive techniques. PMID:19799480

  15. [Age-related factors of psychopathology of impulse control disorders].

    PubMed

    Shiurkute, A

    1999-01-01

    15 children and adolescents with impulse control disorders (mean age 12.9 years) were examined. These disorders were presented as dromomania, kleptomania, aggressive-sadistic actions, tricholillomania, pyromania; a combination of different types was observed in some cases. Schizophrenia was diagnosed in 7 cases, affective disorders--in 8 patients. Independently of the nosologic unity of the disease, development of the impulse control disorders took place in affective disorders which manifested either by monopolar course (depression) (11 cases), or by bypolar attacks with unclear outlines of the phases (4 patients). Psychopathology of impulse control disorders in children and juveniles was analogous to that of the adults, however, their structure wasn't so complex and development of the phases wasn't so clear. PMID:11530454

  16. [Explicative psychopathology in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a postrationalist viewpoint].

    PubMed

    Mannino, Gherardo

    2011-01-01

    While descriptive psychopathology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is now well-established, there is still a lack of a satisfying model of explicative psychopathology that explains the mechanisms that generate obsessive phenomenology. The main attempts to delineate such a model are based on cognitive therapy: according to this approach OCD is a consequence of dysfunctional beliefs (i.e. overestimation of the risk or of the influence of one's own mind on the reality). On the contrary, according to postrationalist cognitive approach, OCD would be based on a characteristic personality structure, which could be identified not only in patients with OCD but also in those who will never develop symptoms. In symptomatic individuals this organization ("Obsessive" Personal Meaning Organization) is more rigidly structured. In particular, there is crystallization of so-called diachronic attitude, which is the key to explain most of the symptoms. PMID:22322688

  17. Affective disorders and associated psychopathology: a family history study.

    PubMed

    Dilsaver, S C; White, K

    1986-04-01

    A pedigree in which affective psychosis, obsessive-compulsive phenomena, panic attacks, and eating disorders cluster over three generations is presented. The index proband is a 17-year-old girl with schizoaffective disorder, depressed type, bulimia nervosa, panic attacks, and intraepisode obsessive-compulsive phenomena. She has two male siblings; one has bipolar II disorder and the other has had multiple episodes of major depression. Both have panic attacks and exhibit obsessive-compulsive phenomena while depressed. The phenomenologies of the siblings' illnesses incorporate features from both sides of the family. It is proposed that the association of affective disorders with other forms of psychopathology might best be demonstrated by studying families transgenerationally. PMID:3457005

  18. Dimensional psychopathology in preschool offspring of parents with bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Maoz, Hagai; Goldstein, Tina; Axelson, David A.; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Fan, Jieyu; Hickey, Mary Beth; Monk, Kelly; Sakolsky, Dara; Diler, Rasim S.; Brent, David; Iyengar, Satish; Kupfer, David J.; Birmaher, Boris

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to compare the dimensional psychopathology, as ascertained by parental report, in preschool offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BP) and offspring of community control parents. Methods 122 preschool offspring (mean age 3.3 years) of 84 parents with BP, with 102 offspring of 65 control parents (36 healthy, 29 with non-BP psychopathology), were evaluated using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the CBCL-Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP), the Early Childhood Inventory (ECI-4), and the Emotionality Activity Sociability (EAS) survey. Teachers’ Report Forms (TRF) were available for 51 preschoolers. Results After adjusting for confounders, offspring of parents with BP showed higher scores in the CBCL total, externalizing, somatic, sleep, aggressive, and CBCL-DP subscales; the ECI-4 sleep problem scale; and the EAS total and emotionality scale. The proportion of offspring with CBCL T-scores ≥2 SD above the norm was significantly higher on most CBCL subscales and the CBCL-DP in offspring of parents with BP compared to offspring of controls even after excluding offspring with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and/or oppositional defiant disorder. Compared to offspring of parents with BP-I, offspring of parents with BP-II showed significantly higher scores in total and most CBCL subscales, the ECI-4 anxiety and sleep scales and the EAS emotionality scale. For both groups of parents, there were significant correlations between CBCL and TRF scores (r = .32–.38, p-values ≤.02). Conclusions Independent of categorical axis-I psychopathology and other demographic or clinical factors in both biological parents, preschool offspring of parents with BP have significantly greater aggression, mood dysregulation, sleep disturbances, and somatic complaints compared to offspring of control parents. Interventions to target these symptoms are warranted. PMID:24372351

  19. Temperament and psychopathological syndromes specific susceptibility for rubber hand illusion.

    PubMed

    Kállai, János; Hegedüs, Gábor; Feldmann, Ádám; Rózsa, Sándor; Darnai, Gergely; Herold, Róbert; Dorn, Krisztina; Kincses, Péter; Csathó, Árpád; Szolcsányi, Tibor

    2015-09-30

    The aim of this study is to explore individual capacity for self-integration, susceptibility to the Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI) and the role of temperament factors in the emergence of body schema and body image dissociation. The RHI factors, proprioceptive drift, body ownership and body disownership were assessed in 48 university students. Personality and psychiatric vulnerability were measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R) and the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R). Our study pointed to the fact that the extent of behaviourally defined proprioceptive drift was associated with temperament factors, especially with Novelty Seeking and Harm Avoidance. Further, the ownership was associated with Symptom Checklist factors, especially with elevated Interpersonal Sensitivity and vulnerability to Schizotypy and Paranoid Ideation and elevated disownership score was found in the case of elevated Schizotypy, including a depersonalisation feeling when the RHI was induced. The RHI may be considered as a conflicting situation, in which a way to cope with incongruent multimodal, visual, haptic and proprioceptive stimulation provides an opportunity to test body integration and embodiment processes in healthy participants and patients without disadvantageous outcomes. The results support and replenish the two opposite processing models of the RHI with a third, temperament-based procedural mechanism. PMID:26160198

  20. Evolving eating disorder psychopathology: conceptualising muscularity-oriented disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Murray, Stuart B; Griffiths, Scott; Mond, Jonathan M

    2016-05-01

    Eating disorders, once thought to be largely confined to females, are increasingly common in males. However, the presentation of disordered eating among males is often distinct to that observed in females and this diversity is not accommodated in current classification schemes. Here, we consider the diagnostic and clinical challenges presented by these distinctive presentations. PMID:27143005

  1. Chronic Pain, Psychopathology, and DSM-5 Somatic Symptom Disorder.

    PubMed

    Katz, Joel; Rosenbloom, Brittany N; Fashler, Samantha

    2015-04-01

    Unlike acute pain that warns us of injury or disease, chronic or persistent pain serves no adaptive purpose. Though there is no agreed on definition of chronic pain, it is commonly referred to as pain that is without biological value, lasting longer than the typical healing time, not responsive to treatments based on specific remedies, and of a duration greater than 6 months. Chronic pain that is severe and intractable has detrimental consequences, including psychological distress, job loss, social isolation, and, not surprisingly, it is highly comorbid with depression and anxiety. Historically, pain without an apparent anatomical or neurophysiological origin was labelled as psychopathological. This approach is damaging to the patient and provider alike. It pollutes the therapeutic relationship by introducing an element of mutual distrust as well as implicit, if not explicit, blame. It is demoralizing to the patient who feels at fault, disbelieved, and alone. Moreover, many medically unexplained pains are now understood to involve an interplay between peripheral and central neurophysiological mechanisms that have gone awry. The new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, somatic symptom disorder overpsychologizes people with chronic pain; it has low sensitivity and specificity, and it contributes to misdiagnosis, as well as unnecessary stigma. Adjustment disorder remains the most appropriate, accurate, and acceptable diagnosis for people who are overly concerned about their pain. PMID:26174215

  2. Chronic Pain, Psychopathology, and DSM-5 Somatic Symptom Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Joel; Rosenbloom, Brittany N; Fashler, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Unlike acute pain that warns us of injury or disease, chronic or persistent pain serves no adaptive purpose. Though there is no agreed on definition of chronic pain, it is commonly referred to as pain that is without biological value, lasting longer than the typical healing time, not responsive to treatments based on specific remedies, and of a duration greater than 6 months. Chronic pain that is severe and intractable has detrimental consequences, including psychological distress, job loss, social isolation, and, not surprisingly, it is highly comorbid with depression and anxiety. Historically, pain without an apparent anatomical or neurophysiological origin was labelled as psychopathological. This approach is damaging to the patient and provider alike. It pollutes the therapeutic relationship by introducing an element of mutual distrust as well as implicit, if not explicit, blame. It is demoralizing to the patient who feels at fault, disbelieved, and alone. Moreover, many medically unexplained pains are now understood to involve an interplay between peripheral and central neurophysiological mechanisms that have gone awry. The new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, somatic symptom disorder overpsychologizes people with chronic pain; it has low sensitivity and specificity, and it contributes to misdiagnosis, as well as unnecessary stigma. Adjustment disorder remains the most appropriate, accurate, and acceptable diagnosis for people who are overly concerned about their pain. PMID:26174215

  3. Diverging eating psychopathology in transgendered eating disorder patients: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Murray, Stuart B; Boon, Evelyn; Touyz, Stephen W

    2013-01-01

    This report documents two transgendered biological males who met criteria for an eating disorder, who interchangeably reported periods of endorsing masculine and feminine gender identities, allowing an exploration of how their preferred gender orientation impacted their eating disorder psychopathology. This report suggests that the divergence of body image psychopathology amongst men may be impacted by gender role orientation, which is consistent with a developing body of research. PMID:23241091

  4. Individual Characteristics, Familial Experience, and Psychopathology in Children of Mothers with Borderline Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnow, Sven; Spitzer, Carsten; Grabe, Hans J.; Kessler, Christoph; Freyberger, Harald J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine individual characteristics, familial experience, and psychopathology of children of mothers with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Method: Children of mothers with BPD were compared to children of mothers (1) with depressive disorders, (2) with cluster C personality disorders, and (3) without…

  5. A Network View on Psychiatric Disorders: Network Clusters of Symptoms as Elementary Syndromes of Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Goekoop, Rutger; Goekoop, Jaap G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The vast number of psychopathological syndromes that can be observed in clinical practice can be described in terms of a limited number of elementary syndromes that are differentially expressed. Previous attempts to identify elementary syndromes have shown limitations that have slowed progress in the taxonomy of psychiatric disorders. Aim To examine the ability of network community detection (NCD) to identify elementary syndromes of psychopathology and move beyond the limitations of current classification methods in psychiatry. Methods 192 patients with unselected mental disorders were tested on the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS). Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the bootstrapped correlation matrix of symptom scores to extract the principal component structure (PCS). An undirected and weighted network graph was constructed from the same matrix. Network community structure (NCS) was optimized using a previously published technique. Results In the optimal network structure, network clusters showed a 89% match with principal components of psychopathology. Some 6 network clusters were found, including "DEPRESSION", "MANIA", “ANXIETY”, "PSYCHOSIS", "RETARDATION", and "BEHAVIORAL DISORGANIZATION". Network metrics were used to quantify the continuities between the elementary syndromes. Conclusion We present the first comprehensive network graph of psychopathology that is free from the biases of previous classifications: a ‘Psychopathology Web’. Clusters within this network represent elementary syndromes that are connected via a limited number of bridge symptoms. Many problems of previous classifications can be overcome by using a network approach to psychopathology. PMID:25427156

  6. Parental psychopathology moderates the influence of parental divorce on lifetime alcohol use disorders among Israeli adults

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Ronald G.; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Meyers, Jacquelyn L.; Stohl, Malki; Aharonovich, Efrat; Spivak, Baruch; Weizman, Abraham; Frisch, Amos; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Background Parental divorce and psychopathology are well-documented risk factors for alcohol use disorders (AUD) in the United States and other countries where divorce is common and per capita total alcohol consumption is moderate to high. However, little is known about these relationships in countries where divorce and alcohol problems are less common, such as Israel. Methods Israeli adult household residents (N=797) age 21–45 were interviewed in person between 2007 and 2009. Logistic regression models were used to examine main and additive interaction effects of parental divorce and psychopathology on lifetime DSM-IV AUD, adjusting for age, gender, and ethnicity. Results Parental divorce (OR=2.18, p≤.001) and parental psychopathology (OR=1.61, p≤.01) were independently associated with lifetime AUD and, when considered together, showed significant interaction (p=.026). Specifically, the effect of divorce on AUD was only significant among those who also reported parental psychopathology. Conclusions This is the first study showing the influence of parental divorce and psychopathology on risk for AUD among Israeli adults, where both divorce and AUD are less common than in the United States. Alcohol prevention and treatment professionals should recognize that children who experience parental divorce and/or psychopathology could be more vulnerable to later developing AUD than those whose parents remain together and without psychopathology. PMID:24939440

  7. Psychopathology in the Adolescent Offspring of Parents with Panic Disorder and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhat, Amritha S.; Srinivasan, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To study the prevalence of psychiatric diagnosis and psychopathology in adolescent offspring of parents with panic disorder, depression and normal controls. Methods: Adolescent offspring (11-16 years) of parents with a diagnosis of panic disorder and major depression, and normal controls were interviewed using Missouri Assessment of Genetics…

  8. Psychopathological Profile in Children with Chronic Tic Disorder and Co-Existing ADHD: Additive Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessner, Veit; Becker, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2007-01-01

    The nature of the co-occurrence of chronic tic disorders (CTD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is unclear. Especially in the field of psychopathology, the relationship of CTD and ADHD remains to be clarified. Thus, the aim of the present chart review study was to specify the contribution of CTD and/or ADHD to the…

  9. Psychopathology: Differences among Adults with Intellectually Disabled, Comorbid Autism Spectrum Disorders and Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kimberly R. M.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to systematically examine group differences among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), comorbid autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and epilepsy through a detailed exploration of the characteristics that these disorders present in the area of psychopathology. Previous studies indicating that individuals with ID have…

  10. Youths with ADHD with and without Tic Disorders: Comorbid Psychopathology, Executive Function and Social Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tic disorders (TD) commonly co-occur. Clarifying the psychiatric comorbidities, executive functions and social adjustment difficulties in children and adolescents of ADHD with and without TD is informative to understand the developmental psychopathology and to identify their specific clinical…

  11. Phenotypic and Causal Structure of Conduct Disorder in the Broader Context of Prevalent Forms of Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2011-01-01

    Background A better understanding of the nature and etiology of conduct disorder (CD) can inform nosology and vice-versa. We posit that any prevalent form of psychopathology, including CD, can be best understood if it is studied in the context of other correlated forms of child and adolescent psychopathology using formal models to guide inquiry. Methods Review of both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of the place of CD in the phenotypic and causal structure of prevalent psychopathology, with an emphasis on similarities and differences between CD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Papers were located using Web of Science by topic searches with no restriction on year of publication. Results Although some important nosologic questions remain unanswered, the dimensional phenotype of CD is well defined. CD differs from other disorders in its correlates, associated impairment, and course. Nonetheless, it is robustly correlated with many other prevalent dimensions of psychopathology both concurrently and predictively, including both other “externalizing” disorders and some “internalizing” disorders. Based on emerging evidence, we hypothesize that these concurrent and predictive correlations result primarily from widespread genetic pleiotropy, with some genetic factors nonspecifically influencing risk for multiple correlated dimensions of psychopathology. In contrast, environmental influences mostly act to differentiate dimensions of psychopathology from one another both concurrently and over time. CD and ODD share half of their genetic influences, but their genetic etiologies are distinct in other ways. Unlike most other dimensions of psychopathology, half of the genetic influences on CD appear to be unique to CD. In contrast, ODD broadly shares nearly all of its genetic influences with other disorders and has little unique genetic variance. Conclusions CD is a relatively distinct syndrome at both phenotypic and etiologic levels, but much is revealed

  12. Gender Differences in Co-Morbid Psychopathology and Clinical Management in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsakanikos, Elias; Underwood, Lisa; Kravariti, Eugenia; Bouras, Nick; McCarthy, Jane

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined rates of co-morbid psychopathology and clinical management/care pathways in adult females (N = 50) and males (N = 100) with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) living in community settings. We also compared a sub-sample (N = 60) with ASD to an age-, gender- and ID-matched control group (N =…

  13. Comorbid Psychopathology in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoVullo, Santino V.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2009-01-01

    There is an abundance of research investigating Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in children; however, little emphasis has been placed on ASD in adults, especially in regards to comorbid psychopathology. Although scales are available that measure comorbidity in adults with ID, what is needed are scales that measure comorbidity in adults with ID and…

  14. Challenging Behavior and Co-Morbid Psychopathology in Adults with Intellectual Disability and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Jane; Hemmings, Colin; Kravariti, Eugenia; Dworzynski, Katharina; Holt, Geraldine; Bouras, Nick; Tsakanikos, Elias

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between challenging behavior and co-morbid psychopathology in adults with intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) (N=124) as compared to adults with ID only (N=562). All participants were first time referrals to specialist mental health services and were living in community settings.…

  15. Sleep Problems and Their Correlates and Comorbid Psychopathology of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Subin; Cho, Soo-Churl; Cho, In Hee; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Kim, Jae-Won; Shin, Min-Sup; Chung, Un-Sun; Park, Tae-Won; Son, Jung-Woo; Yoo, Hee Jeong

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sleep problems and their correlates and comorbid psychopathology in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Participants consisted of 166 ASD children and 111 unaffected siblings aged 4-15 years. Parents completed a self-administered child sleep questionnaire. Of the children with ASDs, 47.0% (78/166) had at least one…

  16. A Dimensional Model of Psychopathology among Homeless Adolescents: Suicidality, Internalizing, and Externalizing Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Kevin A.; Longley, Susan L.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined associations among dimensions of suicidality and psychopathology in a sample of 428 homeless adolescents (56.3% female). Confirmatory factor analysis results provided support for a three-factor model in which suicidality (measured with lifetime suicidal ideation and suicide attempts), internalizing disorders (assessed…

  17. Early Adolescent Psychopathology as a Predictor of Alcohol Use Disorders by Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Pardini, Dustin; White, Helene Raskin; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2007-01-01

    Few prospective studies have examined the relation between early adolescent conduct disorder symptoms and the development of alcohol use disorders (AUD) by young adulthood. The relative contribution of other forms of adolescent psychopathology (i.e., attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, anxiety/withdrawal) to the development of AUD also remains poorly understood. There is some suggestion that the co-occurrence of conduct disorder symptoms with other forms of psychopathology may interact synergistically in predicting later alcohol use problems. The current study explores these issues using data on 506 boys from the oldest sample of the Pittsburgh Youth Study. Consistent with prior research, early conduct disorder symptoms emerged as a consistent predictor of increased AUD symptoms and an alcohol dependence diagnosis by young adulthood. In contrast, adolescent boys with high levels of anxiety/withdrawal had lower levels of AUD symptoms and were less likely to develop alcohol dependence by young adulthood. Increased depression in early adolescence was associated with higher AUD symptoms and alcohol abuse and dependence diagnoses by young adulthood, but only for boys with high levels of conduct disorder symptoms. No evidence was found for a relation between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms and AUD symptoms or diagnoses after controlling for co-occurring psychopathology. PMID:17257781

  18. Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents with Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardan, Antonio; Sahl, Robert

    1997-01-01

    A study of 233 children with developmental disorders and mental illness found that the most common psychiatric diagnoses were oppositional defiant disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Pica, organic mental disorder, and autism were more often encountered in low functioning individuals, while depressive and speech/language…

  19. Bilateral self-enucleation in acute transient psychotic disorder: the influence of sociocultural factors on psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Harish, Thippeswamy; Chawan, Namdev; Rajkumar, Ravi Philip; Chaturvedi, Santosh Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Self-inflicted eye injuries are rare but a devastating consequence of a serious mental disorder. Bilateral self-enucleation also known as oedipism has been documented in ancient texts and myths. Various biologic, psychologic, and social theories have been put forward to explain this rare phenomenon. In this report, we describe a case of oedipism, which highlights the influence of sociocultural factors on the psychopathology in acute transient psychotic disorder. PMID:21864835

  20. Internalizing and externalizing psychopathology as predictors of cannabis use disorder onset during adolescence and early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Richard F; Seeley, John R; Kosty, Derek B; Gau, Jeff M; Duncan, Susan C; Lynskey, Michael T; Lewinsohn, Peter M

    2015-09-01

    Risk-related liabilities associated with the development of cannabis use disorders (CUDs) during adolescence and early adulthood are thought to be established well before the emergence of the index episode. In this study, internalizing and externalizing psychopathology from earlier developmental periods were evaluated as risk factors for CUDs during adolescence and early adulthood. Participants (N = 816) completed 4 diagnostic assessments between the ages 16 and 30, during which current and past CUDs were assessed as well as a full range of psychiatric disorders associated with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology domains. In unadjusted and adjusted time-to-event analyses, externalizing but not internalizing psychopathology from proximal developmental periods predicted subsequent CUD onset. A large proportion of adolescent and early adult cases, however, did not manifest any externalizing or internalizing psychopathology during developmental periods before CUD onset. Findings are consistent with the emerging view that externalizing disorders from proximal developmental periods are robust risk factors for CUDs. Although the identification of externalizing liabilities may aid in the identification of individuals at risk for embarking on developmental pathways that culminate in CUDs, such liabilities are an incomplete indication of overall risk. PMID:25799438

  1. Internalizing and Externalizing Psychopathology as Predictors of Cannabis Use Disorder Onset during Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Richard F.; Seeley, John R.; Kosty, Derek B.; Gau, Jeff M.; Duncan, Susan C.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Risk-related liabilities associated with the development of cannabis use disorders (CUDs) during adolescence and early adulthood are thought to be established well before the emergence of the index episode. In this study, internalizing and externalizing psychopathology from earlier developmental periods were evaluated as risk factors for CUDs during adolescence and early adulthood. Participants (N = 816) completed four diagnostic assessments between the ages 16 and 30, during which current and past CUDs were assessed as well as a full range of psychiatric disorders associated with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology domains. In unadjusted and adjusted time-to-event analyses, externalizing but not internalizing psychopathology from proximal developmental periods predicted subsequent CUD onset. A large proportion of adolescent and early adult cases, however, did not manifest any externalizing or internalizing psychopathology during developmental periods prior to CUD onset. Findings are consistent with the emerging view that externalizing disorders from proximal developmental periods are robust risk factors for CUDs. Although the identification of externalizing liabilities may aid in the identification of individuals at risk for embarking on developmental pathways that culminate in CUDs, such liabilities are an incomplete indication of overall risk. PMID:25799438

  2. Clinical, Psychopathological, and Personality Characteristics Associated with ADHD among Individuals Seeking Treatment for Gambling Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Aymamí, N.; Jiménez-Murcia, S.; Granero, R.; Ramos-Quiroga, J. A.; Fernández-Aranda, F.; Claes, L.; Sauvaget, A.; Grall-Bronnec, M.; Gómez-Peña, M.; Savvidou, L. G.; Fagundo, A. B.; del Pino-Gutierrez, A.; Moragas, L.; Casas, M.; Penelo, E.; Menchón, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. (1) To assess the current presence of ADHD symptoms among patients seeking treatment for gambling disorder; (2) to explore clinical and sociodemographic differences between patients who score high and low on the measure of ADHD symptoms; (3) to analyze whether the presence of ADHD symptoms is associated with more severe psychopathology and with specific personality traits; (4) to analyze the mediating role of ADHD symptoms in the relationship between novelty seeking and gambling severity. Method. A total of 354 consecutive patients were administered an extensive battery assessing gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality traits. Results. Male and female gamblers did not differ significantly in their mean scores on the ADHD measure. However, younger participants aged 18–35 scored higher. Higher ADHD scores were also associated with greater severity of gambling disorder and more general psychopathology. Regarding personality traits, high persistence and self-directedness were negatively related to ADHD scores, while in women alone a positive correlation was found between ADHD scores and scores on harm avoidance and self-transcendence. Conclusion. The presence of ADHD symptoms in both male and female gambling disorder patients may act as an indicator of the severity of gambling, general psychopathology, and dysfunctional personality traits. PMID:26229967

  3. The relationship between personality, defense styles, internet addiction disorder, and psychopathology in college students.

    PubMed

    Floros, Georgios; Siomos, Konstantinos; Stogiannidou, Ariadni; Giouzepas, Ioannis; Garyfallos, Georgios

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess any underlying links between personality, defense styles, Internet addiction disorder (IAD), and psychopathology in a college student sample. This is a cross-sectional study of fourth-year Greek Medical students who responded in a comprehensive test battery, which included validated questionnaires on IAD, personality traits, patterns of psychological defense styles, and psychopathology symptoms. A path model that was tested using Partial Least Squares (PLS) methodology showed that the defense styles employed by the students and certain personality traits (Impulsivity, Sensation Seeking, Neuroticism/Anxiety, and Aggression-Hostility) contributed to the prediction of variability in IAD, with IAD in turn predicting variability in overt psychopathology. PMID:25225916

  4. Distress Tolerance and Psychopathological Symptoms and Disorders: A Review of the Empirical Literature among Adults

    PubMed Central

    Leyro, Teresa M.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Bernstein, Amit

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper, we review theory and empirical study of distress tolerance, an emerging risk factor candidate for various forms of psychopathology. Despite the long-standing interest in, and promise of work on, distress tolerance for understanding adult psychopathology, there has not been a comprehensive review of the extant empirical literature focused on the construct. As a result, a comprehensive synthesis of theoretical and empirical scholarship on distress tolerance including integration of extant research on the relations between distress tolerance and psychopathology is lacking. Inspection of the scientific literature indicates that there are a number of promising ways to conceptualize and measure distress tolerance, as well as documented relations between distress tolerance factor(s) and psychopathological symptoms and disorders. Although promising, there also is notable conceptual and operational heterogeneity across the distress tolerance literature(s). Moreoever, a number of basic questions remain unanswered regarding the associations between distress tolerance and other risk and protective factors and processes, as well as its putative role(s) in vulnerability for, and resilience to, psychopathology. Thus, the current paper provides a comprehensive review of past and contemporary theory and research and proposes key areas for future empirical study of this construct. PMID:20565169

  5. Annual Research Review: Phenotypic and Causal Structure of Conduct Disorder in the Broader Context of Prevalent Forms of Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A better understanding of the nature and etiology of conduct disorder (CD) can inform nosology and vice versa. We posit that any prevalent form of psychopathology, including CD, can be best understood if it is studied in the context of other correlated forms of child and adolescent psychopathology using formal models to guide inquiry.…

  6. Examining Differences between Students with Specific Learning Disabilities and Those with Specific Language Disorders on Cognition, Emotions and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filippatou, Diamanto; Dimitropoulou, Panagiota; Sideridis, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the differences between students with LD and SLI on emotional psychopathology and cognitive variables. In particular, the study examined whether cognitive, emotional, and psychopathology variables are significant discriminatory variables of speech and language disordered groups versus those…

  7. Unidirectionality Between Borderline Personality Disorder Traits and Psychopathology in a Residential Addictions Sample: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Webber, Troy A; Kiselica, Andrew M; Arango, Alejandra; Rojas, Elizabeth; Neale, Michael C; Bornovalova, Marina A

    2015-12-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a barrier to treatment, yet the relationship between BPD features and other psychopathology symptoms in residential addictions treatment samples is understudied. Using a sample of adults enrolled in a residential drug treatment facility measured at baseline and 2-3 month follow-up, the authors examined the prospective relationship between BPD features and five indices of psychopathology: depression, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, hostility, and psychoticism, as well as psychopathology global severity. There was no effect of time on any of the forms of psychopathology, but females reported higher levels of BPD features, anxiety symptoms, and interpersonal sensitivity than males. A series of latent change score models indicated that BPD features predicted increases in all psychopathology scales at follow-up, while the reverse was not true. These results suggest that targeting BPD features in residents of drug treatment facilities may reduce the emergence of new psychopathology in the short term. PMID:25562538

  8. Unidirectionality between borderline personality disorder traits and psychopathology in a residential addictions sample: A short-term longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Webber, Troy A.; Kiselica, Andrew M.; Arango, Alejandra; Rojas, Elizabeth; Neale, Michael C.; Bornovalova, Marina A.

    2016-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a barrier to treatment, yet the relationship between BPD features and other psychopathology symptoms in a residential addictions treatment samples is understudied. Using a sample of adults enrolled in a residential drug treatment facility measured at baseline and 2–3 month follow-up, we examined the prospective relationship between BPD features and five indices of psychopathology: depression, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, hostility, and psychoticism, as well as psychopathology global severity. There was no effect of time on any of the forms of psychopathology, but females reported higher levels of BPD features, anxiety symptoms, and interpersonal sensitivity than males. A series of latent change score models indicated that BPD features predicted increases in all psychopathology scales at follow-up, while the reverse was not true. These results suggest that targeting BPD features in residential drug treatment facilities may reduce the emergence of new psychopathology in the short-term. PMID:25562538

  9. Diminished prefrontal brain function in adults with psychopathology in childhood related to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Fallgatter, Andreas J; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Rösler, Michael; Strik, Werner K; Blocher, Detlev; Herrmann, Martin J

    2005-02-28

    The aim of the present study was to investigate prefrontal brain function and cognitive response control in patients with personality disorders who either suffered or did not suffer from psychopathology related to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during childhood. For this purpose, 36 psychiatric out-patients with personality disorders--24 of whom showed ADHD-related psychopathology during childhood assessed by the German short form of the Wender Utah Rating Scale--and 24 healthy controls were investigated electrophysiologically by means of a cued Go-NoGo task (Continuous Performance Test). Topographical analyses were conducted to individually quantify the NoGo anteriorisation (NGA), a neurophysiological correlate of prefrontal response control that has been suggested to reflect activation of the anterior cingulate cortex. ADHD patients exhibited a significantly reduced mean NGA and diminished amplitudes of the Global Field Power, as well as a reduced increase of fronto-central P300 amplitudes, in NoGo-trials compared with the healthy controls, whereas patients with personality disorders alone did not differ from the control group in any of the electrophysiological parameters. The results indicate that ADHD-related psychopathology is associated with prefrontal brain dysfunction, probably related to processes of response inhibition and/or cognitive response control. PMID:15766638

  10. Conduct Disorder and Psychosocial Outcomes at Age 30: Early Adult Psychopathology as a Potential Mediator

    PubMed Central

    Seeley, John R.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is associated with a number of adverse psychosocial outcomes in adulthood. There is consistent evidence that CD is predictive of antisocial behavior, but mixed evidence that CD is predictive of other externalizing and internalizing disorders. Further, externalizing and internalizing disorders are often associated with similar psychosocial outcomes as CD. However, relatively little work has examined whether forms of psychopathology (e.g., externalizing and/or internalizing disorders) mediates the relationship between youth CD and adult psychosocial outcomes. The present study examined associations between youth CD and adult psychosocial outcomes and sought to identify forms of psychopathology that may potentially mediate this relationship. Participants completed self-report measures of psychosocial functioning and semi-structured diagnostic interviews during adolescence and young adulthood. Analyses found that most domains of adult psychosocial functioning were associated with youth CD. Adult antisocial behavior was the only form of psychopathology predicted by CD. Adult antisocial behavior appeared to mediate the relationship between CD and marital status, life satisfaction, and being in jail and partially mediated the relationship between CD and family support and global functioning. These data suggest that reducing the progression to adult antisocial behavior may improve multiple psychosocial outcomes among those with a history of CD. PMID:20521096

  11. [THE RESULTS OF CLINICAL AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC INVESTIGATIONS EMPLOYEES OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS WHICH WERE IDENTIFIED NEUROTIC DISORDERS].

    PubMed

    Solovyova, M

    2014-12-01

    The article presents the results of the clinical and psychopathological and psychological diagnostic, investigations mental health employees of financial institutions, description and analysis of clinical forms identified disorders. PMID:26638468

  12. Are stalkers disordered or criminal? Thoughts on the psychopathology of stalking.

    PubMed

    Dressing, Harald; Foerster, Klaus; Gass, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Although stalking is a widespread phenomenon that can be caused by different motives, consideration of the psychopathological underpinnings of stalking behaviour is scarce. In rare cases, stalking can be an expression of mental disorder. Psychotic stalking, for example, can occur as a symptom of schizophrenia or erotomania. Psychotic stalkers are criminally not responsible for their acts and have to be treated in a psychiatric hospital. The majority of stalkers, however, do not suffer from a disorder in need of treatment, and therefore their criminal responsibility is not diminished. Although legislative approaches to protecting victims of stalking differ widely in the European Union, mentally not severely disturbed stalkers can be prosecuted and punished according to criminal law in most countries. In some cases, the differentiation between mentally sane and mentally disturbed stalkers is difficult. This paper focuses on the psychopathology of such 'borderline cases', using the example of a court decision in Germany. PMID:21659788

  13. Autism Spectrum Disorders: Sex Differences in Autistic Behaviour Domains and Coexisting Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtmann, Martin; Bolte, Sven; Poustka, Fritz

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine possible differences between high-functioning males and females with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) regarding the core symptoms of autism and coexisting psychopathology. A total of 23 females and 23 males matched for age, IQ, and ASD diagnoses were recruited(mean age 11y 9mo [SD 4y 5mo], range 5y-20y…

  14. Video Game Addiction in Gambling Disorder: Clinical, Psychopathological, and Personality Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Granero, Roser; Chóliz, Mariano; La Verde, Melania; Aguglia, Eugenio; Signorelli, Maria S.; Sá, Gustavo M.; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Fagundo, Ana B.; Sauchelli, Sarah; Fernández-Formoso, José A.; Menchón, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We studied the prevalences of video game use (VGU) and addiction (VGA) in gambling disorder (GD) patients and compared them with subjects with non-video game use (non-VGU) in relation to their gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality characteristics. Method. A sample of 193 GD patients (121 non-VGU, 43 VGU, and 29 VGA) consecutively admitted to our pathological gambling unit participated in the study. Assessment. Measures included the video game dependency test (VDT), symptom checklist-90-revised, and the temperament and character inventory-revised, as well as a number of other GD indices. Results. In GD, the observed prevalence of VG (use or addiction) was 37.3% (95% CI :30.7% ÷ 44.3),VGU 22.3% (95% CI :17.0% ÷ 28.7), and VGA 15% (95% CI :10.7% ÷ 20.7). Orthogonal polynomial contrast into logistic regression showed positive linear trends for VG level and GD severity and other measures of general psychopathology. After structural equation modeling, higher VG total scores were associated with younger age, general psychopathology, and specific personality traits, but not with GD severity. Patients' sex and age were involved in the mediational pathways between personality traits and VG impairment. Conclusions. GD patients with VG are younger and present more dysfunctional personality traits, and more general psychopathology. The presence of VG did not affect the severity of GD. PMID:25126551

  15. Attachment and Externalizing Disorders: A Developmental Psychopathology Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Crowell, Judith A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Attachment theory offers an intriguing formulation of protection and risk that ties together key aspects of behavior, emotion, and cognition. The authors present links among attachment status, other developmental domains, and the development and maintenance of externalizing disorders to illustrate an approach to integrating attachment…

  16. The p Factor: One General Psychopathology Factor in the Structure of Psychiatric Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Caspi, Avshalom; Houts, Renate M.; Belsky, Daniel W.; Goldman-Mellor, Sidra J.; Harrington, HonaLee; Israel, Salomon; Meier, Madeline H.; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Shalev, Idan; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Mental disorders traditionally have been viewed as distinct, episodic, and categorical conditions. This view has been challenged by evidence that many disorders are sequentially comorbid, recurrent/chronic, and exist on a continuum. Using the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, we examined the structure of psychopathology, taking into account dimensionality, persistence, co-occurrence, and sequential comorbidity of mental disorders across 20 years, from adolescence to midlife. Psychiatric disorders were initially explained by three higher-order factors (Internalizing, Externalizing, and Thought Disorder) but explained even better with one General Psychopathology dimension. We have called this dimension the p factor because it conceptually parallels a familiar dimension in psychological science: the g factor of general intelligence. Higher p scores are associated with more life impairment, greater familiality, worse developmental histories, and more compromised early-life brain function. The p factor explains why it is challenging to find causes, consequences, biomarkers, and treatments with specificity to individual mental disorders. Transdiagnostic approaches may improve research. PMID:25360393

  17. Parent psychopathology and offspring mental disorders: results from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Gadermann, Anne M.; Hwang, Irving; Sampson, Nancy A.; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Andrade, Laura Helena; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Benjet, Corina; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, José Miguel; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hinkov, Hristo Ruskov; Horiguchi, Itsuko; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Aimee Nasser; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lee, Sing; Murphy, Samuel D.; Nizamie, S. Haque; Posada-Villa, José; Williams, David R.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Associations between specific parent and offspring mental disorders are likely to have been overestimated in studies that have failed to control for parent comorbidity. Aims To examine the associations of parent with respondent disorders. Method Data come from the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health Surveys (n = 51 507). Respondent disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and parent disorders with informant-based Family History Research Diagnostic Criteria interviews. Results Although virtually all parent disorders examined (major depressive, generalised anxiety, panic, substance and antisocial behaviour disorders and suicidality) were significantly associated with offspring disorders in multivariate analyses, little specificity was found. Comorbid parent disorders had significant sub-additive associations with offspring disorders. Population-attributable risk proportions for parent disorders were 12.4% across all offspring disorders, generally higher in high- and upper-middle- than low-/lower-middle-income countries, and consistently higher for behaviour (11.0-19.9%) than other (7.1-14.0%) disorders. Conclusions Parent psychopathology is a robust non-specific predictor associated with a substantial proportion of offspring disorders. PMID:22403085

  18. Antenatal and Postnatal Psychopathology Among Women with Current and Past Eating Disorders: Longitudinal Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Easter, Abigail; Solmi, Francessca; Bye, Amanda; Taborelli, Emma; Corfield, Freya; Schmidt, Ulrike; Treasure, Janet; Micali, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate longitudinal patterns of psychopathology during the antenatal and postnatal periods among women with current (C-ED) and past (P-ED) eating disorders. Women were recruited to a prospective longitudinal study: C-ED (n = 31), P-ED (n = 29) and healthy control (HC; n = 57). Anxiety, depression and ED symptoms were measured at four time points: first/second trimester, third trimester, 8 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Linear mixed effects models were used to test for group differences. Women with C-ED and P-ED, in all diagnostic categories, had significantly higher levels of psychopathology at all time points. ED symptoms decreased in the C-ED group, compared with an overall increase in the other two groups but subsequently increased after pregnancy. Overall, depression and state and trait anxiety scores decreased in the C-ED group compared with the HC group throughout the antenatal and postnatal periods. High levels of psychopathology are common throughout the antenatal and postnatal periods among women with current and past ED, and despite some overall reductions, symptoms remain clinically significant. © 2014 The Authors. European Eating Disorders Review published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25345371

  19. Personality psychopathology, drug use and psychological symptoms in adolescents with substance use disorders and community controls

    PubMed Central

    Forns, Maria; Goti, Javier; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2015-01-01

    Substance use is a risk behavior that tends to increase during adolescence, a time when part of the personality is still in development. Traditionally, personality psychopathology has been measured in terms of categories, although dimensional models have demonstrated better consistency. This study aimed to analyze differences in personality profiles between adolescents with substance use disorders (SUD n = 74) and matched community controls (MCC n = 74) using the Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) dimensional model. Additionally, we compared age at first drug use, level of drug use and internalizing and externalizing symptoms between the groups. In this study, the PSY-5 model has proved to be useful for differentiating specific personality disturbances in adolescents with SUD and community adolescents. The Disconstraint scale was particularly useful for discriminating adolescents with substance use problems and the Delinquent Attitudes facet offered the best differentiation. PMID:26082873

  20. Leptin secretory dynamics and associated disordered eating psychopathology across the weight spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Baskaran, Charumathi; Eddy, Kamryn T.; Miller, Karen K.; Meenaghan, Erinne; Misra, Madhusmita; Lawson, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Leptin secretory dynamics across the weight spectrum and their relationship with disordered eating psychopathology have not been studied. Our objective was to compare leptin secretory dynamics in 13 anorexia nervosa (AN), 12 overweight/obese (OB) and 12 normal-weight women using deconvolution analysis. Methods In this cross-sectional study conducted at a tertiary referral center, serum leptin levels were obtained every 20 minutes from 2000-0800h. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure %body fat. Disordered eating psychopathology was assessed by the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2). Results The groups differed for basal leptin secretion (BASAL) (p=0.02). Mean leptin pulse amplitude, pulse mass, total pulsatile secretion (TPS) and area under the curve (AUC) were significantly different between groups before and after adjustment for BASAL (p<0.0001 for all). Leptin AUC correlated strongly with TPS (r=0.97, p<0.0001) and less with BASAL (r=0.35, p=0.03). On multivariate analysis, only TPS was a significant predictor of leptin AUC (p<0.0001). TPS was inversely associated with most EDE-Q and EDI-2 parameters and the associations remained significant for EDE-Q eating concern (p=0.01), and EDI-2 asceticism, ineffectiveness and social insecurity (p<0.05) after adjusting for BASAL. These relationships were not significant when controlled for %body fat. Conclusion Secretory dynamics of leptin differ across weight spectrum, with mean pulse amplitude, mean pulse mass and TPS being low in AN and high in OB. Pulsatile, rather than basal secretion, is the major contributor to leptin AUC. Decreased pulsatile leptin is associated with disordered eating psychopathology, possibly reflecting low %body fat in AN. PMID:26903591

  1. ADHD symptomatology in eating disorders: a secondary psychopathological measure of severity?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has commonly been described in psychiatric disorders. Although several studies have found positive associations between abnormal eating patterns during childhood and ADHD, there is a lack of studies on ADHD and Eating Disorders (ED). The aims of this exploratory study were 1) to assess the ADHD symptoms level in ED and to ascertain whether there are differences among ED subtypes; 2) to analyze whether the presence of ADHD symptoms is associated with more severe eating disorder symptoms and greater general psychopathology; and 3) to assess whether the ADHD symptoms level is associated with specific temperament and character traits. Methods 191 female ED patients were included. Assessment was carried out with the EDI-2, ASRS-v1.1, the SCL-90-R and the TCI-R. Results The ADHD symptoms level was similar in bulimia, eating disorder not otherwise specified and binge eating subtypes, and lower in anorexic patients. Obsessiveness and Hostility were significantly positively associated with ADHD symptoms. A path model showed that ADHD was associated with high Novelty Seeking and low Self-Directedness, whereas ED severity was influenced by ADHD severity and low Self-Directedness. Conclusions Bingeing/purging ED subtypes have a high ADHD symptoms level, also related with more severe eating, general and personality psychopathology. PMID:23758944

  2. Associations between weight suppression and dimensions of eating disorder psychopathology in a multisite sample.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Jason M; Shaw, Jena A; Crosby, Ross D; Feig, Emily H; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Hill, Laura; Le Grange, Daniel; Powers, Pauline; Lowe, Michael R

    2015-10-01

    Evidence suggests that weight suppression, the difference between an individual's highest historical body weight and current body weight, may play a role in the etiology and/or maintenance of eating disorders (EDs), and may also impact ED treatment. However, there are limited findings regarding the association between weight suppression and dimensions of ED psychopathology, particularly in multi-diagnostic ED samples. Participants were 1748 adults (94% female) from five sites with a variety of DSM-IV ED diagnoses who completed the Eating Disorder Questionnaire, a self-report measure of various attitudinal, behavioral, and medical features of EDs. Four factor analytically derived dimensions of ED psychopathology were examined: (a) weight/shape concerns, (b) binge eating/vomiting, (c) exercise/restrictive eating behaviors, and (d) weight control medication use. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine the unique association of weight suppression with each dimension (controlling for ED diagnosis and BMI), as well as the independent unique associations of three interactions: (a) weight suppression×BMI, (b) weight suppression×ED diagnosis, and (c) BMI×ED diagnosis. Results revealed that weight suppression was uniquely associated with all of the ED psychopathology dimensions except binge eating/vomiting. The weight suppression × BMI interaction was significant only for weight/shape concerns, whereas the weight suppression×ED diagnosis was not significant for any of the dimensions. Significant BMI×ED diagnosis interactions were found for all dimensions except weight/shape concerns. Overall, the current results support the salience of weight suppression across multiple dimensions of ED psychopathology, with the exception of binge eating/vomiting. PMID:26343599

  3. Association of Comorbid Psychopathology with the Duration of Cannabis Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Richard F.; Kosty, Derek B.; Seeley, John R.; Gau, Jeff M.; Duncan, Susan C.; Walker, Denise D.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Risk factors for the development of cannabis use disorders (CUDs) have been well–researched. Comparatively little is known, however, about factors associated with the persistence of CUDs over time. This research explored whether the temporal sequencing of comorbid psychiatric disorders in relation to the onset of the index CUD episode were associated with the length of this episode. Four comprehensive diagnostic assessments were conducted between ages 16 and 30 with a large and regionally representative community sample (n = 816), among which 173 persons were diagnosed with a lifetime CUD. In separate unadjusted analyses, any internalizing disorder and any mood disorder with onset prior to that of the index CUD episode were each significantly and negatively associated with CUD duration. These effects, however, were reduced to trend-level in adjusted analyses that controlled for putative confounders. Following the onset of the index CUD episode, the subsequent occurrence of any axis I disorder, internalizing disorder, externalizing disorder, or other substance use disorder during the index CUD episode was significantly and positively associated with the duration of that episode in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses. These findings collectively suggest that the presence of internalizing-spectrum disorders prior to the onset of the index CUD episode affords some modest protection against protracted episodes, whereas the emergence of broad-spectrum psychopathology within the index CUD episode, most notably non-cannabis substance use disorders, is associated with greater disorder persistence. The relevance of these findings for various motivational models of cannabis addiction is discussed. PMID:26766543

  4. Parent and child psychopathology and suicide attempts among children of parents with alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Conner, Kenneth R; Bossarte, Robert M; Lu, Naiji; Kaukeinen, Kimberly; Chan, Grace; Wyman, Peter; Tu, Xin M; Goldston, David B; Houston, Rebecca J; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Hesselbrock, Victor M

    2014-01-01

    Parents with psychopathology such as alcohol use disorder (AUD) that confers risk for suicide attempt (SA) may have children who are more likely to develop such psychopathology and to attempt suicide, suggesting that risk may be "transmitted" from parents to children. We examined this phenomenon during the transition from childhood to adolescence, when risk for SA increases dramatically. A cohort of 418 children were examined at average age 9.4 (range 7-14) years at enrollment (Time 1, childhood) and approximately 5 years later, prior to reaching age 18 (Time 2, adolescence). One or both biological parents, oversampled for AUD, were also interviewed. Structural equation models (SEM) examined father-child, mother-child, and either/both parent-child associations. The primary outcome was SA over follow-up among offspring, assessed at Time 2. As hypothesized, parental antisocial personality disorder predicted conduct disorder symptoms in offspring both during childhood and adolescence (parent-child model, father-child model) and maternal AUD predicted conduct disorder symptoms during childhood (mother-child model). However, we did not find evidence to support transmission of depression from parents to offspring either during childhood or adolescence, and parent psychopathology did not show statistically significant associations with SA during adolescence. In conclusion, we conducted a rare study of parent-to-child "transmission" of risk for SA that used a prospective research design, included diagnostic interviews with both parents and offspring, and examined the transition from childhood to adolescence, and the first such study in children of parents with AUD. Results provided mixed support for hypothesized parent-child associations. PMID:24716789

  5. Parent and Child Psychopathology and Suicide Attempts among Children of Parents with Alcohol Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Conner, Kenneth R.; Bossarte, Robert M.; Lu, Naiji; Kaukeinen, Kimberly; Chan, Grace; Wyman, Peter; Tu, Xin M.; Goldston, David B.; Houston, Rebecca J.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Hesselbrock, Victor M.

    2014-01-01

    Parents with psychopathology such as alcohol use disorder (AUD) that confers risk for suicide attempt (SA) may have children who are more likely to develop such psychopathology and to attempt suicide, suggesting that risk may be “transmitted” from parents to children. We examined this phenomenon during the transition from childhood to adolescence, when risk for SA increases dramatically. A cohort of 418 children were examined at average age 9.4 (range 7–14) years at enrollment (Time 1, childhood) and approximately five years later, prior to reaching age 18 (Time 2, adolescence). One or both biological parents, oversampled for AUD, were also interviewed. Structural equation models (SEM) examined father-child, mother-child, and either/both parent-child associations. The primary outcome was SA over follow-up among offspring, assessed at Time 2. As hypothesized, parental antisocial personality disorder predicted conduct disorder symptoms in offspring both during childhood and adolescence (parent-child model, father-child model) and maternal AUD predicted conduct disorder symptoms during childhood (mother-child model). However, we did not find evidence to support transmission of depression from parents to offspring either during childhood or adolescence, and parent psychopathology did not show statistically significant associations with SA during adolescence. In conclusion, we conducted a rare study of parent-to-child “transmission” of risk for SA that used a prospective research design, included diagnostic interviews with both parents and offspring, and examined the transition from childhood to adolescence, and the first such study in children of parents with AUD. Results provided mixed support for hypothesized parent-child associations. PMID:24716789

  6. The Relationship between Cognitive Decline and Psychopathology in Patients with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Moon-Doo; Seo, Hye-Jin; Yun, Hyunju; Jung, Young-Eun; Park, Joon Hyuk; Lee, Chang-In; Moon, Ji Hyun; Hong, Seong-Chul; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Bahk, Won-Myong

    2015-01-01

    Objective The primary goals of the present study were to assess intellectual function in participants with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder (BD) and to investigate the relationships between cognitive decline and the severity of each type of psychopathology. Methods The present study included 51 patients with schizophrenia and 42 with BD who were recruited from the psychiatry outpatient clinic of Jeju University Hospital between March 2011 and March 2014. The Korean Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (K-WAIS) was administered to each of the 93 participants, and they were categorized into two groups based on their current intelligence quotient (IQ) and their estimated premorbid IQ: severely impaired group (SIG) and mildly impaired group (MIG). The Minnesota Multiple Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) were used to assess psychopathology. Results The SIG schizophrenia participants exhibited significantly higher scores on the frequent (F) and schizophrenia (Sc) subscales of the MMPI, but significantly lower scores on the correction (K) and psychopathic deviate (Pd) subscales compared with the MIG schizophrenia participants. Furthermore, the BPRS scores were significantly higher in the SIG schizophrenia participants relative to the MIG schizophrenia participants. The SIG BD participants had significantly higher F, masculinity-femininity (Mf), paranoia (Pa), and Sc but significantly lower Pd scores compared with the MIG BD participants. Conclusion The present findings revealed a significant discrepancy between the estimated premorbid levels of cognitive function and current cognitive function in participants with schizophrenia or BD. Moreover, this discrepancy was correlated with severity of psychopathology in both groups. PMID:25912543

  7. Eating Disorder Psychopathology as a Marker of Psychosocial Distress and Suicide Risk in Female and Male Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Zaitsoff, Shannon L.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine psychosocial correlates of specific aspects of eating disorder (ED) psychopathology (i.e., dietary restriction, body dissatisfaction, binge eating, and self-induced vomiting) in psychiatrically-hospitalized adolescent girls and boys. Method Four hundred and ninety-two psychiatric inpatients (286 girls and 206 boys), aged 12 to 19 years, completed self-report measures of psychosocial and behavioral functioning including measures of suicide risk and ED psychopathology. Associations between ED psychopathology and psychosocial functioning were examined separately by sex and after controlling for depressive/negative affect using Beck Depression Inventory scores. Results Among boys and girls, after controlling for depressive/negative affect, ED psychopathology was significantly associated with anxiety, low self-esteem, and current distress regarding childhood abuse. Among girls, after controlling for depressive/negative affect, ED psychopathology was significantly related to hopelessness and suicidality. Among boys, after controlling for depressive/negative affect, ED psychopathology was positively related to self-reported history of sexual abuse and various externalizing problems (drug abuse, violence, and impulsivity). Conclusion In psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents, ED psychopathology may be an important marker of broad psychosocial distress and behavioral problems among girls and boys although the nature of the specific associations differs by sex. PMID:20152294

  8. Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes – The Impact of Gender, Age, and Health-Related Functioning on Eating Disorder Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Wisting, Line; Bang, Lasse; Skrivarhaug, Torild; Dahl-Jørgensen, Knut; Rø, Øyvind

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate correlates of eating disorder psychopathology in adolescent males and females with type 1 diabetes. Method A total of 105 adolescents with type 1 diabetes (42% males), aged 12–20 years, were recruited from the Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry in this population-based study. All participants were interviewed with the Child Eating Disorder Examination. Additionally, the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences and the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire were administered to assess health-related functioning. Clinical data were obtained from the Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry. Results Significant gender differences were demonstrated in the pattern of correlates of eating disorder pathology. Among females, eating disorder psychopathology was significantly associated with body mass index adjusted for age and gender, age, insulin restriction, coping, illness perceptions, and perceptions of insulin concern. In a regression model, age, illness perceptions, and insulin restriction remained significantly associated with eating disorder psychopathology, explaining 48% of the variance. None of the variables were associated with eating disorder psychopathology among males. Discussion Greater clinical awareness of illness perceptions, attitudes toward insulin, and insulin restriction may potentially decrease the risk of developing eating disorders among female adolescents with type 1 diabetes, and the subsequent increased morbidity and mortality associated with comorbid type 1 diabetes and eating disorders. PMID:26529593

  9. Psychopathology in Substance Use Disorder Patients with and without Substance-Induced Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhornitsky, Simon; Tikàsz, Andràs; Rizkallah, Élie; Chiasson, Jean-Pierre; Potvin, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Background. Substance-induced psychotic disorder (SIPD) is a diagnosis constructed to distinguish substance-induced psychotic states from primary psychotic disorders. A number of studies have compared SIPD persons with primary psychotic patients, but there is little data on what differentiates substance use disorder (SUD) individuals with and without SIPD. Here, we compared psychopathology, sociodemographic variables, and substance use characteristics between SUD patients with and without SIPD. Methods. A retrospective chart review was conducted on newly admitted patients at a rehabilitation centre between 2007 and 2012. Results. Of the 379 patients included in the study, 5% were diagnosed with SIPD (n = 19) and 95% were diagnosed with SUDs without SIPD (n = 360). More SIPD patients reported using cannabis and psychostimulants, and fewer SIPD patients reported using alcohol than SUDs patients without SIPD. SIPD patients scored higher on the “schizophrenia nuclear symptoms” dimension of the SCL-90R psychoticism scale and exhibited more ClusterB personality traits than SUD patients without SIPD. Discussion. These data are consistent with previous studies suggesting that psychopathology, substance type, and sociodemographic variables play important role in the development of SIPD. More importantly, the results highlight the need for paying greater attention to the types of self-reported psychotic symptoms during the assessment of psychotomimetic effects associated with psychoactive substances. PMID:26417473

  10. Unravelling risks for child psychopathologies - general lessons from eating disorder research.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Clarifying risks for childhood disorders is one of the core aims of research in developmental psychopathology; disseminating findings from the most robust and clinically relevant of that risk research is a core aim of JCPP. This issue exemplifies that tradition, including articles that use a range of research designs and strategies to confirm - or in some instances disconfirm - the roles of hypothesized risks. It begins with one of our occasional series of reviews of risk research: Culbert, Racine and Klump's lucid synthesis of recent findings on the causes of eating disorders, and the accompanying Commentary by Smith and Davis. These will, of course, be of special interest to those who work in the eating disorders field, but - like all good reviews - their underlying messages have a wider resonance and relevance for the field. We highlight just three issues of particular interest in this Editorial. PMID:26463417

  11. Effects of discontinuing anticholinergic treatment on movement disorders, cognition and psychopathology in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Beauclair, Linda; Annable, Lawrence; Bélanger, Marie-Claire; Kolivakis, Theodore T.; Margolese, Howard C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Physicians have prescribed anticholinergic agents such as benztropine, procyclidine, biperiden and trihexyphenidyl for treatment and prophylaxis of antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) for decades. Anticholinergic agents can however worsen tardive dyskinesia and cause many adverse effects, including cognitive impairment. Previous studies of anticholinergic discontinuation in patients with schizophrenia receiving antipsychotics have yielded a wide range of EPS relapse rates. Improvement in cognition after anticholinergic withdrawal was observed in some studies. Objective: This study evaluated the effect of anticholinergic discontinuation on movement disorders, cognition and general psychopathology after a 4-week taper in 20 outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder treated with antipsychotics. Results: Eighteen of twenty patients successfully discontinued their anticholinergic medication; two did not because of akathisia. Repeated measures analysis of variance did not show a significant effect of anticholinergic discontinuation on total Extrapyramidal Symptoms Rating Scale score or on the Parkinsonism, Akathisia, Dystonia or Tardive Dyskinesia subscales. However, significant improvement was found on the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia composite z score at weeks 6, 8 and 12 compared with baseline. Significant improvements were seen on the motor and the symbol-coding tasks. No significant effects were observed on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impression – Severity and Clinical Global Impression – Improvement scales. Conclusion: In this 12-week study of anticholinergic discontinuation in 20 outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, gradual decrease and discontinuation of anticholinergics led to a positive effect on cognition. There were no adverse consequences on general psychopathology and no significant differences for 18 of 20 subjects on movement disorders

  12. BDNF genetic variability modulates psychopathological symptoms in patients with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Gamero-Villarroel, Carmen; Gordillo, Inmaculada; Carrillo, Juan Antonio; García-Herráiz, Angustias; Flores, Isalud; Jiménez, Mercedes; Monge, Melchora; Rodríguez-López, Raquel; Gervasini, Guillermo

    2014-08-01

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene may influence eating behavior, body weight and cognitive impairments. We aimed to investigate whether BDNF genetic variability may affect anthropometric and psychological parameters in patients with anorexia or bulimia nervosa (AN, BN) and/or modulate the risk for the disorder. A total of 169 unrelated female patients and 312 healthy controls were genotyped for two common BDNF single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), Val66Met and C-270T, and several selected tag-SNPs. Associated personality characteristics and psychopathological symptoms were assessed by the EDI-2 and SCL-90R inventories, respectively. No single SNP or haplotype played a relevant role in the risk for AN or BN. The rs16917237 TT genotype was significantly associated with increased weight (74.63 ± 16.58 vs. 57.93 ± 13.02) and body mass index (28.94 ± 6.22 vs. 22.23 ± 4.77) in the BN group after correcting for multiple testing. Haplotype analyses using a sliding window approach with three adjacent SNPs produced four loci of interest. Locus 3 (rs10835210/rs16917237/C-270T) showed a broad impact on the measured psychopathological symptoms. Haplotypes CGC and CGT in this locus correlated with scores in all three scales of the SCL-90R inventory, both in AN and BN patients. In contrast, the results of the EDI-2 inventory were largely unaffected. These preliminary results suggest that variability in the BDNF gene locus may contribute to anthropometric characteristics and also psychopathological symptoms that are common but not exclusive of ED patients. PMID:24292283

  13. Attachment Styles and Psychopathology among Adolescent Children of Parents with Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Erkan, Mustafa; Gencoglan, Salih; Akguc, Leyla; Ozatalay, Esin; Fettahoglu, Emine Cigil

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare attachment styles and psychopathology in adolescent children of parents with bipolar disorder (BD) with a healthy control group. Material/Methods We studied 25 adolescents who had at least 1 parent with BD (BD group) and 28 adolescents who had no parents with BD (control group). The adolescent participants were between the ages of 12 and 17 years. We used the Adolescent Relationship Scales Questionnaire (A-RSQ) for the adolescents in the BD vs. control groups, and we used the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-age Children – present and lifetime version (K-SADS-PL). We used the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), Clinician Version for each parent of adolescents in the BD and control groups to rule out psychopathologies. Results Attachment styles of participants were assessed according to A-RSQ, dismissing attachment style scores of adolescents in BD group were found significantly higher compared to the healthy control group (p<0.05). As a result of the assessments, 12 adolescents (48%) out of 25 in the BD group and 5 adolescents (18%) out of 28 in the control group were given DSM-IV Axis I diagnosis, which is a statistically significant result (p<0.05). However, when psychiatric diagnoses were assessed separately, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions We found that the adolescent children of parents with BD have increased risk of developing mental illnesses, and that these adolescents adopt dismissing attachment styles. PMID:25877235

  14. Gambling Disorder Due to Brazilian Animal Game ("Jogo do bicho"): Gambling Behavior and Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Gustavo; Grant, Jon; Tavares, Hermano

    2016-03-01

    Gambling is currently widespread across the globe and despite legally restricted, it is significantly common in Brazil. A traditional and common form of gambling in Brazil is the Brazilian animal game (BAG)--"Jogo do bicho" in Portuguese. In 2013, BAG activities collected approximately 19 billion Brazilian reais--equivalent to more than 8 billon American dollars, a figure almost 60 % higher than legal lotteries. Although a common form of gambling, the gambling behavior and psychopathology of gambling disorder (GD) associated with BAG has never been systematically studied. The aim of this study is to conduct, the first research approaching GD due to BAG. We assessed 897 participants of whom 63 subjects (7.0 %) presented with GD due to BAG and 834 with GD associated with other forms of gambling. After comparing these two groups, major differences were found in demographics, gambling behavior elements and psychopathological variables. This research reinforces the need for further research on BAG and the need for specific approaches in GD. The particularities of BAG may affect treatment strategies as, for example, suggest some adaptations in social and psychotherapeutic approaches. We also highlight the need to acknowledge the "hidden" BAG as a potential addictive game. PMID:25680739

  15. Predicting pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder after road traffic accidents: the role of parental psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Kolaitis, Gerasimos; Giannakopoulos, George; Liakopoulou, Magda; Pervanidou, Panagiota; Charitaki, Stella; Mihas, Constantinos; Ferentinos, Spyros; Papassotiriou, Ioannis; Chrousos, George P; Tsiantis, John

    2011-08-01

    This study examined prospectively the role of parental psychopathology among other predictors in the development and persistence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 57 hospitalized youths aged 7-18 years immediately after a road traffic accident and 1 and 6 months later. Self report questionnaires and semistructured diagnostic interviews were used in all 3 assessments. Neuroendocrine evaluation was performed at the initial assessment. Maternal PTSD symptomatology predicted the development of children's PTSD 1 month after the event, OR = 6.99, 95% CI [1.049, 45.725]; the persistence of PTSD 6 months later was predicted by the child's increased evening salivary cortisol concentrations within 24 hours of the accident, OR = 1.006, 95% CI [1.001, 1.011]. Evaluation of both biological and psychosocial predictors that increase the risk for later development and maintenance of PTSD is important for appropriate early prevention and treatment. PMID:21812037

  16. How is our self altered in psychiatric disorders? A neurophenomenal approach to psychopathological symptoms.

    PubMed

    Northoff, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The self is central in our experience and has often been assumed to be necessary for any kind of consciousness in philosophy. Recent investigations in neuroscience demonstrate a particular set of regions such as the cortical midline regions to be associated with the processing of stimuli specifically related to the self as distinguished from those remaining unrelated to the self. Furthermore, findings show a close overlap between self-related activity and high levels of resting state activity in especially anterior midline regions. Interestingly, recent findings in psychiatric disorders such as depression and schizophrenia show resting state abnormalities in exactly these regions, that is in the cortical midline structures. Based on phenomenal and neural observations, I here suggest a neurophenomenal approach that directly links neuronal and phenomenal features (without sandwiching cognitive or sensorimotor functions) to psychopathological symptoms of self in depression and schizophrenia. PMID:25300727

  17. Differentiating autism spectrum disorder and overlapping psychopathology with a brief version of the social responsiveness scale.

    PubMed

    Moul, Caroline; Cauchi, Avril; Hawes, David J; Brennan, John; Dadds, Mark R

    2015-02-01

    The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is a well-established measure of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet it is known to suffer reduced specificity in samples of children with comorbid emotional or behavioural problems. This research examined the specificity of the SRS in children with mixed presentations of internalising and externalising psychopathology and ASD. Participants were 522 (397 male) children aged between 4 and 16 years. The associations between SRS total scores and diagnoses were determined using partial correlations and analyses of variance. A subsample of participants with a single diagnosis was used to identify a subset of questions that distinguished between ASD and all other diagnoses. These items were used to create the 16-item SRS-brief. The SRS was found to have good reliability and sensitivity but poor specificity. The SRS-brief had good psychometric properties and was found to be a more accurate tool for the screening of ASD than the original SRS. PMID:24604214

  18. The Role of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Gene in Personality and Related Psychopathological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Montag, Christian; Jurkiewicz, Magdalena; Reuter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This review provides a short overview of the most significant biologically oriented theories of human personality. Personality concepts of Eysenck, Gray and McNaughton, Cloninger and Panksepp will be introduced and the focal evidence for the heritability of personality will be summarized. In this context, a synopsis of a large number of COMT genetic association studies (with a focus on the COMT Val158Met polymorphism) in the framework of the introduced biologically oriented personality theories will be given. In line with the theory of a continuum model between healthy anxious behavior and related psychopathological behavior, the role of the COMT gene in anxiety disorders will be discussed. A final outlook considers new research strategies such as genetic imaging and epigenetics for a better understanding of human personality. PMID:22483293

  19. Effects of analytical and experiential self-focus on stress-induced cognitive reactivity in eating disorder psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Rawal, Adhip; Williams, J. Mark G.; Park, Rebecca J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests distinct modes of self-focus, each with distinct functional properties: Analytical self-focus appears maladaptive, with experiential self-focus having more adaptive effects on indices of cognitive-affective functioning (e.g., Watkins, Moberly, & Moulds, 2008). The authors applied this framework to eating disorder (ED) psychopathology and manipulated the mode of self-focus prior to exposure to a stressor (imagining eating a large meal; Shafran, Teachman, Kerry, & Rachman, 1999). Study 1 showed that students high in ED psychopathology reported lower post-stressor feelings of weight or shape change and less subsequent attempts to neutralise (e.g., imagining exercising) after experiential relative to analytical self-focus. Study 2 found that partially weight restored patients with anorexia nervosa had lower post-stressor estimates of their own weight and reported lower urge to cancel stressor effects following experiential compared to analytical self-focus. Experiential self-focus was also followed by less neutralisation than analytical self-focus. Results suggest that the mode of self-focus affects cognitive reactivity following a stressor in individuals with ED psychopathology. Examining the mode within which individuals with ED psychopathology focus on self and body may raise important implications for understanding of psychopathology and open new possibilities for augmenting current treatments. PMID:21774916

  20. Voxel-based morphometry in eating disorders: correlation of psychopathology with grey matter volume.

    PubMed

    Joos, Andreas; Klöppel, Stefan; Hartmann, Armin; Glauche, Volkmar; Tüscher, Oliver; Perlov, Evgeniy; Saum, Barbara; Freyer, Tobias; Zeeck, Almut; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger

    2010-05-30

    Twenty-nine adult female patients with eating disorders (17 with bulimia nervosa, 12 with restrictive anorexia nervosa) were compared with 18 age-matched female healthy controls, using voxel-based morphometry. Restrictive anorexia nervosa patients showed a decrease of grey matter, particularly affecting the anterior cingulate cortex, frontal operculum, temporoparietal regions and the precuneus. By contrast, patients with bulimia nervosa did not differ from healthy controls. A positive correlation of "drive for thinness" and grey matter volume of the right inferior parietal lobe was found for both eating disorder groups. The strong reduction of grey matter volume in adult patients with restrictive anorexia nervosa is in line with results of adolescent patients. Contrary to other studies, this first voxel-based morphometry report of bulimic patients did not find any structural abnormalities. The inferior parietal cortex is a critical region for sensory integration of body and spatial perception, and the correlation of "drive for thinness" with grey matter volume of this region points to a neural correlate of this core psychopathological feature of eating disorders. PMID:20400273

  1. Altered sleep in Borderline Personality Disorder in relation to the core dimensions of psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Simor, Péter; Horváth, Klára

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the study was to review the literature regarding sleep disturbances in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and to relate the reported sleep alterations to the underlying core dimensions of BPD pathology. We present a qualitative and theoretical review regarding the empirical studies that investigated objective and subjective sleep quality in BPD and in different psychiatric conditions showing high co-morbidity with this disorder. We show that disturbed sleep including sleep fragmentation, alterations in Slow Wave Sleep and REM sleep, and dysphoric dreaming are prevalent symptoms in BPD. We provide a framework relating the specific sleep alterations to the core dimensions of BPD pathology in order to clarify the inconsistencies of the different findings. The specific sleep disturbances in BPD seem to be related to different dimensions of psychopathological functioning and may have detrimental consequences on waking affect and cognition. Investigating disturbed sleep in BPD in relation to waking symptoms and underlying neural functioning would shed more light on the nature of this complex disorder. Moreover, a stronger emphasis on sleep disturbances would enrich the treatment protocols of BPD. PMID:23574575

  2. Management of complications of congenital hand disorders.

    PubMed

    Comer, Garet C; Ladd, Amy L

    2015-05-01

    This article reviews treatment and presents complications seen in the treatment of 7 common congenital hand differences, including syndactyly, camptodactyly, ulnar and radial polydactyly, thumb hypoplasia, radial longitudinal deficiency, and epidermolysis bullosa. The management of these conditions is challenging but has evolved over the last several decades with refined understanding of the disease processes and treatments. The goal of this article is to synthesize prior knowledge and provide further insights into these conditions that will help the surgeon avoid treatment complications. PMID:25934210

  3. Psychopathology of Shift Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinnawo, Ebenezer Olutope

    1989-01-01

    Examined incidence and nature of general psychopathology among Nigerian shift workers (N=320). Found shift workers more significantly psychopathological than non-shift workers (p<0.001). Prominent disorders among shift workers were intellectual, sleep, mood, and general somatic disorders. No significant difference could be attributed to gender and…

  4. Comorbid psychopathology and clinical symptomatology in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Anagnostopoulos, D C; Korlou, S; Sakellariou, K; Kondyli, V; Sarafidou, J; Tsakanikos, E; Giannakopoulos, G; Liakopoulou, M

    2016-01-01

    Comorbid psychopathology in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been investigated in a number of studies over the last twenty years. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phenomenology of illness and broader psychopathology in a group of Greek children and adolescents with OCD. The investigation of parental psychopathology in children and adolescents with OCD was a secondary aim of the present study. We studied 31 children and adolescents with OCD (n=31, age range 8-15 years) and their parents (n=62, age range 43-48 years) and compared to children and adolescents with specific reading and written expression learning disorders (n=30, age range 7-16 years) and their parents (n=58, age range 40-46 years). Appropriate testing showed specific reading and learning disorders, which were of mild to moderate severity for the 85% of this latter group. The diagnosis of learning disorder of reading and written expression was made through the use of standardized reading material, appropriate for ages 10-15 years. Reading comprehension and narration were tested. The written expression (spelling, syntax, content) was examined by a written text, in which the subject developed a certain theme from the reading material. Based on their level of education and occupation, the index families were classified as high (29%), average (45%) and low (26%) socioeconomic status, whereas 6.7% of control families belonged to high, 63.3% to average, and 30% to low status. In order to investigate psychopathology, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children, Present and Life-time version was administered to children and their parents, as well as the Child Behavior Checklist 4/18 (CBCL) to both parents and adolescents (Youth Self-Report). Also the Yale- Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) was rated for both children and parents. Moreover, the children were given the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the

  5. Psychopathology, symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and risk factors in juvenile offenders

    PubMed Central

    Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Margari, Lucia; Matera, Emilia; Lamanna, Anna Linda; Lecce, Paola Alessandra; La Tegola, Donatella; Carabellese, Felice

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of potential environmental and psychopathological risk factors, with special focus on symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in a sample of adolescent offenders in relation to the type of crime committed. Methods The assessment included data collection and administration of clinical standardized scales such as the Youth Self-Report and Conners’ Adolescent Self-Report Scale. A total of 135 juvenile offenders participated in the study. In relation to the type of crime committed, we identified three groups matched for age and sex (crimes against people, property crimes, and alcohol-drug-related crimes). Results Fifty-two percent of juvenile offenders reported educational achievement problems and 34% reported a family history of psychiatric disorders. We detected a statistically significant difference between the three groups with regard to ADHD (P=0.01) and conduct problems (P=0.034). Juvenile offenders who had committed crimes against people showed more ADHD symptoms (18%) and conduct problems (20%) than adolescents who had committed property crimes and alcohol-drug-related crimes. Sixty percent of the juvenile offenders who had committed property crimes and 54% of those who had committed alcohol-drug-related crimes showed problems in academic achievement. Conclusion These findings suggest the need to implement specific interventions for prevention and treatment of specific criminal behavior. PMID:25709458

  6. Distress Tolerance and Psychopathological Symptoms and Disorders: A Review of the Empirical Literature among Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyro, Teresa M.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Bernstein, Amit

    2010-01-01

    We review theory and empirical study of distress tolerance, an emerging risk factor candidate for various forms of psychopathology. Despite the long-standing interest in and promise of work on distress tolerance for understanding adult psychopathology, there has not been a comprehensive review of the extant empirical literature focused on the…

  7. Integrating psychopathology and personality disorders conceptualized by the MMPI-2-RF and the MCMI-III: a structural validity study.

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, Paul T; Egger, Jos I M; Rossi, Gina M P; Derksen, Jan J L

    2012-01-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008 ) Restructured Clinical scales and Higher Order scales were linked to the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (Millon, Millon, Davis, & Grossman, 2009 ) personality disorder scales and clinical syndrome scales in a Flemish/Dutch sample of psychiatric inpatients and outpatients, substance abuse patients, correctional inmates, and forensic psychiatric patients (N = 968). Structural validity of psychopathology and personality disorders as conceptualized by both instruments was investigated by means of principal component analysis. Results reveal a higher order structure with 4 dimensions (internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders, paranoid ideation/thought disturbance, and pathological introversion) that parallels earlier research on pathological personality dimensions as well as research linking pathological personality traits with mental disorders. Theoretical and clinical implications are considered. PMID:22338624

  8. Sociological, social psychological, and psychopathological correlates of substance use disorders in the U.S. jail population.

    PubMed

    Kerridge, Bradley T

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine sociological, social psychological, and psychopathological correlates of substance abuse disorders in a nationally representative sample of jail inmates. Criminal history and clinical factors most strongly differentiated convicted inmates with and without substance use disorders regardless of current index offense. Policy implications are discussed in terms of targeting antisocial attitudes and peer associations and more effective clinical treatments for substance use disorders among the inmate population. High rates of co-occurring depression symptoms and anger dyscontrol found among inmates with substance use disorders in this study underscore the need for assessment and evaluation of specialized programs for co-occurring disorders and anger management programs among U.S. inmates. PMID:18258992

  9. The validity of questionnaire self-report of psychopathology and parent-child relationship quality in juvenile delinquents with psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Breuk, R E; Clauser, C A C; Stams, G J J M; Slot, N W; Doreleijers, T A H

    2007-10-01

    The present study focuses on the validity of questionnaire self-report of psychopathology and parent-child relationship quality for juvenile delinquents with severe behavioural and psychiatric disorders by comparing information derived from questionnaire self-report with information from other sources, including parent report, in-depth interviewing, behavioural observation by clinicians, and official criminal records. The sample consisted of N=33 juvenile delinquents with psychiatric disorders. The juvenile delinquents did not report increased levels of psychopathology or poor relationships with their parents, which is inconsistent with the fact that all juvenile delinquents were in day treatment for severe behavioural maladaptation and relationship problems. Moreover, parent ratings of psychopathology were consistently in the clinical range and relationship quality was evaluated as very poor by the parents (d>.80). We conclude that screening instruments for psychopathology and assessment of relationship quality relying on questionnaire self-report may not yield valid scores in this (extreme) population of juvenile delinquents. PMID:17161456

  10. Differences in trauma history and psychopathology between PTSD patients with and without co-occurring dissociative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wabnitz, Pascal; Gast, Ursula; Catani, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Background The interplay between different types of potentially traumatizing events, posttraumatic symptoms, and the pathogenesis of PTSD or major dissociative disorders (DD) has been extensively studied during the last decade. However, the phenomenology and nosological classification of posttraumatic disorders is currently under debate. The current study was conducted to investigate differences between PTSD patients with and without co-occurring major DD with regard to general psychopathology, trauma history, and trauma-specific symptoms. Methods Twenty-four inpatients were administered the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-IV (CAPS) and the Mini-Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (MINI-SKID-D) to assess DD and PTSD. Additionally, participants completed questionnaires to assess general psychopathology and health status. Results Symptom profiles and axis I comorbidity were similar in all patients. Traumatic experiences did not differ between the two groups, with both reporting high levels of childhood trauma. Only trauma-specific avoidance behavior and dissociative symptoms differed between groups. Conclusion Results support the view that PTSD and DD are affiliated disorders that could be classified within the same diagnostic category. Our results accord with a typological model of dissociation in which profound forms of dissociation are specific to DD and are accompanied with higher levels of trauma-specific avoidance in DD patients. PMID:24298325

  11. Relation of Early Menarche to Depression, Eating Disorders, Substance Abuse, and Comorbid Psychopathology among Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Bearman, Sarah Kate

    2001-01-01

    Used interview data from a community study to test whether early menarche partially accounts for increased depression, eating pathology, substance abuse, and comorbid psychopathology among adolescent girls. Found that menarche prior to 11.6 years related to elevated depression and substance abuse. Findings support assertion that early menarche is…

  12. The aetiological and psychopathological validity of borderline personality disorder in youth: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Winsper, Catherine; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Marwaha, Steven; Thompson, Andrew; Eyden, Julie; Singh, Swaran P

    2016-03-01

    Controversy surrounds the diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) in youth. This meta-analysis summarised evidence regarding the aetiological and psychopathological validity of youth BPD (the extent to which youth and adult BPD share common risk factors and psychopathology). We identified 61 studies satisfying predetermined inclusion criteria. Statistically significant pooled associations with youth (19years of age and under) BPD were observed for sexual abuse (all youth: odds ratio=4.88; 95% confidence interval=3.30, 7.21; children: OR=3.97; 95% CI=1.51, 10.41; adolescents: OR=5.41; 95% CI=3.43, 8.53); physical abuse (all youth: 2.79 [2.03, 3.84]; children: 2.86 [1.98, 4.13]; adolescents: 2.60 [1.38, 4.90]); maternal hostility/verbal abuse (all youth: 3.28 [2.67, 4.03]; children: 3.15 [2.55, 3.88]; adolescents: 4.71 [1.77, 12.53]); and neglect (all youth: 3.40 [2.27, 5.11]; children: 2.87 [1.73, 4.73]; adolescents: 4.87 [2.24, 10.59]). Several psychopathological features were also associated with youth BPD, including comorbid mood (3.21 [2.13, 4.83]), anxiety (2.30 [1.44, 3.70]) and substance use (2.92 [1.60, 5.31]) disorders; self-harm (2.81 [1.61, 4.90]); suicide ideation (all youth: 2.02 [1.23, 3.32]; children: 6.00 [1.81, 19.84]; adolescents: 1.75 [1.20; 2.54]) and suicide attempt (2.10 [1.21, 3.66]). Results demonstrate that adult and youth BPD share common aetiological and psychopathological correlates. This offers some support for the diagnostic validity of youth BPD and indicates the need for clinical recognition in this age group. PMID:26709502

  13. Association of Sult4A1 SNPs with psychopathology and cognition in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Herbert Y; Brennan, Mark D; Woodward, Neil D; Jayathilake, Karu

    2008-12-01

    A number of genes located on chromosome 22q11-13, including catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), are potential schizophrenia susceptibility genes. Recently, the sulfotransferase-4A1 (Sult4A1) locus within chromosome 22q13 was reported to be linked to schizophrenia in a family TDT study. Sult4A1 is related to metabolism of monoamines, particularly dopamine and norepinephrine, both of which have been implicated in the pathophysiology of the psychopathology and cognitive dysfunction components of schizophrenia. An available, prospectively collected data base was interrogated to determine how three Sult4A1 SNPs: rs138060, rs138097, and rs138110, previously shown to be associated with schizophrenia might be associated with psychopathology, cognition, and quality of life in a sample of 86 Caucasian patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. The majority of patients met criteria for treatment resistant schizophrenia and had been drug-free for one week or longer at the time of evaluation. The major findings were: 1) patients heterozygous (T/G) for rs138060 had significantly worse Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) Total and anxiety/depression sub-scale scores, and higher Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) Total scores than G/G homozygous patients; and 2) patients heterozygous (A/G) for rs138097 demonstrated significantly worse performance on neuropsychological testing, specifically on tests of executive function and working memory, compared to patients homozygous for the G and A alleles. RS138110 was unrelated to psychopathology and cognition. These results provide the first evidence of how genetic variation in Sult4A1 may be related to clinical symptoms and cognitive function in schizophrenia, and permit future studies to attempt to replicate these potentially important findings. PMID:18823757

  14. Psychopathology in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Brüne, Martin; Juckel, Georg

    2009-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system. Demyelinization of nerve fibres not only affects the motor and sensory systems functionally, but may also cause psychopathological signs and symptoms. In addition to the psychiatric manifestations of MS, many patients have reactive psychological problems that are often hard to distinguish from the ‘organic’ causation of psychopathology. In any event, psychiatric comorbidity in MS deserves greater clinical attention than has been previously paid, because the presence of psychopathology may have deleterious effects on the disease process and impair coping with disability. PMID:21180640

  15. [Study of the categorization process among patients with eating disorders: a new cognitive approach to psychopathology].

    PubMed

    Urdapilleta, I; Mirabel-Sarron, C; Meunier, J M; Richard, J F

    2005-01-01

    cognitions relating to the effect on health and the intestinal transit time of food. These results lead one to believe that it is not the bulimic binging and purging of these patients, but rather their restrictive behavior that is the determining factor in the differences in food representations observed between the two experimental groups. During the second experiment, 60 women (15 controls, 15 anorexics, 15 anorexic bulimics and 15 bulimics) aged 18-32 (average age: 25.6) classified 27 food names according to their similarities and differences, and then explained the reasons for their categorizations. The data were analyzed in terms of similarity/difference, and the verbalizations were analyzed by content. The results indicate that 10 of the 27 foods were categorized differently by the controls and the subjects with eating disorders. Subjects classified the following foods: camembert cheese, cold cuts, cheese spread, fruit in syrup, whole milk, mayonnaise, bread, fresh fish, potatoes and plain yogurt. Bulimics and controls use similar classifications for food names, while anorexics and atypical bulimics classify foods in a similar way. Examining the categorization criteria used during verbalizations allows us to better understand these differences. The control group's major criterion seems to be the succession of dishes. These subjects group into separate categories entry foods (beef, eggs, fish, etc.), vegetables, cheese or dairy foods, and finally desserts. Additional foods, like bread and mayonnaise, belong to the same category. Other categories are nutritional criteria (for example, dairy products contain calcium) and biological criteria (for example, bananas and apples are fruits). These categorization criteria include structural properties (which describe what the object is made of) and functional, "academic" properties, those which describe how foods are used, "as in cookbooks or diet books." On the other hand, the categorization criteria expressed by anorexic

  16. Psychopathology in a Swedish Population of School Children with Tic Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalifa, Najah; Von Knorring, Anne-Liis

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine patterns of psychiatric comorbid disorders and associated problems in a school population of children with tic disorders. Method: From a total population of 4,479 children, 25 with Tourette's disorder (TD), 34 with chronic motor tics (CMT), 24 with chronic vocal tics (CVT), and 214 with transient tics (TT) during the past…

  17. The relationship between personality disorders and Axis I psychopathology: deconstructing comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Links, Paul S; Eynan, Rahel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review is (a) to study and systematically review the recent literature examining the co-occurrence and relationships between Axis I psychiatric disorders and Axis II personality disorders, specifically the six originally proposed for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-5, and (b) to consider the clinical utility of the current Axis I and Axis II approach in the DSM-IV-TR and apply findings to state a position on the issue of collapsing together Axis I and Axis II. Community surveys or prospective cohort studies were reviewed as a priority. Our review indicates that the associations between clinical disorders and personality disorders clearly varied within each disorder and across the six personality disorders. Our understanding has advanced, particularly related to the clinical utility of comorbidity, and there may be sufficient evidence to support moving borderline personality disorder to Axis I. However, it seems premature to conclude that comorbidity is best conceptualized by having all disorders in a single category or by deleting disorders so that comorbidity is reduced. Our review suggests some priorities for future research into comorbidity, such as including personality disorders in future multivariate comorbidity models. PMID:23157449

  18. Gambling behaviors and psychopathology related to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in problem and non-problem adult gamblers.

    PubMed

    Fatseas, Melina; Alexandre, Jean-Marc; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Guilleux, Alice; Groupe Jeu; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2016-05-30

    Previous studies showed that Pathological Gambling and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. The aim of this study was to examine whether ADHD is associated with specific severity patterns in terms of gambling behavior, psychopathology and personality traits. 599 problem and non-problem-gamblers were recruited in addiction clinics and gambling places in France. Subjects were assessed with the Wender-Utah Rating Scale-Child, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Temperament and Character Inventory, the South Oaks Gambling Screen and questionnaires assessing gambling related cognitive distortions and gambling habits. 20.7% (n=124) of gamblers were screened positive for lifetime or current ADHD. Results from the multivariate analysis showed that ADHD was associated with a higher severity of gambling-related problems and with more psychiatric comorbidity. Among problem gamblers, subjects with history of ADHD were also at higher risk for unemployment, psychiatric comorbidity and specific dysfunctional personality traits. This study supports the link between gambling related problems and ADHD in a large sample of problem and non-problem gamblers, including problem-gamblers not seeking treatment. This points out the necessity to consider this disorder in the prevention and in the treatment of pathological gambling. PMID:27031593

  19. The Pathogenesis of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: Considerations from a Developmental Psychopathology Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muris, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent psychiatric problems in children and adolescents. The present article summarizes the main evidence that has accumulated on the pathogenesis of childhood anxiety disorders during the past two decades. Various risk and vulnerability factors (e.g., genetics, behavioral inhibition, disgust sensitivity,…

  20. Saliva DHEAS Changes in Patients Suffering from Psychopathological Disorders Arising from Bullying at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lac, Gerard; Dutheil, Frederic; Brousse, Georges; Triboulet-Kelly, Celine; Chamoux, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Background: Psychological disorders arising from bullying at work (BW) are common. The relationship between these disorders and putative markers is not well established. Aims: To measure saliva dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and saliva cortisol as putative markers in individuals suffering from BW. Methods: Forty one subjects suffering…

  1. Hand/Wrist Disorders among Sign Language Communicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Susan M.; Kress, Tyler A.; Hart, William M.

    2000-01-01

    A study assessed the frequency of self-reported hand/wrist problems among 184 sign-language communicators. Fifty-nine percent reported experiencing hand/wrist problems, 26 percent reported experiencing hand/wrist problems severe enough to limit their ability to work, and 18 percent reported a medical diagnosis of wrist tendinitis, carpal tunnel…

  2. Review of the evidence base for treatment of childhood psychopathology: internalizing disorders.

    PubMed

    Compton, Scott N; Burns, Barbara J; Helen, L Egger; Robertson, Elizabeth

    2002-12-01

    This article reviews the empirical literature on psychosocial, psychopharmacological, and adjunctive treatments for children between the ages of 6 and 12 with internalizing disorders. The aim of this review was to identify interventions that have potential to prevent substance use disorders in adolescence by treating internalizing disorders in childhood. Results suggest that a variety of behavioral, cognitive-behavioral, and pharmacological interventions are effective in reducing symptoms of childhood depression, phobias, and anxiety disorders. None of the studies reviewed included substance abuse outcomes. Thus, little can be said about the relationship between early treatment and the prevention of later substance use. The importance of evaluating the generalizability of research-supported interventions to community settings is highlighted and recommendations for future research are offered. PMID:12472300

  3. Clinical practices in the pharmacological treatment of comorbid psychopathology in adolescents with alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Clark, Duncan B; Wood, D Scott; Cornelius, Jack R; Bukstein, Oscar G; Martin, Christopher S

    2003-12-01

    This study examined the use of psychiatric medications in 277 adolescents in treatment for alcohol use disorders. Subjects were recruited from addictions treatment sites, psychiatric programs, and juvenile justice settings. Characteristics studied included the use of and indications for specific medications, changes in clinical practices from 1991 through 2000, and continuation of psychopharmacological treatment over a 1-year followup period. Among adolescents taking psychiatric medications at baseline (n = 51), indicated DSM-IV mental disorders were typically present, use of antidepressants was most common (n = 41), benzodiazepine prescription was rare, and about one third reported continuing pharmacological treatment at one-year followup. In those with comorbid major depressive disorder and alcohol use disorders (n = 110), antidepressant medication use increased significantly from 18% to 55% over the decade studied. The treatment setting did not significantly influence antidepressant prescribing practices. The common and increasing use of psychiatric medications in this population emphasizes the urgent need for empirically based clinical guidelines. PMID:14693259

  4. Non-Conscious Perception of Emotions in Psychiatric Disorders: The Unsolved Puzzle of Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung A; Kim, Chai-Youn

    2016-01-01

    Psychophysiological and functional neuroimaging studies have frequently and consistently shown that emotional information can be processed outside of the conscious awareness. Non-conscious processing comprises automatic, uncontrolled, and fast processing that occurs without subjective awareness. However, how such non-conscious emotional processing occurs in patients with various psychiatric disorders requires further examination. In this article, we reviewed and discussed previous studies on the non-conscious emotional processing in patients diagnosed with anxiety disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression, to further understand how non-conscious emotional processing varies across these psychiatric disorders. Although the symptom profile of each disorder does not often overlap with one another, these patients commonly show abnormal emotional processing based on the pathology of their mood and cognitive function. This indicates that the observed abnormalities of emotional processing in certain social interactions may derive from a biased mood or cognition process that precedes consciously controlled and voluntary processes. Since preconscious forms of emotional processing appear to have a major effect on behaviour and cognition in patients with these disorders, further investigation is required to understand these processes and their impact on patient pathology. PMID:27081376

  5. Non-Conscious Perception of Emotions in Psychiatric Disorders: The Unsolved Puzzle of Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung A; Kim, Chai-Youn; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2016-03-01

    Psychophysiological and functional neuroimaging studies have frequently and consistently shown that emotional information can be processed outside of the conscious awareness. Non-conscious processing comprises automatic, uncontrolled, and fast processing that occurs without subjective awareness. However, how such non-conscious emotional processing occurs in patients with various psychiatric disorders requires further examination. In this article, we reviewed and discussed previous studies on the non-conscious emotional processing in patients diagnosed with anxiety disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression, to further understand how non-conscious emotional processing varies across these psychiatric disorders. Although the symptom profile of each disorder does not often overlap with one another, these patients commonly show abnormal emotional processing based on the pathology of their mood and cognitive function. This indicates that the observed abnormalities of emotional processing in certain social interactions may derive from a biased mood or cognition process that precedes consciously controlled and voluntary processes. Since preconscious forms of emotional processing appear to have a major effect on behaviour and cognition in patients with these disorders, further investigation is required to understand these processes and their impact on patient pathology. PMID:27081376

  6. A brief report about the concepts of hand disorders in the Canon of Medicine of Avicenna.

    PubMed

    Afshar, Ahmadreza

    2011-09-01

    Avicenna contributed to development in many fields of medicine. The Canon of Medicine is the masterpiece of Avicenna's medical books in which he wrote on the anatomy of the upper extremity, fractures, dislocations, and nerve and tendon injuries. Reviewing these subjects pertinent to hand disorders reveals Avicenna's concepts about hand disorders a millennium ago. PMID:21802863

  7. Toward a Typology of High-Risk Major Stressful Events and Situations in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Related Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was introduced in 1980 with the publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association, Third Edition (DSM-III). DSM-III put forward a novel syndrome consisting of intrusive, avoidance/numbing, and arousal symptoms as distinctive psychopathology following exposure to traumatic events. The traumatic stressors, although expanded in later editions published in 1987 (DSM-III-R) and 1994 (DSM-IV), focus on life-threatening events and situations. However, at least 12 studies, most of them recent, have found associations between the PTSD symptoms and the PTSD symptom syndrome with stressors, such as unemployment and divorce that would not qualify, even in the broadened DSM-IV diagnosis, as traumatic stressors. These findings challenge the basic assumption on which the PTSD diagnosis is based, the assumption that exposure to life-threatening stressors is the primary cause of a unique set of stress response symptoms. The purpose of this paper is to show how to confront this challenge by developing a typology of stressful situations and events that can be tested systematically for their relation to the PTSD symptom syndrome and other relevant variables. The typology includes but is not limited to the types of situations and events defined as “traumatic” in the DSMs. PMID:20975984

  8. Controlled study of eating concerns and psychopathological traits in relatives of eating-disordered probands: do familial traits exist?

    PubMed

    Steiger, H; Stotland, S; Ghadirian, A M; Whitehead, V

    1995-09-01

    To examine the extent to which first-degree relatives of eating-disordered (ED) probands endorse maladaptive eating attitudes and personality/affective traits, we compared self-reported eating concerns (Restraint, Emotional Eating, Body Dissatisfaction, and maladaptive eating attitudes) and psychopathological traits (Affective Instability, Anxiousness, Compulsivity, and Narcissism) across groups of restricter (n = 19), binger (n = 56), psychiatric control (PC, n = 38), normal dieter (ND, n = 29), and nondieter control (NC, n = 28) probands, and then across participating nuclear family members. Results among probands were as anticipated: ED probands showed expected elevations in both areas, and predicted restricter/binger differences were obtained. However, corresponding differences were not obtained on measures of mothers', fathers', or siblings' eating concerns and traits. Our findings corroborate the notion that EDs represent a convergence of eating, affective, and personality disturbances, but not that such a clustering of features exists as a familial trait. We discuss normal trait and attitudinal variations observed in ED probands' relatives in light of findings showing EDs and other psychiatric syndromes to aggregate within families. PMID:7581412

  9. Genetic dissection of psychopathological symptoms: insomnia in mood disorders and CLOCK gene polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Serretti, Alessandro; Benedetti, Francesco; Mandelli, Laura; Lorenzi, Cristina; Pirovano, Adele; Colombo, Cristina; Smeraldi, Enrico

    2003-08-15

    We investigated the possible effect of the 3111T/C CLOCK gene polymorphism on sleep disorders in a sample of 620 patients affected by major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BP). We detected a significantly higher recurrence of initial (P = 0.0001), middle (P = 0.0009), and early (P = 0.0008) insomnia in homozygotes for the C variant and a similar trend concerning decreased need of sleep in BP (P = 0.0074). Other demographic and clinical features were found not related with CLOCK polymorphisms. This preliminary observation leads to hypothesize a possible involvement of the CLOCK gene polymorphism in the sleep disregulations in MDD and BP. PMID:12898572

  10. Peer Victimization in Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Relations with Symptoms of Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Ledley, Deborah Roth; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Johns, Natalie B.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Geffken, Gary R.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the frequency of peer victimization and psychological symptom correlates among youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The Schwartz Peer Victimization Scale, Children's Depression Inventory, and Asher Loneliness Scale were administered to 52 children and adolescents diagnosed with OCD. The child's parent or guardian…

  11. Maternal Psychopathology and Infant Development at 18 Months: The Impact of Maternal Personality Disorder and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Susan; Pariante, Carmine M.; Marks, Maureen N.; Davies, Helen A.; Farrelly, Simone; Schacht, Robin; Moran, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective: No previous longitudinal study has examined the impact of comorbid maternal personality disorder (PD) and depression on child development. We set out to examine whether maternal PD and depression assessed at 2 months post partum would be independently associated with adverse developmental outcomes at 18 months of age. Method: Women were…

  12. School Exclusion in Children with Psychiatric Disorder or Impairing Psychopathology: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Claire; Whear, Rebecca; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Bethel, Alison; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Stein, Ken; Ford, Tamsin

    2015-01-01

    Childhood psychiatric disorders are associated with a wide range of adverse outcomes including poor academic attainment. For some children these difficulties are recognised through school Special Educational Need procedures (SEN) but many others may remain unidentified and/or unsupported. In Britain, government data suggests disproportionate…

  13. Cyberspace psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Cantelmi, Tonino; Talli, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    The authors, after a initial description of the "Internet phenomenon" and more specifically concerning the psychological and psychopathological risks related to its use, propose a series of unpublished papers on this theme, developed during the last year. PMID:19592724

  14. The Occurrence of Ipsilateral or Contralateral Foot Disorders and Hand Dominance: The Framingham Foot Study

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Uyen-Sa D. T.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Positano, Rock G.; Dines, Joshua S.; Dodson, Christopher C.; Gagnon, David R.; Hillstrom, Howard J.; Hannan, Marian T.

    2011-01-01

    Background To our knowledge, hand dominance and side of foot disorders has not been described in the literature. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate whether hand dominance was associated with ipsilateral foot disorders among community-dwelling older men and women Methods Data were from the Framingham Foot Study (n=2,089, examined 2002–2008). Hand preference for writing was used to classify hand dominance. Foot disorders and side of disorders were based on a validated foot examination. Generalized linear models with GEE was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), accounting for intra-person variability. Results Left-handed people were less likely to have foot pain or any foot disorders ipsilateral, but were more likely to have hallux valgus ipsilateral to the left hand. Among right-handed people, the following statistically significant increased odds of having an ipsilateral foot disorder versus contralateral foot disorder were seen: 30% for Morton’s Neuroma, 18% for hammer toes, 21% for lesser toe deformity, and a 2-fold increased odds of any foot disorder; there was a 17% decreased odds for Tailor’s Bunion, and an 11% decreased odds for pes cavus. Conclusion For the 2089 study participants, certain forefoot disorders were shown to be ipsilateral while other foot disorders were contralateral to the dominant hand. It is possible that the side of the dominant hand was a proxy for biomechanics of the dominant foot that may explain some of the associations with ipsilateral forefoot disorders. PMID:23328848

  15. [The diversity of approaches for psychopathological disorders in school and university surroundings: surprises and paradoxes].

    PubMed

    Monchablon, D

    2009-12-01

    In this review, we are addressing several issues of the approach of emerging mental disorders in school and university by first line professionals: diagnostic indicators, on-site care, referring and pathway to care. We will expose our unique experience of the "Relais Etudiants Lycéens" a specialized out patient unit dedicated for the assessment and brief therapy at the interface between school and university health services and specialized public care systems for child and adult psychiatry in Paris. PMID:20141777

  16. A latent class analysis of parental bipolar disorder: Examining associations with offspring psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Freed, Rachel D; Tompson, Martha C; Otto, Michael W; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Henin, Aude

    2015-12-15

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is highly heterogeneous, and course variations are associated with patient outcomes. This diagnostic complexity challenges identification of patients in greatest need of intervention. Additionally, course variations have implications for offspring risk. First, latent class analysis (LCA) categorized parents with BD based on salient illness characteristics: BD type, onset age, polarity of index episode, pole of majority of episodes, rapid cycling, psychosis, anxiety comorbidity, and substance dependence. Fit indices favored three parental classes with some substantively meaningful patterns. Two classes, labeled "Earlier-Onset Bipolar-I" (EO-I) and "Earlier-Onset Bipolar-II" (EO-II), comprised parents who had a mean onset age in mid-adolescence, with EO-I primarily BD-I parents and EO-II entirely BD-II parents. The third class, labeled "Later-Onset BD" (LO) had an average onset age in adulthood. Classes also varied on probability of anxiety comorbidity, substance dependence, psychosis, rapid cycling, and pole of majority of episodes. Second, we examined rates of disorders in offspring (ages 4-33, Mage=13.46) based on parental latent class membership. Differences emerged for offspring anxiety disorders only such that offspring of EO-I and EO-II parents had higher rates, compared to offspring of LO parents, particularly for daughters. Findings may enhance understanding of BD and its nosology. PMID:26394919

  17. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptomatology and pediatric obesity: Psychopathology or sleep deprivation?

    PubMed

    Lundahl, Alyssa; Nelson, Timothy D

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity in children has received considerable attention in recent years. However, the literature currently overlooks the potential causal and maintaining role that sleep problems may play in this relationship. Using a biopsychosocial framework, this article highlights how sleep problems impact the biological, psychological, and social aspects of both ADHD symptomatology and obesity. An in-depth examination of this model illustrates the imperative need for future research and clinical practice to recognize and explore the role sleep has in the link between obesity and ADHD symptomatology. PMID:25139893

  18. Religious psychopathology: The prevalence of religious content of delusions and hallucinations in mental disorder

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background: Religious themes are commonly encountered in delusions and hallucinations associated with major mental disorders, and the form and content of presentation are significant in relation to both diagnosis and management. Aims: This study aimed to establish what is known about the frequency of occurrence of religious delusions (RD) and religious hallucinations (RH) and their inter-relationship. Methods: A review was undertaken of the quantitative empirical English literature on RD and RH. Results: A total of 55 relevant publications were identified. The lack of critical criteria for defining and classifying RD and RH makes comparisons between studies difficult, but prevalence clearly varies with time and place, and probably also according to personal religiosity. In particular, little is known about the content and frequency of RH and the relationship between RH and RD. Conclusion: Clearer research criteria are needed to facilitate future study of RD and RH, and more research is needed on the relationship between RD and RH. PMID:25770205

  19. The developmental psychopathology of alcohol use and alcohol disorders: Research achievements and future directions

    PubMed Central

    CHASSIN, LAURIE; SHER, KENNETH J.; HUSSONG, ANDREA; CURRAN, PATRICK

    2013-01-01

    The last 25 years have seen significant advances in our conceptualization of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders within a developmental framework, along with advances in our empirical understanding that have been potentiated by advances in quantitative methods. These include advances in understanding the heterogeneity of trajectories of alcohol outcomes; new insights about early childhood antecedents, and adolescence and emerging adulthood as important developmental periods for alcohol outcomes; a more nuanced understanding of the influences of developmental transitions, and their timing and contexts; a greater appreciation for the importance of considering multiple levels of analysis (including an increasing number of genetically informative studies); a continuing focus on studying multiple pathways underlying alcohol outcomes; and an increasing focus on studying the effects of alcohol exposure on future development. The current paper reviews these advances and suggests directions for future study. PMID:24342856

  20. An examination of psychopathology and daily impairment in adolescents with social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Franklin; Beidel, Deborah C; Bunnell, Brian E

    2014-01-01

    Although social anxiety disorder (SAD) is most often diagnosed during adolescence, few investigations have examined the clinical presentation and daily functional impairment of this disorder exclusively in adolescents. Prior studies have demonstrated that some clinical features of SAD in adolescents are unique relative to younger children with the condition. Furthermore, quality of sleep, a robust predictor of anxiety problems and daily stress, has not been examined in socially anxious adolescents. In this investigation, social behavior and sleep were closely examined in adolescents with SAD (n = 16) and normal control adolescents (NC; n = 14). Participants completed a self-report measure and an actigraphy assessment of sleep. Social functioning was assessed via a brief speech and a social interaction task, during which heart rate and skin conductance were measured. Additionally, participants completed a daily social activity journal for 1 week. No differences were observed in objective or subjective quality of sleep. Adolescents with SAD reported greater distress during the analogue social tasks relative to NC adolescents. During the speech task, adolescents with SAD exhibited a trend toward greater speech latency and spoke significantly less than NC adolescents. Additionally, SAD participants manifested greater skin conductance during the speech task. During the social interaction, adolescents with SAD required significantly more confederate prompts to stimulate interaction. Finally, adolescents with SAD reported more frequent anxiety-provoking situations in their daily lives, including answering questions in class, assertive communication, and interacting with a group. The findings suggest that, although adolescents with SAD may not exhibit daily impaired sleep, the group does experience specific behavioral and physiological difficulties in social contexts regularly. Social skills training may be a critical component in therapeutic approaches for this group

  1. Developmental psychopathology: concepts and challenges.

    PubMed

    Rutter, M; Sroufe, L A

    2000-01-01

    The defining features of developmental psychopathology concepts include attention to the understanding of causal processes, appreciation of the role of developmental mechanisms, and consideration of continuities and discontinuities between normality and psychopathology. Accomplishments with respect to these issues are reviewed in relation to attachment disorders, antisocial behavior, autism, depressive disorder, schizophrenia, and intellectual development. Major research challenges remain in relation to measurement issues, comorbidity, gender differences, cognitive processing, nature-nurture interplay, heterotypic continuity, continuities between normal variations and disorders, developmental programming, and therapeutic mechanisms in effective treatments. PMID:11014739

  2. Brief Report: Adults with Mild Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)--Scores on the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) and Comorbid Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketelaars, Cees; Horwitz, Ernst; Sytema, Sjoerd; Bos, Johan; Wiersma, Durk; Minderaa, Ruud; Hartman, Catharina A.

    2008-01-01

    While knowledge about symptom presentation of adults with mild ASD, including comorbid psychopathology, is limited, referral of adults with suspected mild PDD is increasing. We report on pilot research investigating whether patients diagnosed with mild ASD (n = 15) and patients who were not diagnosed with ASD (n = 21) differed in terms of (a) AQ…

  3. Brittle diabetes: psychopathological aspects.

    PubMed

    Pelizza, Lorenzo; Bonazzi, Federica; Scaltriti, Sara; Milli, Bruna; Giuseppina, Chierici

    2014-01-01

    Background. The term "brittle" is used to described an uncommon subgroup of type I diabetics whose lives are disrupted by severe glycaemic instability with repeated and prolonged hospitalization. Psychosocial problems are the major perceived underlying causes of brittle behaviour. Aim of this study is a systematic psychopathological assessement of brittleness using specific parameters of general psychopathology and personality traits following the multiaxial format (axis I and II) of the current DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for mental disorders. Methods. Patients comprised 21 brittle type I diabetics and a case-control group of 21 stable diabetics, matched for age, gender, years of education, and diabetes duration. General psychopathology and the DSM-IV-TR personality traits/disorders were assessed using the Syptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Results. The comparison for SCL-90-R parameters exclusively revealed higher scores in "Phobic Anxiety" subscale in brittle diabetics. No differences in all the other SCL-90-R primary symptom dimensions and in the three SCL-90-R global distress indices were observed between the two diabetic groups, as well as in the all MCMI-III clinical syndrome categories corresponding to DSM-IV-TR specific psychiatric disorders. However, brittle patients presented lower scores in MCMI-III compulsive personality traits and higher scores in paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, antisocial, borderline, narcissistic, avoidant, dependent, depressive, and passive-aggressive personality traits. Conclusions. In this study, brittle diabetics show no differencies in terms of global severity of psychopathological distress and axis I specific DSM-IV-TR diagnoses in comparison with non-brittle subjects (except for phobic anxiety). Differently, brittle diabetics are characterized from less functional and maladaptive personality features and suffer more frequently and intensively from specific

  4. Points of View: Stories of Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, James E.

    This book is designed to provide students, at differing levels of experience and training, with examples that illustrate the problems individuals have with various psychopathologies. Stories are included to illustrate the key elements of psychopathology for these disorders, and are written from the point of view of both the individual who has the…

  5. [Pica: nosographical and psychopathological aspects].

    PubMed

    Iorio, Gennaro; Prisco, Vincenzo; Iorio, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    The authors, after examining a clinical case of obsessive-compulsive disorder, associated to Pica syndrome, analyse psychopathological development of the symptomatology in its complex, refuting some statements of published studies, that include Pica within obsessive-compulsive disorder spectrum. On the contrary, they think the coexistence of the two symptomatologies simply as an expression of a comorbidity, explaining why they are prone to link Pica with eating disorders. PMID:25000892

  6. Regular gaming behavior and internet gaming disorder in European adolescents: results from a cross-national representative survey of prevalence, predictors, and psychopathological correlates.

    PubMed

    Müller, K W; Janikian, M; Dreier, M; Wölfling, K; Beutel, M E; Tzavara, C; Richardson, C; Tsitsika, A

    2015-05-01

    Excessive use of online computer games which leads to functional impairment and distress has recently been included as Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) in Section III of the DSM-5. Although nosological classification of this phenomenon is still a matter of debate, it is argued that IGD might be described best as a non-substance-related addiction. Epidemiological surveys reveal that it affects up to 3% of adolescents and seems to be related to heightened psychosocial symptoms. However, there has been no study of prevalence of IGD on a multi-national level relying on a representative sample including standardized psychometric measures. The research project EU NET ADB was conducted to assess prevalence and psychopathological correlates of IGD in seven European countries based on a representative sample of 12,938 adolescents between 14 and 17 years. 1.6% of the adolescents meet full criteria for IGD, with further 5.1% being at risk for IGD by fulfilling up to four criteria. The prevalence rates are slightly varying across the participating countries. IGD is closely associated with psychopathological symptoms, especially concerning aggressive and rule-breaking behavior and social problems. This survey demonstrated that IGD is a frequently occurring phenomenon among European adolescents and is related to psychosocial problems. The need for youth-specific prevention and treatment programs becomes evident. PMID:25189795

  7. Connective tissue disorders associated with vasculitis and vaso-occlusive disease of the hand.

    PubMed

    Michelotti, Brett; Rizzo, Marco; Moran, Steven L

    2015-02-01

    Hand ischemia caused by vasculitis is a secondary finding in many autoimmune processes. Many of these autoimmune diseases are managed primarily with medications that can prevent the development of occlusive disease, tissue ischemia, and tissue loss. Unfortunately several disease conditions can be recalcitrant to medical management and can result in ischemic changes within the hand, which may require operative intervention. This article briefly reviews the major connective tissue disorders associated with vasculitis and vaso-occlusive disease of the hand, including scleroderma, lupus, and Buerger disease, and their surgical treatment. PMID:25455357

  8. Self-derogation and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Harder, D W; Strauss, J S; Kokes, R F; Ritzler, B A

    1984-05-01

    To test empirically the oft-repeated clinical hypothesis of a relationship between the self-derogation component of low self-esteem and severity of psychopathology across the entire range of pathology, including nondepressive disorders, the present study examined this relationship in two samples of Ss. The first were 152 patients and expatients from two community mental health catchment areas followed up two years after their first functional-disorder psychiatric admission. The second group were 97 outpatients from the same catchment areas beginning therapy at a community mental health clinic. Within each sample self-derogation was related significantly to severity of diagnosis, overall health-sickness, numerous indices of symptomatology severity, and a measure of difficulty in social/employment functioning. These findings point to the need to recognize and treat self-derogation in psychopathological states other than depression. In addition, they raise the important question of direction of causality between self-derogation and observed psychopathology. PMID:6735168

  9. [Factitious disorder and self-mutilation in hand and plastic surgery].

    PubMed

    Sproedt, J; von Campe, A; Bonaccio, M; Grünert, J G

    2010-02-01

    Self-mutilation in the context of factitious disorder can lead to prolonged and complicated treatment in every medical field. Because of a prevalence of 1-5% in hospitalised patients, it is important to be aware of this disorder to protect patients from self- and foreign-induced harm. Often the patient history gives important hints. The different manifestations of this disorder, the specific doctor-patient relationship, several techniques of confrontation and current treatment are presented. Clinical cases from the fields of hand and plastic surgery are presented. PMID:20205067

  10. Arm and Hand Movement in Children Suspected of Having Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braddock, Barbara A.; Hilton, Jane C.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe arm and hand movement in children suspected of having autism spectrum disorder (ASD; age range 29-43 months). A videotaped retrospective review of five children with symptoms of ASD during "Communication Temptation Tasks" was completed at two time points (pre-testing and 6 weeks later). Categories of…

  11. The Rubber Hand Illusion Reveals Proprioceptive and Sensorimotor Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paton, Bryan; Hohwy, Jakob; Enticott, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterised by differences in unimodal and multimodal sensory and proprioceptive processing, with complex biases towards local over global processing. Many of these elements are implicated in versions of the rubber hand illusion (RHI), which were therefore studied in high-functioning individuals with ASD and a…

  12. Effective emotion regulation strategies improve fMRI and ECG markers of psychopathology in panic disorder: implications for psychological treatment action.

    PubMed

    Reinecke, A; Filippini, N; Berna, C; Western, D G; Hanson, B; Cooper, M J; Taggart, P; Harmer, C J

    2015-01-01

    Impairments in emotion regulation are thought to have a key role in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders, but the neurobiological underpinnings contributing to vulnerability remain poorly understood. It has been a long-held view that exaggerated fear is linked to hyperresponsivity of limbic brain areas and impaired recruitment of prefrontal control. However, increasing evidence suggests that prefrontal-cortical networks are hyperactive during threat processing in anxiety disorders. This study directly explored limbic-prefrontal neural response, connectivity and heart-rate variability (HRV) in patients with a severe anxiety disorder during incidental versus intentional emotion regulation. During 3 Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging, 18 participants with panic disorder and 18 healthy controls performed an emotion regulation task. They either viewed negative images naturally (Maintain), or they were instructed to intentionally downregulate negative affect using previously taught strategies of cognitive reappraisal (Reappraisal). Electrocardiograms were recorded throughout to provide a functional measure of regulation and emotional processing. Compared with controls, patients showed increased neural activation in limbic-prefrontal areas and reduced HRV during incidental emotion regulation (Maintain). During intentional regulation (Reappraisal), group differences were significantly attenuated. These findings emphasize patients' ability to regulate negative affect if provided with adaptive strategies. They also bring prefrontal hyperactivation forward as a potential mechanism of psychopathology in anxiety disorders. Although these results challenge models proposing impaired allocation of prefrontal resources as a key characteristic of anxiety disorders, they are in line with more recent neurobiological frameworks suggesting that prefrontal hyperactivation might reflect increased utilisation of maladaptive regulation strategies quintessential for anxiety

  13. Prevalence and Correlates of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) in Northwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Yakasai, Ahmad M.; Gudaji, Mustafa I.; Muhammad, Hamza; Ibrahim, Aliyu; Owolabi, Lukman F.; Ibrahim, Daiyabu A.; Babashani, Musa; Mijinyawa, Muhammad S.; Borodo, Musa M.; Ogun, Abayomi S.; Habib, Abdulrazaq G.

    2015-01-01

    HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) are common among HIV-positive individuals. This study explored the prevalence and correlates of HAND in Nigeria. 80 HIV-positive and 40 HIV-negative adults selected from Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH) received comprehensive evaluations. A multidomain neuropsychological test (MDNPT) battery assessing 7 domains was administered to the participants and their performance was combined with measures of functional status to classify impairments into various grades of HAND. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify correlates of symptomatic HAND. Among the HIV-positive individuals, 50% were highly active antiretroviral therapy-experienced (HAART+) and 50% were highly active antiretroviral therapy naive (HAART−). Symptomatic HAND was found among 40% of the HAART− individuals and 30% of the HAART+ individuals. Respective prevalence of HIV-associated dementia (HAD) was 23% and 5%, respectively (p = 0.0002). In a binary logistic regression model, only fewer years of education independently predicted symptomatic HAND [Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04–1.44, p = 0.016]. The prevalence of HAND in Nigeria is high with HAD being commoner among HAART− patients. Provision of HAART and strict monitoring of patients at risk of HAND are needed to scale down the burden of the disease. PMID:26347017

  14. Exploring the Agreement between Questionnaire Information and DSM-IV Diagnoses of Comorbid Psychopathology in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjevik, Elen; Sandstad, Berit; Andreassen, Ole A.; Myhre, Anne M.; Sponheim, Eili

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are often comorbid with other psychiatric symptoms and disorders. However, identifying psychiatric comorbidity in children with autism spectrum disorders is challenging. We explored how a questionnaire, the Child Behavior Check List, agreed with a "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth…

  15. Neurosteroids in child and adolescent psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Golubchik, Pavel; Lewis, Matthew; Maayan, Rachel; Sever, Jonathan; Strous, Rael; Weizman, Abraham

    2007-02-01

    Neurosteroids play a significant role in neurodevelopment and are involved in a wide variety of psychopathological processes. There is accumulating evidence on their role in adult psychopathology, including Alzheimer disease, schizophrenia, mood disorder, anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder. Little is known, however, about the possible role of neurosteroids in child and adolescent psychopathology although there is increasing evidence for their critical role from the early stages of brain development until adolescence. In this review we focus on the involvement of neurosteroids in neurodevelopment and mental disorders in children and adolescents. Adequate physiological levels protect the developing neural system from insult and contribute to the regulation of brain organization and function. Neurosteroids may be involved in the pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy of a variety of disorders in children and adolescents, including schizophrenia, depression, eating disorders, aggressive behavior and attention deficit. The complex interaction between neurosteroids, neurodevelopment, life-events, genetics and mental disorders in children and adolescents merits further investigation. PMID:17079119

  16. Illusory Changes in Body Size Modulate Body Satisfaction in a Way That Is Related to Non-Clinical Eating Disorder Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Catherine; Ehrsson, H. Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Historically, body size overestimation has been linked to abnormal levels of body dissatisfaction found in eating disorders. However, recently this relationship has been called into question. Indeed, despite a link between how we perceive and how we feel about our body seeming intuitive, until now lack of an experimental method to manipulate body size has meant that a causal link, even in healthy participants, has remained elusive. Recent developments in body perception research demonstrate that the perceptual experience of the body can be readily manipulated using multisensory illusions. The current study exploits such illusions to modulate perceived body size in an attempt to influence body satisfaction. Participants were presented with stereoscopic video images of slimmer and wider mannequin bodies viewed through head-mounted displays from first person perspective. Illusory ownership was induced by synchronously stroking the seen mannequin body with the unseen real body. Pre and post-illusion affective and perceptual measures captured changes in perceived body size and body satisfaction. Illusory ownership of a slimmer body resulted in participants perceiving their actual body as slimmer and giving higher ratings of body satisfaction demonstrating a direct link between perceptual and affective body representations. Change in body satisfaction following illusory ownership of a wider body, however, was related to degree of (non-clinical) eating disorder psychopathology, which can be linked to fluctuating body representations found in clinical samples. The results suggest that body perception is linked to body satisfaction and may be of importance for eating disorder symptomology. PMID:24465698

  17. Illusory changes in body size modulate body satisfaction in a way that is related to non-clinical eating disorder psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Preston, Catherine; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Historically, body size overestimation has been linked to abnormal levels of body dissatisfaction found in eating disorders. However, recently this relationship has been called into question. Indeed, despite a link between how we perceive and how we feel about our body seeming intuitive, until now lack of an experimental method to manipulate body size has meant that a causal link, even in healthy participants, has remained elusive. Recent developments in body perception research demonstrate that the perceptual experience of the body can be readily manipulated using multisensory illusions. The current study exploits such illusions to modulate perceived body size in an attempt to influence body satisfaction. Participants were presented with stereoscopic video images of slimmer and wider mannequin bodies viewed through head-mounted displays from first person perspective. Illusory ownership was induced by synchronously stroking the seen mannequin body with the unseen real body. Pre and post-illusion affective and perceptual measures captured changes in perceived body size and body satisfaction. Illusory ownership of a slimmer body resulted in participants perceiving their actual body as slimmer and giving higher ratings of body satisfaction demonstrating a direct link between perceptual and affective body representations. Change in body satisfaction following illusory ownership of a wider body, however, was related to degree of (non-clinical) eating disorder psychopathology, which can be linked to fluctuating body representations found in clinical samples. The results suggest that body perception is linked to body satisfaction and may be of importance for eating disorder symptomology. PMID:24465698

  18. Birth Order and Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Risal, Ajay; Tharoor, Hema

    2012-01-01

    Context: Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. Aim: To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-related variables like age of onset, birth order, family type, and family history of mental illness were compared with psychiatry diagnosis (ICD-10) generated. Statistical Analysis: SPSS 13; descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. Results: Mean age of onset of mental illness among the adult general psychiatry patients (group I, n = 527) was found to be 33.01 ± 15.073, while it was 11.68 ± 4.764 among the child cases (group II, n = 47) and 26.74 ± 7.529 among substance abuse cases (group III, n = 110). Among group I patients, commonest diagnosis was depression followed by anxiety and somatoform disorders irrespective of birth order. Dissociative disorders were most prevalent in the first born child (36.7%) among group II patients. Among group III patients, alcohol dependence was maximum diagnosis in all birth orders. Conclusions: Depression and alcohol dependence was the commonest diagnosis in adult group irrespective of birth order. PMID:24479023

  19. The Concept of Development in Developmental Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Sroufe, L Alan

    2009-12-01

    So important is the perspective of development for understanding psychopathology that it spawned a new discipline-"developmental psychopathology"-which has seen remarkable advances since its introduction,, but has yet to completely fulfill its promise. To do this requires maintaining a thoroughgoing developmental perspective. When we take development seriously, there are implications for how we understand psychopathology, describe and conceptualize the origins and course of disorder, and interpret research findings. From this perspective, disorders are complex products of development; for example, we can view neurophysiological associates of disorder not as causes but as markers, the development of which we need to understand. Research on developmental psychopathology requires an examination of the history of problem behavior from early in life, and it unites multiple features of adaptation and maladaptation (contextual, experiential, physiological, and genetic). PMID:20161376

  20. The Rubber Hand Illusion in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Delayed Influence of Combined Tactile and Visual Input on Proprioception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cascio, Carissa J.; Foss-Feig, Jennifer H.; Burnette, Courtney P.; Heacock, Jessica L.; Cosby, Akua A.

    2012-01-01

    In the rubber hand illusion, perceived hand ownership can be transferred to a rubber hand after synchronous visual and tactile stimulation. Perceived body ownership and self-other relation are foundational for development of self-awareness, imitation, and empathy, which are all affected in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We examined the rubber…

  1. Impact of personality psychopathology on outcome in short-term cognitive-behavioral therapy for Axis I disorders.

    PubMed

    Bédard, Mathieu; Russell, Jennifer J; Myhr, Gail

    2015-12-15

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is efficacious for many Axis I disorders, though its effectiveness in the real world, for patients with Axis II comorbidity is less well known. This study examines the effectiveness of CBT for Axis I disorders in three groups of patients: those with personality disorders, those with personality disorder traits and those with no Axis II pathology. Consecutive referrals of patients with non-psychotic Axis I disorders were assessed for short-term CBT in a University Teaching Unit. While the acceptance rate was lower for individuals with personality disorders, there were no group differences in dropout rates. Of those who completed therapy (mean number of sessions=17.8, SD=11.2), those in the Personality Disorders group (n=45) had 4 sessions more on average than the Personality Disorder Traits group (n=42) or the No Axis II Group (n=266). All 3 groups were equally successful, whether the outcome was therapist opinion of success, the clinical global impression, or the reliable change index based on patient-reported symptom change. Intent to treat analysis results paralleled those of the completer analysis. Our findings indicate that the presence of a personality disorder does not negatively impact therapy adherence or success in short-term CBT for an Axis I disorder. PMID:26456894

  2. Pattern Differences of Small Hand Muscle Atrophy in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Mimic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jia; Liu, Ming-Sheng; Guan, Yu-Zhou; Du, Hua; Li, Ben-Hong; Cui, Bo; Ding, Qing-Yun; Cui, Li-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and some mimic disorders, such as distal-type cervical spondylotic amyotrophy (CSA), Hirayama disease (HD), and spinobulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) may present with intrinsic hand muscle atrophy. This study aimed to investigate different patterns of small hand muscle involvement in ALS and some mimic disorders. Methods: We compared the abductor digiti minimi/abductor pollicis brevis (ADM/APB) compound muscle action potential (CMAP) ratios between 200 ALS patients, 95 patients with distal-type CSA, 88 HD patients, 43 SBMA patients, and 150 normal controls. Results: The ADM/APB CMAP amplitude ratio was significantly higher in the ALS patients (P < 0.001) than that in the normal controls. The ADM/APB CMAP amplitude ratio was significantly reduced in the patients with distal-type CSA (P < 0.001) and the HD patients (P < 0.001) compared with that in the normal controls. The patients with distal-type CSA had significantly lower APB CMAP amplitude than the HD patients (P = 0.004). The ADM/APB CMAP amplitude ratio was significantly lower in the HD patients (P < 0.001) than that in the patients with distal-type CSA. The ADM/APB CMAP amplitude ratio of the SBMA patients was similar to that of the normal controls (P = 0.862). An absent APB CMAP and an abnormally high ADM/APB CMAP amplitude ratio (≥4.5) were observed exclusively in the ALS patients. Conclusions: The different patterns of small hand muscle atrophy between the ALS patients and the patients with mimic disorders presumably reflect distinct pathophysiological mechanisms underlying different disorders, and may aid in distinguishing between ALS and mimic disorders. PMID:26996473

  3. Suicidality and its relationships with individual, family, peer, and psychopathology factors among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hu, Huei-Fan; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence rates of suicidal intent and its correlates among adolescents diagnosed with ADHD in Taiwan. A total of 287 adolescents aged 11-18 years and diagnosed with ADHD participated in this study. Their suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were assessed. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations of suicide with individual, family, peer, ADHD, and psychopathology factors. A total of 12.2% of the participants reported suicidal ideation or a suicide attempt. A logistic regression analysis model showed that adolescents who were older, were bullying perpetrators, and reported high depression level were more likely to have suicidal intent. These three factors were also significantly correlated with suicidal ideation; however, only having high depression level was significantly correlated with suicidal attempts. The results of this study showed that a high proportion of adolescents with ADHD reported suicidal ideation or a suicide attempt. Multiple factors were significantly associated with suicidal intent among adolescents with ADHD. Clinicians, educational professionals, and parents of adolescents with ADHD should monitor the possibility of suicide in adolescents with ADHD who exhibit the correlates of suicidal intent identified in this study. PMID:26867785

  4. Comorbid Psychopathology in Infants and Toddlers with Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Hess, Julie A.; Boisjoli, Jessica A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate symptoms of comorbid disorders in infants and toddlers with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Research is scant on symptoms of co-occurring mental health conditions in this very young population. Method: Three hundred and twenty four participants were included in this study. Participants were classified…

  5. Types of Language Disorders in Students Classified as ED: Prevalence and Association with Learning Disabilities and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Gregory J.; Mattison, Richard E.; Nelson, J. Ron; Ralston, Nicole C.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of four types of language disorders among public school students (N = 152) classified as Emotional Disturbance (ED). We also examined the association of the types of language disorders experienced by these students with specific learning disabilities and clinical levels of specific types of…

  6. Prospective Memory in HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND): The Neuropsychological Dynamics of Time Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Katie L.; Loft, Shayne; Morgan, Erin E.; Weber, Erica; Cushman, Clint; Johnston, Elaine; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul

    2013-01-01

    Strategic monitoring during a delay interval is theorized to be an essential feature of time-based prospective memory (TB PM), the cognitive architecture of which is thought to rely heavily on frontostriatal systems and executive functions. This hypothesis was examined in 55 individuals with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and 108 seronegative comparison participants who were administered the Memory for Intentions Screening Test (MIST), during which time monitoring (clock checking) behavior was measured. Results revealed a significant interaction between HAND group and the frequency of clock checking, in which individuals with HAND monitored checked the clock significantly less often than the comparison group across the TB PM retention intervals of the MIST. Subsequent analyses in the HAND sample revealed that the frequency of clocking checking was positively related to overall TB performance, as well as to standard clinical measures of retrospective memory and verbal fluency. These findings add support to a growing body of research elucidating TB PM’s reliance on strategic monitoring processes dependent upon intact frontostriatal systems. HIV-associated TB strategic time monitoring deficits may manifest in poorer functioning outcomes, including medication non-adherence and dependence in activities of daily living. Future research is needed to further delineate the cognitive mechanisms underlying strategic time monitoring in order to advise rehabilitation strategies for reducing HAND related TB PM deficits. PMID:23465043

  7. Hand Test scores of panic disordered outpatients sexually abused as children.

    PubMed

    Zizolfi, S; Cilli, G; Concari, S; Colombo, G

    1997-12-01

    A history of childhood sexual abuse has been implicated in a variety of adult psychiatric disorders as more frequent in females than in males and in subjects with more prominent dissociative symptoms such as panic disorder. Previous research has varied greatly in terms of methods, measurement instruments, and reported findings. Recent studies, however, suggest that projective techniques may be useful in resolving some of these inconsistencies. The present study utilized the Hand Test to investigate the late effects of childhood sexual trauma in a group of authenticated cases of panic disordered adult outpatients sexually abused as children compared to a matched sample of presumably nonabused patients. No statistically significant differences on quantitative variables were obtained between the two groups, but the group of outpatients (n = 16) sexually abused as children showed a larger latency to the ninth card of the Hand Test (shock reaction). This may be a potentially useful index in investigating cases of suspected abuse and confirms Wagner's (1983) contention that Card IX has a psychosexual "pull" as documented also by Italian studies. PMID:9450295

  8. [Psychopathology in children with dyspraxia].

    PubMed

    Lemonnier, E

    2010-08-01

    The term "dyspraxia" was coined by Julian de Ajuriaguerra and Mira Stambak in 1964. This clinical term was treated very differently according to which explanatory model was adopted. Nowadays, it is used to refer to developmental coordination disorder in view of its neuro-developmental origin. In any case, the actual clinical situations vary and are often complex. In our opinion, it is first necessary to examine the differential diagnosis: apraxia in children caused by lesions, dysgraphia, simply delayed motor development, non-verbal learning disability syndrome, hemispheric specialisation deficits, pervasive developmental disorders (autisms, Asperger syndrome, atypical autism and other pervasive developmental disorders), mixed specific developmental disorders, multiple developmental disorder, and children with high potential. Next we focus on co-morbidity. Firstly, we look at psychopathological disorders associated with dyspraxia: autism and pervasive developmental disorders, dyscalculia/math disability, dyslexia/reading difficulties, dysphasia accompanied by verbal dyspraxia, intelligence deficiency, anxiety disorders, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Secondly, we examine psychopathological disorders associated with dyspraxia. Children with developmental coordination disorder are less inclined to participate in collective games. As a result, there is a greater risk of them becoming lonely and isolated. They have higher child behaviour checklist (CBCL) scores in the somatic problems scale as well as for anxiety, depression and social withdrawal. They have low self-perception in sports as well as at school, which is related to their physical appearance and their self-esteem, attention deficit and externalized behaviour. These children are often at risk of academic failure and they suffer from oppositional defiant disorder and functional disorders. And finally, we believe that it is important to touch on the impact of these disorders on the family

  9. A comparison of eating disorder psychopathology, appearance satisfaction, and self-esteem in overweight and obese women with and without binge eating.

    PubMed

    Herbozo, Sylvia; Schaefer, Lauren M; Thompson, J Kevin

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the differences in eating disorder psychopathology, appearance satisfaction, and self-esteem between 194 overweight/obese college women with and without binge eating. Participants were categorized as binge eating (BE; n=56) or non-binge eating (NBE; n=138) based on reports of binge eating at least once per week on average for the past 28days and no episodes of vomiting or laxative use in the past 28days. The BE group had significantly greater levels of eating, weight, and shape concerns and lower levels of appearance satisfaction and self-esteem than the NBE group. For the BE group, binge eating frequency was negatively correlated with dietary restraint. Results are generally consistent with studies utilizing clinical and community samples. The findings extend such research by examining binge eating in a sample of overweight and obese college women and indicating that overall appearance satisfaction is lower among women with binge eating. Study findings also highlight potential issues to address in obesity and binge eating intervention efforts for college populations. Future research is needed to replicate these findings in additional samples of college women and men. PMID:25668799

  10. An Affective Dimension within Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms among Boys: Personality and Psychopathology Outcomes into Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A dimension of negatively oriented affect within oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, which has been described as irritability, has been shown to predict depression and anxiety. Related constructs have been linked to temperament and personality constructs. However, only a few studies have examined the prediction from…

  11. "I Feel Contaminated in My Fake Hand": Obsessive-Compulsive-Disorder like Disgust Sensations Arise from Dummy during Rubber Hand Illusion.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Baland; Krishnakumar, Divya; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

    2015-01-01

    Despite its theoretical and clinical interest, there are no experimental studies exploring obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)-like disgust sensations through using somatosensory illusions. Such illusions provide important clues to the nature and limits of multisensory integration and how the brain constructs body image; and may potentially inform novel therapies. One such effect is the rubber hand illusion (RHI) in which tactile sensations are referred to a rubber hand; if the experimenter simultaneously strokes a subject's occluded hand together with a visible fake hand, the subject starts experiencing the touch sensations as arising from the dummy. In this study, we explore whether OCD-like disgust may result from contamination of a dummy hand during the RHI; suggesting a possible integration of somatosensory and limbic inputs in the construction of body image. We predicted that participants would experience sensations of disgust, when placing a disgust stimulus (fake feces, vomit or blood) on the dummy hand after establishing the RHI. We found that 9 out of 11 participants experienced greater disgust during the synchronous condition (real hidden hand and fake hand are stroked in synchrony) compared to the asynchronous control condition (real hidden hand and fake hand are stroked in asynchrony); and on average such disgust was significantly greater during the synchronous condition compared to the asynchronous control condition, Z = 2.7, p = .008. These results argue against a strictly hierarchical modular approach to brain function and suggest that a four-way multisensory interaction occurs between vision, touch, proprioception on the one hand and primal emotions like disgust on the other. These findings may inform novel clinical approaches for OCD; that is, contaminating a dummy during the RHI could possibly be used as part of an in-vivo exposure-intervention for OCD. PMID:26642323

  12. Biosensor Approach to Psychopathology Classification

    PubMed Central

    Koshelev, Misha; Lohrenz, Terry; Vannucci, Marina; Montague, P. Read

    2010-01-01

    We used a multi-round, two-party exchange game in which a healthy subject played a subject diagnosed with a DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistics Manual-IV) disorder, and applied a Bayesian clustering approach to the behavior exhibited by the healthy subject. The goal was to characterize quantitatively the style of play elicited in the healthy subject (the proposer) by their DSM-diagnosed partner (the responder). The approach exploits the dynamics of the behavior elicited in the healthy proposer as a biosensor for cognitive features that characterize the psychopathology group at the other side of the interaction. Using a large cohort of subjects (n = 574), we found statistically significant clustering of proposers' behavior overlapping with a range of DSM-IV disorders including autism spectrum disorder, borderline personality disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and major depressive disorder. To further validate these results, we developed a computer agent to replace the human subject in the proposer role (the biosensor) and show that it can also detect these same four DSM-defined disorders. These results suggest that the highly developed social sensitivities that humans bring to a two-party social exchange can be exploited and automated to detect important psychopathologies, using an interpersonal behavioral probe not directly related to the defining diagnostic criteria. PMID:20975934

  13. Disturbances in reality testing as markers of risk in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder: a systematic review from a developmental psychopathology perspective

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Angela J; Allen, Timothy A; Cullen, Kathryn R; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This comprehensive review examined the prevalence and progression of disturbances in reality testing (DRT), defined as psychotic symptoms, cognitive disruptions, and thought problems, in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (O-BD). Our approach was grounded in a developmental psychopathology perspective and considered a broader phenotype of risk within the bipolar–schizophrenia spectrum as measured by categorical and dimensional assessments of DRT in high-risk youth. Methods Relevant studies were identified from numerous sources (e.g., PubMed, reference sections, and colleagues). Inclusion criteria were: (i) family risk studies published between 1975 and 2012 in which O-BD were contrasted with a comparison group (e.g., offspring of parents who had other psychiatric disorders or were healthy) on DRT outcomes and (ii) results reported for categorical or dimensional assessments of DRT (e.g., schizophrenia, psychotic symptoms, cluster A personality traits, or thought problems), yielding a total of 23 studies. Results Three key findings emerged: (i) categorical approaches of DRT in O-BD produced low incidence base rates and almost no evidence of significant differences in DRT between O-BD and comparison groups, whereas (ii) many studies using dimensional assessments of DRT yielded significant group differences in DRT. Furthermore, (iii) preliminary evidence from dimensional measures suggested that the developmental progression of DRT in O-BD might represent a prodrome of severe psychological impairment. Conclusions Preliminary but promising evidence suggests that DRT is a probable marker of risk for future impairment in O-BD. Methodological strengths and weaknesses, the psychometric properties of primary DRT constructs, and future directions for developmental and longitudinal research with O-BD are discussed. PMID:24034419

  14. Future in Psychopathology Research

    PubMed Central

    Heckers, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Psychopathology research has focused either on the analysis of the mental state in the here and now or on the synthesis of mental status abnormalities with biological markers and outcome data. These two schools of psychopathology, the analytic and the synthetic, make contrasting assumptions, take different approaches, and pursue divergent goals. Analytic psychopathology favors the individual person and unique biography, whereas synthetic psychopathology abstracts from the single case and generalizes to the population level. The dimension of time, especially the prediction of future outcomes, is viewed differently by these two schools. Here I outline how Carpenter’s proposal of strong inference and theory testing in psychopathology research can be used to test the value of analytic and synthetic psychopathology. The emerging field of personalized psychiatry can clarify the relevance of psychopathology for contemporary research in psychiatry. PMID:24562493

  15. The Neuropsychological Basis of Childhood Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Andrew S.

    2006-01-01

    A clear link exists between neurological dysfunction and psychopathology in children, as evidenced by research on the sequelae of developmental childhood brain impairment, the neuropsychological investigation of children with psychiatric disorders, and neuroimaging research. Understanding the neuropsychological basis of a disorder helps teachers,…

  16. Implicit Measures of Association in Psychopathology Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roefs, Anne; Huijding, Jorg; Smulders, Fren T. Y.; MacLeod, Colin M.; de Jong, Peter J.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Jansen, Anita T. M.

    2011-01-01

    Validity;Measures (Individuals);Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis I psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b) experimental…

  17. A critical view of transgender health care in Germany: Psychopathologizing gender identity - Symptom of 'disordered' psychiatric/psychological diagnostics?

    PubMed

    Güldenring, Annette

    2015-01-01

    After explaining the essential trans* terminology, I offer a short historical overview of the way health care has dealt with the subject of gender, trans* and health in different times. In the third section, I compare the world's most important diagnostic manuals, namely the International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems (ICD) and the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM), i.e. their criteria for 'gender identity disorders' (ICD-10) and 'gender dysphoria' (DSM-5). The fourth section branch out the factors which influence every diagnostic conception - of no matter whom - in the health care system. The last section discusses the implications resulting from this diagnostic dilemma for the health situation of gender nonconforming people. PMID:26569634

  18. Eye-Hand Coordination in Children with High Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder Using a Gap-Overlap Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crippa, Alessandro; Forti, Sara; Perego, Paolo; Molteni, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated eye-hand coordination in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in comparison with age-matched normally developing peers. The eye-hand correlation was measured by putting fixation latencies in relation with pointing and key pressing responses in visual detection tasks where a gap-overlap paradigm was used and compared to…

  19. Neuropathogenesis of HIV: from initial neuroinvasion to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND).

    PubMed

    Zayyad, Zaina; Spudich, Serena

    2015-03-01

    Early in the HIV epidemic, the central nervous system (CNS) was recognized as a target of infection and injury in the advanced stages of disease. Though the most severe forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) related to severe immunosuppression are rare in the current era of widespread combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), evidence now supports pathological involvement of the CNS throughout the course of infection. Recent work suggests that the stage for HIV neuropathogenesis may be set with initial viral entry into the CNS, followed by initiation of pathogenetic processes including neuroinflammation and neurotoxicity, and establishment of local, compartmentalized HIV replication that may reflect a tissue reservoir for HIV. Key questions still exist as to when HIV establishes local infection in the CNS, which CNS cells are the primary targets of HIV, and what mechanistic processes underlie the injury to neurons that produce clinical symptoms of HAND. Advances in these areas will provide opportunities for improved treatment of patients with established HAND, prevention of neurological disease in those with early stage infection, and understanding of HIV tissue reservoirs that will aid efforts at HIV eradication. PMID:25604237

  20. The Concept of Development in Developmental Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Sroufe, L. Alan

    2009-01-01

    So important is the perspective of development for understanding psychopathology that it spawned a new discipline—“developmental psychopathology”—which has seen remarkable advances since its introduction,, but has yet to completely fulfill its promise. To do this requires maintaining a thoroughgoing developmental perspective. When we take development seriously, there are implications for how we understand psychopathology, describe and conceptualize the origins and course of disorder, and interpret research findings. From this perspective, disorders are complex products of development; for example, we can view neurophysiological associates of disorder not as causes but as markers, the development of which we need to understand. Research on developmental psychopathology requires an examination of the history of problem behavior from early in life, and it unites multiple features of adaptation and maladaptation (contextual, experiential, physiological, and genetic). PMID:20161376

  1. Temperament and Behavior in Toddlers of Mothers with Bipolar Disorder: A Preliminary Investigation of a Population at High Familial Risk for Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Attalla, Ashraf M.; Nguyen, Theresa; Stagnaro, Emily; Knight, Bettina T.; Craighead, W. Edward; Stowe, Zachary N.; Newport, D. Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: There are no published studies examining concurrent associations between temperament and behavior during toddlerhood in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (OBD), a population at high familial risk for psychopathology. Better understanding of early determinants contributing to well-being or mental illness in this high-risk population has the potential to aid in the identification of problem domains to be targeted clinically, and facilitate the development of early intervention and prevention initiatives for an appropriate subgroup of children at the youngest possible age. Methods: A total of 30 offspring of mothers with BD (mean age=25.4±4.9 months) participated in this study at Emory University. The mothers completed the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire (ECBQ) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Results: The results of the correlational analyses indicated that the broad temperament dimension Negative Affectivity and the individual ECBQ scales Sadness and Shyness were positively associated with the broad CBCL dimension Internalizing Problems, whereas Sociability was negatively associated with Internalizing Problems. In addition, the temperament scales Soothability and Frustration were negatively and positively associated with Internalizing Problems, respectively. All ECBQ scales included in the broad temperament dimension Effortful Control, except for Cuddliness, were significantly negatively associated with the broad CBCL dimension Externalizing Problems. A significant sex difference was found for the ECBQ scale Positive Anticipation and the CBCL scale Sleep Problems, with a higher mean rank score for girls than for boys. Conclusions: This is the first systematic investigation of temperament and behavior and concurrent associations between these two domains in toddlers of mothers with BD. The present findings provide a platform for future investigations of the contribution of temperament and early behavior to potential well

  2. Psychopathology of incarcerated sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Ahlmeyer, Sean; Kleinsasser, Dennis; Stoner, John; Retzlaff, Paul

    2003-08-01

    The psychopathology and particularly the personality disorders of sex offenders were compared to general inmates of the Colorado Department of Corrections. Using the MCMI-III (Millon, 1994, 1997), sex offenders in general were found to have more varied types of personalities than general population inmates. Specifically, they were more schizoid, avoidant, depressive, dependent, self-defeating, and schizotypal. General population inmates had the more classically criminal personality characteristics of antisocial, narcissistic, and sadistic. Multivariate analysis showed the Dependent, Narcissistic, Antisocial, and Schizotypal scales to be the most differentiating. Sex offenders were also found to have more affective psychopathology such as anxiety, dysthymia, PTSD, and major depression. A similar trend was found when comparing child molesters to rapists. The child molesters were more neurotic, affective, and socially impaired than the rapists. Multivariate analysis showed the Dependent scale to be the most important in differentiating these two types of sex offenders. PMID:14521179

  3. Social anxiety disorder in adolescence: How developmental cognitive neuroscience findings may shape understanding and interventions for psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Haller, Simone P W; Cohen Kadosh, Kathrin; Scerif, Gaia; Lau, Jennifer Y F

    2015-06-01

    Social anxiety disorder represents a debilitating condition that has large adverse effects on the quality of social connections, educational achievement and wellbeing. Age-of-onset data suggests that early adolescence is a developmentally sensitive juncture for the onset of social anxiety. In this review, we highlight the potential of using a developmental cognitive neuroscience approach to understand (i) why there are normative increases in social worries in adolescence and (ii) how adolescence-associated changes may 'bring out' neuro-cognitive risk factors for social anxiety in a subset of individuals during this developmental period. We also speculate on how changes that occur in learning and plasticity may allow for optimal acquisition of more adaptive neurocognitive strategies through external interventions. Hence, for the minority of individuals who require external interventions to target their social fears, this enhanced flexibility could result in more powerful and longer-lasting therapeutic effects. We will review two novel interventions that target information-processing biases and their neural substrates via cognitive training and visual feedback of neural activity measured through functional magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:25818181

  4. The Structure of Psychopathology in a Community Sample of Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Jennifer; Keller, Jennifer; Lavigne, John V.; Gouze, Karen; Hopkins, Joyce; LeBailly, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Despite growing interest in the development of alternative diagnostic classification systems for psychopathology in young children, little is known about the adequacy of the DSM symptom structure for describing psychopathology in this population. This paper examines the fit of the DSM-IV emotional (ED) and disruptive behavior disorder (DD) symptom…

  5. Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Upper Extremities Due to Extensive Usage of Hand Held Devices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective The use of hand held devices (HHD) such as mobile phones, game controls, tablets, portable media players and personal digital assistants have increased dramatically in past decade. While sending a text message or using the controls of the HHD the users need to use their thumb and other palm muscles extensively. The objective of this study was to describe the risk factors and clinical features of the musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) arising due to usage of hand held devices and to evaluate the effectiveness of a sequenced rehabilitation protocol. Methods A retrospective report analysis of 70 subjects, who were diagnosed to have a MSD affecting the upper extremities, was conducted. Medical charts from a tertiary level rehabilitation centre from 2005–2013 were analysed. All the subjects reported pain in their upper extremities following extensive usage of HHD and were examined and diagnosed to have a MSD by an orthopaedic and rehabilitation physician. After the assessment and diagnosis, all the patients underwent rehabilitation using a sequenced protocol. Results All the subjects reported pain in the thumb and forearm with associated burning, numbness and tingling around the thenar aspect of the hand, and stiffness of wrist and hand. 43 subjects had symptoms on the right side; 9 on left and 18 had bilateral symptoms. Correlation was found between hand dominance and MSD. 33 subjects complained of onset of symptoms following extensive text messaging. All the subjects were diagnosed to have tendinosis of Extensor Pollicis Longus and Myofascial Pain Syndrome affecting the 1st interossei, thenar group of muscles and Extensor Digitorum Communis. 23 of the subjects were senior executives, among these 7 were CEO’s of major multinational companies in India. All the subjects recovered completely following the rehabilitation. Conclusions The study concluded that mobile phones and gadgets that promoted the predominant usage of thumb or only one finger while texting

  6. Mental Imagery and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Neuroimaging and Experimental Psychopathology Approach to Intrusive Memories of Trauma.

    PubMed

    Clark, Ian A; Mackay, Clare E

    2015-01-01

    This hypothesis and theory paper presents a pragmatic framework to help bridge the clinical presentation and neuroscience of intrusive memories following psychological trauma. Intrusive memories are a hallmark symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, key questions, including those involving etiology, remain. In particular, we know little about the brain mechanisms involved in why only some moments of the trauma return as intrusive memories while others do not. We first present an overview of the patient experience of intrusive memories and the neuroimaging studies that have investigated intrusive memories in PTSD patients. Next, one mechanism of how to model intrusive memories in the laboratory, the trauma film paradigm, is examined. In particular, we focus on studies combining the trauma film paradigm with neuroimaging. Stemming from the clinical presentation and our current understanding of the processes involved in intrusive memories, we propose a framework in which an intrusive memory comprises five component parts; autobiographical (trauma) memory, involuntary recall, negative emotions, attention hijacking, and mental imagery. Each component part is considered in turn, both behaviorally and from a brain imaging perspective. A mapping of these five components onto our understanding of the brain is described. Unanswered questions that exist in our understanding of intrusive memories are considered using the proposed framework. Overall, we suggest that mental imagery is key to bridging the experience, memory, and intrusive recollection of the traumatic event. Further, we suggest that by considering the brain mechanisms involved in the component parts of an intrusive memory, in particular mental imagery, we may be able to aid the development of a firmer bridge between patients' experiences of intrusive memories and the clinical neuroscience behind them. PMID:26257660

  7. Mental Imagery and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Neuroimaging and Experimental Psychopathology Approach to Intrusive Memories of Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Ian A.; Mackay, Clare E.

    2015-01-01

    This hypothesis and theory paper presents a pragmatic framework to help bridge the clinical presentation and neuroscience of intrusive memories following psychological trauma. Intrusive memories are a hallmark symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, key questions, including those involving etiology, remain. In particular, we know little about the brain mechanisms involved in why only some moments of the trauma return as intrusive memories while others do not. We first present an overview of the patient experience of intrusive memories and the neuroimaging studies that have investigated intrusive memories in PTSD patients. Next, one mechanism of how to model intrusive memories in the laboratory, the trauma film paradigm, is examined. In particular, we focus on studies combining the trauma film paradigm with neuroimaging. Stemming from the clinical presentation and our current understanding of the processes involved in intrusive memories, we propose a framework in which an intrusive memory comprises five component parts; autobiographical (trauma) memory, involuntary recall, negative emotions, attention hijacking, and mental imagery. Each component part is considered in turn, both behaviorally and from a brain imaging perspective. A mapping of these five components onto our understanding of the brain is described. Unanswered questions that exist in our understanding of intrusive memories are considered using the proposed framework. Overall, we suggest that mental imagery is key to bridging the experience, memory, and intrusive recollection of the traumatic event. Further, we suggest that by considering the brain mechanisms involved in the component parts of an intrusive memory, in particular mental imagery, we may be able to aid the development of a firmer bridge between patients’ experiences of intrusive memories and the clinical neuroscience behind them. PMID:26257660

  8. Eye-hand coordination in children with high functioning autism and Asperger's disorder using a gap-overlap paradigm.

    PubMed

    Crippa, Alessandro; Forti, Sara; Perego, Paolo; Molteni, Massimo

    2013-04-01

    We investigated eye-hand coordination in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in comparison with age-matched normally developing peers. The eye-hand correlation was measured by putting fixation latencies in relation with pointing and key pressing responses in visual detection tasks where a gap-overlap paradigm was used and compared to fixation latencies in absence of manual response. ASD patients showed less efficient eye-hand coordination, which was particularly evident when pointing towards a target was being fixated. The data of normally developing participants confirmed that manual gap effects are more likely for more complex hand movements. An important discrepancy was discovered in participants with ASD: beside normal eye gap effects, they showed no concurrent hand gap effects when pointing to targets. This result has been interpreted as a further sign of inefficient eye-hand coordination in this patient population. PMID:22865152

  9. Psychopathology and thought suppression: a quantitative review.

    PubMed

    Magee, Joshua C; Harden, K Paige; Teachman, Bethany A

    2012-04-01

    Recent theories of psychopathology have suggested that thought suppression intensifies the persistence of intrusive thoughts, and proposed that difficulty with thought suppression may differ between groups with and without psychopathology. The current meta-analytic review evaluates empirical evidence for difficulty with thought suppression as a function of the presence and specific type of psychopathology. Based on theoretical proposals from the psychopathology literature, diagnosed and analogue samples were expected to show greater recurrence of intrusive thoughts during thought suppression attempts than non-clinical samples. However, results showed no overall differences in the recurrence of thoughts due to thought suppression between groups with and without psychopathology. There was, nevertheless, variation in the recurrence of thoughts across different forms of psychopathology, including relatively less recurrence during thought suppression for samples with symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, compared to non-clinical samples. However, these differences were typically small and provided only mixed support for existing theories. Implications for cognitive theories of intrusive thoughts are discussed, including proposed mechanisms underlying thought suppression. PMID:22388007

  10. Cannabis and Psychopathology : Update 2004

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep; Basu, Debasish

    2004-01-01

    The study of cannabis use and psychopathology remains an interesting area from both academic and pragmatic perspectives. This article provides an update on the progress made in this area over the past decade or so. Psychopathology and psychiatric syndromes associated with cannabis use that have received research attention in recent years include cannabis withdrawal, cannabis and psychotic disorders (especially schizophrenia), depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. Status of a specific cannabis withdrawal syndrome and a specific ‘cannabis psychosis’ remains controversial. Current evidence indicates that there is a clinically significant association between cannabis use disorders and psychotic syndromes, depression, anxiety and possibly mild cognitive impairment. However, the nature of this association is often not clear. Several hypothesis related to the cannabis-schizophrenia association are examined. Cannabis use might be casually related to the later development of schizophrenia in an indirect way in a few heavy users, but more commonly, its use may precipitate disorders in persons who are vulnerable to developing psychosis and worsen the course of the disorder. PMID:21206788

  11. Psychopathology in Refugees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Peltoniemi, Rosa E.

    Refugees, like most other migrants, are at increased risk for various forms of psychopathology. This paper documents the relationship between refugee migration and psychopathology by reviewing pertinent epidemiological, clinical, and survey studies from the refugee literature. The picture that emerges shows consistently increased levels of serious…

  12. High-functioning autism spectrum disorder as a basic disorder in adult psychiatry and psychotherapy: psychopathological presentation, clinical relevance and therapeutic concepts.

    PubMed

    Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Pick, Marion; Biscaldi, Monica; Fangmeier, Thomas; Riedel, Andreas

    2013-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by deficits in social cognition and competence, communication, highly circumscribed interests and a strong desire for routines. Besides, there are specific abnormalities in perception and language. Typical symptoms are already present in early childhood. Traditionally autism has been regarded as a severe form of neurodevelopmental disorder which goes along with overtly abnormal language, learning difficulties and low IQ in the majority of cases. However, over the last decades, it has become clear that there are also many patients with high-functioning variants of ASD. These are patients with normal language at a superficial level of description and normal and sometimes above average intelligence. In high-functioning variants of the disease, they may run unrecognized until late in adult life. High-functioning ASD is associated with a very high prevalence of comorbid classical psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety, ADHD, tics, psychotic symptoms or emotionally unstable syndromes. In many such cases, there is a causal relationship between ASD and the comorbid psychiatric conditions in that the specific ASD symptoms result in chronic conflicts, misunderstandings and failure in private and vocational relationships. These problems in turn often lead to depression, anxiety and sometimes psychosis-like stress reactions. In this constellation, ASD has to be regarded as a basic disorder with causal relevance for secondary psychiatric syndromes. In this paper, we summarize the classical presentation of high-functioning ASD in adult psychiatry and psychotherapy and suggest a nosological model to classify different ASD conditions instead. To conclude, we outline first treatment concepts in out- and in-patient settings. PMID:24105433

  13. Dissociation and the Development of Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    This paper reviews the research on dissociation and the development of psychopathology in children and adolescents. Definitions and dimensions of dissociation are addressed, noting its range from normative daydreaming to the extremes found in individuals with multiple personality disorder. Memory dysfunctions, disturbances of identity, passive…

  14. Psychopathology and the Ability to Do Otherwise

    PubMed Central

    Pickard, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    When philosophers want an example of a person who lacks the ability to do otherwise, they turn to psychopathology. Addicts, agoraphobics, kleptomaniacs, neurotics, obsessives, and even psychopathic serial murderers, are all purportedly subject to irresistible desires that compel the person to act: no alternative possibility is supposed to exist. I argue that this conception of psychopathology is false and offer an empirically and clinically informed understanding of disorders of agency which preserves the ability to do otherwise. First, I appeal to standard clinical treatment for disorders of agency and argue that it undermines this conception of psychopathology. Second, I offer a detailed discussion of addiction, where our knowledge of the neurobiological mechanisms underpinning the disorder is relatively advanced. I argue that neurobiology notwithstanding, addiction is not a form of compulsion and I explain how addiction can impair behavioural control without extinguishing it. Third, I step back from addiction, and briefly sketch what the philosophical landscape more generally looks like without psychopathological compulsion: we lose our standard purported real-world example of psychologically determined action. I conclude by reflecting on the centrality of choice and free will to our concept of action, and their potency within clinical treatment for disorders of agency. PMID:25929318

  15. [Psychopathology and creativity].

    PubMed

    Rybakowski, Janusz; Klonowska, Paulina; Patrzała, Amelia; Jaracz, Jan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a concept has been presented stating that the process of creativity may be connected with psychopathological features such as mood disorders, mainly bipolar, and psychosis-like thought abnormalities. Biographic studies point to a more frequent occurrence of affective disorders in creative subjects and members of their families. There is also data concerning the occurrence of schizophrenia in the families of prominent persons. A number of studies have demonstrated a similarity of patients with bipolar affective illness and members of their families to creative persons, as to increased indexes of creativity as well as such temperamental features as cyclothymia, neuroticism and openness. An association has been also found between the dimension of"psychoticism", schizotypal features and the measures of creativity. A reduction of the so called "latent inhibition" mechanism, resulting in perception of seemingly irrelevant external stimuli is connected with a predisposition to both increased creativity and schizophrenia-like disturbances. A neurobiological model of generating ideas and creative drive assumes a dominant role of three brain structures: frontal lobes, temporal lobes and the mesolimbic system. The neurotransmission system mostly connected with elevated mood and psychotic thinking is the dopaminergic system, especially its mesolimbic and cortical pathways. Both neurobiological and pharmacological evidence has been accumulated for an association of these pathways with motivational, emotional and cognitive processes, and indirectly, with the processes of creativity. In recent years, a number of interesting results has also been obtained from molecular-genetic studies about genetic determinants of creativity processes in association with bipolar mood changes and psychotic conditions. PMID:17444285

  16. Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents with ASD without Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caamaño, Marta; Boada, Leticia; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Moreno, Carmen; Llorente, Cloe; Moreno, Dolores; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes subclinical psychopathology in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) without mental retardation with no comorbid disorder, assessed by an extensive general psychopathology interview. The K-SADS-PL was administered to a group of 25 patients with ASD (mean age = 12.80 ± 2.86 years) and 25 healthy controls…

  17. Oral and Hand Movement Speeds Are Associated with Expressive Language Ability in Children with Speech Sound Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Beate

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that children with speech sound disorder have generalized slowed motor speeds. It evaluated associations among oral and hand motor speeds and measures of speech (articulation and phonology) and language (receptive vocabulary, sentence comprehension, sentence imitation), in 11 children with moderate to severe SSD…

  18. Psychopathology of EDNOS Patients: To Whom Do They Compare?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moor, Sasha; Vartanian, Lenny R.; Touyz, Stephen W.; Beumont, P. J. V.

    2004-01-01

    Do the levels of psychopathology displayed by patients with an eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) more closely resemble those displayed by full-criteria anorexia and bulimia nervosa patients than they do those of non-eating-disorder controls? Three groups of eating disorder patients (anorexia nervosa, n = 27; bulimia nervosa, n = 23;…

  19. Oral and Hand Movement Speeds are Associated with Expressive Language Ability in Children with Speech Sound Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Beate

    2013-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that children with speech sound disorder have generalized slowed motor speeds. It evaluated associations among oral and hand motor speeds and measures of speech (articulation and phonology) and language (receptive vocabulary, sentence comprehension, sentence imitation), in 11 children with moderate to severe SSD and 11 controls. Syllable durations from a syllable repetition task served as an estimate of maximal oral movement speed. In two imitation tasks, nonwords and clapped rhythms, unstressed vowel durations and quarter-note clap intervals served as estimates of oral and hand movement speed, respectively. Syllable durations were significantly correlated with vowel durations and hand clap intervals. Sentence imitation was correlated with all three timed movement measures. Clustering on syllable repetition durations produced three clusters that also differed in sentence imitation scores. Results are consistent with limited movement speeds across motor systems and SSD subtypes defined by motor speeds as a corollary of expressive language abilities. PMID:22411590

  20. The Domain of Developmental Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sroufe, L. Alan; Rutter, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Describes how developmental psychopathology differs from related disciplines, including abnormal psychology, psychiatry, clinical child psychology, and developmental psychology. Points out propositions underlying a developmental perspective and discusses implications for research in developmental psychopathology. (Author/RH)

  1. Prevalence of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND) among Patients Attending a Tertiary Health Facility in Northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, Abdulkareem Jika; Hassan, Abdulaziz; Mamman, Aisha Indo; Muktar, Haruna Mohammed; Sulieman, Aishatu Maude; Baiyewu, Olusegun

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is a great source of morbidity in sub-Saharan African region. However, the magnitude of this problem remains largely uninvestigated despite having the largest number of population with HIV/AIDS. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of HAND among patients attending a tertiary health facility in Nigeria. Method We conducted a cross-sectional study among HIV-positive patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for at least 1 year. They were assessed using the International HIV Dementia Scale, Word Recall Test, Stick Design Test, Subjective Cognitive Complaint Questionnaire, Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, Drug Abuse Screening Test, Center for Epidemiological Study–Depression Scale, Instrumental Activity of Daily Living, and neurological examination. The CD4 count and viral load were determined for all the participants. A consensus diagnosis was made on each case based on the Frascati criteria. Data obtained were analyzed using “SPSS” for Windows version 15. Results A total of 418 HIV-positive patients participated in the study, of which 325 (77.8%) are females. The mean age (standard deviation) of the participants was 37.2 (9.3) years. The prevalence of HAND was 21.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 17.6%-25.4%), of which 9.6% were asymptomatic. The significant predictors of HAND in this study are duration of illness (odds ratio [OR] = 1.33 P < .001), detectable viral load (OR = 0.19, P < .001), CD4 count (OR = 0.99, P < .001), education (OR = 0.94, P = .011), stopping medication (OR = 3.55 P = .01), and severity of illness (OR = 1.24, P = .005). Conclusion One-fifth of the HIV-positive patients in this study had HAND. Various sociodemographic and clinical features were related to the prevalence of HAND. PMID:25331222

  2. Pilot Study: The Role of the Hemispheric Lateralization in Mental Disorders by Use of the Limb (Eye, Hand, Foot) Dominance

    PubMed Central

    Goodarzi, Naser; Dabbaghi, Parviz; Valipour, Habib; Vafadari, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Based on the previous studies, we know that the hemispheric lateralization defects, increase the probability of psychological disorders. We also know that dominant limb is controlled by dominant hemisphere and limb preference is used as an indicator for hemisphere dominance. In this study we attempted to explore the hemispheric dominance by the use of three limbs (hand, foot and eye). Methods: We performed this survey on two samples, psychiatric patients compared with normal population. For this purpose, knowing that the organ dominance is stabilized in adolescence, and age has no effect on the people above 15, we used 48 high school girls and 65 boys as the final samples of normal population. The patient group included 57 male and 26 female who were chronic psychiatric patients. Results: The result shows that left-eye dominance is more in patients than the normal group (P=0.000) but the handedness and footedness differences are not significance. In psychotic, bipolar and depressive disorders, eye dominance had significant difference (P=0.018). But this is not true about hand and foot dominance. Discussion: Our findings proved that generally in psychiatric patients, left-eye dominance is more common, left-eye dominance is also more in psychotic and depressive disorders. It is less common in bipolar disorders. PMID:27307954

  3. Associations of Childhood Trauma, Trauma in Adulthood and Previous-Year Stress with Psychopathology in Patients with Major Depression and Borderline Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingenfeld, Katja; Schaffrath, Camille; Rullkoetter, Nina; Mensebach, Christoph; Schlosser, Nicole; Beblo, Thomas; Driessen, Martin; Meyer, Bjorn

    2011-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an important possible outcome of exposure to traumatic events that occur in childhood. However, early traumatic experiences are also an important risk factor for several other mental disorders, such as borderline personality disorder and major depressive disorder. Furthermore, chronic stress, including daily…

  4. Psychopathology among cocaine abusers entering treatment.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, P H; Miller, A B; Millman, R B; Woody, G E; Todd, T; Kemp, J; Lipton, D S

    1990-07-01

    A number of different indicators of psychopathology were assessed in this study of 76 cocaine and crack abusers who entered outpatient treatment in New York City between June and December 1987. The majority (75%) had used cocaine for 4 years or more, and the majority (62%) spent over one thousand dollars a month on cocaine in the 6 months before entry into treatment. Forty-seven percent of the sample were found to be clinically depressed. Phobic disorders were the only other axis I diagnoses found in addition to depression, and all persons who were found to have phobic disorders also were diagnosed as having some form of depressive disorder. The four most common axis II diagnoses were antisocial personality (21%), passive-aggressive (21%), borderline (18%) and self-defeating (18%). Subjects were classified as falling into one of the following three categories of a newly developed "psychopathology classification": a) no diagnosed psychopathology except substance abuse or dependency; b) one or more axis II diagnoses, but no axis I diagnoses except for substance abuse or dependency; c) at least one axis I diagnosis in addition to drug disorders whether or not accompanied by an axis II diagnosis. Mean scores on subscales and total score on the SCL-90, as well as total score on the Beck Depression Inventory, were ordered by category of the classification scheme, with those having no diagnosed psychopathology except substance abuse having the lowest score and persons in the third category having the highest score.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2366058

  5. Internet Addiction and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koc, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between university students' internet addiction and psychopathology in Turkey. The study was based on data drawn from a national survey of university students in Turkey. 174 university students completed the SCL-90-R scale and Addicted Internet Users Inventory. Results show that students who use internet six…

  6. Adolescent Attachment and Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenstein, Diana S.; Horowitz, Harvey A.

    1996-01-01

    In relationships among attachment classification, psychopathology, and personality, traits were examined in a group of 60 psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. Attachment was examined in 27 adolescent-mother pairs. Both adolescent and maternal attachment status were overwhelmingly insecure and were highly concordant. Results support a model of…

  7. Intimate Relationships and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whisman, Mark A.; Baucom, Donald H.

    2012-01-01

    Relationship functioning and individual mental health and well-being are strongly associated with one another. In this article, we first review the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between relationship discord and various types of psychopathology, We then review findings suggesting that relationship discord is associated with poorer…

  8. Selective Chromatid Segregation Mechanism Invoked For the Human Congenital Mirror Hand Movement Disorder Development by RAD51 Mutations: A Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Klar, Amar J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The vertebrate body plan externally is largely symmetrical across the midline but internal organs develop asymmetrically. The biological basis of asymmetric organ development has been investigated extensively for years, although the proposed mechanisms remain controversial. By comparison, the biological origin of external organs symmetry has not been extensively investigated. Bimanual hand control is one such external organs symmetry allowing independent motor control movements of both hands to a person. This gap in our knowledge is illustrated by the recent reports of heterozygous rad51 mutations causing mysterious symptoms of congenital mirror hand movement disorder (MM) in humans with 50% penetrance by an unknown mechanism. The analysis of mutations that vary symmetry or asymmetry could be exploited to decipher the mechanisms of laterality development. Here I present a hypothesis for explaining 50% penetrance of the rad51 mutation. The MM's origin is explained with the Somatic Strand-specific Imprinting and selective sister chromatid Segregation (SSIS) hypothesis proposed originally as the mechanism of asymmetric cell division to promote visceral organs body plan laterality development in vertebrates. By hypothesis, random sister chromatid segregation in mitosis occurs for a specific chromosome due to rad51/RAD51 constitution causing MM disorder development in 50% of subjects. PMID:25210500

  9. Selective chromatid segregation mechanism invoked for the human congenital mirror hand movement disorder development by RAD51 mutations: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Klar, Amar J S

    2014-01-01

    The vertebrate body plan externally is largely symmetrical across the midline but internal organs develop asymmetrically. The biological basis of asymmetric organ development has been investigated extensively for years, although the proposed mechanisms remain controversial. By comparison, the biological origin of external organs symmetry has not been extensively investigated. Bimanual hand control is one such external organs symmetry allowing independent motor control movements of both hands to a person. This gap in our knowledge is illustrated by the recent reports of heterozygous rad51 mutations causing mysterious symptoms of congenital mirror hand movement disorder (MM) in humans with 50% penetrance by an unknown mechanism. The analysis of mutations that vary symmetry or asymmetry could be exploited to decipher the mechanisms of laterality development. Here I present a hypothesis for explaining 50% penetrance of the rad51 mutation. The MM's origin is explained with the Somatic Strand-specific Imprinting and selective sister chromatid Segregation (SSIS) hypothesis proposed originally as the mechanism of asymmetric cell division to promote visceral organs body plan laterality development in vertebrates. By hypothesis, random sister chromatid segregation in mitosis occurs for a specific chromosome due to rad51/RAD51 constitution causing MM disorder development in 50% of subjects. PMID:25210500

  10. Personality and Psychopathology: A Stagnant Field in Need of Development

    PubMed Central

    Durbin, C. Emily; Hicks, Brian M.

    2014-01-01

    A dominant paradigm in psychopathology research proposes that individual differences in personality are centrally involved in the origins and manifestations of psychopathology, and structural models of personality and psychopathology have been extremely useful in helping to organize associations among many traits and disorders. However, these models merely describe patterns of covariation; they do not explain the processes by which these patterns emerge. We argue that the field is stagnated, as it is overly focused on the demonstration of concurrent associations and on confirming a spectrum model that proposes traits and disorders are manifestations of the same underlying constructs. We contend that if the field is to move toward an understanding of causal processes, it must integrate knowledge and principles of personality development and developmental psychopathology. To begin this integration, we review (1) normative trends in personality change, (2) age-related changes in the prevalence of disorders, and (3) the impact of onset and chronicity on the severity of disorders. We propose several developmental processes that may contribute to the co-development of personality and psychopathology. We then present novel empirical findings to illustrate how a developmental perspective on traits and disorders can inform new hypotheses, and propose principles and hypotheses that should guide future research. PMID:25544802

  11. Is body dysmorphic disorder associated with abnormal bodily self-awareness? A study using the rubber hand illusion.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Ryan A; Enticott, Peter G; Hohwy, Jakob; Castle, David J; Rossell, Susan L

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from past research suggests that behaviours and characteristics related to body dissatisfaction may be associated with greater instability of perceptual body image, possibly due to problems in the integration of body-related multisensory information. We investigated whether people with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), a condition characterised by body image disturbances, demonstrated enhanced susceptibility to the rubber hand illusion (RHI), which arises as a result of multisensory integration processes when a rubber hand and the participant's hidden real hand are stimulated in synchrony. Overall, differences in RHI experience between the BDD group and healthy and schizophrenia control groups (n = 17 in each) were not significant. RHI strength, however, was positively associated with body dissatisfaction and related tendencies. For the healthy control group, proprioceptive drift towards the rubber hand was observed following synchronous but not asynchronous stimulation, a typical pattern when inducing the RHI. Similar drifts in proprioceptive awareness occurred for the BDD group irrespective of whether stimulation was synchronous or not. These results are discussed in terms of possible abnormalities in visual processing and multisensory integration among people with BDD. PMID:24925079

  12. Comorbidity Among Dimensions of Childhood Psychopathology: Converging Evidence from Behavior Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Soo Hyun; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we review evidence from recent behavior genetic studies that examined the covariance among common childhood psychopathological conditions and tested specific hypotheses regarding common and broadband-specific underlying features of childhood psychopathology. Specifically, we review the distinction between internalizing and externalizing disorders, the support for the generalist genes and specialist environments model, negative emotionality as a heritable underlying feature common to both internalizing and externalizing disorders, and daring as a heritable broadband-specific underlying feature that distinguishes externalizing disorders from internalizing disorders. We also discuss the implications of research in the search for specific genes that influence childhood psychopathology and suggest avenues for new research. PMID:26019716

  13. The WISTAH hand study: A prospective cohort study of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few prospective cohort studies of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders have been performed. Past studies have provided somewhat conflicting evidence for occupational risk factors and have largely reported data without adjustments for many personal and psychosocial factors. Methods/design A multi-center prospective cohort study was incepted to quantify risk factors for distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders and potentially develop improved methods for analyzing jobs. Disorders to analyze included carpal tunnel syndrome, lateral epicondylalgia, medial epicondylalgia, trigger digit, deQuervain’s stenosing tenosynovitis and other tendinoses. Workers have thus far been enrolled from 17 different employment settings in 3 diverse US states and performed widely varying work. At baseline, workers undergo laptop administered questionnaires, structured interviews, two standardized physical examinations and nerve conduction studies to ascertain demographic, medical history, psychosocial factors and current musculoskeletal disorders. All workers’ jobs are individually measured for physical factors and are videotaped. Workers are followed monthly for the development of musculoskeletal disorders. Repeat nerve conduction studies are performed for those with symptoms of tingling and numbness in the prior six months. Changes in jobs necessitate re-measure and re-videotaping of job physical factors. Case definitions have been established. Point prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome is a combination of paraesthesias in at least two median nerve-served digits plus an abnormal nerve conduction study at baseline. The lifetime cumulative incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome will also include those with a past history of carpal tunnel syndrome. Incident cases will exclude those with either a past history or prevalent cases at baseline. Statistical methods planned include survival analyses and logistic regression. Discussion A prospective cohort study of

  14. Occupational musculoskeletal disorders in the neck and upper limbs of forestry workers exposed to hand-arm vibration.

    PubMed

    Bovenzi, M; Zadini, A; Franzinelli, A; Borgogni, F

    1991-05-01

    An epidemiologic and clinical study of neck and upper limb musculoskeletal disorders was carried out on 65 vibration-exposed forestry operators using chain-saws and 31 comparable control subjects (maintenance workers) performing manual activity and not exposed to vibration. Upper limb function was evaluated by measuring finger and wrist circumference size, maximal hand grip strength and range of motion manoeuvres in both the controls and the exposed workers. Vibration from two chain-saws was measured, and vibration exposure for each forestry worker was assessed in terms of 4 h energy-equivalent frequency-weighted acceleration according to ISO 5349. Job analysis indicated a slight excess risk of upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) in the forestry operators compared with the control workers. After adjustment for age and body constitution, significantly higher prevalence rates of persistent upper limb pain, muscle-tendon syndromes and carpal tunnel syndrome were observed among the forestry workers than among the controls. In the forestry operators, the occurrence of upper limb musculoskeletal disorders increased with increasing vibration exposure. Upper limb function was found to be impaired in the forestry workers compared with the controls. Vibration exposure was significantly related to increased finger circumference size, diminished muscle force and reduced joint function. Even though it is difficult to establish the relative importance of vibration and ergonomic factors in the aetiology of CTDs, nevertheless the results of this study indicate that musculoskeletal impairment to the upper limbs was more severe in the forestry operators than in the controls who did solely manual work. This finding and the observed dose-effect relationships suggest that vibration stress is an important contributor to the development of musculoskeletal disorders in workers using hand-held vibrating tools. PMID:1653132

  15. When thought suppression backfires: its moderator effect on eating psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Cláudia; Palmeira, Lara; Trindade, Inês A; Catarino, Francisca

    2015-09-01

    Recently, several studies have pointed the importance of thought suppression as a form of experiential avoidance in different psychopathological conditions. Thought suppression may be conceptualized as an attempt to decrease or eliminate unwanted internal experiences. However, it encloses a paradoxical nature, making those thoughts hyper accessible and placing an extra burden on individuals. This avoidance process has been associated with several psychopathological conditions. However, its role in eating psychopathology remains unclear. The present study aims to explore the moderation effect of thought suppression on the associations between body image-related unwanted internal experiences (unfavorable social comparison through physical appearance and body image dissatisfaction) and eating psychopathology severity in a sample of 211 female students. Correlational analyses showed that thought suppression is associated with psychological inflexibility and eating disorders' main risk factors and symptoms. Moreover, two independent analyses revealed that thought suppression moderates, as it amplifies, the impact of unfavorable social comparisons through physical appearance (model 1) and body image dissatisfaction (model 2) on disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. Hence, for the same level of these body-related internal experiences, young females who reveal higher levels of thought suppression present higher eating psychopathology. Taken together, these findings highlight the key role of thought suppression in eating psychopathology and present important clinical implications. PMID:25663280

  16. Assessment of psychopathology across and within cultures: issues and findings.

    PubMed

    Draguns, Juris G; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko

    2003-07-01

    Research based information on the impact of culture on psychopathology is reviewed, with particular reference to depression, somatization, schizophrenia, anxiety, and dissociation. A number of worldwide constants in the incidence and mode of expression of psychological disorders are identified, especially in relation to schizophrenia and depression. The scope of variation of psychopathological manifestations across cultures is impressive. Two tasks for future investigations involve the determination of the generic relationship between psychological disturbance and culture and the specification of links between cultural characteristics and psychopathology. To this end, hypotheses are advanced pertaining to the cultural dimensions investigated by Hofstede and their possible reflection in psychiatric symptomatology. It is concluded that the interrelationship of culture and psychopathology should be studied in context and that observer, institution, and community variables should be investigated together with the person's experience of distress and disability. PMID:12781244

  17. Disgust sensitivity and psychopathological symptoms in non-clinical children.

    PubMed

    Muris, Peter; van der Heiden, Simone; Rassin, Eric

    2008-06-01

    There is clear evidence in the adult literature that disgust sensitivity is implicated in various psychopathological syndromes. The current study examined the link between disgust sensitivity and psychopathological symptoms in youths. In a sample of non-clinical children aged 9-13 years, disgust sensitivity was assessed by two self-report questionnaires (i.e., the Disgust Scale and the Disgust Sensitivity Questionnaire) and a behavioural test. Furthermore, children completed scales for measuring the personality trait of neuroticism and various types of psychopathological symptoms. Results showed that disgust measures had sufficient to good convergent validity. Further, significant positive correlations were found between disgust sensitivity and symptoms of specific phobias (i.e., spider phobia, blood-injection phobia, small-animal phobia), social phobia, agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and eating problems, and these links were not attenuated when controlling for neuroticism. The possible role of disgust sensitivity in the aetiology of child psychopathology is discussed. PMID:17433251

  18. Classification of childhood psychopathology: a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Garber, J

    1984-02-01

    The absence of a comprehensive, objective, and reliable system for classifying emotional and behavior problems in children has slowed the advancement of knowledge in the field of developmental psychopathology. This paper provides a developmental framework for the classification of psychopathology in children and highlights the potential contributions that such classification may have toward the understanding of normal development. The salient issues derived from this developmental perspective are concerned with the continuity between childhood and adult psychopathology, and the definition of normality and adaptation in the context of development. The implications of the continuity issue for classification are that (a) the validity of adult criteria for use with children should be explored further, (b) the diagnosis of a childhood disorder at 1 point in time is not necessarily dependent upon there being episodes of the disorder at a later time, and (c) the focus of classification should not be limited to isolated behaviors and traits, but rather should emphasize patterns of adaptation. Moreover, it is suggested that judgments about normality and dysfunction should be made relative to what is expected given the child's age, sex, environmental context, developmental task, level of functioning, and phase in the progression through development. This paper provides a conceptual framework that will facilitate the construction of a more developmentally relevant system of classification. PMID:6705631

  19. Adversities in childhood and adult psychopathology in the South Africa Stress and Health Study: associations with first-onset DSM-IV disorders.

    PubMed

    Slopen, Natalie; Williams, David R; Seedat, Soraya; Moomal, Hashim; Herman, Allen; Stein, Dan J

    2010-11-01

    Extensive epidemiologic research from the United States demonstrates that childhood adversities (CAs) are predictive of several psychiatric outcomes, including depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and externalizing disorders. To date, this has not been explored in a national sample of adults in South Africa. The present study examined the joint predictive effects of 11 retrospectively reported CAs on the first onset of DSM-IV disorders in the South Africa Stress and Health Study (SASH), a nationally representative sample of adults. We utilized substantively plausible regression models of joint CA effects that account for the comorbidity between individual CAs; outcomes included DSM-IV anxiety disorders, mood disorders, substance use disorders, and externalizing disorders measured with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The results indicated that experiences of CA varied by race, and many CAs were correlated with one another. The best-fitting model for first onset of any disorder included separate indicators for each type of CA, in addition to indicator variables for the number of other CAs reported. Results disaggregated by class of disorder showed that the majority of CAs with significant odds ratios only predicted anxiety disorder. Results disaggregated by life course stage of first onset showed that significant effects of CAs can be observed at each stage of the life course. This study contributes to a growing body of research on the social determinants of mental health in South Africa. Our findings illustrate the importance of utilizing a model that accounts for the clustering and accumulation of CAs, and suggest that a variety of CAs predict onset of mental disorders, particularly anxiety disorders, at several stages of the life course. PMID:20870332

  20. Head-Torso-Hand Coordination in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elders, Vera; Sheehan, Sinead; Wilson, Andrew D.; Levesley, Martin; Bhakta, Bipin; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated the nature of coordination and control problems in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Method: Seven adults (two males, five females, age range 20-28y; mean 23y, SD 2y 8mo) and eight children with DCD (six males, two females, age range 7-9y; mean 8y, SD 8mo), and 10 without DCD (seven males, three…

  1. Emotional Psychopathology and Increased Adiposity: Follow-Up Study in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aparicio, Estefania; Canals, Josefa; Voltas, Nuria; Hernandez-Martinez, Carmen; Arija, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Based on data from a three-year longitudinal study, we assess the effect, according to gender, of emotional psychopathology in preadolescence on anthropometric and body composition parameters in adolescence (N = 229). Psychopathology was assessed using the "Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders, the Children's Depression…

  2. Psychopathological Manifestations of Children with Intellectual Disabilities According to Their Cognitive and Adaptive Behavior Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Karine N.; Richer, Louis; Lachance, Lise; Cote, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Children with intellectual disabilities show deficits in cognitive abilities and adaptive behavior which increase the risk of psychopathological disorders. This exploratory study aims at delineating profiles of children based on their cognitive functioning and adaptive behaviors, and to compare them on psychopathological manifestations. A…

  3. The impact of body image-related cognitive fusion on eating psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Inês A; Ferreira, Cláudia

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown that cognitive fusion underlies psychological inflexibility and in consequence various forms of psychopathology. However, the role of cognitive fusion specifically related to body image on eating psychopathology remained to be examined. The current study explores the impact of cognitive fusion concerning body image in the relation between acknowledged related risk factors and eating psychopathology in a sample of 342 female students. The impact of body dissatisfaction and social comparison through physical appearance on eating psychopathology was partially mediated by body image-related cognitive fusion. The results highlight the importance of cognitive defusion in the treatment of eating disorders. PMID:24411754

  4. Conscientiousness and externalizing psychopathology: overlap, developmental patterns, and etiology of two related constructs.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Brent W; Jackson, Joshua J; Berger, Jessica M; Burger, Jessica; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the trait domain of conscientiousness, its development, and its relation to psychopathology. The definition of conscientiousness and its interface with specific forms of psychopathology, such as externalizing psychopathology, are discussed first. Then an overview of the known developmental changes in conscientiousness across the life course is provided, as well as the potential shared developmental etiology of conscientiousness and externalizing psychopathology. Given the lack of data, testing etiological factors that may contribute to the development of both conscientiousness and externalizing disorders, we report on three studies examining the childhood experiences associated with both conscientiousness and externalizing behaviors. Last, future directions are discussed. PMID:19583888

  5. The association between perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology and depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Rasing, Sanne P. A.; Creemers, Daan H. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental depression and anxiety is known to heighten the risk of internalizing symptoms and disorders in children and adolescents. Ample research has focused on the influence of maternal depression and anxiety, but the contribution of psychopathology in fathers remains unclear. We studied the relationships of perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology with adolescents’ depression and anxiety symptoms in a general population sample of 862 adolescent girls (age M = 12.39, SD = 0.79). Assessments included adolescents’ self-reports of their own depression and anxiety as well as their reports of maternal and paternal psychopathology. We found that perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology were both related to depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls. A combination of higher maternal and paternal psychopathology was related to even higher levels of depression and anxiety in adolescent girls. Our findings showed that adolescents’ perceptions of their parents’ psychopathology are significantly related to their own emotional problems. PMID:26257664

  6. The shared and specific relationships between exposure to potentially traumatic events and transdiagnostic dimensions of psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Matthew; Carragher, Natacha; Chapman, Cath; Mills, Katherine; Teesson, Maree; Lockwood, Emma; Forbes, David; Slade, Tim

    2016-03-01

    The experience of traumatic events has been linked to the development of psychopathology. Changing perspectives on psychopathology have resulted in the hypothesis that broad dimensional constructs account for the majority of variance across putatively distinct disorders. As such, traumatic events may be associated with several disorders due to their relationship with these broad dimensions rather than any direct disorder-specific relationship. The current study used data from 8871 Australians to test this hypothesis. Two broad dimensions accounted for the majority of relationships between traumatic events and mental and substance use disorders. Direct relationships remained between post-traumatic stress disorder and six categories of traumatic events in the total population and between drug dependence and accidents/disasters for males only. These results have strong implications for how psychopathology is conceptualized and offer some evidence that traumatic events are associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing psychopathology in general. PMID:26874292

  7. Interpersonal difficulties as a risk factor for athletes' eating psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, V; Jowett, S; Meyer, C

    2014-04-01

    The present study sought to determine the predictive role of interpersonal difficulties on eating psychopathology among competitive British athletes (ranging from university to international competition level). A total of 122 athletes (36 males and 86 females) with a mean age of 21.22 years (SD = 4.02), completed a multisection questionnaire that measured eating psychopathology, attachment styles, and quality of relationships with parents, coaches and teammate over a 6-month period. Partial correlations revealed that when controlling for baseline eating psychopathology, only the quality of the relationship with coach and closest teammate were related to athletes' eating psychopathology 6 months later. Subsequent hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that athletes' eating psychopathology was only predicted by perceived levels of interpersonal conflict with the coach. The current findings provide evidence to suggest that conflict within the coach-athlete relationship is a potential risk factor for eating disorders among athletes and thus it would seem appropriate to raise awareness for its potentially toxic role in athletes' eating psychopathology. PMID:23992547

  8. General psychopathology in anorexia nervosa: the role of psychosocial factors.

    PubMed

    Karatzias, Thanos; Chouliara, Zoë; Power, Kevin; Collin, Paula; Yellowlees, Alex; Grierson, David

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate psychosocial correlates of comorbid psychopathology. Data were collected from a total of 90 female inpatients with anorexia nervosa (AN). Higher levels of general psychopathology were detected in depression, interpersonal sensitivity, obsessive-compulsive and anxiety subscales of the Symptom Checklist (SCL)-90. Regression analysis also revealed that higher levels of psychopathology across SCL-90 subscales in AN patients are significantly associated with an earlier age of onset of the condition, higher levels of anorectic psychopathology as measured by Eating Disorders Examination, lower self-esteem as measured by Multidimensional Self-Esteem Inventory and social support levels as measured by Quality of Social Network and Social Support Questionnaire. Considering the high levels of general psychopathology in people with AN, routine clinical practice should aim for a comprehensive assessment of such. Given the strong association between psychosocial factors such as self-esteem, social support and general psychopathology, psychological therapies could play an important role in facilitating emotional recovery. PMID:21110404

  9. Can Psychopathology at Age 7 Be Predicted from Clinical Observation at One Year? Evidence from the ALSPAC Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allely, C. S.; Doolin, O.; Gillberg, C.; Gillberg, I. C.; Puckering, C.; Smillie, M.; McConnachie, A.; Heron, J.; Golding, J.; Wilson, P.

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges of developmental psychopathology is to determine whether identifiable pathways to developmental disorders exist in the first months or years of life. Early identification of such disorders poses a similar challenge for clinical services. Using data from a large contemporary birth cohort, we examined whether psychopathology at…

  10. Creativity and Psychopathology: Sex Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martín-Brufau, Ramón; Corbalán, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The association between creativity and psychopathology has, for decades, been a focus of heated debate fuelled by contradictory findings. Nevertheless, the findings suggest complex associations between creativity and psychopathology. Other studies have investigated the association between creativity and sex, with inconsistent results. The aim of…

  11. Sexual Trauma, Spirituality, and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krejci, Mark J.; Thompson, Kevin M.; Simonich, Heather; Crosby, Ross D.; Donaldson, Mary Ann; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Mitchell, James E.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the association between spirituality and psychopathology in a group of sexual abuse victims and controls with a focus on whether spirituality moderated the association between sexual trauma and psychopathology. Seventy-one sexual trauma victims were compared to 25 control subjects on spiritual well-being, the Eating Disorder…

  12. The Relationship between Psychopathic Traits Measured by the Youth Psychopathic Trait Inventory and Psychopathology in a UK Sample of Conduct Disordered Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Mairead C.; Rennie, Charlotte E.

    2007-01-01

    The Youth Psychopathy traits Inventory (YPI) is a newly developed self-report measure of psychopathy. There are no studies looking at the validity of this measure in UK samples. We assessed 115 male adolescents (mean age 16.22 years) with DSM-IV conduct disorder on a range of measures including the YPI, Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and the…

  13. Is Pubertal Timing Associated with Psychopathology in Young Adulthood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Julia A.; Seeley, John R.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This investigation tested whether the timing of puberty continued to be associated with experiences of psychopathology (symptoms and disorders) from mid-adolescence into young adulthood. Method: At age 24, 931 participants from a large community sample, who had been interviewed twice during adolescence, completed a telephone interview…

  14. Scaling Methods to Measure Psychopathology in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Belva, Brian C.; Hattier, Megan A.; Matson, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Psychopathology prior to the last four decades was generally viewed as a set of problems and disorders that did not occur in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). That notion now seems very antiquated. In no small part, a revolutionary development of scales worldwide has occurred for the assessment of emotional problems in persons with ID.…

  15. The New Therapies and Psychopathology: The Behavioral Viewpoint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, P. E.

    Behavior therapists view psychopathology differently from dynamically oriented therapists, in that behaviorists are taught to regard symptoms primarily as sets of learned behaviors rather than cues to underlying psychological disorders. Even though there is a split among behaviorists as to which procedure is best to follow, there are some special…

  16. Diagnostic Specificity and Nonspecificity in the Dimensions of Preschool Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterba, Sonya; Egger, Helen L.; Angold, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    Background: The appropriateness of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition" (DSM-IV) nosology for classifying preschool mental health disturbances continues to be debated. To inform this debate, we investigate whether preschool psychopathology shows differentiation along diagnostically specific lines when DSM-IV…

  17. Continuities and Discontinuities in Psychopathology between Childhood and Adult Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael; Kim-Cohen, Julia; Maughan, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The possible mechanisms involved in continuities and discontinuities in psychopathology between childhood and adult life are considered in relation to the findings from systematic, prospective, long-term longitudinal studies. Findings on schizophrenia, neurodevelopmental disorders, emotional disturbances, antisocial behaviour and substance abuse…

  18. Children's Perceptions of Parental Emotional Neglect and Control and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Robert; Lennie, Susan; Minnis, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Background: Parental emotional neglect is linked to psychiatric disorder. This study explores the associations between children's perceptions of parental emotional neglect and future psychopathology. Methods: In a school-based longitudinal study of nearly 1,700 children aged 11-15 we explored children's perceptions of parenting, as measured by the…

  19. Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Common Psychopathologies of Childhood and Adolescence: A Study of Twins and Their Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehringer, Marissa A.; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Young, Susan; Corley, Robin; Hewitt, John K.

    2006-01-01

    We report findings based on analyses of self-reports of six common adolescent psychopathologies (attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD; conduct disorder, CD; oppositional defiant disorder, ODD; generalized anxiety disorder, GAD; separation anxiety disorder, SAD; and major depressive disorder, MDD) in a sample of 1,162 male and female…

  20. The Effects of Parental Mood on Reports of Their Children's Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Maoz, Hagai; Goldstein, Tina; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Axelson, David A.; Fan, Jieyu; Hickey, Mary Beth; Monk, Kelly; Sakolsky, Dara; Diler, Rasim S.; Brent, David; Kupfer, David J.; Birmaher, Boris

    2014-01-01

    Objective In this study, we aim to assess whether current mood state (depressed or manic/hypomanic) among parents with a mood disorder affects their reports of their offspring's psychopathology. Method Sixty-five parents with current depression, 42 with current mania/hypomania, 181 with mood disorder in remission, and their offspring (n=479, ages 6-18) completed assessments of offspring IP psychopathology as part of the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (BIOS). We compared rates of offspring psychopathology assessed using the following: a clinician-administered semi-structured interview with parent and child using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children (K-SADS); parent-reported Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL); offspring self-reported Youth Self Reports (YSR) for those 11 years and older (n=250); and teachers’ reports when available (n= 209). Results There were no between-group differences in rates of psychopathology yielded from the K-SADS, except for more depressive disorders in offspring of parents with current mania/hypomania compared to offspring of parents in remission. Conversely, using the CBCL and comparing with parents who were in remission, parents with current depression reported significantly more externalizing psychopathology in offspring, whereas parents with current mania/hypomania reported more externalizing and internalizing psychopathology in their offspring. On the YSR, offspring of parents with current mania/hypomania had more internalizing psychopathology compared to offspring of parents in remission. Teacher's reports showed no between-group differences in rates of any psychopathology. Conclusion Parental active mood symptomatology, especially during a manic/hypomanic episode, significantly affects their reports of their offspring's psychopathology. Trained interviewers reduce potential report bias. Clinicians and studies assessing children's psychopathology should take into account parental current

  1. Phenomenology and psychopathology of excessive indoor tanning.

    PubMed

    Petit, Aymeric; Karila, Laurent; Chalmin, Florence; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2014-06-01

    Excessive indoor tanning, defined by the presence of an impulse towards and repetition of tanning that leads to personal distress, has only recently been recognized as a psychiatric disorder. This finding is based on the observations of many dermatologists who report the presence of addictive relationships with tanning salons among their patients despite being given diagnoses of malignant melanoma. This article synthesizes the existing literature on excessive indoor tanning and addiction to investigate possible associations. This review focuses on the prevalence, clinical features, etiology, and treatment of this disorder. A literature review was conducted, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE and PsycINFO, to identify articles published in English from 1974 to 2013. Excessive indoor tanning may be related to addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, impulse control disorder, seasonal affective disorder, anorexia, body dysmorphic disorder, or depression. Excessive indoor tanning can be included in the spectrum of addictive behavior because it has clinical characteristics in common with those of classic addictive disorders. It is frequently associated with anxiety, eating disorders, and tobacco dependence. Further controlled studies are required, especially in clinical psychopathology and neurobiology, to improve our understanding of excessive indoor tanning. PMID:24601904

  2. Psychopathology of social isolation

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Sang-Bin

    2014-01-01

    The most important defining factor of being human is the use of symbolic language. Language or communication problem occurs during the growth, the child will have a higher risk of social isolation and then the survival will be threatened constantly. Today, adolescents and youths are familiar with computer and smart-phone devices, and communication with others by these devices is easy than face-to-face communication. As adolescents and youths live in the comfortable and familiar cyber-world rather than actively participating real society, so they make social isolation. Extreme form of this isolation in adolescents and youths is so-called Socially Withdrawn Youth. In this study, the psychopathological factors inducing social isolation were discussed. Development stages of social isolation in relation with types of social isolation, Ego-syntonic isolation and Ego-dystonic isolation, were also considered. PMID:25061592

  3. Parent and Child Agreement for Acute Stress Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Other Psychopathology in a Prospective Study of Children and Adolescents Exposed to Single-Event Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Smith, Patrick; Glucksman, Edward; Yule, William; Dalgleish, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Examining parent-child agreement for Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in children and adolescents is essential for informing the assessment of trauma-exposed children, yet no studies have examined this relationship using appropriate statistical techniques. Parent-child agreement for these disorders was examined…

  4. Natural Products as Anti-HIV Agents and Role in HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND): A Brief Overview

    PubMed Central

    Kurapati, Kesava Rao V.; Atluri, Venkata S.; Samikkannu, Thangavel; Garcia, Gabriella; Nair, Madhavan P. N.

    2016-01-01

    As the threat of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) persists to rise, effective drug treatments are required to treat the infected people. Even though combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) provides stable viral suppression, it is not devoid of undesirable side effects, especially in persons undergoing long-term treatment. The present therapy finds its limitations in the emergence of multidrug resistance and accordingly finding new drugs and novel targets is the need of the hour to treat the infected persons and further to attack HIV reservoirs in the body like brain, lymph nodes to achieve the ultimate goal of complete eradication of HIV and AIDS. Natural products such as plant-originated compounds and plant extracts have enormous potential to become drug leads with anti-HIV and neuroprotective activity. Accordingly, many research groups are exploring the biodiversity of the plant kingdom to find new and better anti-HIV drugs with novel mechanisms of action and for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The basic challenge that still persists is to develop viral replication-targeted therapy using novel anti-HIV compounds with new mode of action, accepted toxicity and less resistance profile. Against this backdrop, the World Health Organization (WHO) suggested the need to evaluate ethno-medicines for the management of HIV/AIDS. Consequently, there is need to evaluate traditional medicine, particularly medicinal plants and other natural products that may yield effective and affordable therapeutic agents. Although there are a good number of reports on traditional uses of plants to treat various diseases, knowledge of herbal remedies used to manage HIV/AIDS and HAND are scanty, vague and not well documented. In this review, plant substances showing a promising action that is anti-HIV and HAND will be explored along with what they interact. Since some plant substances are also known to modulate several cellular

  5. Event-Related Potentials and Emotion Processing in Child Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Chronaki, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in the neural mechanisms underlying altered emotional processes in children and adolescents with psychopathology. This review provides a brief overview of the most up-to-date findings in the field of event-related potentials (ERPs) to facial and vocal emotional expressions in the most common child psychopathological conditions. In regards to externalizing behavior (i.e., ADHD, CD), ERP studies show enhanced early components to anger, reflecting enhanced sensory processing, followed by reductions in later components to anger, reflecting reduced cognitive-evaluative processing. In regards to internalizing behavior, research supports models of increased processing of threat stimuli especially at later more elaborate and effortful stages. Finally, in autism spectrum disorders abnormalities have been observed at early visual-perceptual stages of processing. An affective neuroscience framework for understanding child psychopathology can be valuable in elucidating underlying mechanisms and inform preventive intervention. PMID:27199803

  6. Event-Related Potentials and Emotion Processing in Child Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Chronaki, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in the neural mechanisms underlying altered emotional processes in children and adolescents with psychopathology. This review provides a brief overview of the most up-to-date findings in the field of event-related potentials (ERPs) to facial and vocal emotional expressions in the most common child psychopathological conditions. In regards to externalizing behavior (i.e., ADHD, CD), ERP studies show enhanced early components to anger, reflecting enhanced sensory processing, followed by reductions in later components to anger, reflecting reduced cognitive-evaluative processing. In regards to internalizing behavior, research supports models of increased processing of threat stimuli especially at later more elaborate and effortful stages. Finally, in autism spectrum disorders abnormalities have been observed at early visual-perceptual stages of processing. An affective neuroscience framework for understanding child psychopathology can be valuable in elucidating underlying mechanisms and inform preventive intervention. PMID:27199803

  7. Obesity, psychopathology and eating attitudes: are they related?

    PubMed

    Riva, G; Ragazzoni, P; Molinari, E

    1998-06-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the link between psychopathological disorders and eating attitude in a clinical sample of 195 female obese subjects. A battery of psychological tests, including the Italian versions of the MMPI2, ASQ and EAT scales were administered to all the patients. We analyzed the link between psychopathological traits and eating attitudes by using both Multiple Regression analysis and non-parametric Segmentation Modeling. The results showed that psychopathological aspects, and depression in particular, are strongly linked to the eating attitude of clinically obese subjects. This is an important result also for therapeutic purposes, as it highlights the need for psychological support in diet therapy to intervene on the psychological perceptions and experiences of the patient. PMID:10728154

  8. Effects of value strains on psychopathology of Chinese rural youths.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Sibo

    2013-12-01

    The Strain Theory of Suicide postulates that psychological strains usually precede mental disorders including suicidal behavior. This paper focuses on the effect of conflicting social value strains on the individual's psychopathology. We analyzed the data of 2031 respondents who were proxy informants for suicides and community living controls in a large scale psychological autopsy study in rural China, with the CES-D depression measure for the psychopathology. Individuals having experienced value conflicts between Confucian gender role and gender equalitarianism in modern society scored on depression significantly higher than the individuals who do not experience the value conflict, and it is also true when several other relevant variables were held constant in the multiple regression model. This study supports the hypotheses that people who confront value conflicts are likely to experience psychopathological strain, and the higher the level of strain, the stronger the depression. PMID:24309863

  9. Effects of Value Strains on Psychopathology of Chinese Rural Youths

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Sibo

    2013-01-01

    The Strain Theory of Suicide postulates that psychological strains usually precede mental disorders including suicidal behavior. This paper focuses on the effect of conflicting social value strains on the individual’s psychopathology. We analyzed the data of 2,031 respondents who were proxy informants for suicides and community living controls in a large scale psychological autopsy study in rural China, with the CES-D depression measure for the psychopathology. Individuals having experienced value conflicts between Confucian gender role and gender equalitarianism in modern society scored on depression significantly higher than the individuals who do not experience the value conflict, and it is also true when several other relevant variables were held constant in the multiple regression model. This study supports the hypotheses that people who confront value conflicts is likely to lead to psychopathological strain, and the higher the level of strain, the stronger the depression. PMID:24309863

  10. A Modest Proposal for Another Phenomenological Approach to Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Paul E.

    2007-01-01

    In 1912, Karl Jaspers published an article entitled “The Phenomenological Approach to Psychopathology.” This and his subsequent text, General Psychopathology, was to exert a profound influence on the development of psychiatry in general and psychiatric nosology in particular. The current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and International Classification of Diseases both reflect, at least in part, that legacy. This article will argue that the descriptive psychopathology of Jaspers has been gradually transformed into a caricature which has substituted authority for enquiry and simplification for subtlety. We have been left with classificatory systems which impose reified categories increasingly at variance with clinical reality and increasingly divorced from the data generated by scientific enquiry. Returning to the phenomenological method, despite its contradictions, may open the way to clinical and research approaches which free us from the current straightjacket of orthodoxy which is impending our progress. PMID:17023563

  11. Motor imagery is less efficient in adults with probable developmental coordination disorder: evidence from the hand rotation task.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Christian; Fuelscher, Ian; Buckthought, Karen; Enticott, Peter G; Gitay, Maria A; Williams, Jacqueline

    2014-11-01

    The present study aimed to provide preliminary insight into the integrity of motor imagery (MI) in adults with probable developmental coordination disorder (pDCD). Based on a strong body of evidence indicating that paediatric samples of DCD often experience difficulties engaging MI, we hypothesised that young adults with pDCD would demonstrate similar difficulties. The performance of 12 young adults (19-35 years) with pDCD was compared to 47 age-matched controls on a traditional mental hand rotation task. Mean inverse efficiency scores were generated for each participant by dividing each participant's mean RT by their proportion of correct responses at each of the stimuli presentation conditions. Preliminary analysis revealed that the performance profiles of individuals with pDCD and age-matched controls showed evidence of being constrained by the biomechanical and postural constraints of real movement, suggesting that both groups engaged in an embodied (MI) strategy to complete the task. Despite engaging in a MI strategy, however, young adults with pDCD were nonetheless significantly less efficient when doing so, shown by significant main effects for group on all group efficiency comparisons. Based on the assumption that MI provides insight into the internal 'neural' action representation that precedes action, we argue that the less efficient MI performance demonstrated by young adults with pDCD may indicate inefficiencies engaging or implementing internal action representations. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25134075

  12. A systematic review of diagnostic performance of quantitative tests to assess musculoskeletal disorders in hand-arm vibration syndrome

    PubMed Central

    MAHBUB, MH; KUROZAWA, Youichi; ISHITAKE, Tatsuya; KUME, Yukinori; MIYASHITA, Kazuhisa; SAKAKIBARA, Hisataka; SATO, Shuji; TOIBANA, Norikuni; HARADA, Noriaki

    2015-01-01

    The purpose was to systematically review the published reports for the clinical utility of quantitative objective tests commonly used for diagnosing musculoskeletal disorders in hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). Two reviewers independently conducted a computerized literature search in PubMed and Scopus using predefined criteria, and relevant papers were identified. The articles were screened in several stages and considered for final inclusion. Quality of the selected papers was evaluated by a modified QUADAS tool. Relevant data were extracted as necessary. For this review, only 4 relevant studies could be identified for detailed examination. Grip strength, pinch strength, and Purdue pegboard tests were commonly used with their reported sensitivity and specificity ranging between 1.7 to 65.7% and 65.2 to 100%, 1.7 to 40% and 94 to 100%, and 44.8 to 85% and 78 to 95%, respectively. A considerable difference across the studies was observed with respect to patient and control populations, diagnostic performance and cut-off values of different tests. Overall, currently available English-language limited literature do not provide enough evidence in favour of the application of grip strength and pinch strength tests for diagnosing musculoskeletal injuries in HAVS; Purdue pegboard test seems to have some diagnostic value in evaluating impaired dexterity in HAVS. PMID:26051288

  13. Psychopathology and Parenting Practices of Parents of Preschool Children with Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Elizabeth; Stoessel, Brian; Herbert, Sharonne

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective This study investigated associations among different types of parental psychopathology and several specific parenting practices. Design Mothers (n = 182) and fathers (n = 126) of preschool-aged children with behavior problems completed questionnaires assessing parental psychopathology and parenting practices, and participated in observed parent-child interactions. Results Maternal depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and several different personality disorder traits were related to maternal negativity, laxness, and lack of warmth. Paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, and borderline personality disorder symptoms predicted mothers’ parenting practices, even when statistically controlling for other types of psychopathology. For fathers, those same symptoms, dependent and avoidant symptoms, and substance abuse symptoms were associated with self-reported lax parenting. Evidence emerged that psychopathology in one parent was associated with less overreactivity in the other parent. Conclusions Many aspects of parents’ psychological functioning play a role in determining specific parenting practices, including personality disorder symptoms. PMID:22737040

  14. “I Feel Contaminated in My Fake Hand”: Obsessive-Compulsive-Disorder like Disgust Sensations Arise from Dummy during Rubber Hand Illusion

    PubMed Central

    Jalal, Baland; Krishnakumar, Divya; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S.

    2015-01-01

    Despite its theoretical and clinical interest, there are no experimental studies exploring obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)-like disgust sensations through using somatosensory illusions. Such illusions provide important clues to the nature and limits of multisensory integration and how the brain constructs body image; and may potentially inform novel therapies. One such effect is the rubber hand illusion (RHI) in which tactile sensations are referred to a rubber hand; if the experimenter simultaneously strokes a subject’s occluded hand together with a visible fake hand, the subject starts experiencing the touch sensations as arising from the dummy. In this study, we explore whether OCD-like disgust may result from contamination of a dummy hand during the RHI; suggesting a possible integration of somatosensory and limbic inputs in the construction of body image. We predicted that participants would experience sensations of disgust, when placing a disgust stimulus (fake feces, vomit or blood) on the dummy hand after establishing the RHI. We found that 9 out of 11 participants experienced greater disgust during the synchronous condition (real hidden hand and fake hand are stroked in synchrony) compared to the asynchronous control condition (real hidden hand and fake hand are stroked in asynchrony); and on average such disgust was significantly greater during the synchronous condition compared to the asynchronous control condition, Z = 2.7, p = .008. These results argue against a strictly hierarchical modular approach to brain function and suggest that a four-way multisensory interaction occurs between vision, touch, proprioception on the one hand and primal emotions like disgust on the other. These findings may inform novel clinical approaches for OCD; that is, contaminating a dummy during the RHI could possibly be used as part of an in-vivo exposure-intervention for OCD. PMID:26642323

  15. [Psychopathological heterogeneity in opium drug addicts].

    PubMed

    Pani, P P; Carta, M; Rudas, N

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the presence and nature of psychiatric disorders in opium drug addicts. One hundred and six subjects receiving treatment at the CMAS in Cagliari were included in the study. Hathawai and McKinley's MMPI test was preventively carried out on all subjects; each drug addict was then interviewed three times in the space of three weeks in order to formulate a diagnosis in line with DSM III R criteria. The results obtained show a high incidence of psychopathological disorders which are not included among those caused by drug abuse, and a high degree of diagnostic heterogeneity on both axis I and axis II. The comparative assessment of three subsamples undergoing different phases of treatment reveals both qualitative and quantitative differences. PMID:1749353

  16. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) CD8+ T-Cells That Express Interferon-Gamma Contribute to HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND)

    PubMed Central

    Schrier, Rachel D.; Hong, Suzi; Crescini, Melanie; Ellis, Ronald; Pérez-Santiago, Josué; Spina, Celsa; Letendre, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) continue to affect cognition and everyday functioning despite anti-retroviral treatment (ART). Previous studies focused on mechanisms related to monocyte/macrophage mediated inflammation. However, in the ART era, there is increasing evidence for the involvement of CD8+ T-cells in CNS pathogenesis. Methods To investigate the relationship between T-cell responses and neurocognitive impairment (NCI), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell intracellular cytokine (IFNγ, IL-2, TNFα) and lytic marker (CD107a) expression were assessed in HIV infected subjects who underwent comprehensive neurocognitive (NC) evaluation and either initiated or changed ART. Results Data were collected from 31 participants at 70 visits. The frequency of cytokine expressing T-cells in CSF was significantly higher than in peripheral blood for CD4+T-cells: TNFα, IL-2, IFNγ and CD8+T-cells: IL-2 and IFNγ. Analysis of T-cell activity and NCI as a function of CSF HIV RNA levels suggested a general association between NCI, high CSF CD8+ (but not CD4+T-cell) cytokine expression and CSF HIV RNA <103 copies/ml (p<0.0001). Specifically, CSF CD8+ T-cell IFNγ expression correlated with severity of NCI (r = 0.57, p = 0.004). Multivariable analyses indicated that CSF CD8+T-cell IFNγ and myeloid activation (CD163) contributed equally and independently to cognitive status and a composite variable produced the strongest correlation with NCI (r = 0.83, p = 0.0001). In contrast, CD8+ cytolytic activity (CD107a expression) was negatively correlated with NCI (p = 0.05) but was dependent on CD4 levels >400/μl and low CSF HIV RNA levels (<103 copies/ml). In our longitudinal analysis of 16 subjects, higher CSF CD8+IFNγ expression at baseline predicted NC decline at follow-up (p = 0.02). Severity of NCI at follow-up correlated with level of residual HIV RNA in CSF. Conclusions Presence of IFNγ expressing CD8+ T

  17. Prevalence and correlates of asthma in children with internalizing psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Meuret, Alicia E; Ehrenreich, Jill T; Pincus, Donna B; Ritz, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the prevalence rate of parent-reported asthma in children with internalizing disorders seeking psychological treatment, and to study the level of internalizing and externalizing problems in these patients compared to patients without asthma. Participants were 367 children (ages 5-18 years) with internalizing disorders seeking psychological treatment. Children's psychiatric diagnosis was established with the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV-Child and Parent versions. Parents reported on their child's asthma diagnosis, medical history, and medication usage. Child psychopathology was assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist and by child self-report with the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children and the Children's Depression Inventory. We assessed internalizing psychopathology of the mothers with the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale. An additional diagnosis of parent-reported asthma was established for 15% of the children diagnosed with an Axis I internalizing disorder, a prevalence rate markedly higher than reported for current parent-reported childhood asthma in the U.S. population. Patients with asthma showed higher levels of internalizing problems than their nonasthmatic counterparts. Internalizing psychopathology was not higher for mothers of patients with asthma. Asthma is a significant problem within the population of patients with childhood internalizing disorders. It can be accompanied by a greater severity of internalizing problems and may require specific precautions in the treatment protocol. Though parent report of asthma diagnosis is commonly used in surveys of childhood asthma, our findings have to be viewed in the light of its limitations. PMID:16841339

  18. Is Psychopathology the Key to Understanding Why Some Children Become Aggressive When They Are Exposed to Violent Television Programming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Tom; Bergen, Lori; Nichols, Kathie; Vernberg, Eric; Fonagy, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Children with diagnosed psychopathologies may experience aggravation of those illnesses with their exposure to media violence. Children with the most common, often undiagnosed, form of psychopathology--Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs)--manifested changes in heart rate, heart vagal heart tone and other psychophysiological reactions to media…

  19. Risk factors for the development of psychopathology following trauma.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Sehrish; Iacoviello, Brian M; Charney, Dennis S

    2015-08-01

    Traumatic experiences can lead to a range of mental health problems with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) leading as the most documented disorder following trauma. Epidemiological research has found the rate of exposure to trauma to far outweigh the prevalence of PTSD. Indicating that most people do not develop PTSD following a traumatic event, this phenomenon has led to an interest in evaluating risk factors to determine who develops PTSD. Risk factors for the development of psychopathology following trauma exposure fall into three categories: pre-trauma, peri-trauma and post-trauma factors. Pre-trauma factors can include age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, prior psychopathology, and neurobiological factors. Peri-trauma factors can include the duration/severity of trauma experience and the perception that the trauma has ended. Post-trauma factors can include access to needed resources, social support, specific cognitive patterns, and physical activity. To date, several important risk factors have been found to impact the risk of developing PTSD including gender, age, education, IQ, race and ethnicity, sexual orientation, pre-trauma psychopathology, prior trauma exposure, familial psychiatric history, and neurobiological factors. This article outlines the state of research findings on pretraumatic, peritraumatic, and posttraumatic risk factors for the development of PTSD and associated psychopathology following trauma. PMID:26206108

  20. Psychopathology among homicidally bereaved individuals: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    van Denderen, Mariëtte; de Keijser, Jos; Kleen, Marco; Boelen, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    In the literature on bereavement, claims are made that homicidal loss is associated with posttraumatic stress reactions, depression, and other severe mental health problems. It is surprising that only a few studies have investigated the nature and prevalence of emotional symptoms following homicidal bereavement and a reference to systematic, empirical research is seldom provided. This article reviews the available literature to investigate whether these claims have empirical evidence. Three databases were searched to identify relevant studies. This approach was supplemented with a bibliography search. Eligible studies included English-language peer-reviewed articles that assessed psychopathology in the homicidally bereaved, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Of the 360 potentially relevant articles, 8 studies (13 references) met predefined inclusion criteria. Homicide-related psychopathology among the bereaved assessed in these studies includes posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, complicated grief, and substance abuse. Prevalence of lifetime homicide-related PTSD varied from 19.1% to 71% across studies. Current PTSD varied between 5.2% and 6%. The reviewed literature was inconclusive regarding the course of symptoms over time and the severity of psychopathology among the homicidally bereaved, compared to individuals bereaved by other causes of death. A comparison of the nature and prevalence of psychopathology between studies was complicated by unequal sample sizes and type, recruitment strategy, study design, and time since loss. Limitations of the included studies are discussed, as well as implications for clinical practice, policy, and future research. PMID:24346707

  1. Mutation/SNP analysis in EF-hand calcium binding domain of mitochondrial Ca[Formula: see text] uptake 1 gene in bipolar disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Safari, Roghaiyeh; Salimi, Reza; Tunca, Zeliha; Ozerdem, Aysegul; Ceylan, Deniz; Sakizli, Meral

    2016-06-01

    Calcium signaling is important for synaptic plasticity, generation of brain rhythms, regulating neuronal excitability, data processing and cognition. Impairment in calcium homeostasis contributed to the development of psychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorder (BP). MCU is the most important calcium transporter in mitochondria inner membrane responsible for influx of Ca[Formula: see text]. MICU1 is linked with MCU and has two canonical EF hands that are vital for its activity and regulates MCU-mediated Ca[Formula: see text] influx. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the role of genetic alteration of EF hand calcium binding motifs of MICU1 on the development of BP. We examined patients with BP, first degree relatives of these patients and healthy volunteers for mutations and polymorphisms in EF hand calcium binding motifs of MICU1. The result showed no SNP/mutation in BP patients, in healthy subjects and in first degree relatives. Additionally, alignment of the EF hand calcium binding regions among species (Gallus-gallus, Canis-lupus-familiaris, Bos-taurus, Mus-musculus, Rattus-norvegicus, Pan-troglodytes, Homosapiens and Danio-rerio) showed exactly the same amino acids (DLNGDGEVDMEE and DCDGNGELSNKE) except in one of the calcium binding domain of Danio-rerio that there was only one difference; leucine instead of Methionine. Our results showed that the SNP on EF-hand Ca[Formula: see text] binding domains of MICU1 gene had no effect in phenotypic characters of BP patients. PMID:27297032

  2. Psychopathological dimensions in childhood and adolescent psychoses: a confirmatory factor analytical study.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Anupam; Jagadheesan, K; Sinha, Vinod K

    2003-01-01

    The present study explored psychopathological dimensions in psychoses of children and adolescents and the distribution of demographic and clinical variables across different psychopathological domains. This study included 101 consecutive patients aged 6-18 years who had a DSM-IV psychotic disorder (schizophrenia and related disorders or mood disorders). Exclusion criteria included presence of organicity, substance use disorders, and any other childhood disorder. Psychopathology was assessed with Scales for Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms. Analysis revealed a four-factor model comprising primary negative, secondary negative, manic and paranoid factors. Patients were regrouped into one of the four factors based on their symptomatology. Patients in these four groups differed in education and age of onset and duration of illness. This study confirmed the existence of a factor structure in psychoses of children and adolescents. PMID:14504452

  3. Psychopathology and Urine Toxicology in Methadone Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sadek, Gamal; Cernovsky, Zack; Chiu, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Several studies reported high rates of psychiatric commorbidity among methadone patients. We examined the relationships of measures of psychopathology to outcomes of screening urine tests for cocaine, opiates, and benzodiazepines in a sample of 56 methadone patients. They also completed the Symptom Check List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). The highest scales in the SCL-90-R profile of our patients were those indicating somatic discomfort, anger, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and also obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms (scores above the 39th percentile). The only significant correlations between urine tests and SCL-90-R psychopathology were those involving benzodiazepines: patients with urine tests positive for benzodiazepines had lower social self-confidence (r=0.48), were more obsessive-compulsive (r=0.44), reported a higher level of anger (r=0.41), of phobic tendencies (r=40), of anxiety (r=0.39), and of paranoid tendencies (r=0.38), and also reported more frequent psychotic symptoms (r=0.43). PMID:26266026

  4. Developmental psychopathology: a paradigm shift or just a relabeling?

    PubMed

    Rutter, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Developmental psychopathology is described as a conceptual approach that involves a set of research methods that capitalize on developmental and psychopathological variations to ask questions about mechanisms and processes. Achievements are described in relation to attachment and attachment disorders, autism, schizophrenia, childhood antecedents of adult psychopathology, testing for environmental mediation of risk effects, gene-environment interplay, intellectual and language functioning, effects of mentally ill parents on the children, stress and vulnerability to depression, ethnicity and schizophrenia, and drug response. Continuities and discontinuities over the course of development are discussed in relation to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, antisocial behavior, eating disorders, substance abuse and dependency, pharmacological and behavioral addictions, and a range of other disorders. Research challenges are considered in relation to spectrum concepts, the adolescent development of a female preponderance for depression, the mechanisms involved in age differences in response to drugs and to lateralized brain injury, the processing of experiences, the biological embedding of experiences, individual differences in response to environmental hazards, nature-nurture integration, and brain plasticity. PMID:24342835

  5. [Psychopathology and differential typology of depressive anxiety].

    PubMed

    Kick, H

    1997-01-01

    From the point of view of a clinical integrative approach, psychopathological and typological clarification of the forms of anxiety that occur during major depression is undertaken. First, we examine "pure restriction", expressed by anxiety accompanied by a feeling of lack of feeling. Secondly, we distinguish this from a continuous or attack-like anxiety occuring within a socalled "destabilized restriction" (Janzarik). Finally, anxiety can be an expression of "forced restriction" characterized by developing tension between repression of feelings and emotions on the one hand and overloading of judgmental thought patterns on the other. We describe the appropriate structural and dynamic presuppositions of depressive anxiety syndromes and present a practical guideline for clinical therapy in its functional and personal aspects, developed as a result of our approach. PMID:9132620

  6. Ambulatory assessment in panic disorder and specific phobia.

    PubMed

    Alpers, Georg W

    2009-12-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent mental disorders. In panic disorder, panic attacks often occur at unpredictable times, making it difficult to study these episodes in the laboratory. In specific phobias, symptoms occur in very circumscribed situations and specific triggers are sometimes difficult to reproduce in the laboratory. Ambulatory assessment, or ecological momentary assessment, can further the understanding of the natural course and scope of symptoms under ecologically valid circumstances. Because bodily symptoms are integral to the diagnosis of anxiety disorders, the objective assessment of physiological responses in the patients' natural environment is particularly important. On the one hand, research has highlighted intriguing discrepancies between the experience of symptoms and physiology during panic attacks. On the other hand, it has validated symptom reporting during therapeutic exposure to phobic situations. Therefore, ambulatory assessment can yield useful information about the psychopathology of anxiety disorders, and it can be used to monitor change during clinical interventions. PMID:19947782

  7. Hand Dominance and Common Hand Conditions.

    PubMed

    Lutsky, Kevin; Kim, Nayoung; Medina, Juana; Maltenfort, Mitchell; Beredjiklian, Pedro K

    2016-05-01

    The goals of this study were to (1) assess how frequently patients present for evaluation of common hand disorders in relation to hand dominance and (2) evaluate the effect of hand dominance on function in patients with these conditions. The authors hypothesized that (1) the majority of patients who seek evaluation would have a condition that affects the dominant hand, and (2) disability scores would be worse if the dominant hand is involved. They retrospectively reviewed the records of consecutive patients who presented for treatment to their institution with unilateral symptoms of 5 common disorders of the hand: carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), de Quervain's tenosynovitis (DEQ), lateral epicondylitis (LE), hand osteoarthritis (OA), and trigger finger (TF). The authors assessed the effect of diagnosis and hand dominance on Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) scores. The study group comprised 1029 patients (379 men and 650 women) with a mean age of 59.5 years. Ninety percent were right-hand dominant. The dominant and nondominant hands were affected with relatively equal frequency for CTS, DEQ, OA, and TF (range, 45%-53%). Patients with LE had a significantly higher incidence of dominant hand involvement. Men had lower DASH scores than women by an average of 7.9 points, and DASH scores were significantly but slightly higher for the overall group (3.2 points) when the dominant side was affected. Men with LE and women with TF and OA had significantly higher DASH scores when their dominant extremity was affected. Common hand disorders such as CTS, DEQ, OA, and TF affect the dominant and nondominant hands in roughly equivalent proportions, whereas LE is more common on the dominant side. Dominant hand involvement results in significantly worse DASH scores, although the magnitude of this is relatively small. Women have significantly higher DASH scores than men for the conditions evaluated. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e444-e448.]. PMID:27018604

  8. Child Psychopathology, Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mash, Eric J.; Barkley, Russell A.

    This text integrates state-of-the-art theory and empirical research on a wide range of child and adolescent disorders. Featuring contributions from leading scholars and clinicians, the volume provides comprehensive coverage of the biological, psychological, and social-contextual determinants of childhood problems. Each chapter focuses on a…

  9. Multidimensional assessment of neuroendocrine and psychopathological profiles in maltreated youth.

    PubMed

    Puetz, Vanessa B; Zweerings, Jana; Dahmen, Brigitte; Ruf, Caroline; Scharke, Wolfgang; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin

    2016-09-01

    It has been debated whether children who have experienced early life stress (ELS), such as early caregiver separation show elevated risk for stress-related psychiatric disorders and a multi-symptom psychopathological profile that is not fully reflected in categorical assessments. In this study, we investigated dimensional measures of stress-related psychopathology in children in permanent out-of-home care, taking into account potential neuroendocrine interactions. In the current study, 25 children who had been placed in permanent out-of-home care before age 3 (years) and 26 controls (aged 10.6 ± 1.75 years) were investigated with categorical (DSM-IV) and dimensional assessments (CBCL) of psychopathology and diurnal salivary cortisol levels were assessed. Semi-structured interviews (K-DIPS) revealed no significant group differences in full-scale psychiatric diagnoses, whereas dimensional assessment (CBCL) revealed significant group differences in externalizing and total problem behaviours within the clinical range for children with ELS. Only children with ELS showed a combined symptom profile of clinical-range internalizing and externalizing problems. Lower morning cortisol values and subsequent flatter decline was found in subjects with ELS children compared to controls, showing group differences in diurnal cortisol secretion. Lower morning cortisol values were associated with more problem behaviour in the ELS group. Results show that ELS children exhibited increased psychopathological symptom severity and complexity associated with lower morning cortisol levels, which was not fully reflected in categorical assessments. This highlights the importance of incorporating dimensional assessments and neurobiological factors into psychopathological evaluations of children in out-of-home care in order to facilitate early identification of children at high risk for stress-related disorders. PMID:26875183

  10. Positive attributes in children and reduced risk of future psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Vidal-Ribas, Pablo; Goodman, Robert; Stringaris, Argyris

    2015-01-01

    Background There is little research on children’s positive attributes and their association with psychiatric outcomes. Aims To examine the hypothesis that children’s positive attributes are associated with a reduced risk of developing psychopathology in future. Method Positive attributes, measured with the Youth Strengths Inventory (YSI) and psychiatric outcomes were assessed on two occasions over 3 years in a large epidemiological sample of British children and adolescents (n = 5325). Results The YSI showed high to moderate cross-informant correlations and longitudinal stability. Children scoring high on positive attributes at baseline had fewer psychiatric symptoms and disorders at follow-up, adjusting for symptoms at baseline, disorder at baseline and child and family factors. Analyses with propensity score matching also suggested that positive attributes decrease the likelihood of psychiatric morbidity. Conclusions Children’s positive attributes are associated with significantly less psychopathology across time and may be a target for intervention. PMID:25359925

  11. Do dimensional psychopathology measures relate to creative achievement or divergent thinking?

    PubMed Central

    Zabelina, Darya L.; Condon, David; Beeman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Previous research provides disparate accounts of the putative association between creativity and psychopathology, including schizotypy, psychoticism, hypomania, bipolar disorder, ADHD, and autism spectrum disorders. To examine these association, healthy, non-clinical participants completed several psychopathology-spectrum measures, often postulated to associate with creativity: the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, the Psychoticism scale, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5, the Hypomanic Personality Scale, the Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient. The goal of Study 1 was to evaluate the factor structure of these dimensional psychopathology measures and, in particular, to evaluate the case for a strong general factor(s). None of the factor solutions between 1 and 10 factors provided a strong fit with the data based on the most commonly used metrics. The goal of Study 2 was to determine whether these psychopathology scales predict, independently, two measures of creativity: 1. a measure of participants' real-world creative achievements, and 2. divergent thinking, a laboratory measure of creative cognition. After controlling for academic achievement, psychoticism and hypomania reliably predicted real-world creative achievement and divergent thinking scored with the consensual assessment technique. None of the psychopathology-spectrum scales reliably predicted divergent thinking scored with the manual scoring method. Implications for the potential links between several putative creative processes and risk factors for psychopathology are discussed. PMID:25278919

  12. Family Interactions and Child Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donenberg, Geri R.; Nelson, Dana

    Previous research has not correlated parent-child interaction patterns with different forms of child psychopathology. This study examined whether parent-child interaction corresponded with childhood depression/anxiety and childhood aggression. Forty-two clinically-referred children and adolescents, 8 to 16 years old, were classified into four…

  13. Psychiatric Psychopathology: A Practicum Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, John W.; Piotrowski, Chris

    This paper describes the University of West Florida graduate level, didactic/experiential course in psychopathology which has been offered since 1975 to introduce clinical psychology students to the applied and practical aspects of psychiatry. Elements of the basic practicum course are described: (1) each student is assigned to a psychiatrist on a…

  14. Self-Derogation and Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harder, David W.; And Others

    Self-derogation relates significantly to the severity of psychopathology regardless of how it is measured. This study examined 152 patients and ex-patients from two community mental health catchment areas two years after their first admission, as well as 97 outpatients beginning therapy. Included were indices of diagnostic severity; overall…

  15. Parental Psychopathology and Female Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Jewelle Taylor

    Although research has provided evidence to document a relation between parental psychopathology and female delinquency, the dimensions of that relationship are unclear. Adjudicated delinquent females (N=48) completed a general social history interview and three psychological instruments. Probation records were used to analyze subjects' delinquent…

  16. The promise of developmental psychopathology: past and present.

    PubMed

    Sroufe, L Alan

    2013-11-01

    Progress in the field of developmental psychopathology is appraised in general and with regard to the particular lens of our understanding of the development of disorder. In general, the outpouring of research on various features of disorder and underlying processes could not have even been imagined 25 years ago. The progress is dazzling. At the same time, work on the development of disorders, beginning with antecedent patterns of adaptation, pales in comparison with work on the correlates of disorder. However, progress has been made. It is well established that the brain develops in the context of experience and that organism and environment continually interact over time. Something is now known about pathways leading to certain disorders and what initiates and impels individuals along them. If developmental psychopathology is to completely fulfill its promise of offering new ways of conceptualizing disorder and new guidance for prevention and intervention, much more work on developmental processes and a new way of exploring the development of disorder will be needed. Such a path is suggested. PMID:24342836

  17. Psychopathology and offense types in detained male juveniles.

    PubMed

    Plattner, Belinda; Giger, Joël; Bachmann, Friedel; Brühwiler, Karl; Steiner, Hans; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Bessler, Cornelia; Aebi, Marcel

    2012-07-30

    A substantial proportion of violent crime is committed by juveniles. In detained juveniles, high rates of psychopathology have been found. The objective of this study was to determine psychopathology associated with offense characteristics in detained male adolescents. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to assess juvenile detainees. The final sample included 275 males (mean age=16.45, S.D.=1.27 years). Multivariate logistic regressions yielded significant associations between psychopathology and specific offense types: The presence of substance use disorders (without alcohol) (SUD) was found to predict drug-related crimes, and the presence of alcohol use disorders (AUD) without further SUD were a predictor of violent crime, especially in older juveniles. The absence of anxiety disorder, especially in younger juveniles, was found to be relevant for the prediction of robbery. The results of the study suggest that the use and abuse of legal and illegal substances might be a trigger for serious violent and drug-related crimes in juveniles. In particular, the presence of AUD is presumed to have a pivotal role in the development of impulsive aggression. These findings are important when considering the serious social impact of violent behaviors in adolescents. PMID:22445705

  18. Intimate partner violence perpetrators in a forensic psychiatric outpatient setting: criminal history, psychopathology, and victimization.

    PubMed

    Henrichs, Jens; Bogaerts, Stefan; Sijtsema, Jelle; Klerx-van Mierlo, Fanny

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated criminological, psychopathological, and victimological profiles of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators in a sample of 119 Dutch female and male forensic psychiatric outpatients aged 18 to 58 years. In addition, differences in criminological, psychopathological, and victimological factors between IPV perpetrators (n = 61, 51.3%) and non-intimate violence (NIV) perpetrators (n = 58, 48.7%) were examined. All data, including information on demographics, criminal history, history of psychological, sexual, and physical victimization during childhood or adolescence, family history of psychopathology, history of psychopathology in childhood and adolescence, and mental disorders, were derived from archival electronic medical records. Mental disorders were measured using structured psychiatric interviews and final consensus diagnoses were established during weekly case consultations. Both IPV and NIV perpetrators displayed high rates of criminal history, psychopathology, and previous victimization, but the two groups did not differ in these factors with two exceptions. IPV perpetrators were significantly more likely to have higher rates of previous physical victimization and intermittent explosive disorder than NIV perpetrators. The current study suggests that a history of physical victimization and intermittent explosive disorder are specific characteristics of IPV perpetrators in a forensic psychiatric outpatient setting. Future research should focus on mechanisms explaining the association of childhood victimization and IPV and increase our understanding of the role of intermittent explosive disorder in IPV. PMID:25287409

  19. Affective Dynamics in Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Trull, Timothy J.; Lane, Sean P.; Koval, Peter; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss three varieties of affective dynamics (affective instability, emotional inertia, and emotional differentiation). In each case, we suggest how these affective dynamics should be operationalized and measured in daily life using time-intensive methods, like ecological momentary assessment or ambulatory assessment, and recommend time-sensitive analyses that take into account not only the variability but also the temporal dependency of reports. Studies that explore how these affective dynamics are associated with psychological disorders and symptoms are reviewed, and we emphasize that these affective processes are within a nexus of other components of emotion regulation.

  20. Information and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Germine, M

    1993-06-01

    Our current understanding of mental processes in health and disease is limited by the absence of a practical model describing the physiology of the mind as an informational system. The mind is described here as a physical system with four functional dimensions that can be interrelated mathematically on the basis of information theory. These variables describe the information processing activities of the mind, and include: a) a state function (g), which is the number of potential states that the system can occupy at a given time and relates to the complexity and activity of the brain; b) a power function (P), the number of state changes per unit time; c) time (t); and d) the relative entropy of the system (R), which describes the ordering of mental states in time. Using these variables, the evolution of states of mind can be described as a trajectory in a multidimensional phase space representing all possible mental states. Ego functions constrain the field of brain states within this space, thereby giving rise to the information content of consciousness and to the individual psyche. Functional mental disorders, as disorders of the psyche, are dysfunctions in the ordering processes that give rise to conscious information. PMID:8501460

  1. HIV-1 Tat Upregulates Expression of Histone Deacetylase-2 (HDAC2) in Human Neurons: Implication for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND)

    PubMed Central

    Saiyed, Zainulabedin M.; Gandhi, Nimisha; Agudelo, Marisela; Napuri, Jessica; Samikkannu, Thangavel; Reddy, Pichili VB; Khatavkar, Pradnya; Yndart, Adriana; Saxena, Shailendra K.; Nair, Madhavan P.N.

    2011-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a pivotal role in epigenetic regulation of transcription and homeostasis of protein acetylation in histones and other proteins involved in chromatin remodeling. Histone hypoacetylation and transcriptional dysfunction have been shown to be associated with a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. More recently, neuron specific overexpression of HDAC2 has been shown to modulate synaptic plasticity and learning behavior in mice. However, the role of HDAC2 in development of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is not reported. Herein we report that HIV-1 Tat protein upregulate HDAC2 expression in neuronal cells leading to transcriptional repression of genes involved in synaptic plasticity and neuronal function thereby contributing to the progression of HAND. Our results indicate upregulation of HDAC2 by Tat treatment in dose and time dependant manner by human neuroblastoma SK-N-MC cells and primary human neurons. Further, HDAC2 overexpression was associated with concomitant downregulation in CREB and CaMKIIa genes that are known to regulate neuronal activity. These observed effects were completely blocked by HDAC2 inhibition. These results for the first time suggest the possible role of HDAC2 in development of HAND. Therefore, use of HDAC2 specific inhibitor in combination with HAART may be of therapeutic value in treatment of neurocognitive disorders observed in HIV-1 infected individuals. PMID:21315782

  2. Mad genius revisited: Vulnerability to psychopathology, biobehavioral approach-avoidance, and creativity.

    PubMed

    Baas, Matthijs; Nijstad, Bernard A; Boot, Nathalie C; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2016-06-01

    Although many believe that creativity associates with a vulnerability to psychopathology, research findings are inconsistent. Here we address this possible linkage between risk of psychopathology and creativity in nonclinical samples. We propose that propensity for specific psychopathologies can be linked to basic motivational approach and avoidance systems, and that approach and avoidance motivation differentially influences creativity. Based on this reasoning, we predict that propensity for approach-based psychopathologies (e.g., positive schizotypy and risk of bipolar disorder) associates with increased creativity, whereas propensity for avoidance-based psychopathologies (e.g., anxiety, negative schizotypy, and depressive mood) associates with reduced creativity. Previous meta-analyses resonate with this proposition and showed small positive relations between positive schizotypy and creativity and small negative relations between negative schizotypy and creativity and between anxiety and creativity. To this we add new meta-analytic findings showing that risk of bipolar disorder (e.g., hypomania, mania) positively associates with creativity (k = 28, r = .224), whereas depressive mood negatively associates (albeit weakly) with creativity (k = 39, r = -.064). Our theoretical framework, along with the meta-analytic results, indicates when and why specific psychopathologies, and their inclinations, associate with increased or, instead, reduced creativity. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26950008

  3. Extraversion and psychopathology: A facet-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Watson, David; Stasik, Sara M; Ellickson-Larew, Stephanie; Stanton, Kasey

    2015-05-01

    The goal of this study was to explicate how the lower order facets of extraversion are related to psychopathology. We used a "bottom-up" approach in which specific extraversion scales from 3 comprehensive personality inventories were used to model these facets as latent factors. We collected both self-report and interview measures of a broad range of psychopathology from a large community sample. Replicating previous findings using a similar approach (Naragon-Gainey & Watson, 2014; Naragon-Gainey, Watson, & Markon, 2009), structural analyses yielded four factors: Positive Emotionality, Sociability, Assertiveness, and Experience Seeking. Scores on these latent dimensions were related to psychopathology in correlational analyses and in two sets of regressions (the first series used the four facets as predictors; the second included composite scores on the other Big Five domains as additional predictors). These results revealed a striking level of specificity. As predicted, Positive Emotionality displayed especially strong negative links to depressive symptoms and diagnoses. Sociability also was negatively related to psychopathology, showing particularly strong associations with indicators of social dysfunction and the negative symptoms of schizotypy (i.e., social anxiety, social aloofness, and restricted affectivity). Assertiveness generally had weak associations at the bivariate level but was negatively related to social anxiety and was positively correlated with some forms of externalizing. Finally, Experience Seeking had substantial positive associations with a broad range of indicators related to externalizing and bipolar disorder; it also displayed negative links to agoraphobia. These differential correlates demonstrate the importance of examining personality-psychopathology relations at the specific facet level. PMID:25751628

  4. Perfectionism and eating psychopathology among dancers: the role of high standards and self-criticism.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Huw; Arcelus, Jon; Geach, Nicole; Meyer, Caroline

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the associations between conscientious perfectionism (high standards), self-evaluative perfectionism (self-criticism) and eating psychopathology among dancers. A sample of 244 female dancers, with a mean age of 20.11 years (standard deviation=1.97) completed the Perfectionism Inventory and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Self-evaluative perfectionism predicted eating psychopathology (eating restraint, eating concern, weight concern and shape concern). This relationship was not moderated by conscientious perfectionism. The mediation analyses showed that although conscientious perfectionism predicted eating psychopathology, this relationship was fully mediated by self-evaluative perfectionism. These findings demonstrate the greater influence of self-evaluative perfectionism, rather than conscientious perfectionism, on eating psychopathology in dancers. PMID:24470313

  5. The illness and everyday living: close interplay of psychopathological syndromes and psychosocial functioning in chronic schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Daniela; Brüne, Martin; Jaspen, Elisabeth; Pajonk, Frank-Gerald; Bierhoff, Hans-Werner; Juckel, Georg

    2011-03-01

    The interaction of psychopathological states and psychosocial functioning determine the long-term course of schizophrenia and its treatment. To be able to achieve this interplay better, exact assessment of psychosocial functioning is needed besides measurement of psychopathology. Using the Personal and Social Performance (PSP) Scale, examination of the association between psychosocial functioning and psychopathology was conducted in a sample of 103 patients with chronic schizophrenia. Rating instruments were in addition Global Assessment of Functioning Scale and Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale, as well as Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Clinical Global Impression Scale, and Mini-ICF-APP-Rating for Mental Disorders (Mini-ICF-APP). Besides good psychometric properties for the PSP scale in this chronic sample, we found, as expected, significant associations between the two relevant outcome domains: results showed significant negative correlations between PSP and PANSS. Findings prove the close interplay between social functioning and psychopathology in the chronic course of schizophrenia. PMID:20652295

  6. Spatiotemporal psychopathology I: No rest for the brain's resting state activity in depression? Spatiotemporal psychopathology of depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Northoff, Georg

    2016-01-15

    Despite intense neurobiological investigation in psychiatric disorders like major depressive disorder (MDD), the basic disturbance that underlies the psychopathological symptoms of MDD remains, nevertheless, unclear. Neuroimaging has focused mainly on the brain's extrinsic activity, specifically task-evoked or stimulus-induced activity, as related to the various sensorimotor, affective, cognitive, and social functions. Recently, the focus has shifted to the brain's intrinsic activity, otherwise known as its resting state activity. While various abnormalities have been observed during this activity, their meaning and significance for depression, along with its various psychopathological symptoms, are yet to be defined. Based on findings in healthy brain resting state activity and its particular spatial and temporal structure - defined in a functional and physiological sense rather than anatomical and structural - I claim that the various depressive symptoms are spatiotemporal disturbances of the resting state activity and its spatiotemporal structure. This is supported by recent findings that link ruminations and increased self-focus in depression to abnormal spatial organization of resting state activity. Analogously, affective and cognitive symptoms like anhedonia, suicidal ideation, and thought disorder can be traced to an increased focus on the past, increased past-focus as basic temporal disturbance o the resting state. Based on these findings, I conclude that the various depressive symptoms must be conceived as spatiotemporal disturbances of the brain's resting state's activity and its spatiotemporal structure. Importantly, this entails a new form of psychopathology, "Spatiotemporal Psychopathology" that directly links the brain and psyche, therefore having major diagnostic and therapeutic implications for clinical practice. PMID:26048657

  7. The domain of developmental psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Sroufe, L A; Rutter, M

    1984-02-01

    It is the "developmental" component of developmental psychopathology that distinguishes this discipline from abnormal psychology, psychiatry, and even clinical child psychology. At the same time, the focus on individual patterns of adaptation and maladaptation distinguishes this field from the larger discipline of developmental psychology. In this essay a developmental perspective is presented, and the implications of this perspective for research in developmental psychopathology are discussed. A primary consideration is the complexity of the adaptational process, with developmental transformation being the rule. Thus, links between earlier adaptation and later pathology generally will not be simple or direct. It will be necessary to understand both individual patterns of adaptation with respect to salient issues of a given developmental period and the transaction between prior adaptation, maturational change, and subsequent environmental challenges. Some examples are discussed, with special attention to the case of depression. PMID:6705619

  8. [Neuropsychology and psychopathology: cognitive analysis during medically refractory epilepsy surgery].

    PubMed

    Thomas-Antérion, C

    2008-05-01

    In psychopathology, few studies have been focused on the psychiatric complications of medically refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). The aim of the present study was to study NG's capacities, who presented emotional change after right temporal epilepsy surgery with phobias and empathy disorders. NG was examined in two emotional judgment tasks: one explicit and another implicit. For negative stimuli, NG had attraction in the explicit task and dependency in the implicit task. This study suggests that surgical intervention might be one of the causes of postoperative psychiatric disorders in patients with MTLE. MTLE patients have to be explored with neuropsychological paradigms. PMID:18675038

  9. [Psychopathology of violence in prisons].

    PubMed

    Barreau, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The issue of violence in prisons concerns the people detained there, the conditions of the imprisonment and the relations which are established between the prisoners and the guards. The deprivation of liberty in prison, by suppressing desire, stirs up violence. Security contingency measures are not sufficient to control aggressive urges. Violence in prison stems from the internal regulations, the architecture of the building, the organisation of the surveillance and from the psychopathological dynamics of the deprivations resulting from being locked up. PMID:26948194

  10. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ...

  11. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor: the neurotrophin hypothesis of psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J; Daniels, Willie M U; Savitz, Jonathan; Harvey, Brian H

    2008-11-01

    While monoaminergic hypotheses of psychopathology remain popular, there has been growing interest in the role of neurotrophins in neuropsychiatric disorders. Basic laboratory work has documented the importance of neurotrophins in neuronal survival and synaptic plasticity, and a range of clinical studies has provided analogous evidence of their role in neuropathology. Work on gene variants in brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and associated changes in structural and function brain imaging, have further contributed to our understanding of this area. Much remains to be done to delineate fully the relevant mechanisms by which brain-derived neurotrophic factor and other neurotrophins contribute to psychopathology, and to develop targeted therapeutic interventions. Nevertheless, the neurotrophin hypothesis has already given impetus to a range of valuable research. PMID:19037180

  12. Continuities and discontinuities in psychopathology between childhood and adult life.

    PubMed

    Rutter, Michael; Kim-Cohen, Julia; Maughan, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The possible mechanisms involved in continuities and discontinuities in psychopathology between childhood and adult life are considered in relation to the findings from systematic, prospective, long-term longitudinal studies. Findings on schizophrenia, neurodevelopmental disorders, emotional disturbances, antisocial behaviour and substance abuse are used as conditions illustrating the key issues. The overarching themes are then discussed in relation to heterotypic continuity and psychopathologic progression, early age at onset and a range of possible mediating mechanisms - including genetic mediation, 'kindling' effects, environmental influences, coping mechanisms and cognitive processing of experiences. Some of the key research challenges that remain concern the testing of competing hypotheses on mediating processes, the changes involved in adolescence, the transition from prodromal phase to overt schizophrenia and the emergence of adolescent-limited antisocial behaviour. Greater use needs to be made of genetic research strategies and of the testing of possible cognitive processing mediation effects. PMID:16492260

  13. Data on maltreatment profiles and psychopathology in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Witt, Andreas; Münzer, Annika; Ganser, Helene G; Fegert, Jörg M; Goldbeck, Lutz; Plener, Paul L

    2016-09-01

    We present data on maltreatment profiles and psychopathology of 358 children and adolescents (4-17 years). Data on maltreatment profiles has been categorized into six major maltreatment types: physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, sexual abuse with penetration, exposure to intimate partner violence and neglect. The data on history of maltreatment is based on the interview version of the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ). Additionally data on psychopathology in general as well as specific disorders according to DSM-IV based on K-SADS-PL is presented. The data was used to examine patterns of co-occurrences of maltreatment and associated clinical outcome variables using latent class analysis (LCA), "Experience by children and adolescents of more than one type of maltreatment: association of different classes of maltreatment profiles with clinical outcome variables" (Witt et al.,) [1]. PMID:27583341

  14. Positive Emotion Regulation and Psychopathology: A Transdiagnostic Cultural Neuroscience Approach

    PubMed Central

    Hechtman, Lisa A.; Raila, Hannah; Chiao, Joan Y.; Gruber, June

    2013-01-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the study of positive emotion regulation and psychopathology. Given the significant public health costs and the tremendous variance in national prevalence rates associated with many disorders of positive emotion, it is critical to reach an understanding of how cultural factors, along with biological factors, mutually influence positive emotion regulation. Progress in this domain has been relatively unexplored, however, underscoring the need for an integrative review and empirical roadmap for investigating the cultural neuroscientific contributions to positive emotion disturbance for both affective and clinical science domains. The present paper thus provides a multidisciplinary, cultural neuroscience approach to better understand positive emotion regulation and psychopathology. We conclude with a future roadmap for researchers aimed at harnessing positive emotion and alleviating the burden of mental illness cross-culturally. PMID:24812583

  15. Maternal Depression, Paternal Psychopathology, and Toddlers’ Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Laura J.; Jennings, Kay Donahue; Kelley, Sue A.; Marshal, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article examined the effects of maternal depression during the postpartum period (Time 1) on the later behavior problems of toddlers (Time 3) and tested if this relationship was moderated by paternal psychopathology during toddlers’ lives and/or or mediated by maternal parenting behavior observed during mother–child interaction (Time 2). Of the 101 mothers who participated in this longitudinal study with their toddlers, 51 had never experienced an episode of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and 50 had experienced an episode of MDD during the first 18 months of their toddlers’ lives. Maternal depression at Time 1 was significantly associated with toddlers’ externalizing and internalizing behavior problems only when paternal psychopathology was present. As predicted, maternal negativity at Time 2 was found to mediate the relationship between maternal depression at Time 1 and toddlers’ externalizing behavior problems at Time 3. PMID:19130357

  16. Can Masturbatory Guilt Lead to Severe Psychopathology: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Aneja, Jitender; Grover, Sandeep; Avasthi, Ajit; Mahajan, Sudhir; Pokhrel, Prabhakar; Triveni, Davuluri

    2015-01-01

    Masturbation is common in all societies. Despite being common, it is admonished culturally and almost all religions prohibit masturbation and consider it an act of immorality. The prohibition for masturbation leads to a lot of cultural beliefs, including certain myths, which influence sexual behavior of the person. The impact of these common cultural myths associated with masturbation, are clinically understood as Dhat syndrome and masturbatory guilt. Although there is a reasonable literature on Dhat syndrome, there is limited literature with regard to masturbatory guilt especially linking the same with axis-I psychopathology. In this case series, three cases of masturbatory guilt are presented in whom masturbatory guilt was associated with manifestation of severe psychopathology. This report suggests that masturbatory guilt must be enquired for in patients presenting with severe mental disorder. PMID:25722518

  17. Can masturbatory guilt lead to severe psychopathology: a case series.

    PubMed

    Aneja, Jitender; Grover, Sandeep; Avasthi, Ajit; Mahajan, Sudhir; Pokhrel, Prabhakar; Triveni, Davuluri

    2015-01-01

    Masturbation is common in all societies. Despite being common, it is admonished culturally and almost all religions prohibit masturbation and consider it an act of immorality. The prohibition for masturbation leads to a lot of cultural beliefs, including certain myths, which influence sexual behavior of the person. The impact of these common cultural myths associated with masturbation, are clinically understood as Dhat syndrome and masturbatory guilt. Although there is a reasonable literature on Dhat syndrome, there is limited literature with regard to masturbatory guilt especially linking the same with axis-I psychopathology. In this case series, three cases of masturbatory guilt are presented in whom masturbatory guilt was associated with manifestation of severe psychopathology. This report suggests that masturbatory guilt must be enquired for in patients presenting with severe mental disorder. PMID:25722518

  18. Child maltreatment and adult psychopathology in an Irish context.

    PubMed

    Fitzhenry, Mark; Harte, Elizabeth; Carr, Alan; Keenleyside, Mairi; O'Hanrahan, Kevin; White, Megan Daly; Hayes, Jennifer; Cahill, Paul; Noonan, Hester; O'Shea, Helen; McCullagh, Avril; McGuinness, Shaun; Rodgers, Catherine; Whelan, Neal; Sheppard, Noel; Browne, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    One-hundred-ninety-nine adult mental health service users were interviewed with a protocol that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Structured Clinical Interviews for Axis I and II DSM-IV disorders, the Global Assessment of Functioning scale, the SCORE family assessment measure, the Camberwell Assessment of Need Short Appraisal Schedule, and the Readiness for Psychotherapy Index. Compared to a U.S. normative sample, Irish clinical cases had higher levels of maltreatment. Cases with comorbid axis I and II disorders reported more child maltreatment than those with axis I disorders only. There was no association between types of CM and types of psychopathology. Current family adjustment and service needs (but not global functioning and motivation for psychotherapy) were correlated with a CM history. It was concluded that child maltreatment may contribute to the development of adult psychopathology, and higher levels of trauma are associated with co-morbid personality disorder, greater service needs and poorer family adjustment. A history of child maltreatment should routinely be determined when assessing adult mental health service users, especially those with personality disorders and where appropriate evidence-based psychotherapy which addresses childhood trauma should be offered. PMID:26026360

  19. Risk factors for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in sub-Saharan Africa: The case of Yaoundé-Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Njamnshi, A.K.; Zoung-KanyiBissek, A.C.; Ongolo-Zogo, P.; Tabah, E.N.; Lekoubou, A.Z.; Yepnjio, F.N.; Fonsah, J.Y.; Kuate, C.T.; Angwafor, S.A.; Dema, F.; Njamnshi, D.M.; Kouanfack, C.; Djientcheu, V. de P.; Muna, W.F.T.; Kanmogne, G.D.

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), especially HIV-associated dementia (HAD) is influenced by several risk factors. The prevalence as well as risk factors for HAD are not well known in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We have shown that the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) is a useful screening tool for HAND in Yaoundé [Njamnshi AK, Djientcheu VdP, Fonsah JY, Yepnjio FN, Njamnshi DM, Muna WFT. The IHDS is a useful screening tool for HAD/Cognitive Impairment in HIV-infected adults in Yaoundé-Cameroon. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2008;49(4):393–397], but no study in Cameroon has yet investigated the risk factors for HAND or HAD. Patients and methods Across-sectional study was conducted in Yaoundé, the capital of Cameroon from September to December 2006. One hundred and eighty-five HIV-positive subjects were included. Diagnosis of HAND was done using the IHDS with a score ≤ 10 considered as abnormal. Age, sex, level of education, IV drug use, body mass index (BMI), CDC clinical stage, CD4 counts, hemoglobin levels, administration of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and type of regimen used, were considered in univariate analysis, with level of significance set at P≤0.05. A binary logistic regression was used to determine independent risk factors. Results The following factors were independent predictors of HAND: advanced clinical stage (OR=7.43, P=0.001), low CD4 count especially CD4≤200/μL (OR=4.88, P=0.045) and low hemoglobin concentration (OR=1.16, P=0.048). Conclusion This first study of the risk factors for HAND in Yaoundé-Cameroon shows findings similar to those described in other studies. These results call for rapid action by policy makers to include HAND prevention strategies such as providing early universal access to HAART based on these risk factors, in the management of HIV patients at risk of HAND in resource-limited settings of SSA like ours. PMID:19631349

  20. [Psychopathology of asylum seekers in Europe, trauma and defensive functioning].

    PubMed

    Mazur, V M-L; Chahraoui, K; Bissler, L

    2015-06-01

    Refugees seeking asylum are a particularly vulnerable population. It has been observed that among the most commonly-occurring disorders exhibited in this population, there is a high incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and depression. These disorders may be linked to the difficult paths that refugees are forced to undertake, as well as to different traumatic events which are particularly destructive psychologically (deliberate physical, sexual and/or psychological violence, traumatic bereavements in the context of war, or social and political instability, socio-economic, familial or administrative difficulties), which compromise their view of their short-term futures. In the face of the weight of these life events, the question of the psychological resources of the individual is at the forefront of our understanding of mental health and the capacity to adjust to trauma. Our study aims to apprehend in a dynamic way, the different strategies used by asylum seekers in our western countries to adjust psychologically to traumatic and stressful events. The aim of this research is to study the links between mental health and anxious and depressive psychopathologies as well as the defensive modalities of these subjects. One hundred and twenty adult asylum seekers, living in refugee centres in Slovakia, France and Norway have agreed to participate in this study. We tried to assess the psychopathological disorders manifesting in these populations, notably PTSD, major depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Using the DSQ-60 we also tried to establish the links between the psychopathologies observed in this population and the defence mechanisms employed. Our results reveal that 60% of subjects do indeed suffer from psychopathological disorders with an important comorbidity of PTSB and depression (64.2%). Furthermore, the seriousness of the symptoms is correlated with less adaptive defence mechanisms (a higher incidence of defence

  1. The Use of Hand Gestures to Communicate about Nonpresent Objects in Mind among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Wing-Chee; Lui, Ming; Wong, Tze-Kiu; Sit, Long-Tin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The current study examined whether children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in comparison with typically developing children, perceive and produce gestures to identify nonpresent objects (i.e., referent-identifying gestures), which is crucial for communicating ideas in a discourse. Method: An experimenter described the uses of…

  2. Evidence for a Familial Speech Sound Disorder Subtype in a Multigenerational Study of Oral and Hand Motor Sequencing Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Beate; Raskind, Wendy H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate phenotypic expressions of speech sound disorder (SSD) in multigenerational families with evidence of familial forms of SSD. Method: Members of five multigenerational families (N = 36) produced rapid sequences of monosyllables and disyllables and tapped computer keys with repetitive and alternating movements. Results: Measures…

  3. The impact of leptin on perinatal development and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Valleau, Jeanette C; Sullivan, Elinor L

    2014-11-01

    Leptin has long been associated with metabolism as it is a critical regulator of both food intake and energy expenditure, but recently, leptin dysregulation has been proposed as a mechanism of psychopathology. This review discusses the evidence supporting a role for leptin in mental health disorders and describes potential mechanisms that may underlie this association. Leptin plays a critical role in pregnancy and in fetal growth and development. Leptin's role and profile during development is examined in available human studies, and the validity of applying studies conducted in animal models to the human population are discussed. Rodents experience a postnatal leptin surge, which does not occur in humans or larger animal models. This suggests that further research using large mammal models, which have a leptin profile across pregnancy and development similar to humans, are of high importance. Maternal obesity and hyperleptinemia correlate with increased leptin levels in the umbilical cord, placenta, and fetus. Leptin levels are thought to impact fetal brain development; likely by activating proinflammatory cytokines that are known to impact many of the neurotransmitter systems that regulate behavior. Leptin is likely involved in behavioral regulation as leptin receptors are widely distributed in the brain, and leptin influences cortisol release, the mesoaccumbens dopamine pathway, serotonin synthesis, and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. In humans, both high and low levels of leptin are reported to be associated with psychopathology. This inconsistency is likely due to differences in the metabolic state of the study populations. Leptin resistance, which occurs in the obese state, may explain how both high and low levels of leptin are associated with psychopathology, as well as the comorbidity of obesity with numerous mental illnesses. Leptin resistance is likely to influence disorders such as depression and anxiety where high leptin levels have been correlated

  4. The Impact of Leptin on Perinatal Development and Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Valleau, Jeanette C.; Sullivan, Elinor L.

    2014-01-01

    Leptin has long been associated with metabolism as it is a critical regulator of both food intake and energy expenditure, but recently, leptin dysregulation has been proposed as a mechanism of psychopathology. This review discusses the evidence supporting a role for leptin in mental health disorders and describes potential mechanisms that may underlie this association. Leptin plays a critical role in pregnancy and in fetal growth and development. Leptin’s role and profile during development is examined in available human studies and the validity of applying studies conducted in animal models to the human population are discussed. Rodents experience a postnatal leptin surge, which does not occur in humans or larger animal models. This suggests that further research using large mammal models, which have a leptin profile across pregnancy and development similar to humans, are of high importance. Maternal obesity and hyperleptinemia correlate with increased leptin levels in the umbilical cord, placenta, and fetus. Leptin levels are thought to impact fetal brain development; likely by activating proinflammatory cytokines that are known to impact many of the neurotransmitter systems that regulate behavior. Leptin is likely involved in behavioral regulation as leptin receptors are widely distributed in the brain, and leptin influences cortisol release, the mesoaccumbens dopamine pathway, serotonin synthesis, and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. In humans, both high and low levels of leptin are reported to be associated with psychopathology. This inconsistency is likely due to differences in the metabolic state of the study populations. Leptin resistance, which occurs in the obese state, may explain how both high and low levels of leptin are associated with psychopathology, as well as the comorbidity of obesity with numerous mental illnesses. Leptin resistance is likely to influence disorders such as depression and anxiety where both high and low leptin levels have been

  5. Differentiation between diseases using a programmable hand-held calculator and Bayes' theorem: application to lower gastrointestinal tract disorders.

    PubMed

    van de Merwe, J P

    1984-01-01

    A program is presented for the Hewlett-Packard HP-41C programmable pocket calculator that computes posterior probabilities of more than 200 diseases on the basis of Bayes' theorem. Data for specific applications are stored in ASCII files. The program and data are retained in the non-volatile memory of the calculator. An example of the application of the program to six lower gastrointestinal tract disorders is given using data from the literature. PMID:6391801

  6. Psychopathological effects of solitary confinement.

    PubMed

    Grassian, S

    1983-11-01

    Psychopathological reactions to solitary confinement were extensively described by nineteenth-century German clinicians. In the United States there have been several legal challenges to the use of solitary confinement, based on allegations that it may have serious psychiatric consequences. The recent medical literature on this subject has been scarce. The author describes psychiatric symptoms that appeared in 14 inmates exposed to periods of increased social isolation and sensory restriction in solitary confinement and asserts that these symptoms form a major, clinically distinguishable psychiatric syndrome. PMID:6624990

  7. Parent-infant vocalisations at 12 months predict psychopathology at 7 years.

    PubMed

    Allely, C S; Purves, D; McConnachie, A; Marwick, H; Johnson, P; Doolin, O; Puckering, C; Golding, J; Gillberg, C; Wilson, P

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the utility of adult and infant vocalisation in the prediction of child psychopathology. Families were sampled from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. Vocalisation patterns were obtained from 180 videos (60 cases and 120 randomly selected sex-matched controls) of parent-infant interactions when infants were one year old. Cases were infants who had been subsequently diagnosed aged seven years, with at least one psychiatric diagnostic categorisation using the Development and Wellbeing Assessment. Psychopathologies included in the case group were disruptive behaviour disorders, oppositional-conduct disorders, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, pervasive development disorder, and emotional disorders. Associations between infant and parent vocalisations and later psychiatric diagnoses were investigated. Low frequencies of maternal vocalisation predicted later development of infant psychopathology. A reduction of five vocalisations per minute predicted a 44% (95%CI: 11-94%; p-value=0.006) increase in the odds of an infant being a case. No association was observed between infant vocalisations and overall case status. In sum, altered vocalisation frequency in mother-infant interactions at one year is a potential risk marker for later diagnosis of a range of child psychopathologies. PMID:23291516

  8. The intersubjective endeavor of psychopathology research: methodological reflections on a second-person perspective approach

    PubMed Central

    Galbusera, Laura; Fellin, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Research in psychopathology may be considered as an intersubjective endeavor mainly concerned with understanding other minds. Thus, the way we conceive of social understanding influences how we do research in psychology in the first place. In this paper, we focus on psychopathology research as a paradigmatic case for this methodological issue, since the relation between the researcher and the object of study is characterized by a major component of “otherness.” We critically review different methodologies in psychopathology research, highlighting their relation to different social cognition theories (the third-, first-, and second-person approaches). Hence we outline the methodological implications arising from each theoretical stance. Firstly, we critically discuss the dominant paradigm in psychopathology research, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) and on quantitative methodology, as an example of a third-person methodology. Secondly, we contrast this mainstream view with phenomenological psychopathology which—by rejecting the reductionist view exclusively focused on behavioral symptoms—takes consciousness as its main object of study: it therefore attempts to grasp patients’ first-person experience. But how can we speak about a first-person perspective in psychopathology if the problem at stake is the experience of the other? How is it possible to understand the experience from “within,” if the person who is having this experience is another? By addressing these issues, we critically explore the feasibility and usefulness of a second-person methodology in psychopathology research. Notwithstanding the importance of methodological pluralism, we argue that a second-person perspective should inform the epistemology and methods of research in psychopathology, as it recognizes the fundamental circular and intersubjective construction of knowledge. PMID:25368589

  9. Developmental Psychopathology: Pathways to the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masten, Ann S.

    2006-01-01

    This article highlights the defining principles, progress and future directions in developmental psychopathology in relation to this special section. Six fundamental principles of developmental psychopathology are identified and the pervasive impact of this integrative framework on research, theory, and practice in behavioral health fields over…

  10. Comparing Factor Structures of Adolescent Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verona, Edelyn; Javdani, Shabnam; Sprague, Jenessa

    2011-01-01

    Research on the structure of adolescent psychopathology can provide information on broad factors that underlie different forms of maladjustment in youths. Multiple studies from the literature on adult populations suggest that 2 factors, Internalizing and Externalizing, meaningfully comprise the factor structure of adult psychopathology (e.g.,…

  11. Conducting Policy-Relevant Developmental Psychopathology Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Anne C.

    2006-01-01

    Policy, defined broadly to include public policy as well as institutional or organizational policy, is useful for sustaining change in human development and its contexts and systems. The role for developmental psychopathology research in policy analysis and policy making is discussed. To assure that developmental psychopathology research is useful…

  12. Psychopathology in Women Arrested for Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Gregory L.; Moore, Todd M.; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Ramsey, Susan E.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of psychopathology among women arrested for violence and whether the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) was associated with Axis I psychopathology. Women who were arrested for domestic violence perpetration and court referred to violence intervention programs (N=103) completed measures of IPV…

  13. Couple-based interventions for psychopathology: a renewed direction for the field.

    PubMed

    Baucom, Donald H; Belus, Jennifer M; Adelman, Caroline B; Fischer, Melanie S; Paprocki, Christine

    2014-09-01

    This article provides a rationale and empirical support for providing couple-based interventions when one partner in a relationship is experiencing individual psychopathology. Several investigations indicate that relationship distress and psychopathology are associated and reciprocally influence each other, such that the existence of relationship distress predicts the development of subsequent psychopathology and vice versa. Furthermore, findings indicate that for several disorders, individual psychotherapy is less effective if the client is in a distressed relationship. Finally, even within happy relationships, partners often inadvertently behave in ways that maintain or exacerbate symptoms for the other individual. Thus, within both satisfied and distressed relationships, including the partner in a couple-based intervention provides an opportunity to use the partner and the relationship as a resource rather than a stressor for an individual experiencing some form of psychological distress. The authors propose that a promising approach to including the partner in treatment involves (a) integrating intervention principles from empirically supported interventions for individual therapy for specific disorders with (b) knowledge of how to employ relationships to promote individual and dyadic change. Based on this logic, the article includes several examples to demonstrate how couple-based interventions can be focused on a specific type of psychopathology, including encouraging empirical findings for these interventions. The article concludes with recommendations for how clinicians and researchers can adapt their knowledge of couple therapy to assist couples in which one partner is experiencing notable psychological distress or diagnosable psychopathology. PMID:24773298

  14. Psychopathology and cognition in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Niarchou, Maria; Zammit, Stanley; van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.; Thapar, Anita; Tierling, Hayley M.; Owen, Michael J.; van den Bree, Marianne B. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have been reported to have high rates of cognitive and psychiatric problems. Aims To establish the nature and prevalence of psychiatric disorder and neurocognitive impairment in children with 22q11.2DS and test whether risk of psychopathology is mediated by the children’s intellectual impairment. Method Neurocognition and psychopathology were assessed in 80 children with 22q11.2DS (mean age 10.2 years, s.d. = 2.1) and 39 sibling controls (mean age 10.9 years, s.d. = 2.0). Results More than half (54%) of children with 22q11.2DS met diagnostic criteria for one or more DSM-IV-TR psychiatric disorder. These children had lower IQ (mean 76.8, s.d. = 13.0) than controls (mean 108.6, s.d. = 15.2) (P<0.001) and showed a range of neurocognitive impairments. Increased risk of psychopathology was not mediated by intellectual impairment. Conclusions 22q11.2DS is not related to a specific psychiatric phenotype in children. Moreover, the deletion has largely independent effects on IQ and risk of psychopathology, indicating that psychopathology in 22q11.2DS is not a non-specific consequence of generalised cognitive impairment. PMID:24115343

  15. Enseigner aux eleves ayant des troubles emotionnels et (ou) des psychopathologies. Elabore pour les eleves ayant des besoins speciaux (Teaching Students with Emotional Disorders and/or Mental Illnesses. Elaborated for Eligible Special Needs Students).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    This resource manual, in French, is designed to assist Alberta teachers in the identification and education of students with emotional disorders and/or mental illnesses. It takes a comprehensive look at six emotional disorders. The first section focuses on eating disorders. It describes the characteristics and symptoms of anorexia nervosa, bulimia…

  16. The psychotherapy of core borderline psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Adler, G

    1993-01-01

    A psychodynamic formulation of borderline psychopathology includes the understanding of the borderline patient's aloneness problems, need-fear dilemma issues, and difficulties with primitive guilt. The aloneness problems are at the core of the disorder, and involve an inability to maintain an evocative memory, and holding and soothing introjects of significant people when under stress of separation. The possible childhood origins of these difficulties are explored and related to the ways these issues emerge in psychotherapy. The psychodynamic formulation is crucial in the psychotherapeutic approach to the aloneness problems. It helps the therapist work with the aloneness difficulties and understand the options as the therapy continues. Since rapid therapeutic decisions are often necessary with borderline patients, the formulation provides the necessary framework, and helps the therapist process and utilize countertransference feelings. Projective identification is an important concept that helps explain the complex transference/countertransference experiences, and is used in defining the resolution of the aloneness problems of borderline patients. Finally, limit-setting and the use of transitional objects are explored, utilizing the psychodynamic framework that has been defined. PMID:8517469

  17. Greek College Students and Psychopathology: New Insights

    PubMed Central

    Kontoangelos, Konstantinos; Tsiori, Sofia; Koundi, Kalliopi; Pappa, Xenia; Sakkas, Pavlos; Papageorgiou, Charalambos C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: College students’ mental health problems include depression, anxiety, panic disorders, phobias and obsessive compulsive thoughts. Aims: To investigate Greek college students’ psychopathology. Methods: During the initial evaluation, 638 college students were assessed through the following psychometric questionnaires: (a) Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ); (b) The Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90); (c) The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI); (d) State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Results: State anxiety and trait anxiety were correlated, to a statistically significant degree, with the family status of the students (p = 0.024) and the past visits to the psychiatrist (p = 0.039) respectively. The subscale of psychoticism is significantly related with the students’ origin, school, family status and semester. The subscale of neuroticism is significantly related with the students’ school. The subscale of extraversion is significantly related with the students’ family psychiatric history. Students, whose place of origin is Attica, have on average higher scores in somatization, phobic anxiety and paranoid ideation than the other students. Students from abroad have, on average, higher scores in interpersonal sensitivity and psychoticism than students who hail from other parts of Greece. The majority of the students (79.7%) do not suffer from depression, according to the Beck’s depression inventory scale. Conclusions: Anxiety, somatization, personality traits and depression are related with the students’ college life. PMID:25938913

  18. Behavioural addictions: A challenge for psychopathology and psychiatric nosology.

    PubMed

    Starcevic, Vladan

    2016-08-01

    Disorders characterised by repetitive and problematic behaviours and poor impulse control have been increasingly conceptualised as behavioural addictions. This article examines the concept of behavioural addiction and argues that the addiction framework is only one approach to these behavioural disturbances. It cautions against a tendency to regard many activities that are performed with an extraordinary intensity or frequency and that have some negative consequences as behavioural addiction. There is a need for more research to better understand the links between repetitive and problematic behaviours and other psychopathology, as well as the function of these behaviours and factors that maintain them. PMID:27357713

  19. [Neuropsychological evaluation and psychopathology of multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Defer, G

    2001-09-01

    Cognitive and psychiatric disorders have long been described in MS. However, these symptoms were only well evaluated starting about fifteen years ago. More recently, there has been renewed interest in cognitive and psychiatric assessment in MS, especially due to the emergence of new therapies for the disease. Psychiatric symptoms mainly include depression and anxiety. Depression is generally moderate, but there is a risk of suicide that is clearly higher than in the general population. Depression is not correlated with the duration of symptoms, type of disease or level of disability. Mild elation and pathological laughing and crying can be associated and are more frequent in case of severe disease. Bipolar affective disorders and alexithymia are more rare. The question of premorbid personality has been questioned for depression but not confirmed. It has been suspected for bipolar affective disorders. Cognitive disorders are observed in 40 to 65% of the cases at any period of the disease. They mainly include an impairment of working and long-term memory, executive functions and attention whereas global intellectual efficiency is impaired later. While cognitive disorders can be observed early in the course of the disease, there is no correlation with the level of disability or duration of the disease. Progressive MS and especially secondary progressive then primary progressive forms are more subject to cognitive deficits than relapsing remitting MS. For a similar cognitive impairment, progression could be a negative factor for the disease course. Cognitive and psychiatric assessment of patients can be discussed on the basis of why, how and when. Psychiatric assessment is not particularly difficult when there are psychiatric complaints, but cognitive assessment should be explained to the patients and justified when there is no complaint. However, detection of cognitive deficits would lead to better patient management. Psychiatric assessment will mainly use controlled

  20. Antisocial Behavior, Psychopathology and Functional Impairment: Association with Sex and Age in Clinical Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Juan; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Nuria

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, degree of association and differential effect, by sex and age, of conduct disorder symptoms on psychopathology and functioning. Participants included 680 Spanish children and adolescents between 8 and 17 years and their parents, attending to psychiatric outpatient consultation. Data were obtained through…

  1. Gender Performance Stress and Risk for Psychopathology: Looking beyond Sexual Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oost, Kathryn M.; Livingston, Nicholas A.; Gleason, Hillary A.; Cochran, Bryan N.

    2016-01-01

    The authors review research on the risk factors for, and prevalence of, psychological disorders as they relate to gender nonconformity in adolescence and adulthood. Findings from existing literature suggest gender nonconforming individuals are more likely to experience a variety of risk factors associated with psychopathology when compared with…

  2. The Development of a New Measure for the Assessment of Psychopathology in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, C.; Tonge, B. J.; Einfeld, S. L.

    2005-01-01

    People with intellectual disability (ID) and untreated psychiatric disorder lead unnecessarily difficult and unhappy lives. The prevalence of mental illness in children and adults with ID is greater than that found in the general population. A carer-completed checklist of psychopathology that could be used with both children and adults would help…

  3. The brief scale for anxiety: a subdivision of the comprehensive psychopathological rating scale.

    PubMed Central

    Tyrer, P; Owen, R T; Cicchetti, D V

    1984-01-01

    A rating scale suitable for recording anxious symptoms is described. It is a subdivision of the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale and comprises 10 items, all of which are rated on a 7 point scale. It is suitable for the rating of pathological anxiety alone or for anxiety occurring in the setting of other psychological or medical disorder. PMID:6481391

  4. Anxiety Psychopathology in African American Adults: Literature Review and Development of an Empirically Informed Sociocultural Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Lora Rose; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, the extant literature concerning anxiety psychopathology in African American adults is summarized to develop a testable, explanatory framework with implications for future research. The model was designed to account for purported lower rates of anxiety disorders in African Americans compared to European Americans, along with other…

  5. The Association between Relationship Distress and Psychopathology is Consistent across Racial and Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    McShall, Jared R.; Johnson, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    The association between intimate relationship discord and DSM-IV Axis I psychiatric disorders has been described in studies that oversampled White participants; however, the racial and ethnic differences in marital distress and divorce as well as in prevalence rates of some forms of psychopathology led us to hypothesize that the association between relationship discord and psychopathology would vary across races and ethnicities. Relationship quality and psychopathology were assessed in three national surveys (the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, the National Latino and Asian American Study, and the National Survey of American Life), for a total sample size of 10,057. We found that the log odds of being diagnosed with both narrow-band (e.g., major depressive disorder) and broad-band disorders (e.g., mood disorder) were negatively associated with relationship quality consistently across 11 different racial and ethnic groups. We discuss the implications of the cross-cultural reliability of the association between relationship discord and psychopathology in the context of etiological models and culturally competent practices. PMID:25402736

  6. The association between relationship distress and psychopathology is consistent across racial and ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    McShall, Jared R; Johnson, Matthew D

    2015-02-01

    The association between intimate relationship discord and DSM-IV Axis I psychiatric disorders has been described in studies that oversampled White participants; however, the racial and ethnic differences in marital distress and divorce as well as in prevalence rates of some forms of psychopathology led us to hypothesize that the association between relationship discord and psychopathology would vary across races and ethnicities. Relationship quality and psychopathology were assessed in three national surveys (the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, the National Latino and Asian American Study, and the National Survey of American Life), for a total sample size of 10,057. We found that the log odds of being diagnosed with both narrow-band (e.g., major depressive disorder) and broad-band disorders (e.g., mood disorder) were negatively associated with relationship quality consistently across 11 different racial and ethnic groups. We discuss the implications of the cross-cultural reliability of the association between relationship discord and psychopathology in the context of etiological models and culturally competent practices. PMID:25402736

  7. Psychopathology in Adolescence: Does Development Play a Role?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Anne C.; Ebata, Aaron T.

    Thos paper discusses myths about adolescent psychopathology, including the beliefs that psychopathology is a normal state in adolescence; that adolescents grow out of their psychopathology; and that with regard to psychopathology, adolescents are either like adults or like children. Key features of adolescent development are summarized, the life…

  8. Association between parental psychopathology and suicidal behavior among adult offspring: results from the cross-sectional South African Stress and Health survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior studies have demonstrated a link between parental psychopathology and offspring suicidal behavior. However, it remains unclear what aspects of suicidal behavior among adult offspring are predicted by specific parental mental disorders, especially in Africa. This study set out to investigate the association between parental psychopathology and suicidal behavior among their adult offspring in a South African general population sample. Method Parental psychopathology and suicidal behavior in offspring were assessed using structured interviews among 4,315 respondents from across South Africa. The WHO CIDI was used to collect data on suicidal behavior, while the Family History Research Diagnostic Criteria Interview was used to assess prior parental psychopathology. Bivariate and multivariate survival models tested the associations between the type and number parental mental disorders (including suicide) and lifetime suicidal behavior in the offspring. Associations between a range of parental disorders and the onset of subsequent suicidal behavior (suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts) among adult offspring were tested. Results The presence of parental psychopathology significantly increased the odds of suicidal behavior among their adult offspring. More specifically, parental panic disorder was associated with offspring suicidal ideation, while parental panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and suicide were significantly associated with offspring suicide attempts. Among those with suicidal ideation, none of the tested forms of parental psychopathology was associated with having suicide plans or attempts. There was a dose–response relationship between the number of parental disorders and odds of suicidal ideation. Conclusions Parental psychopathology increases the odds of suicidal behavior among their adult offspring in the South African context, replicating results found in other regions. Specific parental disorders predicted the onset and

  9. Trait attentional control influences the relationship between repetitive negative thinking and psychopathology symptoms.

    PubMed

    Mills, Adam C; Grant, DeMond M; Judah, Matt R; White, Evan J; Taylor, Danielle L; Frosio, Kristen E

    2016-04-30

    Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) has been implicated in several disorders (e.g., Clark (2005)). However, little research has examined how RNT influences other risk factors of psychopathology, such as attentional control. This study used prospective methodology to determine if relationships among various RNT styles and symptoms of psychological disorders are indirectly influenced by facets of attentional control. The sample included 376 participants who completed measures of RNT (worry, rumination, anticipatory processing, obsessions, intrusive thoughts and panic cognitions), psychopathology (generalized anxiety disorder, depression, social anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and panic disorder), and attentional control at two time points. Several relationships between RNT forms and symptom levels were indirectly predicted by the focusing subscale of attentional control; however, the patterns of these relationships differed based on the disorder. The shifting subscale did not indirectly predict any relationship. Therefore, it appears that low focusing may be a particular risk factor for the development of later RNT and/or psychopathology symptoms. PMID:27086245

  10. Max Scheler's theory of the hierarchy of values and emotions and its relevance to current psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Cutting, J

    2016-06-01

    The philosopher Max Scheler (1874-1928) set out a hierarchical theory of values and emotions in the early twentieth century. This inspired Kurt Schneider to distinguish two sorts of depressive illness, each conforming to a Störung (disorder) in different levels of Scheler's hierarchy. No other psychopathologist, except Stanghellini, gave the matter much attention. I believe that Scheler's theory is a rich source of insight into psychopathology, general and neuropsychiatric. I therefore give an account of Scheler's scheme, review its extant applications (Schneider's, Stanghellini's), and present suggestions as to its continuing potential relevance in a wide range of psychopathological conditions. PMID:27006123

  11. The epistemological role of empathy in psychopathological diagnosis: a contemporary reassessment of Karl Jaspers’ account

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    manifestations. Moreover, he was right in stressing the importance of the empathic ‘second person’ approach to patients’ mental experiences. However, he failed to recognize unambiguously that the epistemological access to patients’ mental symptoms, though enormously aided by empathy, remains mainly indirect and thus requires also a ‘third person’ approach to them. Overall then, clinical psychopathological examination requires both a ‘second’ and a ‘third’ person approach, as well as their judicious alternation during the diagnostic interview. Although focused on Jaspers’ essay, my critical analysis is also highly relevant to contemporary psychopathological approaches aiming to overcome the serious limitations of currently prevailing systems of diagnostic criteria of mental disorders. PMID:24636777

  12. Age-related differences in internalizing psychopathology amongst the Australian general population.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Matthew; Slade, Tim; Carragher, Natacha; Batterham, Philip; Buchan, Heather

    2013-11-01

    Two methodological criticisms have limited the reliability and validity of findings from previous studies that seek to examine change across the life span in levels of internalizing psychopathology using general population surveys. The first criticism involves the potential influence of cohort effects that confound true age-related changes whereas the second criticism involves the use of a single form of assessment to measure and compare levels of internalizing psychopathology. This study seeks to address these criticisms by modeling age-related change using multiple measures and multiple surveys. Data from 2 epidemiological surveys conducted 10 years apart in the Australian general population were combined and used for the current study. The latent construct of internalizing psychopathology was modeled using a combination of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) depression and anxiety diagnoses as well as items from the Kessler Psychological Distress scale (K10; Kessler et al., 2002). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that a single internalizing dimension provided good model fit to the data. Multigroup CFA indicated that strict measurement invariance of the model can be assumed across survey administrations and age bands, justifying comparisons of mean differences in latent trait levels. Significant changes in mean levels of latent internalizing psychopathology were evident between respondents aged 30-39 years old in 1997 and respondents aged 40-49 years old in 2007, suggesting a minor but significant increase in psychopathology across middle age. By contrast, a minor but significant decrease in psychopathology was noted when transitioning from late middle age (50-59 years old) to old age (60-69 years old). The majority of individuals in the general population will experience constant levels of internalizing psychopathology as they age, suggesting that the construct is relatively

  13. Implications of attachment theory for developmental psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Sroufe, L A; Carlson, E A; Levy, A K; Egeland, B

    1999-01-01

    Bowlby's attachment theory is a theory of psychopathology as well as a theory of normal development. It contains clear and specific propositions regarding the role of early experience in developmental psychopathology, the importance of ongoing context, and the nature of the developmental process underlying pathology. In particular, Bowlby argued that adaptation is always the joint product of developmental history and current circumstances (never either alone). Early experience does not cause later pathology in a linear way; yet, it has special significance due to the complex, systemic, transactional nature of development. Prior history is part of current context, playing a role in selection, engagement, and interpretation of subsequent experience and in the use of available environmental supports. Finally, except in very extreme cases, early anxious attachment is not viewed as psychopathology itself or as a direct cause of psychopathology but as an initiator of pathways probabilistically associated with later pathology. PMID:10208353

  14. The development of emotion-related neural circuitry in health and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Monk, Christopher S

    2008-01-01

    Disturbances in the detection of, response to, and interpretation of emotion are common in many forms of psychopathology. The amygdala, striatum, and structures within the prefrontal cortex are highly involved in mediating these stages of emotion processing, and evidence indicates that these regions show structural and functional alterations in different types of psychopathology, including anxiety, depression, and autism spectrum disorders. However, we do not know how genes and the environment interact to alter development of these brain regions in ways that give rise to emotion-related psychopathology. This review discusses the current understanding of brain regions that are involved in emotional functioning, how they develop, and how they are altered in three forms of psychopathology: anxiety, depression, and autism spectrum disorders. Following this, a framework is described that may facilitate the integration of investigations of genetic variation and brain function with symptom and diagnostic measures. The framework involves three components: (a) a greater emphasis on simultaneously analyzing multiple levels (genes, brain function, behavior, symptoms, and diagnoses); (b) further integration of developmental considerations, including timing of environmental events, adaptations (or maladaptations), and disorder-related trajectories that guide some children toward atypical experiences; and (c) greater cross-talk between animal and human investigations to take advantage of biological measures that cannot be acquired in humans. PMID:18838040

  15. Do methadone and buprenorphine have the same impact on psychopathological symptoms of heroin addicts?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The idea that the impact of opioid agonist treatment is influenced by the psychopathological profile of heroin addicts has not yet been investigated, and is based on the concept of a specific therapeutic action displayed by opioid agents on psychopathological symptoms. In the present report we compared the effects of buprenorphine and methadone on the psychopathological symptoms of 213 patients (106 on buprenorphine and 107 on methadone) in a follow-up study lasting 12 months. Methods Drug addiction history was collected by means of the Drug Addiction History Rating Scale (DAH-RS) and psychopathological features were collected by means of the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), using a special five-factor solution. Toxicological urinalyses were carried out for each patient during the treatment period. Results No statistically significant differences were detected in psychopathological symptoms, including 'worthlessness-being trapped', 'somatization', and 'panic-anxiety'. Methadone proved to be more effective on patients characterized by 'sensitivity-psychoticism', whereas buprenorphine was more effective on patients displaying a 'violence-suicide' symptomatology. Conclusions Heroin-dependent patients with psychiatric comorbidities may benefit from opioid agonist treatment not only because it targets their addictive problem, but also, precisely due to this, because it is effective against their mental disorder too. PMID:21569624

  16. The Influence of Parental Psychopathology on Offspring Suicidal Behavior across the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Guilherme; Viana, Maria Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Suicide tends to occur in families, and parental psychopathology has been linked to offspring suicidal behaviors. This study explores the influence of parental mental disorders across the lifespan. Data are from the Sao Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey, a cross-sectional household study with a representative sample of the adult population living in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil (N=2,942). Survival models examined bivariate and multivariate associations between a range of parental disorders and offspring suicidality. After controlling for comorbidity, number of mental disorders and offspring psychopathology, we found that parental psychopathology influences suicidal behaviors throughout most part of the life cycle, from childhood until young adult years. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and antisocial personality were associated with offspring suicidal ideation (OR 1.8 and 1.9, respectively), panic and GAD predicted suicidal attempts (OR 2.3 and 2.7, respectively), and panic was related to the transition from ideation to attempts (OR 2.7). Although noticed in many different stages of the lifespan, this influence is most evident during adolescence. In this period, depression and antisocial personality increased the odds of suicidal ideation (OR 5.1 and 3.2, respectively), and depression, panic disorder, GAD and substance abuse predicted suicidal attempts (OR varying from 1.7 to 3.8). In short, parental disorders characterized by impulsive-aggression and anxiety-agitation were the main predictors of offspring suicidality across the lifespan. This clinically relevant intergenerational transmission of suicide risk was independent of offspring mental disorders, and this underscores the need for a family approach to psychopathology. PMID:26230321

  17. What Do Childhood Anxiety Disorders Predict?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bittner, Antje; Egger, Helen L.; Erkanli, Alaattin; Costello, E. Jane; Foley, Debra L.; Angold, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    Background: Few longitudinal studies of child and adolescent psychopathology have examined the links between specific childhood anxiety disorders and adolescent psychiatric disorder. In this paper we test the predictive specificity of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), overanxious disorder (OAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and social…

  18. Cannabis and psychopathology: The meandering journey of the last decade

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Abhishek; Basu, Debasish

    2015-01-01

    Since its inception cannabis has been observed to be associated with various psycho-pathology. In this paper, the authors have reviewed the advancement made in this area over the last decade. The association between cannabis and schizophrenia has been researched more intensively. The controversy regarding the reliability, clinical utility, and the existence of a cannabis withdrawal syndrome has also been settled. Recent studies also buttressed the possibility of acute and chronic effect of cannabis on various cognitive functions. There has been a plethora of research regarding the treatment for cannabis use disorders. But the new and most interesting area of research is concentrated on the endocannabinoid system and its contribution in various psychiatric disorders. PMID:26124519

  19. Epilogue: bridging the gap between research on attachment and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    del Carmen, R; Huffman, L

    1996-04-01

    Clinicians and researchers are beginning to acknowledge the importance of integrating a developmental perspective into the understanding of clinical disorders. The application of findings from basic attachment research to this understanding of psychopathology is a prototype for interdisciplinary research. However, major gaps continue to exist between basic research on attachment processes and clinical issues of assessment, classification, and treatment of mental disorders from infancy through adolescence. This epilogue highlights the importance of more integrative research. As a reflection of growth in this direction, National Institute of Mental Health funding patterns are reviewed, and promising areas for future research are suggested. The field is well positioned for conceptual advancement if more integrative approaches are used. PMID:8871413

  20. [The hand and rheumatism].

    PubMed

    Lioté, F; Chicheportiche, V

    1997-01-01

    The hand is a major site of musculoskeletal disorders. Clinical features to be studied include the patient's age and sex, pain, stiffness, range of motion of the various joints of the wrists and hands, soft tissue swelling (particularly tendons sheaths), bone excrescences, skin changes. Radiological abnormalities in the hands, if any, may confirm the clinical diagnosis. The main features of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriatic arthritis, erosive degenerative changes, Südeck syndrome, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease, etc., are reviewed. PMID:9810076

  1. Early onset psychopathology and the risk for teenage pregnancy among clinically referred girls.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, M; Krol, R S; Voti, L

    1994-01-01

    An existing longitudinal data set was used to investigate the hypothesis that a depressive disorder in childhood increases the risk of an adolescent pregnancy. Depression is characterized by low self-esteem, lowered concern about one's personal welfare, passivity, and impaired motivation--all of which may prevent teenage girls from taking steps to protect themselves from pregnancy. The 83 subjects had been referred to a child psychiatric clinic (86%) or a general medical facility (12%) in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, between the ages of 8-13 years (average age at intake, 11.5 years). They underwent 4 clinical assessments in the first year of study participation and 2 assessments in each subsequent year. 65 girls experienced 1 or more DSM-III-R defined depressive episodes during the study period; the rest, who served as psychopathologic controls, had conduct disorders. 25 of the 83 subjects (30%, compared to the national average of 24%) had documented pregnancies by the age of 18 years. 28% of the pregnant teens had a history of early onset depression compared with 66% of their nonpregnant counterparts. On the other hand, 76% of the pregnant teens had been diagnosed with a conduct disorder by the age of 18 compared with 24% of the nonpregnant girls. Preliminary analysis further indicated that teenage pregnancy was associated with having been born out of wedlock or to a mother aged 18 years or younger; living in an intact family at time of study enrollment and socioeconomic status were not significant correlates. In the multivariate analysis, however, only two factors retained significance: a conduct disorder diagnosis in childhood (mean time to first pregnancy was 17.3 years compared to 18.7 years among remaining subjects) and race (Blacks tended to become pregnant by 17.4 years compared to an average of 18.7 years for Whites). No significant interaction was detected between a conduct disorder and race. These findings suggest that educational interventions aimed at

  2. The Relationship between Parental Alcoholism and Adolescent Psychopathology: A Systematic Examination of Parental Comorbid Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; Hesselbrock, Victor M.; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Samuel; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Schuckit, Marc A.; Nurnberger, John I., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between parental alcohol dependence (with and without comorbid psychopathology) and adolescent psychopathology was examined in a sample of 665 13-17 year-old adolescents and their parents. Results indicated that adolescents who had parents diagnosed with alcohol dependence only did not significantly differ from adolescents who had…

  3. The Relationship Between Parental Psychopathology and Adolescent Psychopathology: An Examination of Gender Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCauley Ohannessian, Christine; Hesselbrock, Victor M.; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Samuel; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Schuckit, Mark A.; Nurnberger, John I.

    2005-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine the relationship between parental psychopathology (specifically, alcohol dependence and depression) and adolescent psychopathology, by the gender of the adolescent and the gender of the parent. The sample included 426 13- to 17-year-old adolescents and their parents. All participants were administered…

  4. Large-scale brain networks and psychopathology: a unifying triple network model.

    PubMed

    Menon, Vinod

    2011-10-01

    The science of large-scale brain networks offers a powerful paradigm for investigating cognitive and affective dysfunction in psychiatric and neurological disorders. This review examines recent conceptual and methodological developments which are contributing to a paradigm shift in the study of psychopathology. I summarize methods for characterizing aberrant brain networks and demonstrate how network analysis provides novel insights into dysfunctional brain architecture. Deficits in access, engagement and disengagement of large-scale neurocognitive networks are shown to play a prominent role in several disorders including schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, dementia and autism. Synthesizing recent research, I propose a triple network model of aberrant saliency mapping and cognitive dysfunction in psychopathology, emphasizing the surprising parallels that are beginning to emerge across psychiatric and neurological disorders. PMID:21908230

  5. Executive functioning - a key construct for understanding developmental psychopathology or a 'catch-all' term in need of some rethinking?

    PubMed

    Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2016-04-01

    For the past few decades, the role of executive functions in developmental psychopathology has been the focus of considerable research and a feature of conceptual models for a range of conditions including, but not limited to, ADHD, autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, learning disorders, and aggression/conduct problems. Consistent with its prominence throughout the field, executive functioning plays a central role in approximately a third of the papers in this issue of JCPP, and notably, with foci largely on different conditions. These papers, all of which make valuable contributions to the field, propose or test the possibility of a causal role for executive functions in the emergence of psychopathology. PMID:26968313

  6. Trauma Exposure and Axis I Psychopathology: A Co-twin Control Analysis in Norwegian Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ruth C.; Berenz, Erin C.; Aggen, Steven H.; Gardner, Charles O.; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Amstadter, Ananda B.

    2014-01-01

    Broad associations between trauma exposure (TE) and Axis I psychopathology have been noted in the literature. However, it is not clear if TE is directly associated with Axis I disorders or if the relationship is better accounted for by familial factors (i.e., early environment and/or genetic factors). The current investigation used the co-twin control method in a large sample of adult twin pairs from the Norwegian Twin Registry (N = 2,776), including 449 twin pairs discordant for DSM-IV Criterion A TE. History of TE and Axis I psychopathology was assessed using DSM-IV based clinical interview. Results suggested that TE was significantly associated with greater likelihood of meeting criteria for major depression, dysthymia, anxiety, substance abuse, eating disorders, and somatization disorder in the general population (odds ratios [OR] ranging from 1.33 to 2.21). Among twins discordant for TE, results suggested that TE may exert a direct influence on major depression, dysthymia, anxiety, substance abuse, eating disorders, and somatization disorder. Shared familial effects may also account for at least some of the relationship between TE and major depression. TE may play an important role in the development of a wide range of Axis I psychopathology above and beyond familial factors. Research and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:25544868

  7. [Neuropsychological and psychopathologic changes following cardiac surgical procedures].

    PubMed

    Walzer, T A; Herrmann, M

    1998-02-01

    Neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric disorders following open heart surgery are estimated to occur in as many as 80 per cent of all patients. They have been recognised from the very beginning of modern heart surgery. Despite a huge amount of scientific literature, data concerning incidence, the phenomenology and duration of symptoms diverge. This finding may be explained by heterogeneous aetiopathogenetic concepts and methodological and terminological problems associated with the investigation of postoperative delirium or neuropsychological and psychopathological sequelae of cardiac surgery. Nowadays, most authors agree in respect of a multifactorial pathogenesis of cognitive deficits following cardiac surgery. Factors influencing the psychopathological and neuropsychological outcome of cardiac surgery can be divided into pre-, intra- and postoperative variables. Advanced age, degree of cardiovascular impairment and other case histories, as well as history of drug abuse, are those preoperative variables that may be responsible for a postoperative cognitive decline. The predictive value of personality traits (depression and/or anxiety), however, is most controversial. Among the intraoperative variables related to the postoperative cognitive state, are e.g. the type of operation and technical procedure (micro-/macroembolism due to the way of oxygenation, pulsatile/-non-pulsatile flow) and duration of extracorporeal circulation. In the postoperative period, the duration of intubation or ICU stay and related variables (like sleep or sensory deprivation/hyperstimulation) were identified as significant predictors of neuropsychological and psychopathological alterations. Modern research focusses on neurobiochemical markers of brain injury which may serve as early predictors of a postoperative cognitive decrease. These parameters may indicate an early postoperative diagnosis and neuroprotective treatment in patients at risk. PMID:9512983

  8. The Relationship Between Psychopathology and a Hierarchical Model of Normal Personality Traits: Evidence From a Psychiatric Patient Sample.

    PubMed

    Uliaszek, Amanda A; Al-Dajani, Nadia; Bagby, R Michael

    2015-12-01

    Shifts in the conceptualization of psychopathology have favored a dimensional approach, with the five-factor model (FFM) playing a prominent role in this research. However, reservations about the utility of the FFM in differentiating disorders have risen. In the current investigation, a "bottom-up" analytical method was used to ascertain the hierarchical structure of personality, with investigation of the specificity of the traits in categorizing diagnostic categories across an expanded array of psychiatric disorders. Following earlier investigations, which used a hierarchical structural approach, this study presents new results relating to the differentiation of several forms of psychopathology not included in these earlier analyses--bipolar disorder, psychotic disorders, problem gambling, posttraumatic stress disorder, and somatoform disorders--across distinct levels of a personality hierarchy based on the FFM. These results bolster the argument for the use of FFM personality traits in characterizing and differentiating psychiatric diagnostic groups. PMID:25562540

  9. Psychopathology and Related Psychosocial Factors in Children with Office Discipline Referrals at School: Evidence from a Developing Country.

    PubMed

    Esin, İbrahim Selçuk; Dursun, Onur Burak; Acemoğlu, Hamit; Baykara, Burak

    2015-10-01

    Many childhood psychiatric disorders present their first symptoms as challenging behaviors at school. Evidence from cross-national studies enhance the understanding of the biological and cultural variables underlying these behaviours. In this study, we aim to identify the psychopathology among children with office disciplinary referrals and assess psychosocial risk factors related to this situation. Forty-seven students who had received an office discipline referral and eighty-three controls who had never been given an office disciplinary referral participated in this study. The Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children--Present and Lifetime, socio-demographic data form were administered to children to assess their respective psychopathologies and psychosocial risk factors. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and obsessive compulsive disorder were significantly higher in children with Office discipline referrals. Psychiatric assessment should be one of the first steps in the evaluation processes of assessing challenging behaviors at school. PMID:25827302

  10. Coping strategies in a sample of anxiety patients: factorial analysis and associations with psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Pozzi, Gino; Frustaci, Alessandra; Tedeschi, Daniela; Solaroli, Silvia; Grandinetti, Paolo; Di Nicola, Marco; Janiri, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between coping styles and mental disorders has received considerable attention and instruments have been developed to assess coping strategies. The measurement by means of category systems has been criticized and a functional hierarchy of action types linked to the adaptive processes is preferred. We aimed to determine which factors may exist within the Brief-COPE (Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced – COPE – Inventory) in an Italian sample of patients with anxiety disorders; and if these factors correlate with the severity of psychopathology or with other characteristics. Methods A total sample of 148 patients was recruited. The Brief-COPE inventory, the Symptom Check List 90-Revised, the Penn State Worry Questionnaire, the Zung Anxiety Status Inventory and the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale were administered. Results Factor analysis of the Brief-COPE yielded nine factors accounting for 65.48% of the variance. Patients scored higher on Searching Support, followed by Acceptance, Changing Perspective, and Problem Solving. Associations between measures of psychopathology and factors of coping strategies, mostly Searching support and Avoidance, were found. Conclusions Data of the present study support a nine-factor structure of the Brief-COPE that includes five broad dimensions of coping. Psychopathology was mostly related to Searching support and Avoidance factors, showing that these strategies may reflect ineffective ways of coping; Problem solving and Changing perspective could be a valid approach to moderate anxiety/depression symptoms and psychopathology in general. PMID:26356192

  11. Hand Washing

    MedlinePlus

    ... dirty little secrets: Students don't wash their hands often or well. In one study, only 58% of female and 48% of male middle- and high-school students washed their hands after using the bathroom. Yuck! previous continue How ...

  12. Hand washing.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    A surgery matron has writt en a hand hygiene promotional video rap to encourage staff, patients and visitors to wash their hands. Vicky Cartwright from University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust rewrote the lyrics to 1990s hit rap, Ice Ice Baby. PMID:27380706

  13. [Post-traumatic stress disorder and delusions. A case report].

    PubMed

    Arenz, D; Dudova, K; Traxler, S; Sieg, J

    2000-11-01

    The present paper initially discusses the possible transitions existing between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and delusional disorder. With respect to the latter, the main focus is on the psychopathological concept of the so-called sensitive delusion of reference. A patient who developed a delusional disorder secondary to PTSD, which had been precipitated by his involvement in a serious auto accident, is then described. The details of this case seem to lend some support to the hypothesis of a clinical continuum provided that the "trauma" found in PTSD, on the one hand, and the "crucial experience" associated with the sensitive delusion of reference, on the other, positively correlate with the presence of prominent sensitive traits of personality. PMID:11140166

  14. Parental psychopathology and treatment outcome for anxious youth: Roles of family functioning and caregiver strain

    PubMed Central

    Schleider, Jessica L.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Keeton, Courtney P.; Weisz, John R.; Birmaher, Boris; Kendall, Phillip C.; Piacentini, John; Sherrill, Joel; Walkup, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Research has examined the effects of parental psychopathology, family functioning, and caregiver strain on treatment response in anxious youths. Although these variables have shown individual links to youth treatment response, theoretical models for their combined effects remain unexplored. This study tested the hypothesis that improvements in family functioning and reductions in caregiver strain explained the effects of parental psychopathology on youth treatment outcome in an anxiety treatment trial. Method A multiple mediation technique was used to test the proposed model across independent evaluator (IE), parent, and youth informants in 488 youths, aged 7–17 years (50% female; mean age 10.7) meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for social phobia, separation anxiety, and/or generalized anxiety disorder. Youths were randomized to receive 12 weeks of cognitive-behavioral treatment (Coping Cat), medication (sertraline), their combination, or a pill placebo. At pre- and post-treatment, parents completed self-report measures of global psychopathology symptoms, family functioning, and caregiver strain; parents, youths, and IEs rated youths’ anxiety symptom severity. Results Changes in family functioning and caregiver strain jointly explained relations between parental psychopathology and reductions in youth anxiety. Specifically, across IE and parent informants, families with higher pre-treatment parental psychopathology showed more improvement in family functioning and caregiver strain, which in turn predicted greater youth anxiety reductions. Further, higher pre-treatment parental psychopathology predicted greater caregiver strain reductions, and in turn, greater youth anxiety reductions, based on youths’ reports of their own anxiety. Conclusions Findings suggest that improvements in family functioning and reductions in caregiver strain can influence treatment outcomes for anxious youths, especially among youths with more distressed parents. Public health

  15. Relative deprivation and psychopathology of Chinese college students.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Tao, Mengke

    2013-09-25

    Previous researchers have studied the relationship between mental disorder and major demographic variables, but the study on the relationship between relative poverty or relative deprivation, a subjectively perceived status in comparison with people around, and psychopathology is rare. Data for this study were obtained from a survey research conducted on a university campus in Beijing China, between 2007 and 2011, with a total of 5925 college students who participated in the surveys over the past five years. According to the Strain Theory of suicide we hypothesized that the stronger the relative deprivation, the higher the level of depression for the students and the higher the degree of suicidal ideation the students would experience. Findings indicated that relative deprivation is significantly correlated with suicidal ideation, positively related with depression and negatively related to social support. It is proposed that reduction of psychological strains might be an effective procedure to reduce college students' psychopathology and increase their positive psychological feelings such as self-perceived social support. PMID:23714373

  16. Orbitofrontal sulcogyral patterns are related to temperamental risk for psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Whittle, Sarah; Bartholomeusz, Cali; Yücel, Murat; Dennison, Meg; Vijayakumar, Nandita

    2014-01-01

    There are marked individual differences in the pattern of cortical (sulcogyral) folding in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and there is a growing literature suggesting that these individual differences are associated with risk for psychotic disorders. To date, however, no study has investigated whether OFC folding patterns are associated with broader risk factors relevant to a range of psychopathology. This study helps address this knowledge gap by examining whether OFC sulcogyral folding patterns are associated with putative risk factors, specifically affective temperament and psychiatric symptoms, in a large community sample (N = 152) of adolescents. Results showed that the most common pattern of folding (‘Type I’, marked by discontinuity of the medial orbital sulcus and continuity of the lateral orbital sulcus) was associated with low levels of Surgency, high levels of Negative Affectivity (in girls) and higher depressive symptoms. This pattern was also associated with reduced thickness of OFC gray matter. Overall, the findings, combined with previous work, suggest some specificity of neurodevelopmental risk for different types of psychopathology. Thus, these results have the potential to inform the early identification of at-risk individuals. PMID:23160816

  17. Familial association of anxiety sensitivity and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    East, Allison J; Berman, Mitchell E; Stoppelbein, Laura

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between parental (biological mother and father) and adult-offspring anxiety sensitivity (AS), and to determine whether parental AS is related to psychopathology in offspring. We obtained offspring (N=174) self-ratings of anxiety, mood, and stress symptoms, and assigned psychiatric diagnoses using a semistructured clinical interview. Biological mothers, fathers, and offspring independently completed a self-report measure of AS. We hypothesized that (1) there would be a positive relation between parental and offspring AS, and (2) AS in parents would be positively associated with psychopathology in offspring. Results indicated that paternal (but not maternal) AS was associated with offspring AS and psychopathology. PMID:17004235

  18. Changes in psychopathology of parents of NOFT (non-organic failure to thrive) infants during treatment.

    PubMed

    Duniz, M; Scheer, P J; Trojovsky, A; Kaschnitz, W; Kvas, E; Macari, S

    1996-06-01

    This clinical case-study of 50 infants suffering from NOFT (non-organic failure to thrive) and their parents supports the idea that the feeding problem is intimately related to parental disorders. We find a high rate (70%) of parental psychopathology (axis I diagnosis applying DSM-III-R) at the time of referral and a significant reduction (to 37%) during treatment of the infants and their parents. After a year only 12% of the parents were diagnosed with psychiatric disorders. In contrast personality disorders (axis II diagnosis applying DSM-III-R) show more stability and can be regarded as a trait variable, whereas the psychiatric disorders are of a more reactive nature. These conclusions may be influenced somewhat by the strictly hospital based design of our pilot study (infants and parents contacted only after clinical referral) and by inclusion only of firstborn infants. Nevertheless, they point to the psychopathology of parents as a main cause for non-organic failure to thrive. Psychopathological traits such as severe attachment behavior problems and primary bonding difficulties may have been latent and only became manifest due to the task of nurturing an infant for the first time. PMID:8814415

  19. [White walls for black holes: essay on graffiti psychopathology].

    PubMed

    Catheline-Antipoff, N; Soulayrol, R

    1995-01-01

    Through a clinical case, the authors propose a psychological approach of tagging. The phenomenon that started in Harlem's black ghettos at the end of seventies and appeared in France less than ten years after, does not seem to be a simple sociological one, but seems to take place within the psychic economy of certain adolescents as an attempt to operate the necessary identity work to become an adult. Tagging as well as wandering can be considered adolescents' acting out behaviors and show the externalization of the psychic processes, thus proving a basic insecurity in their psychic space, invaded by anaclitic depression. Graffing, on the other hand, bears a resemblance to strolling in a psychopathologic approach, and already shows an attempt to become a person, and a quest of the Other. PMID:8657804

  20. Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Omni-Hand was developed by Ross-Hime Designs, Inc. for Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. The multiple digit hand has an opposable thumb and a flexible wrist. Electric muscles called Minnacs power wrist joints and the interchangeable digits. Two hands have been delivered to NASA for evaluation for potential use on space missions and the unit is commercially available for applications like hazardous materials handling and manufacturing automation. Previous SBIR contracts resulted in the Omni-Wrist and Omni-Wrist II robotic systems, which are commercially available for spray painting, sealing, ultrasonic testing, as well as other uses.

  1. Efavirenz Promotes β-Secretase Expression and Increased Aβ1-40,42 via Oxidative Stress and Reduced Microglial Phagocytosis: Implications for HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND)

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lecia A. M.; Jin, Jingji; Ferrell, Darren; Sadic, Edin; Obregon, Demian; Smith, Adam J.; Tan, Jun; Giunta, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Efavirenz (EFV) is among the most commonly used antiretroviral drugs globally, causes neurological symptoms that interfere with adherence and reduce tolerability, and may have central nervous system (CNS) effects that contribute in part to HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Thus we evaluated a commonly used EFV containing regimen: EFV/zidovudine (AZT)/lamivudine (3TC) in murine N2a cells transfected with the human “Swedish” mutant form of amyloid precursor protein (SweAPP N2a cells) to assess for promotion of amyloid-beta (Aβ) production. Treatment with EFV or the EFV containing regimen generated significantly increased soluble amyloid beta (Aβ), and promoted increased β-secretase-1 (BACE-1) expression while 3TC, AZT, or, vehicle control did not significantly alter these endpoints. Further, EFV or the EFV containing regimen promoted significantly more mitochondrial stress in SweAPP N2a cells as compared to 3TC, AZT, or vehicle control. We next tested the EFV containing regimen in Aβ - producing Tg2576 mice combined or singly using clinically relevant doses. EFV or the EFV containing regimen promoted significantly more BACE-1 expression and soluble Aβ generation while 3TC, AZT, or vehicle control did not. Finally, microglial Aβ phagocytosis was significantly reduced by EFV or the EFV containing regimen but not by AZT, 3TC, or vehicle control alone. These data suggest the majority of Aβ promoting effects of this cART regimen are dependent upon EFV as it promotes both increased production, and decreased clearance of Aβ peptide. PMID:24759994

  2. [Clinical aspects and the course of psychopathologic conditions simulating vertebrogenic pathology].

    PubMed

    Ostroglazov, V G; Lisina, M A

    1989-01-01

    The study of clinical picture and the course of unclear pathological states simulating the vertebral pathology suggested that the major signs were centered around the primary general and muscular sensory disorders. These served as a basis for development of more complicated psychosensory and psychomotor disorders and creation of an interpretative hypochondriac++ delirium system. Domination of psychomotor disorders led to a high incidence of social and labor dysadaptation of the patients. Thus, the study of this unclear mental pathology has a major theoretic, clinico-psychopathological and also practical medico-social importance. PMID:2781926

  3. Hand Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Uma Shankar; Besarwal, Raj Kumar; Gupta, Rahul; Agarwal, Puneet; Napalia, Sheetal

    2014-01-01

    Hand eczema is often a chronic, multifactorial disease. It is usually related to occupational or routine household activities. Exact etiology of the disease is difficult to determine. It may become severe enough and disabling to many of patients in course of time. An estimated 2-10% of population is likely to develop hand eczema at some point of time during life. It appears to be the most common occupational skin disease, comprising 9-35% of all occupational diseases and up to 80% or more of all occupational contact dermatitis. So, it becomes important to find the exact etiology and classification of the disease and to use the appropriate preventive and treatment measures. Despite its importance in the dermatological practice, very few Indian studies have been done till date to investigate the epidemiological trends, etiology, and treatment options for hand eczema. In this review, we tried to find the etiology, epidemiology, and available treatment modalities for chronic hand eczema patients. PMID:24891648

  4. The Developmental Psychopathology of Worry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kertz, Sarah J.; Woodruff-Borden, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Although childhood generalized anxiety disorder is generally understudied, worry, the cardinal feature of GAD, appears to be relatively common in youth. Despite its prevalence, there are few conceptual models of the development of clinical worry in children. The current review provides a framework for integrating the developmental psychopathology…

  5. Psychopathology in Female Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Angela; Howie, Pauline; Starling, Jean

    2004-01-01

    Background: The aim was to document the spectrum of present and lifetime psychological disorders in female juvenile offenders, and to examine the relations between mental health status and socio-demographic, family and trauma variables. Method: One hundred juvenile offenders were matched with a comparison group of 100 females on age and…

  6. Comorbidities and continuities as ontogenic processes: Toward a developmental spectrum model of externalizing psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Beauchaine, Theodore P.; McNulty, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    Research on child and adolescent mental health problems has burgeoned since the inaugural issue of Development and Psychopathology was published in 1989. In the quarter century since, static models of psychopathology have been abandoned in favor of transactional models, following the agenda set by editor Dante Cicchetti and other proponents of the discipline. The transactional approach, which has been applied to autism, depression, self-injury, and delinquency, (a) specifies vulnerabilities and risk factors across multiple levels of analysis spanning genes to cultures, (b) identifies multifinal and equifinal pathways to psychopathology, and (c) transcends traditional disciplinary boundaries. However, as noted by Rutter and Sroufe (2000), specific mechanisms of continuity, discontinuity, and comorbidity of psychopathology must be identified if we wish to understand etiology fully. In this article, we present a model of early-onset externalizing behavior in which comorbidities and continuities are viewed as ontogenic processes: products of complex longitudinal transactions between interdependent individual-level vulnerabilities (e.g., genetic, epigenetic, allostatic) and equally interdependent contextual risk factors (e.g., coercive parenting, deviant peer group affiliations, neighborhood criminality). Through interactions across levels of analysis, some individuals traverse along the externalizing spectrum, beginning with heritable trait impulsivity in preschool and ending in antisociality in adulthood. In describing our model, we note that (a) the approach outlined in the DSM to subtyping externalizing disorders continues to obscure developmental pathways to antisociality, (b) molecular genetics studies will likely not identify meaningful subtypes of externalizing disorder, and (c) ontogenic trait approaches to psychopathology are much more likely to advance the discipline in upcoming years. PMID:24342853

  7. Comorbidities and continuities as ontogenic processes: toward a developmental spectrum model of externalizing psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Beauchaine, Theodore P; McNulty, Tiffany

    2013-11-01

    Research on child and adolescent mental health problems has burgeoned since the inaugural issue of Development and Psychopathology was published in 1989. In the quarter century since, static models of psychopathology have been abandoned in favor of transactional models, following the agenda set by editor Dante Cicchetti and other proponents of the discipline. The transactional approach, which has been applied to autism, depression, self-injury, and delinquency, (a) specifies vulnerabilities and risk factors across multiple levels of analysis spanning genes to cultures, (b) identifies multifinal and equifinal pathways to psychopathology, and (c) transcends traditional disciplinary boundaries. However, as noted by Rutter and Sroufe (2000), specific mechanisms of continuity, discontinuity, and comorbidity of psychopathology must be identified if we wish to understand etiology fully. In this article, we present a model of early-onset externalizing behavior in which comorbidities and continuities are viewed as ontogenic processes: products of complex longitudinal transactions between interdependent individual-level vulnerabilities (e.g., genetic, epigenetic, allostatic) and equally interdependent contextual risk factors (e.g., coercive parenting, deviant peer group affiliations, neighborhood criminality). Through interactions across levels of analysis, some individuals traverse along the externalizing spectrum, beginning with heritable trait impulsivity in preschool and ending in antisociality in adulthood. In describing our model, we note that (a) the approach outlined in the DSM to subtyping externalizing disorders continues to obscure developmental pathways to antisociality, (b) molecular genetics studies will likely not identify meaningful subtypes of externalizing disorder, and (c) ontogenic trait approaches to psychopathology are much more likely to advance the discipline in upcoming years. PMID:24342853

  8. Dieting in bulimia nervosa is associated with increased food restriction and psychopathology but decreased binge eating.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Michael R; Witt, Ashley A; Grossman, Stephanie L

    2013-08-01

    The cognitive behavioral model of bulimia nervosa (BN) suggests that dieting is central to the maintenance of binge eating. However, correlational and experimental studies suggest that additional clarification is needed about the nature of this relationship. Dieting, weight, eating disorder psychopathology, and depression were assessed at admission among 166 patients with BN presenting for residential treatment. As in past research, a significant fraction (43%) of patients with BN reported not currently dieting. A comparison of weight loss dieters and non-dieters found greater food restriction and eating disorder psychopathology among weight loss dieters. However, dieters reported less frequent binge eating. There were no significant group differences in depression. Results suggest that 1) while many individuals with BN are attempting to restrict their food intake, the goal of losing weight fundamentally alters the effect of such restriction on binge eating, and 2) treatment may benefit from helping patients to establish a healthier approach to achieving long-term weight stability. PMID:23910778

  9. Sunshine, Serotonin, and Skin: A Partial Explanation for Seasonal Patterns in Psychopathology?

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies indicate that there can be seasonal variations in the expression of psychiatric phenomena, especially mood and anxiety symptoms, as well as completed suicide. Indeed, in acknowledgement of the potential for seasonal effects in depressive disorders, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition indicates the specifier, “with seasonal pattern.” However, the explanations for the relationships between seasonal changes and exacerbations of psychopathology remain unclear, although the empirical literature indicates that an association between sunshine and serotonin is likely. Given that the relationship between sunshine and serotonin is probably a multimediated phenomenon, one contributory facet may be the role of sunshine on human skin. Human skin has an inherent serotonergic system that appears capable of generating serotonin. In this edition of The Interface, we discuss the relationships among psychopathology, sunshine, serotonin, and the skin. PMID:24062970

  10. Childhood maltreatment and psychopathology: A case for ecophenotypic variants as clinically and neurobiologically distinct subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Teicher, Martin H.; Samson, Jacqueline A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Childhood maltreatment increases risk for psychopathology. For some highly prevalent disorders (i.e., major depression, substance abuse, anxiety disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder) there is a substantial subset of individuals with maltreatment histories and a substantial subset without. Do those with maltreatment histories represent a clinically and biologically distinct subtype? Method The authors review literature on maltreatment as a risk factor for these disorders and on the clinical differences between individuals with and without maltreatment who share the same diagnoses. Neurobiological findings in maltreated individuals are reviewed and compared to findings reported for these disorders. Results Maltreated individuals with depressive, anxiety and substance use disorders show an earlier age of onset, greater symptom severity, more comorbidity, increased risk for suicide and poorer treatment response than non-maltreated individuals with the same diagnoses. Imaging findings associated with these disorders, such as reduced hippocampal volume and amygdala hyperreactivity are more consistently observed in maltreated individuals and may represent a maltreatment-related risk factor. Maltreated individuals also differ from others due to epigenetic modifications and genetic polymorphisms that interact with experience to increase risk for psychopathology. Conclusions Phenotypic expression of psychopathology may be strongly influenced by exposure to maltreatment leading to a constellation of ecophenotypes. While these ecophenotypes fit within conventional diagnostic boundaries, they likely represent distinct subtypes. Recognition of this distinction may be essential in determining the biological bases of these disorders. Further, treatment guidelines and algorithms may be enhanced if maltreated and non-maltreated individuals with the same diagnostic labels are differentiated. PMID:23982148

  11. Psychopathological aspects of kidney transplantation: Efficacy of a multidisciplinary team

    PubMed Central

    De Pasquale, Concetta; Veroux, Massimiliano; Indelicato, Luisa; Sinagra, Nunzia; Giaquinta, Alessia; Fornaro, Michele; Veroux, Pierfrancesco; Pistorio, Maria L

    2014-01-01

    Renal transplantation is a well established treatment for end-stage renal disease, allowing most patients to return to a satisfactory quality of life. Studies have identified many problems that may affect adaptation to the transplanted condition and post-operative compliance. The psychological implications of transplantation have important consequences even on strictly physical aspects. Organ transplantation is very challenging for the patient and acts as an intense stressor stimulus to which the patient reacts with neurotransmitter and endocrine-metabolic changes. Transplantation can result in a psychosomatic crisis that requires the patient to mobilize all bio-psycho-social resources during the process of adaptation to the new foreign organ which may result in an alteration in self-representation and identity, with possible psychopathologic repercussions. These reactions are feasible in mental disorders, e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorder, and psychosomatic disorders. In organ transplantation, the fruitful collaboration between professionals with diverse scientific expertise, calls for both a guarantee for mental health and greater effectiveness in challenging treatments for a viable association between patients, family members and doctors. Integrated and multidisciplinary care should include uniform criteria and procedures for standard assessments, for patient autonomy, adherence to therapy, new coping strategies and the adoption of more appropriate lifestyles. PMID:25540735

  12. Psychopathological aspects of kidney transplantation: Efficacy of a multidisciplinary team.

    PubMed

    De Pasquale, Concetta; Veroux, Massimiliano; Indelicato, Luisa; Sinagra, Nunzia; Giaquinta, Alessia; Fornaro, Michele; Veroux, Pierfrancesco; Pistorio, Maria L

    2014-12-24

    Renal transplantation is a well established treatment for end-stage renal disease, allowing most patients to return to a satisfactory quality of life. Studies have identified many problems that may affect adaptation to the transplanted condition and post-operative compliance. The psychological implications of transplantation have important consequences even on strictly physical aspects. Organ transplantation is very challenging for the patient and acts as an intense stressor stimulus to which the patient reacts with neurotransmitter and endocrine-metabolic changes. Transplantation can result in a psychosomatic crisis that requires the patient to mobilize all bio-psycho-social resources during the process of adaptation to the new foreign organ which may result in an alteration in self-representation and identity, with possible psychopathologic repercussions. These reactions are feasible in mental disorders, e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorder, and psychosomatic disorders. In organ transplantation, the fruitful collaboration between professionals with diverse scientific expertise, calls for both a guarantee for mental health and greater effectiveness in challenging treatments for a viable association between patients, family members and doctors. Integrated and multidisciplinary care should include uniform criteria and procedures for standard assessments, for patient autonomy, adherence to therapy, new coping strategies and the adoption of more appropriate lifestyles. PMID:25540735

  13. The Relationship between Psychopathology Symptom Clusters and the Presence of Comorbid Psychopathology in Individuals with Severe to Profound Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozlowski, Alison M.; Matson, Johnny L.; Sipes, Megan; Hattier, Megan A.; Bamburg, Jay W.

    2011-01-01

    In the typically developing population, comorbid psychopathology refers to the co-occurrence of two different psychopathologies other than cognitive impairments. With respect to individuals with intellectual disability, comorbidity is often described as cognitive deficits and one additional psychopathology manifesting together. However, just as…

  14. [Psychopathological profile of battered women according to age].

    PubMed

    Sarasua, Belén; Zubizarreta, Irene; Echeburúa, Enrique; Del Corral, Paz

    2007-08-01

    In this paper, differential psychopathological consequences in battered women according to age were analysed in a sample of 148 victims seeking psychological treatment in a Family Violence Centre. The younger victims exposed to intimate partner violence suffered more often from physical violence and were at higher risk for their lives than the older ones. The prevalence rate of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was higher (42%) in the younger victims than in the older ones (27%). Likewise, younger victims were affected by more depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem than the older ones. The severity of PTSD in the younger victims was related to the presence of forced sexual relationship but in the older ones, it was related to the perceived threat to their lives. Implications of this study for clinical practice and future research in this field are commented upon. PMID:17617986

  15. Suicide and gambling: psychopathology and treatment-seeking.

    PubMed

    Séguin, Monique; Boyer, Richard; Lesage, Alain; McGirr, Alexandre; Suissa, Amnon; Tousignant, Michel; Turecki, Gustavo

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate suicides with a history of problem gambling (PG) and others with no such history (NPG) and to compare the two on mental health problems and service utilization. Data on a sample of 49 PG suicides and 73 NPG suicides were obtained from informants and hospital records. Psychopathology was prevalent in both groups, but problem gamblers were twice as likely to have a personality disorder. Moreover, PG suicides were less in contact with mental health services in their last month, their last year, and their lifetime. NPG suicides consulted specialized services from 3 (last month and last year) to 13 times (lifetime) as often as their PG counterparts. Lower service utilization associated with PG suicides argues in favor of stepping up detection, engagement in care and treatment with respect to problem gambling, especially when comorbidity is present. PMID:20853941

  16. Neurocognition, psychopathology, and subjective disturbances in schizophrenia: a comparison between short-term and remitted patients.

    PubMed

    Comparelli, Anna; De Carolis, Antonella; Corigliano, Valentina; Romano, Silvia; Kotzalidis, Giorgio; Brugnoli, Roberto; Tamorri, Stefano; Curto, Martina; Tatarelli, Roberto; Ferracuti, Stefano; Girardi, Paolo

    2012-10-01

    Patients with schizophrenia present deficits in multiple domains of cognition. The study of the relationship between cognitive performance and symptoms of schizophrenia has yielded heterogeneous results. The purposes of this study were to examine the extent of the relationship between psychopathologic symptoms, cognitive function, and subjective disturbances in a group of patients affected by schizophrenia spectrum disorders and to compare short-term with remitted patients. Seventy-nine patients meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria for schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, and schizoaffective disorder were assessed through the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire, and a neuropsychologic battery exploring the 7 Measurement and Treatment Research to improve Cognition in Schizophrenia cognitive domains (speed of processing, attention/vigilance, working memory, verbal learning, visual learning, reasoning and problem solving, and social cognition) plus executive control. Neuropsychologic and psychopathologic variables were compared and correlated. Treatment groups did not differ in neuropsychologic and psychopathologic measures. The cognitive factor of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale correlated with worse performance on cognitive tasks and with higher scores on the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire 24 in the short-term, remitted, and combined groups. Subjective disturbances correlated with impaired executive control, reasoning and problem solving, and social cognition but not during the short-term phase. Both "objective" and subjective psychopathology are intertwined with cognitive function, suggesting some common underlying neural bases. The condition of being in a short-term or a remitted phase of the illness influences this interrelationship, regardless of the type of antipsychotic medication taken. PMID:22444951

  17. Maltreated Children's Memory: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Mitchell L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne; Crayton, John

    2007-01-01

    Memory, suggestibility, stress arousal, and trauma-related psychopathology were examined in 328 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of abuse and neglect. Children's memory and suggestibility were assessed for a medical examination and venipuncture. Being older and scoring higher in cognitive functioning were related to fewer…

  18. Current Psychopathology in Previously Assaulted Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acierno, Ron; Lawyer, Steven R.; Rheingold, Alyssa; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.

    2007-01-01

    Older adult women age 55+ years (N = 549) were interviewed as part of a population-based epidemiological research study of lifetime experiences with physical and sexual assault and current mental health problems. Although overall rates of psychopathology were low, producing very small cells for comparison, women who reported experiencing physical…

  19. Psychopathology as the basic science of psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Broome, Matthew R

    2014-09-01

    We argue that psychopathology, as the discipline that assesses and makes sense of abnormal human subjectivity, should be at the heart of psychiatry. It should be a basic educational prerequisite in the curriculum for mental health professionals and a key element of the shared intellectual identity of clinicians and researchers in this field. PMID:25179621

  20. Joint Trajectories of Bullying and Peer Victimization across Elementary and Middle School and Associations with Symptoms of Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haltigan, John D.; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    The joint development of trajectories of bullying perpetration and peer victimization from Grade 5 to Grade 8 and concurrent and predictive associations with parent- and child-reported symptoms of psychopathology (anxiety, depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and somatization) were examined in a large sample (N = 695) of Canadian…

  1. [Hands cutaneous exam].

    PubMed

    Lorette, Gérard; Samimi, Mahtab

    2013-12-01

    There are four different areas to consider: palms, back of the hands, fingers, periungual folds (and nails). Palmoplantar keratodermas are a group of inherited or acquired disorders. Dysidrosis is a peculiar form of eczema on the palms and lateral aspects of the fingers. SAPHO syndrome (Synovitis - Acne - Pustulosis - Hyperostosis - Osteomyelitis) presents pustules on palms. Photo-ageing is frequently noticed on the back of the hands. Paraneoplastic acrokeratosis (Bazex syndrome) affects the nose, ears, and periungual folds of fingers and toes. Spontaneous blue finger syndrome can be a benign process that resolves rapidly. PMID:24157184

  2. Moderators of informant agreement in the assessment of adolescent psychopathology: extension to a forensic sample.

    PubMed

    Penney, Stephanie R; Skilling, Tracey A

    2012-06-01

    A well-documented finding in developmental psychopathology research is that different informants often provide discrepant ratings of a youth's internalizing and externalizing problems. The current study examines youth- and parent-based moderators (i.e., youth age, gender, and IQ; type of psychopathology; offense category; psychopathic traits; parental education, income, and stress) of informant discrepancies in a sample of young offenders and compares the utility of youth and caregiver reports against relevant clinical outcomes. Results indicate that gender moderated the discrepancy between informant reports of somatic complaints, while parenting stress moderated the discrepancies across reports of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Variables unique to the forensic context (e.g., offense category) were found to moderate cross-informant discrepancies in reports of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Further, youth self-reports of internalizing symptoms predicted a clinician-generated diagnosis of a mood disorder, while caregiver reports of aggressive behaviors predicted the presence of an externalizing diagnosis. Results highlight the importance of assessing informant agreement in the context of forensic assessment and raise questions surrounding the optimal use of informant data in this setting. PMID:21966931

  3. The role of behavior in translational models for psychopathology: functionality and dysfunctional behaviors.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, D Caroline; Summers, Cliff H; Blanchard, Robert J

    2013-09-01

    The history of science has frequently included a problem-based impetus toward research that can be translated expeditiously into solutions. A current problem is that psychopathologies, typically chronic, contribute hugely to the economic and social burden of medical care, especially in the United States. For behavioral neuroscientists a psychopathology-aimed translational research emphasis particularly involves animal models to facilitate the experimental and invasive work necessary to an understanding of the biology of normal and aberrant behavior. When the etiology of a particular psychopathology is unknown, and there are no specific biomarkers, behavioral parallels between the focal disorder and its putative models become crucial elements in assessing model validity. Evaluation of these parallels is frequently neglected, reflecting in part the lack of a systematic conceptualization of the organization of behavior and how this may be conserved across species. Recent work specifically attempting to bridge this gap suggests that analysis of behaviors that are functional - adaptive in crucial situations such as danger or social contexts - can facilitate an understanding of the parallels between behaviors of human and nonhuman species, including the dysfunctional behaviors of psycho pathologies. As research with animal models comes to provide a more systematic analysis of particular behaviors and their adaptive functions, cross-talk between model and focal psychopathology may be advantageous to understanding both. PMID:23791787

  4. Testing Models of Psychopathology in Preschool-aged Children Using a Structured Interview-based Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have found that broadband internalizing and externalizing factors provide a parsimonious framework for understanding the structure of psychopathology across childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. However, few of these studies have examined psychopathology in young children, and several recent studies have found support for alternative models, including a bi-factor model with common and specific factors. The present study used parents’ (typically mothers’) reports on a diagnostic interview in a community sample of 3-year old children (n=541; 53.9 % male) to compare the internalizing-externalizing latent factor model with a bi-factor model. The bi-factor model provided a better fit to the data. To test the concurrent validity of this solution, we examined associations between this model and paternal reports and laboratory observations of child temperament. The internalizing factor was associated with low levels of surgency and high levels of fear; the externalizing factor was associated with high levels of surgency and disinhibition and low levels of effortful control; and the common factor was associated with high levels of surgency and negative affect and low levels of effortful control. These results suggest that psychopathology in preschool-aged children may be explained by a single, common factor influencing nearly all disorders and unique internalizing and externalizing factors. These findings indicate that shared variance across internalizing and externalizing domains is substantial and are consistent with recent suggestions that emotion regulation difficulties may be a common vulnerability for a wide array of psychopathology. PMID:24652485

  5. Psychopathology, trauma and delinquency: subtypes of aggression and their relevance for understanding young offenders

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the implications of an ontology of aggressive behavior which divides aggression into reactive, affective, defensive, impulsive (RADI) or "emotionally hot"; and planned, instrumental, predatory (PIP) or "emotionally cold." Recent epidemiological, criminological, clinical and neuroscience studies converge to support a connection between emotional and trauma related psychopathology and disturbances in the emotions, self-regulation and aggressive behavior which has important implications for diagnosis and treatment, especially for delinquent populations. Method Selective review of preclinical and clinical studies in normal, clinical and delinquent populations. Results In delinquent populations we observe an increase in psychopathology, and especially trauma related psychopathology which impacts emotions and self-regulation in a manner that hotly emotionally charged acts of aggression become more likely. The identification of these disturbances can be supported by findings in cognitive neuroscience. These hot aggressive acts can be delineated from planned or emotionally cold aggression. Conclusion Our findings support a typology of diagnostic labels for disruptive behaviors, such as conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder, as it appears that these acts of hot emotional aggression are a legitimate target for psychopharmacological and other trauma specific interventions. The identification of this subtype of disruptive behavior disorders leads to more specific clinical interventions which in turn promise to improve hitherto unimpressive treatment outcomes of delinquents and patients with disruptive behavior. PMID:21714905

  6. A Developmental Psychopathology Perspective on ADHD and Comorbid Conditions: The Role of Emotion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Elizabeth A; Drabick, Deborah A G

    2015-12-01

    Research investigating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and co-occurring disorders such as oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, anxiety, and depression has surged in popularity; however, the developmental relations between ADHD and these comorbid conditions remain poorly understood. The current paper uses a developmental psychopathology perspective to examine conditions commonly comorbid with ADHD during late childhood through adolescence. First, we present evidence for ADHD and comorbid disorders. Next, we discuss emotion regulation and its associations with ADHD. The role of parenting behaviors in the development and maintenance of emotion regulation difficulties and comorbid disorders among children with ADHD is explored. An illustrative example of emotion regulation and parenting over the course of development is provided to demonstrate bidirectional relations among these constructs. We then present an integrated conceptual model of emotion regulation as a shared risk process that may lead to different comorbid conditions among children with ADHD. Implications and directions for future research are presented. PMID:25662998

  7. Dissociation of pleasure in psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Brown, S L

    1981-01-01

    This paper analyzes the development of the concept of dissociation from 19th century psychological theory through 20th century neurophysiological thought. Recent research is discussed, indicating that normal individuals show an "association" between emitted pleasurable behavior and self-perception of pleasurable activity, whereas depressives and schizophrenics show a lack of association, or "dissociation," between these measures. concomitantly, depressives show an abnormal degree of association between the experience and expression of negative affect. Such a discrepancy in systems of affect is considered as both an important pathological element in mental disorder and also as a valuable new research tool for studying etiology, differential diagnosis, and therapeutic efficacy in psychobiological illness. PMID:7005394

  8. Functional Disturbances Within Frontostriatal Circuits Across Multiple Childhood Psychopathologies

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Rachel; Maia, Tiago V.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Neuroimaging studies of healthy individuals inform us about the normative maturation of the frontostriatal circuits that subserve self-regulatory control processes. Findings from these studies can be used as a reference frame against which to compare the aberrant development of these processes in individuals across a wide range of childhood psychopathologies. Method The authors reviewed extensive neuroimaging evidence for the presence of abnormalities in frontostriatal circuits in children and adults with Tourette’s syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) as well as a more limited number of imaging studies of adolescents and adults with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa that, together, implicate dysregulation of frontostriatal control systems in the pathogenesis of these eating disorders. Results The presence of an impaired capacity for self-regulatory control that derives from abnormal development of frontostriatal circuits likely interacts in similar ways with normally occurring somatic sensations and motor urges, intrusive thoughts, sensations of hunger, and preoccupation with body shape and weight to contribute, respectively, to the development of the tics of Tourette’s syndrome, the obsessions of OCD, the binge eating behaviors of bulimia, and the self-starvation of anorexia. Conclusions Analogous brain mechanisms in parallel frontostriatal circuits, or even in differing portions of the same frontostriatal circuit, may underlie the differing behavioral disturbances in these multiple disorders, although further research is needed to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:19448188

  9. The developmental psychopathology of social anxiety in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Chris; Wilson, Kimberly A; Lagle, Kristy; Kraemer, Helena C; Killen, Joel D; Taylor, C Barr

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate a developmental psychopathology approach for understanding adolescent social anxiety, parent-reported predictors of social anxiety were examined in a nonclinical sample of adolescents. Structured diagnostic interviews were obtained from biological parents of 770 participants. Potential risk factors assessed included child characteristics: negative affect, shyness, separation anxiety disorder, and childhood chronic illness, as well as parent characteristics: major depression, panic disorder, and agoraphobia. Adolescent social anxiety was measured multiple times during high school. Findings indicate stability in social anxiety symptoms across time. Parent-reported, childhood negative affect, shyness, and chronic illness as well as parental panic disorder or agoraphobia were associated with adolescent social anxiety. Interactions were observed between parent-reported childhood shyness and gender and between parent-reported childhood shyness and parent-reported childhood chronic illness in the prediction of social anxiety. Parent-reported childhood shyness was a stronger predictor of adolescent social anxiety in females compared to males. The combined effect of subjects being positive for both parent-reported childhood shyness and parent-reported childhood chronic illness was greater than would be expected based on additive effects. This study provides support for a multifactorial and developmentally informed understanding of adolescent social anxiety. PMID:17348001

  10. The Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Internet Use and Associations With Psychopathology: A Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Long, Elizabeth C; Verhulst, Brad; Neale, Michael C; Lind, Penelope A; Hickie, Ian B; Martin, Nicholas G; Gillespie, Nathan A

    2016-02-01

    Excessive internet use has been linked to psychopathology. Therefore, understanding the genetic and environmental risks underpinning internet use and their relation to psychopathology is important. This study aims to explore the genetic and environmental etiology of internet use measures and their associations with internalizing disorders and substance use disorders. The sample included 2,059 monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) young adult twins from the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study (BLTS). Younger participants reported more frequent internet use, while women were more likely to use the internet for interpersonal communication. Familial aggregation in 'frequency of internet use' was entirely explained by additive genetic factors accounting for 41% of the variance. Familial aggregation in 'frequency of use after 11 pm', 'using the internet to contact peers', and 'using the internet primarily to access social networking sites' was attributable to varying combinations of additive genetic and shared environmental factors. In terms of psychopathology, there were no significant associations between internet use measures and major depression (MD), but there were positive significant associations between 'frequency of internet use' and 'frequency of use after 11 pm' with social phobia (SP). 'Using the internet to contact peers' was positively associated with alcohol abuse, whereas 'using the internet to contact peers' and 'using the internet primarily to access social networking sites' were negatively associated with cannabis use disorders and nicotine symptoms. Individual differences in internet use can be attributable to varying degrees of genetic and environmental risks. Despite some significant associations of small effect, variation in internet use appears mostly unrelated to psychopathology. PMID:26693596

  11. The Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Internet Use and Associations With Psychopathology: A Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Long, Elizabeth C.; Verhulst, Brad; Neale, Michael C.; Lind, Penelope A.; Hickie, Ian B.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Gillespie, Nathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Excessive internet use has been linked to psychopathology. Therefore, understanding the genetic and environmental risks underpinning internet use and their relation to psychopathology is important. This study aims to explore the genetic and environmental etiology of internet use measures and their associations with internalizing disorders and substance use disorders. The sample included 2,059 monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) young adult twins from the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study (BLTS). Younger participants reported more frequent internet use, while women were more likely to use the internet for interpersonal communication. Familial aggregation in ‘frequency of internet use’ was entirely explained by additive genetic factors accounting for 41% of the variance. Familial aggregation in ‘frequency of use after 11 pm’, ‘using the internet to contact peers’, and ‘using the internet primarily to access social networking sites’ was attributable to varying combinations of additive genetic and shared environmental factors. In terms of psychopathology, there were no significant associations between internet use measures and major depression (MD), but there were positive significant associations between ‘frequency of internet use’ and ‘frequency of use after 11 pm’ with social phobia (SP). ‘Using the internet to contact peers’ was positively associated with alcohol abuse, whereas ‘using the internet to contact peers’ and ‘using the internet primarily to access social networking sites’ were negatively associated with cannabis use disorders and nicotine symptoms. Individual differences in internet use can be attributable to varying degrees of genetic and environmental risks. Despite some significant associations of small effect, variation in internet use appears mostly unrelated to psychopathology. PMID:26693596

  12. Psychological trauma exposure and co-morbid psychopathologies in HIV+Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Fellows, Robert P; Spahr, Nayeli A; Byrd, Desiree A; Mindt, Monica Rivera; Morgello, Susan

    2015-12-30

    This study examined the association between trauma exposure, PTSD, suicide attempts, and other psychopathology among 316 racially/ethnically diverse HIV-infected men and women who underwent semi-structured psychiatric assessment. In addition, the role of psychological resilience in trauma exposure was examined in the context of neurological symptoms and functional status. Nearly half (47.8%; 151/316) of the participants reported trauma exposure, of which 47.0% (71/151) developed PTSD. Among trauma-exposed individuals, those with a current psychiatric diagnosis reported more neurological symptoms and lower functional status. Trauma exposure without PTSD was associated with a higher rate of panic disorder and substance-induced mental disorders. Trauma-exposed individuals who did not develop PTSD were less likely than those who reported no trauma exposure to meet criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD). Trauma exposure, MDD, borderline personality disorder, and substance-induced mental disorders were independently associated with increased odds of suicide attempt. These results indicate that co-morbid psychiatric disorders are common among trauma exposed individuals with a history of PTSD, but those with trauma exposure who do not develop PTSD are less likely to experience MDD. The role of other co-morbid psychopathologies in the genesis of suicidal behavior among individuals living with HIV deserves further study. PMID:26599389

  13. Childhood maltreatment, 9/11 exposure, and latent dimensions of psychopathology: A test of stress sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, Jacquelyn L.; Lowe, Sarah R.; Eaton, Nicholas R.; Krueger, Robert; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    On September 11, 2001, a terrorist attack occurred in the U.S. (9/11). Research on 9/11 and psychiatric outcomes has focused on individual disorders rather than the broader internalizing (INT) and externalizing (EXT) domains of psychopathology, leaving unknown whether direct and indirect 9/11 exposure differentially impacted these domains rather than individual disorders. Further, whether such effects were exacerbated by earlier childhood maltreatment (i.e. stress sensitization) is unknown. 18,713 participants from a U.S. national sample with no history of psychiatric disorders prior to 9/11 were assessed using a structured in-person interview. Structural equation modeling conducted in a sample who endorsed no psychiatric history prior to 9/11, indicated that indirect exposure to 9/11 (i.e. media, friends/family) was related to both EXT (alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis dependence, and antisocial personality disorder) and INT (major depression, generalized anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)) dimensions of psychopathology (EXT: β = 0.10, p < 0.001; INT: β = 0.11, p < 0.001) whereas direct exposure was associated with the INT dimension only (β = 0.11, p < 0.001). For individuals who had experienced childhood maltreatment, the risk for EXT and INT dimensions associated with 9/11 was exacerbated (Interactions: β = 0.06, p < 0.01; β = 0.07, p < 0.001, respectively). These findings indicate that 9/11 impacted latent liability to broad domains of psychopathology in the US general population rather than specific disorders with the exception of PTSD, which had independent effects beyond INT (as indicated by a significant (p < 0.05) improvement in modification indices). Findings also indicated that childhood maltreatment increases the risk associated with adult trauma exposure, providing further evidence for the concept of stress sensitization. PMID:26037889

  14. Childhood maltreatment, 9/11 exposure, and latent dimensions of psychopathology: A test of stress sensitization.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Lowe, Sarah R; Eaton, Nicholas R; Krueger, Robert; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah

    2015-09-01

    On September 11, 2001, a terrorist attack occurred in the U.S. (9/11). Research on 9/11 and psychiatric outcomes has focused on individual disorders rather than the broader internalizing (INT) and externalizing (EXT) domains of psychopathology, leaving unknown whether direct and indirect 9/11 exposure differentially impacted these domains rather than individual disorders. Further, whether such effects were exacerbated by earlier childhood maltreatment (i.e. stress sensitization) is unknown. 18,713 participants from a U.S. national sample with no history of psychiatric disorders prior to 9/11 were assessed using a structured in-person interview. Structural equation modeling conducted in a sample who endorsed no psychiatric history prior to 9/11, indicated that indirect exposure to 9/11 (i.e. media, friends/family) was related to both EXT (alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis dependence, and antisocial personality disorder) and INT (major depression, generalized anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)) dimensions of psychopathology (EXT: β = 0.10, p < 0.001; INT: β = 0.11, p < 0.001) whereas direct exposure was associated with the INT dimension only (β = 0.11, p < 0.001). For individuals who had experienced childhood maltreatment, the risk for EXT and INT dimensions associated with 9/11 was exacerbated (Interactions: β = 0.06, p < 0.01; β = 0.07, p < 0.001, respectively). These findings indicate that 9/11 impacted latent liability to broad domains of psychopathology in the US general population rather than specific disorders with the exception of PTSD, which had independent effects beyond INT (as indicated by a significant (p < 0.05) improvement in modification indices). Findings also indicated that childhood maltreatment increases the risk associated with adult trauma exposure, providing further evidence for the concept of stress sensitization. PMID:26037889

  15. Severity of borderline personality symptoms in adolescence: relationship with maternal parenting stress, maternal psychopathology, and rearing styles.

    PubMed

    Schuppert, H Marieke; Albers, Casper J; Minderaa, Ruud B; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Nauta, Maaike H

    2015-06-01

    The development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with parenting styles and parental psychopathology. Only a few studies have examined current parental rearing styles and parental psychopathology in relationship to BPD symptoms in adolescents. Moreover, parenting stress has not been examined in this group. The current study examined 101 adolescents (14-19 years old) with BPD symptoms and their mothers. Assessments were made on severity of BPD symptoms, youth-perceived maternal rearing styles, and psychopathology and parenting stress in mothers. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine potential predictors of borderline severity. No correlation was found between severity of BPD symptoms in adolescents and parenting stress. Only youth-perceived maternal overprotection was significantly related to BPD severity. The combination of perceived maternal rejection with cluster B traits in mothers was significantly related to BPD severity in adolescents. This study provides a contribution to the disentanglement of the developmental pathways that lead to BPD. PMID:25102082

  16. Attachment and Personality Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha, Preeti; Sharan, Pratap

    2007-01-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) arise from core psychopathology of interpersonal relationships and understanding of self and others. The distorted representations of self and others, as well as unhealthy relationships that characterize persons with various PDs, indicate the possibility that persons with PDs have insecure attachment. Insecure…

  17. Insightful hallucination: psychopathology or paranormal phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Gadit, Amin A Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a 26-year-old man who was so emotionally attached to his mother that the mere thought of separating from her caused immense anxiety. The death of his mother after a brief illness resulted in prolonged bereavement. However, the patient started seeing and talking to his mother after her death, which led to huge improvement in his mood and social functioning. His wife brought him in for consultation but no obvious psychopathology was detected. This gave rise to the dilemma of whether to consider this a real psychopathology and treat it, or to disregard this reported hallucination. No active treatment is being given to this patient at the moment. PMID:22698904

  18. 'Craziness' and creativity: Psychopathology and Poetry.

    PubMed

    Hankir, Ahmed; Zaman, Rashid

    2015-09-01

    Not all poets have experienced psychopathology. Conversely, not all those who have experienced psychopathology become poets. The notion, nonetheless, of there being an association between 'craziness' and creativity, contentious though it may be, remains a seductive one. Poetry is both beneficial for the person who is composing or reciting it as well as the person who may be reading or listening to it. Poetry Therapy, which falls under the remit of Art Therapy, is increasingly being recognised as an effective form of adjunctive therapy for the treatment of mental health problems. The main aims of this paper are to explore (and to attempt to elucidate) if there is indeed a relationship between the artistic temperament and mental illness and to comment on the rise and recognition of Art Therapy. PMID:26417752

  19. Examining whether offspring psychopathology influences illness course in mothers with recurrent depression using a high-risk longitudinal sample.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Ruth; Hammerton, Gemma; Harold, Gordon T; Mahedy, Liam; Potter, Robert; Langley, Kate; Thapar, Ajay; Rice, Frances; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan

    2016-02-01

    Depression is known to be influenced by psychosocial stressors. For mothers with recurrent depressive illness, the presence of psychopathology in their children may have important effects on their own mental health. Although the impact of maternal depression on child mental health is well-established, no study to date, as far as we are aware, has examined the extent to which offspring psychopathology influences the course of depression in mothers with a history of recurrent depressive illness, what types of child psychopathology impact maternal mental health, or whether risks vary by child gender. Aims were to (a) Use a longitudinal design to examine whether adolescent psychopathology (depression, disruptive behavior disorder; DBD) predicts recurrence of a depressive episode and depression symptom course in women with a history of recurrent depression; and (b) To test if observed effects vary by child gender. 299 mothers with recurrent major depressive disorder and their adolescent offspring were assessed on 2 occasions, 29 months apart. Maternal depression and offspring psychopathology were assessed using semistructured interview measures. Cross-generational links across time were assessed using structural equation modeling. Analyses were adjusted for past severity of maternal depression. Offspring depression symptoms but not DBD symptoms at baseline predicted future episode recurrence in mothers. Depression symptoms in daughters (β = .16, p = .039) but not sons (β = -.07, p = .461), predicted an increase in maternal depression symptoms across time. Psychopathology in daughters is associated with long-term depressive symptoms in women (mothers) with a history of recurrent depression. Findings highlight the importance of careful assessment and management of mental health problems in adolescents for more effective management of maternal depression. This study suggests that offspring symptoms of depression may be important for the recurrence of maternal depression

  20. Epigenetic modifications of the glucocorticoid receptor gene are associated with the vulnerability to psychopathology in childhood maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Radtke, K M; Schauer, M; Gunter, H M; Ruf-Leuschner, M; Sill, J; Meyer, A; Elbert, T

    2015-01-01

    Stress, particularly when experienced early in life, can have profound implications for mental health. Previous research covering various tissues such as the brain, suggests that the detrimental impact of early-life stress (ELS) on mental health is mediated via epigenetic modifications including DNA methylation. Genes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis--in particular, the glucocorticoid receptor (hGR) gene--stand out as key targets for ELS. Even though the link between hGR methylation and either ELS or psychopathology is fairly well established, the mutually dependent relationships between ELS, DNA methylation and psychopathology remain to be uncovered. The specific psychopathology an individual might develop in the aftermath of stressful events can be highly variable, however, most studies investigating hGR methylation and psychopathology suffer from being limited to a single symptom cluster of mental disorders. Here, we screened volunteers for childhood maltreatment and analyzed whether it associates with hGR methylation in lymphocytes and a range of measures of psychological ill-health. hGR methylation in lymphocytes most likely reflects methylation patterns found in the brain and thus provides valuable insights into the etiology of psychopathology. We find the interaction between childhood maltreatment and hGR methylation to be strongly correlated with an increased vulnerability to psychopathology providing evidence of epigenome × environment interactions. Furthermore, our results indicate an additive effect of childhood maltreatment and hGR methylation in predicting borderline personality disorder (BPD)-associated symptoms, suggesting that the combination of both ELS and DNA methylation that possibly represents unfavorable events experienced even earlier in life poses the risk for BPD. PMID:26080088

  1. Examining Whether Offspring Psychopathology Influences Illness Course in Mothers With Recurrent Depression Using a High-Risk Longitudinal Sample

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Depression is known to be influenced by psychosocial stressors. For mothers with recurrent depressive illness, the presence of psychopathology in their children may have important effects on their own mental health. Although the impact of maternal depression on child mental health is well-established, no study to date, as far as we are aware, has examined the extent to which offspring psychopathology influences the course of depression in mothers with a history of recurrent depressive illness, what types of child psychopathology impact maternal mental health, or whether risks vary by child gender. Aims were to (a) Use a longitudinal design to examine whether adolescent psychopathology (depression, disruptive behavior disorder; DBD) predicts recurrence of a depressive episode and depression symptom course in women with a history of recurrent depression; and (b) To test if observed effects vary by child gender. 299 mothers with recurrent major depressive disorder and their adolescent offspring were assessed on 2 occasions, 29 months apart. Maternal depression and offspring psychopathology were assessed using semistructured interview measures. Cross-generational links across time were assessed using structural equation modeling. Analyses were adjusted for past severity of maternal depression. Offspring depression symptoms but not DBD symptoms at baseline predicted future episode recurrence in mothers. Depression symptoms in daughters (β = .16, p = .039) but not sons (β = −.07, p = .461), predicted an increase in maternal depression symptoms across time. Psychopathology in daughters is associated with long-term depressive symptoms in women (mothers) with a history of recurrent depression. Findings highlight the importance of careful assessment and management of mental health problems in adolescents for more effective management of maternal depression. This study suggests that offspring symptoms of depression may be important for the recurrence of maternal

  2. Epigenetic modifications of the glucocorticoid receptor gene are associated with the vulnerability to psychopathology in childhood maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Radtke, K M; Schauer, M; Gunter, H M; Ruf-Leuschner, M; Sill, J; Meyer, A; Elbert, T

    2015-01-01

    Stress, particularly when experienced early in life, can have profound implications for mental health. Previous research covering various tissues such as the brain, suggests that the detrimental impact of early-life stress (ELS) on mental health is mediated via epigenetic modifications including DNA methylation. Genes of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis—in particular, the glucocorticoid receptor (hGR) gene—stand out as key targets for ELS. Even though the link between hGR methylation and either ELS or psychopathology is fairly well established, the mutually dependent relationships between ELS, DNA methylation and psychopathology remain to be uncovered. The specific psychopathology an individual might develop in the aftermath of stressful events can be highly variable, however, most studies investigating hGR methylation and psychopathology suffer from being limited to a single symptom cluster of mental disorders. Here, we screened volunteers for childhood maltreatment and analyzed whether it associates with hGR methylation in lymphocytes and a range of measures of psychological ill-health. hGR methylation in lymphocytes most likely reflects methylation patterns found in the brain and thus provides valuable insights into the etiology of psychopathology. We find the interaction between childhood maltreatment and hGR methylation to be strongly correlated with an increased vulnerability to psychopathology providing evidence of epigenome × environment interactions. Furthermore, our results indicate an additive effect of childhood maltreatment and hGR methylation in predicting borderline personality disorder (BPD)-associated symptoms, suggesting that the combination of both ELS and DNA methylation that possibly represents unfavorable events experienced even earlier in life poses the risk for BPD. PMID:26080088

  3. Cutoff Scores for the Autism Spectrum Disorder--Comorbid for Children (ASD-CC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorson, Ryan T.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2012-01-01

    Once considered rare, Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are increasingly becoming viewed as common disorders. Additionally, recent studies suggest that comorbid psychopathology within ASD is more common than previously thought. Though these deficits exist, specific instruments to diagnose psychopathology in this population are not available. In this…

  4. Validity of the Autism Spectrum Disorder-Comorbid for Children (ASD-CC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; LoVullo, Santino V.; Rivet, Tessa T.; Boisjoli, Jessica A.

    2009-01-01

    A limited number of studies currently exist focusing on comorbid psychopathology of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Due to the heterogeneity of ASD symptoms, communication deficits, and impairments in intellectual functioning, assessing symptoms of psychopathology is complicated. The "Autism Spectrum Disorders-Comorbidity for…

  5. Comorbidity and Phenomenology of Bipolar Disorder in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Eduardo; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the comorbidity of bipolar disorder (BPD) in children with ADHD and to study the psychopathological profile of ADHD children with and without mania. Method: A total of 100 children with ADHD were assessed with a semistructured diagnostic interview and questionnaires of mania, ADHD, and general psychopathology. Results: 8% of…

  6. Developmental psychopathology: recent advances and future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Pollak, Seth D

    2015-01-01

    The integrative field of developmental psychopathology is having a huge impact on our understanding of human health and behavior. In this paper, I use the example of children’s early stress exposure to illustrate how developmental psychopathologists now tend to deemphasize diagnostic categories and, instead, emphasize the social and biological contexts, events and circumstances that have created opportunities for maladaptive responses and health problems in youth. This example shows that developmental psychopathology is increasing understanding of how children develop the abilities that allow them to cope effectively with challenges and what leads to failures in development of these abilities. Integrating research about the neurobiology of learning may prove to be a powerful future direction to understand how the environment regulates behavior. Learning processes become increasingly intricate and fine-tuned as relevant neuroanatomical systems develop, and as the range, complexity and amount of environmental information increases for the developing child. A focus on these processes allows psychopathologists to formulate questions about which neural mechanisms children use to process information, how these mechanisms are themselves shaped by social context, why adverse social environments confer risk for children, and, perhaps, what sorts of neutrally informed interventions might remediate the deficits in self-regulation that underlie common psychopathologies. PMID:26407771

  7. The trauma film paradigm as an experimental psychopathology model of psychological trauma: intrusive memories and beyond.

    PubMed

    James, Ella L; Lau-Zhu, Alex; Clark, Ian A; Visser, Renée M; Hagenaars, Muriel A; Holmes, Emily A

    2016-07-01

    A better understanding of psychological trauma is fundamental to clinical psychology. Following traumatic event(s), a clinically significant number of people develop symptoms, including those of Acute Stress Disorder and/or Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. The trauma film paradigm offers an experimental psychopathology model to study both exposure and reactions to psychological trauma, including the hallmark symptom of intrusive memories. We reviewed 74 articles that have used this paradigm since the earliest review (Holmes & Bourne, 2008) until July 2014. Highlighting the different stages of trauma processing, i.e. pre-, peri- and post-trauma, the studies are divided according to manipulations before, during and after film viewing, for experimental as well as correlational designs. While the majority of studies focussed on the frequency of intrusive memories, other reactions to trauma were also modelled. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the trauma film paradigm as an experimental psychopathology model of trauma, consider ethical issues, and suggest future directions. By understanding the basic mechanisms underlying trauma symptom development, we can begin to translate findings from the laboratory to the clinic, test innovative science-driven interventions, and in the future reduce the debilitating effects of psychopathology following stressful and/or traumatic events. PMID:27289421

  8. The link between child abuse and psychopathology: a review of neurobiological and genetic research.

    PubMed

    McCrory, Eamon; De Brito, Stephane A; Viding, Essi

    2012-04-01

    Childhood abuse is associated with later psychopathology, including conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder, anxiety and depression as well as a heightened risk of health and social problems. However, the neurobiological mechanisms by which childhood adversity increases vulnerability to psychopathology remain poorly understood. There is likely to be a complex interaction between environmental experiences (such as abuse) and individual differences in risk versus protective genes, which influences the neurobiological circuitry underpinning psychological and emotional development. Neuroendocrine studies indicate an association between early adversity and atypical development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress response, which may predispose to psychiatric vulnerability in adulthood. Brain imaging research in children and adults is providing evidence of several structural and functional brain differences associated with early adversity. Structural differences have been reported in the corpus callosum, cerebellum and prefrontal cortex. Functional differences have been reported in regions implicated in emotional and behavioural regulation, including the amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex. These differences at the neurobiological level may represent adaptations to early experiences of heightened stress that lead to an increased risk of psychopathology. We also consider the clinical implications of future neurobiological and genetic research. PMID:22532655

  9. The link between child abuse and psychopathology: A review of neurobiological and genetic research

    PubMed Central

    McCrory, Eamon; De Brito, Stephane A; Viding, Essi

    2012-01-01

    Childhood abuse is associated with later psychopathology, including conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder, anxiety and depression as well as a heightened risk of health and social problems. However, the neurobiological mechanisms by which childhood adversity increases vulnerability to psychopathology remain poorly understood. There is likely to be a complex interaction between environmental experiences (such as abuse) and individual differences in risk versus protective genes, which influences the neurobiological circuitry underpinning psychological and emotional development. Neuroendocrine studies indicate an association between early adversity and atypical development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress response, which may predispose to psychiatric vulnerability in adulthood. Brain imaging research in children and adults is providing evidence of several structural and functional brain differences associated with early adversity. Structural differences have been reported in the corpus callosum, cerebellum and prefrontal cortex. Functional differences have been reported in regions implicated in emotional and behavioural regulation, including the amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex. These differences at the neurobiological level may represent adaptations to early experiences of heightened stress that lead to an increased risk of psychopathology. We also consider the clinical implications of future neurobiological and genetic research. PMID:22532655

  10. Deviations from the Expectable Environment in Early Childhood and Emerging Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Zeanah, Charles H

    2015-01-01

    Current frameworks for understanding the link between early adverse childhood experiences and later negative life outcomes, including psychopathology, focus on the mediating negative impact on brain and biological systems in the developing child resulting broadly from stress and trauma. Although this approach is useful, we argue that the framework could be functionally extended by distinguishing the effects of two different types of abnormal input, both deviations from the expectable environment in early childhood. Specifically, we review the consequences of inadequate input (eg, neglect/deprivation) and harmful input (eg, abuse/trauma) on brain and biological development. We then review evidence on the differential links between each type of abnormal input to four selected domains of psychopathology (indiscriminate social behavior, posttraumatic stress disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and conduct problems), and consider potential mechanisms for inadequate and harmful input to lead to these outcomes. We conclude that the careful consideration of the type of deviation from the expected environment, while acknowledging the practical difficulties in assessing this, is likely to lead to clearer understanding of the mechanism of risk for psychopathology, and that tailored approaches to prevention and intervention may be informed by considering the unique consequences of inadequate and harmful input when experienced in early childhood. PMID:24998622

  11. Psychopathology and Special Education Enrollment in Children with Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Todd P.; Lester, Barry; Lagasse, Linda; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Higgins, Rosemary; Hammond, Jane; Roberts, Mary B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated how enrollment in special education services in 11 year old children relates to prenatal cocaine exposure, psychopathology, and other risk factors. Method Participants were 498 children enrolled in The Maternal Lifestyle Study, a prospective, longitudinal, multisite study examining outcomes of children with prenatal cocaine exposure. Logistic regression was used to examine the effect of prenatal cocaine exposure and psychopathology on enrollment in an individualized education plan (a designation specific to children with special education needs), with environmental, maternal, and infant medical variables as covariates. Results Prenatal cocaine exposure, an interaction of prenatal cocaine exposure and Oppositional Defiant Disorder, child Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, parent-reported internalizing behaviors, and teacher-reported externalizing behaviors, predicted enrollment in an individualized education plan. Other statistically significant variables in the model were male gender, low birth weight, being small for gestational age, white race, caregiver change, low socio-economic status, low child intelligence quotient, caregiver depression, and prenatal marijuana exposure. Conclusions Prenatal cocaine exposure increased the likelihood of receiving an individualized education plan with adjustment for covariates. Psychopathology also predicted this special education outcome, in combination with and independent of prenatal cocaine exposure. PMID:22487696

  12. Reconceptualizing sex, brain and psychopathology: interaction, interaction, interaction

    PubMed Central

    Joel, D; Yankelevitch-Yahav, R

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing recognition of the influence of sex on brain structure and function, and in relation, on the susceptibility, prevalence and response to treatment of psychiatric disorders. Most theories and descriptions of the effects of sex on the brain are dominated by an analogy to the current interpretation of the effects of sex on the reproductive system, according to which sex is a divergence system that exerts a unitary, overriding and serial effect on the form of other systems. We shortly summarize different lines of evidence that contradict aspects of this analogy. The new view that emerges from these data is of sex as a complex system whose different components interact with one another and with other systems to affect body and brain. The paradigm shift that this understanding calls for is from thinking of sex in terms of sexual dimorphism and sex differences, to thinking of sex in terms of its interactions with other factors and processes. Our review of data obtained from animal models of psychopathology clearly reveals the need for such a paradigmatic shift, because in the field of animal behaviour whether a sex difference exists and its direction depend on the interaction of many factors including, species, strain, age, specific test employed and a multitude of environmental factors. We conclude by explaining how the new conceptualization can account for sex differences in psychopathology. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Animal Models in Psychiatry Research. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-20 PMID:24758640

  13. [General psychopathology--the basis for objective psychiatric findings].

    PubMed

    Pavlovský, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    General psychopathology is an integral part of psychiatry; without knowledge of it we would be unable to describe an objective clinical psychiatric finding and set the diagnosis. It is dealing with not only description of single psychopathologic terms but also studies its connection with pathophysiology, genetics, biochemistry, psychology and sociology. The grounds of psychopathology were given by Karl Jaspers who devoted much attention to the problem of subjective and objective; it happens quite often that subjective symptoms may bear a character of objective signs. In spite of serious importance of general psychopathology these facts have been grossly neglected during the last several decades. Key words: general psychopathology, psychopathologic terms, their subjective and objective character. PMID:23102131

  14. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure: Burden of Epigenetic Reprogramming, Synaptic Remodeling, and Adult Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Kyzar, Evan J; Floreani, Christina; Teppen, Tara L; Pandey, Subhash C

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence represents a crucial phase of synaptic maturation characterized by molecular changes in the developing brain that shape normal behavioral patterns. Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in these neuromaturation processes. Perturbations of normal epigenetic programming during adolescence by ethanol can disrupt these molecular events, leading to synaptic remodeling and abnormal adult behaviors. Repeated exposure to binge levels of alcohol increases the risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD) and comorbid psychopathology including anxiety in adulthood. Recent studies in the field clearly suggest that adolescent alcohol exposure causes widespread and persistent changes in epigenetic, neurotrophic, and neuroimmune pathways in the brain. These changes are manifested by altered synaptic remodeling and neurogenesis in key brain regions leading to adult psychopathology such as anxiety and alcoholism. This review details the molecular mechanisms underlying adolescent alcohol exposure-induced changes in synaptic plasticity and the development of alcohol addiction-related phenotypes in adulthood. PMID:27303256

  15. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure: Burden of Epigenetic Reprogramming, Synaptic Remodeling, and Adult Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Kyzar, Evan J.; Floreani, Christina; Teppen, Tara L.; Pandey, Subhash C.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence represents a crucial phase of synaptic maturation characterized by molecular changes in the developing brain that shape normal behavioral patterns. Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in these neuromaturation processes. Perturbations of normal epigenetic programming during adolescence by ethanol can disrupt these molecular events, leading to synaptic remodeling and abnormal adult behaviors. Repeated exposure to binge levels of alcohol increases the risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD) and comorbid psychopathology including anxiety in adulthood. Recent studies in the field clearly suggest that adolescent alcohol exposure causes widespread and persistent changes in epigenetic, neurotrophic, and neuroimmune pathways in the brain. These changes are manifested by altered synaptic remodeling and neurogenesis in key brain regions leading to adult psychopathology such as anxiety and alcoholism. This review details the molecular mechanisms underlying adolescent alcohol exposure-induced changes in synaptic plasticity and the development of alcohol addiction-related phenotypes in adulthood. PMID:27303256

  16. Socioemotional, Personality, and Biological Development: Illustrations from a Multilevel Developmental Psychopathology Perspective on Child Maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Cicchetti, Dante

    2016-01-01

    Developmental theories can be affirmed, challenged, and augmented by incorporating knowledge about atypical ontogenesis. Investigations of the biological, socioemotional, and personality development in individuals with high-risk conditions and psychopathological disorders can provide an entrée into the study of system organization, disorganization, and reorganization. This article examines child maltreatment to illustrate the benefit that can be derived from the study of individuals subjected to nonnormative caregiving experiences. Relative to an average expectable environment, which consists of a species-specific range of environmental conditions that support adaptive development among genetically normal individuals, maltreating families fail to provide many of the experiences that are required for normal development. Principles gleaned from the field of developmental psychopathology provide a framework for understanding multilevel functioning in normality and pathology. Knowledge of normative developmental processes provides the impetus to design and implement randomized control trial (RCT) interventions that can promote resilient functioning in maltreated children. PMID:26726964

  17. Leptin and its associations with measures of psychopathology in patients with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Stefan; Burghardt, Roland; Schneider, Nora; Hein, Jakob; Weiss, Deike; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Salbach-Andrae, Harriet

    2009-01-01

    Apart from energy homeostasis leptin has been shown to be involved in a number of neuronal networks. The aim of this study was to investigate how the residual variance of leptin levels, after controlling for BMI, is linked to eating-disorder-specific psychopathology and sexual desire in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) compared to healthy controls. The sample included 57 subjects with acute AN and 77 healthy controls. Psychopathology was determined by EDI-2 and SCL-90-R and sexual problems were rated according to the Structured Interview of Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimic Syndromes (SIAB-EX). Plasma leptin was assessed by ELISA. Patients with a high drive for thinness had lower leptin levels at a given BMI and low leptin levels were associated with sexual problems, i.e. the absence of sexual desire and intimate relationships. Our results are in accordance with recent animal experiments linking low leptin levels with decreased sexual interest irrespective of body weight. PMID:19018447

  18. [Abortion and the man. Psychological and psychopathological manifestations in the face of lost fatherhood].

    PubMed

    Benvenuti, P; Borri, P; Buzzoni, P; Clerici, L; Rossi Monti, M

    1983-01-01

    This study examines the psychological and psychopathological reactions that may appear in a man when his partner aborts. The small amount of literature that exists on the subjects was examined, and several men were, interviewed at the time their partners aborted voluntarely. It turns out that in spite of the man's lack of recognition of any reactions (reinforced by current attitudes and by the scant psychological and medical interest in the subject), there is considerable emotional involvement in the lost parenthood, both for the man and the woman. As revealed by the interviews, this involvement may manifest itself in persecutory or depressive anxiety and psychosomatic symptoms. Moreover, but very rarely, real and typical psychopathological symptoms may appear, such as depression and behavioural disorders. The appearance of these reactions is linked to the problems and conflicts aroused by prospective fatherhood, leading to a comparison between the experiences of fuliwed fatherhood and those of fatherhood lost. PMID:6543986

  19. The clustering of psychopathology among adults seeking treatment for alcohol and drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Urbanoski, Karen; Kenaszchuk, Chris; Veldhuizen, Scott; Rush, Brian

    2015-02-01

    Beyond the high prevalence of co-occurring mental and substance use disorders, little is known about more complex patterns of psychopathology and multimorbidity, particularly in treatment populations. We sought to identify a parsimonious set of latent classes to describe the structure of mental disorder comorbidity among adults entering outpatient addiction treatment, and explore differences in the structure and prevalence of classes across sociodemographic characteristics. Participants (N=544) completed the Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire at treatment admission. We used latent class analysis to identify classes of clients with specific patterns of co-occurring mental disorders. The best-fitting solution identified 3 classes, characterized by no comorbidity (i.e., substance use disorders only), co-occurring major depression, and multimorbidity or a high degree of psychopathology. Older age was associated with lower probability of being in the class with co-occurring major depression, women were more likely than men to be in the multimorbid class, and being married or partnered was associated with a lower probability of being in either of the comorbid classes. These results are consistent with general population research on the patterning of psychiatric disorders, implying that while clients in addiction treatment may have extraordinarily high levels of psychopathology, the patterns of symptoms and the groups most affected are not markedly different than in other settings. By capturing the complexity of interrelationships among the many factors that are known to influence prognosis and outcomes, latent class analysis offers a useful way to examine and represent case-mix in clinical populations. PMID:25124260

  20. Phenomenology of genius and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Doerr-Zegers, Otto

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between genius and madness has been a subject of interest since the beginning of critical and philosophical thinking. Thus, Aristotle, in the Book XXX of the Problemata, asks himself "why are all extraordinary men in the fields of philosophy, politics, poetry and art melancholic?, adding afterwards: "...and some of them in such a way that they may suffer from pathologic manifestations whose origin is in the black bile". In the past decades the German author Tellenbach studied the personalities of several geniuses, both from fiction, such as Hamlet, and from reality, such as the writer von Kleist, concluding that they suffered from a specific form of depression that he called "Schwermut" (melancholy), which was supposedly different from the narrowly defined illness of depression. Other work done on this subject is the extensive study by the North American author Kay Jamison, who, after researching the biography and the tree of a long list of writers, composers and musicians, concluded that all of them had suffered to some degree from a bipolar disorder. This author strives to carry out a phenomenology of genius, and he finds that, together with other essential features, the geniuses always show forms of experiencing and/or of behaving which do not fall within the range that is considered normal, although they can not always be classified as pathological. His study is based on the analysis of the life and the work of three men whose genius could not be doubted: the naturalist Alexander von Humboldt, the philosopher Soeren Kierkegaard and the poet Rainer Maria Rilke. This author specially focuses on the last named, since in his later work he explicitly meditated on the suffering that has meant for him his condition of genius and what he considered the only way to overcome them: to be faithful to the work of art, whose fulfilment was imposed on him--to a certain degree from the endogenous--as an unavoidable imperative. PMID:12728513

  1. The relationship between perfectionism, eating disorders and athletes: a review.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, S; Lock, J

    2006-12-01

    Perfectionism is a potentially maladaptive personality trait implicated in a number of psychopathologies. As our understanding of the construct perfectionism has shifted from more unidimensionally focused conceptualizations to multidimensional ones, our ability to assess its bearing on various disorders has grown. One particular area in which perfectionism appears to play an important role is among eating disorder patients. The personalities of both those with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are thought to be intrinsically perfectionistic, which suggests a need to understand the role perfectionism plays in the development, course and outcome of these disorders. There is also an increased focus on perfectionism among athletes and its relationship to the higher prevalence of eating disorders in this group. With the institution of Title IX in the United States (which prohibited sex discrimination in higher educational settings) the participation of women in various sports has increased exponentially and with it concerns about their well-being in a milieu where a risk for menstrual irregularities, osteoporosis and eating disorders (the female athlete triad) are common. However, conflicting data suggests that athletics may be a protective factor in the development of eating disorders on the one hand, or it may be a risk factor on the other. Thus, it has become important to examine other variables, such as perfectionism, that may influence the outcome, one way or another. This review examines the current evidence about the relations between perfectionism, athletics and eating disorders. PMID:17093375

  2. Disturbances of Attachment and Parental Psychopathology in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Schechter, Daniel S.; Willheim, Erica

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis As the field of attachment has expanded over the past four decades, the perturbations in the relational context which give rise to disturbances of attachment are increasingly, though by no means conclusively, understood. In Part I, this article reviews the historical and current state of research regarding normative attachment classification, the diagnosis of Reactive Attachment Disorder, and the proposed categories of Secure Base Distortions and Disrupted Attachment Disorder. In Part II, the article explores the role of parental psychopathology and the manner in which disturbed caregiver self-regulation leads to disturbances in the mutual regulation between caregiver and infant. The question of the relationship between particular types of maternal pathology and particular forms of attachment disturbance is examined through recent research on the association between maternal PTSD, Atypical Maternal Behavior, and child scores on the Disturbances of Attachment Interview (DAI). The authors present original research findings to support that the presence and severity of maternal violence-related PTSD were significantly associated with secure base distortion in a community pediatrics sample of 76 mothers and preschool-age children. Clinical implications and recommendations for treatment of attachment disturbances conclude the article. PMID:19486844

  3. Psychopathology and personality of young women who experience food cravings.

    PubMed

    Gendall, K A; Sullivan, P F; Joyce, P R; Fear, J L; Bulik, C M

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the psychopathology and personality characteristics of women who experience food cravings. A total of 101 young women selected at random from the community completed the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies with a trained interviewer. The interview included a section about food-craving experiences and associated factors. Subjects also completed a self-report questionnaire booklet containing the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI). Compared to noncravers, women who reported food cravings were significantly more likely to report a history of alcohol abuse/dependence (p = .003), significant weight changes (p = .003), and to have undertaken dieting (p = .02), bingeing (p = .05), vomiting (p = .02), exercise (p = .04), diet pill (p = .03), and laxative use (p = .01) to control weight. There was a trend for the cravers to have higher novelty-seeking scores on the TCI (p = .06). Our findings suggest that women who experience food cravings are more likely to have met criteria for alcohol abuse/dependence and tend to have temperament characterized by higher levels of novelty seeking. In addition the high rates of eating-disorder symptomatology implies overconcern with body weight and shape in the women who experienced food cravings. PMID:9290863

  4. Environmental and organizational factors associated with elbow/forearm and hand/wrist disorder among sewing machine operators of garment industry in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kebede Deyyas, Wakjira; Tafese, Ararso

    2014-01-01

    Occupational health problems related to upper limp musculoskeletal disorders were the major issue among sewing machine operators of garment industries in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated risk factors of work related elbow and wrist musculoskeletal disorders among sewing machine operators of garment industries in Galan City, Oromia Regional State. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 1 to 30, 2012. A total of 422 study subjects were included in this study. Standard Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire was used to collect detailed information on musculoskeletal symptom, sociodemographic data, and factors associated with the problems through face to face interview. From a total of 422 sewing machine operators included in the study 370 (87.7%) were females and 306 (72.5%) were in the age group of <30 years. The prevalence of self-reported work related elbow and wrist musculoskeletal disorders was 40% and 37.7%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, those who had >16 years of service were about five times more likely to develop elbow and wrist musculoskeletal disorders than those who had short (1-5 years) year of services [AOR = 4.7, 95% CI: 1.55-13.02], physical activities [AOR = 5.02, 95% CI: 1.57-16.00], and methods of payment [AOR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.23-3.28], factors significantly associated with this disorders. Work related elbow and wrist musculoskeletal disorders were high among sewing machine operators in selected garment industries. Moreover, personal and environmental factors were identified as the potential risk factors related to elbow and wrist musculoskeletal disorders among the study group. Therefore, government and the owner of the garment industries should give special attention to prevent and control the problems through proper occupational health and safety policy implementation in the country. PMID:25298780

  5. Hand rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Riyaz, Farhaad R; Ozog, David

    2015-09-01

    Aging of the hands results from both natural processes and chronic ultraviolet light exposure. Together, these cause textural and pigmentary changes, excess skin laxity, rhytides, and soft tissue atrophy that presents as prominent bones and tendons with easily visible veins. Many options are available for the reversal of these changes. Photoaging can be improved with chemical peels and light-based treatments (such as Q-switched lasers), resurfacing lasers, intense pulsed light, and photodynamic therapy. Soft tissue atrophy can be corrected with autologous fat, nonanimal stabilized hyaluronic acid, calcium hydroxylapatite, and poly-L lactic acid injections. The literature shows that these treatments have favorable outcomes for most patients; but in order to reduce known complications, it is important to understand the proper use and limitations of each modality. PMID:26566571

  6. Alien Hand Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Anhar; Josephs, Keith A

    2016-08-01

    Alien hand syndrome (AHS) is a rare disorder of involuntary limb movement together with a sense of loss of limb ownership. It most commonly affects the hand, but can occur in the leg. The anterior (frontal, callosal) and posterior variants are recognized, with distinguishing clinical features and anatomical lesions. Initial descriptions were attributed to stroke and neurosurgical operations, but neurodegenerative causes are now recognized as most common. Structural and functional imaging and clinical studies have implicated the supplementary motor area, pre-supplementary motor area, and their network connections in the frontal variant of AHS, and the inferior parietal lobule and connections in the posterior variant. Several theories are proposed to explain the pathophysiology. Herein, we review the literature to update advances in the understanding of the classification, pathophysiology, etiology, and treatment of AHS. PMID:27315251

  7. Psychopathology and weapon choice: a study of 103 perpetrators of homicide or attempted homicide.

    PubMed

    Catanesi, Roberto; Carabellese, Felice; Troccoli, Giuseppe; Candelli, Chiara; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Solarino, Biagio; Fortunato, Francesca

    2011-06-15

    The aim of this study was to ascertain if a relationship between weapon choice and psychopathology existed. The perpetrators (103) were evaluated at the Department of Criminology and Forensic Psychiatry of the University of Bari in southern Italy. Psychiatric examination and psycho-diagnostic tests were administered for each of the perpetrators and a database was subsequently formulated. The results showed a significant correlation between some types of mental disorder and weapon choice. A strong correlation was found between delusional disorders and the use of sharp weapons, whereas depressive disorders were more strongly associated with asphyxia. Organic disorders were found to be highly correlated with the use of blunt instruments. In cases where the homicide was the result of an impulsive reaction, the use of sharp weapons was most often observed. PMID:21316880

  8. The Dominance Behavioral System and Psychopathology: Evidence from Self-Report, Observational, and Biological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sheri L.; Leedom, Liane J.; Muhtadie, Luma

    2012-01-01

    The dominance behavioral system (DBS) can be conceptualized as a biologically-based system which guides dominance motivation, dominant and subordinate behavior, and responsivity to perceptions of power and subordination. A growing body of research suggests that problems with the DBS are evident across a broad range of psychopathologies. We begin by describing psychological, social, and biological correlates of the dominance behavioral system (DBS). Extensive research suggests that externalizing disorders, mania-proneness, and narcissistic traits are related to heightened dominance motivation and behaviors. Mania and narcissistic traits also appear related to inflated self-perceptions of power. Anxiety and depression are related to subordination and submissiveness, as well as a desire to avoid subordination. Models of the DBS have received support from research with humans and animals; from self-report, observational, and biological methods; and using naturalistic and experimental paradigms. Limitations of available research include the relative lack of longitudinal studies using multiple measures of the DBS and the absence of relevant studies using diagnosed samples to study narcissistic personality disorder and bipolar disorder. We provide suggestions for future research on the DBS and psychopathology, including investigations of whether the DBS can be used to differentiate specific disorder outcomes; the need for more sophisticated biological research; and the value of longitudinal dynamical research. Implications of using the DBS as a tool in clinical assessment and treatment are discussed. PMID:22506751

  9. The varied adult psychopathologies of children's behavior disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Huessy, H R

    1992-01-01

    Thirteen percent of the general population show the traits of emotional over-reactivity, emotional lability and impulsiveness that appear to be genetically transmitted. The troublesome manifestation of these traits can often be medically controlled, thereby reducing their costs to society. PMID:1450187

  10. [How far is psychopathology still meaningful for the treatment of schizophrenia?].

    PubMed

    Huber, G

    2001-09-01

    The paper gives reasons for the view that psychopathology has to be not only the fundamental method for clinical psychiatry, but also an essential prerequisite for a rational therapy of schizophrenia and related disorders. Because schizophrenic patients present very different types of psychopathological cross-sectional syndromes, the choice of a distinct neuroleptic or antidepressant compound and their dosage has to be guided along the psychopathological target syndrome. The clinical-therapeutical effects of neuroleptics and antidepressants are above all symptom- (Freyhan) or syndrome-directed. The differentiation of positive and negative symptoms, acute and chronic or residual schizophrenia, or of the prodromal symptoms according to contemporary approaches seems to be not sufficient for the early detection of psychopathological predictors of an impending psychosis and the special indication and choice of a distinct drug and dosing strategy. This is valid for maintenance treatment of patients in remission, for early intervention in the prodromal stages before the first and later psychotic episodes and in preventing relapses. Relapse rates can be reduced by a low dose maintenance therapy with basic symptom oriented early adaptation of the dosage in the prodromes before psychotic remanifestations. Some presuppositions of an effective psychopharmacological and psychological therapy in view of clinical psychopathology (K. Schneider) and the "phenomenological attitude" (K. Jaspers) are outlined. A necessary condition for the secondary as well as for the primary prevention of psychotic episodes is the detailed knowledge of the interindividual different dynamic and cognitive basic symptoms, defined in the Bonn Scale BSABS, that are experiential in kind and not identical with the negative and behavioral "Prodromal and Residual Symptoms" of DSM and ICD-10. The early detection and preventive intervention of schizophrenic psychoses is most likely possible by means of a subtle

  11. Prediction of 7-year psychopathology from mother-infant joint attention behaviours: a nested case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate whether later diagnosis of psychiatric disorder can be predicted from analysis of mother-infant joint attention (JA) behaviours in social-communicative interaction at 12 months. Method Using data from a large contemporary birth cohort, we examined 159 videos of a mother-infant interaction for joint attention behaviour when children were aged one year, sampled from within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort. Fifty-three of the videos involved infants who were later considered to have a psychiatric disorder at seven years and 106 were same aged controls. Psychopathologies included in the case group were disruptive behaviour disorders, oppositional-conduct disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, pervasive development disorder, anxiety and depressive disorders. Psychiatric diagnoses were obtained using the Development and Wellbeing Assessment when the children were seven years old. Results None of the three JA behaviours (shared look rate, shared attention rate and shared attention intensity) showed a significant association with the primary outcome of case–control status. Only shared look rate predicted any of the exploratory sub-diagnosis outcomes and was found to be positively associated with later oppositional-conduct disorders (OR [95% CI]: 1.5 [1.0, 2.3]; p = 0.041). Conclusions JA behaviours did not, in general, predict later psychopathology. However, shared look was positively associated with later oppositional-conduct disorders. This suggests that some features of JA may be early markers of later psychopathology. Further investigation will be required to determine whether any JA behaviours can be used to screen for families in need of intervention. PMID:24063312

  12. Prospective Relations between Organized Activity Participation and Psychopathology during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohnert, Amy M.; Garber, Judy

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined psychopathology as a predictor and outcome of organized activity involvement during high school among 198 adolescents who varied in risk for psychopathology as a function of their mother's depression history. Higher levels of internalizing and externalizing symptoms in eighth grade significantly predicted lower…

  13. Psychopathology and Deviant Sexual Arousal in Incarcerated Sexual Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serin, Ralph C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between psychopathology and deviant sexual arousal in sexual offenders (n=65), with approximately equal numbers of rapists and child molesters. Differentiating between rapists, extrafamilial pedophiles, and incest offenders revealed that the relationship between psychopathology and arousal was most apparent for…

  14. Maternal Depression, Maternal Expressed Emotion, and Youth Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompson, Martha C.; Pierre, Claudette B.; Boger, Kathryn Dingman; McKowen, James W.; Chan, Priscilla T.; Freed, Rachel D.

    2010-01-01

    Across development, maternal depression has been found to be a risk factor for youth psychopathology generally and youth depression specifically. Maternal Expressed Emotion (EE) has been examined as a predictor of outcome among youth with depression. The present study explored the associations between youth psychopathology and two…

  15. Social Cognition and Adjustment in Children at Risk for Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Geraldine; Walker, Elaine

    1989-01-01

    Tested 2 models of the effect of social cognition on the link between child adjustment and the 2 family risk factors of maltreatment and parental psychopathology. In 83 subjects of 7-14 years, maltreatment predicted aggression and peer rejection, but parental psychopathology did not. Adjustment of subjects with a disturbed parent depended on…

  16. An Investigation of Comorbid Psychological Disorders, Sleep Problems, Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Epilepsy in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannion, Arlene; Leader, Geraldine; Healy, Olive

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated comorbidity in eighty-nine children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Ireland. Comorbidity is the presence of one or more disorders in addition to a primary disorder. The prevalence of comorbid psychological disorders, behaviours associated with comorbid psychopathology, epilepsy, gastrointestinal…

  17. Emotional and behavioral symptoms in neurodegenerative disease: A model for studying the neural bases of psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Levenson, Robert W.; Sturm, Virginia E.; Haase, Claudia M.

    2014-01-01

    Disruptions in emotional, cognitive, and social behavior are common in neurodegenerative disease and many forms of psychopathology. Because neurodegenerative diseases have much clearer patterns of brain atrophy, they may provide a window into the neural bases of these common symptoms. We discuss five common symptoms that occur in both neurodegenerative disease and psychopathology (i.e., anxiety, dysphoric mood, apathy, disinhibition, and euphoric mood) and their associated neural circuitry. We focus on two neurodegenerative diseases (i.e., Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal dementia) that are common and well-characterized in terms of emotion, cognition, and social behavior and in patterns of associated neuropathology. Neurodegenerative diseases provide a powerful model system for studying the neural correlates of psychopathological symptoms; this is supported by evidence indicating convergence with psychiatric syndromes (e.g., symptoms of disinhibition associated with dysfunction in orbitofrontal cortex and inferior frontal gyrus in both frontotemporal dementia and bipolar disorder). We conclude that neurodegenerative diseases can play an important role in future approaches to the assessment, prevention, and treatment of mental illness. PMID:24437433

  18. How developmental psychopathology theory and research can inform the research domain criteria (RDoC) project.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Joseph C; Jamieson, Jeremy P; Glenn, Catherine R; Nock, Matthew K

    2015-01-01

    The recently proposed Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project has the potential to stimulate new research and overcome many of the limitations of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders taxonomy. In the present article we focus, in three main sections, on how theory and research from developmental psychopathology can inform RDoC. First, we discuss the ontology of mental illness and the potential advantages of the RDoC approach to understanding the nature of mental illness. Second, we note potential issues to consider when implementing the RDoC framework, including (a) integrating developmental processes, (b) classifying mental illness within a dimensional approach, and (c) avoiding problems associated with biological reductionism. Third, we describe how a developmental psychopathology perspective may inform each of these potential issues within RDoC. Finally, we highlight the study of emotion and the centrality of affective processes within the RDoC framework. Specifically, we describe how constructionist models of emotion are consistent with developmental psychopathology and how this perspective on emotion can help to guide RDoC research. PMID:24555423

  19. Stereotypic movement disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... include repetitive and purposeless picking, hand wringing, head tics, or lip-biting. Long-term stimulant use may ... disorders Obsessive compulsive disorder Tourette syndrome or other tic disorder

  20. [Psychopathological aspects of negative symptoms in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Cermolacce, M; Belzeaux, R; Pringuey, D; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2015-12-01

    During the past ten years, research on schizophrenia has witnessed a clear emphasis on studies based on negative symptoms. This interest can be explained in terms of diagnosis, specific treatment, functional prognosis and outcome issues. However, main current approaches consider negative symptoms from an operationalist view, which implies objective and atheoretical descriptions of clinical criteria, observed from a third person perspective. And the understanding of negative symptoms in schizophrenia, still a crucial issue of mental health, remains only partial. From a different perspective, psychopathology - and notably psychiatric phenomenology -, can provide a conceptual and clinical framework, taking into account subjective experience (first person perspective), based on a global understanding of the clinical situation lived by patients with schizophrenia. In the present review, we give a brief survey on the historical aspects of the description of negative symptoms. Then, we introduce the clinical contributions raised by clinical phenomenology. We principally develop Minkowski's notion of loss of vital contact, and Blankenburg's notion of loss of natural evidence. Then we highlight the current debates which are discussed and explored in contemporary psychopathology. In conclusion, we discuss the possible articulation between objective and subjective approaches, in order to better understand pauci-symptomatic forms of schizophrenia. PMID:26776395

  1. ["Analysis of fate" in psychiatry and psychotherapy. II. Correlations withe the level of general psychopathology].

    PubMed

    Grünner, O

    1976-07-01

    We demonstrated in a group of 166 psychiatric patients, with disorders of schizophrenic and cyclothymic circle and with neuroses too, significant relations between the results of the projection test of Szondi and between the greatness of total psychopathology, evaluated by means of the Minnesota Multiphasic Inquiry (M.M.P.I.). We could ascertain, that the patients with the higher level of total psychopathology (evaluated by means of M.M.P.I.) have also a greater number of abnormal results according to the projection test of Szondi. At these patients we saw significantly more "valve groups", which witness to the irresolution in the instinctive motivations of behaviour. At these patients we could ascertain further the greater number of those personalities, which according to the projection test of Szondi suffered from a lack of breaking and self-critical elements in their behaviour. Subjects with heightened values of M.M.P.I. have significantly more results with abnormal relations of masculinity and of feminity according to the sexual index of Szondi test. The choices and the selection from the set of 48 fixed photographies, which the patient realises at the Szondi test in teen repeated sessions, form so a significant relation not only to the psychiatric diagnoses, as was ascertained in the first part of this work, but also to the height of total psychopathology, evaluated by means of the M.M.P.I. The familial subconsciousness influences so significantly the consciousness of personality and can participate substantially in the development of psychopathologic symptoms. PMID:1015733

  2. Spatiotemporal Psychopathology II: How does a psychopathology of the brain's resting state look like? Spatiotemporal approach and the history of psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Northoff, Georg

    2016-01-15

    Psychopathology as the investigation and classification of experience, behavior and symptoms in psychiatric patients is an old discipline that ranges back to the end of the 19th century. Since then different approaches to psychopathology have been suggested. Recent investigations showing abnormalities in the brain on different levels raise the question how the gap between brain and psyche, between neural abnormalities and alteration in experience and behavior can be bridged. Historical approaches like descriptive (Jaspers) and structural (Minkoswki) psychopathology as well as the more current phenomenological psychopathology (Paarnas, Fuchs, Sass, Stanghellini) remain on the side of the psyche giving detailed description of the phenomenal level of experience while leaving open the link to the brain. In contrast, the recently introduced Research Domain Classification (RDoC) aims at explicitly linking brain and psyche by starting from so-called 'neuro-behavioral constructs'. How does Spatiotemporal Psychopathology, as demonstrated in the first paper on depression, stand in relation to these approaches? In a nutshell, Spatiotemporal Psychopathology aims to bridge the gap between brain and psyche. Specifically, as demonstrated in depression in the first paper, the focus is on the spatiotemporal features of the brain's intrinsic activity and how they are transformed into corresponding spatiotemporal features in experience on the phenomenal level and behavioral changes, which can well account for the symptoms in these patients. This second paper focuses on some of the theoretical background assumptions in Spatiotemporal Psychopathology by directly comparing it to descriptive, structural, and phenomenological psychopathology as well as to RDoC. PMID:26071797

  3. Impaired reading comprehension and mathematical abilities in male adolescents with average or above general intellectual abilities are associated with comorbid and future psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Weiser, Mark; Reichenberg, Abraham; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Nahon, Daniella; Kravitz, Efrat; Lubin, Gad; Knobler, Haim Y; Davidson, Michael; Noy, Shlomo

    2007-11-01

    Research indicates that persons with learning disorders often suffer from psychopathology. We assessed current and future psychopathology in male adolescents with discrete impairments in reading comprehension (IRC) or arithmetic abilities (IAA) but with average or above-average general intellectual abilities. Subjects were a population-based cohort of 174,994 male adolescents screened by the Israeli Draft Board with average or above-average intellectual abilities but with low scores (8.6th and 10th lowest percentile respectively) on reading or arithmetic tests. They were compared with adolescents who scored in the 10th percentile and above on these tests (comparison group). Relative to the comparison group, male adolescents with IRC, IAA, or IRC and IAA (0.69%), had poorer scores on most behavioral assessments and higher prevalence of current psychopathology: 4.2% (comparison group), 8.0% (IRC), 7.0% (IAA), and 9.8% (IRC and IAA). Adolescents with IRC were also at increased risk for later hospitalization for schizophrenia (hazard ratios = 1.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-2.6). Male adolescents with average and above-average general intellectual abilities but with IRC or IAA are more likely to have current and future psychopathology. Impairments in intellectual functioning and abnormal behaviors leading to mental illnesses may share common neurobiological substrates. The results support screening male adolescents with learning disorders for psychopathology. PMID:18000449

  4. Exploring Parental Bonding in BED and Non-BED Obesity Compared with Healthy Controls: Clinical, Personality and Psychopathology Correlates.

    PubMed

    Amianto, Federico; Ercole, Roberta; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2016-05-01

    Early inadequate attachment experiences are relevant co-factors in the development of obesity and Binge Eating Disorder (BED), which often concurs with obesity. The relationship of parental bonding with personality and psychopathology may influence treatment strategies for obese subjects, either affected or not with BED. In this study, 443 obese women (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2) ), including 243 with and 200 without BED, and 158 female controls were assessed with regards to attachment, personality and eating psychopathology measures. Clusters obtained using the scores of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) were compared with each other and with a control subjects' group. Lower scores of parental bonding distinguished obese subjects with respect to healthy controls. The cluster analysis revealed two clusters of parenting among obese subjects. The larger one displayed intermediate care and overprotection between controls and the smaller cluster, with the exception of paternal overprotection which is similar to controls. This larger cluster was characterized by low persistence and levels of psychopathology which are intermediate between healthy controls and the smaller cluster. The smaller cluster displayed lower care and higher overcontrol from both parents. It also displays more extreme personality traits (high novelty seeking and harm avoidance, and lower self-directedness and cooperativeness) and more severe eating and general psychopathology. Different parenting dynamics relate to different personality patterns and eating psychopathology of obese subjects, but not to binge eating conducts. Personality differences between parenting clusters are more extensive than those between BED and non-BED subgroups. The two different typologies of obese subjects based on parenting may be relevant for treatment personalization. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:26603379

  5. Introduction to the special issue on the impact of childhood psychopathology interventions on subsequent substance abuse: pieces of the puzzle.

    PubMed

    Glantz, Meyer D

    2002-12-01

    Studies of adolescents and adults have reported high levels of co-occurrence of substance abuse with other psychiatric disorders, suggesting influence between the conditions. The comorbidity seems complex and variable, indicating that there may be more than I type of association between the comorbid disorders. When occurring in childhood. some of the frequently comorbid psychopathologies typically precede later drug and alcohol abuse and may have implications for substance abuse prevention as early risk indicators and as targets for intervention. Research discussed in this article and in this special issue provides a foundation for investigating the question of whether effective treatment of childhood psychopathologies can prevent or at least mitigate substance abuse for some adolescents. Clinical, research, and policy implications are discussed. PMID:12472297

  6. The structure of child and adolescent psychopathology: generating new hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Lahey, Benjamin B; Applegate, Brooks; Waldman, Irwin D; Loft, John D; Hankin, Benjamin L; Rick, Jacqueline

    2004-08-01

    To begin to resolve conflicts among current competing taxonomies of child and adolescent psychopathology, the authors developed an interview covering the symptoms of anxiety, depression, inattention, and disruptive behavior used in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994), the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10; World Health Organization, 1992), and several implicit taxonomies. This interview will be used in the future to compare the internal and external validity of alternative taxonomies. To provide an informative framework for future hypothesis-testing studies, the authors used principal factor analysis to induce new testable hypotheses regarding the structure of this item pool in a representative sample of 1,358 children and adolescents ranging in age from 4 to 17 years. The resulting hypotheses differed from the DSM-IV, particularly in suggesting that some anxiety symptoms are part of the same syndrome as depression, whereas separation anxiety, fears, and compulsions constitute a separate anxiety dimension. PMID:15311983

  7. Teaching Psychopathology in a Galaxy Far, Far Away: The Light Side of the Force.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Susan Hatters; Hall, Ryan C W

    2015-12-01

    Star Wars films are among the top box office hits of all time. The films have been popular internationally for almost 40 years. As such, both trainees and attending psychiatrists are likely to be aware of them. This article highlights a vast array of psychopathology in Star Wars films which can be useful in teaching, even when the characters are considered the "good guys". Included are as follows: histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, and dependent personality traits, perinatal psychiatric disorders, prodromal schizophrenia, pseudo-dementia, frontal lobe lesions, pathological gambling, and even malingering. As such, Star Wars has tremendous potential to teach psychiatric trainees about mental health issues. PMID:25933645

  8. Annual Research Review: The neuroinflammation hypothesis for stress and psychopathology in children: developmental psychoneuroimmunology

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Thomas G.; Moynihan, Jan A.; Caserta, Mary T.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental animal and adult human data suggest that stress exposure is associated with alterations in immune system function that may underlie increased susceptibility to disease and behavioral disorders. The implications of these data for child psychology and psychiatry are not yet clear. The current review seeks to distil and translate the relevant animal and adult human work to children in order to advance a developmental model of psychoneuroimmunology. In addition to reviewing key specific findings, we consider biological/conceptual models and technical aspects of psychoneuroimmunology work in pediatric populations, and outline the rationales and advantages of integrating hypotheses concerning neuroinflammation in developmental studies of psychopathology. PMID:24372371

  9. Philosophical and Psychopathological Perspective of Exile: On Time and Space Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Silva Rojas, Matías; Armijo Nuñez, Julio; Nuñez Erices, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the experience of exile from an interdisciplinary perspective (philosophy and psychiatry). The main purpose is to try to understand the experience of exile by rehearsing a psychopathological perspective to address it, so it can help with the treatment of disorders that come with this experience. Furthermore, the article tries to explore the experience and reflection of philosophers and thinkers who, being exiled themselves, tried to understand and explain this radical human experience, focusing on the experience of time and space. PMID:26074825

  10. Annual research review: The neuroinflammation hypothesis for stress and psychopathology in children--developmental psychoneuroimmunology.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Thomas G; Moynihan, Jan A; Caserta, Mary T

    2014-06-01

    Experimental animal and adult human data suggest that stress exposure is associated with alterations in immune system function that may underlie increased susceptibility to disease and behavioral disorders. The implications of these data for child psychology and psychiatry are not yet clear. The current review seeks to distil and translate the relevant animal and adult human work to children to advance a developmental model of psychoneuroimmunology. In addition to reviewing key specific findings, we consider biological/conceptual models and technical aspects of psychoneuroimmunology work in pediatric populations, and outline the rationales and advantages of integrating hypotheses concerning neuroinflammation in developmental studies of psychopathology. PMID:24372371

  11. Relationship of dropout and psychopathology in a high school sample in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Chalita, Pablo J; Palacios, Lino; Cortes, Jose F; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Panza, Kaitlyn E; Bloch, Michael H

    2012-01-01

    School dropout has significant consequences for both individuals and societies. Only 21% of adults in Mexico achieve the equivalent of a high school education. We examined the relationship between school dropout and self-reported psychiatric symptoms in a middle school in a suburb of Mexico City. We used binomial logistic regression to examine the odds ratio (OR) of school dropout associated with students' self-reported psychopathology. Two-hundred thirty-seven students participated in the study. Psychosis [OR = 8.0 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.7-37.2)], depression [OR = 4.7 (95% CI: 2.2-9.7)], tic disorders [OR = 3.7 (95% CI: 1.4-9.5)], ADHD [OR = 3.2 (95% CI: 1.5-6.4)], and social phobia [OR = 2.6 (95% CI: 1.2-5.8)] were associated with increased risk of school dropout after controlling for age and gender as covariates. Our study suggested that students' self-reported psychopathology is associated with increased school dropout in Mexico. ADHD and depression may be particularly useful childhood psychiatric disorders to target with public health interventions because they explain the greatest amount of the variance in school dropout of child psychiatric disorders. PMID:22419912

  12. Benefits of Exercise with Mini Tennis in Intellectual Disabilities: Effects on Body Image and Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Hardoy, Maria Carolina; Seruis, Maria Luisa; Floris, Francesca; Sancassiani, Federica; Moro, Maria Francesca; Mellino, Gisa; Lecca, Maria Efisia; Adamo, Siria; Carta, Mauro Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    The present study is aimed at evaluating the efficacy of an introductory mini tennis programme as a therapeutic aid in the psychosocial rehabilitation of participants affected by mild/moderate intellectual disability in semi-residential care. Two groups (N=12) of participants diagnosed with intellectual disability, one of which followed the mini tennis rehabilitation programme, were compared at time t0, t1 (after 2 months) and t2 (after 6 months). Psychopathological status was assessed by means of the Italian version of the Assessment and Information Rating Profile (AIRP). Motor coordination, lateral dominance and body scheme were assessed by means of structured tools. Psychopathological total scores showed a statistically significant decrease in the experimental group in comparison with the control group. A statistical decrease in the group with the mini tennis rehabilitation programme was found also in the anxiety sub-scale while the sub-scales schizophrenia, depression, adjustment disorder, personality problems, somatoform disorders and psychosexual disorders did not reach any statistical difference between groups. A statistically significant increase in the visuo manual coordination was highlighted in the experimental versus the control group. No statistically significant differences were reported with regard to general movement skills, dynamic balance and coordination. In spite of the limitations of this study, the results obtained are encouraging and suggest the potential efficacy of mini tennis as an auxiliary aid in rehabilitation programmes, particularly to improve visuo manual coordination skills and to boost the patient/participants' self esteem. These findings warrant confirmation by further research studies. PMID:22016751

  13. Current Psychopathological Symptoms in Children and Adolescents Who Suffered Different Forms of Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Bergonzini, Paola; Cirillo, Flavia; Demaria, Francesco; Casini, Maria Pia; Menghini, Deny; Vicari, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the current psychopathological problems of different forms associated with maltreatment on children's and adolescents' mental health. Ninety-five females and ninety males with a mean age of 8.8 years who have suffered in the last six months different forms of abuse (physical, sexual, and emotional) and neglect were included in the study. The current reaction to trauma as directly observed by clinical instruments was examined. Differences in gender, age at the time of medical examination, familial psychiatric disorders, neuropsychiatric status, and type of maltreatment were also taken into account. Results documented that 95.1% of abused children and adolescents developed a psychiatric disorder or a subclinical form of a Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Moreover, our data demonstrate a role for gender, age, and familial psychiatric comorbidity in the current psychopathological problems associated with maltreatment. Overall, our findings can help clinicians make a diagnosis and provide efficient treatment and prevention strategies for child maltreatment and abuse. PMID:27579345

  14. Current Psychopathological Symptoms in Children and Adolescents Who Suffered Different Forms of Maltreatment.

    PubMed

    De Rose, Paola; Salvaguardia, Fortunata; Bergonzini, Paola; Cirillo, Flavia; Demaria, Francesco; Casini, Maria Pia; Menghini, Deny; Vicari, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the current psychopathological problems of different forms associated with maltreatment on children's and adolescents' mental health. Ninety-five females and ninety males with a mean age of 8.8 years who have suffered in the last six months different forms of abuse (physical, sexual, and emotional) and neglect were included in the study. The current reaction to trauma as directly observed by clinical instruments was examined. Differences in gender, age at the time of medical examination, familial psychiatric disorders, neuropsychiatric status, and type of maltreatment were also taken into account. Results documented that 95.1% of abused children and adolescents developed a psychiatric disorder or a subclinical form of a Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Moreover, our data demonstrate a role for gender, age, and familial psychiatric comorbidity in the current psychopathological problems associated with maltreatment. Overall, our findings can help clinicians make a diagnosis and provide efficient treatment and prevention strategies for child maltreatment and abuse. PMID:27579345

  15. Relationship of Dropout and Psychopathology in a High School Sample in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Chalita, Pablo J.; Palacios, Lino; Cortes, Jose F.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Bloch, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    School dropout has significant consequences for both individuals and societies. Only 21% of adults in Mexico achieve the equivalent of a high school education. We examined the relationship between school dropout and self-reported psychiatric symptoms in a middle school in a suburb of Mexico City. We used binomial logistic regression to examine the odds ratio (OR) of school dropout associated with students’ self-reported psychopathology. Two-hundred thirty-seven students participated in the study. Psychosis [OR = 8.0 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.7–37.2)], depression [OR = 4.7 (95% CI: 2.2–9.7)], tic disorders [OR = 3.7 (95% CI: 1.4–9.5)], ADHD [OR = 3.2 (95% CI: 1.5–6.4)], and social phobia [OR = 2.6 (95% CI: 1.2–5.8)] were associated with increased risk of school dropout after controlling for age and gender as covariates. Our study suggested that students’ self-reported psychopathology is associated with increased school dropout in Mexico. ADHD and depression may be particularly useful childhood psychiatric disorders to target with public health interventions because they explain the greatest amount of the variance in school dropout of child psychiatric disorders. PMID:22419912

  16. Psychiatric Disorders in Preschool Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Goldstein, Benjamin; Monk, Kelly; Kalas, Catherine; Obreja, Mihaela; Hickey, Mary Beth; Iyengar, Satish; Brent, David; Shamseddeen, Wael; Diler, Rasim; Kupfer, David

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate lifetime prevalence and specificity of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders and severity of depressive and manic symptoms at intake in preschool offspring of parents with Disorder I–II. Methods 121 offspring ages 2–5 years old of 83 parents with Bipolar Disorder and 102 offspring of 65 demographically matched control parents (29 with non-Bipolar psychiatric disorders and 36 without any lifetime psychopathology) were recruited. Parents with Bipolar Disorder were recruited through advertisement and adult outpatient clinics and control parents were ascertained at random from the community. Subjects were evaluated with standardized instruments. All staff were blind to parental diagnoses. Results After adjusting for within-family correlations and both biological parents’ non-Bipolar psychopathology, compared to the offspring of the control parents, offspring of parents with Bipolar Disorder, particularly those older than 4 years old, showed an 8-fold increased life-time prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) and significantly higher rates of ≥ 2 psychiatric disorders. While only 3 offspring of parents with Bipolar Disorder had mood disorders, offspring of parents with Bipolar Disorder, especially those with ADHD and Oppositional-Defiant Disorder, had significantly more severe current manic and depressive symptomatology than the offspring of the controls. Conclusions Preschool offspring of parents with Bipolar Disorder are at increased risk for ADHD and demonstrate increased subthreshold manic and depressive symptomatology. Longitudinal follow-up is warranted to evaluate whether these children are at high-risk to develop mood and other psychiatric disorders. PMID:20080982

  17. Annual Research Review: Embracing Not Erasing Contextual Variability in Children's Behavior--Theory and Utility in the Selection and Use of Methods and Informants in Developmental Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirks, Melanie A.; De Los Reyes, Andres; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret; Cella, David; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the selection and use of multiple methods and informants for the assessment of disruptive behavior syndromes and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, providing a critical discussion of (a) the bidirectional linkages between theoretical models of childhood psychopathology and current assessment techniques; and (b) current…

  18. The error-related negativity (ERN) and psychopathology: Toward an Endophenotype

    PubMed Central

    Olvet, Doreen M.; Hajcak, Greg

    2008-01-01

    The ERN is a negative deflection in the event-related potential that peaks approximately 50 ms after the commission of an error. The ERN is thought to reflect early error-processing activity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). First, we review current functional, neurobiological, and developmental data on the ERN. Next, the ERN is discussed in terms of three psychiatric disorders characterized by abnormal response monitoring: anxiety disorders, depression, and substance abuse. These data indicate that increased and decreased error-related brain activity is associated with the internalizing and externalizing dimensions of psychopathology, respectively. Recent data further suggest that abnormal error-processing indexed by the ERN indexes trait- but not state-related symptoms, especially related to anxiety. Overall, these data point to utility of ERN in studying risk for psychiatric disorders, and are discussed in terms of the endophenotype construct. PMID:18694617

  19. Parental Expressed Emotion and Youth Psychopathology: New Directions for an Old Construct

    PubMed Central

    Miklowitz, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Levels of parental expressed emotion (EE) are prospectively associated with the symptomatic course of a range of childhood psychiatric disorders. This article reviews the literature linking parental EE to youth psychopathology and proposes a novel framework for understanding its mechanisms of action. We find that, despite noteworthy methodological limitations, parental EE is linked consistently to a more deleterious course of mood, anxiety, and psychotic disorders in youth. Its mechanism of action is unknown. Models of “toxic family stress” (referring to frequent, sustained, and uncontrollable stress without protective influences) provide one framework for understanding how high EE environments interact with individual biological vulnerabilities to promote illness onset and recurrence. Research aimed at understanding biological responses (e.g., stress reactivity, arousal) to familial EE is needed. Such work may inform efforts to understand how EE affects the course of psychiatric disorders and may guide the development of novel interventions emphasizing emotion regulation strategies. PMID:25552241

  20. Parental Expressed Emotion and Youth Psychopathology: New Directions for an Old Construct.

    PubMed

    Peris, Tara S; Miklowitz, David J

    2015-12-01

    Levels of parental expressed emotion (EE) are prospectively associated with the symptomatic course of a range of childhood psychiatric disorders. This article reviews the literature linking parental EE to youth psychopathology and proposes a novel framework for understanding its mechanisms of action. We find that, despite noteworthy methodological limitations, parental EE is linked consistently to a more deleterious course of mood, anxiety, and psychotic disorders in youth. Its mechanism of action is unknown. Models of "toxic family stress" (referring to frequent, sustained, and uncontrollable stress without protective influences) provide one framework for understanding how high EE environments interact with individual biological vulnerabilities to promote illness onset and recurrence. Research aimed at understanding biological responses (e.g., stress reactivity, arousal) to familial EE is needed. Such work may inform efforts to understand how EE affects the course of psychiatric disorders and may guide the development of novel interventions emphasizing emotion regulation strategies. PMID:25552241

  1. Small-world network properties in prefrontal cortex correlate with predictors of psychopathology risk in young children: a NIRS study.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Tomer; Beacher, Felix D C C; Cha, Jiook; Rubin, Denis; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R

    2014-01-15

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is an emerging imaging technique that is relatively inexpensive, portable, and particularly well suited for collecting data in ecological settings. Therefore, it holds promise as a potential neurodiagnostic for young children. We set out to explore whether NIRS could be utilized in assessing the risk of developmental psychopathology in young children. A growing body of work indicates that temperament at young age is associated with vulnerability to psychopathology later on in life. In particular, it has been shown that low effortful control (EC), which includes the focusing and shifting of attention, inhibitory control, perceptual sensitivity, and a low threshold for pleasure, is linked to conditions such as anxiety, depression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Physiologically, EC has been linked to a control network spanning among other sites the prefrontal cortex. Several psychopathologies, such as depression and ADHD, have been shown to result in compromised small-world network properties. Therefore we set out to explore the relationship between EC and the small-world properties of PFC using NIRS. NIRS data were collected from 44 toddlers, ages 3-5, while watching naturalistic stimuli (movie clips). Derived complex network measures were then correlated to EC as derived from the Children's Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ). We found that reduced levels of EC were associated with compromised small-world properties of the prefrontal network. Our results suggest that the longitudinal NIRS studies of complex network properties in young children hold promise in furthering our understanding of developmental psychopathology. PMID:23863519

  2. “Not in their right mind”: the relation of psychopathology to the quantity and quality of creative thought

    PubMed Central

    Ramey, Christopher H.; Chrysikou, Evangelia G.

    2014-01-01

    The empirical link between psychopathology and creativity is often correlational and fraught with suspiciously causal interpretations. In this paper, we review research in favor of the position that certain forms of psychopathology that profoundly affect the neural substrates for rule-based thought (e.g., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder) can significantly influence the quantity of creative production. Because highly productive individuals, irrespective of psychopathology, often produce work of greater quality, it seems that such an increase in the quantity of one’s output positively affects the likelihood of generating those statistically rare acts and achievements identified and celebrated as creative. We consider evidence that offers support for such a claim. In addition, we explore findings from neuroscience that can address how a neural mechanism, the flexibility of which relies on tradeoffs between rule-based (e.g., prefrontal cortex) and stimulus-based (e.g., sensorimotor cortex) brain regions, is influenced by psychopathology in ways that can alter dramatically the quantity and quality of creative output. PMID:25126084

  3. "Not in their right mind": the relation of psychopathology to the quantity and quality of creative thought.

    PubMed

    Ramey, Christopher H; Chrysikou, Evangelia G

    2014-01-01

    The empirical link between psychopathology and creativity is often correlational and fraught with suspiciously causal interpretations. In this paper, we review research in favor of the position that certain forms of psychopathology that profoundly affect the neural substrates for rule-based thought (e.g., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder) can significantly influence the quantity of creative production. Because highly productive individuals, irrespective of psychopathology, often produce work of greater quality, it seems that such an increase in the quantity of one's output positively affects the likelihood of generating those statistically rare acts and achievements identified and celebrated as creative. We consider evidence that offers support for such a claim. In addition, we explore findings from neuroscience that can address how a neural mechanism, the flexibility of which relies on tradeoffs between rule-based (e.g., prefrontal cortex) and stimulus-based (e.g., sensorimotor cortex) brain regions, is influenced by psychopathology in ways that can alter dramatically the quantity and quality of creative output. PMID:25126084

  4. Panic Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a type of anxiety disorder. It causes panic attacks, which are sudden feelings of terror when there ... or a cold chill Tingly or numb hands Panic attacks can happen anytime, anywhere, and without warning. You ...

  5. Is there a relationship between parental self-reported psychopathology and symptom severity in adolescents with anorexia nervosa?

    PubMed

    Ravi, Sheila; Forsberg, Sarah; Fitzpatrick, Kara; Lock, James

    2009-01-01

    The current study aimed to screen for indications of psychopathology displayed by the parents of adolescents diagnosed with Anorexia Nervosa (AN), and examine the relationship between severity of adolescent eating disorder symptoms and parental psychopathology. Sixty female adolescents diagnosed with DSM-IV-TR AN (restricting-type and binge-purge-type) were administered the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) and parents completed the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R). As compared to established non-patient norms, both fathers and mothers of adolescents with AN reported greater levels of obsessive compulsive behaviors, hostility, depression, and anxiety as measured by the SCL-90-R. In addition, duration of AN was positively associated with hostility scores in fathers, and global EDE scores were associated with hostility in mothers. While parental scores on the SCL-90 were elevated as compared to community samples, results of this study do not support a direct influence of parental psychopathology on symptom severity of adolescent AN. Increasing rates of hostility scores in parents with increased duration of AN may represent either a response to the presence of the disorder or be a maintaining factor for AN. PMID:19105061

  6. Association between witnessing traumatic events and psychopathology in the South African Stress and Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Jonathan; Williams, David R.; Stein, Dan J.; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2016-01-01

    Background The high burden of witnessing traumatic events has been demonstrated in previous research in South Africa. However, previous work has focused on PTSD rather than a broader range of psychopathological outcomes. This study examined the association between witnessing trauma and multiple outcomes including mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders. Methods Regression models measured the odds of mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders among those who reported witnessing in the South African Stress and Health Study. Discrete-time survival analysis was used to examine whether witnessing was associated with earlier onset of mental disorders. Results Witnessing trauma was more commonly reported among males and those with low-average education. Posttraumatic stress disorder, mood, and anxiety disorders varied significantly with witnessing status, and witnessing was associated with exposure to a higher number of traumatic events compared to other types of traumatic events. Respondents reporting witnessing trauma had elevated odds of mood and anxiety disorders, but not substance use disorders. Conclusion Witnessing trauma is common in the South African population and results in increased risk of mood and anxiety disorders. Interventions aimed at reducing the burden of trauma and its outcomes must now increase their focus on bystanders and other observers, rather than just focusing on those directly affected. PMID:25773525

  7. Decision Making in Alcohol Dependence: Insensitivity to Future Consequences and Comorbid Disinhibitory Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Cantrell, Hope; Finn, Peter R.; Rickert, Martin E.; Lucas, Jesolyn

    2008-01-01

    Background: Alcohol dependence (AD) is often comorbid with other disinhibitory disorders that are characterized by poor decision making and evidenced by disadvantageous strategies on laboratory tasks such as the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). In this study, a variant of the IGT is used to examine specific mechanisms that may account for poor decision making on the task in AD both with and without comorbid psychopathology. Methods: The community sample (n = 428) included 134 young adult subjects with AD and a history of childhood conduct disorder (CCD), 129 with AD and no history of CCD, 60 with a history of CCD and no AD, and 105 controls. Lifetime histories of other disinhibitory problems (adult antisocial behavior, marijuana, and other drugs) and major depression also were assessed. A modified version of the IGT was used to estimate (i) insensitivity to future consequences (IFC), and (ii) preference for large versus small immediate reward decks (PLvS). Results: Both AD and CCD were associated with greater IFC but not greater PLvS. Structural equation models (SEMs) indicated that IFC was associated with higher scores on a latent dimensional “disinhibitory disorders” factor representing the covariance among all lifetime measures of disinhibitory psychopathology, but was not directly related to any one disinhibitory disorder. SEMs also suggested that adult antisocial behavior was uniquely associated with a greater PLvS. Conclusions: Disadvantageous decision making on the IGT in those with AD and related dis-inhibitory disorders may reflect an IFC that is common to the covariance among these disorders but not unique to any one disorder. PMID:18565158

  8. [Attachment and Adoption: Diagnostics, Psychopathology, and Therapy].

    PubMed

    Brisch, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of attachment between adopted children and their adoptive parents with a focus on the particular issues seen in international adoptions. The questions of settling in, trauma in the country of origin, and the motivations of the adoptive parents will be discussed. Diagnosis and various psychopathological manifestations will be examined, as will outpatient and inpatient modes of therapy. The treatment of children of various ages will be covered along with the necessity for intensive counseling and psychotherapy for the adoptive parents. This will enable the parents to work through early trauma, which will give them and their adopted child the basis for developing healthy attachment patterns. This in turn will enable the child to mature and integrate into society. Possibilities of prevention are discussed. Many of the approaches discussed here regarding attachment and adoption may be applied to foster children and their foster parents. PMID:26645775

  9. Remorse, psychopathology, and psychopathy among adolescent offenders.

    PubMed

    Spice, Andrew; Viljoen, Jodi L; Douglas, Kevin S; Hart, Stephen D

    2015-10-01

    Remorse has long been important to the juvenile justice system. However, the nature of this construct has not yet been clearly articulated, and little research has examined its relationships with other theoretically and forensically relevant variables. The present study was intended to address these issues by examining relationships among remorse, psychopathology, and psychopathy in a sample of adolescent offenders (N = 97) using the theoretically and empirically established framework of guilt and shame (Tangney & Dearing, 2002). Findings indicated that shame was positively related to behavioral features of psychopathy, whereas guilt was negatively related to psychopathic characteristics more broadly. In addition, shame was positively associated with numerous mental health problems whereas guilt was negatively associated with anger, depression, and anxiety. These results provide empirical support for theory that psychopathy is characterized by lack of remorse (e.g., Hare, 1991), and also underscore shame and guilt as potentially important treatment targets for adolescent offenders. PMID:26011041

  10. Hand lotion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hand lotion poisoning occurs when someone swallows hand lotion or hand cream. This article is for information only. DO ... These ingredients in hand lotion or cream can be harmful if swallowed: Dimethicone Mineral oil Paraffins (waxes) Petrolatum Various alcohols

  11. Integrative Response Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Athena

    2013-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED), a chronic condition characterized by eating disorder psychopathology and physical and social disability, represents a significant public health problem. Guided self-help (GSH) treatments for BED appear promising and may be more readily disseminable to mental health care providers, accessible to patients, and…

  12. Trajectories of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms as Precursors of Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepp, Stephanie D.; Burke, Jeffrey D.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Loeber, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Little empirical evidence exists regarding the developmental links between childhood psychopathology and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adolescence. The current study addresses this gap by examining symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) as potential precursors. ADHD and BPD…

  13. Spatial resonance in a small artery excited by vibration input as a possible mechanism to cause hand-arm vascular disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattnaik, Shrikant; Banerjee, Rupak; Kim, Jay

    2012-04-01

    Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) is collectively a vasospastic and neurodegenerative occupational disease. One of the major symptoms of HAVS is vibration white finger (VWF) caused by exaggerated vasoconstriction of the arteries and skin arterioles. While VWF is a very painful and costly occupational illness, its pathology has not been well understood. In this study a small artery is modeled as a fluid filled elastic tube whose diameter changes along the axial direction. Equations of motion are developed by considering interactions between the fluid, artery wall and soft-tissue bed. It is shown that the resulting wave equation is the same as that of the basilar membrane in the cochlea of mammals. Therefore, the artery system shows a spatial resonance as in the basilar membrane, which responds with the highest amplitude at the location determined by the vibration frequency. This implies that a long-term use of one type of tool will induce high-level stresses at a few identical locations of the artery that correspond to the major frequency components of the tool. Hardening and deterioration of the artery at these locations may be a possible cause of VWF.

  14. Influence of dopamine polymorphisms on the risk for anorexia nervosa and associated psychopathological features.

    PubMed

    Gervasini, Guillermo; Gordillo, Inmaculada; García-Herráiz, Angustias; Flores, Isalud; Jiménez, Mercedes; Monge, Melchora; Carrillo, Juan Antonio

    2013-08-01

    Dopamine neuronal functions make polymorphisms in dopaminergic pathways good candidates for playing a relevant role in anorexia nervosa (AN) and related psychopathological features. We have analyzed the effect of 8 polymorphisms in genes coding for dopamine receptors (DRD2, DRD3, and DRD4), transporters (DAT1) and metabolizing enzymes (COMT) in 78 women with AN and 186 control subjects. Associated psychopathological characteristics in patients with AN were assessed by the Eating Disorders Inventory Test-2 and SCL-90R self-reported questionnaires. The DRD4 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) 7R/7R and DRD4 -616CC genotypes were significantly associated with a greater risk for AN (odds ratio, 3.83; confidence interval, 1.05-13.98; P = 0.04; and odds ratio, 1.74; confidence interval, 1.01-2.97; P = 0.03, respectively). The analysis of physiological parameters in the patients with AN revealed that the short allele of a 120-base pair tandem repeat in the promoter region of the DRD4 gene was associated with higher weight (48.35 ± 6.79 vs 43.95 ± 5.78 kg; Bonferroni, P < 0.05), whereas the DRD4 -521TT genotype was associated with significantly higher body mass index (17.29 ± 2.25 vs 18.13 ± 2.41 kg/m2; Bonferroni, P < 0.05). The DRD4 C-616G and DAT1 VNTR polymorphisms correlated with several psychopathological features in patients with AN. Carriers of the mutant homozygous genotypes scored higher in all but one of the Eating Disorders Inventory Test-2 subscales. After correction for multiple testing, differences in Asceticism scores between DAT1 VNTR genotypes, as well as differences in Drive for Thinness and Body Dissatisfaction between C-616G genotypes remained significant (P < 0.05). The results show that certain genetic alterations in the dopamine pathways are able to modify the risk for AN as well as modulate psychopathological features that are often coupled to this disorder. PMID:23775054

  15. Models of stress in nonhuman primates and their relevance for human psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jerrold S; Hamel, Amanda F

    2014-01-01

    Stressful life events have been linked to the onset of severe psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction in many patients. Moreover, vulnerability to the later development of such disorders can be increased by stress or adversity during development (e.g., childhood neglect, abuse, or trauma). This review discusses the methodological features and results of various models of stress in nonhuman primates in the context of their potential relevance for human psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction, particularly mood disorders and dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. Such models have typically examined the effects of stress on the animals' behavior, endocrine function (primarily the HPA and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal systems), and, in some cases, immune status. Manipulations such as relocation and/or removal of an animal from its current social group or, alternatively, formation of a new social group can have adverse effects on all of these outcome measures that may be either transient or more persistent depending on the species, sex, and other experimental conditions. Social primates may also experience significant stress associated with their rank in the group's dominance hierarchy. Finally, stress during prenatal development or during the early postnatal period may have long-lasting neurobiological and endocrine effects that manifest in an altered ability to cope behaviorally and physiologically with later challenges. Whereas early exposure to severe stress usually results in deficient coping abilities, certain kinds of milder stressors can promote subsequent resilience in the animal. We conclude that studies of stress in nonhuman primates can model many features of stress exposure in human populations and that such studies can play a valuable role in helping to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the role of stress in human psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction. PMID:25225311

  16. Models of Stress in Nonhuman Primates and Their Relevance for Human Psychopathology and Endocrine Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Jerrold S.; Hamel, Amanda F.

    2014-01-01

    Stressful life events have been linked to the onset of severe psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction in many patients. Moreover, vulnerability to the later development of such disorders can be increased by stress or adversity during development (e.g., childhood neglect, abuse, or trauma). This review discusses the methodological features and results of various models of stress in nonhuman primates in the context of their potential relevance for human psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction, particularly mood disorders and dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. Such models have typically examined the effects of stress on the animals' behavior, endocrine function (primarily the HPA and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal systems), and, in some cases, immune status. Manipulations such as relocation and/or removal of an animal from its current social group or, alternatively, formation of a new social group can have adverse effects on all of these outcome measures that may be either transient or more persistent depending on the species, sex, and other experimental conditions. Social primates may also experience significant stress associated with their rank in the group's dominance hierarchy. Finally, stress during prenatal development or during the early postnatal period may have long-lasting neurobiological and endocrine effects that manifest in an altered ability to cope behaviorally and physiologically with later challenges. Whereas early exposure to severe stress usually results in deficient coping abilities, certain kinds of milder stressors can promote subsequent resilience in the animal. We conclude that studies of stress in nonhuman primates can model many features of stress exposure in human populations and that such studies can play a valuable role in helping to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the role of stress in human psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction. PMID:25225311

  17. GAD65 haplodeficiency conveys resilience in animal models of stress-induced psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Iris; Obata, Kunihiko; Richter-Levin, Gal; Stork, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    GABAergic mechanisms are critically involved in the control of fear and anxiety, but their role in the development of stress-induced psychopathologies, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mood disorders is not sufficiently understood. We studied these functions in two established mouse models of risk factors for stress-induced psychopathologies employing variable juvenile stress and/or social isolation. A battery of emotional tests in adulthood revealed the induction of contextually generalized fear, anxiety, hyperarousal and depression-like symptoms in these paradigms. These reflect the multitude and complexity of stress effects in human PTSD patients. With factor analysis we were able to identify parameters that reflect these different behavioral domains in stressed animals and thus provide a basis for an integrated scoring of affectedness more closely resembling the clinical situation than isolated parameters. To test the applicability of these models to genetic approaches we further tested the role of GABA using heterozygous mice with targeted mutation of the GABA synthesizing enzyme GAD65 [GAD65(+/−) mice], which show a delayed postnatal increase in tissue GABA content in limbic and cortical brain areas. Unexpectedly, GAD65(+/−) mice did not show changes in exploratory activity regardless of the stressor type and were after the variable juvenile stress procedure protected from the development of contextual generalization in an auditory fear conditioning experiment. Our data demonstrate the complex nature of behavioral alterations in rodent models of stress-related psychopathologies and suggest that GAD65 haplodeficiency, likely through its effect on the postnatal maturation of GABAergic transmission, conveys resilience to some of these stress-induced effects. PMID:25147515

  18. Factors associated with group bullying and psychopathology in elementary school students using child-welfare facilities

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun Won; Lee, KounSeok; Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Min, Kyung Joon; Song, Sung Hwan; Park, Ga Na; Lee, Ju Young; Kim, Jae Ock

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Low socioeconomic status is an important risk factor for child psychiatric problems. Low socioeconomic status is also associated with psychiatric problems later in life. We investigated the effects of group bullying on clinical characteristics and psychopathology in elementary school students using child-welfare facilities. Methods Three hundred and fifty-eight elementary school students using child-welfare facilities were recruited. The School Bullying Self Rating Questionnaire was used to assess group bullying. To evaluate related psychopathology, the Children’s Problem-Behavior Screening Questionnaire, the Children’s Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire, Young’s Internet Addiction Scale, and Conners–Wells’ Adolescent Self-Report Scale were applied. Samples were classified according to school grade (lower or upper), and each group’s characteristics were compared as they related to bullying victims versus non-victims. Results The prevalence rate of group bullying was 22% in the lower-grade group and 12% in the higher-grade group. Bullying victims in lower grades reported high somatization, depressive symptoms, Internet addiction, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder tendencies, whereas those in upper grades reported cognitive problems, symptoms of depression and anxiety, suicidal ideation, Internet addiction, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder tendencies. Somatization and depressive symptoms were significant predictors of bullying in the lower-grade group, and anxiety was a significant predictor of bullying in the upper-grade group. Conclusion This study demonstrated that elementary school students using child-welfare facilities might have an increased risk of being bullied and that bullying victims may have different psychopathologies depending on their ages. PMID:25897236

  19. Parental rearing and psychopathology in mothers of adolescents with and without borderline personality symptoms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A combination of multiple factors, including a strong genetic predisposition and environmental factors, are considered to contribute to the developmental pathways to borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, these factors have mostly been investigated retrospectively, and hardly in adolescents. The current study focuses on maternal factors in BPD features in adolescence. Methods Actual parenting was investigated in a group of referred adolescents with BPD features (N = 101) and a healthy control group (N = 44). Self-reports of perceived concurrent parenting were completed by the adolescents. Questionnaires on parental psychopathology (both Axis I and Axis II disorders) were completed by their mothers. Results Adolescents reported significantly less emotional warmth, more rejection and more overprotection from their mothers in the BPD-group than in the control group. Mothers in the BPD group reported significantly more parenting stress compared to mothers in the control group. Also, these mothers showed significantly more general psychopathology and clusters C personality traits than mothers in the control group. Contrary to expectations, mothers of adolescents with BPD features reported the same level of cluster B personality traits, compared to mothers in the control group. Hierarchical logistic regression revealed that parental rearing styles (less emotional warmth, and more overprotection) and general psychopathology of the mother were the strongest factors differentiating between controls and adolescents with BPD symptoms. Conclusions Adolescents with BPD features experience less emotional warmth and more overprotection from their mothers, while the mothers themselves report more symptoms of anxiety and depression. Addition of family interventions to treatment programs for adolescents might increase the effectiveness of such early interventions, and prevent the adverse outcome that is often seen in adult BPD patients. PMID:22925148

  20. Effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive performance and individual psychopathology in depressive and schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Oertel-Knöchel, Viola; Mehler, Pia; Thiel, Christian; Steinbrecher, Kristina; Malchow, Berend; Tesky, Valentina; Ademmer, Karin; Prvulovic, David; Banzer, Winfried; Zopf, Yurdagül; Schmitt, Andrea; Hänsel, Frank

    2014-10-01

    Cognitive deficits are core symptoms in patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and major depressive disorder (MDD), but specific and approved treatments for cognitive deterioration are scarce. Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that aerobic exercise may help to reduce psychopathological symptoms and support cognitive performance, but this has not yet been systematically investigated. In the current study, we examined the effects of aerobic training on cognitive performance and symptom severity in psychiatric inpatients. To our knowledge, to date, no studies have been published that directly compare the effects of exercise across disease groups in order to acquire a better understanding of disease-specific versus general or overlapping effects of physical training intervention. Two disease groups (n=22 MDD patients, n=29 SZ patients) that were matched for age, gender, duration of disease and years of education received cognitive training combined either with aerobic physical exercise or with mental relaxation training. The interventions included 12 sessions (3 times a week) over a time period of 4 weeks, lasting each for 75 min (30 min of cognitive training+45 min of cardio training/mental relaxation training). Cognitive parameters and psychopathology scores of all participants were tested in pre- and post-testing sessions and were then compared with a waiting control group. In the total group of patients, the results indicate an increase in cognitive performance in the domains visual learning, working memory and speed of processing, a decrease in state anxiety and an increase in subjective quality of life between pre- and post-testing. The effects in SZ patients compared with MDD patients were stronger for cognitive performance, whereas there were stronger effects in MDD patients compared with SZ patients in individual psychopathology values. MDD patients showed a significant reduction in depressive symptoms and state anxiety values after the intervention period

  1. Physical Child Abuse Potential in Adolescent Girls: Associations With Psychopathology, Maltreatment, and Attitudes Toward Child-Bearing

    PubMed Central

    Pajer, Kathleen A; Gardner, William; Lourie, Andrea; Chang, Chien-Ni; Wang, Wei; Currie, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Adolescent mothers are at increased risk of mistreating their children. Intervening before they become pregnant would be an ideal primary prevention strategy. Our goal was to determine whether psychopathology, exposure to maltreatment, preparedness for child-bearing, substance use disorders (SUDs), IQ, race, and socioeconomic status were associated with the potential for child abuse in nonpregnant adolescent girls. Method: The Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) was administered to 195 nonpregnant girls (aged 15 to 16 years; 54% African American) recruited from the community. Psychiatric diagnoses from a structured interview were used to form 4 groups: conduct disorder (CD), internalizing disorders (INTs; that is, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, or both), CD + INTs, or no disorder. Exposure to maltreatment was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Childbearing Attitudes Questionnaire measured maternal readiness. Results: CAPI scores were positively correlated with all types of psychopathology, previous exposure to maltreatment, and negative attitudes toward child-bearing. IQ, SUDs, and demographic factors were not associated. Factors associated with child abuse potential interacted in complex ways, but the abuse potential of CD girls was high, regardless of other potentially protective factors. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that adolescent girls who have CD or INT are at higher risk of perpetrating physical child abuse when they have children. However, the core features of CD may put this group at a particularly high risk, even in the context of possible protective factors. Treatment providers should consider pre-pregnant counselling about healthy mothering behaviours to girls with CD. PMID:24881128

  2. Descriptive psychopathology, phenomenology, and the legacy of Karl Jaspers

    PubMed Central

    Häfner, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    With his early publications (1910-1913), Karl Jaspers created a comprehensive methodological arsenal for psychiatry, thus laying the foundation for descriptive psychopathology. Following Edmund Husserl, the founder of philosophical phenomenology, Jaspers introduced phenomenology into psychopathology as “static understanding,” ie, the unprejudiced intuitive reproduction (Vergegenwärtigung) and description of conscious phenomena. In a longitudinal perspective, “genetic understanding” based on empathy reveals how mental phenomena arise from mental phenomena. Severance in understanding of, or alienation from, meaningful connections is seen as indicating illness or transition of a natural development into a somatic process. Jaspers opted for philosophy early. After three terms of law, he switched to studying medicine, came to psychopathology after very little training in psychiatry; to psychology without ever studying psychology; and to a chair in philosophy without ever studying philosophy. In the fourth and subsequent editions of his General Psychopathology, imbued by his existential philosophy, Jaspers partly abandoned the descriptive method. PMID:25987860

  3. Historical contingencies in the evolution of human behavior and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Cuzzillo, S L

    1991-05-01

    Psychopathology may be understood as a product of evolution. Uniquely human capacities, such as human language and creative thinking, evolved out of a matrix of other capacities, including ancestral forms of learning. Applying evolutionary theory to the human nervous system, one might expect to find preexisting forms of learning in some form of coexistence with the recent evolutionary development of human symbolic functioning. A theory is presented in this paper which lays the groundwork for the claim that psychopathology may be understood as the product of interactions between adaptive schemes of different evolutionary origins. While earlier notions about evolution have been used to explain psychopathology (Freud 1913), this paper constitutes a reapplication of evolutionary theory to the problem of psychopathology from a modern perspective. PMID:1852851

  4. Body image dissatisfaction and eating-related psychopathology in trans individuals: a matched control study.

    PubMed

    Witcomb, Gemma L; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Brewin, Nicola; Richards, Christina; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Arcelus, Jon

    2015-07-01

    High levels of body dissatisfaction have already been reported in the trans population; however, the root of this dissatisfaction, and its association with eating disordered behaviours, has not been studied in-depth. This study aims to assess eating disorder risk by comparing 200 trans people, 200 people with eating disorders and 200 control participants' scores on three subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2) and to further explore dissatisfaction in the trans participants using the Hamburg Body Drawing Scale (HBDS). The results showed that overall participants with eating disorders scored higher than trans or control groups on all EDI-2 measures, but that trans individuals had greater body dissatisfaction than control participants and, importantly, trans males had comparable body dissatisfaction scores to eating disordered males. Drive for thinness was greater in females (cis and trans) compared with males. In relation to HBDS body dissatisfaction, both trans males and trans females reported greatest dissatisfaction not only for gender-identifying body parts but also for body shape and weight. Overall, trans males may be at particular risk for eating disordered psychopathology and other body image-related behaviours. PMID:25944170

  5. The association between psychopathology and substance use: adolescent and young adult substance users in inpatient treatment in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Saban, Amina; Flisher, Alan; Laubscher, Ria; London, Leslie; Morojele, Neo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Evidence suggests that comorbid psychopathology can negatively affect treatment outcomes in substance users. In South Africa, limited information exists regarding the prevalence, nature and role of psychiatric comorbidity in substance users. This study examined psychiatric comorbidity and its association with specific substance use, and young adult substance users in treatment for substance use. Methods Male and female inpatient substance users (n=95; ages 17-30 years) were sampled consecutively in order of admission from three clinics in Cape Town. An interview schedule was administered to elicit patients’ sociodemographic and substance use history details. The computer-assisted Diagnostic Interview Schedule DSM IV (C-DIS IV) was administered to screen patients for current psychiatric disorders. Resuls The sample was largely male, Coloured, Muslim and single. Cannabis (51.6%) and crystal methamphetamine (17.9%) were the most common first substances of use. Heroin (53.7%) and crystal methamphetamine (33.7%) were the most common substances for which treatment was sought (primary substances). The most common comorbid psychopathologies were anti-social personality disorder (ASPD 87.4%) and conduct disorder (CD 67.4%). Regression analyses showed a marginally significant association between specific phobia and first use of cannabis, but indicated no statistically significant associations between psychopathology and substance use. Conclusion The results demonstrated a high proportion of previously unidentified comorbid psychopathology in inpatient substance users. Further research is needed to investigate psychiatric comorbidity in inpatient substance users. PMID:24643118

  6. Psychopathological manifestations of joint hypermobility and joint hypermobility syndrome/ Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type: The link between connective tissue and psychological distress revised.

    PubMed

    Sinibaldi, Lorenzo; Ursini, Gianluca; Castori, Marco

    2015-03-01

    Psychological distress is a known feature of generalized joint hypermobility (gJHM), as well as of its most common syndromic presentation, namely Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type (a.k.a. joint hypermobility syndrome - JHS/EDS-HT), and significantly contributes to the quality of life of affected individuals. Most published articles dealt with the link between gJHM (or JHS/EDS-HT) and anxiety-related conditions, and a novel generation of studies is emerging aimed at investigating the psychopathologic background of such an association. In this paper, literature review was carried out with a semi-systematic approach spanning the entire spectrum of psychopathological findings in gJHM and JHS/EDS-HT. Interestingly, in addition to the confirmation of a tight link between anxiety and gJHM, preliminary connections with depression, attention deficit (and hyperactivity) disorder, autism spectrum disorders, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder were also found. Few papers investigated the relationship with schizophrenia with contrasting results. The mind-body connections hypothesized on the basis of available data were discussed with focus on somatotype, presumed psychopathology, and involvement of the extracellular matrix in the central nervous system. The hypothesis of positive Beighton score and alteration of interoceptive/proprioceptive/body awareness as possible endophenotypes in families with symptomatic gJHM or JHS/EDS-HT is also suggested. Concluding remarks addressed the implications of the psychopathological features of gJHM and JHS/EDS-HT in clinical practice. PMID:25821094

  7. DISC1 gene and affective psychopathology: a combined structural and functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Opmeer, Esther M; van Tol, Marie-José; Kortekaas, Rudie; van der Wee, Nic J A; Woudstra, Saskia; van Buchem, Mark A; Penninx, Brenda W; Veltman, Dick J; Aleman, André

    2015-02-01

    The gene Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) has been indicated as a determinant of psychopathology, including affective disorders, and shown to influence prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus functioning, regions of major interest for affective disorders. We aimed to investigate whether DISC1 differentially modulates brain function during executive and memory processing, and morphology in regions relevant for depression and anxiety disorders (affective disorders). 128 participants, with (n = 103) and without (controls; n = 25) affective disorders underwent genotyping for Ser704Cys (with Cys-allele considered as risk-allele) and structural and functional (f) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) during visuospatial planning and emotional episodic memory tasks. For both voxel-based morphometry and fMRI analyses, we investigated the effect of genotype in controls and explored genotypeXdiagnosis interactions. Results are reported at p < 0.05 FWE small volume corrected. In controls, Cys-carriers showed smaller bilateral (para)hippocampal volumes compared with Ser-homozygotes, and lower activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsolateral PFC during visuospatial planning. In anxiety patients, Cys-carriers showed larger (para)hippocampal volumes and more ACC activation during visuospatial planning. In depressive patients, no effect of genotype was observed and overall, no effect of genotype on episodic memory processing was detected. We demonstrated that Ser704Cys-genotype influences (para)hippocampal structure and functioning the dorsal PFC during executive planning, most prominently in unaffected controls. Results suggest that presence of psychopathology moderates Ser704Cys effects. PMID:25533973

  8. Symptoms of Psychopathology in Hearing-Impaired Children

    PubMed Central

    Rieffe, Carolien; Soede, Wim; Briaire, Jeroen J.; Ketelaar, Lizet; Kouwenberg, Maartje; Frijns, Johan H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Children with hearing loss are at risk of developing psychopathology, which has detrimental consequences for academic and psychosocial functioning later in life. Yet, the causes of the extensive variability in outcomes are not fully understood. Therefore, the authors wanted to objectify symptoms of psychopathology in children with cochlear implants or hearing aids, and in normally hearing peers, and to identify various risk and protective factors. Design: The large sample (mean age = 11.8 years) included three subgroups with comparable age, gender, socioeconomic status, and nonverbal intelligence: 57 with cochlear implants, 75 with conventional hearing aids, and 129 children who were normally hearing. Psychopathology was assessed by means of self- and parent-report measures. Results: Children with cochlear implants showed similar levels of symptoms of psychopathology when compared with their normally hearing peers, but children with hearing aids had significantly higher levels of psychopathological symptoms, while their hearing losses were approximately 43 dB lower than those of children with implants. Type of device was related with internalizing symptoms but not with externalizing symptoms. Furthermore, lower age and sufficient language and communication skills predicted less psychopathological symptoms. Conclusions: Children who are deaf or profoundly hearing impaired and have cochlear implants have lower levels of psychopathological symptoms than children with moderate or severe hearing loss who have hearing aids. Most likely, it is not the type of hearing device but rather the intensity of the rehabilitation program that can account for this difference. This outcome has major consequences for the next generation of children with hearing loss because children with profound hearing impairment still have the potential to have levels of psychopathology that are comparable to children who are normally hearing. PMID:25668391

  9. Brain lesions and eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Uher, R; Treasure, J

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relation between lesions of various brain structures and the development of eating disorders and thus inform the neurobiological research on the aetiology of these mental illnesses. Method: We systematically reviewed 54 previously published case reports of eating disorders with brain damage. Lesion location, presence of typical psychopathology, and evidence suggestive of causal association were recorded. Results: Although simple changes in appetite and eating behaviour occur with hypothalamic and brain stem lesions, more complex syndromes, including characteristic psychopathology of eating disorders, are associated with right frontal and temporal lobe damage. Conclusions: These findings challenge the traditional view that eating disorders are linked to hypothalamic disturbance and suggest a major role of frontotemporal circuits with right hemispheric predominance in the pathogenesis. PMID:15897510

  10. Pregnancy complications associated with childhood anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R; Biederman, Joseph; Faraone, Stephen V; Robin, Joanna A; Friedman, Deborah; Rosenthal, Jessica M; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether perinatal complications predict childhood anxiety disorders independently of parental psychopathology, we systematically assessed pregnancy and delivery complications and psychopathology in a sample of children (mean age=6.8 years) at high risk for anxiety disorders whose parents had panic disorder with (n=138) or without (n=26) major depression, and in contrast groups of offspring of parents with major depression alone (n=47), or no mood or anxiety disorders (n=95; total N=306). Psychopathology in the children was assessed by structured diagnostic interviews (K-SADS), and pregnancy and delivery complications were assessed using the developmental history module of the DICA-P. Number of pregnancy complications predicted multiple childhood anxiety disorders independently of parental diagnosis (odds ratio=1.6 [1.4-2.0]). This effect was accounted for by heavy bleeding requiring bed-rest, hypertension, illness requiring medical attention, and serious family problems. Associations remained significant when lifetime child mood and disruptive behavior disorders were covaried. Results suggest that prenatal stressors may increase a child's risk for anxiety disorders beyond the risk conferred by parental psychopathology alone. PMID:15129417

  11. Cognitive Vulnerabilities and Depression versus Other Psychopathology Symptoms and Diagnoses in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Alloy, Lauren B.; Black, Shimrit K.; Young, Mathew E.; Goldstein, Kim E.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Boccia, Angelo S.; Matt, Lindsey M.; Boland, Elaine M.; Moore, Lauren C.; Abramson, Lyn Y.

    2012-01-01

    Objective We examined the concurrent associations between multiple cognitive vulnerabilities to depression featured in Hopelessness Theory, Beck’s Theory, and Response Styles Theory and depressive symptoms and diagnoses in a sample of early adolescents. We also examined the specificity of these cognitive vulnerabilities to depression versus anxiety and externalizing psychopathology, controlling for co-occurring symptoms and diagnoses. Method Male and female, Caucasian and African-American, 12–13 year old adolescents were assessed in a cross-sectional design. Cognitive vulnerabilities of hopelessness, inferential style, rumination, and self-referent information processing were assessed with self-reports and behavioral tasks. Symptoms and diagnoses of depressive, anxiety, and externalizing disorders were assessed with self-report questionnaires and diagnostic interviews. Results Hopelessness exhibited the greatest specificity to depressive symptoms and diagnoses, whereas negative inferential styles, rumination, and negative self-referent information processing were associated with both depressive and anxiety symptoms and diagnoses and, in some cases, with externalizing disorders. Conclusions Consistent with cognitive theories of depression, hopelessness, negative inferential styles, rumination, and negative self-referent information processing were associated with depressive symptoms and diagnoses. However, with the exception of hopelessness, most of the remaining cognitive vulnerabilities were not specific to depression. With further maturation of our sample, these cognitive vulnerabilities may become more specific to depression as cognitive styles further develop and consolidate, the rates of depression increase, and individuals’ presentations of psychopathology become more differentiated. PMID:22853629

  12. Quantitative Prediction of Individual Psychopathology in Trauma Survivors Using Resting-State fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Qiyong; Li, Lingjiang; Du, Mingying; Pettersson-Yeo, William; Crossley, Nicolas; Yang, Xun; Li, Jing; Huang, Xiaoqi; Mechelli, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging techniques hold the promise that they may one day aid the clinical assessment of individual psychiatric patients. However, the vast majority of studies published so far have been based on average differences between groups. This study employed a multivariate approach to examine the potential of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data for making accurate predictions about psychopathology in survivors of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake at an individual level. Resting-state functional MRI data was acquired for 121 survivors of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake each of whom was assessed for symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using the 17-item PTSD Checklist (PCL). Using a multivariate analytical method known as relevance vector regression (RVR), we examined the relationship between resting-state functional MRI data and symptom scores. We found that the use of RVR allowed quantitative prediction of clinical scores with statistically significant accuracy (correlation=0.32, P=0.006; mean squared error=176.88, P=0.001). Accurate prediction was based on functional activation in a number of prefrontal, parietal, and occipital regions. This is the first evidence that neuroimaging techniques may inform the clinical assessment of trauma-exposed individuals by providing an accurate and objective quantitative estimation of psychopathology. Furthermore, the significant contribution of parietal and occipital regions to such estimation challenges the traditional view of PTSD as a disorder specific to the fronto-limbic network. PMID:24064470

  13. Comorbidity between reading disability and math disability: Concurrent psychopathology, functional impairment, and neuropsychological functioning

    PubMed Central

    Willcutt, Erik G.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Wu, Sarah; Boada, Richard; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.; Pennington, Bruce F.

    2013-01-01

    Reading disability (RD) and Math Disability (MD) frequently co-occur, but the etiology of this comorbidity is not well understood. Groups with RD only (N = 241), MD only (N = 183), RD+MD (N = 188), and a control group with neither disorder (N = 411) completed a battery of measures of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, social and academic functioning, and ten neuropsychological processes. Groups with RD only, MD only, and RD+MD were significantly impaired versus the control group on nearly all measures, and the group with RD+MD was more impaired than the groups with MD and RD alone on measures of internalizing psychopathology, academic functioning, and seven of ten neuropsychological constructs. Multiple regression analyses of the neuropsychological measures indicated that deficits in reading and math were associated with shared weaknesses in working memory, processing speed, and verbal comprehension. In contrast, reading difficulties were uniquely associated with weaknesses in phoneme awareness and naming speed, and math deficits were uniquely associated with weaknesses in set shifting. These results support multiple-deficit neuropsychological models of RD and MD, and suggest that RD and MD are distinct but related disorders that co-occur due to shared neuropsychological weaknesses in working memory, processing speed, and verbal comprehension. PMID:23449727

  14. Cognitive vulnerabilities and depression versus other psychopathology symptoms and diagnoses in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Alloy, Lauren B; Black, Shimrit K; Young, Mathew E; Goldstein, Kim E; Shapero, Benjamin G; Stange, Jonathan P; Boccia, Angelo S; Matt, Lindsey M; Boland, Elaine M; Moore, Lauren C; Abramson, Lyn Y

    2012-01-01

    We examined the concurrent associations between multiple cognitive vulnerabilities to depression featured in hopelessness theory, Beck's theory, and response styles theory and depressive symptoms and diagnoses in a sample of early adolescents. We also examined the specificity of these cognitive vulnerabilities to depression versus anxiety and externalizing psychopathology, controlling for co-occurring symptoms and diagnoses. Male and female, Caucasian and African American, 12- to 13-year-old adolescents were assessed in a cross-sectional design. Cognitive vulnerabilities of hopelessness, inferential style, rumination, and self-referent information processing were assessed with self-reports and behavioral tasks. Symptoms and diagnoses of depressive, anxiety, and externalizing disorders were assessed with self-report questionnaires and diagnostic interviews. Hopelessness exhibited the greatest specificity to depressive symptoms and diagnoses, whereas negative inferential styles, rumination, and negative self-referent information processing were associated with both depressive and anxiety symptoms and diagnoses and, in some cases, with externalizing disorders. Consistent with cognitive theories of depression, hopelessness, negative inferential styles, rumination, and negative self-referent information processing were associated with depressive symptoms and diagnoses. However, with the exception of hopelessness, most of the remaining cognitive vulnerabilities were not specific to depression. With further maturation of our sample, these cognitive vulnerabilities may become more specific to depression as cognitive styles further develop and consolidate, the rates of depression increase, and individuals' presentations of psychopathology become more differentiated. PMID:22853629

  15. Comorbidity between reading disability and math disability: concurrent psychopathology, functional impairment, and neuropsychological functioning.

    PubMed

    Willcutt, Erik G; Petrill, Stephen A; Wu, Sarah; Boada, Richard; Defries, John C; Olson, Richard K; Pennington, Bruce F

    2013-01-01

    Reading disability (RD) and math disability (MD) frequently co-occur, but the etiology of this comorbidity is not well understood. Groups with RD only (N = 241), MD only (N = 183), and RD + MD (N = 188) and a control group with neither disorder (N = 411) completed a battery of measures of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, social and academic functioning, and 10 neuropsychological processes. Groups with RD only, MD only, and RD + MD were significantly impaired versus the control group on nearly all measures, and the group with RD + MD was more impaired than the groups with MD and RD alone on measures of internalizing psychopathology, academic functioning, and 7 of 10 neuropsychological constructs. Multiple regression analyses of the neuropsychological measures indicated that deficits in reading and math were associated with shared weaknesses in working memory, processing speed, and verbal comprehension. In contrast, reading difficulties were uniquely associated with weaknesses in phoneme awareness and naming speed, and math deficits were uniquely associated with weaknesses in set shifting. These results support multiple-deficit neuropsychological models of RD and MD and suggest that RD and MD are distinct but related disorders that co-occur because of shared neuropsychological weaknesses in working memory, processing speed, and verbal comprehension. PMID:23449727

  16. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in psychiatry: from stress to psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Claes, Stephan J

    2004-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) plays a central role in the adaptation of the organism to stress. It serves as the main regulating hormone of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, which is activated within seconds after exposure to acute stress. Furthermore, it acts as a neurotransmitter in numerous other brain regions. Globally, CRH leads to a number of metabolic, neuroendocrine and autonomic adaptations, which are vitally important for an adequate reaction to acute stress, but can lead to pathological somatic and psychological effects in chronic stress situations. The adequate functioning of CRH is a delicate equilibrium, which can be permanently disturbed by early experiences of physical or sexual abuse, leading to psychopathology in adulthood. This review discusses the physiological functions of CRH as the stress response hormone. Subsequently, the emerging data on the disruptive effects of early trauma on the CRH system are summarized. The third part is devoted to CRH and HPA axis abnormalities in major depression and other psychiatric disorders. This rapidly accumulating evidence will change our understanding of psychopathology, and might challenge the established classification of psychiatric disorders. PMID:15000347

  17. The Role of Parent Psychopathology in Emotion Socialization.

    PubMed

    Breaux, Rosanna P; Harvey, Elizabeth A; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the relation between parent psychopathology symptoms and emotion socialization practices in a sample of mothers and fathers of preschool-aged children with behavior problems (N = 109, M age = 44.60 months, 50 % male). Each parent completed a self-report rating scale of their psychopathology symptoms and audio-recorded naturalistic interactions with their children, which were coded for reactions to child negative affect. Results supported a spillover hypothesis for mothers. Specifically, mothers who reported greater overall psychopathology symptoms, anxiety symptoms, substance use, and borderline and Cluster A personality symptoms were more likely to exhibit non-supportive reactions. Additionally, mothers who reported greater anxiety and Cluster A personality symptoms were more likely to not respond to child negative affect. Compensatory and crossover hypotheses were also supported. Partners of mothers who reported high levels of anxiety were more likely to use supportive reactions to child negative affect. In contrast, partners of mothers who reported high levels of borderline and Cluster A personality symptoms and overall psychopathology symptoms were more likely to show non-supportive reactions. With the exception of borderline personality symptoms, fathers' psychopathology was unrelated to parental responses to child negative affect. Results highlight the importance of maternal psychopathology in parental emotion socialization practices. PMID:26267238

  18. [EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY: CURRENT STATUS].

    PubMed

    Balbi, Paula; Roussos, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to bring clinicians closer to the current discussion about the complex concept of Executive Functions in mental disorders that the DSM includes in axis 1, such as Bipolar Disorder, Depression, Social Phobia, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. The present controversies about the definitions of Executive Functions are exposed as well as the importance of its study. The article also presents the idea that patients with these disorders suffer alterations in their Executive Functions and as the knowledge in this area is fragmented and contradictory, it is important to continue its study. Fi- nally, the review concludes that not only it is necessary to define the neuropsychological profile in different disorders but also to work together with the clinicians to build a common place of study and discussion. PMID:26323107

  19. [Acute rheumatic fever, Sydenham's chorea and psychopathology].

    PubMed

    Gimzal, Aylan; Topçuoğlu, Volkan; Yazgan, M Yanki

    2002-01-01

    Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is an autoimmune disorder that is triggered by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infections. ARF consists of several combinations of carditis, polyarthritis and Sydenham's chorea, and rarely seen erythema marginatum and subcutaneous nodules. Sydenham's chorea is seen in about 20% of patients with ARF. As a late symptom of ARF, Sydenham's chorea usually occurs 3 months or longer after the streptococcal infection. Sydenham's chorea is a neuropsychiatric disorder that may present with emotional lability, anxiety, obsessive compulsive symptoms, attention deficit and hyperactivity symptoms or tics. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms occur in 70% of patients with Sydenham's chorea. The role of the autoimmune mechanisms and the dysfunction of the basal ganglia have been demonstrated in Sydenham's chorea. Antibodies against group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus cross-react with basal ganglia. Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS) shares the same mechanism with Sydenham's chorea, but PANDAS has not been shown to require penicillin prophylaxis. Thus it is important to distinguish between them. Sydenham's chorea is associated with adulthood OCD, Tourette syndrome and schizophrenia. These features make Sydenham's chorea an explanatory model for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and related disorders. This poststreptococcal disorder provides a treatment opportunity with new therapies like antibiotic therapy, plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for psychiatric disorders. In this paper we summarize the phenomenological and treatment studies of OCD, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and tic disorders in subjects with ARF, with or without Sydenham's chorea. PMID:12794666

  20. Turning eating psychopathology risk factors into action. The pervasive effect of body image-related cognitive fusion.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Cláudia; Palmeira, Lara; Trindade, Inês A

    2014-09-01

    Body image dissatisfaction and unfavourable social comparisons are significant risk factors to eating psychopathology. Nevertheless, the impact of these negative experiences depends on the cognitive and emotional processes involved. Previous research has shown that cognitive fusion is a nuclear process linked to psychological inflexibility, but its role on body image and eating difficulties remains unclear. This study aims to explore a model of the mediational role of body image-related cognitive fusion (CF-BI) on the relationship between body dissatisfaction, unfavourable social comparisons, and eating psychopathology in a sample of 345 female students. Results from path analyses show that the impact of unfavourable social comparisons on eating psychopathology is fully mediated by CF-BI. Moreover, CF-BI also revealed a mediational effect on the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and the severity of eating symptoms, in spite of the fact that a direct effect of body dissatisfaction still exists. The tested model highlights the crucial role that cognitive fusion, in the specific domain of body image, plays in the relationship between risk factors and the severity of disordered eating attitudes and behaviours. Furthermore, these findings present empirical support for the relevance of addressing acceptance and cognitive defusion techniques to prevent and treat eating disorders. PMID:24858833

  1. Family Correlates of Oppositional and Conduct Disorders in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfiffner, Linda J.; McBurnett, Keith; Rathouz, Paul J.; Judice, Samuel

    2005-01-01

    Comorbidities among children with ADHD are key determinants of treatment response, course, and outcome. This study sought to separate family factors (parental psychopathology and parenting practices) associated with comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) from those associated with Conduct Disorder (CD) among children with Attention…

  2. Depression and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Casper, R C

    1998-01-01

    Both depressive disorders and eating disorders are multidimensional and heterogeneous disorders. This paper examines the nature of their relationship by reviewing clinical descriptive, family-genetic, treatment, and biological studies that relate to the issue. The studies confirm the prominence of depressive symptoms and depressive disorders in eating disorders. Other psychiatric syndromes which occur with less frequency, such as anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorders in anorexia nervosa, or personality disorders, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse in bulimia nervosa, also play an important role in the development and maintenance of eating disorders. Since few studies have controlled for starvation-induced physical, endocrine, or psychological changes which mimic the symptoms considered diagnostic for depression, further research will be needed. The evidence for a shared etiology is not compelling for anorexia nervosa and is at most suggestive for bulimia nervosa. Since in contemporary cases dieting-induced weight loss is the principal trigger, women with self-critical or depressive features will be disproportionately recruited into eating disorders. The model that fits the data best would accommodate a relationship between eating disorders and the full spectrum of depressive disorders from no depression to severe depression, with somewhat higher rates of depression in bulimic anorectic and bulimia nervosa patients than in restricting anorexia nervosa patients, but the model would admit a specific pathophysiology and psychopathology in each eating disorder. PMID:9809221

  3. Long-term outcomes in borderline psychopathology: old assumptions, current findings, and new directions.

    PubMed

    Sanislow, Charles A; Marcus, Katherine L; Reagan, Elizabeth M

    2012-02-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and historical variants of the diagnosis were long held to represent an intractable syndrome of psychopathology consisting of interpersonal, intrapsychic, and affective disturbances. For years, patients labeled "borderline" were regarded pejoratively due at least in part to the lack of effective treatments. Prospective data from recent naturalistic follow-along studies along with the development of treatments with empirically demonstrated efficacy have changed how BPD is viewed. It is now less common to hide the diagnosis from the patient, and BPD has become a useful label to guide the treatment process and help the patient make sense of his or her suffering. Although it is now accepted that BPD is a treatment-responsive disorder and that remission is the norm, more work is needed to help patients achieve a higher level of functioning, and targeting persistent trait-like features suggests new directions for future efforts in treatment development. PMID:22139609

  4. [A contribution to the psychopathology of patients with open heart surgery (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Guth, W; Werner, W; Müller, V; Volkmer, E

    1978-12-22

    The results of a larger study of psychopathological disorders in relation to pre-operative and post-operative examined heart surgery patients, where the heart-lung machine was used, will be shown, to begin with, on 20 patients. Pre-operative examination showed quite clearly, among other things, that patients suppress obvious operation risks. General mental disorders were seen post-operative in 4 patients, and these were diagnosed as organic psychosis. A comparison between psychotic and other patients shows, among other things, that somatic predictors such as cerebral sclerosis and atrophy, or a cerebral trauma tend to promote post-operative psychosis. A releasing cause could be a cerebral hypoxia brought about by the extracorporeal blood circulation. In our opinion psychological factors can only be found in the contents of psychosis. PMID:723769

  5. Adolescent brain development in normality and psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    LUCIANA, MONICA

    2014-01-01

    Since this journal’s inception, the field of adolescent brain development has flourished, as researchers have investigated the underpinnings of adolescent risk-taking behaviors. Explanations based on translational models initially attributed such behaviors to executive control deficiencies and poor frontal lobe function. This conclusion was bolstered by evidence that the prefrontal cortex and its interconnections are among the last brain regions to structurally and functionally mature. As substantial heterogeneity of prefrontal function was revealed, applications of neuroeconomic theory to adolescent development led to dual systems models of behavior. Current epidemiological trends, behavioral observations, and functional magnetic resonance imaging based brain activity patterns suggest a quadratic increase in limbically mediated incentive motivation from childhood to adolescence and a decline thereafter. This elevation occurs in the context of immature prefrontal function, so motivational strivings may be difficult to regulate. Theoretical models explain this patterning through brain-based accounts of subcortical–cortical integration, puberty-based models of adolescent sensation seeking, and neurochemical dynamics. Empirically sound tests of these mechanisms, as well as investigations of biology–context interactions, represent the field’s most challenging future goals, so that applications to psychopathology can be refined and so that developmental cascades that incorporate neurobiological variables can be modeled. PMID:24342843

  6. Service Engagement: Psychopathology, Recovery Style and Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Vender, Simone; Poloni, Nicola; Aletti, Francesca; Callegari, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate how recovery style, a set of strategies used by patients to interact with services and therapists, and the severity of psychotic symptoms affect the quality/continuity of taking charge of each patient. 156 psychotic patients at different stages of illness were enrolled. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected and integration/sealing-Over Scale, Recovery Style Questionnaire and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were administered. Patients were distinguished into four groups according to the type of treatment received: clinical package, hospital package, day-care package, and residential package. A positive correlation between the cost of psychiatric performance and psychopathological severity (measured with PANSS scores) was identified. No association emerged between ISOS/RSQ total scores and costs. The sanitary expenditure appears to be linked to positive psychotic symptoms while lower performances are given for the treatment of patients with predominant negative symptoms. Recovery style itself has not a direct influence on the quantity/quality of psychiatric services. PMID:24701559

  7. Anger Style, Psychopathology, and Regional Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jennifer L.; Levin, Rebecca L.; Sass, Sarah M.; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    Depression and anxiety often involve high levels of trait anger and disturbances in anger expression. Reported anger experience and outward anger expression have recently been associated with left-biased asymmetry of frontal cortical activity, assumed to reflect approach motivation. However, different styles of anger expression could presumably involve different brain mechanisms and/or interact with psychopathology to produce various patterns of brain asymmetry. The present study explored these issues by comparing resting regional electroencephalographic activity in participants high in trait anger who differed in anger expression style (high anger-in, high anger-out, both) and participants low in trait anger, with depression and anxiety systematically assessed. Trait anger, not anger-in or anger-out, predicted left-biased asymmetry at medial frontal EEG sites. The anger-in group reported higher levels of anxious apprehension than did the anger-out group. Furthermore, anxious apprehension moderated the relationship between trait anger, anger-in, and asymmetry in favor of the left hemisphere. Results suggest that motivational direction is not always the driving force behind the relationship of anger and left frontal asymmetry. Findings also support a distinction between anxious apprehension and anxious arousal. PMID:18837620

  8. Social cognition and psychopathology: a critical overview.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Shaun; Varga, Somogy

    2015-02-01

    The philosophical and interdisciplinary debate about the nature of social cognition, and the processes involved, has important implications for psychiatry. On one account, mindreading depends on making theoretical inferences about another person's mental states based on knowledge of folk psychology, the so-called "theory theory" (TT). On a different account, "simulation theory" (ST), mindreading depends on simulating the other's mental states within one's own mental or motor system. A third approach, "interaction theory" (IT), looks to embodied processes (involving movement, gesture, facial expression, vocal intonation, etc.) and the dynamics of intersubjective interactions (joint attention, joint action, and processes not confined to an individual system) in highly contextualized situations to explain social cognition, and disruptions of these processes in some psychopathological conditions. In this paper, we present a brief summary of these three theoretical frameworks (TT, ST, IT). We then focus on impaired social abilities in autism and schizophrenia from the perspective of the three approaches. We discuss the limitations of such approaches in the scientific studies of these and other pathologies, and we close with a short reflection on the future of the field. In this regard we argue that, to the extent that TT, ST and IT offer explanations that capture different (limited) aspects of social cognition, a pluralist approach might be best. PMID:25655144

  9. Social cognition and psychopathology: a critical overview

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Shaun; Varga, Somogy

    2015-01-01

    The philosophical and interdisciplinary debate about the nature of social cognition, and the processes involved, has important implications for psychiatry. On one account, mindreading depends on making theoretical inferences about another person's mental states based on knowledge of folk psychology, the so-called “theory theory” (TT). On a different account, “simulation theory” (ST), mindreading depends on simulating the other's mental states within one's own mental or motor system. A third approach, “interaction theory” (IT), looks to embodied processes (involving movement, gesture, facial expression, vocal intonation, etc.) and the dynamics of intersubjective interactions (joint attention, joint action, and processes not confined to an individual system) in highly contextualized situations to explain social cognition, and disruptions of these processes in some psychopathological conditions. In this paper, we present a brief summary of these three theoretical frameworks (TT, ST, IT). We then focus on impaired social abilities in autism and schizophrenia from the perspective of the three approaches. We discuss the limitations of such approaches in the scientific studies of these and other pathologies, and we close with a short reflection on the future of the field. In this regard we argue that, to the extent that TT, ST and IT offer explanations that capture different (limited) aspects of social cognition, a pluralist approach might be best. PMID:25655144

  10. The Temporal Relation between Depression and Comorbid Psychopathology in Adolescents at Varied Risk for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Gallerani, Catherine M.; Garber, Judy; Martin, Nina C.

    2009-01-01

    Background This study examined the temporal comorbidity of depressive disorders with anxiety, externalizing, and substance use disorders in adolescents who varied in risk for depression. Methods Participants were 240 adolescents and their mothers who had either a history of depression (high-risk, n=185) or were lifetime-free of psychiatric disorders (low-risk, n=55). Children (54.2% females) were first evaluated in 6th grade (mean age = 11.86, SD = .57) with the K-SADS-PL to assess current and lifetime diagnoses, and then annually through 12th grade with the A-LIFE to assess diagnoses since the previous evaluation. Results For girls, the rate of depression was high regardless of prior anxiety, whereas for boys, the odds that those with prior subthreshold anxiety would have subsequent subthreshold depression were 1.5 times those of boys with no prior subthreshold anxiety, controlling for risk. In addition, the odds that girls with prior substance use disorders would have a threshold depressive disorder subsequently were three times those of girls with no prior substance use disorders, controlling for risk. Conclusions These results highlight the importance of early detection of various forms of psychopathology in youth who then can be targeted for intervention. The prospective paths to comorbidity differed by sex, thus suggesting that interventions need to be constructed with sensitivity to these distinct diagnostic trajectories. PMID:19874429

  11. Hand lotion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002708.htm Hand lotion poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hand lotion poisoning occurs when someone swallows hand lotion or ...

  12. Chapped hands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Chapped hands can be sore and painful. Chapped hands may be soothed by the use of moisturizing lotions and the avoidance of excess exposure to water. If hands become badly chapped, hydrocortisone creams (available over the ...

  13. Hand splint - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100142.htm Hand splint - series—Indications To use the sharing features ... out of 4 Overview To begin making a hand dressing, place the injured hand around a cloth ...

  14. Maternal depression and co-occurring antisocial behaviour: testing maternal hostility and warmth as mediators of risk for offspring psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Sellers, Ruth; Harold, Gordon T.; Elam, Kit; Rhoades, Kimberly A.; Potter, Robert; Mars, Becky; Craddock, Nick; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Background Disruption in the parent-child relationship is a commonly hypothesised risk factor through which maternal depression may increase risk for offspring psychopathology. However, maternal depression is commonly accompanied by other psychopathology, including antisocial behaviour. Few studies have examined the role of co-occurring psychopathology in depressed mothers. Using a longitudinal study of offspring of mothers with recurrent depression, we aimed to test whether maternal warmth/hostility mediated links between maternal depression severity on child outcomes, and how far direct and indirect pathways were robust to controls for co-occurring maternal antisocial behaviour. Methods Mothers with a history of recurrent major depressive disorder and their adolescent offspring (9–17 years at baseline) were assessed three times between 2007 and 2010. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing their own depression severity and antisocial behaviour at Time 1 (T1). The parent-child relationship was assessed using parent-rated questionnaire and interviewer-rated five-minute speech sample at Time 2 (T2). Offspring symptoms of depression and disruptive behaviours were assessed using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment at Time 3 (T3). Results Maternal hostility and warmth respectively mediated the association between maternal depression severity and risk for offspring psychopathology. However, the effects were attenuated when maternal antisocial behaviour was included in the analysis. In tests of the full theoretical model, maternal antisocial behaviour predicted both maternal hostility and low warmth, maternal hostility predicted offspring disruptive behaviour disorder symptoms but not depression, and maternal warmth was not associated with either child outcome. Conclusions Parenting interventions aimed at reducing hostility may be beneficial for preventing or reducing adolescent disruptive behaviours in offspring of depressed mothers, especially when

  15. The dopaminergic response to acute stress in health and psychopathology: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vaessen, Thomas; Hernaus, Dennis; Myin-Germeys, Inez; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse

    2015-09-01

    Previous work in animals has shown that dopamine (DA) in cortex and striatum plays an essential role in stress processing. For the first time, we systematically reviewed the in vivo evidence for DAergic stress processing in health and psychopathology in humans. All studies included (n studies=25, n observations=324) utilized DA D2/3 positron emission tomography and measured DAergic activity during an acute stress challenge. The evidence in healthy volunteers (HV) suggests that physiological, but not psychological, stress consistently increases striatal DA release. Instead, increased medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) DAergic activity in HV was observed during psychological stress. Across brain regions, stress-related DAergic activity was correlated with the physiological and psychological intensity of the stressor. The magnitude of stress-induced DA release was dependent on rearing conditions, personality traits and genetic variations in several SNPs. In psychopathology, preliminary evidence was found for stress-related dorsal striatal DAergic hyperactivity in psychosis spectrum and a blunted response in chronic cannabis use and pain-related disorders, but results were inconsistent. Physiological stress-induced DAergic activity in striatum in HV may reflect somatosensory properties of the stressor and readiness for active fight-or-flight behavior. DAergic activity in HV in the ventral striatum and mPFC may be more related to expectations about the stressor and threat evaluation, respectively. Future studies with increased sample size in HV and psychopathology assessing the functional relevance of stress-induced DAergic activity, the association between cortical and subcortical DAergic activity and the direct comparison of different stressors are necessary to conclusively elucidate the role of the DA system in the stress response. PMID:26196459

  16. Psychosocial adversity, delinquent pathway and internalizing psychopathology in juvenile male offenders.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Ida; Faísca, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of a set of risk factors relating to childhood life events and other psychosocial factors that may be associated with criminal indicators and with the prevalence of internalizing psychopathology in a sample of adolescent offenders. Fifty male adolescents in the custody of the Portuguese Juvenile Justice System participated in the study (M=15.8 years of age). The Adolescent Psychopathology Scale - Short Form (APS-SF) was administered in a structured interview format, and the sociodemographic, family and criminal data questionnaire was filled in by the justice professional after consulting the adolescent's file. Forty-six percent of all subjects had previous delinquent behavior. About 32% of the boys had committed violent offenses and 88% acted with peers. Also, the persistence of the delinquent behavior (50% of the offenders), coupled with the increase in the severity of the crimes committed (38% of the sample), suggests that these adolescents were at risk for serious and chronic delinquency at the time of the intervention. About 32% of the participants reported posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, 20% had suicide ideation, and a lower percentage reported other internalizing problems. Institutionalization, maltreatment and conduct problems in childhood, and family risk factors (parental conflict, absence of a father figure, lack of parental control and family substance addiction) were related with the report of internalizing problems. Moreover, the increase in the severity of criminal offenses and living in a correctional facility were associated with higher levels of posttraumatic stress, interpersonal problems, anxiety and depression. This study draws attention to the importance of assessing indicators of psychopathology and of psychosocial risk in intervention programs with young offenders, but also to the need of family focused interventions in order to help prevent recidivism. PMID:26299601

  17. [Growing up with congenital heart disease: neurocognitive outcome, psychopathology and quality of life].

    PubMed

    Amianto, Federico; Bellicanta, Anna; Bergui, Giovanna C; Zuccolin, Maria; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2013-01-01

    Thank to medical and surgical improvements, a very high percentage of children with congenital heart disease (CHD; about 1% of newborn) reaches adulthood. This population of young surgical and medical patients opens up new challenges in clinical management, including evaluation and optimization of psychosocial functioning and quality of life. Data regarding neurocognitive and psychopathological adaptation, personality and quality of life of CHD patients are rather extensive but still insufficient to guide management approaches to these subjects and to address the numerous emerging problems. The present review analyzes extensively the research literature to find out those variables that may influence development of CHD children. It emerges that a multi-factorial process seems involved in the poor outcome of neurocognitive development in many patients. Notwithstanding the attempts to define risk factors, current researches do not consent definitive conclusions about the determinants of developmental problems in CHD children. An improvement of existential outcome for CHD subjects may be achieved if adequate interventions are carried out. In fact, psychopathological and quality of life in CHD subjects may result even better if elaboration of disease by CHD subjects is adequately supported. On one hand, genetic factors that may contribute to unfavourable evolutions suggest the need for early recognition of subjects at risk. On the other, research should be addressed to the identification of those protective and risk factors related to personality, environmental and relational aspects entailed in the development of CHD subjects. PMID:24441518

  18. [Psychopathologic characteristics of conditions simulating spinal diseases].

    PubMed

    Ostroglazov, V G; Lisina, M A

    1989-01-01

    Combined investigation of 27 patients with unclear pathological states in a vertebral pathology unit yielded a description of a type of concealed mental pathology. A complex of three major determinants of the patients' state was detected: pathological hypochondric notions of delirious or hallucinatory type, psychosensory and psychomotor disorders. The latter were prevalent in clinical picture suggesting the vertebral pathology and thus leading to misdiagnosis of vertebral disorders. PMID:2728725

  19. Centenary of Karl Jaspers's general psychopathology: implications for molecular psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Thome, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Modern molecular psychiatry benefits immensely from the scientific and technological advances of general neuroscience (including genetics, epigenetics, and proteomics). This "progress" of molecular psychiatry, however, will be to a degree "unbalanced" and "epiphytic" should the development of the corresponding theoretical frameworks and conceptualization tools that allow contextualization of the individual neuroscientific findings within the specific perspective of mental health care issues be neglected. The General Psychopathology, published by Karl Jaspers in 1913, is considered a groundbreaking work in psychiatric literature, having established psychopathology as a space of critical methodological self-reflection, and delineating a scientific methodology specific to psychiatry. With the advance of neurobiology and molecular neuroscience and its adoption in psychiatric research, however, a growing alienation between current research-oriented neuropsychiatry and the classical psychopathological literature is evident. Further, consensus-based international classification criteria, although useful for providing an internationally accepted system of reliable psychiatric diagnostic categories, further contribute to a neglect of genuinely autonomous thought on psychopathology. Nevertheless, many of the unsolved theoretical problems of psychiatry, including those in the areas of nosology, anthropology, ethics, epistemology and methodology, might be fruitfully addressed by a re-examination of classic texts, such as Jaspers's General Psychopathology, and their further development and adaptation for 21st century psychiatry. PMID:25408913

  20. Pathways to Suicide-Related Behavior in Offspring of Mothers With Depression: The Role of Offspring Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Hammerton, Gemma; Zammit, Stanley; Mahedy, Liam; Pearson, Rebecca M.; Sellers, Ruth; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Offspring of mothers with depression are a high-risk group for the development of suicide-related behavior. These offspring are therefore a priority for preventive interventions; however, pathways contributing to risk, including specific aspects of offspring psychopathology, remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine whether offspring symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and alcohol abuse independently mediate the association between maternal depression and offspring suicide-related behavior. Method Data were used from a population-based birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Three distinct classes of depression symptoms across the mothers’ first 11 years of their child’s life were identified (minimal, moderate, chronic-severe). Offspring psychopathology was assessed at age 15 years and suicide-related behavior at age 16 years. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results There was evidence for increased risk of suicidal ideation in offspring of mothers with chronic-severe depression symptoms in comparison to offspring of mothers with minimal symptoms (odds ratio = 3.04, 95% CI = 2.19, 4.21). This association was independently mediated by offspring MDD, GAD, and DBD symptoms. The same mechanisms were found for offspring of mothers with moderate depression symptoms over time. Results were similar for offspring suicide attempt except for additional evidence of an indirect effect through offspring ADHD symptoms. Conclusion Findings highlight that suicide prevention efforts in offspring of mothers with depression should not only be targeted at offspring with MDD; it is also important to consider offspring with other forms of psychopathology. PMID:25901775