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Sample records for psychopathology disentangling environmental

  1. The links between prenatal stress and offspring development and psychopathology: disentangling environmental and inherited influences

    PubMed Central

    Rice, F.; Harold, G. T.; Boivin, J.; van den Bree, M.; Hay, D. F.; Thapar, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Exposure to prenatal stress is associated with later adverse health and adjustment outcomes. This is generally presumed to arise through early environmentally mediated programming effects on the foetus. However, associations could arise through factors that influence mothers' characteristics and behaviour during pregnancy which are inherited by offspring. Method A ‘prenatal cross-fostering’ design where pregnant mothers are related or unrelated to their child as a result of in vitro fertilization (IVF) was used to disentangle maternally inherited and environmental influences. If links between prenatal stress and offspring outcome are environmental, association should be observed in unrelated as well as related mother–child pairs. Offspring birth weight and gestational age as well as mental health were the outcomes assessed. Results Associations between prenatal stress and offspring birth weight, gestational age and antisocial behaviour were seen in both related and unrelated mother–offspring pairs, consistent with there being environmental links. The association between prenatal stress and offspring anxiety in related and unrelated groups appeared to be due to current maternal anxiety/depression rather than prenatal stress. In contrast, the link between prenatal stress and offspring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was only present in related mother–offspring pairs and therefore was attributable to inherited factors. Conclusions Genetically informative designs can be helpful in testing whether inherited factors contribute to the association between environmental risk factors and health outcomes. These results suggest that associations between prenatal stress and offspring outcomes could arise from inherited factors and post-natal environmental factors in addition to causal prenatal risk effects. PMID:19476689

  2. Environmentally Mediated Risks for Psychopathology: Research Strategies and Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To consider the research design requirements needed to provide a rigorous test of environmental mediation hypotheses and to summarize the main findings from research using such designs. Method: Selective review of empirical evidence dealing with psychopathology. Results: There is robust evidence of environmentally mediated risks for…

  3. DISENTANGLING THE ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESSES IN GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez-Fernandez, Jonathan D.; Vilchez, J. M.; Iglesias-Paramo, J.

    2012-05-20

    In this work, we present the results of a novel approach devoted to disentangling the role of the environmental processes affecting galaxies in clusters. This is based on the analysis of the near-UV (NUV) - r' distributions of a large sample of star-forming galaxies in clusters spanning more than four absolute magnitudes. The galaxies inhabit three distinct environmental regions: virial regions, cluster infall regions, and field environment. We have applied rigorous statistical tests to analyze both the complete NUV - r' distributions and their averages for three different bins of the r'-band galaxy luminosity down to M{sub r{sup '}}{approx}-18, throughout the three environmental regions considered. We have identified the environmental processes that significantly affect the star-forming galaxies in a given luminosity bin by using criteria based on the characteristics of these processes: their typical timescales, the regions where they operate, and the galaxy luminosity range for which their effects are more intense. We have found that the high-luminosity (M{sub r{sup '}}{<=}-20) star-forming galaxies do not show significant signs in their star formation activity of being affected by: (1) the environment in the last {approx}10{sup 8} yr, or (2) a sudden quenching in the last 1.5 Gyr. The intermediate-luminosity (-20< M{sub r{sup '}}{<=}-19) star-forming galaxies appear to be affected by starvation in the virial regions and by the harassment in the virial and infall regions. Low-luminosity (-19environmental processes as intermediate-luminosity star-forming galaxies in a stronger way, which would be expected for their lower luminosities.

  4. Disentangling the Role of Environmental Processes in Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Fernández, Jonathan D.; Vílchez, J. M.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.

    2012-05-01

    In this work, we present the results of a novel approach devoted to disentangling the role of the environmental processes affecting galaxies in clusters. This is based on the analysis of the near-UV (NUV) - r' distributions of a large sample of star-forming galaxies in clusters spanning more than four absolute magnitudes. The galaxies inhabit three distinct environmental regions: virial regions, cluster infall regions, and field environment. We have applied rigorous statistical tests to analyze both the complete NUV - r' distributions and their averages for three different bins of the r'-band galaxy luminosity down to M_{r^{\\prime }} \\sim -18, throughout the three environmental regions considered. We have identified the environmental processes that significantly affect the star-forming galaxies in a given luminosity bin by using criteria based on the characteristics of these processes: their typical timescales, the regions where they operate, and the galaxy luminosity range for which their effects are more intense. We have found that the high-luminosity (M_{r^{\\prime }} \\le -20) star-forming galaxies do not show significant signs in their star formation activity of being affected by: (1) the environment in the last ~108 yr, or (2) a sudden quenching in the last 1.5 Gyr. The intermediate-luminosity (-20< M_{r^{\\prime }} \\le -19) star-forming galaxies appear to be affected by starvation in the virial regions and by the harassment in the virial and infall regions. Low-luminosity (-19) star-forming galaxies seem to be affected by the same environmental processes as intermediate-luminosity star-forming galaxies in a stronger way, which would be expected for their lower luminosities.

  5. Disentangling Diversity Patterns in Sandy Beaches along Environmental Gradients

    PubMed Central

    Barboza, Francisco R.; Gómez, Julio; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2012-01-01

    Species richness in sandy beaches is strongly affected by concurrent variations in morphodynamics and salinity. However, as in other ecosystems, different groups of species may exhibit contrasting patterns in response to these environmental variables, which would be obscured if only aggregate richness is considered. Deconstructing biodiversity, i.e. considering richness patterns separately for different groups of species according to their taxonomic affiliation, dispersal mode or mobility, could provide a more complete understanding about factors that drive species richness patterns. This study analyzed macroscale variations in species richness at 16 Uruguayan sandy beaches with different morphodynamics, distributed along the estuarine gradient generated by the Rio de la Plata over a 2 year period. Species richness estimates were deconstructed to discriminate among taxonomic groups, supralittoral and intertidal forms, and groups with different feeding habits and development modes. Species richness was lowest at intermediate salinities, increasing towards oceanic and inner estuarine conditions, mainly following the patterns shown for intertidal forms. Moreover, there was a differential tolerance to salinity changes according to the habitat occupied and development mode, which determines the degree of sensitivity of faunal groups to osmotic stress. Generalized (additive and linear) mixed models showed a clear increase of species richness towards dissipative beaches. All taxonomic categories exhibited the same trend, even though responses to grain size and beach slope were less marked for crustaceans and insects than for molluscs or polychaetes. However, supralittoral crustaceans exhibited the opposite trend. Feeding groups decreased from dissipative to reflective systems, deposit feeders being virtually absent in the latter. This deconstructive approach highlights the relevance of life history strategies in structuring communities, highlighting the relative

  6. Disentangling diversity patterns in sandy beaches along environmental gradients.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Francisco R; Gómez, Julio; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2012-01-01

    Species richness in sandy beaches is strongly affected by concurrent variations in morphodynamics and salinity. However, as in other ecosystems, different groups of species may exhibit contrasting patterns in response to these environmental variables, which would be obscured if only aggregate richness is considered. Deconstructing biodiversity, i.e. considering richness patterns separately for different groups of species according to their taxonomic affiliation, dispersal mode or mobility, could provide a more complete understanding about factors that drive species richness patterns. This study analyzed macroscale variations in species richness at 16 Uruguayan sandy beaches with different morphodynamics, distributed along the estuarine gradient generated by the Rio de la Plata over a 2 year period. Species richness estimates were deconstructed to discriminate among taxonomic groups, supralittoral and intertidal forms, and groups with different feeding habits and development modes. Species richness was lowest at intermediate salinities, increasing towards oceanic and inner estuarine conditions, mainly following the patterns shown for intertidal forms. Moreover, there was a differential tolerance to salinity changes according to the habitat occupied and development mode, which determines the degree of sensitivity of faunal groups to osmotic stress. Generalized (additive and linear) mixed models showed a clear increase of species richness towards dissipative beaches. All taxonomic categories exhibited the same trend, even though responses to grain size and beach slope were less marked for crustaceans and insects than for molluscs or polychaetes. However, supralittoral crustaceans exhibited the opposite trend. Feeding groups decreased from dissipative to reflective systems, deposit feeders being virtually absent in the latter. This deconstructive approach highlights the relevance of life history strategies in structuring communities, highlighting the relative

  7. Environmental hazards and psychopathology: Linking natural disasters with mental health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Ronald W.

    1983-11-01

    For some years, social scientists have been unable to agree on the extent to which experiencing a natural disaster is related to the presence of psychopathological symptoms Indeed, social scientists appear to be well-polarized, some arguing that disasters cause severe negative psychological reactions in victims, with others claiming that any psychological effects, if they exist at all, are minor and transient This paper reviews the controversy and identifies numerous conceptual and methodological difficulties associated with the competing positions. It is argued that the preoccupation of researchers with documenting positive or negative instances of psychological effects has lead them to ignore the issue of identifying processes through which disasters might impinge upon an individual's emotional stability. As a first step toward sketching out these processes, an extensive review of the literature on human response to natural disasters is undertaken. Eleven variables—level of community preparedness, scope of impact, duration of impact, destruction of kin and friendship networks, property damage, pre-impact psychological stability, social support, grief reactions, availability of institutional help, and successful coping skills—are identified as important in determining the psychological impact of disasters. These variables are operationalized and arranged into an interpretative framework that postulates the nature and magnitude of the interrelationships among them based upon the existing research literature

  8. Disentangling legacy effects from environmental filters of postfire assembly of boreal tree assemblages.

    PubMed

    Brown, Carissa D; Liu, Juxin; Yan, Guohua; Johnstone, Jill F

    2015-11-01

    Disturbance plays a key role in driving ecological responses by creating opportunities for new ecological communities to assemble and by directly influencing the outcomes of assembly. Legacy effects (such as seed banks) and environmental filters can both influence community assembly, but their effects are impossible to separate with observational data. Here, we used seeding experiments in sites covering a broad range of postdisturbance conditions to tease apart the effects of seed availability, environmental factors, and disturbance characteristics on early community assembly after fire. We added seed of four common boreal trees to experimental plots in 55 replicate sites in recently burned areas of black spruce forest in northwestern North America. Seed addition treatments increased the probability of occurrence for all species, indicating a widespread potential for seed limitation to affect patterns of recruitment after fire. Small-seeded. species (aspen and birch) were most sensitive to environmental factors such as soil moisture and organic layer depth, suggesting a role for niche-based environmental filtering in community assembly. Fire characteristics related to severity and frequency were also important drivers of seedling regeneration, indicating the potential for disturbance to mediate environmental filters and legacy effects on seed availability. Because effects of seed availability are typically impossible to disentangle from environmental constraints on recruitment in observational studies, legacy effects contingent on vegetation history may be misinterpreted as being driven by strong environmental filters. Results from the seeding experiments suggest that vegetation legacies affecting seed availability play a pivotal role in shaping patterns of community assembly after fire in these low-diversity boreal forests. PMID:27070021

  9. Disentangling the Spatio-Environmental Drivers of Human Settlement: An Eigenvector Based Variation Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Vandam, Ralf; Kaptijn, Eva; Vanschoenwinkel, Bram

    2013-01-01

    The relative importance of deterministic and stochastic processes driving patterns of human settlement remains controversial. A main reason for this is that disentangling the drivers of distributions and geographic clustering at different spatial scales is not straightforward and powerful analytical toolboxes able to deal with this type of data are largely deficient. Here we use a multivariate statistical framework originally developed in community ecology, to infer the relative importance of spatial and environmental drivers of human settlement. Using Moran’s eigenvector maps and a dataset of spatial variation in a set of relevant environmental variables we applied a variation partitioning procedure based on redundancy analysis models to assess the relative importance of spatial and environmental processes explaining settlement patterns. We applied this method on an archaeological dataset covering a 15 km2 area in SW Turkey spanning a time period of 8000 years from the Late Neolithic/Early Chalcolithic up to the Byzantine period. Variation partitioning revealed both significant unique and commonly explained effects of environmental and spatial variables. Land cover and water availability were the dominant environmental determinants of human settlement throughout the study period, supporting the theory of the presence of farming communities. Spatial clustering was mainly restricted to small spatial scales. Significant spatial clustering independent of environmental gradients was also detected which can be indicative of expansion into unsuitable areas or an unexpected absence in suitable areas which could be caused by dispersal limitation. Integrating historic settlement patterns as additional predictor variables resulted in more explained variation reflecting temporal autocorrelation in settlement locations. PMID:23844076

  10. The Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Internet Use and Associations With Psychopathology: A Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Long, Elizabeth C; Verhulst, Brad; Neale, Michael C; Lind, Penelope A; Hickie, Ian B; Martin, Nicholas G; Gillespie, Nathan A

    2016-02-01

    Excessive internet use has been linked to psychopathology. Therefore, understanding the genetic and environmental risks underpinning internet use and their relation to psychopathology is important. This study aims to explore the genetic and environmental etiology of internet use measures and their associations with internalizing disorders and substance use disorders. The sample included 2,059 monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) young adult twins from the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study (BLTS). Younger participants reported more frequent internet use, while women were more likely to use the internet for interpersonal communication. Familial aggregation in 'frequency of internet use' was entirely explained by additive genetic factors accounting for 41% of the variance. Familial aggregation in 'frequency of use after 11 pm', 'using the internet to contact peers', and 'using the internet primarily to access social networking sites' was attributable to varying combinations of additive genetic and shared environmental factors. In terms of psychopathology, there were no significant associations between internet use measures and major depression (MD), but there were positive significant associations between 'frequency of internet use' and 'frequency of use after 11 pm' with social phobia (SP). 'Using the internet to contact peers' was positively associated with alcohol abuse, whereas 'using the internet to contact peers' and 'using the internet primarily to access social networking sites' were negatively associated with cannabis use disorders and nicotine symptoms. Individual differences in internet use can be attributable to varying degrees of genetic and environmental risks. Despite some significant associations of small effect, variation in internet use appears mostly unrelated to psychopathology. PMID:26693596

  11. The Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Internet Use and Associations With Psychopathology: A Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Long, Elizabeth C.; Verhulst, Brad; Neale, Michael C.; Lind, Penelope A.; Hickie, Ian B.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Gillespie, Nathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Excessive internet use has been linked to psychopathology. Therefore, understanding the genetic and environmental risks underpinning internet use and their relation to psychopathology is important. This study aims to explore the genetic and environmental etiology of internet use measures and their associations with internalizing disorders and substance use disorders. The sample included 2,059 monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) young adult twins from the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study (BLTS). Younger participants reported more frequent internet use, while women were more likely to use the internet for interpersonal communication. Familial aggregation in ‘frequency of internet use’ was entirely explained by additive genetic factors accounting for 41% of the variance. Familial aggregation in ‘frequency of use after 11 pm’, ‘using the internet to contact peers’, and ‘using the internet primarily to access social networking sites’ was attributable to varying combinations of additive genetic and shared environmental factors. In terms of psychopathology, there were no significant associations between internet use measures and major depression (MD), but there were positive significant associations between ‘frequency of internet use’ and ‘frequency of use after 11 pm’ with social phobia (SP). ‘Using the internet to contact peers’ was positively associated with alcohol abuse, whereas ‘using the internet to contact peers’ and ‘using the internet primarily to access social networking sites’ were negatively associated with cannabis use disorders and nicotine symptoms. Individual differences in internet use can be attributable to varying degrees of genetic and environmental risks. Despite some significant associations of small effect, variation in internet use appears mostly unrelated to psychopathology. PMID:26693596

  12. Genetic and early environmental influences on the serotonin system: consequences for brain development and risk for psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Booij, Linda; Tremblay, Richard E.; Szyf, Moshe; Benkelfat, Chawki

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite more than 60 years of research in the role of serotonin (5-HT) in psychopathology, many questions still remain. From a developmental perspective, studies have provided more insight into how 5-HT dysfunctions acquired in utero or early in life may modulate brain development. This paper discusses the relevance of the developmental role of 5-HT for the understanding of psychopathology. We review developmental milestones of the 5-HT system, how genetic and environmental 5-HT disturbances could affect brain development and the potential role of DNA methylation in 5-HT genes for brain development. Methods Studies were identified using common databases (e.g., PubMed, Google Scholar) and reference lists. Results Despite the widely supported view that the 5-HT system matures in early life, different 5-HT receptors, proteins and enzymes have different developmental patterns, and development is brain region–specific. A disruption in 5-HT homeostasis during development may lead to structural and functional changes in brain circuits that modulate emotional stress responses, including subcortical limbic and (pre)frontal areas. This may result in a predisposition to psychopathology. DNA methylation might be one of the underlying physiologic mechanisms. Limitations There is a need for prospective studies. The impact of stressors during adolescence on the 5-HT system is understudied. Questions regarding efficacy of drugs acting on 5-HT still remain. Conclusion A multidisciplinary and longitudinal approach in designing studies on the role of 5-HT in psychopathology might help to bring us closer to the understanding of the role of 5-HT in psychopathology. PMID:25285876

  13. Rethinking Environmental Contributions to Child and Adolescent Psychopathology: A Meta-Analysis of Shared Environmental Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, S. Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral genetic research has concluded that the more important environmental influences result in differences between siblings (referred to as "nonshared"; "e[superscript 2]"), whereas environmental influences that create similarities between siblings (referred to as "shared"; "c[superscript 2]") are indistinguishable from zero. However, there…

  14. Disentangling environmental correlates of vascular plant biodiversity in a Mediterranean hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Venegas, Rafael; Aparicio, Abelardo; Pina, Francisco José; Valdés, Benito; Arroyo, Juan

    2013-01-01

    We determined the environmental correlates of vascular plant biodiversity in the Baetic-Rifan region, a plant biodiversity hotspot in the western Mediterranean. A catalog of the whole flora of Andalusia and northern Morocco, the region that includes most of the Baetic-Rifan complex, was compiled using recent comprehensive floristic catalogs. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) of the different ecoregions of Andalusia and northern Morocco were conducted to determine their floristic affinities. Diversity patterns were studied further by focusing on regional endemic taxa. Endemic and nonendemic alpha diversities were regressed to several environmental variables. Finally, semi-partial regressions on distance matrices were conducted to extract the respective contributions of climatic, altitudinal, lithological, and geographical distance matrices to beta diversity in endemic and nonendemic taxa. We found that West Rifan plant assemblages had more similarities with Andalusian ecoregions than with other nearby northern Morocco ecoregions. The endemic alpha diversity was explained relatively well by the environmental variables related to summer drought and extreme temperature values. Of all the variables, geographical distance contributed by far the most to spatial turnover in species diversity in the Baetic-Rifan hotspot. In the Baetic range, elevation was the most significant driver of nonendemic species beta diversity, while lithology and elevation were the main drivers of endemic beta diversity. Despite the fact that Andalusia and northern Morocco are presently separated by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, the Baetic and Rifan mountain ranges have many floristic similarities – especially in their western ranges – due to past migration of species across the Strait of Gibraltar. Climatic variables could be shaping the spatial distribution of endemic species richness throughout the Baetic-Rifan hotspot

  15. Disentangling environmental correlates of vascular plant biodiversity in a Mediterranean hotspot.

    PubMed

    Molina-Venegas, Rafael; Aparicio, Abelardo; Pina, Francisco José; Valdés, Benito; Arroyo, Juan

    2013-10-01

    We determined the environmental correlates of vascular plant biodiversity in the Baetic-Rifan region, a plant biodiversity hotspot in the western Mediterranean. A catalog of the whole flora of Andalusia and northern Morocco, the region that includes most of the Baetic-Rifan complex, was compiled using recent comprehensive floristic catalogs. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) of the different ecoregions of Andalusia and northern Morocco were conducted to determine their floristic affinities. Diversity patterns were studied further by focusing on regional endemic taxa. Endemic and nonendemic alpha diversities were regressed to several environmental variables. Finally, semi-partial regressions on distance matrices were conducted to extract the respective contributions of climatic, altitudinal, lithological, and geographical distance matrices to beta diversity in endemic and nonendemic taxa. We found that West Rifan plant assemblages had more similarities with Andalusian ecoregions than with other nearby northern Morocco ecoregions. The endemic alpha diversity was explained relatively well by the environmental variables related to summer drought and extreme temperature values. Of all the variables, geographical distance contributed by far the most to spatial turnover in species diversity in the Baetic-Rifan hotspot. In the Baetic range, elevation was the most significant driver of nonendemic species beta diversity, while lithology and elevation were the main drivers of endemic beta diversity. Despite the fact that Andalusia and northern Morocco are presently separated by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, the Baetic and Rifan mountain ranges have many floristic similarities - especially in their western ranges - due to past migration of species across the Strait of Gibraltar. Climatic variables could be shaping the spatial distribution of endemic species richness throughout the Baetic-Rifan hotspot. Determinants

  16. Late Holocene Climate and Environmental Changes: Disentangling Natural and Anthropogenic Signals in Lake Lilandsvatnet (NW Norway)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'anjou, R. M.; Balascio, N. L.; Bradley, R. S.; Finkelstein, D. B.

    2011-12-01

    A multi-proxy reconstruction of late Holocene regional climate and environmental history has been produced from the sediments of Lilandsvatnet, a small sub-arctic lake on Vestvågøy, in the Lofoten Islands, Norway. Chronology for the core was developed from two AMS radiocarbon measurements, and five cryptotephra horizons, indicating that the record extends from 125-2500 yrs BP. These five cryptotephra horizons have been identified as; Askja-1875, Hekla-1158, Hekla-1104, OWB-105, and the SN-1 eruption. The tephra horizons support the radiocarbon age model, providing a robust chronology that will allow higher resolution reconstructions from the 2.5 kyr record. Quantitative paleotemperature reconstructions are based on the Uk37 index, relating molecular variations in the C37 alkenones produced by lacustrine haptophytes, to spring lake surface temperatures. A record of compound specific δD values from terrestrial (n-C27-n-C31) and aquatic (n-C17, n-C21, n-C23 and n-C25) lipid n-alkanes will be generated, and the difference between the two sources of n-alkane δD values (ΔDT-A) will serve as a proxy for changes in the effective moisture of the region. Bulk geochemical properties (%TOC, %TN, C/N, δ13C, δ15N) and records of lipid geochemistry (n-alkanes, n-alkenones, n-alkanols, and n-alkanoic acids) serve as proxies for environmental changes in; catchment vegetation/soil stability, organic material sources, primary productivity, and overall ecosystem response to natural climate variability and anthropogenic forcing. This record is also being used to address the timing and impact of human settlement on Vestvågøy. Lilandsvatnet is located adjacent to the location of the major Viking chieftain farm, which existed throughout the Iron Age settlement period. A record of biomarker compounds associated with agricultural land-use practices (pyrogenic PAHs), and human/higher-mammal feces (coprostanol (5β-cholestan-3 β-ol), epicoprostanol (5β-cholestan-3

  17. Heterochrony in a complex world: disentangling environmental processes of facultative paedomorphosis in an amphibian.

    PubMed

    Denoël, Mathieu; Ficetola, Gentile F

    2014-05-01

    Heterochrony, the change in the rate or timing of development between ancestors and their descendants, plays a major role in evolution. When heterochrony produces polymorphisms, it offers the possibility to test hypotheses that could explain its success across environments. Amphibians are particularly suitable to exploring these questions because they express complex life cycles (i.e. metamorphosis) that have been disrupted by heterochronic processes (paedomorphosis: retention of larval traits in adults). The large phenotypic variation across populations suggests that more complex processes than expected are operating, but they remain to be investigated through multivariate analyses over a large range of natural populations across time. In this study, we compared the likelihood of multiple potential environmental determinants of heterochrony. We gathered data on the proportion of paedomorphic and metamorphic palmate newts (Lissotriton helveticus) across more than 150 populations during 10 years and used an information-theoretic approach to compare the support of multiple potential processes. Six environmental processes jointly explained the proportion of paedomorphs in populations: predation, water availability, dispersal limitation, aquatic breathing, terrestrial habitat suitability and antipredator refuges. Analyses of variation across space and time supported models based on the advantage of paedomorphosis in favourable aquatic habitats. Paedomorphs were favoured in deep ponds, in conditions favourable to aquatic breathing (high oxygen content), with lack of fish and surrounded by suitable terrestrial habitat. Metamorphs were favoured by banks allowing easy dispersal. These results indicate that heterochrony relies on complex processes involving multiple ecological variables and exemplifies why heterochronic patterns occur in contrasted environments. On the other hand, the fast selection of alternative morphs shows that metamorphosis and paedomorphosis

  18. Disentangling the biological and environmental control of M. edulis shell chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinemann, Agnes; Hiebenthal, Claas; Fietzke, Jan; Eisenhauer, Anton; Wahl, Martin

    2011-03-01

    Blue mussel individuals (Mytilus edulis) were cultured at four different salinities (17, 20, 29, and 34). During the course of the experiment, temperature was gradually increased from 6°C to 14°C. Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios of the shell calcite portions produced during the 9 weeks of experimental treatment as well parts that were precipitated before the treatment phase were measured by laser ablation-multicollector-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Mg/Ca ratios show a positive correlation with temperature for individuals cultured at salinity 29 and 34 (Mg/Ca (mmol/mol) ˜ (0.2-0.3)*T (°C)), while for individuals cultured at low salinities (17, 20) no trend was observed. Sr/Ca ratios were not affected by temperature but strongly by salinity. The data show very strong biological influence ("individual differences" and "physiological variability") on elemental ratios (79% on Mg/Ca and 41% on Sr/Ca) in M. edulis calcite. The results challenge the use of blue mussel shell data as environmental proxies.

  19. Cyberspace psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Cantelmi, Tonino; Talli, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    The authors, after a initial description of the "Internet phenomenon" and more specifically concerning the psychological and psychopathological risks related to its use, propose a series of unpublished papers on this theme, developed during the last year. PMID:19592724

  20. Parasite fitness traits under environmental variation: disentangling the roles of a chytrid's immediate host and external environment.

    PubMed

    Van den Wyngaert, Silke; Vanholsbeeck, Olivier; Spaak, Piet; Ibelings, Bas W

    2014-10-01

    Parasite environments are heterogeneous at different levels. The first level of variability is the host itself. The second level represents the external environment for the hosts, to which parasites may be exposed during part of their life cycle. Both levels are expected to affect parasite fitness traits. We disentangle the main and interaction effects of variation in the immediate host environment, here the diatom Asterionella formosa (variables host cell volume and host condition through herbicide pre-exposure) and variation in the external environment (variables host density and acute herbicide exposure) on three fitness traits (infection success, development time and reproductive output) of a chytrid parasite. Herbicide exposure only decreased infection success in a low host density environment. This result reinforces the hypothesis that chytrid zoospores use photosynthesis-dependent chemical cues to locate its host. At high host densities, chemotaxis becomes less relevant due to increasing chance contact rates between host and parasite, thereby following the mass-action principle in epidemiology. Theoretical support for this finding is provided by an agent-based simulation model. The immediate host environment (cell volume) substantially affected parasite reproductive output and also interacted with the external herbicide exposed environment. On the contrary, changes in the immediate host environment through herbicide pre-exposure did not increase infection success, though it had subtle effects on zoospore development time and reproductive output. This study shows that both immediate host and external environment as well as their interaction have significant effects on parasite fitness. Disentangling these effects improves our understanding of the processes underlying parasite spread and disease dynamics. PMID:24863129

  1. A Schwinger disentangling theorem

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, Daniel J.; Gilmore, Robert

    2010-10-15

    Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formulas are exceedingly useful for disentangling operators so that they may be more easily evaluated on particular states. We present such a disentangling theorem for general bilinear and linear combinations of multiple boson creation and annihilation operators. This work generalizes a classical result of Schwinger.

  2. What drives the association between weight-conscious peer groups and disordered eating? Disentangling genetic and environmental selection from pure socialization effects.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Shannon M; Burt, S Alexandra; VanHuysse, Jessica L; Klump, Kelly L

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies suggest strong associations between exposure to weight-conscious peer groups and increased levels of disordered eating. This association has been attributed to socialization effects (i.e., membership leads to disordered eating); however, selection effects (i.e., selecting into peer groups based on genetic and/or environmental predispositions toward disordered eating) could contribute to or even account for these associations. The current study was the first to use a co-twin control design to disentangle these types of selection factors from socialization effects. Participants included 610 female twins (ages 8-14) drawn from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. To comprehensively examine a range of eating pathology, several disordered eating attitudes and behaviors (e.g., body dissatisfaction, binge eating) were examined via self-report questionnaires. Questionnaires also were used to assess peer group emphasis on body weight and shape. Replicating previous results, significant individual-level associations were found between membership in weight-conscious peer groups and disordered eating. However, co-twin control analyses indicated that these associations were largely due to genetic and/or shared environmental selection factors rather than pure socialization effects. Importantly, results remained unchanged when controlling for pubertal status, suggesting that effects do not vary across developmental stage. Overall, these findings question whether associations between weight-conscious peer groups and disordered eating are due entirely to socialization processes. Future studies are needed to identify the specific genetic and/or shared environmental factors that may drive selection into weight-conscious peer groups. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27043917

  3. What Drives the Association between Weight Conscious Peer Groups and Disordered Eating? Disentangling Genetic and Environmental Selection from Pure Socialization Effects

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Shannon M.; Burt, S. Alexandra; VanHuysse, Jessica L.; Klump, Kelly L.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggest strong associations between exposure to weight conscious peer groups and increased levels of disordered eating. This association has been attributed to socialization effects (i.e., membership leads to disordered eating); however, selection effects (i.e., selecting into peer groups based on genetic and/or environmental predispositions toward disordered eating) could contribute to or even account for these associations. The current study was the first to use a co-twin control design to disentangle these types of selection factors from socialization effects. Participants included 610 female twins (ages 8–14) drawn from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. To comprehensively examine a range of eating pathology, several disordered eating attitudes and behaviors (e.g., body dissatisfaction, binge eating) were examined via self-report questionnaires. Questionnaires also were used to assess peer group emphasis on body weight and shape. Replicating previous results, significant individual-level associations were found between membership in weight conscious peer groups and disordered eating. However, co-twin control analyses indicated that these associations were largely due to genetic and/or shared environmental selection factors rather than pure socialization effects. Importantly, results remained unchanged when controlling for pubertal status, suggesting that effects do not vary across developmental stage. Overall, these findings question whether associations between weight conscious peer groups and disordered eating are due entirely to socialization processes. Future studies are needed to identify the specific genetic and/or shared environmental factors that may drive selection into weight conscious peer groups. PMID:27043917

  4. Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Common Psychopathologies of Childhood and Adolescence: A Study of Twins and Their Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehringer, Marissa A.; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Young, Susan; Corley, Robin; Hewitt, John K.

    2006-01-01

    We report findings based on analyses of self-reports of six common adolescent psychopathologies (attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD; conduct disorder, CD; oppositional defiant disorder, ODD; generalized anxiety disorder, GAD; separation anxiety disorder, SAD; and major depressive disorder, MDD) in a sample of 1,162 male and female…

  5. Disentangling the Exposure Experience: The Roles of Community Context and Report-Back of Environmental Exposure Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Crystal; Brown, Phil; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann; Zota, Ami; Dunagan, Sarah; Tovar, Jessica; Patton, Sharyle

    2011-01-01

    This article examines participants' responses to receiving their results in a study of household exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds and other pollutants. The authors study how the "exposure experience"--the embodied, personal experience and understanding of chronic exposure to environmental pollutants--is shaped by community context and…

  6. Correlates of male fitness in captive zebra finches - a comparison of methods to disentangle genetic and environmental effects

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Backgound It is a common observation in evolutionary studies that larger, more ornamented or earlier breeding individuals have higher fitness, but that body size, ornamentation or breeding time does not change despite of sometimes substantial heritability for these traits. A possible explanation for this is that these traits do not causally affect fitness, but rather happen to be indirectly correlated with fitness via unmeasured non-heritable aspects of condition (e.g. undernourished offspring grow small and have low fitness as adults due to poor health). Whether this explanation applies to a specific case can be examined by decomposing the covariance between trait and fitness into its genetic and environmental components using pedigree-based animal models. We here examine different methods of doing this for a captive zebra finch population where male fitness was measured in communal aviaries in relation to three phenotypic traits (tarsus length, beak colour and song rate). Results Our case study illustrates how methods that regress fitness over breeding values for phenotypic traits yield biased estimates as well as anti-conservative standard errors. Hence, it is necessary to estimate the genetic and environmental covariances between trait and fitness directly from a bivariate model. This method, however, is very demanding in terms of sample sizes. In our study parameter estimates of selection gradients for tarsus were consistent with the hypothesis of environmentally induced bias (βA = 0.035 ± 0.25 (SE), βE = 0.57 ± 0.28 (SE)), yet this differences between genetic and environmental selection gradients falls short of statistical significance. Conclusions To examine the generality of the idea that phenotypic selection gradients for certain traits (like size) are consistently upwardly biased by environmental covariance a meta-analysis across study systems will be needed. PMID:22067225

  7. Disentangling the Exposure Experience: The Roles of Community Context and Report-back of Environmental Exposure Data

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Crystal; Brown, Phil; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann; Zota, Ami; Dunagan, Sarah; Tovar, Jessica; Patton, Sharyle

    2011-01-01

    This article examines participants’ responses to receiving their results in a study of household exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds and other pollutants. We study how the “exposure experience” —the embodied, personal experience and understanding of chronic exposure to environmental pollutants— is shaped by community context and the report-back process itself. In addition, we investigate an activist, collective form of exposure experience. We analyze themes of expectations and learning, trust, and action. The findings reveal that while participants interpret scientific results to affirm lay knowledge of urban industrial toxics, they also absorb new information regarding other pollutant sources. By linking the public understanding of science literature to the illness and exposure experience concepts, this study unravels the complex relationship between lay experience and lay understanding of science. It also shows that to support policy development and/or social change, community-based participatory research efforts must attend to participants’ understanding of science. PMID:21673146

  8. Future in Psychopathology Research

    PubMed Central

    Heckers, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Psychopathology research has focused either on the analysis of the mental state in the here and now or on the synthesis of mental status abnormalities with biological markers and outcome data. These two schools of psychopathology, the analytic and the synthetic, make contrasting assumptions, take different approaches, and pursue divergent goals. Analytic psychopathology favors the individual person and unique biography, whereas synthetic psychopathology abstracts from the single case and generalizes to the population level. The dimension of time, especially the prediction of future outcomes, is viewed differently by these two schools. Here I outline how Carpenter’s proposal of strong inference and theory testing in psychopathology research can be used to test the value of analytic and synthetic psychopathology. The emerging field of personalized psychiatry can clarify the relevance of psychopathology for contemporary research in psychiatry. PMID:24562493

  9. Implications of attachment theory for developmental psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Sroufe, L A; Carlson, E A; Levy, A K; Egeland, B

    1999-01-01

    Bowlby's attachment theory is a theory of psychopathology as well as a theory of normal development. It contains clear and specific propositions regarding the role of early experience in developmental psychopathology, the importance of ongoing context, and the nature of the developmental process underlying pathology. In particular, Bowlby argued that adaptation is always the joint product of developmental history and current circumstances (never either alone). Early experience does not cause later pathology in a linear way; yet, it has special significance due to the complex, systemic, transactional nature of development. Prior history is part of current context, playing a role in selection, engagement, and interpretation of subsequent experience and in the use of available environmental supports. Finally, except in very extreme cases, early anxious attachment is not viewed as psychopathology itself or as a direct cause of psychopathology but as an initiator of pathways probabilistically associated with later pathology. PMID:10208353

  10. The domain of developmental psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Sroufe, L A; Rutter, M

    1984-02-01

    It is the "developmental" component of developmental psychopathology that distinguishes this discipline from abnormal psychology, psychiatry, and even clinical child psychology. At the same time, the focus on individual patterns of adaptation and maladaptation distinguishes this field from the larger discipline of developmental psychology. In this essay a developmental perspective is presented, and the implications of this perspective for research in developmental psychopathology are discussed. A primary consideration is the complexity of the adaptational process, with developmental transformation being the rule. Thus, links between earlier adaptation and later pathology generally will not be simple or direct. It will be necessary to understand both individual patterns of adaptation with respect to salient issues of a given developmental period and the transaction between prior adaptation, maturational change, and subsequent environmental challenges. Some examples are discussed, with special attention to the case of depression. PMID:6705619

  11. Psychopathology of Shift Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinnawo, Ebenezer Olutope

    1989-01-01

    Examined incidence and nature of general psychopathology among Nigerian shift workers (N=320). Found shift workers more significantly psychopathological than non-shift workers (p<0.001). Prominent disorders among shift workers were intellectual, sleep, mood, and general somatic disorders. No significant difference could be attributed to gender and…

  12. Psychopathology in Refugees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Peltoniemi, Rosa E.

    Refugees, like most other migrants, are at increased risk for various forms of psychopathology. This paper documents the relationship between refugee migration and psychopathology by reviewing pertinent epidemiological, clinical, and survey studies from the refugee literature. The picture that emerges shows consistently increased levels of serious…

  13. Psychopathology in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Brüne, Martin; Juckel, Georg

    2009-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system. Demyelinization of nerve fibres not only affects the motor and sensory systems functionally, but may also cause psychopathological signs and symptoms. In addition to the psychiatric manifestations of MS, many patients have reactive psychological problems that are often hard to distinguish from the ‘organic’ causation of psychopathology. In any event, psychiatric comorbidity in MS deserves greater clinical attention than has been previously paid, because the presence of psychopathology may have deleterious effects on the disease process and impair coping with disability. PMID:21180640

  14. The Domain of Developmental Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sroufe, L. Alan; Rutter, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Describes how developmental psychopathology differs from related disciplines, including abnormal psychology, psychiatry, clinical child psychology, and developmental psychology. Points out propositions underlying a developmental perspective and discusses implications for research in developmental psychopathology. (Author/RH)

  15. Internet Addiction and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koc, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between university students' internet addiction and psychopathology in Turkey. The study was based on data drawn from a national survey of university students in Turkey. 174 university students completed the SCL-90-R scale and Addicted Internet Users Inventory. Results show that students who use internet six…

  16. Adolescent Attachment and Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenstein, Diana S.; Horowitz, Harvey A.

    1996-01-01

    In relationships among attachment classification, psychopathology, and personality, traits were examined in a group of 60 psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. Attachment was examined in 27 adolescent-mother pairs. Both adolescent and maternal attachment status were overwhelmingly insecure and were highly concordant. Results support a model of…

  17. Intimate Relationships and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whisman, Mark A.; Baucom, Donald H.

    2012-01-01

    Relationship functioning and individual mental health and well-being are strongly associated with one another. In this article, we first review the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between relationship discord and various types of psychopathology, We then review findings suggesting that relationship discord is associated with poorer…

  18. Disentangling of two intertwined chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgärtner, A.; Muthukumar, M.

    1986-01-01

    The nonequilibrium process of disentangling of two self-avoiding polymer chains is investigated using Monte Carlo methods. The initial configuration of the two chains corresponds to a double helix of M turns. Chains consisting of N=8M+1 segments with M=2, 4, and 8 have been simulated. The disentangling process is found to take place in two distinct stages. The first step is the softening of the original double helix configuration to form interpenetrating chains with their centers of mass not far away from each other. This process takes a typical time of the order of N3.0 ± 0.2 . During the first stage, the center of mass of the either strand obeys the diffusion law, with the diffusion coefficient D˜N-(1.6±0.2) . The second stage involves the actual unraveling of the interpenetrating chains to form the isolated coils. The time taken for this step is found to scale as N3.3±0.2 . After the disentangling is complete, we recover the Rouse behavior, D˜N-1 for the center of mass diffusion of each coil.

  19. Brittle diabetes: psychopathological aspects.

    PubMed

    Pelizza, Lorenzo; Bonazzi, Federica; Scaltriti, Sara; Milli, Bruna; Giuseppina, Chierici

    2014-01-01

    Background. The term "brittle" is used to described an uncommon subgroup of type I diabetics whose lives are disrupted by severe glycaemic instability with repeated and prolonged hospitalization. Psychosocial problems are the major perceived underlying causes of brittle behaviour. Aim of this study is a systematic psychopathological assessement of brittleness using specific parameters of general psychopathology and personality traits following the multiaxial format (axis I and II) of the current DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for mental disorders. Methods. Patients comprised 21 brittle type I diabetics and a case-control group of 21 stable diabetics, matched for age, gender, years of education, and diabetes duration. General psychopathology and the DSM-IV-TR personality traits/disorders were assessed using the Syptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Results. The comparison for SCL-90-R parameters exclusively revealed higher scores in "Phobic Anxiety" subscale in brittle diabetics. No differences in all the other SCL-90-R primary symptom dimensions and in the three SCL-90-R global distress indices were observed between the two diabetic groups, as well as in the all MCMI-III clinical syndrome categories corresponding to DSM-IV-TR specific psychiatric disorders. However, brittle patients presented lower scores in MCMI-III compulsive personality traits and higher scores in paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, antisocial, borderline, narcissistic, avoidant, dependent, depressive, and passive-aggressive personality traits. Conclusions. In this study, brittle diabetics show no differencies in terms of global severity of psychopathological distress and axis I specific DSM-IV-TR diagnoses in comparison with non-brittle subjects (except for phobic anxiety). Differently, brittle diabetics are characterized from less functional and maladaptive personality features and suffer more frequently and intensively from specific

  20. An Unexpected Outcome from Disentangling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadima, P.; Harmanec, P.; Bennett, P. D.; Yang, S.

    2012-04-01

    During our recent spectroscopic study of ɛ Aur (Chadima et al. 2011), we made an attempt to detect weak spectral lines of the secondary, hidden in a dark disk, using the spectral disentangling technique of Simon & Sturm (1994) and Hadrava (1995, 1997, 2004). We used the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) and Ondřejov (OND) red electronic spectra, which cover more than one half of the orbital period. To our surprise, two different programs that disentangled the spectrum in Fourier space, KOREL (Hadrava 1995, 2004) and FDBINARY (Ilijić et al. 2001), both yielded apparently good, similar reconstructions of two well-defined spectra for mass ratios near unity. The results (Solution 1) are shown in Fig. 1 (left panels) and Table 1 (left column). This result is hard to accept as real given the existing knowledge about the system: ɛ Aur is an F-type star with an unseen companion embedded in a cool, dark disk (temperature ~ 500-600 K). A detailed search for any trace of spectral signatures of the secondary in the spectra was carried out (see Bennett et al., these proceedings). Although they found line profile variations that were correlated with orbital phase, these variations were not consistent with the presence of a secondary.

  1. Creativity and Psychopathology: Sex Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martín-Brufau, Ramón; Corbalán, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The association between creativity and psychopathology has, for decades, been a focus of heated debate fuelled by contradictory findings. Nevertheless, the findings suggest complex associations between creativity and psychopathology. Other studies have investigated the association between creativity and sex, with inconsistent results. The aim of…

  2. Sexual Trauma, Spirituality, and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krejci, Mark J.; Thompson, Kevin M.; Simonich, Heather; Crosby, Ross D.; Donaldson, Mary Ann; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Mitchell, James E.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the association between spirituality and psychopathology in a group of sexual abuse victims and controls with a focus on whether spirituality moderated the association between sexual trauma and psychopathology. Seventy-one sexual trauma victims were compared to 25 control subjects on spiritual well-being, the Eating Disorder…

  3. Birth Order and Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Risal, Ajay; Tharoor, Hema

    2012-01-01

    Context: Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. Aim: To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-related variables like age of onset, birth order, family type, and family history of mental illness were compared with psychiatry diagnosis (ICD-10) generated. Statistical Analysis: SPSS 13; descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. Results: Mean age of onset of mental illness among the adult general psychiatry patients (group I, n = 527) was found to be 33.01 ± 15.073, while it was 11.68 ± 4.764 among the child cases (group II, n = 47) and 26.74 ± 7.529 among substance abuse cases (group III, n = 110). Among group I patients, commonest diagnosis was depression followed by anxiety and somatoform disorders irrespective of birth order. Dissociative disorders were most prevalent in the first born child (36.7%) among group II patients. Among group III patients, alcohol dependence was maximum diagnosis in all birth orders. Conclusions: Depression and alcohol dependence was the commonest diagnosis in adult group irrespective of birth order. PMID:24479023

  4. Developmental psychopathology: recent advances and future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Pollak, Seth D

    2015-01-01

    The integrative field of developmental psychopathology is having a huge impact on our understanding of human health and behavior. In this paper, I use the example of children’s early stress exposure to illustrate how developmental psychopathologists now tend to deemphasize diagnostic categories and, instead, emphasize the social and biological contexts, events and circumstances that have created opportunities for maladaptive responses and health problems in youth. This example shows that developmental psychopathology is increasing understanding of how children develop the abilities that allow them to cope effectively with challenges and what leads to failures in development of these abilities. Integrating research about the neurobiology of learning may prove to be a powerful future direction to understand how the environment regulates behavior. Learning processes become increasingly intricate and fine-tuned as relevant neuroanatomical systems develop, and as the range, complexity and amount of environmental information increases for the developing child. A focus on these processes allows psychopathologists to formulate questions about which neural mechanisms children use to process information, how these mechanisms are themselves shaped by social context, why adverse social environments confer risk for children, and, perhaps, what sorts of neutrally informed interventions might remediate the deficits in self-regulation that underlie common psychopathologies. PMID:26407771

  5. Classification of childhood psychopathology: a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Garber, J

    1984-02-01

    The absence of a comprehensive, objective, and reliable system for classifying emotional and behavior problems in children has slowed the advancement of knowledge in the field of developmental psychopathology. This paper provides a developmental framework for the classification of psychopathology in children and highlights the potential contributions that such classification may have toward the understanding of normal development. The salient issues derived from this developmental perspective are concerned with the continuity between childhood and adult psychopathology, and the definition of normality and adaptation in the context of development. The implications of the continuity issue for classification are that (a) the validity of adult criteria for use with children should be explored further, (b) the diagnosis of a childhood disorder at 1 point in time is not necessarily dependent upon there being episodes of the disorder at a later time, and (c) the focus of classification should not be limited to isolated behaviors and traits, but rather should emphasize patterns of adaptation. Moreover, it is suggested that judgments about normality and dysfunction should be made relative to what is expected given the child's age, sex, environmental context, developmental task, level of functioning, and phase in the progression through development. This paper provides a conceptual framework that will facilitate the construction of a more developmentally relevant system of classification. PMID:6705631

  6. Psychopathology of social isolation

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Sang-Bin

    2014-01-01

    The most important defining factor of being human is the use of symbolic language. Language or communication problem occurs during the growth, the child will have a higher risk of social isolation and then the survival will be threatened constantly. Today, adolescents and youths are familiar with computer and smart-phone devices, and communication with others by these devices is easy than face-to-face communication. As adolescents and youths live in the comfortable and familiar cyber-world rather than actively participating real society, so they make social isolation. Extreme form of this isolation in adolescents and youths is so-called Socially Withdrawn Youth. In this study, the psychopathological factors inducing social isolation were discussed. Development stages of social isolation in relation with types of social isolation, Ego-syntonic isolation and Ego-dystonic isolation, were also considered. PMID:25061592

  7. Severity of borderline personality symptoms in adolescence: relationship with maternal parenting stress, maternal psychopathology, and rearing styles.

    PubMed

    Schuppert, H Marieke; Albers, Casper J; Minderaa, Ruud B; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Nauta, Maaike H

    2015-06-01

    The development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with parenting styles and parental psychopathology. Only a few studies have examined current parental rearing styles and parental psychopathology in relationship to BPD symptoms in adolescents. Moreover, parenting stress has not been examined in this group. The current study examined 101 adolescents (14-19 years old) with BPD symptoms and their mothers. Assessments were made on severity of BPD symptoms, youth-perceived maternal rearing styles, and psychopathology and parenting stress in mothers. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine potential predictors of borderline severity. No correlation was found between severity of BPD symptoms in adolescents and parenting stress. Only youth-perceived maternal overprotection was significantly related to BPD severity. The combination of perceived maternal rejection with cluster B traits in mothers was significantly related to BPD severity in adolescents. This study provides a contribution to the disentanglement of the developmental pathways that lead to BPD. PMID:25102082

  8. [Psychopathology and creativity].

    PubMed

    Rybakowski, Janusz; Klonowska, Paulina; Patrzała, Amelia; Jaracz, Jan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a concept has been presented stating that the process of creativity may be connected with psychopathological features such as mood disorders, mainly bipolar, and psychosis-like thought abnormalities. Biographic studies point to a more frequent occurrence of affective disorders in creative subjects and members of their families. There is also data concerning the occurrence of schizophrenia in the families of prominent persons. A number of studies have demonstrated a similarity of patients with bipolar affective illness and members of their families to creative persons, as to increased indexes of creativity as well as such temperamental features as cyclothymia, neuroticism and openness. An association has been also found between the dimension of"psychoticism", schizotypal features and the measures of creativity. A reduction of the so called "latent inhibition" mechanism, resulting in perception of seemingly irrelevant external stimuli is connected with a predisposition to both increased creativity and schizophrenia-like disturbances. A neurobiological model of generating ideas and creative drive assumes a dominant role of three brain structures: frontal lobes, temporal lobes and the mesolimbic system. The neurotransmission system mostly connected with elevated mood and psychotic thinking is the dopaminergic system, especially its mesolimbic and cortical pathways. Both neurobiological and pharmacological evidence has been accumulated for an association of these pathways with motivational, emotional and cognitive processes, and indirectly, with the processes of creativity. In recent years, a number of interesting results has also been obtained from molecular-genetic studies about genetic determinants of creativity processes in association with bipolar mood changes and psychotic conditions. PMID:17444285

  9. Self-derogation and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Harder, D W; Strauss, J S; Kokes, R F; Ritzler, B A

    1984-05-01

    To test empirically the oft-repeated clinical hypothesis of a relationship between the self-derogation component of low self-esteem and severity of psychopathology across the entire range of pathology, including nondepressive disorders, the present study examined this relationship in two samples of Ss. The first were 152 patients and expatients from two community mental health catchment areas followed up two years after their first functional-disorder psychiatric admission. The second group were 97 outpatients from the same catchment areas beginning therapy at a community mental health clinic. Within each sample self-derogation was related significantly to severity of diagnosis, overall health-sickness, numerous indices of symptomatology severity, and a measure of difficulty in social/employment functioning. These findings point to the need to recognize and treat self-derogation in psychopathological states other than depression. In addition, they raise the important question of direction of causality between self-derogation and observed psychopathology. PMID:6735168

  10. Developmental psychopathology: concepts and challenges.

    PubMed

    Rutter, M; Sroufe, L A

    2000-01-01

    The defining features of developmental psychopathology concepts include attention to the understanding of causal processes, appreciation of the role of developmental mechanisms, and consideration of continuities and discontinuities between normality and psychopathology. Accomplishments with respect to these issues are reviewed in relation to attachment disorders, antisocial behavior, autism, depressive disorder, schizophrenia, and intellectual development. Major research challenges remain in relation to measurement issues, comorbidity, gender differences, cognitive processing, nature-nurture interplay, heterotypic continuity, continuities between normal variations and disorders, developmental programming, and therapeutic mechanisms in effective treatments. PMID:11014739

  11. Family Interactions and Child Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donenberg, Geri R.; Nelson, Dana

    Previous research has not correlated parent-child interaction patterns with different forms of child psychopathology. This study examined whether parent-child interaction corresponded with childhood depression/anxiety and childhood aggression. Forty-two clinically-referred children and adolescents, 8 to 16 years old, were classified into four…

  12. Psychiatric Psychopathology: A Practicum Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, John W.; Piotrowski, Chris

    This paper describes the University of West Florida graduate level, didactic/experiential course in psychopathology which has been offered since 1975 to introduce clinical psychology students to the applied and practical aspects of psychiatry. Elements of the basic practicum course are described: (1) each student is assigned to a psychiatrist on a…

  13. Self-Derogation and Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harder, David W.; And Others

    Self-derogation relates significantly to the severity of psychopathology regardless of how it is measured. This study examined 152 patients and ex-patients from two community mental health catchment areas two years after their first admission, as well as 97 outpatients beginning therapy. Included were indices of diagnostic severity; overall…

  14. Parental Psychopathology and Female Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Jewelle Taylor

    Although research has provided evidence to document a relation between parental psychopathology and female delinquency, the dimensions of that relationship are unclear. Adjudicated delinquent females (N=48) completed a general social history interview and three psychological instruments. Probation records were used to analyze subjects' delinquent…

  15. Psychopathology of incarcerated sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Ahlmeyer, Sean; Kleinsasser, Dennis; Stoner, John; Retzlaff, Paul

    2003-08-01

    The psychopathology and particularly the personality disorders of sex offenders were compared to general inmates of the Colorado Department of Corrections. Using the MCMI-III (Millon, 1994, 1997), sex offenders in general were found to have more varied types of personalities than general population inmates. Specifically, they were more schizoid, avoidant, depressive, dependent, self-defeating, and schizotypal. General population inmates had the more classically criminal personality characteristics of antisocial, narcissistic, and sadistic. Multivariate analysis showed the Dependent, Narcissistic, Antisocial, and Schizotypal scales to be the most differentiating. Sex offenders were also found to have more affective psychopathology such as anxiety, dysthymia, PTSD, and major depression. A similar trend was found when comparing child molesters to rapists. The child molesters were more neurotic, affective, and socially impaired than the rapists. Multivariate analysis showed the Dependent scale to be the most important in differentiating these two types of sex offenders. PMID:14521179

  16. [Psychopathology of violence in prisons].

    PubMed

    Barreau, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The issue of violence in prisons concerns the people detained there, the conditions of the imprisonment and the relations which are established between the prisoners and the guards. The deprivation of liberty in prison, by suppressing desire, stirs up violence. Security contingency measures are not sufficient to control aggressive urges. Violence in prison stems from the internal regulations, the architecture of the building, the organisation of the surveillance and from the psychopathological dynamics of the deprivations resulting from being locked up. PMID:26948194

  17. [Pica: nosographical and psychopathological aspects].

    PubMed

    Iorio, Gennaro; Prisco, Vincenzo; Iorio, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    The authors, after examining a clinical case of obsessive-compulsive disorder, associated to Pica syndrome, analyse psychopathological development of the symptomatology in its complex, refuting some statements of published studies, that include Pica within obsessive-compulsive disorder spectrum. On the contrary, they think the coexistence of the two symptomatologies simply as an expression of a comorbidity, explaining why they are prone to link Pica with eating disorders. PMID:25000892

  18. Future Directions in Childhood Adversity and Youth Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite long-standing interest in the influence of adverse early experiences on mental health, systematic scientific inquiry into childhood adversity and developmental outcomes has emerged only recently. Existing research has amply demonstrated that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for multiple forms of youth psychopathology. In contrast, knowledge of developmental mechanisms linking childhood adversity to the onset of psychopathology—and whether those mechanisms are general or specific to particular kinds of adversity—remains cursory. Greater understanding of these pathways and identification of protective factors that buffer children from developmental disruptions following exposure to adversity is essential to guide the development of interventions to prevent the onset of psychopathology following adverse childhood experiences. This article provides recommendations for future research in this area. In particular, use of a consistent definition of childhood adversity, integration of studies of typical development with those focused on childhood adversity, and identification of distinct dimensions of environmental experience that differentially influence development are required to uncover mechanisms that explain how childhood adversity is associated with numerous psychopathology outcomes (i.e., multifinality) and identify moderators that shape divergent trajectories following adverse childhood experiences. A transdiagnostic model that highlights disruptions in emotional processing and poor executive functioning as key mechanisms linking childhood adversity with multiple forms of psychopathology is presented as a starting point in this endeavour. Distinguishing between general and specific mechanisms linking childhood adversity with psychopathology is needed to generate empirically informed interventions to prevent the long-term consequences of adverse early environments on children’s development. PMID:26849071

  19. Macroecology of biodiversity: disentangling local and regional effects.

    PubMed

    Pärtel, Meelis; Bennett, Jonathan A; Zobel, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Contents 404 I. 404 II. 404 III. 405 IV. 406 V. 407 VI. 408 409 References 409 SUMMARY: Macroecology of biodiversity disentangles local and regional drivers of biodiversity by exploring large-scale biodiversity relationships with environmental or biotic gradients, generalizing local biodiversity relationships across regions, or comparing biodiversity patterns among species groups. A macroecological perspective is also important at local scales: a full understanding of local biodiversity drivers, including human impact, demands that regional processes be taken into account. This requires knowledge of which species could inhabit a site (the species pool), including those that are currently absent (dark diversity). Macroecology of biodiversity is currently advancing quickly owing to an unprecedented accumulation of biodiversity data, new sampling techniques and analytical methods, all of which better equip us to face current and future challenges in ecology and biodiversity conservation. PMID:27040897

  20. Disentanglement and decoherence without dissipation at non-zero temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, G. W.; O'Connell, R. F.

    2010-09-01

    Decoherence is well understood, in contrast with disentanglement. According to common lore, irreversible coupling to a dissipative environment is the mechanism for loss of entanglement. Here, we show that, on the contrary, disentanglement can in fact occur at large enough temperatures T even for vanishingly small dissipation (as we have shown previously for decoherence). However, whereas the effect of T on decoherence increases exponentially with time, the effect of T on disentanglement is constant for all times, reflecting a fundamental difference between the two phenomena. Also, the possibility of disentanglement at a particular T increases with decreasing initial entanglement.

  1. Psychopathological effects of solitary confinement.

    PubMed

    Grassian, S

    1983-11-01

    Psychopathological reactions to solitary confinement were extensively described by nineteenth-century German clinicians. In the United States there have been several legal challenges to the use of solitary confinement, based on allegations that it may have serious psychiatric consequences. The recent medical literature on this subject has been scarce. The author describes psychiatric symptoms that appeared in 14 inmates exposed to periods of increased social isolation and sensory restriction in solitary confinement and asserts that these symptoms form a major, clinically distinguishable psychiatric syndrome. PMID:6624990

  2. Developmental psychopathology: a paradigm shift or just a relabeling?

    PubMed

    Rutter, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Developmental psychopathology is described as a conceptual approach that involves a set of research methods that capitalize on developmental and psychopathological variations to ask questions about mechanisms and processes. Achievements are described in relation to attachment and attachment disorders, autism, schizophrenia, childhood antecedents of adult psychopathology, testing for environmental mediation of risk effects, gene-environment interplay, intellectual and language functioning, effects of mentally ill parents on the children, stress and vulnerability to depression, ethnicity and schizophrenia, and drug response. Continuities and discontinuities over the course of development are discussed in relation to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, antisocial behavior, eating disorders, substance abuse and dependency, pharmacological and behavioral addictions, and a range of other disorders. Research challenges are considered in relation to spectrum concepts, the adolescent development of a female preponderance for depression, the mechanisms involved in age differences in response to drugs and to lateralized brain injury, the processing of experiences, the biological embedding of experiences, individual differences in response to environmental hazards, nature-nurture integration, and brain plasticity. PMID:24342835

  3. Continuities and discontinuities in psychopathology between childhood and adult life.

    PubMed

    Rutter, Michael; Kim-Cohen, Julia; Maughan, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The possible mechanisms involved in continuities and discontinuities in psychopathology between childhood and adult life are considered in relation to the findings from systematic, prospective, long-term longitudinal studies. Findings on schizophrenia, neurodevelopmental disorders, emotional disturbances, antisocial behaviour and substance abuse are used as conditions illustrating the key issues. The overarching themes are then discussed in relation to heterotypic continuity and psychopathologic progression, early age at onset and a range of possible mediating mechanisms - including genetic mediation, 'kindling' effects, environmental influences, coping mechanisms and cognitive processing of experiences. Some of the key research challenges that remain concern the testing of competing hypotheses on mediating processes, the changes involved in adolescence, the transition from prodromal phase to overt schizophrenia and the emergence of adolescent-limited antisocial behaviour. Greater use needs to be made of genetic research strategies and of the testing of possible cognitive processing mediation effects. PMID:16492260

  4. Developmental Psychopathology: Pathways to the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masten, Ann S.

    2006-01-01

    This article highlights the defining principles, progress and future directions in developmental psychopathology in relation to this special section. Six fundamental principles of developmental psychopathology are identified and the pervasive impact of this integrative framework on research, theory, and practice in behavioral health fields over…

  5. Comparing Factor Structures of Adolescent Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verona, Edelyn; Javdani, Shabnam; Sprague, Jenessa

    2011-01-01

    Research on the structure of adolescent psychopathology can provide information on broad factors that underlie different forms of maladjustment in youths. Multiple studies from the literature on adult populations suggest that 2 factors, Internalizing and Externalizing, meaningfully comprise the factor structure of adult psychopathology (e.g.,…

  6. Conducting Policy-Relevant Developmental Psychopathology Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Anne C.

    2006-01-01

    Policy, defined broadly to include public policy as well as institutional or organizational policy, is useful for sustaining change in human development and its contexts and systems. The role for developmental psychopathology research in policy analysis and policy making is discussed. To assure that developmental psychopathology research is useful…

  7. Points of View: Stories of Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, James E.

    This book is designed to provide students, at differing levels of experience and training, with examples that illustrate the problems individuals have with various psychopathologies. Stories are included to illustrate the key elements of psychopathology for these disorders, and are written from the point of view of both the individual who has the…

  8. Psychopathology in Women Arrested for Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Gregory L.; Moore, Todd M.; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Ramsey, Susan E.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of psychopathology among women arrested for violence and whether the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) was associated with Axis I psychopathology. Women who were arrested for domestic violence perpetration and court referred to violence intervention programs (N=103) completed measures of IPV…

  9. Disentangling theorem and monogamy for entanglement negativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Huan; Vidal, Guifre

    2015-01-01

    Entanglement negativity is a measure of mixed-state entanglement increasingly used to investigate and characterize emerging quantum many-body phenomena, including quantum criticality and topological order. We present two results for the entanglement negativity: a disentangling theorem, which allows the use of this entanglement measure as a means to detect whether a wave function of three subsystems A ,B , and C factorizes into a product state for parts A B1 and B2C ; and a monogamy relation conjecture based on entanglement negativity, which states that if A is very entangled with B , then A cannot be simultaneously very entangled also with C .

  10. Biosensor Approach to Psychopathology Classification

    PubMed Central

    Koshelev, Misha; Lohrenz, Terry; Vannucci, Marina; Montague, P. Read

    2010-01-01

    We used a multi-round, two-party exchange game in which a healthy subject played a subject diagnosed with a DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistics Manual-IV) disorder, and applied a Bayesian clustering approach to the behavior exhibited by the healthy subject. The goal was to characterize quantitatively the style of play elicited in the healthy subject (the proposer) by their DSM-diagnosed partner (the responder). The approach exploits the dynamics of the behavior elicited in the healthy proposer as a biosensor for cognitive features that characterize the psychopathology group at the other side of the interaction. Using a large cohort of subjects (n = 574), we found statistically significant clustering of proposers' behavior overlapping with a range of DSM-IV disorders including autism spectrum disorder, borderline personality disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and major depressive disorder. To further validate these results, we developed a computer agent to replace the human subject in the proposer role (the biosensor) and show that it can also detect these same four DSM-defined disorders. These results suggest that the highly developed social sensitivities that humans bring to a two-party social exchange can be exploited and automated to detect important psychopathologies, using an interpersonal behavioral probe not directly related to the defining diagnostic criteria. PMID:20975934

  11. Cannabis and Psychopathology : Update 2004

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep; Basu, Debasish

    2004-01-01

    The study of cannabis use and psychopathology remains an interesting area from both academic and pragmatic perspectives. This article provides an update on the progress made in this area over the past decade or so. Psychopathology and psychiatric syndromes associated with cannabis use that have received research attention in recent years include cannabis withdrawal, cannabis and psychotic disorders (especially schizophrenia), depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. Status of a specific cannabis withdrawal syndrome and a specific ‘cannabis psychosis’ remains controversial. Current evidence indicates that there is a clinically significant association between cannabis use disorders and psychotic syndromes, depression, anxiety and possibly mild cognitive impairment. However, the nature of this association is often not clear. Several hypothesis related to the cannabis-schizophrenia association are examined. Cannabis use might be casually related to the later development of schizophrenia in an indirect way in a few heavy users, but more commonly, its use may precipitate disorders in persons who are vulnerable to developing psychosis and worsen the course of the disorder. PMID:21206788

  12. Psychopathology in Adolescence: Does Development Play a Role?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Anne C.; Ebata, Aaron T.

    Thos paper discusses myths about adolescent psychopathology, including the beliefs that psychopathology is a normal state in adolescence; that adolescents grow out of their psychopathology; and that with regard to psychopathology, adolescents are either like adults or like children. Key features of adolescent development are summarized, the life…

  13. [Psychopathology in children with dyspraxia].

    PubMed

    Lemonnier, E

    2010-08-01

    The term "dyspraxia" was coined by Julian de Ajuriaguerra and Mira Stambak in 1964. This clinical term was treated very differently according to which explanatory model was adopted. Nowadays, it is used to refer to developmental coordination disorder in view of its neuro-developmental origin. In any case, the actual clinical situations vary and are often complex. In our opinion, it is first necessary to examine the differential diagnosis: apraxia in children caused by lesions, dysgraphia, simply delayed motor development, non-verbal learning disability syndrome, hemispheric specialisation deficits, pervasive developmental disorders (autisms, Asperger syndrome, atypical autism and other pervasive developmental disorders), mixed specific developmental disorders, multiple developmental disorder, and children with high potential. Next we focus on co-morbidity. Firstly, we look at psychopathological disorders associated with dyspraxia: autism and pervasive developmental disorders, dyscalculia/math disability, dyslexia/reading difficulties, dysphasia accompanied by verbal dyspraxia, intelligence deficiency, anxiety disorders, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Secondly, we examine psychopathological disorders associated with dyspraxia. Children with developmental coordination disorder are less inclined to participate in collective games. As a result, there is a greater risk of them becoming lonely and isolated. They have higher child behaviour checklist (CBCL) scores in the somatic problems scale as well as for anxiety, depression and social withdrawal. They have low self-perception in sports as well as at school, which is related to their physical appearance and their self-esteem, attention deficit and externalized behaviour. These children are often at risk of academic failure and they suffer from oppositional defiant disorder and functional disorders. And finally, we believe that it is important to touch on the impact of these disorders on the family

  14. Disentangling Public Participation In Science and Biomedicine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This article provides a framework for disentangling the concept of participation, with emphasis on participation in genomic medicine. We have derived seven ‘dimensions’ of participation that are most frequently invoked in the extensive, heterogeneous literature on participation. To exemplify these dimensions, we use material from a database of 102 contemporary cases of participation, and focus here on cases specific to science and medicine. We describe the stakes of public participation in biomedical research, with a focus on genomic medicine and lay out the seven dimensions. Discussion We single out five cases of participation that have particular relevance to the field of genomic medicine, we apply the seven dimensions to show how we can differentiate among forms of participation within this domain. Summary We conclude with some provocations to researchers and some recommendations for taking variation in participation more seriously. PMID:24479693

  15. Universality of finite-time disentanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drumond, Raphael C.; Duarte, Cristhiano; Terra Cunha, Marcelo; Nemes, M. C.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we investigate how common the phenomenon of finite time disentanglement (FTD) is with respect to the set of quantum dynamics of bipartite quantum states with finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. Considering a quantum dynamics from a general sense as just a continuous family of completely positive trace preserving maps (CPTP) (parametrized by the time variable) acting on the space of the bipartite systems, we conjecture that FTD happens for all dynamics but those when all maps of the family are induced by local unitary operations. We prove that this conjecture is valid for two important cases: (i) when all maps are induced by unitaries and (ii) for pairs of qubits, when all maps are unital. Moreover, we prove some general results about unitaries that preserve product states and about CPTP maps preserving pure states.

  16. The Concept of Development in Developmental Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Sroufe, L Alan

    2009-12-01

    So important is the perspective of development for understanding psychopathology that it spawned a new discipline-"developmental psychopathology"-which has seen remarkable advances since its introduction,, but has yet to completely fulfill its promise. To do this requires maintaining a thoroughgoing developmental perspective. When we take development seriously, there are implications for how we understand psychopathology, describe and conceptualize the origins and course of disorder, and interpret research findings. From this perspective, disorders are complex products of development; for example, we can view neurophysiological associates of disorder not as causes but as markers, the development of which we need to understand. Research on developmental psychopathology requires an examination of the history of problem behavior from early in life, and it unites multiple features of adaptation and maladaptation (contextual, experiential, physiological, and genetic). PMID:20161376

  17. [Dynamics of psychopathologic disorders in neuroinfectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Kutin, V P; Kutin, G V

    1981-01-01

    Data of dynamic observations of 212 patients with psychic disturbances of the neuroinfectious genesis are presented. The authors analyzed 1696 admissions, or 8 admissions per each patient. The analysis revealed a number of regularities in the alternation of the psychopathological syndromes on repeated admissions. These regularities were found to depend on the initial symptoms, the patient's age, and the character of additional exacerbation-provoking pathogenetic factors. A tendency to copying the initial psychopathological disturbances was revealed. PMID:7324696

  18. Feynman Disentangling of Noncommuting Operators in Quantum Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, V.S.

    2005-11-01

    Feynman's disentangling theorem is applied to noncommuting operators in the problem of quantum parametric oscillator, which is mathematically equivalent to the problem of SU(1, 1) pseudospin rotation. The number states of the oscillator correspond to unitary irreducible representations of the SU(1, 1) group. Feynman disentangling is combined with group-theoretic arguments to obtain simple analytical formulas for the matrix elements and transition probabilities between the initial and final states of the oscillator. Feynman disentangling of time evolution operators is also discussed for an atom or ion interacting with a laser field and for a model Hamiltonian possessing the 'hidden' symmetry of the hydrogen atom.

  19. Disentanglement of two harmonic oscillators in relativistic motion

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, S.-Y.; Chou, C.-H.; Hu, B. L.

    2008-12-15

    We study the dynamics of quantum entanglement between two Unruh-DeWitt detectors, one stationary (Alice), and another uniformly accelerating (Rob), with no direct interaction but coupled to a common quantum field in (3+1)D Minkowski space. We find that for all cases studied the initial entanglement between the detectors disappears in a finite time ('sudden death'). After the moment of total disentanglement the correlations between the two detectors remain nonzero until late times. The relation between the disentanglement time and Rob's proper acceleration is observer dependent. The larger the acceleration is, the longer the disentanglement time in Alice's coordinate, but the shorter in Rob's coordinate.

  20. Psychopathology and thought suppression: a quantitative review.

    PubMed

    Magee, Joshua C; Harden, K Paige; Teachman, Bethany A

    2012-04-01

    Recent theories of psychopathology have suggested that thought suppression intensifies the persistence of intrusive thoughts, and proposed that difficulty with thought suppression may differ between groups with and without psychopathology. The current meta-analytic review evaluates empirical evidence for difficulty with thought suppression as a function of the presence and specific type of psychopathology. Based on theoretical proposals from the psychopathology literature, diagnosed and analogue samples were expected to show greater recurrence of intrusive thoughts during thought suppression attempts than non-clinical samples. However, results showed no overall differences in the recurrence of thoughts due to thought suppression between groups with and without psychopathology. There was, nevertheless, variation in the recurrence of thoughts across different forms of psychopathology, including relatively less recurrence during thought suppression for samples with symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, compared to non-clinical samples. However, these differences were typically small and provided only mixed support for existing theories. Implications for cognitive theories of intrusive thoughts are discussed, including proposed mechanisms underlying thought suppression. PMID:22388007

  1. The Relationship between Parental Alcoholism and Adolescent Psychopathology: A Systematic Examination of Parental Comorbid Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; Hesselbrock, Victor M.; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Samuel; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Schuckit, Marc A.; Nurnberger, John I., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between parental alcohol dependence (with and without comorbid psychopathology) and adolescent psychopathology was examined in a sample of 665 13-17 year-old adolescents and their parents. Results indicated that adolescents who had parents diagnosed with alcohol dependence only did not significantly differ from adolescents who had…

  2. The Relationship Between Parental Psychopathology and Adolescent Psychopathology: An Examination of Gender Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCauley Ohannessian, Christine; Hesselbrock, Victor M.; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Samuel; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Schuckit, Mark A.; Nurnberger, John I.

    2005-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine the relationship between parental psychopathology (specifically, alcohol dependence and depression) and adolescent psychopathology, by the gender of the adolescent and the gender of the parent. The sample included 426 13- to 17-year-old adolescents and their parents. All participants were administered…

  3. The Preventive Approach to Children at High Risk for Psychopathology and Psychosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, E. James

    1982-01-01

    Primary prevention, as applied to the children of psychotics, should be directed against the transmission of psychosis to the next generation of adults and toward the relief of psychopathology in the children. It should be remembered that genetic and environmental factors interact in the etiology of mental illness. (Author/CMG)

  4. [Adaptation and Neurosciences II: Biological, Psychological and Social Adaptation, and Psychopathology].

    PubMed

    Desseilles, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we address adaptation in relation to the neurosciences. Adaptation is examined at the individual as well as various environmental levels: biological, psychological, and social. We then briefly discuss, from a neuroscientific perspective, the concept of adaptation in relation to psychopathology, including attachment theory and the third wave of cognitive-behavioral therapies. PMID:27570964

  5. Disentangling correlations in multiple parton interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Calucci, G.; Treleani, D.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple Parton Interactions are the tool to obtain information on the correlations between partons in the hadron structure. Partons may be correlated in all degrees of freedom and all different correlation terms contribute to the cross section. The contributions due to the different parton flavors can be isolated, at least to some extent, by selecting properly the final state. In the case of high energy proton-proton collisions, the effects of correlations in the transverse coordinates and in fractional momenta are, on the contrary, unavoidably mixed in the final observables. The standard way to quantify the strength of double parton interactions is by the value of the effective cross section and a small value of the effective cross section may be originated both by the relatively short transverse distance between the pairs of partons undergoing the double interaction and by a large dispersion of the distribution in multiplicity of the multiparton distributions. The aim of the present paper is to show how the effects of longitudinal and transverse correlations may be disentangled by taking into account the additional information provided by double parton interactions in high energy proton-deuteron collisions.

  6. Disentangling human tolerance and resistance against HIV.

    PubMed

    Regoes, Roland R; McLaren, Paul J; Battegay, Manuel; Bernasconi, Enos; Calmy, Alexandra; Günthard, Huldrych F; Hoffmann, Matthias; Rauch, Andri; Telenti, Amalio; Fellay, Jacques

    2014-09-01

    In ecology, "disease tolerance" is defined as an evolutionary strategy of hosts against pathogens, characterized by reduced or absent pathogenesis despite high pathogen load. To our knowledge, tolerance has to date not been quantified and disentangled from host resistance to disease in any clinically relevant human infection. Using data from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study, we investigated if there is variation in tolerance to HIV in humans and if this variation is associated with polymorphisms in the human genome. In particular, we tested for associations between tolerance and alleles of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) genes, the CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5), the age at which individuals were infected, and their sex. We found that HLA-B alleles associated with better HIV control do not confer tolerance. The slower disease progression associated with these alleles can be fully attributed to the extent of viral load reduction in carriers. However, we observed that tolerance significantly varies across HLA-B genotypes with a relative standard deviation of 34%. Furthermore, we found that HLA-B homozygotes are less tolerant than heterozygotes. Lastly, tolerance was observed to decrease with age, resulting in a 1.7-fold difference in disease progression between 20 and 60-y-old individuals with the same viral load. Thus, disease tolerance is a feature of infection with HIV, and the identification of the mechanisms involved may pave the way to a better understanding of pathogenesis. PMID:25226169

  7. Familial association of anxiety sensitivity and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    East, Allison J; Berman, Mitchell E; Stoppelbein, Laura

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between parental (biological mother and father) and adult-offspring anxiety sensitivity (AS), and to determine whether parental AS is related to psychopathology in offspring. We obtained offspring (N=174) self-ratings of anxiety, mood, and stress symptoms, and assigned psychiatric diagnoses using a semistructured clinical interview. Biological mothers, fathers, and offspring independently completed a self-report measure of AS. We hypothesized that (1) there would be a positive relation between parental and offspring AS, and (2) AS in parents would be positively associated with psychopathology in offspring. Results indicated that paternal (but not maternal) AS was associated with offspring AS and psychopathology. PMID:17004235

  8. Neurosteroids in child and adolescent psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Golubchik, Pavel; Lewis, Matthew; Maayan, Rachel; Sever, Jonathan; Strous, Rael; Weizman, Abraham

    2007-02-01

    Neurosteroids play a significant role in neurodevelopment and are involved in a wide variety of psychopathological processes. There is accumulating evidence on their role in adult psychopathology, including Alzheimer disease, schizophrenia, mood disorder, anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder. Little is known, however, about the possible role of neurosteroids in child and adolescent psychopathology although there is increasing evidence for their critical role from the early stages of brain development until adolescence. In this review we focus on the involvement of neurosteroids in neurodevelopment and mental disorders in children and adolescents. Adequate physiological levels protect the developing neural system from insult and contribute to the regulation of brain organization and function. Neurosteroids may be involved in the pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy of a variety of disorders in children and adolescents, including schizophrenia, depression, eating disorders, aggressive behavior and attention deficit. The complex interaction between neurosteroids, neurodevelopment, life-events, genetics and mental disorders in children and adolescents merits further investigation. PMID:17079119

  9. The Concept of Development in Developmental Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Sroufe, L. Alan

    2009-01-01

    So important is the perspective of development for understanding psychopathology that it spawned a new discipline—“developmental psychopathology”—which has seen remarkable advances since its introduction,, but has yet to completely fulfill its promise. To do this requires maintaining a thoroughgoing developmental perspective. When we take development seriously, there are implications for how we understand psychopathology, describe and conceptualize the origins and course of disorder, and interpret research findings. From this perspective, disorders are complex products of development; for example, we can view neurophysiological associates of disorder not as causes but as markers, the development of which we need to understand. Research on developmental psychopathology requires an examination of the history of problem behavior from early in life, and it unites multiple features of adaptation and maladaptation (contextual, experiential, physiological, and genetic). PMID:20161376

  10. Disentangling the nature of the nicotine stimulus✩

    PubMed Central

    Bevins, Rick A.; Barrett, Scott T.; Polewan, Robert J.; Pittenger, Steven T.; Swalve, Natashia; Charntikov, Sergios

    2011-01-01

    Learning involving interoceptive stimuli likely plays an important role in many diseases and psychopathologies. Within this area, there has been extensive research investigating the interoceptive stimulus effects of abused drugs. In this pursuit, behavioral pharmacologists have taken advantage of what is known about learning processes and adapted the techniques to investigate the behavioral and receptor mechanisms of drug stimuli. Of particular interest is the nicotine stimulus and the use of the two-lever operant drug discrimination task and the Pavlovian drug discriminated goal-tracking task. There is strong concordance between the two methods when using “standard” testing protocols that minimize learning on test days. For example, ABT-418, nornicotine, and varenicline all fully evoked nicotine-appropriate responding. Notably, research from our laboratory with the discriminated goal-tracking task has used an alternative testing protocol. This protocol assesses stimulus substitution based on how well extinction learning using a non-nicotine ligand transfers back to the nicotine stimulus. These findings challenge conclusions based on more “standard” testing procedures (e.g., ABT-418 is not nicotine-like). As a starting point, we propose Thurstone scaling as a quantitative method for more precisely comparing transfer of extinction across doses, experiments, and investigators. We close with a discussion of future research directions and potential implications of the research for understanding interoceptive stimuli. PMID:22119845

  11. The Relationship between Psychopathology Symptom Clusters and the Presence of Comorbid Psychopathology in Individuals with Severe to Profound Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozlowski, Alison M.; Matson, Johnny L.; Sipes, Megan; Hattier, Megan A.; Bamburg, Jay W.

    2011-01-01

    In the typically developing population, comorbid psychopathology refers to the co-occurrence of two different psychopathologies other than cognitive impairments. With respect to individuals with intellectual disability, comorbidity is often described as cognitive deficits and one additional psychopathology manifesting together. However, just as…

  12. Maltreated Children's Memory: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Mitchell L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne; Crayton, John

    2007-01-01

    Memory, suggestibility, stress arousal, and trauma-related psychopathology were examined in 328 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of abuse and neglect. Children's memory and suggestibility were assessed for a medical examination and venipuncture. Being older and scoring higher in cognitive functioning were related to fewer…

  13. Current Psychopathology in Previously Assaulted Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acierno, Ron; Lawyer, Steven R.; Rheingold, Alyssa; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.

    2007-01-01

    Older adult women age 55+ years (N = 549) were interviewed as part of a population-based epidemiological research study of lifetime experiences with physical and sexual assault and current mental health problems. Although overall rates of psychopathology were low, producing very small cells for comparison, women who reported experiencing physical…

  14. Dissociation and the Development of Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    This paper reviews the research on dissociation and the development of psychopathology in children and adolescents. Definitions and dimensions of dissociation are addressed, noting its range from normative daydreaming to the extremes found in individuals with multiple personality disorder. Memory dysfunctions, disturbances of identity, passive…

  15. The Neuropsychological Basis of Childhood Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Andrew S.

    2006-01-01

    A clear link exists between neurological dysfunction and psychopathology in children, as evidenced by research on the sequelae of developmental childhood brain impairment, the neuropsychological investigation of children with psychiatric disorders, and neuroimaging research. Understanding the neuropsychological basis of a disorder helps teachers,…

  16. Psychopathology as the basic science of psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Broome, Matthew R

    2014-09-01

    We argue that psychopathology, as the discipline that assesses and makes sense of abnormal human subjectivity, should be at the heart of psychiatry. It should be a basic educational prerequisite in the curriculum for mental health professionals and a key element of the shared intellectual identity of clinicians and researchers in this field. PMID:25179621

  17. Psychopathology and the Ability to Do Otherwise

    PubMed Central

    Pickard, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    When philosophers want an example of a person who lacks the ability to do otherwise, they turn to psychopathology. Addicts, agoraphobics, kleptomaniacs, neurotics, obsessives, and even psychopathic serial murderers, are all purportedly subject to irresistible desires that compel the person to act: no alternative possibility is supposed to exist. I argue that this conception of psychopathology is false and offer an empirically and clinically informed understanding of disorders of agency which preserves the ability to do otherwise. First, I appeal to standard clinical treatment for disorders of agency and argue that it undermines this conception of psychopathology. Second, I offer a detailed discussion of addiction, where our knowledge of the neurobiological mechanisms underpinning the disorder is relatively advanced. I argue that neurobiology notwithstanding, addiction is not a form of compulsion and I explain how addiction can impair behavioural control without extinguishing it. Third, I step back from addiction, and briefly sketch what the philosophical landscape more generally looks like without psychopathological compulsion: we lose our standard purported real-world example of psychologically determined action. I conclude by reflecting on the centrality of choice and free will to our concept of action, and their potency within clinical treatment for disorders of agency. PMID:25929318

  18. Implicit Measures of Association in Psychopathology Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roefs, Anne; Huijding, Jorg; Smulders, Fren T. Y.; MacLeod, Colin M.; de Jong, Peter J.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Jansen, Anita T. M.

    2011-01-01

    Validity;Measures (Individuals);Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis I psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b) experimental…

  19. Disentanglement of two harmonic oscillators in relativistic motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shih-Yuin; Chou, Chung-Hsien; Hu, B. L.

    2008-12-01

    We study the dynamics of quantum entanglement between two Unruh-DeWitt detectors, one stationary (Alice), and another uniformly accelerating (Rob), with no direct interaction but coupled to a common quantum field in (3+1)D Minkowski space. We find that for all cases studied the initial entanglement between the detectors disappears in a finite time (“sudden death”). After the moment of total disentanglement the correlations between the two detectors remain nonzero until late times. The relation between the disentanglement time and Rob’s proper acceleration is observer dependent. The larger the acceleration is, the longer the disentanglement time in Alice’s coordinate, but the shorter in Rob’s coordinate.

  20. Disentangling forms of Lorentz violation with complementary clock comparison experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Altschul, Brett

    2009-03-15

    Atomic clock comparisons provide some of the most precise tests of Lorentz and CPT symmetries in the laboratory. With data from multiple such experiments using different nuclei, it is possible to constrain new regions of the parameter space for Lorentz violation. Relativistic effects in the nuclei allow us to disentangle forms of Lorentz violation which could not be separately measured in purely nonrelativistic experiments. The disentangled bounds in the neutron sectors are at the 10{sup -28} GeV level, far better than could be obtained with any other current technique.

  1. Phenotypic and Causal Structure of Conduct Disorder in the Broader Context of Prevalent Forms of Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2011-01-01

    Background A better understanding of the nature and etiology of conduct disorder (CD) can inform nosology and vice-versa. We posit that any prevalent form of psychopathology, including CD, can be best understood if it is studied in the context of other correlated forms of child and adolescent psychopathology using formal models to guide inquiry. Methods Review of both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of the place of CD in the phenotypic and causal structure of prevalent psychopathology, with an emphasis on similarities and differences between CD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Papers were located using Web of Science by topic searches with no restriction on year of publication. Results Although some important nosologic questions remain unanswered, the dimensional phenotype of CD is well defined. CD differs from other disorders in its correlates, associated impairment, and course. Nonetheless, it is robustly correlated with many other prevalent dimensions of psychopathology both concurrently and predictively, including both other “externalizing” disorders and some “internalizing” disorders. Based on emerging evidence, we hypothesize that these concurrent and predictive correlations result primarily from widespread genetic pleiotropy, with some genetic factors nonspecifically influencing risk for multiple correlated dimensions of psychopathology. In contrast, environmental influences mostly act to differentiate dimensions of psychopathology from one another both concurrently and over time. CD and ODD share half of their genetic influences, but their genetic etiologies are distinct in other ways. Unlike most other dimensions of psychopathology, half of the genetic influences on CD appear to be unique to CD. In contrast, ODD broadly shares nearly all of its genetic influences with other disorders and has little unique genetic variance. Conclusions CD is a relatively distinct syndrome at both phenotypic and etiologic levels, but much is revealed

  2. Momentum entanglement and disentanglement between an atom and a photon

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Rui; Guo Hong

    2007-07-15

    With the quantum interference between two transition pathways, we demonstrate a scheme to coherently control the momentum entanglement between a single atom and a single photon. The unavoidable disentanglement is also studied from the first principle, which indicates that the stably entangled atom-photon system with superhigh degree of entanglement may be realized with this scheme under certain conditions.

  3. Low Vagal Tone Magnifies the Association Between Psychosocial Stress Exposure and Internalizing Psychopathology in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Rith-Najarian, Leslie; Dirks, Melanie A.; Sheridan, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Vagal tone is a measure of cardiovascular function that facilitates adaptive responses to environmental challenge. Low vagal tone is associated with poor emotional and attentional regulation in children and has been conceptualized as a marker of sensitivity to stress. We investigated whether the associations of a wide range of psychosocial stressors with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology were magnified in adolescents with low vagal tone. Resting heart period data were collected from a diverse community sample of adolescents (ages 13–17; N =168). Adolescents completed measures assessing internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and exposure to stressors occurring in family, peer, and community contexts. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was calculated from the interbeat interval time series. We estimated interactions between RSA and stress exposure in predicting internalizing and externalizing symptoms and evaluated whether interactions differed by gender. Exposure to psychosocial stressors was associated strongly with psychopathology. RSA was unrelated to internalizing or externalizing problems. Significant interactions were observed between RSA and child abuse, community violence, peer victimization, and traumatic events in predicting internalizing but not externalizing symptoms. Stressors were positively associated with internalizing symptoms in adolescents with low RSA but not in those with high RSA. Similar patterns were observed for anxiety and depression. These interactions were more consistently observed for male than female individuals. Low vagal tone is associated with internalizing psychopathology in adolescents exposed to high levels of stressors. Measurement of vagal tone in clinical settings might provide useful information about sensitivity to stress in child and adolescent clients. PMID:24156380

  4. The development of emotion-related neural circuitry in health and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Monk, Christopher S

    2008-01-01

    Disturbances in the detection of, response to, and interpretation of emotion are common in many forms of psychopathology. The amygdala, striatum, and structures within the prefrontal cortex are highly involved in mediating these stages of emotion processing, and evidence indicates that these regions show structural and functional alterations in different types of psychopathology, including anxiety, depression, and autism spectrum disorders. However, we do not know how genes and the environment interact to alter development of these brain regions in ways that give rise to emotion-related psychopathology. This review discusses the current understanding of brain regions that are involved in emotional functioning, how they develop, and how they are altered in three forms of psychopathology: anxiety, depression, and autism spectrum disorders. Following this, a framework is described that may facilitate the integration of investigations of genetic variation and brain function with symptom and diagnostic measures. The framework involves three components: (a) a greater emphasis on simultaneously analyzing multiple levels (genes, brain function, behavior, symptoms, and diagnoses); (b) further integration of developmental considerations, including timing of environmental events, adaptations (or maladaptations), and disorder-related trajectories that guide some children toward atypical experiences; and (c) greater cross-talk between animal and human investigations to take advantage of biological measures that cannot be acquired in humans. PMID:18838040

  5. Insightful hallucination: psychopathology or paranormal phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Gadit, Amin A Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a 26-year-old man who was so emotionally attached to his mother that the mere thought of separating from her caused immense anxiety. The death of his mother after a brief illness resulted in prolonged bereavement. However, the patient started seeing and talking to his mother after her death, which led to huge improvement in his mood and social functioning. His wife brought him in for consultation but no obvious psychopathology was detected. This gave rise to the dilemma of whether to consider this a real psychopathology and treat it, or to disregard this reported hallucination. No active treatment is being given to this patient at the moment. PMID:22698904

  6. 'Craziness' and creativity: Psychopathology and Poetry.

    PubMed

    Hankir, Ahmed; Zaman, Rashid

    2015-09-01

    Not all poets have experienced psychopathology. Conversely, not all those who have experienced psychopathology become poets. The notion, nonetheless, of there being an association between 'craziness' and creativity, contentious though it may be, remains a seductive one. Poetry is both beneficial for the person who is composing or reciting it as well as the person who may be reading or listening to it. Poetry Therapy, which falls under the remit of Art Therapy, is increasingly being recognised as an effective form of adjunctive therapy for the treatment of mental health problems. The main aims of this paper are to explore (and to attempt to elucidate) if there is indeed a relationship between the artistic temperament and mental illness and to comment on the rise and recognition of Art Therapy. PMID:26417752

  7. Psychopathology among cocaine abusers entering treatment.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, P H; Miller, A B; Millman, R B; Woody, G E; Todd, T; Kemp, J; Lipton, D S

    1990-07-01

    A number of different indicators of psychopathology were assessed in this study of 76 cocaine and crack abusers who entered outpatient treatment in New York City between June and December 1987. The majority (75%) had used cocaine for 4 years or more, and the majority (62%) spent over one thousand dollars a month on cocaine in the 6 months before entry into treatment. Forty-seven percent of the sample were found to be clinically depressed. Phobic disorders were the only other axis I diagnoses found in addition to depression, and all persons who were found to have phobic disorders also were diagnosed as having some form of depressive disorder. The four most common axis II diagnoses were antisocial personality (21%), passive-aggressive (21%), borderline (18%) and self-defeating (18%). Subjects were classified as falling into one of the following three categories of a newly developed "psychopathology classification": a) no diagnosed psychopathology except substance abuse or dependency; b) one or more axis II diagnoses, but no axis I diagnoses except for substance abuse or dependency; c) at least one axis I diagnosis in addition to drug disorders whether or not accompanied by an axis II diagnosis. Mean scores on subscales and total score on the SCL-90, as well as total score on the Beck Depression Inventory, were ordered by category of the classification scheme, with those having no diagnosed psychopathology except substance abuse having the lowest score and persons in the third category having the highest score.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2366058

  8. [General psychopathology--the basis for objective psychiatric findings].

    PubMed

    Pavlovský, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    General psychopathology is an integral part of psychiatry; without knowledge of it we would be unable to describe an objective clinical psychiatric finding and set the diagnosis. It is dealing with not only description of single psychopathologic terms but also studies its connection with pathophysiology, genetics, biochemistry, psychology and sociology. The grounds of psychopathology were given by Karl Jaspers who devoted much attention to the problem of subjective and objective; it happens quite often that subjective symptoms may bear a character of objective signs. In spite of serious importance of general psychopathology these facts have been grossly neglected during the last several decades. Key words: general psychopathology, psychopathologic terms, their subjective and objective character. PMID:23102131

  9. Reconceptualizing sex, brain and psychopathology: interaction, interaction, interaction

    PubMed Central

    Joel, D; Yankelevitch-Yahav, R

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing recognition of the influence of sex on brain structure and function, and in relation, on the susceptibility, prevalence and response to treatment of psychiatric disorders. Most theories and descriptions of the effects of sex on the brain are dominated by an analogy to the current interpretation of the effects of sex on the reproductive system, according to which sex is a divergence system that exerts a unitary, overriding and serial effect on the form of other systems. We shortly summarize different lines of evidence that contradict aspects of this analogy. The new view that emerges from these data is of sex as a complex system whose different components interact with one another and with other systems to affect body and brain. The paradigm shift that this understanding calls for is from thinking of sex in terms of sexual dimorphism and sex differences, to thinking of sex in terms of its interactions with other factors and processes. Our review of data obtained from animal models of psychopathology clearly reveals the need for such a paradigmatic shift, because in the field of animal behaviour whether a sex difference exists and its direction depend on the interaction of many factors including, species, strain, age, specific test employed and a multitude of environmental factors. We conclude by explaining how the new conceptualization can account for sex differences in psychopathology. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Animal Models in Psychiatry Research. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-20 PMID:24758640

  10. Continuous-variable quantum-state sharing via quantum disentanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Lance, Andrew M.; Symul, Thomas; Lam, Ping Koy; Bowen, Warwick P.; Sanders, Barry C.; Tyc, Tomas; Ralph, T.C.

    2005-03-01

    Quantum-state sharing is a protocol where perfect reconstruction of quantum states is achieved with incomplete or partial information in a multipartite quantum network. Quantum-state sharing allows for secure communication in a quantum network where partial information is lost or acquired by malicious parties. This protocol utilizes entanglement for the secret-state distribution and a class of 'quantum disentangling' protocols for the state reconstruction. We demonstrate a quantum-state sharing protocol in which a tripartite entangled state is used to encode and distribute a secret state to three players. Any two of these players can collaborate to reconstruct the secret state, while individual players obtain no information. We investigate a number of quantum disentangling processes and experimentally demonstrate quantum-state reconstruction using two of these protocols. We experimentally measure a fidelity, averaged over all reconstruction permutations, of F=0.73{+-}0.02. A result achievable only by using quantum resources.

  11. Excavating Culture: Disentangling Ethnic Differences from Contextual Influences in Parenting

    PubMed Central

    le, Huynh-Nhu; Ceballo, Rosario; Chao, Ruth; Hill, Nancy E.; Murry, Velma McBride; Pinderhughes, Ellen E.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, much of the research on parenting has not disentangled the influences of race/ethnicity, SES, and culture on family functioning and the development of children and adolescents. This special issue addresses this gap by disentangling ethnic differences in parenting behaviors from their contextual influences, thereby deepening understanding of parenting processes in diverse families. Six members of the Parenting section of the Study Group on Race, Culture and Ethnicity (SGRCE) introduce and implement a novel approach toward understanding this question. The goal of this project is to study culturally related processes and the degree to which they predict parenting. An iterative process was employed to delineate the main parenting constructs (warmth, psychological and behavioral control, monitoring, communication, and self-efficacy), cultural processes, and contextual influences, and to coordinate a data analytic plan utilizing individual datasets with diverse samples to answer the research questions. PMID:24043923

  12. Feynman method for disentangling operators and a singular oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, V. S.; Trusov, M. A.

    2012-02-15

    The problem of the evolution of a singular quantum oscillator with a frequency exhibiting an arbitrary time dependence has been solved. The probabilities w{sub mn} of transitions in the oscillator spectrum and generating functions have been calculated, and the sum rules for w{sub mn} have been derived. The calculations are based on the Feynman disentangling method and the theory of representations of the SU(1, 1) group.

  13. Socioemotional, Personality, and Biological Development: Illustrations from a Multilevel Developmental Psychopathology Perspective on Child Maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Cicchetti, Dante

    2016-01-01

    Developmental theories can be affirmed, challenged, and augmented by incorporating knowledge about atypical ontogenesis. Investigations of the biological, socioemotional, and personality development in individuals with high-risk conditions and psychopathological disorders can provide an entrée into the study of system organization, disorganization, and reorganization. This article examines child maltreatment to illustrate the benefit that can be derived from the study of individuals subjected to nonnormative caregiving experiences. Relative to an average expectable environment, which consists of a species-specific range of environmental conditions that support adaptive development among genetically normal individuals, maltreating families fail to provide many of the experiences that are required for normal development. Principles gleaned from the field of developmental psychopathology provide a framework for understanding multilevel functioning in normality and pathology. Knowledge of normative developmental processes provides the impetus to design and implement randomized control trial (RCT) interventions that can promote resilient functioning in maltreated children. PMID:26726964

  14. The Structure of Psychopathology in a Community Sample of Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Jennifer; Keller, Jennifer; Lavigne, John V.; Gouze, Karen; Hopkins, Joyce; LeBailly, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Despite growing interest in the development of alternative diagnostic classification systems for psychopathology in young children, little is known about the adequacy of the DSM symptom structure for describing psychopathology in this population. This paper examines the fit of the DSM-IV emotional (ED) and disruptive behavior disorder (DD) symptom…

  15. Prospective Relations between Organized Activity Participation and Psychopathology during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohnert, Amy M.; Garber, Judy

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined psychopathology as a predictor and outcome of organized activity involvement during high school among 198 adolescents who varied in risk for psychopathology as a function of their mother's depression history. Higher levels of internalizing and externalizing symptoms in eighth grade significantly predicted lower…

  16. Psychopathology and Deviant Sexual Arousal in Incarcerated Sexual Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serin, Ralph C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between psychopathology and deviant sexual arousal in sexual offenders (n=65), with approximately equal numbers of rapists and child molesters. Differentiating between rapists, extrafamilial pedophiles, and incest offenders revealed that the relationship between psychopathology and arousal was most apparent for…

  17. Maternal Depression, Maternal Expressed Emotion, and Youth Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompson, Martha C.; Pierre, Claudette B.; Boger, Kathryn Dingman; McKowen, James W.; Chan, Priscilla T.; Freed, Rachel D.

    2010-01-01

    Across development, maternal depression has been found to be a risk factor for youth psychopathology generally and youth depression specifically. Maternal Expressed Emotion (EE) has been examined as a predictor of outcome among youth with depression. The present study explored the associations between youth psychopathology and two…

  18. Social Cognition and Adjustment in Children at Risk for Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Geraldine; Walker, Elaine

    1989-01-01

    Tested 2 models of the effect of social cognition on the link between child adjustment and the 2 family risk factors of maltreatment and parental psychopathology. In 83 subjects of 7-14 years, maltreatment predicted aggression and peer rejection, but parental psychopathology did not. Adjustment of subjects with a disturbed parent depended on…

  19. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Psychopathology in Dancers.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Paula; Jaque, S Victoria

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in pre-professional and professional dancers (n=209) who were exposed to traumatic events. Nine self-report instruments assessed (1) adverse childhood experiences, (2) past traumatic events, (3) coping strategies under stressful situations, and (4) fantasy proneness. The psychopathology variables included (5) anxiety, (6) depression, (7) dissociation, (8) shame, and (9)) PTSD diagnostic scale. Statistical calculations included descriptive, distributional, and multivariate analysis of covariates (MANCOVA). Results indicate that dancers had a significantly higher distribution of PTSD (20.2%) compared to the normal population (7.8%). They also had a higher frequency of family members with mental illness, an inability to speak about their trauma, and more suicidal thoughts. The PTSD group of dancers had higher levels of psychopathology (anxiety, depression, dissociation, and shame) and they had more childhood adversity and adult trauma. Compared to the no-PTSD group, the PTSD group had higher scores on fantasy proneness and emotion-oriented coping strategies. These coping strategies may increase psychological instability. Addressing early abuse and trauma is recommended. Clinicians may help dancers alter their internal working models that their self is worthless, others are abusive, and the world is threatening and dangerous. By understanding PTSD in dancers, medical and mental health treatment protocols may be established to address the debilitating, and often hidden, symptoms of PTSD. PMID:26395617

  20. Psychopathology and Urine Toxicology in Methadone Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sadek, Gamal; Cernovsky, Zack; Chiu, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Several studies reported high rates of psychiatric commorbidity among methadone patients. We examined the relationships of measures of psychopathology to outcomes of screening urine tests for cocaine, opiates, and benzodiazepines in a sample of 56 methadone patients. They also completed the Symptom Check List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). The highest scales in the SCL-90-R profile of our patients were those indicating somatic discomfort, anger, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and also obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms (scores above the 39th percentile). The only significant correlations between urine tests and SCL-90-R psychopathology were those involving benzodiazepines: patients with urine tests positive for benzodiazepines had lower social self-confidence (r=0.48), were more obsessive-compulsive (r=0.44), reported a higher level of anger (r=0.41), of phobic tendencies (r=40), of anxiety (r=0.39), and of paranoid tendencies (r=0.38), and also reported more frequent psychotic symptoms (r=0.43). PMID:26266026

  1. [Psychopathological aspects of negative symptoms in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Cermolacce, M; Belzeaux, R; Pringuey, D; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2015-12-01

    During the past ten years, research on schizophrenia has witnessed a clear emphasis on studies based on negative symptoms. This interest can be explained in terms of diagnosis, specific treatment, functional prognosis and outcome issues. However, main current approaches consider negative symptoms from an operationalist view, which implies objective and atheoretical descriptions of clinical criteria, observed from a third person perspective. And the understanding of negative symptoms in schizophrenia, still a crucial issue of mental health, remains only partial. From a different perspective, psychopathology - and notably psychiatric phenomenology -, can provide a conceptual and clinical framework, taking into account subjective experience (first person perspective), based on a global understanding of the clinical situation lived by patients with schizophrenia. In the present review, we give a brief survey on the historical aspects of the description of negative symptoms. Then, we introduce the clinical contributions raised by clinical phenomenology. We principally develop Minkowski's notion of loss of vital contact, and Blankenburg's notion of loss of natural evidence. Then we highlight the current debates which are discussed and explored in contemporary psychopathology. In conclusion, we discuss the possible articulation between objective and subjective approaches, in order to better understand pauci-symptomatic forms of schizophrenia. PMID:26776395

  2. Spatiotemporal Psychopathology II: How does a psychopathology of the brain's resting state look like? Spatiotemporal approach and the history of psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Northoff, Georg

    2016-01-15

    Psychopathology as the investigation and classification of experience, behavior and symptoms in psychiatric patients is an old discipline that ranges back to the end of the 19th century. Since then different approaches to psychopathology have been suggested. Recent investigations showing abnormalities in the brain on different levels raise the question how the gap between brain and psyche, between neural abnormalities and alteration in experience and behavior can be bridged. Historical approaches like descriptive (Jaspers) and structural (Minkoswki) psychopathology as well as the more current phenomenological psychopathology (Paarnas, Fuchs, Sass, Stanghellini) remain on the side of the psyche giving detailed description of the phenomenal level of experience while leaving open the link to the brain. In contrast, the recently introduced Research Domain Classification (RDoC) aims at explicitly linking brain and psyche by starting from so-called 'neuro-behavioral constructs'. How does Spatiotemporal Psychopathology, as demonstrated in the first paper on depression, stand in relation to these approaches? In a nutshell, Spatiotemporal Psychopathology aims to bridge the gap between brain and psyche. Specifically, as demonstrated in depression in the first paper, the focus is on the spatiotemporal features of the brain's intrinsic activity and how they are transformed into corresponding spatiotemporal features in experience on the phenomenal level and behavioral changes, which can well account for the symptoms in these patients. This second paper focuses on some of the theoretical background assumptions in Spatiotemporal Psychopathology by directly comparing it to descriptive, structural, and phenomenological psychopathology as well as to RDoC. PMID:26071797

  3. Speed of disentanglement in multiqubit systems under a depolarizing channel

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fu-Lin Jiang, Yue; Liang, Mai-Lin

    2013-06-15

    We investigate the speed of disentanglement in the multiqubit systems under the local depolarizing channel, in which each qubit is independently coupled to the environment. We focus on the bipartition entanglement between one qubit and the remaining qubits constituting the system, which is measured by the negativity. For the two-qubit system, the speed for the pure state completely depends on its entanglement. The upper and lower bounds of the speed for arbitrary two-qubit states, and the necessary conditions for a state achieving them, are obtained. For the three-qubit system, we study the speed for pure states, whose entanglement properties can be completely described by five local-unitary-transformation invariants. An analytical expression of the relation between the speed and the invariants is derived. The speed is enhanced by the three-tangle which is the entanglement among the three qubits, but reduced by the two-qubit correlations outside the concurrence. The decay of the negativity can be restrained by the other two negativity with the coequal sense. The unbalance between two qubits can reduce the speed of disentanglement of the remaining qubit in the system, and even can retrieve the entanglement partially. For the k-qubit systems in an arbitrary superposition of Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger state and W state, the speed depends almost entirely on the amount of the negativity when k increases to five or six. An alternative quantitative definition for the robustness of entanglement is presented based on the speed of disentanglement, with comparison to the widely studied robustness measured by the critical amount of noise parameter where the entanglement vanishes. In the limit of large number of particles, the alternative robustness of the Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger-type states is inversely proportional to k, and the one of the W states approaches 1/√(k)

  4. The link between child abuse and psychopathology: a review of neurobiological and genetic research.

    PubMed

    McCrory, Eamon; De Brito, Stephane A; Viding, Essi

    2012-04-01

    Childhood abuse is associated with later psychopathology, including conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder, anxiety and depression as well as a heightened risk of health and social problems. However, the neurobiological mechanisms by which childhood adversity increases vulnerability to psychopathology remain poorly understood. There is likely to be a complex interaction between environmental experiences (such as abuse) and individual differences in risk versus protective genes, which influences the neurobiological circuitry underpinning psychological and emotional development. Neuroendocrine studies indicate an association between early adversity and atypical development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress response, which may predispose to psychiatric vulnerability in adulthood. Brain imaging research in children and adults is providing evidence of several structural and functional brain differences associated with early adversity. Structural differences have been reported in the corpus callosum, cerebellum and prefrontal cortex. Functional differences have been reported in regions implicated in emotional and behavioural regulation, including the amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex. These differences at the neurobiological level may represent adaptations to early experiences of heightened stress that lead to an increased risk of psychopathology. We also consider the clinical implications of future neurobiological and genetic research. PMID:22532655

  5. The link between child abuse and psychopathology: A review of neurobiological and genetic research

    PubMed Central

    McCrory, Eamon; De Brito, Stephane A; Viding, Essi

    2012-01-01

    Childhood abuse is associated with later psychopathology, including conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder, anxiety and depression as well as a heightened risk of health and social problems. However, the neurobiological mechanisms by which childhood adversity increases vulnerability to psychopathology remain poorly understood. There is likely to be a complex interaction between environmental experiences (such as abuse) and individual differences in risk versus protective genes, which influences the neurobiological circuitry underpinning psychological and emotional development. Neuroendocrine studies indicate an association between early adversity and atypical development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress response, which may predispose to psychiatric vulnerability in adulthood. Brain imaging research in children and adults is providing evidence of several structural and functional brain differences associated with early adversity. Structural differences have been reported in the corpus callosum, cerebellum and prefrontal cortex. Functional differences have been reported in regions implicated in emotional and behavioural regulation, including the amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex. These differences at the neurobiological level may represent adaptations to early experiences of heightened stress that lead to an increased risk of psychopathology. We also consider the clinical implications of future neurobiological and genetic research. PMID:22532655

  6. Psychopathology and Special Education Enrollment in Children with Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Todd P.; Lester, Barry; Lagasse, Linda; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Higgins, Rosemary; Hammond, Jane; Roberts, Mary B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated how enrollment in special education services in 11 year old children relates to prenatal cocaine exposure, psychopathology, and other risk factors. Method Participants were 498 children enrolled in The Maternal Lifestyle Study, a prospective, longitudinal, multisite study examining outcomes of children with prenatal cocaine exposure. Logistic regression was used to examine the effect of prenatal cocaine exposure and psychopathology on enrollment in an individualized education plan (a designation specific to children with special education needs), with environmental, maternal, and infant medical variables as covariates. Results Prenatal cocaine exposure, an interaction of prenatal cocaine exposure and Oppositional Defiant Disorder, child Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, parent-reported internalizing behaviors, and teacher-reported externalizing behaviors, predicted enrollment in an individualized education plan. Other statistically significant variables in the model were male gender, low birth weight, being small for gestational age, white race, caregiver change, low socio-economic status, low child intelligence quotient, caregiver depression, and prenatal marijuana exposure. Conclusions Prenatal cocaine exposure increased the likelihood of receiving an individualized education plan with adjustment for covariates. Psychopathology also predicted this special education outcome, in combination with and independent of prenatal cocaine exposure. PMID:22487696

  7. [Psychopathological heterogeneity in opium drug addicts].

    PubMed

    Pani, P P; Carta, M; Rudas, N

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the presence and nature of psychiatric disorders in opium drug addicts. One hundred and six subjects receiving treatment at the CMAS in Cagliari were included in the study. Hathawai and McKinley's MMPI test was preventively carried out on all subjects; each drug addict was then interviewed three times in the space of three weeks in order to formulate a diagnosis in line with DSM III R criteria. The results obtained show a high incidence of psychopathological disorders which are not included among those caused by drug abuse, and a high degree of diagnostic heterogeneity on both axis I and axis II. The comparative assessment of three subsamples undergoing different phases of treatment reveals both qualitative and quantitative differences. PMID:1749353

  8. [Attachment and Adoption: Diagnostics, Psychopathology, and Therapy].

    PubMed

    Brisch, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of attachment between adopted children and their adoptive parents with a focus on the particular issues seen in international adoptions. The questions of settling in, trauma in the country of origin, and the motivations of the adoptive parents will be discussed. Diagnosis and various psychopathological manifestations will be examined, as will outpatient and inpatient modes of therapy. The treatment of children of various ages will be covered along with the necessity for intensive counseling and psychotherapy for the adoptive parents. This will enable the parents to work through early trauma, which will give them and their adopted child the basis for developing healthy attachment patterns. This in turn will enable the child to mature and integrate into society. Possibilities of prevention are discussed. Many of the approaches discussed here regarding attachment and adoption may be applied to foster children and their foster parents. PMID:26645775

  9. [Psychopathology and differential typology of depressive anxiety].

    PubMed

    Kick, H

    1997-01-01

    From the point of view of a clinical integrative approach, psychopathological and typological clarification of the forms of anxiety that occur during major depression is undertaken. First, we examine "pure restriction", expressed by anxiety accompanied by a feeling of lack of feeling. Secondly, we distinguish this from a continuous or attack-like anxiety occuring within a socalled "destabilized restriction" (Janzarik). Finally, anxiety can be an expression of "forced restriction" characterized by developing tension between repression of feelings and emotions on the one hand and overloading of judgmental thought patterns on the other. We describe the appropriate structural and dynamic presuppositions of depressive anxiety syndromes and present a practical guideline for clinical therapy in its functional and personal aspects, developed as a result of our approach. PMID:9132620

  10. Remorse, psychopathology, and psychopathy among adolescent offenders.

    PubMed

    Spice, Andrew; Viljoen, Jodi L; Douglas, Kevin S; Hart, Stephen D

    2015-10-01

    Remorse has long been important to the juvenile justice system. However, the nature of this construct has not yet been clearly articulated, and little research has examined its relationships with other theoretically and forensically relevant variables. The present study was intended to address these issues by examining relationships among remorse, psychopathology, and psychopathy in a sample of adolescent offenders (N = 97) using the theoretically and empirically established framework of guilt and shame (Tangney & Dearing, 2002). Findings indicated that shame was positively related to behavioral features of psychopathy, whereas guilt was negatively related to psychopathic characteristics more broadly. In addition, shame was positively associated with numerous mental health problems whereas guilt was negatively associated with anger, depression, and anxiety. These results provide empirical support for theory that psychopathy is characterized by lack of remorse (e.g., Hare, 1991), and also underscore shame and guilt as potentially important treatment targets for adolescent offenders. PMID:26011041

  11. Disentangling Effects of Nuclear Structure in Heavy Element Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Hinde, D. J.; Thomas, R. G.; Rietz, R. du; Diaz-Torres, A.; Dasgupta, M.; Brown, M. L.; Evers, M.; Gasques, L. R.; Rafiei, R.; Rodriguez, M. D.

    2008-05-23

    Forming the same heavy compound nucleus with different isotopes of the projectile and target elements allows nuclear structure effects in the entrance channel (resulting in static deformation) and in the dinuclear system to be disentangled. Using three isotopes of Ti and W, forming {sup 232}Cm, with measurement spanning the capture barrier energies, alignment of the heavy prolate deformed nucleus is shown to be the main reason for the broadening of the mass distribution of the quasifission fragments as the beam energy is reduced. The complex, consistently evolving mass-angle correlations that are observed carry more information than the integrated mass or angular distributions, and should severely test models of quasifission.

  12. Playing Quantum Games with Disentanglement-Free State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Guo-Fu; Yu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    We use a kind of disentanglement-free state to serve as the initial state shared by players and referee in quantum games. It is found that when two players choose some strategies the payoffs of the quantum games will not be affected by the external single-mode vacuum field and the various interactions present in the process. Furthermore, we show that for some games our scheme can be used to remove the dilemma in its corresponding classical game even with the presence of noises; meanwhile, one can find the solution to those games without disturbing the players’ payoffs.

  13. [Definition and psychopathology of chronic hand dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Lahfa, M

    2014-06-01

    Psychopathology in patients with DCM is as complex as its clinical forms where the factors are numerous and often intricate. It combines psychophysiological, psychopathological factors, behavioral disorders which can be the cause or the consequence of DCM but also the negative impact on quality of life and the simplest daily activities. DCM affects the quality of life of every patient, regardless of the severity. Women are more affected by the DCM that man older age, male sex, atopy and the existence of a contact sensitization are independent risk factors of severity. Depression may affect up to 10 % of patients, should involve greater attention from dermatologists and general practitioners. Health authorities and all health actors should be aware of interactions between secondary cognitive troubles or inherent to DCM and efforts required in terms of preventive measures. Thus, the presence of psychiatric comorbidity is more common in patients with chronic dermatoses. Today it is considered that the emotional environment, built by the mother - child relationship must be optimal, otherwise the mental stability of body image may be compromised. Diminished self-esteem, affects less well managed and somatic expression of emotional content. Recently, a surprising study showed that most patients with refractory occupational dermatitis were not able to recognize the warning sign of flare or the role of psychological factors in the formation and maintenance of the dermatose. In fact, they rejected their personal responsibility in the occurrence of the new flare. To address this public health problem, health authorities, trainers and caregivers should be aware of the cognitive impact of DCM in these patients and interactions with current means of prevention. The role of obsessive-compulsive washing as part of an anxiety disorder or personality disorder is most likely a contributing or maintaining factor systematically underestimated in the pathogenesis of DCM and in the

  14. Child maltreatment and mediating influences of childhood personality types on the development of adolescent psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A; Cicchetti, Dante

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate longitudinal risk processes linking early child maltreatment, childhood personality organizations, and adolescent maladaptation. In a sample of maltreated and nonmaltreated children (N = 400; 62.3% African American, 11.8% Hispanic; 40.8% girls), a tripartite personality typology based on California Child Q-Set items representative of ego resiliency and ego control personality dimensions (Block & Block, 1969/1980 ) was derived at Wave 1 (age range = 10-12). The typology, composed of Resilient, Overcontrolled, and Undercontrolled profiles, was evaluated for associations with previous child maltreatment, and for its utility in predicting adolescent psychopathology (age range = 15-18). Maltreated children were significantly more likely than nonmaltreated children to be classified into the overcontrolled (Odds Ratio = 1.847) and undercontrolled profiles (Odds Ratio = 2.101), compared to the Resilient profile. The undercontrolled profile reported higher cannabis symptoms and externalizing problems in adolescence than the other two profiles. The overcontrolled group showed the highest levels of internalizing and lowest levels of alcohol problems compared to the other profiles. Person-centered mediation analyses showed that the overcontrolled and the undercontrolled profiles significantly and differentially mediated the link between number of child maltreatment subtypes and the development of adolescent psychopathology. Child maltreatment is a potent environmental stressor that potentiates compromised personality development, eventuating in heightened psychopathology in adolescence. These findings have important implications for prevention and intervention of psychopathology and substance abuse among low income and maltreated youth. PMID:22963011

  15. Functional trait composition of aquatic plants can serve to disentangle multiple interacting stressors in lowland streams.

    PubMed

    Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Göthe, Emma; Riis, Tenna; O'Hare, Matthew T

    2016-02-01

    Historically, close attention has been paid to negative impacts associated with nutrient loads to streams and rivers, but today hydromorphological alterations are considered increasingly implicated when lowland streams do not achieve good ecological status. Here, we explore if trait-abundance patterns of aquatic plants change along gradients in hydromorphological degradation and eutrophication in lowland stream sites located in Denmark. Specifically, we hypothesised that: i) changes in trait-abundance patterns occur along gradients in hydromorphological degradation and ii) trait-abundance patterns can serve to disentangle effects of eutrophication and hydromorphological degradation in lowland streams reflecting that the mechanisms behind changes differ. We used monitoring data from a total of 147 stream reaches with combined data on aquatic plant species abundance, catchment land use, hydromorphological alterations (i.e. planform, cross section, weed cutting) and water chemistry parameters. Traits related to life form, dispersal, reproduction and survival together with ecological preference values for nutrients and light (Ellenberg N and L) were allocated to 41 species representing 79% of the total species pool. We found clear evidence that habitat degradation (hydromorphological alterations and eutrophication) mediated selective changes in the trait-abundance patterns of the plant community. Specific traits could distinguish hydromorphological degradation (free-floating, surface; anchored floating leaves; anchored heterophylly) from eutrophication (free-floating, submerged; leaf area). We provide a conceptual framework for interpretation of how eutrophication and hydromorphological degradation interact and how this is reflected in trait-abundance patterns in aquatic plant communities in lowland streams. Our findings support the merit of trait-based approaches in biomonitoring as they shed light on mechanisms controlling structural changes under environmental

  16. A causal model of post-traumatic stress disorder: disentangling predisposed from acquired neural abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Admon, Roee; Milad, Mohammed R; Hendler, Talma

    2013-07-01

    Discriminating neural abnormalities into the causes versus consequences of psychopathology would enhance the translation of neuroimaging findings into clinical practice. By regarding the traumatic encounter as a reference point for disease onset, neuroimaging studies of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can potentially allocate PTSD neural abnormalities to either predisposing (pre-exposure) or acquired (post-exposure) factors. Based on novel research strategies in PTSD neuroimaging, including genetic, environmental, twin, and prospective studies, we provide a causal model that accounts for neural abnormalities in PTSD, and outline its clinical implications. Current data suggest that abnormalities within the amygdala and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex represent predisposing risk factors for developing PTSD, whereas dysfunctional hippocampal-ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) interactions may become evident only after having developed the disorder. PMID:23768722

  17. A kinetic proofreading mechanism for disentanglement of DNA by topoisomerases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jie; Magnasco, Marcelo O.; Marko, John

    2000-03-01

    Cells must remove all entanglements between their replicated chromosomal DNAs to segregate them during cell division. Entanglement removal is done by ATP-driven enzymes which pass DNA strands through one another, called type II topoisomerases (topos). In vitro some type II topos can reduce entanglements to a level much below that expected given the assumption that they pass DNA segments through one another at random. These type II topos (of less than 10 nm in diameter) thus use ATP hydrolysis to sense and remove entanglements spread along up to 3000 nm-long flexible DNAs. We propose a mechanism for this, based on the higher rate of collisions along DNAs which are entangled, relative to rates on disentangled DNAs. We show that if a type II topo requires an initial `activating' collision in advance of a second strand-passing collision, it can reduce the probability of entanglement to experimentally observed levels. This two-collision reaction is similar to `kinetic proofreading' models of molecular recognition. This talk will briefly review the experimental results, summurize the key points of our model, and report the rates of collisions of both entangled and disentangled DNAs obtained by Brownian Dynamical Simulation. We acknowledge support of the NSF, Research Corporation, the Petroleum Research Fund, and the Whitaker Foundation. MOM acknowledges support of the Sloan Foundation and the Mathers Foundation. Ref: JIE YAN, MARCELO O. MAGNASCO, and JOHN F. MARKO, Nature 401, 932-935 (1999).

  18. Disentangling running coupling and conformal effects in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S. J.; Gardi, E.; Grunberg, G.; Rathsman, J.

    2001-05-01

    We investigate the relation between a postulated skeleton expansion and the conformal limit of QCD. We begin by developing some consequences of an Abelian-like skeleton expansion, which allows one to disentangle running-coupling effects from the remaining skeleton coefficients. The latter are by construction renormalon free, and hence hopefully better behaved. We consider a simple ansatz for the expansion, where an observable is written as a sum of integrals over the running coupling. We show that in this framework one can set a unique Brodsky-Lepage-Mackenzie (BLM) scale-setting procedure as an approximation to the running-coupling integrals, where the BLM coefficients coincide with the skeleton ones. Alternatively, the running-coupling integrals can be approximated using the effective charge method. We discuss the limitations in disentangling running coupling effects in the absence of a diagrammatic construction of the skeleton expansion. Independently of the assumed skeleton structure we show that BLM coefficients coincide with conformal coefficients defined in the small {beta}{sub 0} (Banks-Zaks) limit where a perturbative infrared fixed point is present. This interpretation of the BLM coefficients should explain their previously observed simplicity and smallness. Numerical examples are critically discussed.

  19. Suppression of decoherence and disentanglement by the exchange interaction

    SciTech Connect

    De, Amrit; Lang, Alex; Zhou Dong; Joynt, Robert

    2011-04-15

    Entangled qubit pairs can serve as a quantum memory or as a resource for quantum communication. The utility of such pairs is measured by how long they take to disentangle or decohere. To answer the question of whether qubit-qubit interactions can prolong entanglement, we calculate the dissipative dynamics of a pair of qubits coupled via the exchange interaction in the presence of random telegraph noise and 1/f noise. We show that for maximally entangled (Bell) states, the exchange interaction generally suppresses decoherence and disentanglement. This suppression is more apparent for random telegraph noise if the noise is non-Markovian, whereas for 1/f noise the exchange interaction should be comparable in magnitude to the strongest noise source. The entangled singlet-triplet superposition state of two qubits ({psi}{sub {+-}} Bell state) can be protected by the interaction, while for the triplet-triplet state ({phi}{sub {+-}} Bell state), it is less effective. Thus the former is more suitable for encoding quantum information.

  20. Assessment of psychopathology across and within cultures: issues and findings.

    PubMed

    Draguns, Juris G; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko

    2003-07-01

    Research based information on the impact of culture on psychopathology is reviewed, with particular reference to depression, somatization, schizophrenia, anxiety, and dissociation. A number of worldwide constants in the incidence and mode of expression of psychological disorders are identified, especially in relation to schizophrenia and depression. The scope of variation of psychopathological manifestations across cultures is impressive. Two tasks for future investigations involve the determination of the generic relationship between psychological disturbance and culture and the specification of links between cultural characteristics and psychopathology. To this end, hypotheses are advanced pertaining to the cultural dimensions investigated by Hofstede and their possible reflection in psychiatric symptomatology. It is concluded that the interrelationship of culture and psychopathology should be studied in context and that observer, institution, and community variables should be investigated together with the person's experience of distress and disability. PMID:12781244

  1. Disgust sensitivity and psychopathological symptoms in non-clinical children.

    PubMed

    Muris, Peter; van der Heiden, Simone; Rassin, Eric

    2008-06-01

    There is clear evidence in the adult literature that disgust sensitivity is implicated in various psychopathological syndromes. The current study examined the link between disgust sensitivity and psychopathological symptoms in youths. In a sample of non-clinical children aged 9-13 years, disgust sensitivity was assessed by two self-report questionnaires (i.e., the Disgust Scale and the Disgust Sensitivity Questionnaire) and a behavioural test. Furthermore, children completed scales for measuring the personality trait of neuroticism and various types of psychopathological symptoms. Results showed that disgust measures had sufficient to good convergent validity. Further, significant positive correlations were found between disgust sensitivity and symptoms of specific phobias (i.e., spider phobia, blood-injection phobia, small-animal phobia), social phobia, agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and eating problems, and these links were not attenuated when controlling for neuroticism. The possible role of disgust sensitivity in the aetiology of child psychopathology is discussed. PMID:17433251

  2. Descriptive psychopathology, phenomenology, and the legacy of Karl Jaspers

    PubMed Central

    Häfner, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    With his early publications (1910-1913), Karl Jaspers created a comprehensive methodological arsenal for psychiatry, thus laying the foundation for descriptive psychopathology. Following Edmund Husserl, the founder of philosophical phenomenology, Jaspers introduced phenomenology into psychopathology as “static understanding,” ie, the unprejudiced intuitive reproduction (Vergegenwärtigung) and description of conscious phenomena. In a longitudinal perspective, “genetic understanding” based on empathy reveals how mental phenomena arise from mental phenomena. Severance in understanding of, or alienation from, meaningful connections is seen as indicating illness or transition of a natural development into a somatic process. Jaspers opted for philosophy early. After three terms of law, he switched to studying medicine, came to psychopathology after very little training in psychiatry; to psychology without ever studying psychology; and to a chair in philosophy without ever studying philosophy. In the fourth and subsequent editions of his General Psychopathology, imbued by his existential philosophy, Jaspers partly abandoned the descriptive method. PMID:25987860

  3. Historical contingencies in the evolution of human behavior and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Cuzzillo, S L

    1991-05-01

    Psychopathology may be understood as a product of evolution. Uniquely human capacities, such as human language and creative thinking, evolved out of a matrix of other capacities, including ancestral forms of learning. Applying evolutionary theory to the human nervous system, one might expect to find preexisting forms of learning in some form of coexistence with the recent evolutionary development of human symbolic functioning. A theory is presented in this paper which lays the groundwork for the claim that psychopathology may be understood as the product of interactions between adaptive schemes of different evolutionary origins. While earlier notions about evolution have been used to explain psychopathology (Freud 1913), this paper constitutes a reapplication of evolutionary theory to the problem of psychopathology from a modern perspective. PMID:1852851

  4. Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents with ASD without Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caamaño, Marta; Boada, Leticia; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Moreno, Carmen; Llorente, Cloe; Moreno, Dolores; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes subclinical psychopathology in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) without mental retardation with no comorbid disorder, assessed by an extensive general psychopathology interview. The K-SADS-PL was administered to a group of 25 patients with ASD (mean age = 12.80 ± 2.86 years) and 25 healthy controls…

  5. Symptoms of Psychopathology in Hearing-Impaired Children

    PubMed Central

    Rieffe, Carolien; Soede, Wim; Briaire, Jeroen J.; Ketelaar, Lizet; Kouwenberg, Maartje; Frijns, Johan H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Children with hearing loss are at risk of developing psychopathology, which has detrimental consequences for academic and psychosocial functioning later in life. Yet, the causes of the extensive variability in outcomes are not fully understood. Therefore, the authors wanted to objectify symptoms of psychopathology in children with cochlear implants or hearing aids, and in normally hearing peers, and to identify various risk and protective factors. Design: The large sample (mean age = 11.8 years) included three subgroups with comparable age, gender, socioeconomic status, and nonverbal intelligence: 57 with cochlear implants, 75 with conventional hearing aids, and 129 children who were normally hearing. Psychopathology was assessed by means of self- and parent-report measures. Results: Children with cochlear implants showed similar levels of symptoms of psychopathology when compared with their normally hearing peers, but children with hearing aids had significantly higher levels of psychopathological symptoms, while their hearing losses were approximately 43 dB lower than those of children with implants. Type of device was related with internalizing symptoms but not with externalizing symptoms. Furthermore, lower age and sufficient language and communication skills predicted less psychopathological symptoms. Conclusions: Children who are deaf or profoundly hearing impaired and have cochlear implants have lower levels of psychopathological symptoms than children with moderate or severe hearing loss who have hearing aids. Most likely, it is not the type of hearing device but rather the intensity of the rehabilitation program that can account for this difference. This outcome has major consequences for the next generation of children with hearing loss because children with profound hearing impairment still have the potential to have levels of psychopathology that are comparable to children who are normally hearing. PMID:25668391

  6. Interpersonal difficulties as a risk factor for athletes' eating psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, V; Jowett, S; Meyer, C

    2014-04-01

    The present study sought to determine the predictive role of interpersonal difficulties on eating psychopathology among competitive British athletes (ranging from university to international competition level). A total of 122 athletes (36 males and 86 females) with a mean age of 21.22 years (SD = 4.02), completed a multisection questionnaire that measured eating psychopathology, attachment styles, and quality of relationships with parents, coaches and teammate over a 6-month period. Partial correlations revealed that when controlling for baseline eating psychopathology, only the quality of the relationship with coach and closest teammate were related to athletes' eating psychopathology 6 months later. Subsequent hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that athletes' eating psychopathology was only predicted by perceived levels of interpersonal conflict with the coach. The current findings provide evidence to suggest that conflict within the coach-athlete relationship is a potential risk factor for eating disorders among athletes and thus it would seem appropriate to raise awareness for its potentially toxic role in athletes' eating psychopathology. PMID:23992547

  7. When thought suppression backfires: its moderator effect on eating psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Cláudia; Palmeira, Lara; Trindade, Inês A; Catarino, Francisca

    2015-09-01

    Recently, several studies have pointed the importance of thought suppression as a form of experiential avoidance in different psychopathological conditions. Thought suppression may be conceptualized as an attempt to decrease or eliminate unwanted internal experiences. However, it encloses a paradoxical nature, making those thoughts hyper accessible and placing an extra burden on individuals. This avoidance process has been associated with several psychopathological conditions. However, its role in eating psychopathology remains unclear. The present study aims to explore the moderation effect of thought suppression on the associations between body image-related unwanted internal experiences (unfavorable social comparison through physical appearance and body image dissatisfaction) and eating psychopathology severity in a sample of 211 female students. Correlational analyses showed that thought suppression is associated with psychological inflexibility and eating disorders' main risk factors and symptoms. Moreover, two independent analyses revealed that thought suppression moderates, as it amplifies, the impact of unfavorable social comparisons through physical appearance (model 1) and body image dissatisfaction (model 2) on disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. Hence, for the same level of these body-related internal experiences, young females who reveal higher levels of thought suppression present higher eating psychopathology. Taken together, these findings highlight the key role of thought suppression in eating psychopathology and present important clinical implications. PMID:25663280

  8. General psychopathology in anorexia nervosa: the role of psychosocial factors.

    PubMed

    Karatzias, Thanos; Chouliara, Zoë; Power, Kevin; Collin, Paula; Yellowlees, Alex; Grierson, David

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate psychosocial correlates of comorbid psychopathology. Data were collected from a total of 90 female inpatients with anorexia nervosa (AN). Higher levels of general psychopathology were detected in depression, interpersonal sensitivity, obsessive-compulsive and anxiety subscales of the Symptom Checklist (SCL)-90. Regression analysis also revealed that higher levels of psychopathology across SCL-90 subscales in AN patients are significantly associated with an earlier age of onset of the condition, higher levels of anorectic psychopathology as measured by Eating Disorders Examination, lower self-esteem as measured by Multidimensional Self-Esteem Inventory and social support levels as measured by Quality of Social Network and Social Support Questionnaire. Considering the high levels of general psychopathology in people with AN, routine clinical practice should aim for a comprehensive assessment of such. Given the strong association between psychosocial factors such as self-esteem, social support and general psychopathology, psychological therapies could play an important role in facilitating emotional recovery. PMID:21110404

  9. The Role of Parent Psychopathology in Emotion Socialization.

    PubMed

    Breaux, Rosanna P; Harvey, Elizabeth A; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the relation between parent psychopathology symptoms and emotion socialization practices in a sample of mothers and fathers of preschool-aged children with behavior problems (N = 109, M age = 44.60 months, 50 % male). Each parent completed a self-report rating scale of their psychopathology symptoms and audio-recorded naturalistic interactions with their children, which were coded for reactions to child negative affect. Results supported a spillover hypothesis for mothers. Specifically, mothers who reported greater overall psychopathology symptoms, anxiety symptoms, substance use, and borderline and Cluster A personality symptoms were more likely to exhibit non-supportive reactions. Additionally, mothers who reported greater anxiety and Cluster A personality symptoms were more likely to not respond to child negative affect. Compensatory and crossover hypotheses were also supported. Partners of mothers who reported high levels of anxiety were more likely to use supportive reactions to child negative affect. In contrast, partners of mothers who reported high levels of borderline and Cluster A personality symptoms and overall psychopathology symptoms were more likely to show non-supportive reactions. With the exception of borderline personality symptoms, fathers' psychopathology was unrelated to parental responses to child negative affect. Results highlight the importance of maternal psychopathology in parental emotion socialization practices. PMID:26267238

  10. Genetically informative designs in the study of resilience in developmental psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Meike; Hudziak, James J

    2007-04-01

    The study of resilience, defined here as the ability to recover from a prior illness or the capacity to remain well in the face of extraordinary genetic or environmental risk factors, is the focus of this article. We believe that to study resilience in the domain of developmental psychopathology it is necessary to use genetically informative strategies. Extending this argument to the study of resilience (eg, why some kids recover) is the focus of last part this article and our research strategies in the next decade. PMID:17349511

  11. Adolescent brain development in normality and psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    LUCIANA, MONICA

    2014-01-01

    Since this journal’s inception, the field of adolescent brain development has flourished, as researchers have investigated the underpinnings of adolescent risk-taking behaviors. Explanations based on translational models initially attributed such behaviors to executive control deficiencies and poor frontal lobe function. This conclusion was bolstered by evidence that the prefrontal cortex and its interconnections are among the last brain regions to structurally and functionally mature. As substantial heterogeneity of prefrontal function was revealed, applications of neuroeconomic theory to adolescent development led to dual systems models of behavior. Current epidemiological trends, behavioral observations, and functional magnetic resonance imaging based brain activity patterns suggest a quadratic increase in limbically mediated incentive motivation from childhood to adolescence and a decline thereafter. This elevation occurs in the context of immature prefrontal function, so motivational strivings may be difficult to regulate. Theoretical models explain this patterning through brain-based accounts of subcortical–cortical integration, puberty-based models of adolescent sensation seeking, and neurochemical dynamics. Empirically sound tests of these mechanisms, as well as investigations of biology–context interactions, represent the field’s most challenging future goals, so that applications to psychopathology can be refined and so that developmental cascades that incorporate neurobiological variables can be modeled. PMID:24342843

  12. Service Engagement: Psychopathology, Recovery Style and Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Vender, Simone; Poloni, Nicola; Aletti, Francesca; Callegari, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate how recovery style, a set of strategies used by patients to interact with services and therapists, and the severity of psychotic symptoms affect the quality/continuity of taking charge of each patient. 156 psychotic patients at different stages of illness were enrolled. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected and integration/sealing-Over Scale, Recovery Style Questionnaire and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were administered. Patients were distinguished into four groups according to the type of treatment received: clinical package, hospital package, day-care package, and residential package. A positive correlation between the cost of psychiatric performance and psychopathological severity (measured with PANSS scores) was identified. No association emerged between ISOS/RSQ total scores and costs. The sanitary expenditure appears to be linked to positive psychotic symptoms while lower performances are given for the treatment of patients with predominant negative symptoms. Recovery style itself has not a direct influence on the quantity/quality of psychiatric services. PMID:24701559

  13. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Sören; Petermann, Franz

    2009-01-01

    Background Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. Method According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Results Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. Conclusion These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274. PMID:19761584

  14. Anger Style, Psychopathology, and Regional Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jennifer L.; Levin, Rebecca L.; Sass, Sarah M.; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    Depression and anxiety often involve high levels of trait anger and disturbances in anger expression. Reported anger experience and outward anger expression have recently been associated with left-biased asymmetry of frontal cortical activity, assumed to reflect approach motivation. However, different styles of anger expression could presumably involve different brain mechanisms and/or interact with psychopathology to produce various patterns of brain asymmetry. The present study explored these issues by comparing resting regional electroencephalographic activity in participants high in trait anger who differed in anger expression style (high anger-in, high anger-out, both) and participants low in trait anger, with depression and anxiety systematically assessed. Trait anger, not anger-in or anger-out, predicted left-biased asymmetry at medial frontal EEG sites. The anger-in group reported higher levels of anxious apprehension than did the anger-out group. Furthermore, anxious apprehension moderated the relationship between trait anger, anger-in, and asymmetry in favor of the left hemisphere. Results suggest that motivational direction is not always the driving force behind the relationship of anger and left frontal asymmetry. Findings also support a distinction between anxious apprehension and anxious arousal. PMID:18837620

  15. Social cognition and psychopathology: a critical overview.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Shaun; Varga, Somogy

    2015-02-01

    The philosophical and interdisciplinary debate about the nature of social cognition, and the processes involved, has important implications for psychiatry. On one account, mindreading depends on making theoretical inferences about another person's mental states based on knowledge of folk psychology, the so-called "theory theory" (TT). On a different account, "simulation theory" (ST), mindreading depends on simulating the other's mental states within one's own mental or motor system. A third approach, "interaction theory" (IT), looks to embodied processes (involving movement, gesture, facial expression, vocal intonation, etc.) and the dynamics of intersubjective interactions (joint attention, joint action, and processes not confined to an individual system) in highly contextualized situations to explain social cognition, and disruptions of these processes in some psychopathological conditions. In this paper, we present a brief summary of these three theoretical frameworks (TT, ST, IT). We then focus on impaired social abilities in autism and schizophrenia from the perspective of the three approaches. We discuss the limitations of such approaches in the scientific studies of these and other pathologies, and we close with a short reflection on the future of the field. In this regard we argue that, to the extent that TT, ST and IT offer explanations that capture different (limited) aspects of social cognition, a pluralist approach might be best. PMID:25655144

  16. The psychotherapy of core borderline psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Adler, G

    1993-01-01

    A psychodynamic formulation of borderline psychopathology includes the understanding of the borderline patient's aloneness problems, need-fear dilemma issues, and difficulties with primitive guilt. The aloneness problems are at the core of the disorder, and involve an inability to maintain an evocative memory, and holding and soothing introjects of significant people when under stress of separation. The possible childhood origins of these difficulties are explored and related to the ways these issues emerge in psychotherapy. The psychodynamic formulation is crucial in the psychotherapeutic approach to the aloneness problems. It helps the therapist work with the aloneness difficulties and understand the options as the therapy continues. Since rapid therapeutic decisions are often necessary with borderline patients, the formulation provides the necessary framework, and helps the therapist process and utilize countertransference feelings. Projective identification is an important concept that helps explain the complex transference/countertransference experiences, and is used in defining the resolution of the aloneness problems of borderline patients. Finally, limit-setting and the use of transitional objects are explored, utilizing the psychodynamic framework that has been defined. PMID:8517469

  17. Greek College Students and Psychopathology: New Insights

    PubMed Central

    Kontoangelos, Konstantinos; Tsiori, Sofia; Koundi, Kalliopi; Pappa, Xenia; Sakkas, Pavlos; Papageorgiou, Charalambos C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: College students’ mental health problems include depression, anxiety, panic disorders, phobias and obsessive compulsive thoughts. Aims: To investigate Greek college students’ psychopathology. Methods: During the initial evaluation, 638 college students were assessed through the following psychometric questionnaires: (a) Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ); (b) The Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90); (c) The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI); (d) State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Results: State anxiety and trait anxiety were correlated, to a statistically significant degree, with the family status of the students (p = 0.024) and the past visits to the psychiatrist (p = 0.039) respectively. The subscale of psychoticism is significantly related with the students’ origin, school, family status and semester. The subscale of neuroticism is significantly related with the students’ school. The subscale of extraversion is significantly related with the students’ family psychiatric history. Students, whose place of origin is Attica, have on average higher scores in somatization, phobic anxiety and paranoid ideation than the other students. Students from abroad have, on average, higher scores in interpersonal sensitivity and psychoticism than students who hail from other parts of Greece. The majority of the students (79.7%) do not suffer from depression, according to the Beck’s depression inventory scale. Conclusions: Anxiety, somatization, personality traits and depression are related with the students’ college life. PMID:25938913

  18. Phenomenology and psychopathology of excessive indoor tanning.

    PubMed

    Petit, Aymeric; Karila, Laurent; Chalmin, Florence; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2014-06-01

    Excessive indoor tanning, defined by the presence of an impulse towards and repetition of tanning that leads to personal distress, has only recently been recognized as a psychiatric disorder. This finding is based on the observations of many dermatologists who report the presence of addictive relationships with tanning salons among their patients despite being given diagnoses of malignant melanoma. This article synthesizes the existing literature on excessive indoor tanning and addiction to investigate possible associations. This review focuses on the prevalence, clinical features, etiology, and treatment of this disorder. A literature review was conducted, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE and PsycINFO, to identify articles published in English from 1974 to 2013. Excessive indoor tanning may be related to addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, impulse control disorder, seasonal affective disorder, anorexia, body dysmorphic disorder, or depression. Excessive indoor tanning can be included in the spectrum of addictive behavior because it has clinical characteristics in common with those of classic addictive disorders. It is frequently associated with anxiety, eating disorders, and tobacco dependence. Further controlled studies are required, especially in clinical psychopathology and neurobiology, to improve our understanding of excessive indoor tanning. PMID:24601904

  19. Social cognition and psychopathology: a critical overview

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Shaun; Varga, Somogy

    2015-01-01

    The philosophical and interdisciplinary debate about the nature of social cognition, and the processes involved, has important implications for psychiatry. On one account, mindreading depends on making theoretical inferences about another person's mental states based on knowledge of folk psychology, the so-called “theory theory” (TT). On a different account, “simulation theory” (ST), mindreading depends on simulating the other's mental states within one's own mental or motor system. A third approach, “interaction theory” (IT), looks to embodied processes (involving movement, gesture, facial expression, vocal intonation, etc.) and the dynamics of intersubjective interactions (joint attention, joint action, and processes not confined to an individual system) in highly contextualized situations to explain social cognition, and disruptions of these processes in some psychopathological conditions. In this paper, we present a brief summary of these three theoretical frameworks (TT, ST, IT). We then focus on impaired social abilities in autism and schizophrenia from the perspective of the three approaches. We discuss the limitations of such approaches in the scientific studies of these and other pathologies, and we close with a short reflection on the future of the field. In this regard we argue that, to the extent that TT, ST and IT offer explanations that capture different (limited) aspects of social cognition, a pluralist approach might be best. PMID:25655144

  20. Exploring the influential factors in incident clearance time: Disentangling causation from self-selection bias.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chuan; Ma, Xiaolei; Wang, Yinhai; Wang, Yunpeng

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the relationships between influential factors and incident clearance time is crucial to make effective countermeasures for incident management agencies. Although there have been a certain number of achievements on incident clearance time modeling, limited effort is made to investigate the relative role of incident response time and its self-selection in influencing the clearance time. To fill this gap, this study uses the endogenous switching model to explore the influential factors in incident clearance time, and aims to disentangle causation from self-selection bias caused by response process. Under the joint two-stage model framework, the binary probit model and switching regression model are formulated for both incident response time and clearance time, respectively. Based on the freeway incident data collected in Washington State, full information maximum likelihood (FIML) method is utilized to estimate the endogenous switching model parameters. Significant factors affecting incident response time and clearance time can be identified, including incident, temporal, geographical, environmental, traffic and operational attributes. The estimate results reveal the influential effects of incident, temporal, geographical, environmental, traffic and operational factors on incident response time and clearance time. In addition, the causality of incident response time itself and its self-selection correction on incident clearance time are found to be indispensable. These findings suggest that the causal effect of response time on incident clearance time will be overestimated if the self-selection bias is not considered. PMID:26373988

  1. Disentangling neural cell diversity using single-cell transcriptomics.

    PubMed

    Poulin, Jean-Francois; Tasic, Bosiljka; Hjerling-Leffler, Jens; Trimarchi, Jeffrey M; Awatramani, Rajeshwar

    2016-08-26

    Cellular specialization is particularly prominent in mammalian nervous systems, which are composed of millions to billions of neurons that appear in thousands of different 'flavors' and contribute to a variety of functions. Even in a single brain region, individual neurons differ greatly in their morphology, connectivity and electrophysiological properties. Systematic classification of all mammalian neurons is a key goal towards deconstructing the nervous system into its basic components. With the recent advances in single-cell gene expression profiling technologies, it is now possible to undertake the enormous task of disentangling neuronal heterogeneity. High-throughput single-cell RNA sequencing and multiplexed quantitative RT-PCR have become more accessible, and these technologies enable systematic categorization of individual neurons into groups with similar molecular properties. Here we provide a conceptual and practical guide to classification of neural cell types using single-cell gene expression profiling technologies. PMID:27571192

  2. Disentangling the Role of Astrocytes in Alcohol Use Disorder.

    PubMed

    Adermark, Louise; Bowers, M Scott

    2016-09-01

    Several laboratories recently identified that astrocytes are critical regulators of addiction machinery. It is now known that astrocyte pathology is a common feature of ethanol (EtOH) exposure in both humans and animal models, as even brief EtOH exposure is sufficient to elicit long-lasting perturbations in astrocyte gene expression, activity, and proliferation. Astrocytes were also recently shown to modulate the motivational properties of EtOH and other strongly reinforcing stimuli. Given the role of astrocytes in regulating glutamate homeostasis, a crucial component of alcohol use disorder (AUD), astrocytes might be an important target for the development of next-generation alcoholism treatments. This review will outline some of the more prominent features displayed by astrocytes, how these properties are influenced by acute and long-term EtOH exposure, and future directions that may help to disentangle astrocytic from neuronal functions in the etiology of AUD. PMID:27476876

  3. Using brain stimulation to disentangle neural correlates of conscious vision

    PubMed Central

    de Graaf, Tom A.; Sack, Alexander T.

    2014-01-01

    Research into the neural correlates of consciousness (NCCs) has blossomed, due to the advent of new and increasingly sophisticated brain research tools. Neuroimaging has uncovered a variety of brain processes that relate to conscious perception, obtained in a range of experimental paradigms. But methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging or electroencephalography do not always afford inference on the functional role these brain processes play in conscious vision. Such empirical NCCs could reflect neural prerequisites, neural consequences, or neural substrates of a conscious experience. Here, we take a closer look at the use of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques in this context. We discuss and review how NIBS methodology can enlighten our understanding of brain mechanisms underlying conscious vision by disentangling the empirical NCCs. PMID:25295015

  4. Disentangling the role of structure and friction in shear jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinutha, H. A.; Sastry, Srikanth

    2016-06-01

    Amorphous sphere packings have been intensely investigated to understand mechanical and flow behaviour of dense granular matter and to explore universal aspects of the jamming transition, from fluid to structurally arrested states. Considerable recent research has focused on anisotropic packings of frictional grains generated by shear deformation leading to shear jamming, occurring below the jamming density for isotropic packings of frictionless grains. Here, with the aim of disentangling the role of shear-deformation-induced structures and friction in generating shear jamming, we computationally study sheared assemblies of frictionless spheres, over a wide range of densities. We demonstrate that shear deformation alone leads to the emergence of geometric features characteristic of jammed packings, with the increase of shear strain. We also show that such emergent geometry, together with friction, leads to mechanically stable, shear-jammed, packings above a threshold density that lies well below the isotropic jamming point.

  5. Disentanglement of three-qubit states in a noisy environment

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Jiehui; Wang Ligang; Zhu Shiyao

    2010-06-15

    By applying a modified conjugate gradient method in the evaluation of three-qubit residual entanglement, the disentanglement of three-qubit states in an amplitude-damping and dephasing environment is investigated numerically. It is found that the decay of tripartite entanglement is faster than bipartite entanglement in the same qubits-noise system, which indicates that multipartite entanglement is more fragile than bipartite entanglement in resisting quantum noises. Similar to the case of a two-qubit system, three-qubit entanglement subject to an open environment may also disappear abruptly (sudden death) or decrease asymptotically, which is dependent on the conditions of the initially entangled quantum state and the properties of quantum noise.

  6. Centenary of Karl Jaspers's general psychopathology: implications for molecular psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Thome, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Modern molecular psychiatry benefits immensely from the scientific and technological advances of general neuroscience (including genetics, epigenetics, and proteomics). This "progress" of molecular psychiatry, however, will be to a degree "unbalanced" and "epiphytic" should the development of the corresponding theoretical frameworks and conceptualization tools that allow contextualization of the individual neuroscientific findings within the specific perspective of mental health care issues be neglected. The General Psychopathology, published by Karl Jaspers in 1913, is considered a groundbreaking work in psychiatric literature, having established psychopathology as a space of critical methodological self-reflection, and delineating a scientific methodology specific to psychiatry. With the advance of neurobiology and molecular neuroscience and its adoption in psychiatric research, however, a growing alienation between current research-oriented neuropsychiatry and the classical psychopathological literature is evident. Further, consensus-based international classification criteria, although useful for providing an internationally accepted system of reliable psychiatric diagnostic categories, further contribute to a neglect of genuinely autonomous thought on psychopathology. Nevertheless, many of the unsolved theoretical problems of psychiatry, including those in the areas of nosology, anthropology, ethics, epistemology and methodology, might be fruitfully addressed by a re-examination of classic texts, such as Jaspers's General Psychopathology, and their further development and adaptation for 21st century psychiatry. PMID:25408913

  7. Personality and Psychopathology: A Stagnant Field in Need of Development

    PubMed Central

    Durbin, C. Emily; Hicks, Brian M.

    2014-01-01

    A dominant paradigm in psychopathology research proposes that individual differences in personality are centrally involved in the origins and manifestations of psychopathology, and structural models of personality and psychopathology have been extremely useful in helping to organize associations among many traits and disorders. However, these models merely describe patterns of covariation; they do not explain the processes by which these patterns emerge. We argue that the field is stagnated, as it is overly focused on the demonstration of concurrent associations and on confirming a spectrum model that proposes traits and disorders are manifestations of the same underlying constructs. We contend that if the field is to move toward an understanding of causal processes, it must integrate knowledge and principles of personality development and developmental psychopathology. To begin this integration, we review (1) normative trends in personality change, (2) age-related changes in the prevalence of disorders, and (3) the impact of onset and chronicity on the severity of disorders. We propose several developmental processes that may contribute to the co-development of personality and psychopathology. We then present novel empirical findings to illustrate how a developmental perspective on traits and disorders can inform new hypotheses, and propose principles and hypotheses that should guide future research. PMID:25544802

  8. Implicit Theories Relate to Youth Psychopathology, But How? A Longitudinal Test of Two Predictive Models.

    PubMed

    Schleider, Jessica L; Weisz, John R

    2016-08-01

    Research shows relations between entity theories-i.e., beliefs that traits and abilities are unchangeable-and youth psychopathology. A common interpretation has been that entity theories lead to psychopathology, but another possibility is that psychopathology predicts entity theories. The two models carry different implications for developmental psychopathology and intervention design. We tested each model's plausibility, examining longitudinal associations between entity theories of thoughts, feelings, and behavior and psychopathology in early adolescents across one school year (N = 59, 52 % female, ages 11-14, 0 % attrition). Baseline entity theories did not predict increases in psychopathology; instead, baseline psychopathology predicted increased entity theories over time. When symptom clusters were assessed individually, greater youth internalizing (but not externalizing) problems predicted subsequent increases in entity theories. Findings suggest that the commonly proposed predictive model may not be the only one warranting attention. They suggest that youth psychopathology may contribute to the development of certain kinds of entity theories. PMID:26443503

  9. Event-Related Potentials and Emotion Processing in Child Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Chronaki, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in the neural mechanisms underlying altered emotional processes in children and adolescents with psychopathology. This review provides a brief overview of the most up-to-date findings in the field of event-related potentials (ERPs) to facial and vocal emotional expressions in the most common child psychopathological conditions. In regards to externalizing behavior (i.e., ADHD, CD), ERP studies show enhanced early components to anger, reflecting enhanced sensory processing, followed by reductions in later components to anger, reflecting reduced cognitive-evaluative processing. In regards to internalizing behavior, research supports models of increased processing of threat stimuli especially at later more elaborate and effortful stages. Finally, in autism spectrum disorders abnormalities have been observed at early visual-perceptual stages of processing. An affective neuroscience framework for understanding child psychopathology can be valuable in elucidating underlying mechanisms and inform preventive intervention. PMID:27199803

  10. Event-Related Potentials and Emotion Processing in Child Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Chronaki, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in the neural mechanisms underlying altered emotional processes in children and adolescents with psychopathology. This review provides a brief overview of the most up-to-date findings in the field of event-related potentials (ERPs) to facial and vocal emotional expressions in the most common child psychopathological conditions. In regards to externalizing behavior (i.e., ADHD, CD), ERP studies show enhanced early components to anger, reflecting enhanced sensory processing, followed by reductions in later components to anger, reflecting reduced cognitive-evaluative processing. In regards to internalizing behavior, research supports models of increased processing of threat stimuli especially at later more elaborate and effortful stages. Finally, in autism spectrum disorders abnormalities have been observed at early visual-perceptual stages of processing. An affective neuroscience framework for understanding child psychopathology can be valuable in elucidating underlying mechanisms and inform preventive intervention. PMID:27199803

  11. Obesity, psychopathology and eating attitudes: are they related?

    PubMed

    Riva, G; Ragazzoni, P; Molinari, E

    1998-06-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the link between psychopathological disorders and eating attitude in a clinical sample of 195 female obese subjects. A battery of psychological tests, including the Italian versions of the MMPI2, ASQ and EAT scales were administered to all the patients. We analyzed the link between psychopathological traits and eating attitudes by using both Multiple Regression analysis and non-parametric Segmentation Modeling. The results showed that psychopathological aspects, and depression in particular, are strongly linked to the eating attitude of clinically obese subjects. This is an important result also for therapeutic purposes, as it highlights the need for psychological support in diet therapy to intervene on the psychological perceptions and experiences of the patient. PMID:10728154

  12. Effects of value strains on psychopathology of Chinese rural youths.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Sibo

    2013-12-01

    The Strain Theory of Suicide postulates that psychological strains usually precede mental disorders including suicidal behavior. This paper focuses on the effect of conflicting social value strains on the individual's psychopathology. We analyzed the data of 2031 respondents who were proxy informants for suicides and community living controls in a large scale psychological autopsy study in rural China, with the CES-D depression measure for the psychopathology. Individuals having experienced value conflicts between Confucian gender role and gender equalitarianism in modern society scored on depression significantly higher than the individuals who do not experience the value conflict, and it is also true when several other relevant variables were held constant in the multiple regression model. This study supports the hypotheses that people who confront value conflicts are likely to experience psychopathological strain, and the higher the level of strain, the stronger the depression. PMID:24309863

  13. Effects of Value Strains on Psychopathology of Chinese Rural Youths

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Sibo

    2013-01-01

    The Strain Theory of Suicide postulates that psychological strains usually precede mental disorders including suicidal behavior. This paper focuses on the effect of conflicting social value strains on the individual’s psychopathology. We analyzed the data of 2,031 respondents who were proxy informants for suicides and community living controls in a large scale psychological autopsy study in rural China, with the CES-D depression measure for the psychopathology. Individuals having experienced value conflicts between Confucian gender role and gender equalitarianism in modern society scored on depression significantly higher than the individuals who do not experience the value conflict, and it is also true when several other relevant variables were held constant in the multiple regression model. This study supports the hypotheses that people who confront value conflicts is likely to lead to psychopathological strain, and the higher the level of strain, the stronger the depression. PMID:24309863

  14. A Modest Proposal for Another Phenomenological Approach to Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Paul E.

    2007-01-01

    In 1912, Karl Jaspers published an article entitled “The Phenomenological Approach to Psychopathology.” This and his subsequent text, General Psychopathology, was to exert a profound influence on the development of psychiatry in general and psychiatric nosology in particular. The current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and International Classification of Diseases both reflect, at least in part, that legacy. This article will argue that the descriptive psychopathology of Jaspers has been gradually transformed into a caricature which has substituted authority for enquiry and simplification for subtlety. We have been left with classificatory systems which impose reified categories increasingly at variance with clinical reality and increasingly divorced from the data generated by scientific enquiry. Returning to the phenomenological method, despite its contradictions, may open the way to clinical and research approaches which free us from the current straightjacket of orthodoxy which is impending our progress. PMID:17023563

  15. Do intrauterine or genetic influences explain the foetal origins of chronic disease? A novel experimental method for disentangling effects

    PubMed Central

    Thapar, Anita; Harold, Gordon; Rice, Frances; Ge, XiaoJia; Boivin, Jacky; Hay, Dale; van den Bree, Marianne; Lewis, Allyson

    2007-01-01

    Background There is much evidence to suggest that risk for common clinical disorders begins in foetal life. Exposure to environmental risk factors however is often not random. Many commonly used indices of prenatal adversity (e.g. maternal gestational stress, gestational diabetes, smoking in pregnancy) are influenced by maternal genes and genetically influenced maternal behaviour. As mother provides the baby with both genes and prenatal environment, associations between prenatal risk factors and offspring disease maybe attributable to true prenatal risk effects or to the "confounding" effects of genetic liability that are shared by mother and offspring. Cross-fostering designs, including those that involve embryo transfer have proved useful in animal studies. However disentangling these effects in humans poses significant problems for traditional genetic epidemiological research designs. Methods We present a novel research strategy aimed at disentangling maternally provided pre-natal environmental and inherited genetic effects. Families of children aged 5 to 9 years born by assisted reproductive technologies, specifically homologous IVF, sperm donation, egg donation, embryo donation and gestational surrogacy were contacted through fertility clinics and mailed a package of questionnaires on health and mental health related risk factors and outcomes. Further data were obtained from antenatal records. Results To date 741 families from 18 fertility clinics have participated. The degree of association between maternally provided prenatal risk factor and child outcome in the group of families where the woman undergoing pregnancy and offspring are genetically related (homologous IVF, sperm donation) is compared to association in the group where offspring are genetically unrelated to the woman who undergoes the pregnancy (egg donation, embryo donation, surrogacy). These comparisons can be then examined to infer the extent to which prenatal effects are genetically and

  16. Disentangling Viral Membrane Fusion from Receptor Binding Using Synthetic DNA-Lipid Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Rawle, Robert J; Boxer, Steven G; Kasson, Peter M

    2016-07-12

    Enveloped viruses must bind to a receptor on the host membrane to initiate infection. Membrane fusion is subsequently initiated by a conformational change in the viral fusion protein, triggered by receptor binding, an environmental change, or both. Here, we present a strategy to disentangle the two processes of receptor binding and fusion using synthetic DNA-lipid conjugates to bind enveloped viruses to target membranes in the absence of receptor. This permits direct testing of whether receptor engagement affects the fusion mechanism as well as a comparison of fusion behavior across viruses with different receptor binding specificities. We demonstrate this approach by binding X-31 influenza virus to target vesicles and measuring the rates of individual pH-triggered lipid mixing events using fluorescence microscopy. Influenza lipid mixing kinetics are found to be independent of receptor binding, supporting the common yet previously unproven assumption that receptor binding does not produce any clustering or spatial rearrangement of viral hemagglutinin, which affects the rate-limiting step of pH-triggered fusion. This DNA-lipid tethering strategy should also allow the study of viruses where challenging receptor reconstitution has previously prevented single-virus fusion experiments. PMID:27410740

  17. Disentangling the complex of Lichenothelia species from rock communities in the desert.

    PubMed

    Muggia, Lucia; Kocourková, Jana; Knudsen, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Rock-inhabiting fungi (RIF) are melanized, meristematic fungi which dwell on and within rocks and have adapted to withstand harsh conditions in extreme habitats worldwide. Their morphological and genetic diversity remained unknown for a long time, but in the past few years culture-dependent and molecular phylogenetic approaches have contributed to uncovering the species richness of these otherwise very inconspicuous fungi. Only a few taxa of RIF develop both sexual reproductive structure (fertile stromata and/or pycnidia) and show multiple life styles, interacting with algae and lichen thalli in different ways. The genus Lichenothelia is one of these: It is characterized by fertile stromata and pycnidia and by species which can grow on and within exposed rocks, optionally associating with algae, with some species also being lichenicolous. The genus Lichenothelia includes up to now 25 species and form a monotypic family (Lichenotheliaceae) and order (Lichenotheliales) in Dothideomycetes. Here we focused on a group of Lichenothelia taxa distributed in the hot arid region of the Sonoran and Mojave Deserts in the Joshua Tree National Park in California. We performed molecular and morphological analyses and culture isolation and considered the ecology of the environmental samples to disentangle five species. We present the revision of two species already described, Lichenothelia calcarea and L. convexa, and introduce three new taxa to science, L. arida, L. umbrophila and L. umbrophila var. pullata. PMID:26297777

  18. Parental rearing and psychopathology in mothers of adolescents with and without borderline personality symptoms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A combination of multiple factors, including a strong genetic predisposition and environmental factors, are considered to contribute to the developmental pathways to borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, these factors have mostly been investigated retrospectively, and hardly in adolescents. The current study focuses on maternal factors in BPD features in adolescence. Methods Actual parenting was investigated in a group of referred adolescents with BPD features (N = 101) and a healthy control group (N = 44). Self-reports of perceived concurrent parenting were completed by the adolescents. Questionnaires on parental psychopathology (both Axis I and Axis II disorders) were completed by their mothers. Results Adolescents reported significantly less emotional warmth, more rejection and more overprotection from their mothers in the BPD-group than in the control group. Mothers in the BPD group reported significantly more parenting stress compared to mothers in the control group. Also, these mothers showed significantly more general psychopathology and clusters C personality traits than mothers in the control group. Contrary to expectations, mothers of adolescents with BPD features reported the same level of cluster B personality traits, compared to mothers in the control group. Hierarchical logistic regression revealed that parental rearing styles (less emotional warmth, and more overprotection) and general psychopathology of the mother were the strongest factors differentiating between controls and adolescents with BPD symptoms. Conclusions Adolescents with BPD features experience less emotional warmth and more overprotection from their mothers, while the mothers themselves report more symptoms of anxiety and depression. Addition of family interventions to treatment programs for adolescents might increase the effectiveness of such early interventions, and prevent the adverse outcome that is often seen in adult BPD patients. PMID:22925148

  19. [Neuropsychological evaluation and psychopathology of multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Defer, G

    2001-09-01

    or open interviews and assessment scales to evaluate the level of depression and/or anxiety. For cognitive assessment, short-term batteries focusing on the main dysfunctions are recommended. Psychometric evaluation should not be performed during a period of relapse, hospitalization or immediately after starting drug therapy for depression or anxiety. The cognitive evaluation should be explained to the patient and should include a parallel assessment by a psychologist well trained in MS. The evaluations will be adapted to the situation and the goals. Early interviews evaluate the psychopathological profile that can then be reevaluated during each consultation. Cognitive assessment is mainly proposed in case of interferon therapy, spontaneous complaints of the patient or abnormal difficulties in daily life or occupational activities. In all cases, patient management requires a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:11787345

  20. Incidence and Trends in Psychopathology Symptoms over Time in Adults with Severe to Profound Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horovitz, Max; Matson, Johnny L.; Sipes, Megan; Shoemaker, Mary; Belva, Brian; Bamburg, Jay W.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) have a high risk for developing comorbid psychopathology. While researchers have shown that symptoms of psychopathology remain relatively stable in children with ID over time, little research has been conducted to demonstrate symptom stability for adults with ID. Incidence of psychopathology symptoms…

  1. Effects of Family Violence on Psychopathology Symptoms in Children Previously Exposed to Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maikovich, Andrea Kohn; Jaffee, Sara R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Gallop, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Although many studies suggest that family violence is associated with child psychopathology, multiple features of the home environment might account for this association, such as poverty and caregiver psychopathology. Studies are needed examining how change in psychopathology symptoms is affected by home violence, controlling for children's own…

  2. Introduction to the Special Section: Toward a Dimensionally Based Taxonomy of Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Robert F.; Watson, David; Barlow, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Much current psychopathology research is framed by categorical constructs. Limitations of categorical constructs have been articulated, and dimensional constructs are often proposed as viable alternatives to categories of psychopathology. The purpose of this Special Section is to articulate and discuss diverse issues that arise in contemplating dimensional constructs as targets for psychopathology research. PMID:16351372

  3. Parental and Late Adolescent Psychopathology: Mothers May Provide Support When Needed Most

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Research links negative parenting and parental psychopathology to poorer outcomes among youth. Less research examines these effects simultaneously during late adolescence. The current study examines parenting, parental psychopathology, and late adolescent psychopathology as reported by late adolescents (N = 328) with the use of structural equation…

  4. Interoception and symptom reporting: disentangling accuracy and bias

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Sibylle; Van Staeyen, Ken; Vögele, Claus; von Leupoldt, Andreas; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety and anxiety sensitivity are positively related to accuracy in the perception of bodily sensations. At the same time, research consistently reports that these traits are positively related to bias, resulting in the report of more and more intense symptoms that poorly correspond with physiological dysfunction. The aim of this study was to test the relationship of accuracy and bias in interoception. Furthermore, we tested the impact of individual differences in negative affect and symptom report in daily life on interoceptive accuracy and bias. Individuals higher in symptom report in daily life and negative affect were marginally more accurate in an interoceptive classification task in which participants were asked to identify different respiratory stimuli (inducing breathing effort) as belonging to a high or low intensity category. At the same time, bias in overestimating intensity of stimuli was significantly increased in participants higher in symptom report and negative affect, but only for more ambiguous stimuli. Results illustrate that interoceptive accuracy and bias need to be considered independently to understand their interaction with psychological factors and to disentangle (mis)perception of bodily sensations from liberal or conservative perceptual decision strategies. PMID:26089810

  5. Disentangling bipartite and core-periphery structure in financial networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucca, Paolo; Lillo, Fabrizio

    2016-07-01

    A growing number of systems are represented as networks whose architecture conveys significant information and determines many of their properties. Examples of network architecture include modular, bipartite, and core-periphery structures. However inferring the network structure is a non trivial task and can depend sometimes on the chosen null model. Here we propose a method for classifying network structures and ranking its nodes in a statistically well-grounded fashion. The method is based on the use of Belief Propagation for learning through Entropy Maximization on both the Stochastic Block Model (SBM) and the degree-corrected Stochastic Block Model (dcSBM). As a specific application we show how the combined use of the two ensembles -SBM and dcSBM- allows to disentangle the bipartite and the core-periphery structure in the case of the e-MID interbank network. Specifically we find that, taking into account the degree, this interbank network is better described by a bipartite structure, while using the SBM the core-periphery structure emerges only when data are aggregated for more than a week.

  6. Beyond bench and bedside: disentangling the concept of translational research.

    PubMed

    van der Laan, Anna Laura; Boenink, Marianne

    2015-03-01

    The label 'Translational Research' (TR) has become ever more popular in the biomedical domain in recent years. It is usually presented as an attempt to bridge a supposed gap between knowledge produced at the lab bench and its use at the clinical bedside. This is claimed to help society harvest the benefits of its investments in scientific research. The rhetorical as well as moral force of the label TR obscure, however, that it is actually used in very different ways. In this paper, we analyse the scientific discourse on TR, with the aim to disentangle and critically evaluate the different meanings of the label. We start with a brief reconstruction of the history of the concept. Subsequently, we unravel how the label is actually used in a sample of scientific publications on TR and examine the presuppositions implied by different views of TR. We argue that it is useful to distinguish different views of TR on the basis of three dimensions, related to (1) the construction of the 'translational gap'; (2) the model of the translational process; and (3) the cause of the perceived translational gap. We conclude that the motive to make society benefit from its investments in biomedical science may be laudable, but that it is doubtful whether the dominant views of TR will contribute to this end. PMID:23248053

  7. Sequential congruency effects: disentangling priming and conflict adaptation.

    PubMed

    Puccioni, Olga; Vallesi, Antonino

    2012-09-01

    Responding to the color of a word is slower and less accurate if the word refers to a different color (incongruent condition) than if it refers to the same color (congruent condition). This phenomenon, known as the Stroop effect, is modulated by sequential effects: it is bigger when the current trial is preceded by a congruent condition than by an incongruent one in the previous trial. Whether this phenomenon is due to priming mechanisms or to cognitive control is still debated. To disentangle the contribution of priming with respect to conflict adaptation mechanisms in determining sequential effects, two experiments were designed here with a four-alternative forced choice (4-AFC) Stroop task: in the first one only trials with complete alternations of features were used, while in the second experiment all possible types of repetitions were presented. Both response times (RTs) and errors were evaluated. Conflict adaptation effects on RTs were limited to congruent trials and were exclusively due to priming: they disappeared in the priming-free experiment and, in the second experiment, they occurred in sequences with feature repetitions but not in complete alternation sequences. Error results, instead, support the presence of conflict adaptation effects in incongruent trials. In priming-free sequences (experiment 1 and complete alternation sequences of experiment 2) with incongruent previous trials there was no error Stroop effect, while this effect was significant with congruent previous trials. These results indicate that cognitive control may modulate performance above and beyond priming effects. PMID:21735040

  8. Disentangling mite predator-prey relationships by multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sayas, Consuelo; Pina, Tatiana; Gómez-Martínez, María A; Camañes, Gemma; Ibáñez-Gual, María V; Jaques, Josep A; Hurtado, Mónica A

    2015-11-01

    Gut content analysis using molecular techniques can help elucidate predator-prey relationships in situations in which other methodologies are not feasible, such as in the case of trophic interactions between minute species such as mites. We designed species-specific primers for a mite community occurring in Spanish citrus orchards comprising two herbivores, the Tetranychidae Tetranychus urticae and Panonychus citri, and six predatory mites belonging to the Phytoseiidae family; these predatory mites are considered to be these herbivores' main biological control agents. These primers were successfully multiplexed in a single PCR to test the range of predators feeding on each of the two prey species. We estimated prey DNA detectability success over time (DS50), which depended on the predator-prey combination and ranged from 0.2 to 18 h. These values were further used to weight prey detection in field samples to disentangle the predatory role played by the most abundant predators (i.e. Euseius stipulatus and Phytoseiulus persimilis). The corrected predation value for E. stipulatus was significantly higher than for P. persimilis. However, because this 1.5-fold difference was less than that observed regarding their sevenfold difference in abundance, we conclude that P. persimilis is the most effective predator in the system; it preyed on tetranychids almost five times more frequently than E. stipulatus did. The present results demonstrate that molecular tools are appropriate to unravel predator-prey interactions in tiny species such as mites, which include important agricultural pests and their predators. PMID:25824504

  9. Is Pubertal Timing Associated with Psychopathology in Young Adulthood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Julia A.; Seeley, John R.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This investigation tested whether the timing of puberty continued to be associated with experiences of psychopathology (symptoms and disorders) from mid-adolescence into young adulthood. Method: At age 24, 931 participants from a large community sample, who had been interviewed twice during adolescence, completed a telephone interview…

  10. Psychopathology in Adults with Autism and Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsakanikos, Elias; Costello, Helen; Holt, Geraldine; Bouras, Nick; Sturmey, Peter; Newton, Tim

    2006-01-01

    There have been few studies of psychopathology in adults with autism. This study examined psychiatric co-morbidity in 147 adults with intellectual disability (ID) and autism and 605 adults with ID but without autism. After controlling for the effects of gender, age, psychotropic medication and level of ID, people with autism and ID were no more…

  11. Parents' personality clusters and eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Amianto, Federico; Ercole, Roberta; Marzola, Enrica; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2015-11-30

    The present study explores how parents' personality clusters relate to their eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology. Mothers and fathers were tested with the Temperament Character Inventory. Their daughters were assessed with the following: Temperament and Character Inventory, Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Symptom Checklist-90, Parental Bonding Instrument, Attachment Style Questionnaire, and Family Assessment Device. Daughters' personality traits and psychopathology scores were compared between clusters. Daughters' features were related to those of their parents. Explosive/adventurous mothers were found to relate to their daughters' borderline personality profile and more severe interoceptive awareness. Mothers' immaturity was correlated to their daughters' higher character immaturity, inadequacy, and depressive feelings. Fathers who were explosive/methodic correlated with their daughters' character immaturity, severe eating, and general psychopathology. Fathers' character immaturity only marginally related to their daughters' specific features. Both parents' temperament clusters and mothers' character clusters related to patients' personality and eating psychopathology. The cluster approach to personality-related dynamics of families with an individual affected by an eating disorder expands the knowledge on the relationship between parents' characteristics and daughters' illness, suggesting complex and unique relationships correlating parents' personality traits to their daughters' disorder. PMID:26315665

  12. Risk factors for the development of psychopathology following trauma.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Sehrish; Iacoviello, Brian M; Charney, Dennis S

    2015-08-01

    Traumatic experiences can lead to a range of mental health problems with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) leading as the most documented disorder following trauma. Epidemiological research has found the rate of exposure to trauma to far outweigh the prevalence of PTSD. Indicating that most people do not develop PTSD following a traumatic event, this phenomenon has led to an interest in evaluating risk factors to determine who develops PTSD. Risk factors for the development of psychopathology following trauma exposure fall into three categories: pre-trauma, peri-trauma and post-trauma factors. Pre-trauma factors can include age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, prior psychopathology, and neurobiological factors. Peri-trauma factors can include the duration/severity of trauma experience and the perception that the trauma has ended. Post-trauma factors can include access to needed resources, social support, specific cognitive patterns, and physical activity. To date, several important risk factors have been found to impact the risk of developing PTSD including gender, age, education, IQ, race and ethnicity, sexual orientation, pre-trauma psychopathology, prior trauma exposure, familial psychiatric history, and neurobiological factors. This article outlines the state of research findings on pretraumatic, peritraumatic, and posttraumatic risk factors for the development of PTSD and associated psychopathology following trauma. PMID:26206108

  13. Longitudinal Dimensionality of Adolescent Psychopathology: Testing the Differentiation Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterba, Sonya K.; Copeland, William; Egger, Helen L.; Costello, E. Jane; Erkanli, Alaattin; Angold, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Background: The differentiation hypothesis posits that the underlying liability distribution for psychopathology is of low dimensionality in young children, inflating diagnostic comorbidity rates, but increases in dimensionality with age as latent syndromes become less correlated. This hypothesis has not been adequately tested with longitudinal…

  14. Psychopathology in African Unaccompanied Refugee Minors in Austria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huemer, Julia; Karnik, Niranjan; Voelkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Granditsch, Elisabeth; Plattner, Belinda; Friedrich, Max; Steiner, Hans

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of a range of psychopathology among African unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) in Austria. Additionally, the predictive value of war exposure on PTSD symptoms was examined. Forty-one URMs were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children and adolescents, the Youth Self-Report, the UCLA…

  15. Scaling Methods to Measure Psychopathology in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Belva, Brian C.; Hattier, Megan A.; Matson, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Psychopathology prior to the last four decades was generally viewed as a set of problems and disorders that did not occur in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). That notion now seems very antiquated. In no small part, a revolutionary development of scales worldwide has occurred for the assessment of emotional problems in persons with ID.…

  16. Psychopathology in Children with Intellectual Disability: Risk Markers and Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witwer, Andrea N.; Lecavalier, Luc

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to summarize studies examining risk factors, markers, and correlates of psychopathology in youngsters with intellectual disability. A total of 26 studies met inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Due to the limitations of research methods (i.e., not establishing precedence), no risk factors were…

  17. Parenting Empathy: Associations with Dimensions of Parent and Child Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psychogiou, Lamprini; Daley, Dave; Thompson, Margaret J.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Parenting empathy, the understanding by parents, and the sharing in their child's perspective, represents an important element of competent parenting. The present study tested the hypotheses that maternal empathy might be lower where mothers or their children display symptoms of psychopathology. Method: Mothers (N=268) of school-aged…

  18. Change in Child Psychopathology with Improvement in Parental Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunlicks, Meredith L.; Weissman, Myrna M.

    2008-01-01

    The article identifies and evaluates the current research evidence of associations between improvement in parents' depression and their children's psychopathology. Findings indicate some evidence of associations between successful treatment of parents' depression and improvement in children's symptoms and functioning but further studies on these…

  19. Psychopathology and Incest: A DIPS Code Type Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory-Bills, Therese; Vincent, Ken

    The Diagnostic Inventory of Personality and Symptoms (DIPS) was used to examine psychopathology in 30 therapy outpatients with histories of incest. Subjects also responded to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Correlations were used to examine characteristics of the sample and to identify circumstances of their experiences of incest which…

  20. Freedom and mystery: an intellectual history of Jaspers' General Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Bormuth, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The Kantian idea of freedom was introduced to psychiatry methodologically by Karl Jaspers. It influenced the genesis and design of his doctrine of understanding, General Psychopathology, even more decisively than Nietzsche's topos of resentment did. This article places Jaspers' work in the framework of a history of ideas. It begins by pursuing Nietzsche's perspective in the context of Darwinism, then focuses on the role concealed resentment played for Jaspers' genealogical concept of understanding in the first (1913) edition of General Psychopathology, which is primarily oriented towards Max Weber, before examining the idea of Kantian freedom, which was to become crucial for Jaspers' later work. The antinomy of freedom already shapes the suicidology contained in Jaspers' Philosophy of 1931. The idea gains prominence in the final, philosophically grounded revision of GeneralPsychopathology published in 1941/1942. Jaspers' reception of Kantian idealism leads him to develop a concept of critical understanding that clearly distinguishes itself from speculative understanding, whose hazards Jaspers illustrates on the basis of Viktor von Weizsäcker's theory of medicine. This goes far beyond Kant, embracing Schelling and Hegel philosophically. As it were, Jaspers and von Weizsäcker represent critical and postcritical thought in psychopathology and psychosomatics. The epilogue sums up by placing the inquiry in the context of Jaspers' life and work. PMID:23942461

  1. The New Therapies and Psychopathology: The Behavioral Viewpoint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, P. E.

    Behavior therapists view psychopathology differently from dynamically oriented therapists, in that behaviorists are taught to regard symptoms primarily as sets of learned behaviors rather than cues to underlying psychological disorders. Even though there is a split among behaviorists as to which procedure is best to follow, there are some special…

  2. Parents Psychopathology of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Lamanna, Annalinda; Matera, Emilia; Margari, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with extremely complex etiology, not yet well defined but certainly multi-factorial. This study investigated the possible etiopathogenetic role of ADHD symptoms and psychopathology disorders in parents of children with ADHD. We present a case-control study of parents of 50 children…

  3. Adaptation of Panic-Related Psychopathology Measures to Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotov, Roman; Schmidt, Norman B.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Vinogradov, Alexander; Antipova, Anna V.

    2005-01-01

    The study reports results of adaptation of panic-related psychopathology measures to Russian, including the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI), the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire (ACQ), and the Mobility Inventory for Agoraphobia (MIA). Psychometric properties (e.g., reliability, factor structure, endorsement) and external validity of the…

  4. Maternal Depression, Paternal Psychopathology, and Toddlers' Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, Laura J.; Jennings, Kay Donahue; Kelley, Sue A.; Marshal, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article examined the effects of maternal depression during the postpartum period (Time 1) on the later behavior problems of toddlers (Time 3) and tested if this relationship was moderated by paternal psychopathology during toddlers' lives and/or mediated by maternal parenting behavior observed during mother-child interaction (Time 2). Of the…

  5. Dimensions of Adolescent Psychopathology and Relationships to Suicide Risk Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verona, Edelyn; Javdani, Shabnam

    2011-01-01

    Youth suicide represents an area of important public and mental health concern. Although diagnostic correlates (e.g., depression) of suicidality have been identified, very few studies of youth have analyzed relationships between empirically-derived dimensions of psychopathology, representing broader dimensions of risk, and different suicidality…

  6. Supporting Parents of Youths with Intellectual Disabilities and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douma, J. C. H.; Dekker, M. C.; Koot, H. M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Parents of children and adolescents with both intellectual disabilities (ID) and psychopathology often experience high levels of parenting stress. To support these parents, information is required regarding the types of support they need and whether their needs are met. Method: In a sample of 745 youths (aged 10-24 years) with moderate…

  7. Problem Video Game Use and Dimensions of Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starcevic, Vladan; Berle, David; Porter, Guy; Fenech, Pauline

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine associations between problem video game use and psychopathology. The Video Game Use Questionnaire (VGUQ) and the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) were administered in an international anonymous online survey. The VGUQ was used to identify problem video game users and SCL-90 assessed dimensions of…

  8. Prevalence of Psychopathology in Childhood Epilepsy: Categorical and Dimensional Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, David W.; Austin, Joan K.; Perkins, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have utilized both categorical and dimensional measures of psychopathology in children with epilepsy. We evaluated 173 children (88 males, 85 females; mean age 11.7y [SD 1.8]; range 9-14y) who had epilepsy (generalized 36%, partial 61%) for at least 6 months. The primary caregiver completed a dimensional measure, the Child Behavior…

  9. Psychopathology of EDNOS Patients: To Whom Do They Compare?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moor, Sasha; Vartanian, Lenny R.; Touyz, Stephen W.; Beumont, P. J. V.

    2004-01-01

    Do the levels of psychopathology displayed by patients with an eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) more closely resemble those displayed by full-criteria anorexia and bulimia nervosa patients than they do those of non-eating-disorder controls? Three groups of eating disorder patients (anorexia nervosa, n = 27; bulimia nervosa, n = 23;…

  10. Psychopathology among homicidally bereaved individuals: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    van Denderen, Mariëtte; de Keijser, Jos; Kleen, Marco; Boelen, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    In the literature on bereavement, claims are made that homicidal loss is associated with posttraumatic stress reactions, depression, and other severe mental health problems. It is surprising that only a few studies have investigated the nature and prevalence of emotional symptoms following homicidal bereavement and a reference to systematic, empirical research is seldom provided. This article reviews the available literature to investigate whether these claims have empirical evidence. Three databases were searched to identify relevant studies. This approach was supplemented with a bibliography search. Eligible studies included English-language peer-reviewed articles that assessed psychopathology in the homicidally bereaved, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Of the 360 potentially relevant articles, 8 studies (13 references) met predefined inclusion criteria. Homicide-related psychopathology among the bereaved assessed in these studies includes posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, complicated grief, and substance abuse. Prevalence of lifetime homicide-related PTSD varied from 19.1% to 71% across studies. Current PTSD varied between 5.2% and 6%. The reviewed literature was inconclusive regarding the course of symptoms over time and the severity of psychopathology among the homicidally bereaved, compared to individuals bereaved by other causes of death. A comparison of the nature and prevalence of psychopathology between studies was complicated by unequal sample sizes and type, recruitment strategy, study design, and time since loss. Limitations of the included studies are discussed, as well as implications for clinical practice, policy, and future research. PMID:24346707

  11. Diagnostic Specificity and Nonspecificity in the Dimensions of Preschool Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterba, Sonya; Egger, Helen L.; Angold, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    Background: The appropriateness of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition" (DSM-IV) nosology for classifying preschool mental health disturbances continues to be debated. To inform this debate, we investigate whether preschool psychopathology shows differentiation along diagnostically specific lines when DSM-IV…

  12. Psychopathology Associated with Suicide Attempts among Rural Adolescents of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xianchen; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.; Zhao, Zhongtang

    2005-01-01

    This case control study examined the relationship between psychopathological profiles and self reported suicide attempts among rural adolescents of China. Cases consisted of 142 adolescents who reported a suicide attempt in the past 6 months in a questionnaire survey (n = 1,365). An equal number of adolescents without reporting a suicide attempt,…

  13. Continuities and Discontinuities in Psychopathology between Childhood and Adult Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael; Kim-Cohen, Julia; Maughan, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The possible mechanisms involved in continuities and discontinuities in psychopathology between childhood and adult life are considered in relation to the findings from systematic, prospective, long-term longitudinal studies. Findings on schizophrenia, neurodevelopmental disorders, emotional disturbances, antisocial behaviour and substance abuse…

  14. Comorbid Psychopathology with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Nebel-Schwalm, Marie S.

    2007-01-01

    Comorbidity, the co-occurrence of two or more disorders in the same person, has been a topic receiving considerable attention in the child psychopathology literature overall. Despite many publications in the ADHD, depression and other child literatures, autism spectrum disorder has not received such scrutiny. The purpose of this review will be to…

  15. [Clinical and psychopathological aspects of endogenous apathetic depressions].

    PubMed

    Sorokin, S A

    2011-01-01

    The study included 45 patients with endogenous apathetic depressions differing in clinical picture and psychopathological structure. Typological classification of these depressions into 3 variants dominated by decreased interests, initiative or will is proposed. The problem of nosological identification of apathetic depressions is discussed. Dynamics of these conditions in the structure of endogenous affective diseases and paroxysmal progredient schizophrenia is described. PMID:21674919

  16. Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy: A Study of Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bools, Christopher; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluated 100 mothers with Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (the fabrication of illness by a mother in her child). Approximately half of the mothers had either smothered or poisoned their child as part of their fabrications. Lifetime psychiatric histories were reported for 47 of the mothers. The most notable psychopathology was personality…

  17. Relapse Contexts for Substance Abusing Adolescents with Comorbid Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kristen G.; Frissell, Kevin C.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship of diagnosis, developmentally relevant factors (e.g., life stress, peer substance use) and mental health symptoms to contexts of a return to substance use were examined for 103 substance abusing adolescents with Axis I psychopathology (ages 12-17) following inpatient treatment. Proximal psychiatric symptoms and developmentally…

  18. Unified Model for Academic Competence, Social Adjustment, and Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Earl S.; And Others

    A unified conceptual model is needed to integrate the extensive research on (1) social competence and adaptive behavior, (2) converging conceptualizations of social adjustment and psychopathology, and (3) emerging concepts and measures of academic competence. To develop such a model, a study was conducted in which teacher ratings were collected on…

  19. The Psychopathological Model of Mental Retardation: Theoretical and Therapeutic Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Malfa, Giampaolo; Campigli, Marco; Bertelli, Marco; Mangiapane, Antonio; Cabras, Pier Luigi

    1997-01-01

    Describes a new integrated bio-psycho-social model of etiology for mental retardation. Discusses the problems with current models and the ability of the "universe line" model to integrate data from different research areas, especially cognitive and psychopathologic indicators. Addresses implications of this theoretical approach. (Author/CR)

  20. Preschoolers' Psychopathology and Temperament Predict Mothers' Later Mood Disorders.

    PubMed

    Allmann, Anna E S; Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C; Klein, Daniel N

    2016-04-01

    Considerable research exists documenting the relationship between maternal mood disorders, primarily major depressive disorder (MDD), and a variety of negative child outcomes. By contrast, research exploring the reverse pathway whereby child traits are associated with later maternal mood disorders is much more limited. We examined whether young children's temperament and psychopathology predicted maternal mood disorders approximately 6 years later. Child temperament and symptoms were assessed at age three using semi-structured diagnostic interviews and parent-report inventories. Maternal psychopathology was assessed with semi-structured interviews when children were 3 and 9 years old. Mothers also reported on their marital satisfaction when children were 3 and 6 years old. Child temperamental negative affectivity (NA), depressive symptoms, and externalizing behavior problems significantly predicted maternal mood disorders over and above prior maternal mood, anxiety, and substance disorders. The link between children's early externalizing symptoms and maternal mood disorders 6 years later was mediated by maternal marital satisfaction 3 years after the initial assessment. These findings suggest that early child temperament and psychopathology contribute to risk for later maternal mood disorders both directly and through their impact on the marital system. Research indicates that effective treatment of maternal depression is associated with positive outcomes for children; however, this study suggests that treating early child problems may mitigate the risk of later maternal psychopathology. PMID:26219263

  1. Children's Perceptions of Parental Emotional Neglect and Control and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Robert; Lennie, Susan; Minnis, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Background: Parental emotional neglect is linked to psychiatric disorder. This study explores the associations between children's perceptions of parental emotional neglect and future psychopathology. Methods: In a school-based longitudinal study of nearly 1,700 children aged 11-15 we explored children's perceptions of parenting, as measured by the…

  2. Socio-Emotional Development Following Very Preterm Birth: Pathways to Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Montagna, Anita; Nosarti, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Very preterm birth (VPT; < 32 weeks of gestation) has been associated with an increased risk to develop cognitive and socio-emotional problems, as well as with increased vulnerability to psychiatric disorder, both with childhood and adult onset. Socio-emotional impairments that have been described in VPT individuals include diminished social competence and self-esteem, emotional dysregulation, shyness and timidity. However, the etiology of socio-emotional problems in VPT samples and their underlying mechanisms are far from understood. To date, research has focused on the investigation of both biological and environmental risk factors associated with socio-emotional problems, including structural and functional alterations in brain areas involved in processing emotions and social stimuli, perinatal stress and pain and parenting strategies. Considering the complex interplay of the aforementioned variables, the review attempts to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the association between very preterm birth, socio-emotional vulnerability and psychopathology. After a comprehensive overview of the socio-emotional impairments associated with VPT birth, three main models of socio-emotional development are presented and discussed. These focus on biological vulnerability, early life adversities and parenting, respectively. To conclude, a developmental framework is used to consider different pathways linking VPT birth to psychopathology, taking into account the interaction between medical, biological, and psychosocial factors. PMID:26903895

  3. [Growing up with congenital heart disease: neurocognitive outcome, psychopathology and quality of life].

    PubMed

    Amianto, Federico; Bellicanta, Anna; Bergui, Giovanna C; Zuccolin, Maria; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2013-01-01

    Thank to medical and surgical improvements, a very high percentage of children with congenital heart disease (CHD; about 1% of newborn) reaches adulthood. This population of young surgical and medical patients opens up new challenges in clinical management, including evaluation and optimization of psychosocial functioning and quality of life. Data regarding neurocognitive and psychopathological adaptation, personality and quality of life of CHD patients are rather extensive but still insufficient to guide management approaches to these subjects and to address the numerous emerging problems. The present review analyzes extensively the research literature to find out those variables that may influence development of CHD children. It emerges that a multi-factorial process seems involved in the poor outcome of neurocognitive development in many patients. Notwithstanding the attempts to define risk factors, current researches do not consent definitive conclusions about the determinants of developmental problems in CHD children. An improvement of existential outcome for CHD subjects may be achieved if adequate interventions are carried out. In fact, psychopathological and quality of life in CHD subjects may result even better if elaboration of disease by CHD subjects is adequately supported. On one hand, genetic factors that may contribute to unfavourable evolutions suggest the need for early recognition of subjects at risk. On the other, research should be addressed to the identification of those protective and risk factors related to personality, environmental and relational aspects entailed in the development of CHD subjects. PMID:24441518

  4. Socio-Emotional Development Following Very Preterm Birth: Pathways to Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Montagna, Anita; Nosarti, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Very preterm birth (VPT; < 32 weeks of gestation) has been associated with an increased risk to develop cognitive and socio-emotional problems, as well as with increased vulnerability to psychiatric disorder, both with childhood and adult onset. Socio-emotional impairments that have been described in VPT individuals include diminished social competence and self-esteem, emotional dysregulation, shyness and timidity. However, the etiology of socio-emotional problems in VPT samples and their underlying mechanisms are far from understood. To date, research has focused on the investigation of both biological and environmental risk factors associated with socio-emotional problems, including structural and functional alterations in brain areas involved in processing emotions and social stimuli, perinatal stress and pain and parenting strategies. Considering the complex interplay of the aforementioned variables, the review attempts to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the association between very preterm birth, socio-emotional vulnerability and psychopathology. After a comprehensive overview of the socio-emotional impairments associated with VPT birth, three main models of socio-emotional development are presented and discussed. These focus on biological vulnerability, early life adversities and parenting, respectively. To conclude, a developmental framework is used to consider different pathways linking VPT birth to psychopathology, taking into account the interaction between medical, biological, and psychosocial factors. PMID:26903895

  5. Disentangling the Role of Climate, Topography and Vegetation in Species Richness Gradients

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Mario R.; Villalobos, Fabricio; Costa, Gabriel C.; Garcia, Paulo C. A.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental gradients (EG) related to climate, topography and vegetation are among the most important drivers of broad scale patterns of species richness. However, these different EG do not necessarily drive species richness in similar ways, potentially presenting synergistic associations when driving species richness. Understanding the synergism among EG allows us to address key questions arising from the effects of global climate and land use changes on biodiversity. Herein, we use variation partitioning (also know as commonality analysis) to disentangle unique and shared contributions of different EG in explaining species richness of Neotropical vertebrates. We use three broad sets of predictors to represent the environmental variability in (i) climate (annual mean temperature, temperature annual range, annual precipitation and precipitation range), (ii) topography (mean elevation, range and coefficient of variation of elevation), and (iii) vegetation (land cover diversity, standard deviation and range of forest canopy height). The shared contribution between two types of EG is used to quantify synergistic processes operating among EG, offering new perspectives on the causal relationships driving species richness. To account for spatially structured processes, we use Spatial EigenVector Mapping models. We perform analyses across groups with distinct dispersal abilities (amphibians, non-volant mammals, bats and birds) and discuss the influence of vagility on the partitioning results. Our findings indicate that broad scale patterns of vertebrate richness are mainly affected by the synergism between climate and vegetation, followed by the unique contribution of climate. Climatic factors were relatively more important in explaining species richness of good dispersers. Most of the variation in vegetation that explains vertebrate richness is climatically structured, supporting the productivity hypothesis. Further, the weak synergism between topography and vegetation

  6. Disentangling the Role of Climate, Topography and Vegetation in Species Richness Gradients.

    PubMed

    Moura, Mario R; Villalobos, Fabricio; Costa, Gabriel C; Garcia, Paulo C A

    2016-01-01

    Environmental gradients (EG) related to climate, topography and vegetation are among the most important drivers of broad scale patterns of species richness. However, these different EG do not necessarily drive species richness in similar ways, potentially presenting synergistic associations when driving species richness. Understanding the synergism among EG allows us to address key questions arising from the effects of global climate and land use changes on biodiversity. Herein, we use variation partitioning (also know as commonality analysis) to disentangle unique and shared contributions of different EG in explaining species richness of Neotropical vertebrates. We use three broad sets of predictors to represent the environmental variability in (i) climate (annual mean temperature, temperature annual range, annual precipitation and precipitation range), (ii) topography (mean elevation, range and coefficient of variation of elevation), and (iii) vegetation (land cover diversity, standard deviation and range of forest canopy height). The shared contribution between two types of EG is used to quantify synergistic processes operating among EG, offering new perspectives on the causal relationships driving species richness. To account for spatially structured processes, we use Spatial EigenVector Mapping models. We perform analyses across groups with distinct dispersal abilities (amphibians, non-volant mammals, bats and birds) and discuss the influence of vagility on the partitioning results. Our findings indicate that broad scale patterns of vertebrate richness are mainly affected by the synergism between climate and vegetation, followed by the unique contribution of climate. Climatic factors were relatively more important in explaining species richness of good dispersers. Most of the variation in vegetation that explains vertebrate richness is climatically structured, supporting the productivity hypothesis. Further, the weak synergism between topography and vegetation

  7. Multidimensional assessment of neuroendocrine and psychopathological profiles in maltreated youth.

    PubMed

    Puetz, Vanessa B; Zweerings, Jana; Dahmen, Brigitte; Ruf, Caroline; Scharke, Wolfgang; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin

    2016-09-01

    It has been debated whether children who have experienced early life stress (ELS), such as early caregiver separation show elevated risk for stress-related psychiatric disorders and a multi-symptom psychopathological profile that is not fully reflected in categorical assessments. In this study, we investigated dimensional measures of stress-related psychopathology in children in permanent out-of-home care, taking into account potential neuroendocrine interactions. In the current study, 25 children who had been placed in permanent out-of-home care before age 3 (years) and 26 controls (aged 10.6 ± 1.75 years) were investigated with categorical (DSM-IV) and dimensional assessments (CBCL) of psychopathology and diurnal salivary cortisol levels were assessed. Semi-structured interviews (K-DIPS) revealed no significant group differences in full-scale psychiatric diagnoses, whereas dimensional assessment (CBCL) revealed significant group differences in externalizing and total problem behaviours within the clinical range for children with ELS. Only children with ELS showed a combined symptom profile of clinical-range internalizing and externalizing problems. Lower morning cortisol values and subsequent flatter decline was found in subjects with ELS children compared to controls, showing group differences in diurnal cortisol secretion. Lower morning cortisol values were associated with more problem behaviour in the ELS group. Results show that ELS children exhibited increased psychopathological symptom severity and complexity associated with lower morning cortisol levels, which was not fully reflected in categorical assessments. This highlights the importance of incorporating dimensional assessments and neurobiological factors into psychopathological evaluations of children in out-of-home care in order to facilitate early identification of children at high risk for stress-related disorders. PMID:26875183

  8. Extraversion and psychopathology: A facet-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Watson, David; Stasik, Sara M; Ellickson-Larew, Stephanie; Stanton, Kasey

    2015-05-01

    The goal of this study was to explicate how the lower order facets of extraversion are related to psychopathology. We used a "bottom-up" approach in which specific extraversion scales from 3 comprehensive personality inventories were used to model these facets as latent factors. We collected both self-report and interview measures of a broad range of psychopathology from a large community sample. Replicating previous findings using a similar approach (Naragon-Gainey & Watson, 2014; Naragon-Gainey, Watson, & Markon, 2009), structural analyses yielded four factors: Positive Emotionality, Sociability, Assertiveness, and Experience Seeking. Scores on these latent dimensions were related to psychopathology in correlational analyses and in two sets of regressions (the first series used the four facets as predictors; the second included composite scores on the other Big Five domains as additional predictors). These results revealed a striking level of specificity. As predicted, Positive Emotionality displayed especially strong negative links to depressive symptoms and diagnoses. Sociability also was negatively related to psychopathology, showing particularly strong associations with indicators of social dysfunction and the negative symptoms of schizotypy (i.e., social anxiety, social aloofness, and restricted affectivity). Assertiveness generally had weak associations at the bivariate level but was negatively related to social anxiety and was positively correlated with some forms of externalizing. Finally, Experience Seeking had substantial positive associations with a broad range of indicators related to externalizing and bipolar disorder; it also displayed negative links to agoraphobia. These differential correlates demonstrate the importance of examining personality-psychopathology relations at the specific facet level. PMID:25751628

  9. Disability as a risk factor? Development of psychopathology in children with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2013-10-01

    Empirical research has established that children with disabilities are more likely to develop psychopathology than children without disabilities. But too little is known about the association between disability and psychopathology. The aim of this article is to discuss developmental psychopathological models that conceptualise the connection between childhood disability and psychopathology. Empirical studies of psychopathology among children with a congenital hearing impairment and children with cerebral palsy will be reviewed, representing in-depth examples of association between disability and psychopathology. Both a congenital hearing impairment and cerebral palsy were found to be dominating risk factors for all types of psychopathology, but no relationship was identified between degree of disability and risk of psychopathology. The higher risk cannot be explained by biological impairments alone. To explain the contradictory findings, developmental models of disability and psychopathology are applied. Within a multi-factorial developmental psychopathological perspective and a dialectical model of disability (Vygotsky, 1993), it is suggested that disability can be understood as an incongruence between the individual development of the child and demands and expectations in the specific relations and institutions in which the child participates. This incongruence creates and strengthens negative factors for the child with disability and results in a higher risk of psychopathology. PMID:23962606

  10. The role of fathers in child and adolescent psychopathology: make room for daddy.

    PubMed

    Phares, V; Compas, B E

    1992-05-01

    This review summarizes research concerning the relation between paternal factors and child and adolescent psychopathology. When compared with mothers, fathers continue to be dramatically underrepresented in developmental research on psychopathology. However, findings from studies of children of clinically referred fathers and nonreferred samples of children and their fathers indicate that there is substantial association between paternal characteristics and child and adolescent psychopathology. Findings from studies of fathers of clinically referred children are stronger for fathers' effects on children's externalizing than internalizing problems. In most cases the degree of risk associated with paternal psychopathology is comparable to that associated with maternal psychopathology. Evidence indicates that the presence of paternal psychopathology is a sufficient but not necessary condition for child or adolescent psychopathology. PMID:1594718

  11. Disentangling the Phylogenetic and Ecological Components of Spider Phenotypic Variation

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves-Souza, Thiago; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Romero, Gustavo Quevedo

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of how the degree of phylogenetic relatedness influences the ecological similarity among species is crucial to inferring the mechanisms governing the assembly of communities. We evaluated the relative importance of spider phylogenetic relationships and ecological niche (plant morphological variables) to the variation in spider body size and shape by comparing spiders at different scales: (i) between bromeliads and dicot plants (i.e., habitat scale) and (ii) among bromeliads with distinct architectural features (i.e., microhabitat scale). We partitioned the interspecific variation in body size and shape into phylogenetic (that express trait values as expected by phylogenetic relationships among species) and ecological components (that express trait values independent of phylogenetic relationships). At the habitat scale, bromeliad spiders were larger and flatter than spiders associated with the surrounding dicots. At this scale, plant morphology sorted out close related spiders. Our results showed that spider flatness is phylogenetically clustered at the habitat scale, whereas it is phylogenetically overdispersed at the microhabitat scale, although phylogenic signal is present in both scales. Taken together, these results suggest that whereas at the habitat scale selective colonization affect spider body size and shape, at fine scales both selective colonization and adaptive evolution determine spider body shape. By partitioning the phylogenetic and ecological components of phenotypic variation, we were able to disentangle the evolutionary history of distinct spider traits and show that plant architecture plays a role in the evolution of spider body size and shape. We also discussed the relevance in considering multiple scales when studying phylogenetic community structure. PMID:24651264

  12. Disentangling AGN and Star Formation in Soft X-Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Heckman, T. M.; Ptak, A.

    2012-01-01

    We have explored the interplay of star formation and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in soft X-rays (0.5-2 keV) in two samples of Seyfert 2 galaxies (Sy2s). Using a combination of low-resolution CCD spectra from Chandra and XMM-Newton, we modeled the soft emission of 34 Sy2s using power-law and thermal models. For the 11 sources with high signal-to-noise Chandra imaging of the diffuse host galaxy emission, we estimate the luminosity due to star formation by removing the AGN, fitting the residual emission. The AGN and star formation contributions to the soft X-ray luminosity (i.e., L(sub x,AGN) and L(sub x,SF)) for the remaining 24 Sy2s were estimated from the power-law and thermal luminosities derived from spectral fitting. These luminosities were scaled based on a template derived from XSINGS analysis of normal star-forming galaxies. To account for errors in the luminosities derived from spectral fitting and the spread in the scaling factor, we estimated L(sub x,AGN) and L(sub x,SF))from Monte Carlo simulations. These simulated luminosities agree with L(sub x,AGN) and L(sub x,SF) derived from Chandra imaging analysis within a 3sigma confidence level. Using the infrared [Ne ii]12.8 micron and [O iv]26 micron lines as a proxy of star formation and AGN activity, respectively, we independently disentangle the contributions of these two processes to the total soft X-ray emission. This decomposition generally agrees with L(sub x,SF) and L(sub x,AGN) at the 3 sigma level. In the absence of resolvable nuclear emission, our decomposition method provides a reasonable estimate of emission due to star formation in galaxies hosting type 2 AGNs.

  13. DISENTANGLING AGN AND STAR FORMATION IN SOFT X-RAYS

    SciTech Connect

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Heckman, T. M.; Ptak, A.

    2012-10-20

    We have explored the interplay of star formation and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in soft X-rays (0.5-2 keV) in two samples of Seyfert 2 galaxies (Sy2s). Using a combination of low-resolution CCD spectra from Chandra and XMM-Newton, we modeled the soft emission of 34 Sy2s using power-law and thermal models. For the 11 sources with high signal-to-noise Chandra imaging of the diffuse host galaxy emission, we estimate the luminosity due to star formation by removing the AGN, fitting the residual emission. The AGN and star formation contributions to the soft X-ray luminosity (i.e., L{sub x,AGN} and L{sub x,SF}) for the remaining 24 Sy2s were estimated from the power-law and thermal luminosities derived from spectral fitting. These luminosities were scaled based on a template derived from XSINGS analysis of normal star-forming galaxies. To account for errors in the luminosities derived from spectral fitting and the spread in the scaling factor, we estimated L{sub x,AGN} and L{sub x,SF} from Monte Carlo simulations. These simulated luminosities agree with L{sub x,AGN} and L{sub x,SF} derived from Chandra imaging analysis within a 3{sigma} confidence level. Using the infrared [Ne II]12.8 {mu}m and [O IV]26 {mu}m lines as a proxy of star formation and AGN activity, respectively, we independently disentangle the contributions of these two processes to the total soft X-ray emission. This decomposition generally agrees with L{sub x,SF} and L{sub x,AGN} at the 3{sigma} level. In the absence of resolvable nuclear emission, our decomposition method provides a reasonable estimate of emission due to star formation in galaxies hosting type 2 AGNs.

  14. Disentangling Early Sensory Information Processing Deficits in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Rissling, Anthony J.; Braff, David L.; Swerdlow, Neal R.; Hellemann, Gerhard; Rassovsky, Yuri; Sprock, Joyce; Pela, Marlena; Light, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The disentangling of early sensory information processing deficits and examination of their relationships to demographic and clinical factors are important steps for the validation of potential biomarkers and/or endophenotypes of schizophrenia. The aims of the present study were to characterize commonly used sensory event-related potential deficits, to determine whether they are 1) distinct from one another and 2) independently associated with important clinical characteristics. Methods MMN, P3a and RON event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded from schizophrenia patients (SZ; n=429) and nonpsychiatric comparison subjects (NCS; n=286). Subgroup analyses on demographic and clinical variables were performed. Results Schizophrenia patients exhibited robust ERP deficits at frontocentral electrodes (MMN: d=1.10; P3a: d=0.87; RON: d=0.77), consistent with previous studies. Each ERP component uniquely accounted for variance in amplitude and schizophrenia deficits. Amplitude reductions occurred with increasing age in both NCS and SZ patients. A small subset of patients prescribed combinations of 1st and 2nd generation antipsychotics exhibited significantly reduced MMN amplitude relative to other medication-defined subgroups. Conclusions MMN, P3a, and RON are dissociable deficits with distinct relationships to age and medication status in schizophrenia patients, potentially reflecting divergent pathophysiological processes. Reduced MMN in patients taking multiple antipsychotic medications appear to be attributable to greater severity of symptoms and functional impairments, rather than a medication effect. Significance Independent information processing deficits in schizophrenia patients may differentially contribute to the commonly observed deficits in neurocognitive and psychosocial functioning. PMID:22608970

  15. Disentangling How Landscape Spatial and Temporal Heterogeneity Affects Savanna Birds

    PubMed Central

    Price, Bronwyn; McAlpine, Clive A.; Kutt, Alex S.; Ward, Doug; Phinn, Stuart R.; Ludwig, John A.

    2013-01-01

    In highly seasonal tropical environments, temporal changes in habitat and resources are a significant determinant of the spatial distribution of species. This study disentangles the effects of spatial and mid to long-term temporal heterogeneity in habitat on the diversity and abundance of savanna birds by testing four competing conceptual models of varying complexity. Focussing on sites in northeast Australia over a 20 year time period, we used ground cover and foliage projected cover surfaces derived from a time series of Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery, rainfall data and site-level vegetation surveys to derive measures of habitat structure at local (1–100 ha) and landscape (100–1000s ha) scales. We used generalised linear models and an information theoretic approach to test the independent effects of spatial and temporal influences on savanna bird diversity and the abundance of eight species with different life-history behaviours. Of four competing models defining influences on assemblages of savanna birds, the most parsimonious included temporal and spatial variability in vegetation cover and site-scale vegetation structure, suggesting savanna bird species respond to spatial and temporal habitat heterogeneity at both the broader landscape scale and at the fine-scale. The relative weight, strength and direction of the explanatory variables changed with each of the eight species, reflecting their different ecology and behavioural traits. This study demonstrates that variations in the spatial pattern of savanna vegetation over periods of 10 to 20 years at the local and landscape scale strongly affect bird diversity and abundance. Thus, it is essential to monitor and manage both spatial and temporal variability in avian habitat to achieve long-term biodiversity outcomes. PMID:24066138

  16. Disentangling the phylogenetic and ecological components of spider phenotypic variation.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves-Souza, Thiago; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Romero, Gustavo Quevedo

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of how the degree of phylogenetic relatedness influences the ecological similarity among species is crucial to inferring the mechanisms governing the assembly of communities. We evaluated the relative importance of spider phylogenetic relationships and ecological niche (plant morphological variables) to the variation in spider body size and shape by comparing spiders at different scales: (i) between bromeliads and dicot plants (i.e., habitat scale) and (ii) among bromeliads with distinct architectural features (i.e., microhabitat scale). We partitioned the interspecific variation in body size and shape into phylogenetic (that express trait values as expected by phylogenetic relationships among species) and ecological components (that express trait values independent of phylogenetic relationships). At the habitat scale, bromeliad spiders were larger and flatter than spiders associated with the surrounding dicots. At this scale, plant morphology sorted out close related spiders. Our results showed that spider flatness is phylogenetically clustered at the habitat scale, whereas it is phylogenetically overdispersed at the microhabitat scale, although phylogenic signal is present in both scales. Taken together, these results suggest that whereas at the habitat scale selective colonization affect spider body size and shape, at fine scales both selective colonization and adaptive evolution determine spider body shape. By partitioning the phylogenetic and ecological components of phenotypic variation, we were able to disentangle the evolutionary history of distinct spider traits and show that plant architecture plays a role in the evolution of spider body size and shape. We also discussed the relevance in considering multiple scales when studying phylogenetic community structure. PMID:24651264

  17. Examining electrodermal hyporeactivity as a marker of externalizing psychopathology: a twin study.

    PubMed

    Isen, Joshua D; Iacono, William G; Malone, Stephen M; McGue, Matt

    2012-08-01

    Literature suggests that reduced electrodermal reactivity (EDR) is related to externalizing problems. However, the genetic and environmental etiology of this association is unknown. Using a standard habituation paradigm, we measured responses to 15 loud tones in four cohorts of adolescent twins (N = 2,129). We quantified EDR as the average size of elicited responses (amplitude) and by counting the number of skin conductance responses (frequency). Externalizing liability was indexed through a general factor underlying substance-related problems and antisocial behavior. Response frequency, but not mean amplitude, was inversely associated with externalizing liability in each twin cohort. Biometric modeling revealed that most of the overlap between response frequency and externalizing liability was due to genetic influences common to both phenotypes. It is argued that neurological mechanisms involved in habituation may shed light on the etiology of psychopathology. PMID:22646690

  18. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor: the neurotrophin hypothesis of psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J; Daniels, Willie M U; Savitz, Jonathan; Harvey, Brian H

    2008-11-01

    While monoaminergic hypotheses of psychopathology remain popular, there has been growing interest in the role of neurotrophins in neuropsychiatric disorders. Basic laboratory work has documented the importance of neurotrophins in neuronal survival and synaptic plasticity, and a range of clinical studies has provided analogous evidence of their role in neuropathology. Work on gene variants in brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and associated changes in structural and function brain imaging, have further contributed to our understanding of this area. Much remains to be done to delineate fully the relevant mechanisms by which brain-derived neurotrophic factor and other neurotrophins contribute to psychopathology, and to develop targeted therapeutic interventions. Nevertheless, the neurotrophin hypothesis has already given impetus to a range of valuable research. PMID:19037180

  19. Data on maltreatment profiles and psychopathology in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Witt, Andreas; Münzer, Annika; Ganser, Helene G; Fegert, Jörg M; Goldbeck, Lutz; Plener, Paul L

    2016-09-01

    We present data on maltreatment profiles and psychopathology of 358 children and adolescents (4-17 years). Data on maltreatment profiles has been categorized into six major maltreatment types: physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, sexual abuse with penetration, exposure to intimate partner violence and neglect. The data on history of maltreatment is based on the interview version of the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ). Additionally data on psychopathology in general as well as specific disorders according to DSM-IV based on K-SADS-PL is presented. The data was used to examine patterns of co-occurrences of maltreatment and associated clinical outcome variables using latent class analysis (LCA), "Experience by children and adolescents of more than one type of maltreatment: association of different classes of maltreatment profiles with clinical outcome variables" (Witt et al.,) [1]. PMID:27583341

  20. Positive Emotion Regulation and Psychopathology: A Transdiagnostic Cultural Neuroscience Approach

    PubMed Central

    Hechtman, Lisa A.; Raila, Hannah; Chiao, Joan Y.; Gruber, June

    2013-01-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the study of positive emotion regulation and psychopathology. Given the significant public health costs and the tremendous variance in national prevalence rates associated with many disorders of positive emotion, it is critical to reach an understanding of how cultural factors, along with biological factors, mutually influence positive emotion regulation. Progress in this domain has been relatively unexplored, however, underscoring the need for an integrative review and empirical roadmap for investigating the cultural neuroscientific contributions to positive emotion disturbance for both affective and clinical science domains. The present paper thus provides a multidisciplinary, cultural neuroscience approach to better understand positive emotion regulation and psychopathology. We conclude with a future roadmap for researchers aimed at harnessing positive emotion and alleviating the burden of mental illness cross-culturally. PMID:24812583

  1. Maternal Depression, Paternal Psychopathology, and Toddlers’ Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Laura J.; Jennings, Kay Donahue; Kelley, Sue A.; Marshal, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article examined the effects of maternal depression during the postpartum period (Time 1) on the later behavior problems of toddlers (Time 3) and tested if this relationship was moderated by paternal psychopathology during toddlers’ lives and/or or mediated by maternal parenting behavior observed during mother–child interaction (Time 2). Of the 101 mothers who participated in this longitudinal study with their toddlers, 51 had never experienced an episode of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and 50 had experienced an episode of MDD during the first 18 months of their toddlers’ lives. Maternal depression at Time 1 was significantly associated with toddlers’ externalizing and internalizing behavior problems only when paternal psychopathology was present. As predicted, maternal negativity at Time 2 was found to mediate the relationship between maternal depression at Time 1 and toddlers’ externalizing behavior problems at Time 3. PMID:19130357

  2. Understanding risk for psychopathology through imaging gene-environment interactions

    PubMed Central

    Hyde, Luke W.; Bogdan, Ryan; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2011-01-01

    Examining the interplay of genes, experience, and the brain is critical to understanding psychopathology. We review the recent gene-environment interaction (GxE) and imaging genetics literature with the goal of developing models to bridge these approaches within single imaging gene-environment interaction (IGxE) studies. We explore challenges inherent in both GxE and imaging genetics and highlight studies that address these limitations. In specifying IGxE models, we examine statistical methods for combining these approaches, and explore plausible biological mechanisms (e.g., epigenetics) through which these conditional mechanisms can be understood. Finally, we discuss the potential contribution that IGxE studies can make to understanding psychopathology and developing more personalized and effective prevention and treatment. PMID:21839667

  3. Can Masturbatory Guilt Lead to Severe Psychopathology: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Aneja, Jitender; Grover, Sandeep; Avasthi, Ajit; Mahajan, Sudhir; Pokhrel, Prabhakar; Triveni, Davuluri

    2015-01-01

    Masturbation is common in all societies. Despite being common, it is admonished culturally and almost all religions prohibit masturbation and consider it an act of immorality. The prohibition for masturbation leads to a lot of cultural beliefs, including certain myths, which influence sexual behavior of the person. The impact of these common cultural myths associated with masturbation, are clinically understood as Dhat syndrome and masturbatory guilt. Although there is a reasonable literature on Dhat syndrome, there is limited literature with regard to masturbatory guilt especially linking the same with axis-I psychopathology. In this case series, three cases of masturbatory guilt are presented in whom masturbatory guilt was associated with manifestation of severe psychopathology. This report suggests that masturbatory guilt must be enquired for in patients presenting with severe mental disorder. PMID:25722518

  4. Cyberbullying, problematic internet use, and psychopathologic symptoms among Korean youth.

    PubMed

    Jung, Young-Eun; Leventhal, Bennett; Kim, Young Shin; Park, Tae Won; Lee, Sheen-Hoo; Lee, Myeongmi; Park, Seon Hee; Yang, Jong-Chul; Chung, Young-Chul; Chung, Sang-Keun; Park, Jong-Il

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the associations between cyberbullying behaviors and problematic internet use, and to compare psychopathologic symptoms in victims, perpetrators, and victims-perpetrators of cyberbullying to those in youths who were not involved in cyberbullying. A total of 4531 youths (11-14 years of age) were recruited from elementary and middle schools. Among 4531 youths, 9.7% were involved in cyberbullying; 3.3% were only victims; 3.4% were only perpetrators; and 3.0% were victims-perpetrators. Cyberbullying behaviors were associated with problematic internet use as well as various psychopathologic symptoms. Depressive symptoms were associated with cyberbullying victimization, and rule-breaking behaviors and aggressive behaviors have relevance to cyberbullying perpetration. Greater attention needs to be paid to identify youths earlier who are involved in cyberbullying and prevent serious adverse consequences in them. PMID:24719154

  5. Cyberbullying, Problematic Internet Use, and Psychopathologic Symptoms among Korean Youth

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Young-Eun; Leventhal, Bennett; Kim, Young Shin; Lee, Sheen-Hoo; Lee, Myeongmi; Park, Seon Hee; Yang, Jong-Chul; Chung, Young-Chul; Chung, Sang-Keun; Park, Jong-Il

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the associations between cyberbullying behaviors and problematic internet use, and to compare psychopathologic symptoms in victims, perpetrators, and victims-perpetrators of cyberbullying to those in youths who were not involved in cyberbullying. A total of 4531 youths (11-14 years of age) were recruited from elementary and middle schools. Among 4531 youths, 9.7% were involved in cyberbullying; 3.3% were only victims; 3.4% were only perpetrators; and 3.0% were victims-perpetrators. Cyberbullying behaviors were associated with problematic internet use as well as various psychopathologic symptoms. Depressive symptoms were associated with cyberbullying victimization, and rule-breaking behaviors and aggressive behaviors have relevance to cyberbullying perpetration. Greater attention needs to be paid to identify youths earlier who are involved in cyberbullying and prevent serious adverse consequences in them. PMID:24719154

  6. Can masturbatory guilt lead to severe psychopathology: a case series.

    PubMed

    Aneja, Jitender; Grover, Sandeep; Avasthi, Ajit; Mahajan, Sudhir; Pokhrel, Prabhakar; Triveni, Davuluri

    2015-01-01

    Masturbation is common in all societies. Despite being common, it is admonished culturally and almost all religions prohibit masturbation and consider it an act of immorality. The prohibition for masturbation leads to a lot of cultural beliefs, including certain myths, which influence sexual behavior of the person. The impact of these common cultural myths associated with masturbation, are clinically understood as Dhat syndrome and masturbatory guilt. Although there is a reasonable literature on Dhat syndrome, there is limited literature with regard to masturbatory guilt especially linking the same with axis-I psychopathology. In this case series, three cases of masturbatory guilt are presented in whom masturbatory guilt was associated with manifestation of severe psychopathology. This report suggests that masturbatory guilt must be enquired for in patients presenting with severe mental disorder. PMID:25722518

  7. Positive attributes in children and reduced risk of future psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Vidal-Ribas, Pablo; Goodman, Robert; Stringaris, Argyris

    2015-01-01

    Background There is little research on children’s positive attributes and their association with psychiatric outcomes. Aims To examine the hypothesis that children’s positive attributes are associated with a reduced risk of developing psychopathology in future. Method Positive attributes, measured with the Youth Strengths Inventory (YSI) and psychiatric outcomes were assessed on two occasions over 3 years in a large epidemiological sample of British children and adolescents (n = 5325). Results The YSI showed high to moderate cross-informant correlations and longitudinal stability. Children scoring high on positive attributes at baseline had fewer psychiatric symptoms and disorders at follow-up, adjusting for symptoms at baseline, disorder at baseline and child and family factors. Analyses with propensity score matching also suggested that positive attributes decrease the likelihood of psychiatric morbidity. Conclusions Children’s positive attributes are associated with significantly less psychopathology across time and may be a target for intervention. PMID:25359925

  8. [Psychopathology of miscarriages and psychic disorders following fertility treatments].

    PubMed

    Leal Herrero, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the psychic disorders that frequently follow miscarriages. We specify the clinical forms under which such disorders appear and argue in favour of establishing a "Post-Abortion Syndrome" which would include the symptoms that form the basis of the psychopathological reactions that follow miscarriages. We will also study the psychological and psychopathological reactions to be found in couples -in both men and women-, who undergo fertility treatments, offering a brief description of the psychodynamic aspects that affect the couple. Furthermore, we will stress the biological and psychological risks that appear as a consequence of fertility treatments and offer an ethical evaluation of these risks, warning of the long-term consequences of human reproductive techniques. PMID:19799480

  9. Future Directions in Emotion Dysregulation and Youth Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Beauchaine, Theodore P

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews central nervous system substrates and autonomic correlates of emotion dysregulation and offers several suggestions for future research. Studies conducted in the last two decades indicate that effective emotion regulation requires efficient top-down, cortically mediated regulation of bottom-up, subcortically mediated individual differences in trait impulsivity and trait anxiety. Without making critical distinctions between highly heritable individual differences in trait impulsivity and trait anxiety, versus less heritable and more socialized deficiencies in emotion regulation, progress in understanding the development of psychopathology among children and adolescents will be hampered. Future research can also be improved by measuring emotion dysregulation across multiple level of analysis, specifying physiological mechanisms through which operant reinforcement shapes emotional lability, improving the internal and external validity of psychophysiological measures, integrating emotion dysregulation into factor analytic and behavioral genetic models of psychopathology, identifying molecular genetic risk for emotion dysregulation, and expanding neuroimaging research on emotion dysregulation among children and adolescents. PMID:26016727

  10. Science and morals in the affective psychopathology of Philippe Pinel.

    PubMed

    Charland, Louis C

    2010-03-01

    Building on what he believed was a new 'medico-philosophical' method, Philippe Pinel made a bold theoretical attempt to find a place for the passions and other affective posits in psychopathology. However, his courageous attempt to steer affectivity onto the high seas of medical science ran aground on two great reefs that still threaten the scientific status of affectivity today. Epistemologically, there is the elusive nature of the signs and symptoms of affectivity. Ethically, there is the stubborn manner in which fact and value are intermingled in affectivity. Both obstacles posed insuperable difficulties for Pinel, who never really managed to extricate his affective psychopathology from the confines of the Lockean intellectual paradigm. PMID:21877429

  11. [Explicative psychopathology in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a postrationalist viewpoint].

    PubMed

    Mannino, Gherardo

    2011-01-01

    While descriptive psychopathology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is now well-established, there is still a lack of a satisfying model of explicative psychopathology that explains the mechanisms that generate obsessive phenomenology. The main attempts to delineate such a model are based on cognitive therapy: according to this approach OCD is a consequence of dysfunctional beliefs (i.e. overestimation of the risk or of the influence of one's own mind on the reality). On the contrary, according to postrationalist cognitive approach, OCD would be based on a characteristic personality structure, which could be identified not only in patients with OCD but also in those who will never develop symptoms. In symptomatic individuals this organization ("Obsessive" Personal Meaning Organization) is more rigidly structured. In particular, there is crystallization of so-called diachronic attitude, which is the key to explain most of the symptoms. PMID:22322688

  12. Adolescent online gambling in Cyprus: associated school performance and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Floros, Georgios; Paradisioti, Anna; Hadjimarcou, Michalis; Mappouras, Demetrios G; Karkanioti, Olga; Siomos, Konstantinos

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents results from the study of gambling behaviors in a representative sample of Cypriot high-school students. The aim of the study was to ascertain epidemiology of adolescent online gambling in Cyprus and possible correlates. The sample consisted of 2,684 students (48.5% boys, 51.5% girls) from the first grades of junior (Gymnasium) and senior (Lyceum) high school. Our results indicate that gamblers presented with lower school achievement and related expectations while scoring consistently higher on measures of Internet addiction, parental bonding and psychopathology. Discriminant analysis revealed two profiles which explained the most variance in gambling behavior; the first profile that corresponded to more explained variance was the student with higher psychopathology, less prosocial behavior, higher Internet addiction score with higher frequencies of online activities and moderate levels of truancy and lower expectation of school achievement. The second profile was that of a student who reported less psychopathology, more prosocial behavior, less involvement with the Internet in general but skipped classes more and his prospects on finishing high school were even slimmer. These results will be utilized in the design of a comprehensive prevention program in an effort to combat online addictive behaviors. PMID:24293015

  13. Prevalence and correlates of asthma in children with internalizing psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Meuret, Alicia E; Ehrenreich, Jill T; Pincus, Donna B; Ritz, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the prevalence rate of parent-reported asthma in children with internalizing disorders seeking psychological treatment, and to study the level of internalizing and externalizing problems in these patients compared to patients without asthma. Participants were 367 children (ages 5-18 years) with internalizing disorders seeking psychological treatment. Children's psychiatric diagnosis was established with the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV-Child and Parent versions. Parents reported on their child's asthma diagnosis, medical history, and medication usage. Child psychopathology was assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist and by child self-report with the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children and the Children's Depression Inventory. We assessed internalizing psychopathology of the mothers with the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale. An additional diagnosis of parent-reported asthma was established for 15% of the children diagnosed with an Axis I internalizing disorder, a prevalence rate markedly higher than reported for current parent-reported childhood asthma in the U.S. population. Patients with asthma showed higher levels of internalizing problems than their nonasthmatic counterparts. Internalizing psychopathology was not higher for mothers of patients with asthma. Asthma is a significant problem within the population of patients with childhood internalizing disorders. It can be accompanied by a greater severity of internalizing problems and may require specific precautions in the treatment protocol. Though parent report of asthma diagnosis is commonly used in surveys of childhood asthma, our findings have to be viewed in the light of its limitations. PMID:16841339

  14. The comparative psychopathology of affective disorders in animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Healy, D

    1987-01-01

    Reviews of animal models of affective disorders commonly concentrate on the behavioural features thereof, the supposed neurochemical substrates, the mode of production and the response to treatment of the state in question but ignore questions of psycho pathology. An attempt is made to deal critically with the psychopathology of human and animal affective disorders in the light of current operational criteria for the diagnosis of major depressive disorders. It is argued thatthe psychopathological tradition stemming from Jaspers may be more appropriate to a consideration of animal models of affective disorders than the psychopathological positions implicit in psychoanalysis, behaviourism or current cognitive psychologies and in addition more suited to meet these criteria. The adoption of such a perspective results in a shift of emphasis from abnormalities of psychological content to demonstrable neuropsychological deficits and a definition of affective disorders, whether in animals or humans, as psychosomatic illnesses, possibly involving a pathology of circadian rhythmicity. This perspective also suggests that animal models may be useful in the devel opment of more refined diagnostic criteria for affective disorders in humans. PMID:22158981

  15. Psychopathology and offense types in detained male juveniles.

    PubMed

    Plattner, Belinda; Giger, Joël; Bachmann, Friedel; Brühwiler, Karl; Steiner, Hans; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Bessler, Cornelia; Aebi, Marcel

    2012-07-30

    A substantial proportion of violent crime is committed by juveniles. In detained juveniles, high rates of psychopathology have been found. The objective of this study was to determine psychopathology associated with offense characteristics in detained male adolescents. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to assess juvenile detainees. The final sample included 275 males (mean age=16.45, S.D.=1.27 years). Multivariate logistic regressions yielded significant associations between psychopathology and specific offense types: The presence of substance use disorders (without alcohol) (SUD) was found to predict drug-related crimes, and the presence of alcohol use disorders (AUD) without further SUD were a predictor of violent crime, especially in older juveniles. The absence of anxiety disorder, especially in younger juveniles, was found to be relevant for the prediction of robbery. The results of the study suggest that the use and abuse of legal and illegal substances might be a trigger for serious violent and drug-related crimes in juveniles. In particular, the presence of AUD is presumed to have a pivotal role in the development of impulsive aggression. These findings are important when considering the serious social impact of violent behaviors in adolescents. PMID:22445705

  16. The Structure of Psychopathology: Toward an Expanded Quantitative Empirical Model

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Aidan G.C.; Krueger, Robert F.; Hobbs, Megan J.; Markon, Kristian E.; Eaton, Nicholas R.; Slade, Tim

    2013-01-01

    There has been substantial recent interest in the development of a quantitative, empirically based model of psychopathology. However, the majority of pertinent research has focused on analyses of diagnoses, as described in current official nosologies. This is a significant limitation because existing diagnostic categories are often heterogeneous. In the current research, we aimed to redress this limitation of the existing literature, and to directly compare the fit of categorical, continuous, and hybrid (i.e., combined categorical and continuous) models of syndromes derived from indicators more fine-grained than diagnoses. We analyzed data from a large representative epidemiologic sample (the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing; N = 8,841). Continuous models provided the best fit for each syndrome we observed (Distress, Obsessive Compulsivity, Fear, Alcohol Problems, Drug Problems, and Psychotic Experiences). In addition, the best fitting higher-order model of these syndromes grouped them into three broad spectra: Internalizing, Externalizing, and Psychotic Experiences. We discuss these results in terms of future efforts to refine emerging empirically based, dimensional-spectrum model of psychopathology, and to use the model to frame psychopathology research more broadly. PMID:23067258

  17. Disentangling the drivers of metacommunity structure across spatial scales

    PubMed Central

    Meynard, Christine N.; Lavergne, Sébastien; Boulangeat, Isabelle; Garraud, Luc; Van Es, Jérémie; Mouquet, Nicolas; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Aim Metacommunity theories attribute different relative degrees of importance to dispersal, environmental filtering, biotic interactions and stochastic processes in community assembly, but the role of spatial scale remains uncertain. Here we used two complementary statistical tools to test: (1) whether or not the patterns of community structure and environmental influences are consistent across resolutions; and (2) whether and how the joint use of two fundamentally different statistical approaches provides a complementary interpretation of results. Location Grassland plants in the French Alps. Methods We used two approaches across five spatial resolutions (ranging from 1 km × 1 km to 30 km × 30 km): variance partitioning, and analysis of metacommunity structure on the site-by-species incidence matrices. Both methods allow the testing of expected patterns resulting from environmental filtering, but variance partitioning allows the role of dispersal and environmental gradients to be studied, while analysis of the site-by-species metacommunity structure informs an understanding of how environmental filtering occurs and whether or not patterns differ from chance expectation. We also used spatial regressions on species richness to identify relevant environmental factors at each scale and to link results from the two approaches. Results Major environmental drivers of richness included growing degree-days, temperature, moisture and spatial or temporal heterogeneity. Variance partitioning pointed to an increase in the role of dispersal at coarser resolutions, while metacommunity structure analysis pointed to environmental filtering having an important role at all resolutions through a Clementsian assembly process (i.e. groups of species having similar range boundaries and co-occurring in similar environments). Main conclusions The combination of methods used here allows a better understanding of the forces structuring ecological communities than either one of them used

  18. The association between perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology and depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Rasing, Sanne P. A.; Creemers, Daan H. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental depression and anxiety is known to heighten the risk of internalizing symptoms and disorders in children and adolescents. Ample research has focused on the influence of maternal depression and anxiety, but the contribution of psychopathology in fathers remains unclear. We studied the relationships of perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology with adolescents’ depression and anxiety symptoms in a general population sample of 862 adolescent girls (age M = 12.39, SD = 0.79). Assessments included adolescents’ self-reports of their own depression and anxiety as well as their reports of maternal and paternal psychopathology. We found that perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology were both related to depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls. A combination of higher maternal and paternal psychopathology was related to even higher levels of depression and anxiety in adolescent girls. Our findings showed that adolescents’ perceptions of their parents’ psychopathology are significantly related to their own emotional problems. PMID:26257664

  19. Spatiotemporal psychopathology I: No rest for the brain's resting state activity in depression? Spatiotemporal psychopathology of depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Northoff, Georg

    2016-01-15

    Despite intense neurobiological investigation in psychiatric disorders like major depressive disorder (MDD), the basic disturbance that underlies the psychopathological symptoms of MDD remains, nevertheless, unclear. Neuroimaging has focused mainly on the brain's extrinsic activity, specifically task-evoked or stimulus-induced activity, as related to the various sensorimotor, affective, cognitive, and social functions. Recently, the focus has shifted to the brain's intrinsic activity, otherwise known as its resting state activity. While various abnormalities have been observed during this activity, their meaning and significance for depression, along with its various psychopathological symptoms, are yet to be defined. Based on findings in healthy brain resting state activity and its particular spatial and temporal structure - defined in a functional and physiological sense rather than anatomical and structural - I claim that the various depressive symptoms are spatiotemporal disturbances of the resting state activity and its spatiotemporal structure. This is supported by recent findings that link ruminations and increased self-focus in depression to abnormal spatial organization of resting state activity. Analogously, affective and cognitive symptoms like anhedonia, suicidal ideation, and thought disorder can be traced to an increased focus on the past, increased past-focus as basic temporal disturbance o the resting state. Based on these findings, I conclude that the various depressive symptoms must be conceived as spatiotemporal disturbances of the brain's resting state's activity and its spatiotemporal structure. Importantly, this entails a new form of psychopathology, "Spatiotemporal Psychopathology" that directly links the brain and psyche, therefore having major diagnostic and therapeutic implications for clinical practice. PMID:26048657

  20. Children exposed to intimate partner violence: Identifying differential effects of family environment on children's trauma and psychopathology symptoms through regression mixture models.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Shelby Elaine; Shin, Sunny; Corona, Rosalie; Maternick, Anna; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A; Ascione, Frank R; Herbert Williams, James

    2016-08-01

    The majority of analytic approaches aimed at understanding the influence of environmental context on children's socioemotional adjustment assume comparable effects of contextual risk and protective factors for all children. Using self-reported data from 289 maternal caregiver-child dyads, we examined the degree to which there are differential effects of severity of intimate partner violence (IPV) exposure, yearly household income, and number of children in the family on posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS) and psychopathology symptoms (i.e., internalizing and externalizing problems) among school-age children between the ages of 7-12 years. A regression mixture model identified three latent classes that were primarily distinguished by differential effects of IPV exposure severity on PTS and psychopathology symptoms: (1) asymptomatic with low sensitivity to environmental factors (66% of children), (2) maladjusted with moderate sensitivity (24%), and (3) highly maladjusted with high sensitivity (10%). Children with mothers who had higher levels of education were more likely to be in the maladjusted with moderate sensitivity group than the asymptomatic with low sensitivity group. Latino children were less likely to be in both maladjusted groups compared to the asymptomatic group. Overall, the findings suggest differential effects of family environmental factors on PTS and psychopathology symptoms among children exposed to IPV. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:27337691

  1. The impact of body image-related cognitive fusion on eating psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Inês A; Ferreira, Cláudia

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown that cognitive fusion underlies psychological inflexibility and in consequence various forms of psychopathology. However, the role of cognitive fusion specifically related to body image on eating psychopathology remained to be examined. The current study explores the impact of cognitive fusion concerning body image in the relation between acknowledged related risk factors and eating psychopathology in a sample of 342 female students. The impact of body dissatisfaction and social comparison through physical appearance on eating psychopathology was partially mediated by body image-related cognitive fusion. The results highlight the importance of cognitive defusion in the treatment of eating disorders. PMID:24411754

  2. Conscientiousness and externalizing psychopathology: overlap, developmental patterns, and etiology of two related constructs.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Brent W; Jackson, Joshua J; Berger, Jessica M; Burger, Jessica; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the trait domain of conscientiousness, its development, and its relation to psychopathology. The definition of conscientiousness and its interface with specific forms of psychopathology, such as externalizing psychopathology, are discussed first. Then an overview of the known developmental changes in conscientiousness across the life course is provided, as well as the potential shared developmental etiology of conscientiousness and externalizing psychopathology. Given the lack of data, testing etiological factors that may contribute to the development of both conscientiousness and externalizing disorders, we report on three studies examining the childhood experiences associated with both conscientiousness and externalizing behaviors. Last, future directions are discussed. PMID:19583888

  3. HIV risk and history of STDs in MCMI-III psychopathology subgroups of comorbid substance abusers.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Robert C; Malow, Robert M; Devieux, Jessy; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Jennings, Terri

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to investigate HIV risk-related attitudes, beliefs, expectancies, behaviors, and histories of lifetime sexually transmitted diseases in the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory III (MCMI-III) defined psychopathology cluster subgroups. Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis, using Ward's method, was employed that led to identification of high (n = 37), medium (n = 132), and low (n = 28) MCMI-III psychopathology cluster subgroups. Members of the low psychopathology subgroup demonstrated significantly higher levels of knowledge about HIV and AIDS and less anxiety about HIV infection than high and moderate psychopathology subgroups. The high psychopathology subgroup reported greater importance of approval of condom use by partners but less sexual self-efficacy than the moderate psychopathology subgroup. This high pathology group revealed less favorable condom attitudes than did the low psychopathology subgroup and a significantly higher percentage of unprotected vaginal sex acts in the past 6 months than did members of the other two subgroups. A comparatively low rate of lifetime syphilis was reported in the low psychopathology subgroup (all ps < .05). Results are discussed in the context of a growing literature indicating distinctive treatment needs among members of high psychopathology subgroups of drug treatment participants. PMID:18428075

  4. Disentangling the drivers of coarse woody debris behavior and carbon gas emissions during fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Weiwei; van der Werf, Guido R.; van Logtestijn, Richard S. P.; van Hal, Jurgen R.; Cornelissen, Johannes H. C.

    2016-04-01

    The turnover of coarse woody debris, a key terrestrial carbon pool, plays fundamental roles in global carbon cycling. Biological decomposition and fire are two main fates for dead wood turnover. Compared to slow decomposition, fire rapidly transfers organic carbon from the earth surface to the atmosphere. Both a-biotic environmental factors and biotic wood properties determine coarse wood combustion and thereby its carbon gas emissions during fire. Moisture is a key inhibitory environmental factor for fire. The properties of dead wood strongly affect how it burns either directly or indirectly through interacting with moisture. Coarse wood properties vary between plant species and between various decay stages. Moreover, if we put a piece of dead wood in the context of a forest fuel bed, the soil and wood contact might also greatly affect their fire behavior. Using controlled laboratory burns, we disentangled the effects of all these driving factors: tree species (one gymnosperms needle-leaf species, three angiosperms broad-leaf species), wood decay stages (freshly dead, middle decayed, very strongly decayed), moisture content (air-dried, 30% moisture content in mass), and soil-wood contact (on versus 3cm above the ground surface) on dead wood flammability and carbon gas efflux (CO2 and CO released in grams) during fire. Wood density was measured for all coarse wood samples used in our experiment. We found that compared to other drivers, wood decay stages have predominant positive effects on coarse wood combustion (for wood mass burned, R2=0.72 when air-dried and R2=0.52 at 30% moisture content) and associated carbon gas emissions (for CO2andCO (g) released, R2=0.55 when air-dried and R2=0.42 at 30% moisture content) during fire. Thus, wood decay accelerates wood combustion and its CO2 and CO emissions during fire, which can be mainly attributed to the decreasing wood density (for wood mass burned, R2=0.91 when air-dried and R2=0.63 at 30% moisture content) as wood

  5. Is Religiosity Related to Better Parenting?: Disentangling Religiosity from Religious Cognitive Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duriez, Bart; Soenens, Bart; Neyrinck, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2009-01-01

    This study examines associations between parental religiosity and parenting in a sample of 482 mother-child and 453 father-child dyads. Parents complete a religiosity measure that allows disentangling the effects of being religious from the effects of the way in which people process religious contents (i.e., literal vs. symbolic). In addition,…

  6. The Role of ADHD in Academic Adversity: Disentangling ADHD Effects from Other Personal and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience significant academic difficulties that can lead to numerous negative academic consequences. With a focus on adverse academic outcomes, this study seeks to disentangle variance attributable to ADHD from variance attributable to salient personal and contextual covariates.…

  7. Advances in Disentangling Age, Cohort, and Time Effects: No Quadrature of the Circle, but a Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masche, J. Gowert; van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.

    2004-01-01

    Based on Schaie's (1965) general developmental model, various data-driven and theory-based approaches to the exploration and disentangling of age, cohort, and time effects on human behavior have emerged. This paper presents and discusses an advancement of data-driven interpretations that stresses parsimony when interpreting the results of…

  8. Disentangling School Reform Outcomes from School Philanthropy Influences: The Kalamazoo Promise Two Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacefield, Warren E.; Van Kannel-Ray, Nancy; Zeller, Pam; Applegate, Brooks

    2009-01-01

    This study tracks initial effects of a philanthropic effort, while disentangling its effects from a major concurrently administrated school improvement initiative. Significant positive effects attributable to both efforts were noted in a middle school student sample. The full impact of the philanthropic and school improvement initiatives will…

  9. Complex decay patterns in atomic core photoionization disentangled by ion-recoil measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Guillemin, Renaud; Bomme, Cedric; Marin, Thierry; Journel, Loic; Marchenko, Tatiana; Kushawaha, Rajesh K.; Piancastelli, Maria Novella; Simon, Marc; Trcera, Nicolas

    2011-12-15

    Following core 1s ionization and resonant excitation of argon atoms, we measure the recoil energy of the ions due to momentum conservation during the emission of Auger electrons. We show that such ion momentum spectroscopy can be used to disentangle to some degree complex decay patterns, involving both radiative and nonradiative decays.

  10. Disentangling giant component and finite cluster contributions in sparse random matrix spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, Reimer

    2016-04-01

    We describe a method for disentangling giant component and finite cluster contributions to sparse random matrix spectra, using sparse symmetric random matrices defined on Erdős-Rényi graphs as an example and test bed. Our methods apply to sparse matrices defined in terms of arbitrary graphs in the configuration model class, as long as they have finite mean degree.

  11. Disentangling giant component and finite cluster contributions in sparse random matrix spectra.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Reimer

    2016-04-01

    We describe a method for disentangling giant component and finite cluster contributions to sparse random matrix spectra, using sparse symmetric random matrices defined on Erdős-Rényi graphs as an example and test bed. Our methods apply to sparse matrices defined in terms of arbitrary graphs in the configuration model class, as long as they have finite mean degree. PMID:27176257

  12. Across-Task Priming Revisited: Response and Task Conflicts Disentangled Using Ex-Gaussian Distribution Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moutsopoulou, Karolina; Waszak, Florian

    2012-01-01

    The differential effects of task and response conflict in priming paradigms where associations are strengthened between a stimulus, a task, and a response have been demonstrated in recent years with neuroimaging methods. However, such effects are not easily disentangled with only measurements of behavior, such as reaction times (RTs). Here, we…

  13. Disentangling the Relationship between Child Maltreatment and Violent Delinquency: Using a Nationally Representative Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yun, Ilhong; Ball, Jeremy D.; Lim, Hyeyoung

    2011-01-01

    This study uses the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescents (Add Health) data, a nationally representative sample of adolescents, to disentangle the relationship between child maltreatment and violent delinquency. Also examined are potential moderating effects of gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and religiosity on the association between…

  14. Thought disorder in the meta-structure of psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, K. M.; Eaton, N. R.; Krueger, R. F.; Skodol, A. E.; Wall, M. M.; Grant, B.; Siever, L. J.; Hasin, D. S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dimensional models of co-morbidity have the potential to improve the conceptualization of mental disorders in research and clinical work, yet little is known about how relatively uncommon disorders may fit with more common disorders. The present study estimated the meta-structure of psychopathology in the US general population focusing on the placement of five under-studied disorders sharing features of thought disorder: paranoid, schizoid, avoidant and schizotypal personality disorders, and manic episodes as well as bipolar disorder. Method Data were drawn from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a face-to-face interview of 34 653 non-institutionalized adults in the US general population. The meta-structure of 16 DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II psychiatric disorders, as assessed by the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule DSM-IV version (AUDADIS-IV), was examined using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Results We document an empirically derived thought disorder factor that is a subdomain of the internalizing dimension, characterized by schizoid, paranoid, schizotypal and avoidant personality disorders as well as manic episodes. Manic episodes exhibit notable associations with both the distress subdomain of the internalizing dimension as well as the thought disorder subdomain. The structure was replicated for bipolar disorder (I or II) in place of manic episodes. Conclusions As our understanding of psychopathological meta-structure expands, incorporation of disorders characterized by detachment and psychoticism grows increasingly important. Disorders characterized by detachment and psychoticism may be well conceptualized, organized and measured as a subdimension of the internalizing spectrum of disorders. Manic episodes and bipolar disorder exhibit substantial co-morbidity across both distress and thought disorder domains of the internalizing dimension. Clinically, these results

  15. [Neuropsychological and psychopathologic changes following cardiac surgical procedures].

    PubMed

    Walzer, T A; Herrmann, M

    1998-02-01

    Neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric disorders following open heart surgery are estimated to occur in as many as 80 per cent of all patients. They have been recognised from the very beginning of modern heart surgery. Despite a huge amount of scientific literature, data concerning incidence, the phenomenology and duration of symptoms diverge. This finding may be explained by heterogeneous aetiopathogenetic concepts and methodological and terminological problems associated with the investigation of postoperative delirium or neuropsychological and psychopathological sequelae of cardiac surgery. Nowadays, most authors agree in respect of a multifactorial pathogenesis of cognitive deficits following cardiac surgery. Factors influencing the psychopathological and neuropsychological outcome of cardiac surgery can be divided into pre-, intra- and postoperative variables. Advanced age, degree of cardiovascular impairment and other case histories, as well as history of drug abuse, are those preoperative variables that may be responsible for a postoperative cognitive decline. The predictive value of personality traits (depression and/or anxiety), however, is most controversial. Among the intraoperative variables related to the postoperative cognitive state, are e.g. the type of operation and technical procedure (micro-/macroembolism due to the way of oxygenation, pulsatile/-non-pulsatile flow) and duration of extracorporeal circulation. In the postoperative period, the duration of intubation or ICU stay and related variables (like sleep or sensory deprivation/hyperstimulation) were identified as significant predictors of neuropsychological and psychopathological alterations. Modern research focusses on neurobiochemical markers of brain injury which may serve as early predictors of a postoperative cognitive decrease. These parameters may indicate an early postoperative diagnosis and neuroprotective treatment in patients at risk. PMID:9512983

  16. Dimensional psychopathology in preschool offspring of parents with bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Maoz, Hagai; Goldstein, Tina; Axelson, David A.; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Fan, Jieyu; Hickey, Mary Beth; Monk, Kelly; Sakolsky, Dara; Diler, Rasim S.; Brent, David; Iyengar, Satish; Kupfer, David J.; Birmaher, Boris

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to compare the dimensional psychopathology, as ascertained by parental report, in preschool offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BP) and offspring of community control parents. Methods 122 preschool offspring (mean age 3.3 years) of 84 parents with BP, with 102 offspring of 65 control parents (36 healthy, 29 with non-BP psychopathology), were evaluated using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the CBCL-Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP), the Early Childhood Inventory (ECI-4), and the Emotionality Activity Sociability (EAS) survey. Teachers’ Report Forms (TRF) were available for 51 preschoolers. Results After adjusting for confounders, offspring of parents with BP showed higher scores in the CBCL total, externalizing, somatic, sleep, aggressive, and CBCL-DP subscales; the ECI-4 sleep problem scale; and the EAS total and emotionality scale. The proportion of offspring with CBCL T-scores ≥2 SD above the norm was significantly higher on most CBCL subscales and the CBCL-DP in offspring of parents with BP compared to offspring of controls even after excluding offspring with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and/or oppositional defiant disorder. Compared to offspring of parents with BP-I, offspring of parents with BP-II showed significantly higher scores in total and most CBCL subscales, the ECI-4 anxiety and sleep scales and the EAS emotionality scale. For both groups of parents, there were significant correlations between CBCL and TRF scores (r = .32–.38, p-values ≤.02). Conclusions Independent of categorical axis-I psychopathology and other demographic or clinical factors in both biological parents, preschool offspring of parents with BP have significantly greater aggression, mood dysregulation, sleep disturbances, and somatic complaints compared to offspring of control parents. Interventions to target these symptoms are warranted. PMID:24372351

  17. [Neuropsychology and psychopathology: cognitive analysis during medically refractory epilepsy surgery].

    PubMed

    Thomas-Antérion, C

    2008-05-01

    In psychopathology, few studies have been focused on the psychiatric complications of medically refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). The aim of the present study was to study NG's capacities, who presented emotional change after right temporal epilepsy surgery with phobias and empathy disorders. NG was examined in two emotional judgment tasks: one explicit and another implicit. For negative stimuli, NG had attraction in the explicit task and dependency in the implicit task. This study suggests that surgical intervention might be one of the causes of postoperative psychiatric disorders in patients with MTLE. MTLE patients have to be explored with neuropsychological paradigms. PMID:18675038

  18. [Psychopathology of asylum seekers in Europe, trauma and defensive functioning].

    PubMed

    Mazur, V M-L; Chahraoui, K; Bissler, L

    2015-06-01

    Refugees seeking asylum are a particularly vulnerable population. It has been observed that among the most commonly-occurring disorders exhibited in this population, there is a high incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and depression. These disorders may be linked to the difficult paths that refugees are forced to undertake, as well as to different traumatic events which are particularly destructive psychologically (deliberate physical, sexual and/or psychological violence, traumatic bereavements in the context of war, or social and political instability, socio-economic, familial or administrative difficulties), which compromise their view of their short-term futures. In the face of the weight of these life events, the question of the psychological resources of the individual is at the forefront of our understanding of mental health and the capacity to adjust to trauma. Our study aims to apprehend in a dynamic way, the different strategies used by asylum seekers in our western countries to adjust psychologically to traumatic and stressful events. The aim of this research is to study the links between mental health and anxious and depressive psychopathologies as well as the defensive modalities of these subjects. One hundred and twenty adult asylum seekers, living in refugee centres in Slovakia, France and Norway have agreed to participate in this study. We tried to assess the psychopathological disorders manifesting in these populations, notably PTSD, major depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Using the DSQ-60 we also tried to establish the links between the psychopathologies observed in this population and the defence mechanisms employed. Our results reveal that 60% of subjects do indeed suffer from psychopathological disorders with an important comorbidity of PTSB and depression (64.2%). Furthermore, the seriousness of the symptoms is correlated with less adaptive defence mechanisms (a higher incidence of defence

  19. The impact of leptin on perinatal development and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Valleau, Jeanette C; Sullivan, Elinor L

    2014-11-01

    Leptin has long been associated with metabolism as it is a critical regulator of both food intake and energy expenditure, but recently, leptin dysregulation has been proposed as a mechanism of psychopathology. This review discusses the evidence supporting a role for leptin in mental health disorders and describes potential mechanisms that may underlie this association. Leptin plays a critical role in pregnancy and in fetal growth and development. Leptin's role and profile during development is examined in available human studies, and the validity of applying studies conducted in animal models to the human population are discussed. Rodents experience a postnatal leptin surge, which does not occur in humans or larger animal models. This suggests that further research using large mammal models, which have a leptin profile across pregnancy and development similar to humans, are of high importance. Maternal obesity and hyperleptinemia correlate with increased leptin levels in the umbilical cord, placenta, and fetus. Leptin levels are thought to impact fetal brain development; likely by activating proinflammatory cytokines that are known to impact many of the neurotransmitter systems that regulate behavior. Leptin is likely involved in behavioral regulation as leptin receptors are widely distributed in the brain, and leptin influences cortisol release, the mesoaccumbens dopamine pathway, serotonin synthesis, and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. In humans, both high and low levels of leptin are reported to be associated with psychopathology. This inconsistency is likely due to differences in the metabolic state of the study populations. Leptin resistance, which occurs in the obese state, may explain how both high and low levels of leptin are associated with psychopathology, as well as the comorbidity of obesity with numerous mental illnesses. Leptin resistance is likely to influence disorders such as depression and anxiety where high leptin levels have been correlated

  20. The Impact of Leptin on Perinatal Development and Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Valleau, Jeanette C.; Sullivan, Elinor L.

    2014-01-01

    Leptin has long been associated with metabolism as it is a critical regulator of both food intake and energy expenditure, but recently, leptin dysregulation has been proposed as a mechanism of psychopathology. This review discusses the evidence supporting a role for leptin in mental health disorders and describes potential mechanisms that may underlie this association. Leptin plays a critical role in pregnancy and in fetal growth and development. Leptin’s role and profile during development is examined in available human studies and the validity of applying studies conducted in animal models to the human population are discussed. Rodents experience a postnatal leptin surge, which does not occur in humans or larger animal models. This suggests that further research using large mammal models, which have a leptin profile across pregnancy and development similar to humans, are of high importance. Maternal obesity and hyperleptinemia correlate with increased leptin levels in the umbilical cord, placenta, and fetus. Leptin levels are thought to impact fetal brain development; likely by activating proinflammatory cytokines that are known to impact many of the neurotransmitter systems that regulate behavior. Leptin is likely involved in behavioral regulation as leptin receptors are widely distributed in the brain, and leptin influences cortisol release, the mesoaccumbens dopamine pathway, serotonin synthesis, and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. In humans, both high and low levels of leptin are reported to be associated with psychopathology. This inconsistency is likely due to differences in the metabolic state of the study populations. Leptin resistance, which occurs in the obese state, may explain how both high and low levels of leptin are associated with psychopathology, as well as the comorbidity of obesity with numerous mental illnesses. Leptin resistance is likely to influence disorders such as depression and anxiety where both high and low leptin levels have been

  1. Behavioural addictions: A challenge for psychopathology and psychiatric nosology.

    PubMed

    Starcevic, Vladan

    2016-08-01

    Disorders characterised by repetitive and problematic behaviours and poor impulse control have been increasingly conceptualised as behavioural addictions. This article examines the concept of behavioural addiction and argues that the addiction framework is only one approach to these behavioural disturbances. It cautions against a tendency to regard many activities that are performed with an extraordinary intensity or frequency and that have some negative consequences as behavioural addiction. There is a need for more research to better understand the links between repetitive and problematic behaviours and other psychopathology, as well as the function of these behaviours and factors that maintain them. PMID:27357713

  2. Criticisms of the psychopathological interpretation of witch hunts: a review.

    PubMed

    Schoeneman, T J

    1982-08-01

    The psychopathological interpretation of the European witch hunts of the 16th and 17th centuries, which has been prominent in histories of psychiatry, contends that demonology overwhelmed psychiatry in the late middle Ages, with the result that the mentally ill were executed by the thousands as witches. The author reviews the criticisms and contrary evidence that have been brought to bear on this paradigm in the past 20 years, including critiques of its data collection and interpretation, historical evidence which has failed to support its contentions, and questions about its implicit approach to the history and philosophy of science. PMID:7046480

  3. Psychometric and Structural Analysis of the MMPI-2 Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) Facet Subscales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quilty, Lena C.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2007-01-01

    The Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) is a model of personality psychopathology assessed in adult populations with a set of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) scales. The authors examine the reliability and validity of recently developed lower-order facet subscales for each of these five domains, with an emphasis on…

  4. Emotional Psychopathology and Increased Adiposity: Follow-Up Study in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aparicio, Estefania; Canals, Josefa; Voltas, Nuria; Hernandez-Martinez, Carmen; Arija, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Based on data from a three-year longitudinal study, we assess the effect, according to gender, of emotional psychopathology in preadolescence on anthropometric and body composition parameters in adolescence (N = 229). Psychopathology was assessed using the "Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders, the Children's Depression…

  5. Moderators of Informant Agreement in the Assessment of Adolescent Psychopathology: Extension to a Forensic Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penney, Stephanie R.; Skilling, Tracey A.

    2012-01-01

    A well-documented finding in developmental psychopathology research is that different informants often provide discrepant ratings of a youth's internalizing and externalizing problems. The current study examines youth- and parent-based moderators (i.e., youth age, gender, and IQ; type of psychopathology; offense category; psychopathic traits;…

  6. Psychopathology in Williams Syndrome: The Effect of Individual Differences across the Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Helen F.; Porter, Melanie A.

    2009-01-01

    This research aimed to comprehensively explore psychopathology in Williams syndrome (WS) across the life span and evaluate the relationship between psychopathology and age category (child or adult), gender, and cognitive ability. The parents of 50 participants with WS, ages 6-50 years, were interviewed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders…

  7. Social Cognition and Externalizing Psychopathology: An Investigation of the Mediating Role of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zadeh, Zohreh Yaghoub; Im-Bolter, Nancie; Cohen, Nancy J.

    2007-01-01

    The present study integrates findings from three lines of research on the association of social cognition and externalizing psychopathology, language and externalizing psychopathology, and social cognition and language functioning using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). To date these associations have been examined in pairs. A sample of 354…

  8. Degree of Exposure to Domestic Violence, Psychopathology, and Functional Impairment in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Eduard Bayarri; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Nuria; Domenech, Josep Maria

    2011-01-01

    There are discrepancies about whether children who witness and suffer domestic violence (DV) have similar outcomes in terms of psychopathology. This work examines the relationship between different types of exposure to DV and child psychopathology and functional impairment. One hundred and forty-four Spanish children aged from 4 to 17 years and…

  9. Relationships between Learning Disability, Executive Function, and Psychopathology in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattison, Richard E.; Mayes, Susan Dickerson

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Learning disabilities (LD), executive function (EF), and psychopathology were investigated to clarify their relationships in 595 children with ADHD. Method: Standard instruments for IQ, achievement, EF, and parent and teacher ratings of psychopathology were obtained at the time of outpatient evaluation. Results: Comparisons between the…

  10. The Past Achievements and Future Promises of Developmental Psychopathology: The Coming of Age of a Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decades, developmental psychopathology has coalesced into a discipline that has made significant contributions toward the understanding of risk, psychopathology, and resilience in individuals across the life course. The overarching goal of the discipline has been to elucidate the interplay among biological, psychological, and…

  11. Psychopathological Manifestations of Children with Intellectual Disabilities According to Their Cognitive and Adaptive Behavior Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Karine N.; Richer, Louis; Lachance, Lise; Cote, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Children with intellectual disabilities show deficits in cognitive abilities and adaptive behavior which increase the risk of psychopathological disorders. This exploratory study aims at delineating profiles of children based on their cognitive functioning and adaptive behaviors, and to compare them on psychopathological manifestations. A…

  12. The Role of Peer Stress and Pubertal Timing on Symptoms of Psychopathology during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sontag, Lisa M.; Graber, Julia A.; Clemans, Katherine H.

    2011-01-01

    Stress is known to amplify the link between pubertal timing and psychopathology. However, few studies have examined the role of peer stress as a context for this link. The present study examined the interaction between perceived pubertal timing and peer stress on symptoms of psychopathology in early adolescence. The sample consisted of 264…

  13. Recovering from Early Deprivation: Attachment Mediates Effects of Caregiving on Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGoron, Lucy; Gleason, Mary Margaret; Smyke, Anna T.; Drury, Stacy S.; Nelson, Charles A., III; Gregas, Matthew C.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Children exposed to early institutional rearing are at risk for developing psychopathology. The present investigation examines caregiving quality and the role of attachment security as they relate to symptoms of psychopathology in young children exposed to early institutionalization. Method: Participants were enrolled in the Bucharest…

  14. Distress Tolerance and Psychopathological Symptoms and Disorders: A Review of the Empirical Literature among Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyro, Teresa M.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Bernstein, Amit

    2010-01-01

    We review theory and empirical study of distress tolerance, an emerging risk factor candidate for various forms of psychopathology. Despite the long-standing interest in and promise of work on distress tolerance for understanding adult psychopathology, there has not been a comprehensive review of the extant empirical literature focused on the…

  15. Developmental Course of Psychopathology in Youths with and without Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Ruiter, Karen P.; Dekker, Marielle C.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Koot, Hans M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: We aimed to describe similarities and differences in the developmental course of psychopathology between children with and without intellectual disabilities (ID). Methods: Multilevel growth curve analysis was used to analyse the developmental course of psychopathology, using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), in two longitudinal…

  16. Does Experiential Avoidance Mediate the Effects of Maladaptive Coping Styles on Psychopathology and Mental Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fledderus, Martine; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.; Pieterse, Marcel E.

    2010-01-01

    Experiential avoidance (EA) is considered a risk factor for psychopathology. This study explores whether EA mediates the relationship between maladaptive coping styles (palliative, avoidance, and passive coping) and psychopathology and positive mental health. A total of 93 adults with mild to moderate psychological distress completed measures…

  17. Effects of Family Violence on Psychopathology Symptoms in Children Previously Exposed to Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Maikovich, Andrea Kohn; Jaffee, Sara R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Gallop, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Although many studies suggest that family violence is associated with child psychopathology, multiple features of the home environment might account for this association, such as poverty and caregiver psychopathology. Studies are needed examining how change in psychopathology symptoms is affected by home violence, controlling for children's own developmental symptom histories and other predictors of psychopathology. This study used latent difference score structural equation modeling to test if witnessing home violence and/or experiencing harsh physical discipline predicted changes in psychopathology symptoms among 2,925 youth aged 5 – 16 years previously exposed to violence. Results demonstrated that harsh physical discipline predicted child-specific changes in externalizing symptoms, whereas witnessing violence predicted child-specific changes in internalizing symptoms across time. Implications for research and policy are discussed. PMID:18826538

  18. Relative deprivation and psychopathology of Chinese college students.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Tao, Mengke

    2013-09-25

    Previous researchers have studied the relationship between mental disorder and major demographic variables, but the study on the relationship between relative poverty or relative deprivation, a subjectively perceived status in comparison with people around, and psychopathology is rare. Data for this study were obtained from a survey research conducted on a university campus in Beijing China, between 2007 and 2011, with a total of 5925 college students who participated in the surveys over the past five years. According to the Strain Theory of suicide we hypothesized that the stronger the relative deprivation, the higher the level of depression for the students and the higher the degree of suicidal ideation the students would experience. Findings indicated that relative deprivation is significantly correlated with suicidal ideation, positively related with depression and negatively related to social support. It is proposed that reduction of psychological strains might be an effective procedure to reduce college students' psychopathology and increase their positive psychological feelings such as self-perceived social support. PMID:23714373

  19. Child maltreatment and adult psychopathology in an Irish context.

    PubMed

    Fitzhenry, Mark; Harte, Elizabeth; Carr, Alan; Keenleyside, Mairi; O'Hanrahan, Kevin; White, Megan Daly; Hayes, Jennifer; Cahill, Paul; Noonan, Hester; O'Shea, Helen; McCullagh, Avril; McGuinness, Shaun; Rodgers, Catherine; Whelan, Neal; Sheppard, Noel; Browne, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    One-hundred-ninety-nine adult mental health service users were interviewed with a protocol that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Structured Clinical Interviews for Axis I and II DSM-IV disorders, the Global Assessment of Functioning scale, the SCORE family assessment measure, the Camberwell Assessment of Need Short Appraisal Schedule, and the Readiness for Psychotherapy Index. Compared to a U.S. normative sample, Irish clinical cases had higher levels of maltreatment. Cases with comorbid axis I and II disorders reported more child maltreatment than those with axis I disorders only. There was no association between types of CM and types of psychopathology. Current family adjustment and service needs (but not global functioning and motivation for psychotherapy) were correlated with a CM history. It was concluded that child maltreatment may contribute to the development of adult psychopathology, and higher levels of trauma are associated with co-morbid personality disorder, greater service needs and poorer family adjustment. A history of child maltreatment should routinely be determined when assessing adult mental health service users, especially those with personality disorders and where appropriate evidence-based psychotherapy which addresses childhood trauma should be offered. PMID:26026360

  20. The promise of developmental psychopathology: past and present.

    PubMed

    Sroufe, L Alan

    2013-11-01

    Progress in the field of developmental psychopathology is appraised in general and with regard to the particular lens of our understanding of the development of disorder. In general, the outpouring of research on various features of disorder and underlying processes could not have even been imagined 25 years ago. The progress is dazzling. At the same time, work on the development of disorders, beginning with antecedent patterns of adaptation, pales in comparison with work on the correlates of disorder. However, progress has been made. It is well established that the brain develops in the context of experience and that organism and environment continually interact over time. Something is now known about pathways leading to certain disorders and what initiates and impels individuals along them. If developmental psychopathology is to completely fulfill its promise of offering new ways of conceptualizing disorder and new guidance for prevention and intervention, much more work on developmental processes and a new way of exploring the development of disorder will be needed. Such a path is suggested. PMID:24342836

  1. Psychopathology of Online Poker Players: Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Axelle; Chabrol, Henri; Chauchard, Emeline

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Online Texas Hold'em poker has become a spectacular form of entertainment in our society, and the number of people who use this form of gambling is increasing. It seems that online poker activity challenges existing theoretical concepts about problem gambling behaviors. The purpose of this literature review is to provide a current overview about the population of online poker players. Methods To be selected, articles had to focus on psychopathology in a sample of online poker players, be written in English or French, and be published before November 2015. A total of 17 relevant studies were identified. Results In this population, the proportion of problematic gamblers was higher than in other forms of gambling. Several factors predicting excessive gambling were identified such as stress, internal attribution, dissociation, boredom, negative emotions, irrational beliefs, anxiety, and impulsivity. The population of online poker players is largely heterogeneous, with experimental players forming a specific group. Finally, the validity of the tools used to measure excessive or problematic gambling and irrational beliefs are not suitable for assessing online poker activity. Discussion and conclusions Future studies need to confirm previous findings in the literature of online poker games. Given that skills are important in poker playing, skill development in the frames of excessive use of online poker should be explored more in depth, particularly regarding poker experience and loss chasing. Future research should focus on skills, self-regulation, and psychopathology of online poker players. PMID:27348559

  2. Orbitofrontal sulcogyral patterns are related to temperamental risk for psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Whittle, Sarah; Bartholomeusz, Cali; Yücel, Murat; Dennison, Meg; Vijayakumar, Nandita

    2014-01-01

    There are marked individual differences in the pattern of cortical (sulcogyral) folding in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and there is a growing literature suggesting that these individual differences are associated with risk for psychotic disorders. To date, however, no study has investigated whether OFC folding patterns are associated with broader risk factors relevant to a range of psychopathology. This study helps address this knowledge gap by examining whether OFC sulcogyral folding patterns are associated with putative risk factors, specifically affective temperament and psychiatric symptoms, in a large community sample (N = 152) of adolescents. Results showed that the most common pattern of folding (‘Type I’, marked by discontinuity of the medial orbital sulcus and continuity of the lateral orbital sulcus) was associated with low levels of Surgency, high levels of Negative Affectivity (in girls) and higher depressive symptoms. This pattern was also associated with reduced thickness of OFC gray matter. Overall, the findings, combined with previous work, suggest some specificity of neurodevelopmental risk for different types of psychopathology. Thus, these results have the potential to inform the early identification of at-risk individuals. PMID:23160816

  3. The Effects of Parental Mood on Reports of Their Children's Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Maoz, Hagai; Goldstein, Tina; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Axelson, David A.; Fan, Jieyu; Hickey, Mary Beth; Monk, Kelly; Sakolsky, Dara; Diler, Rasim S.; Brent, David; Kupfer, David J.; Birmaher, Boris

    2014-01-01

    Objective In this study, we aim to assess whether current mood state (depressed or manic/hypomanic) among parents with a mood disorder affects their reports of their offspring's psychopathology. Method Sixty-five parents with current depression, 42 with current mania/hypomania, 181 with mood disorder in remission, and their offspring (n=479, ages 6-18) completed assessments of offspring IP psychopathology as part of the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (BIOS). We compared rates of offspring psychopathology assessed using the following: a clinician-administered semi-structured interview with parent and child using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children (K-SADS); parent-reported Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL); offspring self-reported Youth Self Reports (YSR) for those 11 years and older (n=250); and teachers’ reports when available (n= 209). Results There were no between-group differences in rates of psychopathology yielded from the K-SADS, except for more depressive disorders in offspring of parents with current mania/hypomania compared to offspring of parents in remission. Conversely, using the CBCL and comparing with parents who were in remission, parents with current depression reported significantly more externalizing psychopathology in offspring, whereas parents with current mania/hypomania reported more externalizing and internalizing psychopathology in their offspring. On the YSR, offspring of parents with current mania/hypomania had more internalizing psychopathology compared to offspring of parents in remission. Teacher's reports showed no between-group differences in rates of any psychopathology. Conclusion Parental active mood symptomatology, especially during a manic/hypomanic episode, significantly affects their reports of their offspring's psychopathology. Trained interviewers reduce potential report bias. Clinicians and studies assessing children's psychopathology should take into account parental current

  4. Disentangling community functional components in a litter-macrodetritivore model system reveals the predominance of the mass ratio hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Bílá, Karolína; Moretti, Marco; Bello, Francesco; Dias, André TC; Pezzatti, Gianni B; Van Oosten, Arend Raoul; Berg, Matty P

    2014-01-01

    Recent investigations have shown that two components of community trait composition are important for key ecosystem processes: (i) the community-weighted mean trait value (CWM), related to the mass ratio hypothesis and dominant trait values in the community, and (ii) functional diversity (FD), related to the complementarity hypothesis and the divergence of trait values. However, no experiments controlling for the inherent dependence between CWM and FD have been conducted so far. We used a novel experimental framework to disentangle the unique and shared effects of CWM and FD in a leaf litter-macrodetritivore model system. We manipulated isopod assemblages varying in species number, CWM and FD of litter consumption rate to test the relative contribution of these community parameters in the decomposition process. We showed that CWM, but also the combination of CWM and FD, is a main factor controlling litter decomposition. When we tested individual biodiversity components separately, CWM of litter consumption rate showed a significant effect on decomposition, while FD and species richness alone did not. Our study demonstrated that (i) trait composition rather than species diversity drives litter decomposition, (ii) dominant trait values in the community (CWM) play a chief role in driving ecosystem processes, corroborating the mass ratio hypothesis, and (iii) trait dissimilarity can contribute in modulating the overall biodiversity effects. Future challenge is to assess whether the generality of our finding, that is, that dominant trait values (CWM) predominate over trait dissimilarity (FD), holds for other ecosystem processes, environmental conditions and different spatial and temporal scales. PMID:24634725

  5. Equation for disentangling time-ordered exponentials with arbitrary quadratic generators

    SciTech Connect

    Budanov, V.G.

    1987-12-01

    In many quantum-mechanical constructions, it is necessary to disentangle an operator-valued time-ordered exponential with time-dependent generators quadratic in the creation and annihilation operators. By disentangling, one understands the finding of the matrix elements of the time-ordered exponential or, in a more general formulation. The solution of the problem can also be reduced to calculation of a matrix time-ordered exponential that solves the corresponding classical problem. However, in either case the evolution equations in their usual form do not enable one to take into account explicitly the symmetry of the system. In this paper the methods of Weyl analysis are used to find an ordinary differential equation on a matrix Lie algebra that is invariant with respect to the adjoint action of the dynamical symmetry group of a quadratic Hamiltonian and replaces the operator evolution equation for the Green's function.

  6. The Lyman α forest as a tool for disentangling non-Gaussianities

    SciTech Connect

    Chongchitnan, Sirichai

    2014-10-01

    Detection of primordial non-Gaussianity will give us an unprecedented detail of the physics of inflation. As observational probes are now exploring new expanses of the inflationary landscape, it is crucial to distinguish and disentangle effects of various non-Gaussianities beyond f{sub NL}. In this work, we calculate the effects of non-Gaussianities parametrized by f{sub NL} and the cubic-order g{sub NL}, on the Lyman α-forest flux measurements. We give the expressions of the bias due to f{sub NL} and g{sub NL}, which can be deduced from accurate measurements of the transmitted flux. We show how these two effects can be cleanly disentangled via a flux transformation, which also keeps the error in check.

  7. Disentangling the Effects of Racial Self-identification and Classification by Others: The Case of Arrest.

    PubMed

    Penner, Andrew M; Saperstein, Aliya

    2015-06-01

    Scholars of race have stressed the importance of thinking about race as a multidimensional construct, yet research on racial inequality does not routinely take this multidimensionality into account. We draw on data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to disentangle the effects of self-identifying as black and being classified by others as black on subsequently being arrested. Results reveal that the odds of arrest are nearly three times higher for people who were classified by others as black, even if they did not identify themselves as black. By contrast, we find no effect of self-identifying as black among people who were not seen by others as black. These results suggest that racial perceptions play an important role in racial disparities in arrest rates and provide a useful analytical approach for disentangling the effects of race on other outcomes. PMID:26012845

  8. Non-Markovian disentanglement dynamics of a two-qubit system

    SciTech Connect

    Cao Xiufeng; Zheng Hang

    2008-02-15

    We investigate the disentanglement dynamics of a two-qubit system in the non-Markovian approach. It is shown that only for weak coupling between the system and environment does an exponential decay of entanglement appear, for certain classes of two-qubit entangled states. When the coupling between qubit and the environment becomes stronger, entanglement sudden death always appears even if the dissipation environment is at zero temperature.

  9. Disentanglement in a two-qubit system subjected to dissipative environment: Exact analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qurban, Misbah; Tahira, Rabia; Ul-Islam, Rameez; Ikram, Manzoor

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the time evolution of entanglement of various entangled states of two-qubit atomic system in vacuum environment using exact analysis. Compared to our earlier work under Markov approximation [M. Ikram, F.-L. Li, M.S. Zubairy, Phys. Rev. A 75 (2007) 062336] we show that disentanglement rate is slower and sudden death times are higher than the earlier study in each set of entangled state.

  10. Common genetic influences on negative emotionality and a general psychopathology factor in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Lahey, Benjamin B; van Hulle, Carol; Waldman, Irwin; Krueger, Robert F; Rathouz, Paul J

    2013-11-01

    Previous research using confirmatory factor analysis to model psychopathology comorbidity has supported the hypothesis of a broad general factor (i.e., a "bifactor"; Holzinger & Swineford, 1937) of psychopathology in children, adolescents, and adults, with more specific higher order internalizing and externalizing factors reflecting additional shared variance in symptoms (Lahey et al., 2012; Lahey, van Hulle, Singh, Waldman, & Rathouz, 2011). The psychological nature of this general factor has not been explored, however. The current study tested a prediction, derived from the spectrum hypothesis of personality and psychopathology, that variance in a general psychopathology bifactor overlaps substantially-at both phenotypic and genetic levels-with the dispositional trait of negative emotionality. Data on psychopathology symptoms and dispositional traits were collected from both parents and youth in a representative sample of 1,569 twin pairs (ages 9-17 years) from Tennessee. Predictions based on the spectrum hypothesis were supported, with variance in negative emotionality and the general factor overlapping substantially at both phenotypic and etiologic levels. Furthermore, stronger correlations were found between negative emotionality and the general psychopathology factor than among other dispositions and other psychopathology factors. PMID:24364617

  11. Parental psychopathology moderates the influence of parental divorce on lifetime alcohol use disorders among Israeli adults

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Ronald G.; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Meyers, Jacquelyn L.; Stohl, Malki; Aharonovich, Efrat; Spivak, Baruch; Weizman, Abraham; Frisch, Amos; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Background Parental divorce and psychopathology are well-documented risk factors for alcohol use disorders (AUD) in the United States and other countries where divorce is common and per capita total alcohol consumption is moderate to high. However, little is known about these relationships in countries where divorce and alcohol problems are less common, such as Israel. Methods Israeli adult household residents (N=797) age 21–45 were interviewed in person between 2007 and 2009. Logistic regression models were used to examine main and additive interaction effects of parental divorce and psychopathology on lifetime DSM-IV AUD, adjusting for age, gender, and ethnicity. Results Parental divorce (OR=2.18, p≤.001) and parental psychopathology (OR=1.61, p≤.01) were independently associated with lifetime AUD and, when considered together, showed significant interaction (p=.026). Specifically, the effect of divorce on AUD was only significant among those who also reported parental psychopathology. Conclusions This is the first study showing the influence of parental divorce and psychopathology on risk for AUD among Israeli adults, where both divorce and AUD are less common than in the United States. Alcohol prevention and treatment professionals should recognize that children who experience parental divorce and/or psychopathology could be more vulnerable to later developing AUD than those whose parents remain together and without psychopathology. PMID:24939440

  12. The Role of Parent Psychopathology in the Development of Preschool Children with Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Breaux, Rosanna P.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The present study examined associations between early parental self-reported psychopathology symptoms and the later behavioral, emotional, and social functioning of preschool children with behavior problems. Method Mothers and fathers of preschoolers with behavior problems (N = 132; 55 girls and 77 boys) completed parent psychopathology questionnaires when children were 3 years old and completed measures of children’s externalizing, internalizing, and social problems annually from age 3 to age 6. The sample included 61% European American, 16% Latino (predominantly Puerto Rican), 10% African American, and 13% multi-ethnic children. Results Every dimension of mothers’ and fathers’ psychopathology symptoms when children were 3 years old was associated with their own reports of children’s externalizing and internalizing problems 3 years later. Several dimensions of maternal psychopathology symptoms at age 3 were associated with mother-reported social skills 3 years later. However, the relation between many dimensions of psychopathology symptoms and child outcome appears to be accounted for by co-occurring psychopathology symptoms. Only maternal ADHD and Cluster A symptoms, and paternal ADHD and depression/anxiety symptoms emerged as unique predictors of child functioning. Conclusions These findings suggest that most types of mothers’ and fathers’ self-reported psychopathology symptoms may play a role in the prognosis of behavioral, social, and emotional outcomes of preschoolers with behavior problems, but that co-occurring symptoms need to be considered. PMID:24116918

  13. A Network View on Psychiatric Disorders: Network Clusters of Symptoms as Elementary Syndromes of Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Goekoop, Rutger; Goekoop, Jaap G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The vast number of psychopathological syndromes that can be observed in clinical practice can be described in terms of a limited number of elementary syndromes that are differentially expressed. Previous attempts to identify elementary syndromes have shown limitations that have slowed progress in the taxonomy of psychiatric disorders. Aim To examine the ability of network community detection (NCD) to identify elementary syndromes of psychopathology and move beyond the limitations of current classification methods in psychiatry. Methods 192 patients with unselected mental disorders were tested on the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS). Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the bootstrapped correlation matrix of symptom scores to extract the principal component structure (PCS). An undirected and weighted network graph was constructed from the same matrix. Network community structure (NCS) was optimized using a previously published technique. Results In the optimal network structure, network clusters showed a 89% match with principal components of psychopathology. Some 6 network clusters were found, including "DEPRESSION", "MANIA", “ANXIETY”, "PSYCHOSIS", "RETARDATION", and "BEHAVIORAL DISORGANIZATION". Network metrics were used to quantify the continuities between the elementary syndromes. Conclusion We present the first comprehensive network graph of psychopathology that is free from the biases of previous classifications: a ‘Psychopathology Web’. Clusters within this network represent elementary syndromes that are connected via a limited number of bridge symptoms. Many problems of previous classifications can be overcome by using a network approach to psychopathology. PMID:25427156

  14. [Psychopathological profile of battered women according to age].

    PubMed

    Sarasua, Belén; Zubizarreta, Irene; Echeburúa, Enrique; Del Corral, Paz

    2007-08-01

    In this paper, differential psychopathological consequences in battered women according to age were analysed in a sample of 148 victims seeking psychological treatment in a Family Violence Centre. The younger victims exposed to intimate partner violence suffered more often from physical violence and were at higher risk for their lives than the older ones. The prevalence rate of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was higher (42%) in the younger victims than in the older ones (27%). Likewise, younger victims were affected by more depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem than the older ones. The severity of PTSD in the younger victims was related to the presence of forced sexual relationship but in the older ones, it was related to the perceived threat to their lives. Implications of this study for clinical practice and future research in this field are commented upon. PMID:17617986

  15. Suicide and gambling: psychopathology and treatment-seeking.

    PubMed

    Séguin, Monique; Boyer, Richard; Lesage, Alain; McGirr, Alexandre; Suissa, Amnon; Tousignant, Michel; Turecki, Gustavo

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate suicides with a history of problem gambling (PG) and others with no such history (NPG) and to compare the two on mental health problems and service utilization. Data on a sample of 49 PG suicides and 73 NPG suicides were obtained from informants and hospital records. Psychopathology was prevalent in both groups, but problem gamblers were twice as likely to have a personality disorder. Moreover, PG suicides were less in contact with mental health services in their last month, their last year, and their lifetime. NPG suicides consulted specialized services from 3 (last month and last year) to 13 times (lifetime) as often as their PG counterparts. Lower service utilization associated with PG suicides argues in favor of stepping up detection, engagement in care and treatment with respect to problem gambling, especially when comorbidity is present. PMID:20853941

  16. [Some criminological and psychopathologic reflexions about serial crimes].

    PubMed

    Romi, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the concept of serial crime, including murder as well as any action for the purpose of inflicting bodily harm upon any person. It characterizes three types of multi-murderers: serial killers, mass murderers, and spree killers. These offenders often have a specific (ritual) behavior that is idiosyncratic and repeated on each crime, which allows the psychological profiling of the murderer. Examples, a psychopathological background, and a description of both their criminal behavior and dynamics are provided for each of these criminals. They are further classified according to their different motivations: psychotic, prophetic or enlightened, pleasure, secondary or pecuniary profits, power or control. Finally, the author shares his personal experience over 20 years in the assessment of sexual offenders. PMID:22091451

  17. [Psychopathology and neurobiological bases of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia.].

    PubMed

    Ait Bentaleb, L; Stip, E; Beauregard, M

    2000-01-01

    Cognitive therapies of delusions and hallucinations are increasingly common and offer a complementary or interesting alternative to neuroleptic medication. But then again must these therapeutic approach relie on an explanatory neuropsychological basis. According to many observers, the study of the cardinal symptoms of schizophrenia is the " royal path " leading to the elucidation of this disabling and chronic illness affecting around 0,5% to 1% of the population. In this perspective, auditory hallucinations are one of the major symptoms of schizophrenia found in 50% to 80% of cases. Recently, experimental data drawn from cognitive neuropsychology and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have allowed the elaboration of many models regarding this symptomatic manifestation. This article proposes a literature review on the subject of psychopathology and neurobiological bases of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia and aims at proposing some leads that could contribute to a better undertanding of this phenomenon. PMID:18253579

  18. Cannabis and psychopathology: The meandering journey of the last decade

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Abhishek; Basu, Debasish

    2015-01-01

    Since its inception cannabis has been observed to be associated with various psycho-pathology. In this paper, the authors have reviewed the advancement made in this area over the last decade. The association between cannabis and schizophrenia has been researched more intensively. The controversy regarding the reliability, clinical utility, and the existence of a cannabis withdrawal syndrome has also been settled. Recent studies also buttressed the possibility of acute and chronic effect of cannabis on various cognitive functions. There has been a plethora of research regarding the treatment for cannabis use disorders. But the new and most interesting area of research is concentrated on the endocannabinoid system and its contribution in various psychiatric disorders. PMID:26124519

  19. Epilogue: bridging the gap between research on attachment and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    del Carmen, R; Huffman, L

    1996-04-01

    Clinicians and researchers are beginning to acknowledge the importance of integrating a developmental perspective into the understanding of clinical disorders. The application of findings from basic attachment research to this understanding of psychopathology is a prototype for interdisciplinary research. However, major gaps continue to exist between basic research on attachment processes and clinical issues of assessment, classification, and treatment of mental disorders from infancy through adolescence. This epilogue highlights the importance of more integrative research. As a reflection of growth in this direction, National Institute of Mental Health funding patterns are reviewed, and promising areas for future research are suggested. The field is well positioned for conceptual advancement if more integrative approaches are used. PMID:8871413

  20. [Contribution of the AMDP scale to quantitative psychopathology].

    PubMed

    Bobon, D

    1985-01-01

    The AMDP-System, elaborated by the Association for Methodology and Documentation in Psychiatry, comprises three anamnestic forms and two rating scales on present psychopathological and somatic state. Its success is increasing in the German-speaking and French-speaking countries. The author's thesis bears among others on the following aspects: importance of the naming of the items for the reliability of the underlying concepts, elaboration of a semi-structured interview and of a video methodology, programming of a new measure of interrater reliability in single cases, improvement of the somatic scale, and franco-belgian factor analyses showing the stability of the AMDP structure and the interest of anxiety items specific for the French version [Acta psychiat. belg., 85, 1-252 (1985)]. PMID:3887843

  1. Personality and psychopathological profiles in individuals exposed to mobbing.

    PubMed

    Girardi, Paolo; Monaco, Edoardo; Prestigiacomo, Claudio; Talamo, Alessandra; Ruberto, Amedeo; Tatarelli, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, mental health and medical professionals have been asked to assess claims of psychological harm arising from harassment at the workplace, or "mobbing." This study assessed the personality and psychopathological profiles of 146 individuals exposed to mobbing using validity, clinical, and content scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2. Profiles and factor analyses were obtained. Two major dimensions emerged among those exposed to mobbing: (a) depressed mood, difficulty in making decisions, change-related anguish, and passive-aggressive traits (b) somatic symptoms, and need for attention and affection. This cross-sectional pilot study provides evidence that personality profiles of mobbing victims and psychological damage resulting from mobbing may be evaluated using standardized assessments, though a longitudinal study is needed to delineate cause-and-effect relationships. PMID:17479554

  2. Psychosocial risk and protective influences in Hawaiian adolescent psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Nahulu, L B; Andrade, N N; Makini, G K; Yuen, N Y; McDermott, J F; Danko, G P; Johnson, R C; Waldron, J A

    1996-01-01

    A large community sample of adolescents of a Native Hawaiian (Asian/ Pacific Islander) minority group was studied along with a small comparison group of non-Hawaiians, for the relationship between psychopathology (as measured by standard symptom scales) and (a) perceived support from family and friends, and (b) discussing problems with others. Expected gender patterns for friend support but not for family support were found. The Hawaiian boys appeared atypical, reporting nearly equal family support as Hawaiian girls. Discussing problems with another person was correlated with lower anxiety and depression scores but not aggression and substance abuse scores. It is concluded that gender and cultural factors influence symptom prevalence and severity as well as the impact of psychosocial risk factors. PMID:9225566

  3. [White walls for black holes: essay on graffiti psychopathology].

    PubMed

    Catheline-Antipoff, N; Soulayrol, R

    1995-01-01

    Through a clinical case, the authors propose a psychological approach of tagging. The phenomenon that started in Harlem's black ghettos at the end of seventies and appeared in France less than ten years after, does not seem to be a simple sociological one, but seems to take place within the psychic economy of certain adolescents as an attempt to operate the necessary identity work to become an adult. Tagging as well as wandering can be considered adolescents' acting out behaviors and show the externalization of the psychic processes, thus proving a basic insecurity in their psychic space, invaded by anaclitic depression. Graffing, on the other hand, bears a resemblance to strolling in a psychopathologic approach, and already shows an attempt to become a person, and a quest of the Other. PMID:8657804

  4. [Age-related factors of psychopathology of impulse control disorders].

    PubMed

    Shiurkute, A

    1999-01-01

    15 children and adolescents with impulse control disorders (mean age 12.9 years) were examined. These disorders were presented as dromomania, kleptomania, aggressive-sadistic actions, tricholillomania, pyromania; a combination of different types was observed in some cases. Schizophrenia was diagnosed in 7 cases, affective disorders--in 8 patients. Independently of the nosologic unity of the disease, development of the impulse control disorders took place in affective disorders which manifested either by monopolar course (depression) (11 cases), or by bypolar attacks with unclear outlines of the phases (4 patients). Psychopathology of impulse control disorders in children and juveniles was analogous to that of the adults, however, their structure wasn't so complex and development of the phases wasn't so clear. PMID:11530454

  5. Axis I Psychopathology and the Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Cory A.; Hawes, Samuel W.; Devine, Susan; Easton, Caroline J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Initial evidence suggests that individuals with specific psychiatric conditions may perpetrate intimate partner violence (IPV) at greater frequency than non-diagnosed comparison samples. The present investigation examined the relationship between IPV and specific clinical diagnoses. Method The current investigation utilized data provided by 190 (34% female) adult offenders during court-mandated substance use evaluations to investigate the incidence of past-year IPV among samples of dual diagnosed (bipolar, PTSD, and ADHD) clients relative to 3 comparison samples matched on substance use and sociodemographic variables. Results Bipolar and PTSD diagnosed participants were more likely to perpetrate IPV than matched comparison and ADHD participants. Bipolar and PTSD diagnosed participants were equally likely to perpetrate IPV, as were ADHD and matched comparison samples. Conclusions The frequency of IPV perpetration among bipolar and PTSD diagnosed clients may complicate interpersonal and relationship functioning. The development of integrated treatments for IPV and underlying psychopathology are recommended. PMID:23824500

  6. Affective disorders and associated psychopathology: a family history study.

    PubMed

    Dilsaver, S C; White, K

    1986-04-01

    A pedigree in which affective psychosis, obsessive-compulsive phenomena, panic attacks, and eating disorders cluster over three generations is presented. The index proband is a 17-year-old girl with schizoaffective disorder, depressed type, bulimia nervosa, panic attacks, and intraepisode obsessive-compulsive phenomena. She has two male siblings; one has bipolar II disorder and the other has had multiple episodes of major depression. Both have panic attacks and exhibit obsessive-compulsive phenomena while depressed. The phenomenologies of the siblings' illnesses incorporate features from both sides of the family. It is proposed that the association of affective disorders with other forms of psychopathology might best be demonstrated by studying families transgenerationally. PMID:3457005

  7. Replicable Facets of Positive Emotionality and Their Relations to Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Kasey; Watson, David

    2015-12-01

    General individual differences in positive emotionality are negatively related to depression, social anxiety, and schizotypy/schizophrenia, and positively related to mania. However, the structure of positive emotionality remains unclear at the facet level, as there are significant disparities in the types of content assessed across emotionality measures. This study analyzed the lower order structure of positive emotionality in two samples, finding evidence for a replicable two-factor structure of Joviality and Experience Seeking. These factors demonstrated a markedly different pattern of relations in both direction and magnitude with internalizing, externalizing, and schizotypal symptoms. Joviality seems to represent an adaptive variant of positive emotionality, as it showed strong positive relations with well-being and moderate negative relations with measures of depression, social anxiety, and social anhedonia. In contrast, Experience Seeking appears to be somewhat maladaptive. It generally related positively to psychopathology, correlating most strongly with indicators of manic and externalizing symptoms. PMID:25260942

  8. Does psychopathology in childhood predict internet addiction in male adolescents?

    PubMed

    Cho, Sun-Mi; Sung, Min-Je; Shin, Kyoung-Min; Lim, Ki Young; Shin, Yun-Mi

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated childhood psychopathology and Internet addiction in adolescents. Initial assessment data were obtained from 1998 to 1999, and a follow-up assessment was performed in 2006, when the original subjects entered middle school. Personal information for the 524 male subjects was obtained from the original data. The subjects were evaluated with the Korean version of the child behavior checklist, which was administered to the children's parents. Demographic and psychosocial factors were also evaluated. Children were reassessed with the self-reported Korea Internet Addiction Scale. Our results indicated that 3.6 % of the subjects had Internet addiction, and revealed a significant relationship between withdrawal and anxiety/depression and future Internet addiction. The results suggest that withdrawal and anxiety/depression during childhood should be considered in the etiology of problematic Internet use in boys. Accordingly, clinicians should consider anxiety/depression and withdrawal during childhood to prevent Internet addiction. PMID:23242708

  9. Stress physiology and developmental psychopathology: Past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Doom, Jenalee R.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2013-01-01

    In the past 25 years research on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis has emerged as a vital area within the field of developmental psychopathology. Extensive animal research has provided knowledge of the substrates and physiological mechanisms that guide development of stress reactivity and regulation using methods that are not feasible in humans. Recent advances in understanding the anatomy and physiology of the HPA axis in humans and its interactions with other stress-mediating systems, including accurate assessment of salivary cortisol, more sophisticated neuroimaging methods, and a variety of genetic analyses, have led to greater knowledge of how psychological and biological processes impact functioning.A growing body of research on HPA axis regulation and reactivity in relation to psychopathology has drawn increased focus on the prenatal period, infancy, and the pubertal transition as potentially sensitive periods of stress system development in children. Theories such as the Allostatic Load Model have guided research by integrating multiple physiological systems and mechanisms by which stress can affect mental and physical health. However, almost none of the prominent theoretical models in stress physiology are truly developmental, and future work must incorporate how systems interact with the environment across the lifespan in both normal and atypical development. Our theoretical advancement will depend on our ability to integrate biological and psychological models. Researchers are increasingly realizing the importance of communication across disciplinary boundaries in order to understand how experiences influence neurobehavioral development. Importantly, knowledge gained over the past 25 years has been translated to both prevention and treatment interventions, and we look forward to the dissemination of interventions that promote recovery from adversity. PMID:24342845

  10. [Psychopathological study on Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, M

    1996-01-01

    Ten cases of Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome (GTS) are reported. Average age of onset of the syndrome was 6.3 years old. Many of them were eldest children. 40% of them were caused by hereditary factor, and 40% of them had some abnormalities at their birth, for verbal tics including coprolalia. The GTS were classified into two types, Type I and Type II, from psychopathological point of view. Type I is "sadistic self-conversion type" and Type II is "masochistic personality type." Type I have an experience of attacks from others first, and, then, the desire of sadism aroused by the others converts to themselves after the others are abandoned from their mind, but it remains the stage of self-injurious. Principal mechanisms of Type I are "turning round the desire upon oneself" and "identification of oneself to the aggression." Type II have basically masochistic personality. They desire to be loved by others, but frustration that they feel they are not loved by others arouse the tic symptoms that violate the prohibition. With the tic symptoms, they can gain "punishment" and "pleasure" at the same time. Their symptoms of tics have the meaning of "masochistic provocation." They have the mechanism of "avoidance of anxiety by demanding to be loved by others." Both types have a common psychopathology, that is, they can not grasp objects (self or others) as a whole. It is suggested that patients with the GTS stopped their growth at pre-sexual stage. There exists a phase of self-injurious tics and that of other-injurious (provocately) tics during the progress of the symptoms of complex motor tics and verbal tics (coprolalia). The phase when both tics turn over each other was also observed. Echo-phenomena were seen only for patients of Type I. It is suggested that the degree of organic dysfunction of the brain and spectrum of masochism are almost coincident. PMID:8935828

  11. Associations between chronotypes, psychopathology, and personality among incoming college students.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chia-Yueh; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Shang, Chi-Yung; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Lee, Ming-Been

    2012-05-01

    Chronotye is associated with age, sex, personality, and parental monitoring during childhood. The evening type is associated with poor school performance, sleep problems, anxious/depressive symptoms, tobacco smoking, caffeine consumption, alcohol drinking, and suicidality in adolescents. The present study tested the relationships between chronotype and a wide range of psychopathology and personality traits among 2919 incoming undergraduate students. Each participant completed a self-administered questionnaire that included demographics, plus the Morningness-Eveningness (M-E) scale, Brief Symptom Rating Scale (BSRS), Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, and Maudesley Personality Inventory. The t-score distribution of the M-E scale was used to form the morning (t-score >60, n = 419), evening (t-score <40, n = 371), and intermediate (40 ≤ t-score ≤ 60, n = 2129) groups. Multivariable regression was employed for data analysis. For males, the evening type scored higher on all subscales of the BSRS than the morning type, except phobic anxiety. For females, the evening type had higher scores than the other two types on all subscales, except in obsession/compulsion and phobic anxiety, where the evening type only scored higher than the intermediate type. The evening type of both sexes also scored higher than the morning type in novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and neurotic personality characteristics, but lower than the morning type in extraversion and social desirability. In reward dependence, the evening type scored lowest for males, but there was no difference for females. The findings of the evening type being associated with possible psychopathology and certain types of personality have public health implications, that is, chronotype needs to be taken into account in the development of mental health prevention programs and assessment of and intervention for mental problems in young adults. PMID:22497432

  12. Comorbidity Among Dimensions of Childhood Psychopathology: Converging Evidence from Behavior Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Soo Hyun; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we review evidence from recent behavior genetic studies that examined the covariance among common childhood psychopathological conditions and tested specific hypotheses regarding common and broadband-specific underlying features of childhood psychopathology. Specifically, we review the distinction between internalizing and externalizing disorders, the support for the generalist genes and specialist environments model, negative emotionality as a heritable underlying feature common to both internalizing and externalizing disorders, and daring as a heritable broadband-specific underlying feature that distinguishes externalizing disorders from internalizing disorders. We also discuss the implications of research in the search for specific genes that influence childhood psychopathology and suggest avenues for new research. PMID:26019716

  13. Disentangling seasonal bacterioplankton population dynamics by high-frequency sampling.

    PubMed

    Lindh, Markus V; Sjöstedt, Johanna; Andersson, Anders F; Baltar, Federico; Hugerth, Luisa W; Lundin, Daniel; Muthusamy, Saraladevi; Legrand, Catherine; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2015-07-01

    Multiyear comparisons of bacterioplankton succession reveal that environmental conditions drive community shifts with repeatable patterns between years. However, corresponding insight into bacterioplankton dynamics at a temporal resolution relevant for detailed examination of variation and characteristics of specific populations within years is essentially lacking. During 1 year, we collected 46 samples in the Baltic Sea for assessing bacterial community composition by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing (nearly twice weekly during productive season). Beta-diversity analysis showed distinct clustering of samples, attributable to seemingly synchronous temporal transitions among populations (populations defined by 97% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity). A wide spectrum of bacterioplankton dynamics was evident, where divergent temporal patterns resulted both from pronounced differences in relative abundance and presence/absence of populations. Rates of change in relative abundance calculated for individual populations ranged from 0.23 to 1.79 day(-1) . Populations that were persistently dominant, transiently abundant or generally rare were found in several major bacterial groups, implying evolution has favoured a similar variety of life strategies within these groups. These findings suggest that high temporal resolution sampling allows constraining the timescales and frequencies at which distinct populations transition between being abundant or rare, thus potentially providing clues about physical, chemical or biological forcing on bacterioplankton community structure. PMID:25403576

  14. Distraction by emotional sounds: Disentangling arousal benefits and orienting costs.

    PubMed

    Max, Caroline; Widmann, Andreas; Kotz, Sonja A; Schröger, Erich; Wetzel, Nicole

    2015-08-01

    Unexpectedly occurring task-irrelevant stimuli have been shown to impair performance. They capture attention away from the main task leaving fewer resources for target processing. However, the actual distraction effect depends on various variables; for example, only target-informative distractors have been shown to cause costs of attentional orienting. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that high arousing emotional distractors, as compared with low arousing neutral distractors, can improve performance by increasing alertness. We aimed to separate costs of attentional orienting and benefits of arousal by presenting negative and neutral environmental sounds (novels) as oddballs in an auditory-visual distraction paradigm. Participants categorized pictures while task-irrelevant sounds preceded visual targets in two conditions: (a) informative sounds reliably signaled onset and occurrence of visual targets, and (b) noninformative sounds occurred unrelated to visual targets. Results confirmed that only informative novels yield distraction. Importantly, irrespective of sounds' informational value participants responded faster in trials with high arousing negative as compared with moderately arousing neutral novels. That is, costs related to attentional orienting are modulated by information, whereas benefits related to emotional arousal are independent of a sound's informational value. This favors a nonspecific facilitating cross-modal influence of emotional arousal on visual task performance and suggests that behavioral distraction by noninformative novels is controlled after their motivational significance has been determined. PMID:26053245

  15. Psychopathology, symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and risk factors in juvenile offenders

    PubMed Central

    Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Margari, Lucia; Matera, Emilia; Lamanna, Anna Linda; Lecce, Paola Alessandra; La Tegola, Donatella; Carabellese, Felice

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of potential environmental and psychopathological risk factors, with special focus on symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in a sample of adolescent offenders in relation to the type of crime committed. Methods The assessment included data collection and administration of clinical standardized scales such as the Youth Self-Report and Conners’ Adolescent Self-Report Scale. A total of 135 juvenile offenders participated in the study. In relation to the type of crime committed, we identified three groups matched for age and sex (crimes against people, property crimes, and alcohol-drug-related crimes). Results Fifty-two percent of juvenile offenders reported educational achievement problems and 34% reported a family history of psychiatric disorders. We detected a statistically significant difference between the three groups with regard to ADHD (P=0.01) and conduct problems (P=0.034). Juvenile offenders who had committed crimes against people showed more ADHD symptoms (18%) and conduct problems (20%) than adolescents who had committed property crimes and alcohol-drug-related crimes. Sixty percent of the juvenile offenders who had committed property crimes and 54% of those who had committed alcohol-drug-related crimes showed problems in academic achievement. Conclusion These findings suggest the need to implement specific interventions for prevention and treatment of specific criminal behavior. PMID:25709458

  16. Bullying by peers in childhood and effects on psychopathology, suicidality, and criminality in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Sourander, Andre; Elonheimo, Henrik

    2015-10-01

    Bullying is shown to be associated with adverse outcomes in cross-sectional studies, but only a few studies have prospectively examined the effects of childhood bullying on adult outcomes. Our Series paper focuses on prospective longitudinal studies that used large, population-based, community samples analysed through quantitative methods and published between 1960 and 2015. We describe the results of childhood bullying in adulthood in three of the most burdensome areas: psychopathology, suicidality, and criminality. We note that the different groups involved (ie, victims, bullies, and bully-victims) are at risk of difficulties later in life, but their risk profiles differ and the contributions are probably not independent. Controlling for confounders reduces the risk and sometimes eliminates it. Victims are at a high risk of internalising disorders. Bullies seem to be at risk of later externalising disorders and criminality, mainly violent crime and illicit drug misuse. Bully-victims seem to be at risk of internalising disorders, externalising disorders, and criminality, but not all studies examined bully-victims as a separate group. Boys and girls differ in their long-term outcomes. A dose effect exists in which frequent bullying involvement in childhood is most strongly associated with adult adversities. Future studies need to control for additional factors (including genetic, psychosocial, and environmental) to account for the mechanisms behind the reported longitudinal associations. PMID:26462227

  17. Stereotype Awareness, Self-Esteem and Psychopathology in People with Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    van Zelst, Catherine; van Nierop, Martine; Oorschot, Margreet; Myin-Germeys, Inez; van Os, Jim; Delespaul, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Stigma is an important environmental risk factor for a variety of outcomes in schizophrenia. In order to understand and remediate its effects, research is required to assess how stigma experiences are processed at the level of the individual. To this end, stereotype awareness (SA) with respect to people with mental illness and their families was explored in persons with psychotic disorder. Method Data from the Dutch Genetic Risk and OUtcome of Psychosis project (GROUP) were analyzed. SA was measured using scales that assess a respondent's perception of common opinions about people with a mental illness and their families. Results People with higher level of self-esteem were less aware of stereotypes about patients and families. People with more severe psychopathology reported more awareness of stereotypes about families, not about patients. Conclusion Enhancing psychological resources, by increasing self-esteem and the ability to cope with symptoms, can be targeted to diminish stereotype threat and improve stigma resilience. Interventions can be tailored to individual differences to increase their impact. Furthermore, in order to diminish detrimental consequences of negative stereotypes, mental health professionals, health educators and experts by experience can inform the public about mental illness and stigma. PMID:24523918

  18. Accounting for genetic and environmental confounds in associations between parent and child characteristics: a systematic review of children-of-twins studies.

    PubMed

    McAdams, Tom A; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Rijsdijk, Fruhling V; Narusyte, Jurgita; Lichtenstein, Paul; Eley, Thalia C

    2014-07-01

    Parental psychopathology, parenting style, and the quality of intrafamilial relationships are all associated with child mental health outcomes. However, most research can say little about the causal pathways underlying these associations. This is because most studies are not genetically informative and are therefore not able to account for the possibility that associations are confounded by gene-environment correlation. That is, biological parents not only provide a rearing environment for their child, but also contribute 50% of their genes. Any associations between parental phenotype and child phenotype are therefore potentially confounded. One technique for disentangling genetic from environmental effects is the children-of-twins (COT) method. This involves using data sets comprising twin parents and their children to distinguish genetic from environmental associations between parent and child phenotypes. The COT technique has grown in popularity in the last decade, and we predict that this surge in popularity will continue. In the present article we explain the COT method for those unfamiliar with its use. We present the logic underlying this approach, discuss strengths and weaknesses, and highlight important methodological considerations for researchers interested in the COT method. We also cover variations on basic COT approaches, including the extended-COT method, capable of distinguishing forms of gene-environment correlation. We then present a systematic review of all the behavioral COT studies published to date. These studies cover such diverse phenotypes as psychosis, substance abuse, internalizing, externalizing, parenting, and marital difficulties. In reviewing this literature, we highlight past applications, identify emergent patterns, and suggest avenues for future research. PMID:24749497

  19. Beyond Diathesis Stress: Differential Susceptibility to Environmental Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; Pluess, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Evolutionary-biological reasoning suggests that individuals should be differentially susceptible to environmental influences, with some people being not just more vulnerable than others to the negative effects of adversity, as the prevailing diathesis-stress view of psychopathology (and of many environmental influences) maintains, but also…

  20. Why are Religiousness and Spirituality Associated with Externalizing Psychopathology? A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Christopher; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2016-03-01

    This review explores the relation of religiousness and spirituality with externalizing psychopathology in adolescence given the heightened externalizing psychopathology during this developmental period. Utilizing a developmental psychopathology framework, previous literature is reviewed focusing on the diversity of pathways from religiousness and spirituality to externalizing psychopathology at multiple levels of analysis. Moreover, the pathways considered include both intraindividual factors (e.g., self-control, monitoring, delay discounting and time orientation, and neurobiological regulatory systems) and ecological factors (e.g., intergenerational transmission, parent-child relationships, and community relationships). These pathways are explored in light of theoretical viewpoints including social control theory, divine interaction theory, and the religious ecology model. Limitations of extant work are examined, including measurement and design issues, exploration of potential negative effects of religiousness and spirituality, and bias toward Western religions. Finally, future directions of research and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:26662624

  1. Perfectionism and eating psychopathology among dancers: the role of high standards and self-criticism.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Huw; Arcelus, Jon; Geach, Nicole; Meyer, Caroline

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the associations between conscientious perfectionism (high standards), self-evaluative perfectionism (self-criticism) and eating psychopathology among dancers. A sample of 244 female dancers, with a mean age of 20.11 years (standard deviation=1.97) completed the Perfectionism Inventory and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Self-evaluative perfectionism predicted eating psychopathology (eating restraint, eating concern, weight concern and shape concern). This relationship was not moderated by conscientious perfectionism. The mediation analyses showed that although conscientious perfectionism predicted eating psychopathology, this relationship was fully mediated by self-evaluative perfectionism. These findings demonstrate the greater influence of self-evaluative perfectionism, rather than conscientious perfectionism, on eating psychopathology in dancers. PMID:24470313

  2. The illness and everyday living: close interplay of psychopathological syndromes and psychosocial functioning in chronic schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Daniela; Brüne, Martin; Jaspen, Elisabeth; Pajonk, Frank-Gerald; Bierhoff, Hans-Werner; Juckel, Georg

    2011-03-01

    The interaction of psychopathological states and psychosocial functioning determine the long-term course of schizophrenia and its treatment. To be able to achieve this interplay better, exact assessment of psychosocial functioning is needed besides measurement of psychopathology. Using the Personal and Social Performance (PSP) Scale, examination of the association between psychosocial functioning and psychopathology was conducted in a sample of 103 patients with chronic schizophrenia. Rating instruments were in addition Global Assessment of Functioning Scale and Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale, as well as Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Clinical Global Impression Scale, and Mini-ICF-APP-Rating for Mental Disorders (Mini-ICF-APP). Besides good psychometric properties for the PSP scale in this chronic sample, we found, as expected, significant associations between the two relevant outcome domains: results showed significant negative correlations between PSP and PANSS. Findings prove the close interplay between social functioning and psychopathology in the chronic course of schizophrenia. PMID:20652295

  3. Psychopathology and Parenting Practices of Parents of Preschool Children with Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Elizabeth; Stoessel, Brian; Herbert, Sharonne

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective This study investigated associations among different types of parental psychopathology and several specific parenting practices. Design Mothers (n = 182) and fathers (n = 126) of preschool-aged children with behavior problems completed questionnaires assessing parental psychopathology and parenting practices, and participated in observed parent-child interactions. Results Maternal depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and several different personality disorder traits were related to maternal negativity, laxness, and lack of warmth. Paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, and borderline personality disorder symptoms predicted mothers’ parenting practices, even when statistically controlling for other types of psychopathology. For fathers, those same symptoms, dependent and avoidant symptoms, and substance abuse symptoms were associated with self-reported lax parenting. Evidence emerged that psychopathology in one parent was associated with less overreactivity in the other parent. Conclusions Many aspects of parents’ psychological functioning play a role in determining specific parenting practices, including personality disorder symptoms. PMID:22737040

  4. The shared and specific relationships between exposure to potentially traumatic events and transdiagnostic dimensions of psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Matthew; Carragher, Natacha; Chapman, Cath; Mills, Katherine; Teesson, Maree; Lockwood, Emma; Forbes, David; Slade, Tim

    2016-03-01

    The experience of traumatic events has been linked to the development of psychopathology. Changing perspectives on psychopathology have resulted in the hypothesis that broad dimensional constructs account for the majority of variance across putatively distinct disorders. As such, traumatic events may be associated with several disorders due to their relationship with these broad dimensions rather than any direct disorder-specific relationship. The current study used data from 8871 Australians to test this hypothesis. Two broad dimensions accounted for the majority of relationships between traumatic events and mental and substance use disorders. Direct relationships remained between post-traumatic stress disorder and six categories of traumatic events in the total population and between drug dependence and accidents/disasters for males only. These results have strong implications for how psychopathology is conceptualized and offer some evidence that traumatic events are associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing psychopathology in general. PMID:26874292

  5. Incidence and trends in psychopathology symptoms over time in adults with severe to profound intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Horovitz, Max; Matson, Johnny L; Sipes, Megan; Shoemaker, Mary; Belva, Brian; Bamburg, Jay W

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) have a high risk for developing comorbid psychopathology. While researchers have shown that symptoms of psychopathology remain relatively stable in children with ID over time, little research has been conducted to demonstrate symptom stability for adults with ID. Incidence of psychopathology symptoms was examined in 124 adults with severe to profound ID. Then, trends in symptoms of psychopathology over time were studied in 74 of those individuals who had data collected quarterly over the span of one year. Data from the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-Second Edition (DASH-II) were evaluated for each of the 13 subscales, as well as the total DASH-II score. For all of the scales except PDD/Autism, symptoms did not fluctuate significantly over the one year period. The PDD/Autism scale revealed a significant change in symptoms from Time 1 to Time 3. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:21144701

  6. Psychopathology is associated with completion of residential treatment in drug dependent women.

    PubMed

    Haller, Deborah L; Miles, Donna R

    2004-01-01

    This study characterized drug dependent women based on current psychopathology (MCMI-III) and then examined the relationship between psychopathology and treatment retention. Participants included 97 pregnant (88%), African-American (78%), single (90%) 30-year old women enrolled in a 6-month residential drug treatment program for women and children. Clustering on personality test scores using Ward's technique identified three subgroups with mild (24%), moderate (59%) and severe (18%) psychopathology. Treatment completion rates varied by group (66%, 45% and 29%), with half of the high severity group leaving against medical advice (AMA) within 60 days. Although the majority of low severity women completed the program as scheduled, they may also have done well in a less intensive treatment modality. Conversely, it appears that women with severe psychopathology may require a more flexible, psychiatrically-oriented approach than is found in most residential settings including greater emphasis on psychiatric issues, individual psychotherapy, and pharmacotherapy. PMID:15077837

  7. [Clinico-psychopathological characteristics of a group of mental patients identified at the internal medicine clinic].

    PubMed

    Ostroglazov, V G; Lisina, M A

    1990-01-01

    The authors provide the clinico-psychopathological characteristics of mental patients revealed for the first time during a clinico-epidemiological study of the district therapeutic population. The predominance among them of the somatic psychopathological syndromes was established. The overwhelming majority of those conditions were found to belong to multifactorial mental diseases in whose etiology and pathogenesis the key role is played by interaction between exogenous (psychogenous) and endogenous (thymopathic) factors. PMID:1965370

  8. Diverging eating psychopathology in transgendered eating disorder patients: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Murray, Stuart B; Boon, Evelyn; Touyz, Stephen W

    2013-01-01

    This report documents two transgendered biological males who met criteria for an eating disorder, who interchangeably reported periods of endorsing masculine and feminine gender identities, allowing an exploration of how their preferred gender orientation impacted their eating disorder psychopathology. This report suggests that the divergence of body image psychopathology amongst men may be impacted by gender role orientation, which is consistent with a developing body of research. PMID:23241091

  9. Polymorphism of Kynurenine Pathway-Related Genes, Kynurenic Acid, and Psychopathological Symptoms in HIV.

    PubMed

    Douet, Vanessa; Tanizaki, Naomi; Franke, Adrian; Li, Xingnan; Chang, Linda

    2016-09-01

    HIV-infection is associated with neuroinflammation and greater psychopathological symptoms, which may be mediated by imbalances in the kynurenic pathway (KP). Two key KP enzymes that catabolize kynurenine include kynurenine-aminotransferase II (KATII), which yields antioxidative kynurenine acid [KYNA] in astrocytes, and kynurenine-3-monooxygenase (KMO), which produces neurotoxic metabolites in microglia. The relationships between polymorphisms in KMO and KATII, psychopathological symptoms, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) [KYNA] were evaluated in subjects with and without HIV-infection. Seventy-two HIV-positive and 72-seronegative (SN) participants were genotyped for KATII-rs1480544 and KMO-rs1053230. Although our participants were not currently diagnosed with depression or anxiety, they were assessed for psychopathological distress with Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. CSF-[KYNA] was also measured in 100 subjects (49 HIV/51 SN). HIV-participants had more psychopathological distress than SN, especially for anxiety. KATII-by-HIV interactions were found on anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity and obsessive compulsivity; KATII-C-carriers had lower scores than TT-carriers in SN but not in HIV. In contrast, the KMO-polymorphism had no influence on psychopathological symptoms in both groups. Overall, CSF-[KYNA] increased with age independently of HIV-serostatus, except KATII-TT-carriers tended to show no age-dependent variations. Therefore, the C-allele in KATII-rs1480544 appears to be protective against psychopathological distress in SN but not in HIV individuals, who had more psychopathological symptoms and likely greater neuroinflammation. The age-dependent increase in CSF-[KYNA] may reflect a compensatory response to age-related inflammation, which may be deficient in KATII-TT-carriers. Targeted treatments that decrease neuroinflammation and increase KYNA in at risk KATII-TT-carriers may reduce psychopathological symptoms

  10. The intersubjective endeavor of psychopathology research: methodological reflections on a second-person perspective approach

    PubMed Central

    Galbusera, Laura; Fellin, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Research in psychopathology may be considered as an intersubjective endeavor mainly concerned with understanding other minds. Thus, the way we conceive of social understanding influences how we do research in psychology in the first place. In this paper, we focus on psychopathology research as a paradigmatic case for this methodological issue, since the relation between the researcher and the object of study is characterized by a major component of “otherness.” We critically review different methodologies in psychopathology research, highlighting their relation to different social cognition theories (the third-, first-, and second-person approaches). Hence we outline the methodological implications arising from each theoretical stance. Firstly, we critically discuss the dominant paradigm in psychopathology research, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) and on quantitative methodology, as an example of a third-person methodology. Secondly, we contrast this mainstream view with phenomenological psychopathology which—by rejecting the reductionist view exclusively focused on behavioral symptoms—takes consciousness as its main object of study: it therefore attempts to grasp patients’ first-person experience. But how can we speak about a first-person perspective in psychopathology if the problem at stake is the experience of the other? How is it possible to understand the experience from “within,” if the person who is having this experience is another? By addressing these issues, we critically explore the feasibility and usefulness of a second-person methodology in psychopathology research. Notwithstanding the importance of methodological pluralism, we argue that a second-person perspective should inform the epistemology and methods of research in psychopathology, as it recognizes the fundamental circular and intersubjective construction of knowledge. PMID:25368589

  11. Do dimensional psychopathology measures relate to creative achievement or divergent thinking?

    PubMed Central

    Zabelina, Darya L.; Condon, David; Beeman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Previous research provides disparate accounts of the putative association between creativity and psychopathology, including schizotypy, psychoticism, hypomania, bipolar disorder, ADHD, and autism spectrum disorders. To examine these association, healthy, non-clinical participants completed several psychopathology-spectrum measures, often postulated to associate with creativity: the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, the Psychoticism scale, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5, the Hypomanic Personality Scale, the Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient. The goal of Study 1 was to evaluate the factor structure of these dimensional psychopathology measures and, in particular, to evaluate the case for a strong general factor(s). None of the factor solutions between 1 and 10 factors provided a strong fit with the data based on the most commonly used metrics. The goal of Study 2 was to determine whether these psychopathology scales predict, independently, two measures of creativity: 1. a measure of participants' real-world creative achievements, and 2. divergent thinking, a laboratory measure of creative cognition. After controlling for academic achievement, psychoticism and hypomania reliably predicted real-world creative achievement and divergent thinking scored with the consensual assessment technique. None of the psychopathology-spectrum scales reliably predicted divergent thinking scored with the manual scoring method. Implications for the potential links between several putative creative processes and risk factors for psychopathology are discussed. PMID:25278919

  12. Recovering from Early Deprivation: Attachment Mediates Effects of Caregiving on Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    McGoron, Lucy; Gleason, Mary Margaret; Smyke, Anna T.; Drury, Stacy S.; Nelson, Charles A.; Gregas, Mathew C.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Children exposed to early institutional rearing are at risk for developing psychopathology. The present investigation examines caregiving quality and the role of attachment security as they relate to symptoms of psychopathology in young children exposed to early institutionalization. Methods Participants were enrolled in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP), a longitudinal intervention study of children abandoned and placed in institutions at or shortly after birth. Measures included observed caregiving when children were 30 months of age, observed attachment security at 42 months and caregiver reports of children’s psychopathology at 54 months. At 54 months, some children remained in institutions, others were in foster care, others had been adopted domestically, and still others had been returned to their biological families. Thus, the children had experienced varying amounts of institutional rearing. Results After controlling for gender, quality of caregiving when children were 30 months old was associated with symptoms of multiple domains of psychopathology at 54 months of age. Ratings of security of attachment at 42 months mediated the associations between quality caregiving at 30 months and fewer symptoms of psychopathology at 54 months. Conclusions Among deprived young children, high quality caregiving at 30 months predicted reduced psychopathology and functional impairment at 54 months. Security of attachment mediated this relationship. Interventions for young children who have experienced deprivation may benefit from explicitly targeting caregiver-child attachment relationships. PMID:22721591

  13. Mad genius revisited: Vulnerability to psychopathology, biobehavioral approach-avoidance, and creativity.

    PubMed

    Baas, Matthijs; Nijstad, Bernard A; Boot, Nathalie C; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2016-06-01

    Although many believe that creativity associates with a vulnerability to psychopathology, research findings are inconsistent. Here we address this possible linkage between risk of psychopathology and creativity in nonclinical samples. We propose that propensity for specific psychopathologies can be linked to basic motivational approach and avoidance systems, and that approach and avoidance motivation differentially influences creativity. Based on this reasoning, we predict that propensity for approach-based psychopathologies (e.g., positive schizotypy and risk of bipolar disorder) associates with increased creativity, whereas propensity for avoidance-based psychopathologies (e.g., anxiety, negative schizotypy, and depressive mood) associates with reduced creativity. Previous meta-analyses resonate with this proposition and showed small positive relations between positive schizotypy and creativity and small negative relations between negative schizotypy and creativity and between anxiety and creativity. To this we add new meta-analytic findings showing that risk of bipolar disorder (e.g., hypomania, mania) positively associates with creativity (k = 28, r = .224), whereas depressive mood negatively associates (albeit weakly) with creativity (k = 39, r = -.064). Our theoretical framework, along with the meta-analytic results, indicates when and why specific psychopathologies, and their inclinations, associate with increased or, instead, reduced creativity. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26950008

  14. Toward a Model-Based Approach to the Clinical Assessment of Personality Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Nicholas R.; Krueger, Robert F.; Docherty, Anna R.; Sponheim, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed tremendous growth in the scope and sophistication of statistical methods available to explore the latent structure of psychopathology, involving continuous, discrete, and hybrid latent variables. The availability of such methods has fostered optimism that they can facilitate movement from classification primarily crafted through expert consensus to classification derived from empirically-based models of psychopathological variation. The explication of diagnostic constructs with empirically supported structures can then facilitate the development of assessment tools that appropriately characterize these constructs. Our goal in this paper is to illustrate how new statistical methods can inform conceptualization of personality psychopathology and therefore its assessment. We use magical thinking as example, because both theory and earlier empirical work suggested the possibility of discrete aspects to the latent structure of personality psychopathology, particularly forms of psychopathology involving distortions of reality testing, yet other data suggest that personality psychopathology is generally continuous in nature. We directly compared the fit of a variety of latent variable models to magical thinking data from a sample enriched with clinically significant variation in psychotic symptomatology for explanatory purposes. Findings generally suggested a continuous latent variable model best represented magical thinking, but results varied somewhat depending on different indices of model fit. We discuss the implications of the findings for classification and applied personality assessment. We also highlight some limitations of this type of approach that are illustrated by these data, including the importance of substantive interpretation, in addition to use of model fit indices, when evaluating competing structural models. PMID:24007309

  15. Disentangling AGN and starburst activities in NGC 6240 from an X-ray perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junfeng

    2016-02-01

    The circum-nuclear region in an active galaxy is often complex with presence of high excitation gas, collimated radio outflow, and star formation activities, besides the actively accreting supermassive black hole. The unique spatial resolving power of Chandra X-ray imaging spectroscopy enables more investigations to disentangle the active galactic nuclei and starburst activities. For galaxies in the throes of a violent merging event such as NGC6240, we were able to resolve the high temperature gas surrounding its binary active black holes and discovered a large scale soft X-ray halo.

  16. Unidirectionality Between Borderline Personality Disorder Traits and Psychopathology in a Residential Addictions Sample: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Webber, Troy A; Kiselica, Andrew M; Arango, Alejandra; Rojas, Elizabeth; Neale, Michael C; Bornovalova, Marina A

    2015-12-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a barrier to treatment, yet the relationship between BPD features and other psychopathology symptoms in residential addictions treatment samples is understudied. Using a sample of adults enrolled in a residential drug treatment facility measured at baseline and 2-3 month follow-up, the authors examined the prospective relationship between BPD features and five indices of psychopathology: depression, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, hostility, and psychoticism, as well as psychopathology global severity. There was no effect of time on any of the forms of psychopathology, but females reported higher levels of BPD features, anxiety symptoms, and interpersonal sensitivity than males. A series of latent change score models indicated that BPD features predicted increases in all psychopathology scales at follow-up, while the reverse was not true. These results suggest that targeting BPD features in residents of drug treatment facilities may reduce the emergence of new psychopathology in the short term. PMID:25562538

  17. Unidirectionality between borderline personality disorder traits and psychopathology in a residential addictions sample: A short-term longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Webber, Troy A.; Kiselica, Andrew M.; Arango, Alejandra; Rojas, Elizabeth; Neale, Michael C.; Bornovalova, Marina A.

    2016-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a barrier to treatment, yet the relationship between BPD features and other psychopathology symptoms in a residential addictions treatment samples is understudied. Using a sample of adults enrolled in a residential drug treatment facility measured at baseline and 2–3 month follow-up, we examined the prospective relationship between BPD features and five indices of psychopathology: depression, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, hostility, and psychoticism, as well as psychopathology global severity. There was no effect of time on any of the forms of psychopathology, but females reported higher levels of BPD features, anxiety symptoms, and interpersonal sensitivity than males. A series of latent change score models indicated that BPD features predicted increases in all psychopathology scales at follow-up, while the reverse was not true. These results suggest that targeting BPD features in residential drug treatment facilities may reduce the emergence of new psychopathology in the short-term. PMID:25562538

  18. Areal changes of lentic water bodies within an agricultural basin of the Argentinean pampas. Disentangling land management from climatic causes.

    PubMed

    Booman, Gisel Carolina; Calandroni, Mirta; Laterra, Pedro; Cabria, Fabián; Iribarne, Oscar; Vázquez, Pablo

    2012-12-01

    Wetland loss is a frequent concern for the environmental management of rural landscapes, but poor disentanglement between climatic and land management causes frequently constrains both proper diagnoses and planning. The aim of this study is to address areal changes induced by non-climatic factors on lentic water bodies (LWB) within an agricultural basin of the Argentinean Pampas, and the human activities that might be involved. The LWB of the Mar Chiquita basin (Buenos Aires province, Argentina) were mapped using Landsat images from 1998-2008 and then corrected for precipitation variability by considering the regional hydrological status on each date. LWB areal changes were statistically and spatially analyzed in relation to land use changes, channelization of streams, and drainage of small SWB in the catchment areas. We found that 12 % of the total LWB in the basin had changed (P < 0.05) due to non-climatic causes. During the evaluated decade, 30 % of the LWB that changed size had decreased while 70 % showed steady increases in area. The number of altered LWB within watersheds lineally increased or decreased according to the proportion of grasslands replaced by sown pastures, or the proportion of sown pastures replaced by crop fields, respectively. Drainage and channelization do not appear to be related to the alteration of LWB; however some of these hydrologic modifications may predate 1998, and thus earlier effects cannot be discarded. This study shows that large-scale changes in land cover (e.g., grasslands reduction) can cause a noticeable loss of hydrologic regulation at the catchment scale within a decade. PMID:22990683

  19. The epistemological role of empathy in psychopathological diagnosis: a contemporary reassessment of Karl Jaspers’ account

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In his classic essay “The phenomenological approach to psychopathology”, Karl Jaspers defended the irreducible reality of the “subjective” mental symptoms and stressed the pivotal role of empathy in their diagnostic assessment. However, Jaspers’ account of the epistemological role of empathy in psychopathological diagnosis was far from clear: whereas at several places Jaspers claimed that empathy provides a direct access to patients’ abnormal mental experiences, at other places he stressed that it did so only indirectly, through a whole battery of their observable clinical indicators. The aim of this paper is to reassess Jaspers’ account of the epistemological role of empathy in psychopathological diagnosis. Methods I examine thoroughly Jaspers’ assertions on in the role of empathy in the diagnosis of “subjective” symptoms. Moreover, I explicate briefly the epistemological status of psychopathological diagnostic examination with the aid of the distinction between direct and indirect observation. Results Diagnostic assessment of “subjective” mental symptoms involves necessarily indirect psychopathological observation. Jaspers’ ambiguity is traced to his failure to distinguish clearly between direct and indirect psychopathological observation along with his excessive reliance on empathy. Relatedly, Jaspers’ ambiguity is also traced to his conflation of the semantics with the epistemology of psychopathological concepts representing patients’ “subjective” mental symptoms. These results apply also to contemporary phenomenological approaches to psychopathological diagnostic examination which maintain that patients’ abnormal mental experiences are invariably expressed in their overt behavior. Conclusions Jaspers was right in stressing that psychopathological concepts of subjective mental symptoms represent patients’ genuine abnormal experiences irreducible to concepts representing their associated behavioral

  20. Chronic Pain, Psychopathology, and DSM-5 Somatic Symptom Disorder.

    PubMed

    Katz, Joel; Rosenbloom, Brittany N; Fashler, Samantha

    2015-04-01

    Unlike acute pain that warns us of injury or disease, chronic or persistent pain serves no adaptive purpose. Though there is no agreed on definition of chronic pain, it is commonly referred to as pain that is without biological value, lasting longer than the typical healing time, not responsive to treatments based on specific remedies, and of a duration greater than 6 months. Chronic pain that is severe and intractable has detrimental consequences, including psychological distress, job loss, social isolation, and, not surprisingly, it is highly comorbid with depression and anxiety. Historically, pain without an apparent anatomical or neurophysiological origin was labelled as psychopathological. This approach is damaging to the patient and provider alike. It pollutes the therapeutic relationship by introducing an element of mutual distrust as well as implicit, if not explicit, blame. It is demoralizing to the patient who feels at fault, disbelieved, and alone. Moreover, many medically unexplained pains are now understood to involve an interplay between peripheral and central neurophysiological mechanisms that have gone awry. The new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, somatic symptom disorder overpsychologizes people with chronic pain; it has low sensitivity and specificity, and it contributes to misdiagnosis, as well as unnecessary stigma. Adjustment disorder remains the most appropriate, accurate, and acceptable diagnosis for people who are overly concerned about their pain. PMID:26174215

  1. China's only children and psychopathology: A quantitative synthesis.

    PubMed

    Falbo, Toni; Hooper, Sophia Y

    2015-05-01

    The goal of this study is to synthesize quantitatively the results of studies of psychopathology among Chinese only children. Since 1979, China's 1-child policy has generated large numbers of only children, especially in large urban centers, where the 1-child family has become a social norm. Motivated by concern for mental health, 22 studies, based on the SCL-90, have been published that compare the scores of only children to their peers with siblings. The raw effect sizes generated by each study underwent adjustments to enhance the reliability of the findings, including the identification and replacement of outliers, and weighting by inverse-sample size. In addition, analyses were conducted to evaluate the degree of publication bias exhibited by this collection of studies and the results from the SCL-90 studies were compared to studies using alternative measures of anxiety and depression. Overall, the synthesis found small, but significant advantages for only children compared to their peers with siblings, regardless of subscale. However, moderators of this only-child effect were also found: Only children as college students reported significantly fewer symptoms, regardless of subscale, while only children as military recruits reported more symptoms, although the findings about military recruits received less support from the analyses. Furthermore, the size of the only-child advantage was found to be greater for only children born after the policy. Conclusions based on this synthesis are limited by the fact that this body of studies is based on convenience samples of relatively successful youth. PMID:25894306

  2. Disturbances of Attachment and Parental Psychopathology in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Schechter, Daniel S.; Willheim, Erica

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis As the field of attachment has expanded over the past four decades, the perturbations in the relational context which give rise to disturbances of attachment are increasingly, though by no means conclusively, understood. In Part I, this article reviews the historical and current state of research regarding normative attachment classification, the diagnosis of Reactive Attachment Disorder, and the proposed categories of Secure Base Distortions and Disrupted Attachment Disorder. In Part II, the article explores the role of parental psychopathology and the manner in which disturbed caregiver self-regulation leads to disturbances in the mutual regulation between caregiver and infant. The question of the relationship between particular types of maternal pathology and particular forms of attachment disturbance is examined through recent research on the association between maternal PTSD, Atypical Maternal Behavior, and child scores on the Disturbances of Attachment Interview (DAI). The authors present original research findings to support that the presence and severity of maternal violence-related PTSD were significantly associated with secure base distortion in a community pediatrics sample of 76 mothers and preschool-age children. Clinical implications and recommendations for treatment of attachment disturbances conclude the article. PMID:19486844

  3. Psychopathological aspects of kidney transplantation: Efficacy of a multidisciplinary team

    PubMed Central

    De Pasquale, Concetta; Veroux, Massimiliano; Indelicato, Luisa; Sinagra, Nunzia; Giaquinta, Alessia; Fornaro, Michele; Veroux, Pierfrancesco; Pistorio, Maria L

    2014-01-01

    Renal transplantation is a well established treatment for end-stage renal disease, allowing most patients to return to a satisfactory quality of life. Studies have identified many problems that may affect adaptation to the transplanted condition and post-operative compliance. The psychological implications of transplantation have important consequences even on strictly physical aspects. Organ transplantation is very challenging for the patient and acts as an intense stressor stimulus to which the patient reacts with neurotransmitter and endocrine-metabolic changes. Transplantation can result in a psychosomatic crisis that requires the patient to mobilize all bio-psycho-social resources during the process of adaptation to the new foreign organ which may result in an alteration in self-representation and identity, with possible psychopathologic repercussions. These reactions are feasible in mental disorders, e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorder, and psychosomatic disorders. In organ transplantation, the fruitful collaboration between professionals with diverse scientific expertise, calls for both a guarantee for mental health and greater effectiveness in challenging treatments for a viable association between patients, family members and doctors. Integrated and multidisciplinary care should include uniform criteria and procedures for standard assessments, for patient autonomy, adherence to therapy, new coping strategies and the adoption of more appropriate lifestyles. PMID:25540735

  4. The structure of child and adolescent psychopathology: generating new hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Lahey, Benjamin B; Applegate, Brooks; Waldman, Irwin D; Loft, John D; Hankin, Benjamin L; Rick, Jacqueline

    2004-08-01

    To begin to resolve conflicts among current competing taxonomies of child and adolescent psychopathology, the authors developed an interview covering the symptoms of anxiety, depression, inattention, and disruptive behavior used in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994), the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10; World Health Organization, 1992), and several implicit taxonomies. This interview will be used in the future to compare the internal and external validity of alternative taxonomies. To provide an informative framework for future hypothesis-testing studies, the authors used principal factor analysis to induce new testable hypotheses regarding the structure of this item pool in a representative sample of 1,358 children and adolescents ranging in age from 4 to 17 years. The resulting hypotheses differed from the DSM-IV, particularly in suggesting that some anxiety symptoms are part of the same syndrome as depression, whereas separation anxiety, fears, and compulsions constitute a separate anxiety dimension. PMID:15311983

  5. Psychopathological aspects of kidney transplantation: Efficacy of a multidisciplinary team.

    PubMed

    De Pasquale, Concetta; Veroux, Massimiliano; Indelicato, Luisa; Sinagra, Nunzia; Giaquinta, Alessia; Fornaro, Michele; Veroux, Pierfrancesco; Pistorio, Maria L

    2014-12-24

    Renal transplantation is a well established treatment for end-stage renal disease, allowing most patients to return to a satisfactory quality of life. Studies have identified many problems that may affect adaptation to the transplanted condition and post-operative compliance. The psychological implications of transplantation have important consequences even on strictly physical aspects. Organ transplantation is very challenging for the patient and acts as an intense stressor stimulus to which the patient reacts with neurotransmitter and endocrine-metabolic changes. Transplantation can result in a psychosomatic crisis that requires the patient to mobilize all bio-psycho-social resources during the process of adaptation to the new foreign organ which may result in an alteration in self-representation and identity, with possible psychopathologic repercussions. These reactions are feasible in mental disorders, e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorder, and psychosomatic disorders. In organ transplantation, the fruitful collaboration between professionals with diverse scientific expertise, calls for both a guarantee for mental health and greater effectiveness in challenging treatments for a viable association between patients, family members and doctors. Integrated and multidisciplinary care should include uniform criteria and procedures for standard assessments, for patient autonomy, adherence to therapy, new coping strategies and the adoption of more appropriate lifestyles. PMID:25540735

  6. Psychopathology and personality of young women who experience food cravings.

    PubMed

    Gendall, K A; Sullivan, P F; Joyce, P R; Fear, J L; Bulik, C M

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the psychopathology and personality characteristics of women who experience food cravings. A total of 101 young women selected at random from the community completed the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies with a trained interviewer. The interview included a section about food-craving experiences and associated factors. Subjects also completed a self-report questionnaire booklet containing the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI). Compared to noncravers, women who reported food cravings were significantly more likely to report a history of alcohol abuse/dependence (p = .003), significant weight changes (p = .003), and to have undertaken dieting (p = .02), bingeing (p = .05), vomiting (p = .02), exercise (p = .04), diet pill (p = .03), and laxative use (p = .01) to control weight. There was a trend for the cravers to have higher novelty-seeking scores on the TCI (p = .06). Our findings suggest that women who experience food cravings are more likely to have met criteria for alcohol abuse/dependence and tend to have temperament characterized by higher levels of novelty seeking. In addition the high rates of eating-disorder symptomatology implies overconcern with body weight and shape in the women who experienced food cravings. PMID:9290863

  7. Mental representation, severe psychopathology, and the therapeutic process.

    PubMed

    Blatt, S J; Auerbach, J S

    2001-01-01

    Mental representation is a central construct in psychological development. A method for assessing the developmental level of representation of self and significant figures is described, and changes in the developmental level of these representations are reported in a sample of forty seriously disturbed, treatment-resistant adolescents and young adults in intensive, psychoanalytically oriented inpatient treatment lasting more than a year. Increased differentiation-relatedness of descriptions of self and significant figures (mother, father, and therapist) was significantly correlated with improved clinical functioning. Over the course of treatment, representations moved from descriptions of self and significant figures dominated by polarization and splitting to representations involving the emergence and consolidation of object constancy. Improved clinical functioning was correlated with more positive descriptions of self, mother, and therapist and, paradoxically, with more negative descriptions of father. Two prototypical case studies of these self- and significant-figure descriptions are presented, one for a borderline patient and one for a schizophrenic. Intense negative affect, predominantly anger, and a relative preservation of self-reflexivity are typical of the self- and object representations of borderline individuals, but representations in schizophrenic individuals are characterized by affective muting and marked disturbance in reflexive self-awareness. The assessment of cognitive-affective schemas of self and significant others provides a method for investigating therapeutic change and for identifying important differences among various forms of psychopathology. PMID:11379719

  8. Projective risk variables in early adolescence and subsequent disinhibitory psychopathology.

    PubMed

    af Klinteberg, Britt; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Gacono, Carl; Alm, Per Olof

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to examine early adolescent projective risk indicators for the development of antisocial behaviour as related to adult personality traits, psychopathy, and violent behaviour over the life span. Assessment data included Rorschach (Rr) ratings (at age 11-14 years), personality inventories (EPQ-I and KSP scales), and a shortened Psychopathy Check List (PCL) (administered at age 32-40 years), obtained from a group of 199 male subjects; and smoking habits (at age 36-44 years) obtained from 125 of those subjects. Results, controlled for intelligence, indicated that the high and very high risk groups, as determined by level of total Rr risk scores, were (1) significantly higher on self-rated IVE Impulsiveness, the anxiety-related KSP Muscular Tension, and nonconformity traits, as compared to the low Rr risk group--the very high risk group also scoring significantly higher on the EPQ Psychoticism scale, related to aggressiveness and cruelty; (2) higher on clinically rated PCL total sum and factor scores; and (3) they were overrepresented among Ss with subsequent violent offence, and Ss with heavy smoking habits. The results are discussed in terms of the possible usefulness of psychodynamic oriented cognitive-emotional indicators in the search for underlying mechanisms in the development of disinhibitory psychopathology. PMID:18511121

  9. Functional Disturbances Within Frontostriatal Circuits Across Multiple Childhood Psychopathologies

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Rachel; Maia, Tiago V.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Neuroimaging studies of healthy individuals inform us about the normative maturation of the frontostriatal circuits that subserve self-regulatory control processes. Findings from these studies can be used as a reference frame against which to compare the aberrant development of these processes in individuals across a wide range of childhood psychopathologies. Method The authors reviewed extensive neuroimaging evidence for the presence of abnormalities in frontostriatal circuits in children and adults with Tourette’s syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) as well as a more limited number of imaging studies of adolescents and adults with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa that, together, implicate dysregulation of frontostriatal control systems in the pathogenesis of these eating disorders. Results The presence of an impaired capacity for self-regulatory control that derives from abnormal development of frontostriatal circuits likely interacts in similar ways with normally occurring somatic sensations and motor urges, intrusive thoughts, sensations of hunger, and preoccupation with body shape and weight to contribute, respectively, to the development of the tics of Tourette’s syndrome, the obsessions of OCD, the binge eating behaviors of bulimia, and the self-starvation of anorexia. Conclusions Analogous brain mechanisms in parallel frontostriatal circuits, or even in differing portions of the same frontostriatal circuit, may underlie the differing behavioral disturbances in these multiple disorders, although further research is needed to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:19448188

  10. Rediscovering Psychopathology: The Epistemology and Phenomenology of the Psychiatric Object

    PubMed Central

    Parnas, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Questions concerning both the ontology and epistemology of the “psychiatric object” (symptoms and signs) should be at the forefront of current concerns of psychiatry as a clinical neuroscience. We argue that neglect of these issues is a crucial source of the stagnation of psychiatric research. In honor of the centenary of Karl Jaspers’ book, General Psychopathology, we offer a critique of the contemporary “operationalist” epistemology, a critique that is consistent with Jaspers’ views. Symptoms and signs cannot be properly understood or identified apart from an appreciation of the nature of consciousness or subjectivity, which in turn cannot be treated as a collection of thing-like, mutually independent objects, accessible to context-free, “atheoretical” definitions or unproblematic forms of measurement (as is often assumed in structured interviewing). Adequate and faithful distinctions in the phenomenal or experiential realm are therefore a fundamental prerequisite for classification, treatment, and research. This requires a multidisciplinary approach, incorporating (among other things) insights provided by psychology, phenomenological philosophy, and the philosophy of mind. PMID:23267191

  11. Appetitive conditioning: neural bases and implications for psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Soelch, C; Linthicum, J.; Ernst, M

    2009-01-01

    Appetitive conditioning is the process through which new rewards are learned and acquire their motivational salience. Although it has the same evolutionary survival significance as aversive conditioning, appetitive conditioning has rarely been studied in humans. This gap may be explained by the difficulty to find in humans suitable appetitive stimuli that can elicit physiological responses similar to those elicited by aversive stimuli. To help remedy this gap, we review the literature on conditioning, with emphasis on appetitive conditioning. This review comprises three parts. First, we examine the different forms of conditioning. Second, we review the neural basis of appetitive conditioning, particularly from a functional neuroimaging perspective. And third, we demonstrate how perturbations in processes involved in appetitive conditioning can be involved in psychopathologies and suggest neurobiological models underlying these pathologies. The ultimate goal of this review is to stimulate new avenues of research that have direct links to molecular biology, and thus could prove to be invaluable to progress in the understanding and treatment of psychiatric disabilities. PMID:17210179

  12. The developmental psychopathology of social anxiety in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Chris; Wilson, Kimberly A; Lagle, Kristy; Kraemer, Helena C; Killen, Joel D; Taylor, C Barr

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate a developmental psychopathology approach for understanding adolescent social anxiety, parent-reported predictors of social anxiety were examined in a nonclinical sample of adolescents. Structured diagnostic interviews were obtained from biological parents of 770 participants. Potential risk factors assessed included child characteristics: negative affect, shyness, separation anxiety disorder, and childhood chronic illness, as well as parent characteristics: major depression, panic disorder, and agoraphobia. Adolescent social anxiety was measured multiple times during high school. Findings indicate stability in social anxiety symptoms across time. Parent-reported, childhood negative affect, shyness, and chronic illness as well as parental panic disorder or agoraphobia were associated with adolescent social anxiety. Interactions were observed between parent-reported childhood shyness and gender and between parent-reported childhood shyness and parent-reported childhood chronic illness in the prediction of social anxiety. Parent-reported childhood shyness was a stronger predictor of adolescent social anxiety in females compared to males. The combined effect of subjects being positive for both parent-reported childhood shyness and parent-reported childhood chronic illness was greater than would be expected based on additive effects. This study provides support for a multifactorial and developmentally informed understanding of adolescent social anxiety. PMID:17348001

  13. Rediscovering psychopathology: the epistemology and phenomenology of the psychiatric object.

    PubMed

    Parnas, Josef; Sass, Louis A; Zahavi, Dan

    2013-03-01

    Questions concerning both the ontology and epistemology of the "psychiatric object" (symptoms and signs) should be at the forefront of current concerns of psychiatry as a clinical neuroscience. We argue that neglect of these issues is a crucial source of the stagnation of psychiatric research. In honor of the centenary of Karl Jaspers' book, General Psychopathology, we offer a critique of the contemporary "operationalist" epistemology, a critique that is consistent with Jaspers' views. Symptoms and signs cannot be properly understood or identified apart from an appreciation of the nature of consciousness or subjectivity, which in turn cannot be treated as a collection of thing-like, mutually independent objects, accessible to context-free, "atheoretical" definitions or unproblematic forms of measurement (as is often assumed in structured interviewing). Adequate and faithful distinctions in the phenomenal or experiential realm are therefore a fundamental prerequisite for classification, treatment, and research. This requires a multidisciplinary approach, incorporating (among other things) insights provided by psychology, phenomenological philosophy, and the philosophy of mind. PMID:23267191

  14. Appetitive conditioning: neural bases and implications for psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Martin-Soelch, C; Linthicum, J; Ernst, M

    2007-01-01

    Appetitive conditioning is the process through which new rewards are learned and acquire their motivational salience. Although it has the same evolutionary survival significance as aversive conditioning, appetitive conditioning has rarely been studied in humans. This gap may be explained by the difficulty to find in humans suitable appetitive stimuli that can elicit physiological responses similar to those elicited by aversive stimuli. To help remedy this gap, we review the literature on conditioning, with emphasis on appetitive conditioning. This review comprises three parts. First, we examine the different forms of conditioning. Second, we review the neural basis of appetitive conditioning, particularly from a functional neuroimaging perspective. And third, we demonstrate how perturbations in processes involved in appetitive conditioning can contribute to implicated psychopathologies and suggest neurobiological models underlying these pathologies. The ultimate goal of this review is to stimulate new avenues of research that have direct links to molecular biology, and thus could prove to be invaluable to progress in the understanding and treatment of psychiatric disabilities. PMID:17210179

  15. Cognitive and psychopathological sequelae of pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, M H; Anderson, V

    2013-01-01

    Childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a frequent cause of acquired disability in childhood and can have a serious impact on development across the lifespan. The consequences of early TBI vary according to injury severity, with severe injuries usually resulting in more serious physical, cognitive and behavioral sequelae. Both clinical and research reports document residual deficits in a range of skills, including intellectual function, attention, memory, learning, and executive function. In addition, recent investigations suggest that early brain injury also affects psychological and social development and that problems in these domains may increase in the long term postinjury. Together, these deficits affect children's ability to function effectively at school, in the home, and in their social environment, resulting in impaired acquisition of knowledge, psychological and social problems, and overall reduced quality of life. Ultimately, recovery from childhood TBI depends on a range of complex biological, developmental, and psychosocial factors making prognosis difficult to predict. This chapter will detail the cognitive (intellectual, attentional, mnesic, executive, educational, and vocational) and psychopathological (behavioral, adaptive, psychological, social) sequelae of childhood TBI with a particular focus on postinjury recovery patterns in the acute, short-, and long-term phases, as well as into adulthood. PMID:23622301

  16. War trauma and psychopathology in Bosnian refugee children.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, V; Frangou-Garunovic, A; Iordanidou, R; Yule, W; Smith, P; Vostanis, P

    2000-06-01

    This paper describes the pattern of psychopathology in a sample of 95 children of 8-13 years, who had experienced war in Bosnia. The children were assessed with a battery of standardised measures during a psychosocial support programme in Northern Greece. They either came from refugee families (44%) or had suffered significant family loss (a parent had been killed in 28% and the father was injured or absent in 27% of cases). Children recalled a substantial number of war traumatic experiences. According to previously established cut-off scores on self-report measures, 45 children (47%) scored within the clinical range on the Depression Self-Rating Scale for Children, 28 (23%) on the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, and 65 (28%) on the Impact of Event Scale (IES) measuring PTSD reactions. There was a significant association between the number of war traumatic experiences and the intrusion and avoidance scores on the IES. The findings are discussed in relation to setting up intervention programmes for children victims of war and their families. PMID:10926057

  17. The psychopathology of everyday Vienna: psychoanalysis and Freud's familiars.

    PubMed

    Geller, Jay

    2004-10-01

    This paper examines the parapraxes made by, to or about Jewish-identified individuals discussed by Freud in Psychopathology of everyday life. Each of these errors and slips is occasioned by what he terms a 'mesalliance' between a Jew and a Gentile. Such incidents of distorted language betray unresolved ambivalences and unformulated anxieties endemic to Jewish-Gentile interaction in Freud's Vienna. First, the disturbed relationships between German-speaking Gentiles and their threatening Doppelganger, the Jews, are analyzed by means of Freud's analysis of the 'uncanny' and an examination of the particular restrictions placed upon the 'officially' emancipated Jews in the Habsburg Empire, especially with regard to intermarriage. Then, the paper turns to Freud's discussions of explicitly Jewish-identified individuals and their limitation to illustrating parapraxes associated with what should be the most pleasurable and intimate relationships between Jew and Gentile, namely sexual and connubial relations. His focus upon this conflicted conjunction diagnosed the intrinsically problematic character of Jew-Gentile interaction in his Vienna. PMID:15509339

  18. Cognitive self-regulation, social functioning and psychopathology in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Santosh, Shivani; Roy, Debdulal Dutta; Kundu, Partha Sarathi

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To explore relation between cognitive self-regulation, social functioning, and psychopathology in schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 were taken from Department of Psychiatry of two postgraduate hospitals of Kolkata, India. All subjects gave informed consent. After recording sociodemographic and clinical details, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia (PANSS), Schizophrenia Research Foundation India-Social Functioning Index (SCARF-SFI), and specially designed questionnaire on cognitive self-regulation was administered. Results: All the four subtests of SCARF-SFI, that is, self-concern, occupational role, social role and family role, and symptoms scale of PANSS were significantly correlated with cognitive self-regulation. Cognitive self-regulation along with positive and negative symptoms was able to predict social functioning. Conclusion: Cognitive self-regulation is significantly and positively correlated to social functioning. Cognitive self-regulation along with positive and negative symptoms is a significant predictor of social functioning. PMID:27212815

  19. Chronic Pain, Psychopathology, and DSM-5 Somatic Symptom Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Joel; Rosenbloom, Brittany N; Fashler, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Unlike acute pain that warns us of injury or disease, chronic or persistent pain serves no adaptive purpose. Though there is no agreed on definition of chronic pain, it is commonly referred to as pain that is without biological value, lasting longer than the typical healing time, not responsive to treatments based on specific remedies, and of a duration greater than 6 months. Chronic pain that is severe and intractable has detrimental consequences, including psychological distress, job loss, social isolation, and, not surprisingly, it is highly comorbid with depression and anxiety. Historically, pain without an apparent anatomical or neurophysiological origin was labelled as psychopathological. This approach is damaging to the patient and provider alike. It pollutes the therapeutic relationship by introducing an element of mutual distrust as well as implicit, if not explicit, blame. It is demoralizing to the patient who feels at fault, disbelieved, and alone. Moreover, many medically unexplained pains are now understood to involve an interplay between peripheral and central neurophysiological mechanisms that have gone awry. The new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, somatic symptom disorder overpsychologizes people with chronic pain; it has low sensitivity and specificity, and it contributes to misdiagnosis, as well as unnecessary stigma. Adjustment disorder remains the most appropriate, accurate, and acceptable diagnosis for people who are overly concerned about their pain. PMID:26174215

  20. Psychopathology of Mental Development (Proceedings of the Fifty-Sixth Annual Meeting of the American Psychopathological Association, Held in New York City, February, 1966).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubin, Joseph, Ed.; Jervis, George A., Ed.

    The proceedings include 33 papers and two addresses on the psychopathology of mental development. The following six subject areas are considered: genetics and neurophysiology, socio-cultural and paranatal factors; epidemiology; behavior characteristics and learning; observational techniques and measurement of intelligence; and diagnosis and…

  1. Assessment of Psychopathological Problems in the School Context: The Psychometric Properties of a Portuguese Version of the Adolescent Psychopathology Scale--Short Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemos, Ida Timoteo; Faisca, Luis Madeira; Valadas, Sandra Teodosio

    2011-01-01

    The psychometric properties of a Portuguese version of the Adolescent Psychopathology Scale-Short Form (APS-SF) were studied in a sample of 656 Portuguese adolescents, aged 12 to 19 years, assessed in school context. Also, the aim of the study was to gather data concerning age- and gender-related differences in the expression of psychopathological…

  2. Predicting and Disentangling Stellar Variability in Quiet Stars: Implications for Low-mass Planet Confirmation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cegla, Heather; Watson, Chris; Stassun, Keivan; Shelyag, Sergiy; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Bastien, Fabienne; Pepper, Josh

    2015-08-01

    Stellar variability is one of the main limiting factors in the detection and confirmation of low-mass planets. Even for magnetically quiet stars, astrophysical noise could be present at the 10m/s level. For these stars we demonstrate, using Kepler and GALEX data, that it may be possible to use photometric variability to predict the RV noise. Such a relationship creates a filtering mechanism to prioritize planetary candidates in transit surveys that are ideal for RV follow-up. Going beyond this, we use 3D magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations to create Sun-as-a-star observations, focusing on stellar surface magneto-convection. Using these model observations we have identified correlations between the stellar line shape, brightness, and RV variability. We demonstrate that photometric observations may be key in disentangling stellar and planetary induced RV signals. Disentangling these signals allows us to reach the 10 cm/s noise level in our model star, indicating significant promise for the confirmation of low-mass planet candidates in the future.

  3. Processing route to disentangle multi-walled carbon nanotube towards ceramic composite.

    PubMed

    Belmonte, M; Vallés, C; Maser, W K; Benito, A M; Martinez, M T; Miranzo, P; Osendi, M I

    2009-10-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes were highly aggregated into ropes after their synthesis by chemical vapour deposition and, therefore, two different methods for disentangling the bundles of nanotubes were studied. One method compared the use of mild and vigorous mechanical treatments in ethanol and the other one employed dispersants in aqueous media. For comparison purposes and according to their different exfoliating behaviour, sodium dodecyl sulphate and gum arabic were selected as dispersants. The results evidenced that mechanical sonication was insufficient for disentangling the ropes, whereas, the combined action of mild sonication in an ultrasonic bath with the addition of gum arabic to an aqueous suspension containing nanotubes improved the exfoliating performance. Stable suspensions of unbundled multi-walled carbon nanotubes were obtained adding only 0.05 wt% of gum arabic with a dispersant/MWNTs concentration ratio of 0.25. These values corresponded to a reduction in the dispersant concentration between 1 to 2 orders of magnitude compared to those commonly employed. In addition, a processing route for manufacturing dense and homogenous silicon nitride composites using spark plasma sintering with 1.8 vol% of multi-walled carbon nanotubes almost free of organics was developed without nanotubes degradation and aggregation. PMID:19908510

  4. Age-related differences in internalizing psychopathology amongst the Australian general population.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Matthew; Slade, Tim; Carragher, Natacha; Batterham, Philip; Buchan, Heather

    2013-11-01

    Two methodological criticisms have limited the reliability and validity of findings from previous studies that seek to examine change across the life span in levels of internalizing psychopathology using general population surveys. The first criticism involves the potential influence of cohort effects that confound true age-related changes whereas the second criticism involves the use of a single form of assessment to measure and compare levels of internalizing psychopathology. This study seeks to address these criticisms by modeling age-related change using multiple measures and multiple surveys. Data from 2 epidemiological surveys conducted 10 years apart in the Australian general population were combined and used for the current study. The latent construct of internalizing psychopathology was modeled using a combination of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) depression and anxiety diagnoses as well as items from the Kessler Psychological Distress scale (K10; Kessler et al., 2002). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that a single internalizing dimension provided good model fit to the data. Multigroup CFA indicated that strict measurement invariance of the model can be assumed across survey administrations and age bands, justifying comparisons of mean differences in latent trait levels. Significant changes in mean levels of latent internalizing psychopathology were evident between respondents aged 30-39 years old in 1997 and respondents aged 40-49 years old in 2007, suggesting a minor but significant increase in psychopathology across middle age. By contrast, a minor but significant decrease in psychopathology was noted when transitioning from late middle age (50-59 years old) to old age (60-69 years old). The majority of individuals in the general population will experience constant levels of internalizing psychopathology as they age, suggesting that the construct is relatively

  5. China's Only Children and Psychopathology: A Quantitative Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Falbo, Toni; Hooper, Sophia Y.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to synthesize quantitatively the results of studies of psychopathology among Chinese only children. Since 1979, China's one-child policy has generated large numbers of only children, especially in large urban centers, where the one-child family has become a social norm. Motivated by concern for mental health, 22 studies, based on the SCL-90, have been published that compare the scores of only children to their peers with siblings. The raw effect sizes generated by each study underwent adjustments in order to enhance the reliability of the findings, including the identification and replacement of outliers, and weighting by inverse-sample size. In addition, analyses were conducted to evaluate the degree of publication bias exhibited by this collection of studies and the results from the SCL-90 studies were compared to studies using alternative measures of anxiety and depression. Overall, the synthesis found small, but significant advantages for only children compared to their peers with siblings, regardless of subscale. However, moderators of this only-child effect were also found: only children as college students reported significantly fewer symptoms, regardless of subscale; while only children as military recruits reported more symptoms, although the findings about military recruits received less support from the analyses. Furthermore, the size of the only-child advantage was found to be greater for only children born after the policy. Conclusions based on this synthesis are limited by the fact that this body of studies is based on convenience samples of relatively successful youth. PMID:25894306

  6. 'Chronophilia': Entries of Erotic Age Preference into Descriptive Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Diederik F

    2015-10-01

    A scientific nomenclature of erotic age preferences informed the mid- through late nineteenth century joint appearance of homosexuality and sexual abuse of minors on the medico-legal scene. Yet, even in the twenty-first century, legal, psychiatric and culture-critical dimensions of related terms are rarely cleanly distinguished. Review of primary sources shows the ongoing Western suspension of notions of 'sick desire', alongside and beyond the medicalisation of homosexuality, between metaphor, legal interdiction and postulated psychopathology. Virtually all early attention to erotic age preference occurred in the context of emergent attention to erotic gender preference. Age of attraction and age difference centrally animate modern homosexuality's pre-modern past; its earliest psychiatric nomenclature and typologies (1844-69); its early aetiologies stipulating degrees of sexual differentiation (1890 s); its concomitant sub-classification (1896-1914); its earliest psychophysiological tests (1950s); and, finally, its post-psychiatric, social scientific typologies (1980s). Several identifications of 'paedophilia' were seen throughout the 1890 s but as a trope it gained cultural momentum only during, and as a seemingly intriguing corollary of, the progressive depsychiatricisation of homosexuality across the Anglo-European world (late 1950s through 1980s). Early twentieth century sources varied in having it denote (1) a distinct perversion, thus possible 'complication' of sexual inversion (2) a discrete corollary of psychosexual differentiation akin to gender preference (3) a distinct subtype of fetishism, thus a likely imprint of early seduction (4) a more intricate expression of erotic symbolism or psychosexual complex or (5) a taste answering to culture, a lack of it, or a libertine disregard for it. PMID:26352305

  7. Parents of children with psychopathology: psychiatric problems and the association with their child's problems.

    PubMed

    Middeldorp, Christel M; Wesseldijk, Laura W; Hudziak, James J; Verhulst, Frank C; Lindauer, Ramon J L; Dieleman, Gwen C

    2016-08-01

    Knowledge is lacking regarding current psychopathology in parents whose children are evaluated in a psychiatric outpatient clinic. This especially accounts for fathers. We provide insight into the prevalence rates of parental psychopathology and the association with their offspring psychopathology by analyzing data on psychiatric problems collected in 701 mothers and 530 fathers of 757 referred children. Prevalence rates of parental psychopathology were based on (sub)clinical scores on the adult self report. Parent-offspring associations were investigated in multivariate analyses taking into account co-morbidity. Around 20 % of the parents had a (sub)clinical score on internalizing problems and around 10 % on attention deficit hyperactivity (ADH) problems. Prevalence rates did not differ between mothers and fathers. Parent-offspring associations did not differ between girls and boys. Maternal anxiety was associated with all offspring problem scores. In addition, maternal ADH problems were associated with offspring ADH problems. Paternal anxiety and ADH problems scores were specifically associated with offspring internalizing and externalizing problem scores, respectively. Associations with offspring psychopathology were of similar magnitude for mothers and fathers and were not influenced by spousal resemblance. Our study shows that both fathers and mothers are at increased risk for psychiatric problems at the time of a child's evaluation and that their problems are equally associated with their offspring problems. The results emphasize the need to screen mothers as well as fathers for psychiatric problems. Specific treatment programs should be developed for these families in especially high need. PMID:26757722

  8. Intimate partner violence perpetrators in a forensic psychiatric outpatient setting: criminal history, psychopathology, and victimization.

    PubMed

    Henrichs, Jens; Bogaerts, Stefan; Sijtsema, Jelle; Klerx-van Mierlo, Fanny

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated criminological, psychopathological, and victimological profiles of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators in a sample of 119 Dutch female and male forensic psychiatric outpatients aged 18 to 58 years. In addition, differences in criminological, psychopathological, and victimological factors between IPV perpetrators (n = 61, 51.3%) and non-intimate violence (NIV) perpetrators (n = 58, 48.7%) were examined. All data, including information on demographics, criminal history, history of psychological, sexual, and physical victimization during childhood or adolescence, family history of psychopathology, history of psychopathology in childhood and adolescence, and mental disorders, were derived from archival electronic medical records. Mental disorders were measured using structured psychiatric interviews and final consensus diagnoses were established during weekly case consultations. Both IPV and NIV perpetrators displayed high rates of criminal history, psychopathology, and previous victimization, but the two groups did not differ in these factors with two exceptions. IPV perpetrators were significantly more likely to have higher rates of previous physical victimization and intermittent explosive disorder than NIV perpetrators. The current study suggests that a history of physical victimization and intermittent explosive disorder are specific characteristics of IPV perpetrators in a forensic psychiatric outpatient setting. Future research should focus on mechanisms explaining the association of childhood victimization and IPV and increase our understanding of the role of intermittent explosive disorder in IPV. PMID:25287409

  9. Couple-based interventions for psychopathology: a renewed direction for the field.

    PubMed

    Baucom, Donald H; Belus, Jennifer M; Adelman, Caroline B; Fischer, Melanie S; Paprocki, Christine

    2014-09-01

    This article provides a rationale and empirical support for providing couple-based interventions when one partner in a relationship is experiencing individual psychopathology. Several investigations indicate that relationship distress and psychopathology are associated and reciprocally influence each other, such that the existence of relationship distress predicts the development of subsequent psychopathology and vice versa. Furthermore, findings indicate that for several disorders, individual psychotherapy is less effective if the client is in a distressed relationship. Finally, even within happy relationships, partners often inadvertently behave in ways that maintain or exacerbate symptoms for the other individual. Thus, within both satisfied and distressed relationships, including the partner in a couple-based intervention provides an opportunity to use the partner and the relationship as a resource rather than a stressor for an individual experiencing some form of psychological distress. The authors propose that a promising approach to including the partner in treatment involves (a) integrating intervention principles from empirically supported interventions for individual therapy for specific disorders with (b) knowledge of how to employ relationships to promote individual and dyadic change. Based on this logic, the article includes several examples to demonstrate how couple-based interventions can be focused on a specific type of psychopathology, including encouraging empirical findings for these interventions. The article concludes with recommendations for how clinicians and researchers can adapt their knowledge of couple therapy to assist couples in which one partner is experiencing notable psychological distress or diagnosable psychopathology. PMID:24773298

  10. Psychopathology and cognition in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Niarchou, Maria; Zammit, Stanley; van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.; Thapar, Anita; Tierling, Hayley M.; Owen, Michael J.; van den Bree, Marianne B. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have been reported to have high rates of cognitive and psychiatric problems. Aims To establish the nature and prevalence of psychiatric disorder and neurocognitive impairment in children with 22q11.2DS and test whether risk of psychopathology is mediated by the children’s intellectual impairment. Method Neurocognition and psychopathology were assessed in 80 children with 22q11.2DS (mean age 10.2 years, s.d. = 2.1) and 39 sibling controls (mean age 10.9 years, s.d. = 2.0). Results More than half (54%) of children with 22q11.2DS met diagnostic criteria for one or more DSM-IV-TR psychiatric disorder. These children had lower IQ (mean 76.8, s.d. = 13.0) than controls (mean 108.6, s.d. = 15.2) (P<0.001) and showed a range of neurocognitive impairments. Increased risk of psychopathology was not mediated by intellectual impairment. Conclusions 22q11.2DS is not related to a specific psychiatric phenotype in children. Moreover, the deletion has largely independent effects on IQ and risk of psychopathology, indicating that psychopathology in 22q11.2DS is not a non-specific consequence of generalised cognitive impairment. PMID:24115343

  11. Psychopathy Factor Interactions and Co-Occurring Psychopathology: Does Measurement Approach Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Elizabeth; Bornovalova, Marina A.; Kimonis, Eva R.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Poythress, Norman G.

    2014-01-01

    The two dimensions of psychopathy as operationalized by various measurement tools show differential associations with psychopathology; however, evidence suggests that the statistical interaction of Factor 1 (F1) and Factor 2 (F2) may be important in understanding associations with psychopathology. Findings regarding the interactive effects of F1 and F2 are mixed, as both potentiating and protective effects have emerged. Moreover, approaches to measuring F1 (e.g. clinical interview versus self-report) are based on different conceptualizations of F1, which may influence the interactive effects. The current study aims to 1) elucidate the influence of F1 and F2 on psychopathology by using both variable-centered and person-centered approaches and 2) determine if the measurement of F1 influences the interactive effects of F1 and F2 by comparing the strength of interactive effects across F1 measures in a sample of over 1,500 offenders. Across analytic methods, there were very few cases in which F1 statistically influenced the association between F2 and psychopathology, such that F1 failed to evidence either potentiating or protective effects on F2. Furthermore, the conceptualization of F1 across psychopathy measures did not impact the interactive effects of F1 and F2. These findings suggest that F2 is probably driving the relations between psychopathy and other forms of psychopathology, and that F1 may play less of a role in interacting with F2 than previously believed. PMID:25580612

  12. Being bullied and feeling ashamed: Implications for eating psychopathology and depression in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Cristiana; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Rodrigues, Tânia

    2015-10-01

    The current study examined the associations between peer victimization, body image shame, self-criticism, self-reassurance, depressive symptoms and eating psychopathology in 609 female adolescents. Correlational analyses showed that being the victim of bullying was positively associated with body image shame, self-criticism, with low self-reassurance, depressive symptoms and eating psychopathology. A path analysis indicated that victimization experiences were associated with increased depressive symptoms partially through increased levels of body image shame, and a severe form of self-criticism - hated self. Body image shame and hated-self self-criticism fully mediated the association between victimization experiences eating psychopathology. The tested model accounted for a total of 51% of depressive symptoms variance and for 52% of eating psychopathology variance. These findings may have important intervention and prevention implications, by suggesting that bullying experiences fuel body image shame and consequent self-directed hostility and anger, which, in turn, predict increased depressive symptomatology and eating psychopathology in female adolescents. PMID:26318063

  13. Distress Tolerance and Psychopathological Symptoms and Disorders: A Review of the Empirical Literature among Adults

    PubMed Central

    Leyro, Teresa M.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Bernstein, Amit

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper, we review theory and empirical study of distress tolerance, an emerging risk factor candidate for various forms of psychopathology. Despite the long-standing interest in, and promise of work on, distress tolerance for understanding adult psychopathology, there has not been a comprehensive review of the extant empirical literature focused on the construct. As a result, a comprehensive synthesis of theoretical and empirical scholarship on distress tolerance including integration of extant research on the relations between distress tolerance and psychopathology is lacking. Inspection of the scientific literature indicates that there are a number of promising ways to conceptualize and measure distress tolerance, as well as documented relations between distress tolerance factor(s) and psychopathological symptoms and disorders. Although promising, there also is notable conceptual and operational heterogeneity across the distress tolerance literature(s). Moreoever, a number of basic questions remain unanswered regarding the associations between distress tolerance and other risk and protective factors and processes, as well as its putative role(s) in vulnerability for, and resilience to, psychopathology. Thus, the current paper provides a comprehensive review of past and contemporary theory and research and proposes key areas for future empirical study of this construct. PMID:20565169

  14. Exploring compassion: a meta-analysis of the association between self-compassion and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    MacBeth, Angus; Gumley, Andrew

    2012-08-01

    Compassion has emerged as an important construct in studies of mental health and psychological therapy. Although an increasing number of studies have explored relationships between compassion and different facets of psychopathology there has as yet been no systematic review or synthesis of the empirical literature. We conducted a systematic search of the literature on compassion and mental health. We identified 20 samples from 14 eligible studies. All studies used the Neff Self Compassion Scale (Neff, 2003b). We employed meta-analysis to explore associations between self-compassion and psychopathology using random effects analyses of Fisher's Z correcting for attenuation arising from scale reliability. We found a large effect size for the relationship between compassion and psychopathology of r=-0.54 (95% CI=-0.57 to -0.51; Z=-34.02; p<.0001). Heterogeneity was significant in the analysis. There was no evidence of significant publication bias. Compassion is an important explanatory variable in understanding mental health and resilience. Future work is needed to develop the evidence base for compassion in psychopathology, and explore correlates of compassion and psychopathology. PMID:22796446

  15. Do methadone and buprenorphine have the same impact on psychopathological symptoms of heroin addicts?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The idea that the impact of opioid agonist treatment is influenced by the psychopathological profile of heroin addicts has not yet been investigated, and is based on the concept of a specific therapeutic action displayed by opioid agents on psychopathological symptoms. In the present report we compared the effects of buprenorphine and methadone on the psychopathological symptoms of 213 patients (106 on buprenorphine and 107 on methadone) in a follow-up study lasting 12 months. Methods Drug addiction history was collected by means of the Drug Addiction History Rating Scale (DAH-RS) and psychopathological features were collected by means of the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), using a special five-factor solution. Toxicological urinalyses were carried out for each patient during the treatment period. Results No statistically significant differences were detected in psychopathological symptoms, including 'worthlessness-being trapped', 'somatization', and 'panic-anxiety'. Methadone proved to be more effective on patients characterized by 'sensitivity-psychoticism', whereas buprenorphine was more effective on patients displaying a 'violence-suicide' symptomatology. Conclusions Heroin-dependent patients with psychiatric comorbidities may benefit from opioid agonist treatment not only because it targets their addictive problem, but also, precisely due to this, because it is effective against their mental disorder too. PMID:21569624

  16. Psychopathology and academic performance, social well-being, and social preference at school: the TRAILS study.

    PubMed

    Sijtsema, J J; Verboom, C E; Penninx, B W J H; Verhulst, F C; Ormel, J

    2014-06-01

    Psychopathology during adolescence has been associated with poor academic performance, low social well-being, and low social preference by peers at school. However, previous research has not accounted for comorbid psychopathology, informant-specific associations between psychopathology and functioning, and gender and age differences. This study addresses these limitations by examining adolescents' psychopathology and functioning at school, reported by child, parent, teacher, and peers during primary and secondary school in a large Dutch longitudinal cohort study (N = 2230). Teacher reports of psychopathology, especially regarding attention problems and withdrawn/depressed problems, followed by parent reports regarding hyperactivity, were most strongly associated with academic performance. The same held for social preference which was associated with teacher and parent ratings of withdrawn/depressed problems and hyperactivity. In contrast, social well-being was best predicted by child reports (at primary school) of affective problems. In girls, the association between ADHD problems and poor academic performance was stronger than in boys and conduct problems were more often associated with poor school functioning in general. These findings can help identify adolescents at risk for poor functioning and design interventions that effectively reduce or prevent poor school functioning. PMID:23917997

  17. Disentangling the ICL with the CHEFs in the Pandora galaxy cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Teja, Yolanda; Dupke, Renato A.

    2016-01-01

    The intracluster light (ICL) is important for understanding the metal enrichment of the intracluster gas and constraining cosmological parameters independently of the other methods. However, its measurement it is not trivial due to the necessity of disentangling the light of stars locked up in galaxies from the proper ICL. Currently, there is no standard method to efficiently measure the ICL (Rudick et al. 2011, ApJ, 732, 48), and different approaches relying on the binding energy of the cluster galaxies, the density of the material, or the surface brightness distribution, have been tried. Moreover, a suitable way to disentangle the limits of the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) and the ICL still has not been developed.The CHEFs (from Chebyshev-Fourier bases, Jiménez-Teja & Benítez 2012, ApJ, 745, 150) are a mathematical tool especially designed to model the two-dimensional light distribution of galaxies. We use the CHEFs and tools from differential geometry to infer the light contribution of the ICL to the total brightness, without imposing any artificial thresholds and avoiding the ambiguity introduced by free parameters that are usually set in these studies (Rudick et al. 2011).We use the extremely deep optical images from Abell 2744, the Pandora cluster, a multi-cluster merger, observed by the Hubble Frontier Fields project to show the efficiency of this new method. The CHEFs can accurately fit and remove all the galaxies close to the cluster center, including the BCG. The limits of the BCG are marked out by determining the points where the surface curvature changes, thus disentangling the ICL from the BCG light in a completely natural way. Once we have the residual image just containing ICL and background, we extrapolate the value of this latter from images of individual pointings close to the main Pandora field. We finally estimate the ICL to be ~24% of the total light, which is very consistent with the predictions from numerical simulations (Montes

  18. Teaching Effectiveness Research in the Past Decade: The Role of Theory and Research Design in Disentangling Meta-Analysis Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidel, Tina; Shavelson, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    This meta-analysis summarizes teaching effectiveness studies of the past decade and investigates the role of theory and research design in disentangling results. Compared to past analyses based on the process-product model, a framework based on cognitive models of teaching and learning proved useful in analyzing studies and accounting for…

  19. Adverse Life Events and Psychopathology and Prosocial Behavior in Late Adolescence: Testing the Timing, Specificity, Accumulation, Gradient, and Moderation of Contextual Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouri, Eirini; Kallis, Constantinos

    2007-01-01

    A study examines the role of contextual risk in psychopathology and prosocial behavior in adolescents. The results show that risk accumulation matters instead of specificity and that the number of adverse life events is nonmultiplicative with psychopathology.

  20. Correlations between cannabis-induced psychopathology and EEG before and after drug ingestion.

    PubMed

    Koukkou, M; Lehmann, D

    1978-09-01

    The study investigates EEG characteristics in relation to psychopathology. Tetrahydro-Cannabinol (THC) was taken orally by 12 volunteers. The EEG was recorded continuously, and THC-induced psychopathology was assessed by pre- and post-experiment questionnaires. Subjects had to signal THC experiences. EEG measurements (distribution means of frequency bands derived from EEG frequency analysis) before and after THC were correlated with THC induced psychopathology. High correlations were found before THC ingestion, and after THC during periods without experiences. Thus, the pre-drug EEG indicates predisposition to THC induced body image disturbances and euphoria, and the drug-influenced EEG in periods without experiences indicates the tendency to drug-induced experiences. The predicting EEG parameters were different for THC induced visual experiences and for body image disturbances. PMID:704663

  1. Sexual orientation and gender identity: review of concepts, controversies and their relation to psychopathology classification systems.

    PubMed

    Moleiro, Carla; Pinto, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    Numerous controversies and debates have taken place throughout the history of psychopathology (and its main classification systems) with regards to sexual orientation and gender identity. These are still reflected on present reformulations of gender dysphoria in both the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual and the International Classification of Diseases, and in more or less subtle micro-aggressions experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans patients in mental health care. The present paper critically reviews this history and current controversies. It reveals that this deeply complex field contributes (i) to the reflection on the very concept of mental illness; (ii) to the focus on subjective distress and person-centered experience of psychopathology; and (iii) to the recognition of stigma and discrimination as significant intervening variables. Finally, it argues that sexual orientation and gender identity have been viewed, in the history of the field of psychopathology, between two poles: gender transgression and gender variance/fluidity. PMID:26483748

  2. Latent personality profiles and the relations with psychopathology and psychopathic traits in detained adolescents.

    PubMed

    Decuyper, Mieke; Colins, Olivier F; De Clercq, Barbara; Vermeiren, Robert; Broekaert, Eric; Bijttebier, Patricia; Roose, Annelore; De Fruyt, Filip

    2013-04-01

    The present study constructed empirically derived subtypes of adolescent offenders based on general traits and examined their associations with psychopathology and psychopathic traits. The sample included 342 detained minors (172 boys and 170 girls; mean age 15.85 years, SD = 1.07) recruited in various Youth Detention Centers across the Flemish part of Belgium. All adolescents provided self-reports on the quick big five, the youth self report, and the youth psychopathic traits inventory to assess general traits, psychopathology, and psychopathic traits respectively. Latent class analyses based on general personality traits were performed and suggested three personality types, consisting of an emotionally labile, close-minded and goal-oriented class, an undercontrolled class, and an emotionally labile-careless class. These three personality types within detained minors showed particular constellations of general traits and differed meaningfully in terms of their mean-scores on externalizing psychopathology and psychopathy measures. PMID:22814855

  3. An ecological-transactional model of significant risk factors for child psychopathology in outer mongolia.

    PubMed

    Kohrt, Holbrook E; Kohrt, Brandon A; Waldman, Irwin; Saltzman, Kasey; Carrion, Victor G

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined significant risk factors, including child maltreatment, for child psychopathology in a cross-cultural setting. Ninety-nine Mongolian boys, ages 3-10 years, were assessed. Primary caregivers (PCG) completed structured interviews including the Emory Combined Rating Scale (ECRS) and the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ). Structural equation modeling identifies eight risk factors affecting child psychopathology: Three with direct effects (severity of physical punishment, PCG's MFQ score, and PCG's education), three with indirect effects (cultural acceptance of violence as discipline, presence of community violence, and contact with extended family), and two with direct and indirect effects (quality of marriage/presence of spousal abuse, and household size). Results support the ecological-transactional theory of developmental psychopathology in a cross-cultural setting. Structural equation modeling provides a useful technique to isolate specific sites for intervention, while maintaining a comprehensive perspective of risk factor interaction. PMID:15577280

  4. The relationship between personality, defense styles, internet addiction disorder, and psychopathology in college students.

    PubMed

    Floros, Georgios; Siomos, Konstantinos; Stogiannidou, Ariadni; Giouzepas, Ioannis; Garyfallos, Georgios

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess any underlying links between personality, defense styles, Internet addiction disorder (IAD), and psychopathology in a college student sample. This is a cross-sectional study of fourth-year Greek Medical students who responded in a comprehensive test battery, which included validated questionnaires on IAD, personality traits, patterns of psychological defense styles, and psychopathology symptoms. A path model that was tested using Partial Least Squares (PLS) methodology showed that the defense styles employed by the students and certain personality traits (Impulsivity, Sensation Seeking, Neuroticism/Anxiety, and Aggression-Hostility) contributed to the prediction of variability in IAD, with IAD in turn predicting variability in overt psychopathology. PMID:25225916

  5. Advancing understanding of executive function impairments and psychopathology: bridging the gap between clinical and cognitive approaches.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Hannah R; Miyake, Akira; Hankin, Benjamin L

    2015-01-01

    Executive function (EF) is essential for successfully navigating nearly all of our daily activities. Of critical importance for clinical psychological science, EF impairments are associated with most forms of psychopathology. However, despite the proliferation of research on EF in clinical populations, with notable exceptions clinical and cognitive approaches to EF have remained largely independent, leading to failures to apply theoretical and methodological advances in one field to the other field and hindering progress. First, we review the current state of knowledge of EF impairments associated with psychopathology and limitations to the previous research in light of recent advances in understanding and measuring EF. Next, we offer concrete suggestions for improving EF assessment. Last, we suggest future directions, including integrating modern models of EF with state of the art, hierarchical models of dimensional psychopathology as well as translational implications of EF-informed research on clinical science. PMID:25859234

  6. Vagal Regulation and Internalizing Psychopathology among Adolescents Exposed to Childhood Adversity

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alves, Sonia; Sheridan, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood adversity (CA) is strongly associated with youth psychopathology. Identifying factors that reduce vulnerability following CA is critical for developing preventive interventions. Vagal tone and vagal reactivity reactivity following psychosocial stressors might influence psychopathology among youths exposed to CA. We acquired heart period and impedance cardiography data to calculate respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and pre-ejection period (PEP) from 157 adolescents aged 13–17 years at rest and during the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Internalizing and externalizing symptoms and multiple forms of CA were assessed. Resting RSA and RSA reactivity interacted with CA in predicting internalizing but not externalizing psychopathology; CA was unassociated with internalizing problems in adolescents with high resting RSA and RSA reactivity. No interactions were observed with PEP. High resting RSA predicted greater vagal rebound and accelerated heart rate recovery following the TSST, highlighting one potential mechanism underlying low internalizing symptoms following CA among youths with high RSA. PMID:24338154

  7. Psychopathological dimensions in childhood and adolescent psychoses: a confirmatory factor analytical study.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Anupam; Jagadheesan, K; Sinha, Vinod K

    2003-01-01

    The present study explored psychopathological dimensions in psychoses of children and adolescents and the distribution of demographic and clinical variables across different psychopathological domains. This study included 101 consecutive patients aged 6-18 years who had a DSM-IV psychotic disorder (schizophrenia and related disorders or mood disorders). Exclusion criteria included presence of organicity, substance use disorders, and any other childhood disorder. Psychopathology was assessed with Scales for Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms. Analysis revealed a four-factor model comprising primary negative, secondary negative, manic and paranoid factors. Patients were regrouped into one of the four factors based on their symptomatology. Patients in these four groups differed in education and age of onset and duration of illness. This study confirmed the existence of a factor structure in psychoses of children and adolescents. PMID:14504452

  8. Sexual orientation and gender identity: review of concepts, controversies and their relation to psychopathology classification systems

    PubMed Central

    Moleiro, Carla; Pinto, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    Numerous controversies and debates have taken place throughout the history of psychopathology (and its main classification systems) with regards to sexual orientation and gender identity. These are still reflected on present reformulations of gender dysphoria in both the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual and the International Classification of Diseases, and in more or less subtle micro-aggressions experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans patients in mental health care. The present paper critically reviews this history and current controversies. It reveals that this deeply complex field contributes (i) to the reflection on the very concept of mental illness; (ii) to the focus on subjective distress and person-centered experience of psychopathology; and (iii) to the recognition of stigma and discrimination as significant intervening variables. Finally, it argues that sexual orientation and gender identity have been viewed, in the history of the field of psychopathology, between two poles: gender transgression and gender variance/fluidity. PMID:26483748

  9. Ernst Cassirer's Philosophy of Symbolic Forms and its impact on the theory of psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Andersch, Norbert; Cutting, John

    2014-05-19

    The philosopher Ernst Cassirer (1874-1945) wrote in 1929: 'For what it [the philosophy of symbolic forms] is seeking is not so much common factors in being as common factors in meaning. Hence we must strive to bring the teachings of pathology, which cannot be ignored, into the more universal context of the philosophy of culture' (Cassirer, 1955: 275). This statement summarizes his approach in shifting the focus on psychopathological theory from the brain and its localizations to the living interaction between the self and his/her social environment. The present article looks at the impact of symbol theory on psychopathology - pre- and post-Cassirer's main oeuvre Philosophie der symbolischen Formen - and whether his concept still has a role to play in an ontology of psychopathology. PMID:24840218

  10. Advancing understanding of executive function impairments and psychopathology: bridging the gap between clinical and cognitive approaches

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Hannah R.; Miyake, Akira; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2015-01-01

    Executive function (EF) is essential for successfully navigating nearly all of our daily activities. Of critical importance for clinical psychological science, EF impairments are associated with most forms of psychopathology. However, despite the proliferation of research on EF in clinical populations, with notable exceptions clinical and cognitive approaches to EF have remained largely independent, leading to failures to apply theoretical and methodological advances in one field to the other field and hindering progress. First, we review the current state of knowledge of EF impairments associated with psychopathology and limitations to the previous research in light of recent advances in understanding and measuring EF. Next, we offer concrete suggestions for improving EF assessment. Last, we suggest future directions, including integrating modern models of EF with state of the art, hierarchical models of dimensional psychopathology as well as translational implications of EF-informed research on clinical science. PMID:25859234

  11. Construct Validity of the Relationship Profile Test: Links with measures of psychopathology and adult attachment

    PubMed Central

    Haggerty, Greg; Bornstein, Robert F.; Khalid, Mohammad; Sharma, Vishal; Riaz, Usman; Blanchard, Mark; Siefert, Caleb J; Sinclair, Samuel J.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the construct validity of the Relationship Profile Test (RPT; Bornstein & Languirand, 2003) with a substance abuse sample. One hundred-eight substance abuse patients completed the RPT, Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR-SF; Wei, Russell, Mallinckrodt, & Vogel, 2007), Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991), and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R: Derogatis 1983). Results suggest that the RPT has good construct validity when compared against theoretically related broadband measures of personality, psychopathology and adult attachment. Overall, health hependency was negatively related to measures of psychopathology and insecure attachment, and overdependence was positively related to measures of psychopathology and attachment anxiety. Many of the predictions regarding RPT detachment and the criterion measures were not supported. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26620463

  12. Polyvagal Theory and Developmental Psychopathology: Emotion Dysregulation and Conduct Problems from Preschool to Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa; Mead, Hilary K.

    2007-01-01

    In science, theories lend coherence to vast amounts of descriptive information. However, current diagnostic approaches in psychopathology are primarily atheoretical, emphasizing description over etiological mechanisms. We describe the importance of Polyvagal Theory toward understanding the etiology of emotion dysregulation, a hallmark of psychopathology. When combined with theories of social reinforcement and motivation, Polyvagal Theory specifies etiological mechanisms through which distinct patterns of psychopathology emerge. In this paper, we summarize three studies evaluating autonomic nervous system functioning in children with conduct problems, ages 4-18. At all age ranges, these children exhibit attenuated sympathetic nervous system responses to reward, suggesting deficiencies in approach motivation. By middle school, this reward insensitivity is met with inadequate vagal modulation of cardiac output, suggesting additional deficiencies in emotion regulation. We propose a biosocial developmental model of conduct problems in which inherited impulsivity is amplified through social reinforcement of emotional lability. Implications for early intervention are discussed. PMID:17045726

  13. Nightmare frequency, nightmare distress, and psychopathology in female victims of childhood maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Duval, Mylène; McDuff, Pierre; Zadra, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the relationships between a history of childhood maltreatment, the frequency of disturbing dreams, their associated distress, and the presence of psychopathology in 352 female undergraduate volunteers. Participants completed questionnaires assessing dream recall, bad dream and nightmare frequency, nightmare distress, psychological well-being, and history of childhood trauma. Four groups were investigated based on the type and severity of childhood maltreatments experienced. Women reporting more severe forms of maltreatment reported higher frequencies of disturbing dreams, higher levels of nightmare distress, and greater psychopathology. Results showed that nightmare distress explains frequency of disturbed dreaming beyond the effect of psychopathology and childhood trauma. The results highlight the importance of assessing waking distress associated with disturbing dreams independently from their actual incidence. PMID:23995032

  14. Disentangling stereotype activation and stereotype application in the stereotype misperception task.

    PubMed

    Krieglmeyer, Regina; Sherman, Jeffrey W

    2012-08-01

    When forming impressions about other people, stereotypes about the individual's social group often influence the resulting impression. At least 2 distinguishable processes underlie stereotypic impression formation: stereotype activation and stereotype application. Most previous research has used implicit measures to assess stereotype activation and explicit measures to assess stereotype application, which has several disadvantages. The authors propose a measure of stereotypic impression formation, the stereotype misperception task (SMT), together with a multinomial model that quantitatively disentangles the contributions of stereotype activation and application to responses in the SMT. The validity of the SMT and of the multinomial model was confirmed in 5 studies. The authors hope to advance research on stereotyping by providing a measurement tool that separates multiple processes underlying impression formation. PMID:22663350

  15. Disentangling bulk from surface contributions in the electronic structure of black phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golias, E.; Krivenkov, M.; Sánchez-Barriga, J.

    2016-02-01

    Most recently, black phosphorus has come into focus as a promising material for future applications in nanoelectronic devices due to its unique electronic and transport properties. Here, we use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy in conjunction with ab initio calculations within the framework of density-functional theory to disentangle surface from the bulk contributions in the electronic structure of black phosphorus. We find good agreement between our theoretical predictions for the intra- and interlayer energy-momentum dispersions and the experimentally obtained three-dimensional band structure of this material. Our results provide compelling evidence for the existence of surface-resonant states near the top of the valence band, which can play an important role in the performance of electronic devices based on black phosphorus.

  16. 3D Coincidence Imaging Disentangles Intense Field Double Detachment of SF6(–).

    PubMed

    Kandhasamy, Durai Murugan; Albeck, Yishai; Jagtap, Krishna; Strasser, Daniel

    2015-07-23

    The efficient intense field double detachment of molecular anions observed in SF6(–) is studied by 3D coincidence imaging of the dissociation products. The dissociation anisotropy and kinetic energy release distributions are determined for the energetically lowest double detachment channel by virtue of disentangling the SF5(+) + F fragmentation products. The observed nearly isotropic dissociation with respect to the linear laser polarization and surprisingly high kinetic energy release events suggest that the dissociation occurs on a highly excited state. Rydberg (SF6(+))* states composed of a highly repulsive dication core and a Rydberg electron are proposed to explain the observed kinetic energy release, accounting also for the efficient production of all possible cationic fragments at equivalent laser intensities. PMID:26098224

  17. Exact computation and large angular momentum asymptotics of 3nj symbols: Semiclassical disentangling of spin networks

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Roger W.; Aquilanti, Vincenzo; Silva Ferreira, Cristiane da

    2008-10-28

    Spin networks, namely, the 3nj symbols of quantum angular momentum theory and their generalizations to groups other than SU(2) and to quantum groups, permeate many areas of pure and applied science. The issues of their computation and characterization for large values of their entries are a challenge for diverse fields, such as spectroscopy and quantum chemistry, molecular and condensed matter physics, quantum computing, and the geometry of space time. Here we record progress both in their efficient calculation and in the study of the large j asymptotics. For the 9j symbol, a prototypical entangled network, we present and extensively check numerically formulas that illustrate the passage to the semiclassical limit, manifesting both the occurrence of disentangling and the discrete-continuum transition.

  18. Active route learning in virtual environments: disentangling movement control from intention, instruction specificity, and navigation control.

    PubMed

    von Stülpnagel, Rul; Steffens, Melanie C

    2013-09-01

    Active navigation research examines how physiological and psychological involvement in navigation benefits spatial learning. However, existing conceptualizations of active navigation comprise separable, distinct factors. This research disentangles the contributions of movement control (i.e., self-contained vs. observed movement) as a central factor from learning intention (Experiment 1), instruction specificity and instruction control (Experiment 2), as well as navigation control (Experiment 3) to spatial learning in virtual environments. We tested the effects of these factors on landmark recognition (landmark knowledge), tour-integration and route navigation (route knowledge). Our findings suggest that movement control leads to robust advantages in landmark knowledge as compared to observed movement. Advantages in route knowledge do not depend on learning intention, but on the need to elaborate spatial information. Whenever the necessary level of elaboration is assured for observed movement, too, the development of route knowledge is not inferior to that for self-contained movement. PMID:22922991

  19. Disentangling planetary orbits from stellar activity in radial-velocity surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haywood, R. D.; Cameron, A. Collier; Queloz, D.; Barros, S. C. C.; Deleuil, M.; Fares, R.; Gillon, M.; Hatzes, A.; Lanza, A. F.; Lovis, C.; Moutou, C.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Santerne, A.; Ségransan, D.; Unruh, Y.

    2014-04-01

    The majority of extra-solar planets have been discovered (or confirmed after follow-up) through radial-velocity (RV) surveys. Using ground-based spectrographs such as High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planetary Search (HARPS) and HARPS-North, it is now possible to detect planets that are only a few times the mass of the Earth. However, the presence of dark spots on the stellar surface produces RV signals that are very similar in amplitude to those caused by orbiting low-mass planets. Disentangling these signals has thus become the biggest challenge in the detection of Earth-mass planets using RV surveys. To do so, we use the star's lightcurve to model the RV variations produced by spots. Here we present this method and show the results of its application to CoRoT-7.

  20. Comorbid Psychopathology and Stress Mediate the Relationship between Autistic Traits and Repetitive Behaviours in Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García-Villamisar, D.; Rojahn, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Comorbid psychopathology and stress were considered possible mediators that may explain the relationship between some autistic traits and repetitive behaviours. The current study sought to examine the mediational effects of comorbid psychopathology, executive dysfunctions and stress in the relationship between some autistic traits and…

  1. Annual Research Review: Phenotypic and Causal Structure of Conduct Disorder in the Broader Context of Prevalent Forms of Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A better understanding of the nature and etiology of conduct disorder (CD) can inform nosology and vice versa. We posit that any prevalent form of psychopathology, including CD, can be best understood if it is studied in the context of other correlated forms of child and adolescent psychopathology using formal models to guide inquiry.…

  2. School Attendance Problems and Youth Psychopathology: Structural Cross-Lagged Regression Models in Three Longitudinal Data Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Jeffrey J.; Lynne-Landsman, Sarah D.; Langer, David A.; Wood, Patricia A.; Clark, Shaunna L.; Eddy, J. Mark; Ialongo, Nick

    2012-01-01

    This study tests a model of reciprocal influences between absenteeism and youth psychopathology using 3 longitudinal datasets (Ns = 20,745, 2,311, and 671). Participants in 1st through 12th grades were interviewed annually or biannually. Measures of psychopathology include self-, parent-, and teacher-report questionnaires. Structural cross-lagged…

  3. Can Psychopathology at Age 7 Be Predicted from Clinical Observation at One Year? Evidence from the ALSPAC Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allely, C. S.; Doolin, O.; Gillberg, C.; Gillberg, I. C.; Puckering, C.; Smillie, M.; McConnachie, A.; Heron, J.; Golding, J.; Wilson, P.

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges of developmental psychopathology is to determine whether identifiable pathways to developmental disorders exist in the first months or years of life. Early identification of such disorders poses a similar challenge for clinical services. Using data from a large contemporary birth cohort, we examined whether psychopathology at…

  4. Incentive-Related Modulation of Cognitive Control in Healthy, Anxious, and Depressed Adolescents: Development and Psychopathology Related Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Michael G.; Schroth, Elizabeth; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2007-01-01

    Background: Developmental changes in cognitive and affective processes contribute to adolescent risk-taking behavior, emotional intensification, and psychopathology. The current study examined adolescent development of cognitive control processes and their modulation by incentive, in health and psychopathology. Predictions include 1) better…

  5. A Criterion Validity Study of the Schizophrenia Subscale of the Psychopathology Instrument for Mentally Retarded Adults (PIMRA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiezy, Naomi B.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The validity of the schizophrenia subscale of the Psychopathology Instrument for Mentally Retarded Adults (PIMRA) was evaluated with 65 adults having mild to moderate mental retardation as well as either schizophrenia, depression, or no psychopathology. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted, as were interrater reliability analyses.…

  6. Links between Maternal and Child Psychopathology Symptoms: Mediation through Child Emotion Regulation and Moderation through Maternal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne; Morelen, Diana; Thomassin, Kristel

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the intergenerational transmission of psychopathology symptoms with 7-12 year-old children (N = 97; 44 boys, 53 girls, M age = 9.14, SD = 1.38) and their mothers (M age = 38.46, SD = 6.86). Child emotion regulation mediated the links between maternal psychopathology and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms. In turn,…

  7. The Effects of Psychopathology on the Pain Expression of Children and Youth with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breau, Lynn M.; Camfield, Carol S.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral pain assessment is possible for children and youth with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). However, pain behavior is often misinterpreted as reflecting psychopathology. We examined whether psychopathology alters pain behavior. Caregivers of 123 children (56 girls ages 40 to 258 months) completed the Non-Communicating…

  8. Is Psychopathology the Key to Understanding Why Some Children Become Aggressive When They Are Exposed to Violent Television Programming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Tom; Bergen, Lori; Nichols, Kathie; Vernberg, Eric; Fonagy, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Children with diagnosed psychopathologies may experience aggravation of those illnesses with their exposure to media violence. Children with the most common, often undiagnosed, form of psychopathology--Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs)--manifested changes in heart rate, heart vagal heart tone and other psychophysiological reactions to media…

  9. Examining Differences between Students with Specific Learning Disabilities and Those with Specific Language Disorders on Cognition, Emotions and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filippatou, Diamanto; Dimitropoulou, Panagiota; Sideridis, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the differences between students with LD and SLI on emotional psychopathology and cognitive variables. In particular, the study examined whether cognitive, emotional, and psychopathology variables are significant discriminatory variables of speech and language disordered groups versus those…

  10. Parental psychopathology and treatment outcome for anxious youth: Roles of family functioning and caregiver strain

    PubMed Central

    Schleider, Jessica L.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Keeton, Courtney P.; Weisz, John R.; Birmaher, Boris; Kendall, Phillip C.; Piacentini, John; Sherrill, Joel; Walkup, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Research has examined the effects of parental psychopathology, family functioning, and caregiver strain on treatment response in anxious youths. Although these variables have shown individual links to youth treatment response, theoretical models for their combined effects remain unexplored. This study tested the hypothesis that improvements in family functioning and reductions in caregiver strain explained the effects of parental psychopathology on youth treatment outcome in an anxiety treatment trial. Method A multiple mediation technique was used to test the proposed model across independent evaluator (IE), parent, and youth informants in 488 youths, aged 7–17 years (50% female; mean age 10.7) meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for social phobia, separation anxiety, and/or generalized anxiety disorder. Youths were randomized to receive 12 weeks of cognitive-behavioral treatment (Coping Cat), medication (sertraline), their combination, or a pill placebo. At pre- and post-treatment, parents completed self-report measures of global psychopathology symptoms, family functioning, and caregiver strain; parents, youths, and IEs rated youths’ anxiety symptom severity. Results Changes in family functioning and caregiver strain jointly explained relations between parental psychopathology and reductions in youth anxiety. Specifically, across IE and parent informants, families with higher pre-treatment parental psychopathology showed more improvement in family functioning and caregiver strain, which in turn predicted greater youth anxiety reductions. Further, higher pre-treatment parental psychopathology predicted greater caregiver strain reductions, and in turn, greater youth anxiety reductions, based on youths’ reports of their own anxiety. Conclusions Findings suggest that improvements in family functioning and reductions in caregiver strain can influence treatment outcomes for anxious youths, especially among youths with more distressed parents. Public health

  11. Psychopathological Profiles in Transsexuals and the Challenge of Their Special Status among the Sexes

    PubMed Central

    Bazarra-Castro, María Ángeles; Pfister, Hildegard; Fuss, Johannes; Stalla, Günter K.; Sievers, Caroline; Ising, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Objective Investigating psychopathological profiles of transsexuals raises a very basic methodological question: are control groups, which represent the biological or the phenotypic sex, most suited for an optimal evaluation of psychopathology of transsexuals? Method Male-to-female (MtF) (n=52) and female-to-male transsexuals (FtM) (n=32), receiving cross-sex hormone treatment, were compared with age matched healthy subjects of the same genetic sex (n=178) and with the same phenotypic sex (n=178) by means of the Symptom Check List-90-Revisited instrument (SCL-90-R). We performed analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) to test for group and sex effects. Furthermore, we used a profile analysis to determine if psychopathological symptom profiles of transsexuals more closely resemble genotypic sex or phenotypic sex controls. Results Transsexual patients reported more symptoms of psychopathological distress than did healthy control subjects in all subscales of the SCL-90-R (all p<0.001), regardless of whether they were compared with phenotype or genotype matched controls. Depressive symptoms were more pronounced in MtF than in FtM (SCL-90-R score 0.85 vs. 0.45, p = 0.001). We could demonstrate that FtM primarily reflect the psychopathological profile of biological males rather than that of biological females (r = 0.945), while MtF showed a slightly higher profile similarity with biological females than with biological males (r = 0.698 vs. r = 0.685). Conclusion Our findings suggest that phenotypic sex matched controls are potentially more appropriate for comparison with the psychopathology of transsexual patients than are genetic sex matched controls. PMID:24194937

  12. Mobile EEG on the bike: disentangling attentional and physical contributions to auditory attention tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zink, Rob; Hunyadi, Borbála; Van Huffel, Sabine; De Vos, Maarten

    2016-08-01

    Objective. In the past few years there has been a growing interest in studying brain functioning in natural, real-life situations. Mobile EEG allows to study the brain in real unconstrained environments but it faces the intrinsic challenge that it is impossible to disentangle observed changes in brain activity due to increase in cognitive demands by the complex natural environment or due to the physical involvement. In this work we aim to disentangle the influence of cognitive demands and distractions that arise from such outdoor unconstrained recordings. Approach. We evaluate the ERP and single trial characteristics of a three-class auditory oddball paradigm recorded in outdoor scenario’s while peddling on a fixed bike or biking freely around. In addition we also carefully evaluate the trial specific motion artifacts through independent gyro measurements and control for muscle artifacts. Main results. A decrease in P300 amplitude was observed in the free biking condition as compared to the fixed bike conditions. Above chance P300 single-trial classification in highly dynamic real life environments while biking outdoors was achieved. Certain significant artifact patterns were identified in the free biking condition, but neither these nor the increase in movement (as derived from continuous gyrometer measurements) can explain the differences in classification accuracy and P300 waveform differences with full clarity. The increased cognitive load in real-life scenarios is shown to play a major role in the observed differences. Significance. Our findings suggest that auditory oddball results measured in natural real-life scenarios are influenced mainly by increased cognitive load due to being in an unconstrained environment.

  13. Disentangling direct and growth-mediated influences on early survival: a mechanistic approach.

    PubMed

    Plard, Floriane; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Bonenfant, Christophe; Klein, François; Warnant, Claude; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2015-09-01

    1. Early survival is a key life-history trait that often accounts for a large part of the variation in individual fitness and shapes population dynamics. The factors influencing early survival are multiple in large herbivores, including malnutrition, predation, cohort variation or maternal effects. However, the mechanistic pathways connecting these drivers to variation in early survival are much less studied. Indeed, whether these factors influence early survival directly or indirectly through early growth remains to be disentangled. 2. In this study, we used a path analysis to separate the direct and indirect (i.e. mediated by early growth) pathways through which sex, birth date, cohort and family effects influence early survival. We used a large data set of marked roe deer newborns collected from 1985 to 2010 in the intensively monitored population of Trois Fontaines (France). 3. We found that most drivers have indirect influences on early survival through early growth. Indeed, cohort effects influenced early survival through the indirect effect of precipitation around birth on early growth. Precipitation also had direct effects on early survival. Family effects indirectly influenced early survival. Twins from the same litter grew at about the same rate, so they had the same fate. Moreover, some factors, such as birth date, had both direct and indirect effects on roe deer early survival, with fawns born early in the season benefiting from high early survival both because they have more time to grow before the harsh season and because they grow faster during their first days of life than late-born fawns. 4. These findings suggest that most drivers of early survival previously identified in large mammalian herbivores may affect early survival primarily through their influence on early growth. Disentangling the direct and indirect pathways by which different factors influence early survival is of crucial importance to understand the mechanisms shaping this key

  14. A simple method to disentangle nanoparticle optical properties by darkfield microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gnerucci, Alessio; Ratto, Fulvio; Centi, Sonia; Conti, Antonio; Pini, Roberto; Fusi, Franco; Romano, Giovanni

    2014-11-01

    We present a darkfield optical microspectroscopy technique devoted to the disentangled measurement of the absorption and scattering cross sections of nanoparticle (NP) samples with variable concentration. The robustness of the method, including the needed instrumental calibrations, is examined in detail by analyzing and quantifying the major sources of statistic and systematic errors. As an exemplary case, results are presented on a gold NP colloid. The technique takes advantage of a simple inverted microscope, coupled with a spectrograph and equipped with a darkfield condenser and a variable numerical aperture objective to obtain spectra either in darkfield or brightfield optical configurations. By adopting the Lambert-Beer (LB) equation modeling, we were able to disentangle and measure with a single setup the absorption, scattering, and extinction coefficients of the same sample by combining three spectra, obtained by opportunely varying the objective numerical aperture. Typical plasmonic resonances were recognized at approximately 520 and 750 nm. Optical coefficients were measured as a function of particle number density (0.04-3.94 µm(-3), corresponding to 40 µM-4 mM nominal Au concentration) and good linearity was verified up to ∼1.5 µm(-3) (∼1 mM Au). Moreover, extinction and scattering cross sections were quantified and the validity of the LB approximation was reviewed. Besides its applications to plasmonic NPs, this method may be appropriate for any colloid, provided there exists a characteristic spectral feature in the ultraviolet-visible-near infrared range. This technique may be exploited to localize NPs in biological samples. PMID:25066896

  15. Disentangling homeologous contigs in allo-tetraploid assembly: application to durum wheat

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Using Next Generation Sequencing, SNP discovery is relatively easy on diploid species and still hampered in polyploid species by the confusion due to homeology. We develop HomeoSplitter; a fast and effective solution to split original contigs obtained by RNAseq into two homeologous sequences. It uses the differential expression of the two homeologous genes in the RNA. We verify that the new sequences are closer to the diploid progenitors of the allopolyploid species than the original contig. By remapping original reads on these new sequences, we also verify that the number of valuable detected SNPs has significantly increased. Thirty accessions of the tetraploid durum wheat (Triticum turgidum, A and B genomes) were sequenced in pooled cDNA libraries. Reads were assembled in a de novo durum assembly. Transcriptomes of the diploid species, Aegilops speltoides (close B genome) and Triticum urartu (A genome) were used as reference to benchmark the method. Results HomeoSplitter is a fast and effective solution to disentangle homeologous sequences based on a maximum likelihood optimization. On a benchmark set of 2,505 clusters containing homologous sequences of urartu, speltoides and durum, HomeoSplitter was efficient to build sequences closer to the diploid references and increased the number of valuable SNPs from 188 out of 1,360 SNPs detected when mapping the reads on the de novo durum assembly to 762 out of 1,620 SNPs when mapping on HomeoSplitter contigs. Conclusions The HomeoSplitter program is freely available at http://bioweb.supagro.inra.fr/homeoSplitter/. This work provides a practical solution to the complex problem of disentangling homeologous transcripts in allo-tetraploids, which further allows an improved SNP detection. PMID:24564644

  16. The terrorist mind: II. Typologies, psychopathologies, and practical guidelines for investigation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Laurence

    2006-06-01

    Part I of this two-part article presents a psychological and political analysis of the terrorist mind. Part II describes the major current psychological classifications and typologies of domestic and foreign terrorism. Explanations are offered in terms of our current understanding of the personality and psychopathology of terroristic violence. A heuristic model of classifying terrorism in terms of personality and psychopathology is presented. In addition to guiding further research and theory on the psychology of terrorism, this model has immediate practical application to the investigation and interrogation of terrorist suspects. PMID:16648381

  17. Max Scheler's theory of the hierarchy of values and emotions and its relevance to current psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Cutting, J

    2016-06-01

    The philosopher Max Scheler (1874-1928) set out a hierarchical theory of values and emotions in the early twentieth century. This inspired Kurt Schneider to distinguish two sorts of depressive illness, each conforming to a Störung (disorder) in different levels of Scheler's hierarchy. No other psychopathologist, except Stanghellini, gave the matter much attention. I believe that Scheler's theory is a rich source of insight into psychopathology, general and neuropsychiatric. I therefore give an account of Scheler's scheme, review its extant applications (Schneider's, Stanghellini's), and present suggestions as to its continuing potential relevance in a wide range of psychopathological conditions. PMID:27006123

  18. Relationships among cognition, emotion, and motivation: implications for intervention and neuroplasticity in psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Laura D.; Heller, Wendy; Warren, Stacie L.; O'Hare, Aminda J.; Infantolino, Zachary P.; Miller, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    Emotion-cognition and motivation-cognition relationships and related brain mechanisms are receiving increasing attention in the clinical research literature as a means of understanding diverse types of psychopathology and improving biological and psychological treatments. This paper reviews and integrates some of the growing evidence for cognitive biases and deficits in depression and anxiety, how these disruptions interact with emotional and motivational processes, and what brain mechanisms appear to be involved. This integration sets the stage for understanding the role of neuroplasticity in implementing change in cognitive, emotional, and motivational processes in psychopathology as a function of intervention. PMID:23781184

  19. [Psychopathology of chronic diseases in children and adolescents. Congenital cardiopathies].

    PubMed

    Masi, G; Brovedani, P

    1996-10-01

    A most significant life event in the first years of life is a disease, especially if it is of early onset, severe, life threatening, with an uncertain prognosis, and with the necessity of frequent diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Psychological implications are a significant parts of the illness, not a marginal component; they can affect prognosis and outcome. The authors describe the different psychological implications of an experience of chronic disease in children and adolescents and their families (parents and siblings). Congenital disease (for example congenital heart failure) has a peculiar significance: since it is diagnosed early, it influences mother-infant interactions from the beginning, in a crucial moment of the infant's psychological development; diagnostic and therapeutical interventions are early and frequent; congenital defects determine the strongest guilt feelings in the parents. Some specific psychological aspects can be described: the weakening of the Bodily self, the inhibition of thinking, the theories the child and the family formulates on the disease, the death feelings. Emotional features in children and adolescents with congenital cardiopathy are described: inhibition of emotions, marked anxiety, depressive reaction, with loneliness, low self-esteem and inadequacy, emotional lability, with oscillation between omnipotence and inadequacy; impulsiveness; weakness of self identity; especially in bodily Self. Some psychopathological aspects in children and adolescents with heart transplant and their families are also described. Intellectual level of patients with congenital heart disease is in the normal range, although significantly lower than normal controls. There is a positive correlation between worsening of intellectual functioning and clinical severity of the heart disease; this clinical severity is related both to restrictions in normal daily life activities, and blood oxygen saturation. It is hard to tease apart the role of

  20. Gender Differences in Co-Morbid Psychopathology and Clinical Management in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsakanikos, Elias; Underwood, Lisa; Kravariti, Eugenia; Bouras, Nick; McCarthy, Jane

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined rates of co-morbid psychopathology and clinical management/care pathways in adult females (N = 50) and males (N = 100) with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) living in community settings. We also compared a sub-sample (N = 60) with ASD to an age-, gender- and ID-matched control group (N =…

  1. Impact of vocational rehabilitation on social functioning, cognitive functioning, and psychopathology in patients with chronic schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Suresh Kumar, P. N.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To assess the impact of vocational rehabilitation on psychopathology, social functioning and cognitive functioning in schizophrenia Materials and Methods: 34 patients with DSM IV diagnosis of chronic schizophrenia were compared 40 patients with same diagnosis but not attending vocational rehabilitation using PANSS, SCARF social functioning Index and MMSE. Results and Discussion: Basic psycho-socio-demographic data were comparable in both groups except more hospitalization in the no rehabilitation group. Comparison of social functioning, cognitive functioning and psychopathology showed significant improvement in rehabilitated patients. Cognitive functioning had positive correlation with occupational role in the rehabilitated group and negative correlation in the rehabilitated group. Social functioning had negative correlation with positive and negative symptoms, general psychopathology and total PANSS score and cognitive symptoms in patients without rehabilitation. Conclusion: The present concludes that there is a definite limitation in the domains of social functioning, cognitive functioning and psychopathology in chronic schizophrenia patients who had no rehabilitation. However vocational rehabilitation significantly improves these limitations, which in turn help these patients to integrate into the society so as to function efficiently in their roles as parents, home makers and social beings. PMID:19823610

  2. Detection of Overreported Psychopathology with the MMPI-2 RF Form Validity Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellbom, Martin; Bagby, R. Michael

    2010-01-01

    We examined the utility of the validity scales on the recently released Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2 RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008) to detect overreported psychopathology. This set of validity scales includes a newly developed scale and revised versions of the original MMPI-2 validity scales. We used an…

  3. Maternal Psychopathology and Early Child Temperament Predict Young Children's Salivary Cortisol 3 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Smith, Victoria C.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Rose, Suzanne A.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroendocrine dysfunction is hypothesized to be an early emerging vulnerability marker for depression. We tested whether the main and interactive effects of maternal psychopathology and early child temperamental vulnerability for depression assessed at age three predicted offspring's basal cortisol function at age 6 years. 228 (122 males)…

  4. Maternal psychopathology and early child temperament predict young children's salivary cortisol 3 years later.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Lea R; Smith, Victoria C; Olino, Thomas M; Dyson, Margaret W; Bufferd, Sara J; Rose, Suzanne A; Klein, Daniel N

    2013-05-01

    Neuroendocrine dysfunction is hypothesized to be an early emerging vulnerability marker for depression. We tested whether the main and interactive effects of maternal psychopathology and early child temperamental vulnerability for depression assessed at age three predicted offspring's basal cortisol function at age 6 years. 228 (122 males) children participated in the baseline and follow-up assessments. At age three, maternal lifetime psychopathology was assessed with a diagnostic clinical interview, and child temperamental positive affectivity (PA) and negative affectivity (NA) were assessed using laboratory observations. At age six, children's waking and evening cortisol were assessed on 2 days. Maternal lifetime anxiety predicted offspring's higher morning cortisol at age six. Child temperamental NA at age three predicted higher evening cortisol at age six. There was a significant interaction between maternal lifetime depression and child temperamental PA at age three in predicting offspring's morning cortisol at age six. For the offspring of mothers with lifetime depression, higher PA at age 3 predicted lower morning cortisol at age 6. These findings highlight the importance of examining the main and interactive effects of maternal psychopathology and early child temperamental vulnerability in predicting the development of offspring's stress physiology. Findings hold significance in identifying etiological mechanisms of risk and delineating the complex developmental pathways to psychopathology. PMID:23192743

  5. Classification of Students with Reading Comprehension Difficulties: The Roles of Motivation, Affect, and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sideridis, Georgios D.; Mouzaki, Angeliki; Simos, Panagiotis; Protopapas, Athanassios

    2006-01-01

    Attempts to evaluate the cognitive-motivational profiles of students with reading comprehension difficulties have been scarce. The purpose of the present study was twofold: (a) to assess the discriminatory validity of cognitive, motivational, affective, and psychopathological variables for identification of students with reading difficulties, and…

  6. Parent-infant vocalisations at 12 months predict psychopathology at 7 years.

    PubMed

    Allely, C S; Purves, D; McConnachie, A; Marwick, H; Johnson, P; Doolin, O; Puckering, C; Golding, J; Gillberg, C; Wilson, P

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the utility of adult and infant vocalisation in the prediction of child psychopathology. Families were sampled from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. Vocalisation patterns were obtained from 180 videos (60 cases and 120 randomly selected sex-matched controls) of parent-infant interactions when infants were one year old. Cases were infants who had been subsequently diagnosed aged seven years, with at least one psychiatric diagnostic categorisation using the Development and Wellbeing Assessment. Psychopathologies included in the case group were disruptive behaviour disorders, oppositional-conduct disorders, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, pervasive development disorder, and emotional disorders. Associations between infant and parent vocalisations and later psychiatric diagnoses were investigated. Low frequencies of maternal vocalisation predicted later development of infant psychopathology. A reduction of five vocalisations per minute predicted a 44% (95%CI: 11-94%; p-value=0.006) increase in the odds of an infant being a case. No association was observed between infant vocalisations and overall case status. In sum, altered vocalisation frequency in mother-infant interactions at one year is a potential risk marker for later diagnosis of a range of child psychopathologies. PMID:23291516

  7. Assessment of Adult Psychopathology: Meta-Analyses and Implications of Cross-Informant Correlations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achenbach, Thomas M.; Krukowsi, Rebecca A.; Dumenci, Levent; Ivanova, Masha Y.

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of adult psychopathology relies heavily on self-reports. To determine how well self-reports agree with reports by "informants" who know the person being assessed, the authors examined 51,000 articles published over 10 years in 52 peer-reviewed journals for correlations between self-reports and "informants" reports. Qualifying…

  8. Comorbid Psychopathology in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoVullo, Santino V.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2009-01-01

    There is an abundance of research investigating Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in children; however, little emphasis has been placed on ASD in adults, especially in regards to comorbid psychopathology. Although scales are available that measure comorbidity in adults with ID, what is needed are scales that measure comorbidity in adults with ID and…

  9. Psychopathology in the Adolescent Offspring of Parents with Panic Disorder and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhat, Amritha S.; Srinivasan, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To study the prevalence of psychiatric diagnosis and psychopathology in adolescent offspring of parents with panic disorder, depression and normal controls. Methods: Adolescent offspring (11-16 years) of parents with a diagnosis of panic disorder and major depression, and normal controls were interviewed using Missouri Assessment of Genetics…

  10. Relation of Early Menarche to Depression, Eating Disorders, Substance Abuse, and Comorbid Psychopathology among Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Bearman, Sarah Kate

    2001-01-01

    Used interview data from a community study to test whether early menarche partially accounts for increased depression, eating pathology, substance abuse, and comorbid psychopathology among adolescent girls. Found that menarche prior to 11.6 years related to elevated depression and substance abuse. Findings support assertion that early menarche is…

  11. Depression in China: Integrating Developmental Psychopathology and Cultural-Clinical Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryder, Andrew G.; Sun, Jiahong; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Yao, Shuqiao; Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia E.

    2012-01-01

    With a starting point in John Abela's groundbreaking developmental psychopathology research on adolescent depression in China, we aimed to review the state of the literature on Chinese depression across the lifespan. We began with Dr. Abela's published studies relevant to depression in China and our own research with adults before turning to the…

  12. Patterns of Psychopathology in the Families of Children with Conduct Problems, Depression, and Both Psychiatric Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopp, Lisa M.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.

    2007-01-01

    Comorbid conduct problems (CPs) and depression are observed far more often than expected by chance, which is perplexing given minimal symptom overlap. In this study, relations between parental psychopathology and children's diagnostic status were evaluated to test competing theories of comorbidity. Participants included 180 families with an…

  13. The Relationship between Life Events and Psychopathology amongst Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatton, Chris; Emerson, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Background: Research has established a clear relationship between life events and psychopathology amongst children generally, but this relationship has not been investigated in children with intellectual disabilities. Methods: A secondary analysis of data collected by the 1999 ONS survey of the "Mental Health of Children and Adolescents in Great…

  14. Risk Factors for Psychopathology in Children with Intellectual Disability: A Prospective Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallander, J. L.; Dekker, M. C.; Koot, H. M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study examined risk factors for the development of psychopathology in children with intellectual disability (ID) in the developmental, biological, family and social-ecological domains. Methods: A population sample of 968 children, aged 6-18, enrolled in special schools in the Netherlands for educable and trainable ID were assessed…

  15. Antisocial Behavior, Psychopathology and Functional Impairment: Association with Sex and Age in Clinical Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Juan; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Nuria

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, degree of association and differential effect, by sex and age, of conduct disorder symptoms on psychopathology and functioning. Participants included 680 Spanish children and adolescents between 8 and 17 years and their parents, attending to psychiatric outpatient consultation. Data were obtained through…

  16. Psychopathological Profile in Children with Chronic Tic Disorder and Co-Existing ADHD: Additive Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessner, Veit; Becker, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2007-01-01

    The nature of the co-occurrence of chronic tic disorders (CTD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is unclear. Especially in the field of psychopathology, the relationship of CTD and ADHD remains to be clarified. Thus, the aim of the present chart review study was to specify the contribution of CTD and/or ADHD to the…

  17. Prevalence of Psychopathology across a Service Population of Parents with Intellectual Disabilities and Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGaw, Sue; Shaw, Tom; Beckley, Kerry

    2007-01-01

    This study identified and investigated the incidence of childhood trauma and psychopathology across a population of parents with intellectual disabilities (IDs) known to a parenting service in the United Kingdom over a 5-year period and examined the emotional and physical welfare of their children. Data were gathered from 49 parents with ID and 58…

  18. Individual Characteristics, Familial Experience, and Psychopathology in Children of Mothers with Borderline Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnow, Sven; Spitzer, Carsten; Grabe, Hans J.; Kessler, Christoph; Freyberger, Harald J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine individual characteristics, familial experience, and psychopathology of children of mothers with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Method: Children of mothers with BPD were compared to children of mothers (1) with depressive disorders, (2) with cluster C personality disorders, and (3) without…

  19. Stressors and Child and Adolescent Psychopathology: Measurement Issues and Prospective Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Kathryn E.; Compas, Bruce E.; Thurm, Audrey E.; McMahon, Susan D.; Gipson, Polly Y.

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews existing research on the association between stressors and symptoms of psychopathology in children and adolescents with a focus on measurement issues and prospective effects. The first half of the article focuses on the measurement of stressors, emphasizing checklists and interviews. Available measures of stressful experiences…

  20. Parent-Infant Vocalisations at 12 Months Predict Psychopathology at 7 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allely, C. S.; Purves, D.; McConnachie, A.; Marwick, H.; Johnson, P.; Doolin, O.; Puckering, C.; Golding, J.; Gillberg, C.; Wilson, P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the utility of adult and infant vocalisation in the prediction of child psychopathology. Families were sampled from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. Vocalisation patterns were obtained from 180 videos (60 cases and 120 randomly selected sex-matched controls) of parent-infant…

  1. Internalizing and externalizing psychopathology as predictors of cannabis use disorder onset during adolescence and early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Richard F; Seeley, John R; Kosty, Derek B; Gau, Jeff M; Duncan, Susan C; Lynskey, Michael T; Lewinsohn, Peter M

    2015-09-01

    Risk-related liabilities associated with the development of cannabis use disorders (CUDs) during adolescence and early adulthood are thought to be established well before the emergence of the index episode. In this study, internalizing and externalizing psychopathology from earlier developmental periods were evaluated as risk factors for CUDs during adolescence and early adulthood. Participants (N = 816) completed 4 diagnostic assessments between the ages 16 and 30, during which current and past CUDs were assessed as well as a full range of psychiatric disorders associated with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology domains. In unadjusted and adjusted time-to-event analyses, externalizing but not internalizing psychopathology from proximal developmental periods predicted subsequent CUD onset. A large proportion of adolescent and early adult cases, however, did not manifest any externalizing or internalizing psychopathology during developmental periods before CUD onset. Findings are consistent with the emerging view that externalizing disorders from proximal developmental periods are robust risk factors for CUDs. Although the identification of externalizing liabilities may aid in the identification of individuals at risk for embarking on developmental pathways that culminate in CUDs, such liabilities are an incomplete indication of overall risk. PMID:25799438

  2. Family Discord, Parental Depression, and Psychopathology in Offspring: 20-Year Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Wickramaratne, Priya; Nomura, Yoko; Weissman, Myrna M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the independent effects of parental depression and family discord on offspring psychopathology among children at high and low risk of depression. Method: Family discord factors were assessed when subjects were approximately 17 years old, and offspring diagnoses were assessed about 20 years later. Parental and offspring…

  3. Lurking on the Internet: A Small-Group Assignment that Puts a Human Face on Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Joseph; Judge, Abigail M.; Wiss, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Lurking on the Internet aims to put a human face on psychopathology for the abnormal psychology course. Student groups are assigned major diagnostic categories and instructed to search the Internet for discussion forums, individual blogs, or YouTube videos where affected individuals discuss their symptoms and lives. After discussing the ethics of…

  4. Coping with Perceived Peer Stress: Gender-Specific and Common Pathways to Symptoms of Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sontag, Lisa M.; Graber, Julia A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences in the moderating and mediating effects of responses to stress on the association between perceived peer stress and symptoms of psychopathology. A sample of 295 middle school students (63.7% female; M[subscript age] = 12.39 years, SD = 0.99) completed self-report surveys on stress, coping, and behavioral…

  5. Gender Performance Stress and Risk for Psychopathology: Looking beyond Sexual Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oost, Kathryn M.; Livingston, Nicholas A.; Gleason, Hillary A.; Cochran, Bryan N.

    2016-01-01

    The authors review research on the risk factors for, and prevalence of, psychological disorders as they relate to gender nonconformity in adolescence and adulthood. Findings from existing literature suggest gender nonconforming individuals are more likely to experience a variety of risk factors associated with psychopathology when compared with…

  6. The Development of a New Measure for the Assessment of Psychopathology in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, C.; Tonge, B. J.; Einfeld, S. L.

    2005-01-01

    People with intellectual disability (ID) and untreated psychiatric disorder lead unnecessarily difficult and unhappy lives. The prevalence of mental illness in children and adults with ID is greater than that found in the general population. A carer-completed checklist of psychopathology that could be used with both children and adults would help…

  7. Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC) in the Assessment of Psychopathology in Finnish Children with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koskentausta, Terhi; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC) in the assessment of psychopathology in a Finnish population of children with intellectual disability. Disruptive behaviour was more common in children with mild intellectual disability, and problems with social interaction and communication in those with moderate, severe or profound…

  8. Moderators of informant agreement in the assessment of adolescent psychopathology: extension to a forensic sample.

    PubMed

    Penney, Stephanie R; Skilling, Tracey A

    2012-06-01

    A well-documented finding in developmental psychopathology research is that different informants often provide discrepant ratings of a youth's internalizing and externalizing problems. The current study examines youth- and parent-based moderators (i.e., youth age, gender, and IQ; type of psychopathology; offense category; psychopathic traits; parental education, income, and stress) of informant discrepancies in a sample of young offenders and compares the utility of youth and caregiver reports against relevant clinical outcomes. Results indicate that gender moderated the discrepancy between informant reports of somatic complaints, while parenting stress moderated the discrepancies across reports of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Variables unique to the forensic context (e.g., offense category) were found to moderate cross-informant discrepancies in reports of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Further, youth self-reports of internalizing symptoms predicted a clinician-generated diagnosis of a mood disorder, while caregiver reports of aggressive behaviors predicted the presence of an externalizing diagnosis. Results highlight the importance of assessing informant agreement in the context of forensic assessment and raise questions surrounding the optimal use of informant data in this setting. PMID:21966931

  9. Jamaican and American Adult Perspectives on Child Psychopathology: Further Exploration of the Threshold Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Michael Canute; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Compared adult attitudes concerning child psychopathology. Jamaican and U.S. parents, teachers, and clinicians (total n=382) judged vignettes of two children, one with overcontrolled and one with undercontrolled problems. Although years of education affected some adult ratings, culture had most profound effect. Jamaican parents and teachers rated…

  10. Violence Exposure and Psychopathology in Urban Youth: The Mediating Role of Posttraumatic Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruchkin, Vladislav; Henrich, Christopher C.; Jones, Stephanie M.; Vermeiren, Robert; Schwab-Stone, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying the development of violence exposure sequelae is essential to providing effective treatments for traumatized youth. This longitudinal study examined the mediating role of posttraumatic stress in the relationship between violence exposure and psychopathology, and compared the mediated models by gender. Urban…

  11. A Psychometric Evaluation of a Swedish Version of the Psychopathology Inventory for Mentally Retarded Adults (PIMRA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafsson, Carina; Sonnander, Karin

    2005-01-01

    Given the difficulties with symptom identification and the assessment of mental health problems in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) there has been a focus on the development of relevant assessment schedules for persons with ID. A Swedish version of the psychopathology inventory for mentally retarded adults (PIMRA, informant version), an…

  12. Intellectual Giftedness and Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Rosanna; Hawes, David J.; Abbott, Maree

    2016-01-01

    Using a systematic search strategy in which intellectual giftedness was operationalized in terms of IQ score, the authors examined evidence from studies reporting on associations between this aspect of giftedness and psychopathology. A total of 18 studies met the inclusion criteria: compared gifted (IQ = 125) and nongifted (IQ = 90-110) peers or…

  13. Effects of Music Therapy for Children and Adolescents with Psychopathology: A Meta-analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Christian; Voracek, Martin; Wigram, Tony

    2004-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this review were to examine the overall efficacy of music therapy for children and adolescents with psychopathology, and to examine how the size of the effect of music therapy is influenced by the type of pathology, client's age, music therapy approach, and type of outcome. Method: Eleven studies were included for…

  14. The brief scale for anxiety: a subdivision of the comprehensive psychopathological rating scale.

    PubMed Central

    Tyrer, P; Owen, R T; Cicchetti, D V

    1984-01-01

    A rating scale suitable for recording anxious symptoms is described. It is a subdivision of the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale and comprises 10 items, all of which are rated on a 7 point scale. It is suitable for the rating of pathological anxiety alone or for anxiety occurring in the setting of other psychological or medical disorder. PMID:6481391

  15. The Reliability and Validity of Discrete and Continuous Measures of Psychopathology: A Quantitative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markon, Kristian E.; Chmielewski, Michael; Miller, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2 meta-analyses involving 58 studies and 59,575 participants, we quantitatively summarized the relative reliability and validity of continuous (i.e., dimensional) and discrete (i.e., categorical) measures of psychopathology. Overall, results suggest an expected 15% increase in reliability and 37% increase in validity through adoption of a…

  16. The Relationship between Optimism, Creativity and Psychopathological Symptoms in University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Oscar; Martin-Brufau, Ramon; Mendez, Francisco Xavier; Corbalan, Francisco Javier; Liminana, Rosa Maria

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: This study examines the protective effects of variables of dispositional optimism and creativity with respect to measurements of psychopathology or psychological distress. Method: A total of 113 university students from different degree programs participated in the research. Measures of creativity (CREA), optimism (LOT-R) and…

  17. Challenging Behavior and Co-Morbid Psychopathology in Adults with Intellectual Disability and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Jane; Hemmings, Colin; Kravariti, Eugenia; Dworzynski, Katharina; Holt, Geraldine; Bouras, Nick; Tsakanikos, Elias

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between challenging behavior and co-morbid psychopathology in adults with intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) (N=124) as compared to adults with ID only (N=562). All participants were first time referrals to specialist mental health services and were living in community settings.…

  18. The role of behavior in translational models for psychopathology: functionality and dysfunctional behaviors.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, D Caroline; Summers, Cliff H; Blanchard, Robert J

    2013-09-01

    The history of science has frequently included a problem-based impetus toward research that can be translated expeditiously into solutions. A current problem is that psychopathologies, typically chronic, contribute hugely to the economic and social burden of medical care, especially in the United States. For behavioral neuroscientists a psychopathology-aimed translational research emphasis particularly involves animal models to facilitate the experimental and invasive work necessary to an understanding of the biology of normal and aberrant behavior. When the etiology of a particular psychopathology is unknown, and there are no specific biomarkers, behavioral parallels between the focal disorder and its putative models become crucial elements in assessing model validity. Evaluation of these parallels is frequently neglected, reflecting in part the lack of a systematic conceptualization of the organization of behavior and how this may be conserved across species. Recent work specifically attempting to bridge this gap suggests that analysis of behaviors that are functional - adaptive in crucial situations such as danger or social contexts - can facilitate an understanding of the parallels between behaviors of human and nonhuman species, including the dysfunctional behaviors of psycho pathologies. As research with animal models comes to provide a more systematic analysis of particular behaviors and their adaptive functions, cross-talk between model and focal psychopathology may be advantageous to understanding both. PMID:23791787

  19. Longitudinal Pathways Linking Child Maltreatment, Emotion Regulation, Peer Relations, and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jungmeen; Cicchetti, Dante

    2010-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate longitudinal relations among child maltreatment, emotion regulation, peer acceptance and rejection, and psychopathology. Methods: Data were collected on 215 maltreated and 206 nonmaltreated children (ages 6-12 years) from low-income families. Children were evaluated by camp counselors on emotion…

  20. Video Game Addiction in Gambling Disorder: Clinical, Psychopathological, and Personality Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Granero, Roser; Chóliz, Mariano; La Verde, Melania; Aguglia, Eugenio; Signorelli, Maria S.; Sá, Gustavo M.; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Fagundo, Ana B.; Sauchelli, Sarah; Fernández-Formoso, José A.; Menchón, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We studied the prevalences of video game use (VGU) and addiction (VGA) in gambling disorder (GD) patients and compared them with subjects with non-video game use (non-VGU) in relation to their gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality characteristics. Method. A sample of 193 GD patients (121 non-VGU, 43 VGU, and 29 VGA) consecutively admitted to our pathological gambling unit participated in the study. Assessment. Measures included the video game dependency test (VDT), symptom checklist-90-revised, and the temperament and character inventory-revised, as well as a number of other GD indices. Results. In GD, the observed prevalence of VG (use or addiction) was 37.3% (95% CI :30.7% ÷ 44.3),VGU 22.3% (95% CI :17.0% ÷ 28.7), and VGA 15% (95% CI :10.7% ÷ 20.7). Orthogonal polynomial contrast into logistic regression showed positive linear trends for VG level and GD severity and other measures of general psychopathology. After structural equation modeling, higher VG total scores were associated with younger age, general psychopathology, and specific personality traits, but not with GD severity. Patients' sex and age were involved in the mediational pathways between personality traits and VG impairment. Conclusions. GD patients with VG are younger and present more dysfunctional personality traits, and more general psychopathology. The presence of VG did not affect the severity of GD. PMID:25126551

  1. Psychopathology: Differences among Adults with Intellectually Disabled, Comorbid Autism Spectrum Disorders and Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kimberly R. M.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to systematically examine group differences among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), comorbid autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and epilepsy through a detailed exploration of the characteristics that these disorders present in the area of psychopathology. Previous studies indicating that individuals with ID have…

  2. Epilepsy and Intellectual Disability: Does Epilepsy Increase the Likelihood of Co-Morbid Psychopathology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arshad, Saadia; Winterhalder, Robert; Underwood, Lisa; Kelesidi, Katerina; Chaplin, Eddie; Kravariti, Eugenia; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Bouras, Nick; McCarthy, Jane; Tsakanikos, Elias

    2011-01-01

    Although epilepsy is particularly common among people with intellectual disability (ID) it remains unclear whether it is associated with an increased likelihood of co-morbid psychopathology. We therefore investigated rates of mental health problems and other clinical characteristics in patients with ID and epilepsy (N=156) as compared to patients…

  3. Testing Models of Psychopathology in Preschool-aged Children Using a Structured Interview-based Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have found that broadband internalizing and externalizing factors provide a parsimonious framework for understanding the structure of psychopathology across childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. However, few of these studies have examined psychopathology in young children, and several recent studies have found support for alternative models, including a bi-factor model with common and specific factors. The present study used parents’ (typically mothers’) reports on a diagnostic interview in a community sample of 3-year old children (n=541; 53.9 % male) to compare the internalizing-externalizing latent factor model with a bi-factor model. The bi-factor model provided a better fit to the data. To test the concurrent validity of this solution, we examined associations between this model and paternal reports and laboratory observations of child temperament. The internalizing factor was associated with low levels of surgency and high levels of fear; the externalizing factor was associated with high levels of surgency and disinhibition and low levels of effortful control; and the common factor was associated with high levels of surgency and negative affect and low levels of effortful control. These results suggest that psychopathology in preschool-aged children may be explained by a single, common factor influencing nearly all disorders and unique internalizing and externalizing factors. These findings indicate that shared variance across internalizing and externalizing domains is substantial and are consistent with recent suggestions that emotion regulation difficulties may be a common vulnerability for a wide array of psychopathology. PMID:24652485

  4. Coping with Social Stress: Implications for Psychopathology in Young Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sontag, Lisa M.; Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Warren, Michelle P.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of social stress on symptoms of psychopathology at the entry into adolescence (111 girls, Mage = 11.84, SD = 0.77). We examined whether peer stress and pubertal timing were associated with internalizing distress and aggression, and whether responses to stress and cortisol reactivity mediated or moderated these…

  5. Associations between Maternal Childhood Maltreatment and Psychopathology and Aggression during Pregnancy and Postpartum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Ariel J.; Rodgers, Carie S.; Lebeck, Meredith M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the association between maternal childhood maltreatment and psychopathology and aggression in intimate relationships during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Method: Forty-four pregnant women who were recruited from an obstetric clinic and local advertising periodical completed questionnaires about childhood…

  6. The Berkeley Puppet Interview: A Screening Instrument for Measuring Psychopathology in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Lisanne L.; van Daal, Carlijn; van der Maten, Marloes; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Otten, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Background: While child self-reports of psychopathology are increasingly accepted, little standardized instruments are utilized for these practices. The Berkeley Puppet Interview (BPI) is an age-appropriate instrument for self-reports of problem behavior by young children. Objective: Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the BPI will be…

  7. Association of Parental ADHD and Depression with Externalizing and Internalizing Dimensions of Child Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Mehta, Natasha; Lee, Steve S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the independent association of parental depression and ADHD on three dimensions of child psychopathology among 178 children aged 5 to 10 years. Method: Self-reported measures of parental depression and ADHD as well as rating scales and structure diagnostic interviews of child internalizing, ADHD, and externalizing problems were…

  8. Resilience to Adult Psychopathology Following Childhood Maltreatment: Evidence from a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collishaw, Stephan; Pickles, Andrew; Messer, Julie; Rutter, Michael; Shearer, Christina; Maughan, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Child abuse is an important risk for adult psychiatric morbidity. However, not all maltreated children experience mental health problems as adults. The aims of the present study were to address the extent of resilience to adult psychopathology in a representative community sample, and to explore predictors of a good prognosis. Methods:…

  9. Orthostatically Induced Panic Attacks among Cambodian Refugees: Flashbacks, Catastrophic Cognitions, and Associated Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Devon E.; Pollack, Mark H.; Pich, Vuth; Fama, Jeanne M.; Barlow, David H.

    2005-01-01

    Consecutive Cambodian refugees (N = 100) attending a psychiatric clinic were assessed for the presence and severity of current orthostatic panic (OP), which is defined as panic triggered by standing up. The patients with current OP (n = 36) had significantly greater psychopathology than patients without current OP. During OP, trauma associations…

  10. Discomfort Intolerance: Evaluation of a Potential Risk Factor for Anxiety Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Norman B.; Richey, J. Anthony; Cromer, Kiara R.; Buckner, Julia D.

    2007-01-01

    Discomfort intolerance, defined as an individual difference in the capacity to tolerate unpleasant bodily sensations, is a construct recently posited as a risk factor for panic and anxiety psychopathology. The present report used a biological challenge procedure to evaluate whether discomfort intolerance predicts fearful responding beyond the…

  11. Personal Reflections on Observational and Experimental Research Approaches to Childhood Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapoport, Judith L.

    2009-01-01

    The past 50 years have seen dramatic changes in childhood psychopathology research. The goal of this overview is to contrast observational and experimental research approaches; both have grown more complex such that the boundary between these approaches may be blurred. Both are essential. Landmark observational studies with long-term follow-up…

  12. The Dominance Behavioral System and Psychopathology: Evidence from Self-Report, Observational, and Biological Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sheri L.; Leedom, Liane J.; Muhtadie, Luma

    2012-01-01

    The dominance behavioral system (DBS) can be conceptualized as a biologically based system that guides dominance motivation, dominant and subordinate behavior, and responsivity to perceptions of power and subordination. A growing body of research suggests that problems with the DBS are evident across a broad range of psychopathologies. We begin by…

  13. Effect of Incest on Self and Social Functioning: A Developmental Psychopathology Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Pamela M.; Putnam, Frank W.

    1992-01-01

    Proposes model based on developmental psychopathology for conceptualizing effects of child sexual abuse. Argues that incest has negative effects on self and social functioning, by jeopardizing self-definition and integration, self-regulatory processes, and sense of security and trust in relationships. Reviews self and social development…

  14. Anxiety Psychopathology in African American Adults: Literature Review and Development of an Empirically Informed Sociocultural Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Lora Rose; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, the extant literature concerning anxiety psychopathology in African American adults is summarized to develop a testable, explanatory framework with implications for future research. The model was designed to account for purported lower rates of anxiety disorders in African Americans compared to European Americans, along with other…

  15. Parental Psychopathology and Child-Rearing Practices in Young Alcoholic Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, W. Hobart; And Others

    The relationship of parent alcohol involvement, depression, and antisocial behavior to self-reported parenting practices in a sample of 79 intact alcoholic families with male children of 3-6 years of age was studied. Child rearing practices were measured with the Block Child Rearing Practices Report. Psychopathology was measured with the…

  16. The Personality Psychopathology-Five (PSY-5): Recent Constructive Replication and Assessment Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkness, Allan R.; Finn, Jacob A.; McNulty, John L.; Shields, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    The Personality Psychopathology-Five (PSY-5; Harkness & McNulty, 1994) is a model of individual differences relevant to adaptive functioning in both clinical and non-clinical populations. In this article, we review the development of the PSY-5 model (Harkness, 1992; Harkness & McNulty, 1994) and discuss the ways in which the PSY-5 model is related…

  17. Sleep Problems and Their Correlates and Comorbid Psychopathology of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Subin; Cho, Soo-Churl; Cho, In Hee; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Kim, Jae-Won; Shin, Min-Sup; Chung, Un-Sun; Park, Tae-Won; Son, Jung-Woo; Yoo, Hee Jeong

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sleep problems and their correlates and comorbid psychopathology in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Participants consisted of 166 ASD children and 111 unaffected siblings aged 4-15 years. Parents completed a self-administered child sleep questionnaire. Of the children with ASDs, 47.0% (78/166) had at least one…

  18. Personality and Psychopathology in African Unaccompanied Refugee Minors: Repression, Resilience and Vulnerability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huemer, Julia; Volkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Karnik, Niranjan; Denny, Katherine G.; Granditsch, Elisabeth; Mitterer, Michaela; Humphreys, Keith; Plattner, Belinda; Friedrich, Max; Shaw, Richard J.; Steiner, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Examining personality and psychopathological symptoms among unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs), we measured intra-individual dimensions (repression and correlates thereof) usually associated with resilience. Forty-one URMs completed the Weinberger Adjustment Inventory (WAI), assessing personality, and the Youth Self-Report (YSR), describing…

  19. The Association between Relationship Distress and Psychopathology is Consistent across Racial and Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    McShall, Jared R.; Johnson, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    The association between intimate relationship discord and DSM-IV Axis I psychiatric disorders has been described in studies that oversampled White participants; however, the racial and ethnic differences in marital distress and divorce as well as in prevalence rates of some forms of psychopathology led us to hypothesize that the association between relationship discord and psychopathology would vary across races and ethnicities. Relationship quality and psychopathology were assessed in three national surveys (the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, the National Latino and Asian American Study, and the National Survey of American Life), for a total sample size of 10,057. We found that the log odds of being diagnosed with both narrow-band (e.g., major depressive disorder) and broad-band disorders (e.g., mood disorder) were negatively associated with relationship quality consistently across 11 different racial and ethnic groups. We discuss the implications of the cross-cultural reliability of the association between relationship discord and psychopathology in the context of etiological models and culturally competent practices. PMID:25402736

  20. Latent Personality Profiles and the Relations with Psychopathology and Psychopathic Traits in Detained Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decuyper, Mieke; Colins, Olivier F.; De Clercq, Barbara; Vermeiren, Robert; Broekaert, Eric; Bijttebier, Patricia; Roose, Annelore; De Fruyt, Filip

    2013-01-01

    The present study constructed empirically derived subtypes of adolescent offenders based on general traits and examined their associations with psychopathology and psychopathic traits. The sample included 342 detained minors (172 boys and 170 girls; mean age 15.85 years, SD = 1.07) recruited in various Youth Detention Centers across the Flemish…