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Sample records for psychopharmacology

  1. Competent psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Gardner, David M

    2014-08-01

    There is little doubt that undergraduate and post-graduate training of physicians, pharmacists, and nurses is insufficient to prepare them to use psychotropics safely and effectively, especially in the context of their expanded off-label uses. Therefore, the development of competencies in psychotropic prescribing needs to be approached as a long-term, practice-based learning commitment. Proposed are the abilities and knowledge components necessary for safe and effective use of psychotropics. Typical challenges in prescribing for chronic and recurrent illnesses include highly variable responses and tolerability, drug interactions, and adverse effects that can be serious, irreversible, and even fatal. Prescribing psychotropics is further complicated by negative public and professional reports and growing patient concerns about the quality of care, and questions about the efficacy, safety, and addictive risks of psychotropics. Increased efforts are needed to enhance clinical training and knowledge in psychopharmacology among trainees and practising clinicians, with more comprehensive and sustained attention to the assessment of individual patients, and greater reliance on patient education and collaboration. Improved competence in psychotropic prescribing should lead to more informed, thoughtful, and better-targeted applications as one component of more comprehensive clinical care. PMID:25161064

  2. Competent Psychopharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, David M

    2014-01-01

    There is little doubt that undergraduate and post-graduate training of physicians, pharmacists, and nurses is insufficient to prepare them to use psychotropics safely and effectively, especially in the context of their expanded off-label uses. Therefore, the development of competencies in psychotropic prescribing needs to be approached as a long-term, practice-based learning commitment. Proposed are the abilities and knowledge components necessary for safe and effective use of psychotropics. Typical challenges in prescribing for chronic and recurrent illnesses include highly variable responses and tolerability, drug interactions, and adverse effects that can be serious, irreversible, and even fatal. Prescribing psychotropics is further complicated by negative public and professional reports and growing patient concerns about the quality of care, and questions about the efficacy, safety, and addictive risks of psychotropics. Increased efforts are needed to enhance clinical training and knowledge in psychopharmacology among trainees and practising clinicians, with more comprehensive and sustained attention to the assessment of individual patients, and greater reliance on patient education and collaboration. Improved competence in psychotropic prescribing should lead to more informed, thoughtful, and better-targeted applications as one component of more comprehensive clinical care. PMID:25161064

  3. Psychopharmacology Curriculum Field Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zisook, Sidney; Balon, Richard; Benjamin, Sheldon; Beresin, Eugene; Goldberg, David A.; Jibson, Michael D.; Thrall, Grace

    2009-01-01

    Objective: As part of an effort to improve psychopharmacology training in psychiatric residency programs, a committee of residency training directors and associate directors adapted an introductory schizophrenia presentation from the American Society of Clinical Psychopharmacology's Model Psychopharmacology Curriculum to develop a multimodal,…

  4. A Counselor's Guide to Psychopharmacology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.

    1985-01-01

    Presents basic information on psychopharmacology and discusses the major antipsychotic, antidepressant, anti-anxiety, and lithium salt medications used with adults. The importance and implications of psychopharmacology for the counseling profession are highlighted. (Author)

  5. Teaching Psychopharmacology: Two Trainees' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiopoulos, Anna M.; Huffman, Jeff C.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To describe our experience of learning clinical psychopharmacology during residency, in order to assist educators planning psychopharmacology curricula. Methods: We describe how psychopharmacology teaching was structured in our program, dividing our experience into two phases, early residency (PGY-I and PGY-II) and late residency…

  6. Philosophy of clinical psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Aragona, Massimiliano

    2013-03-01

    The renewal of the philosophical debate in psychiatry is one exciting news of recent years. However, its use in psychopharmacology may be problematic, ranging from self-confinement into the realm of values (which leaves the evidence-based domain unchallenged) to complete rejection of scientific evidence. In this paper philosophy is conceived as a conceptual audit of clinical psychopharmacology. Its function is to criticise the epistemological and methodological problems of current neopositivist, ingenuously realist and evidence-servant psychiatry from within the scientific stance and with the aim of aiding psychopharmacologists in practicing a more self-aware, critical and possibly useful clinical practice. Three examples are discussed to suggest that psychopharmacological practice needs conceptual clarification. At the diagnostic level it is shown that the crisis of the current diagnostic system and the problem of comorbidity strongly influence psychopharmacological results, new conceptualizations more respondent to the psychopharmacological requirements being needed. Heterogeneity of research samples, lack of specificity of psychotropic drugs, difficult generalizability of results, need of a phenomenological study of drug-induced psychopathological changes are discussed herein. At the methodological level the merits and limits of evidence-based practice are considered, arguing that clinicians should know the best available evidence but that guidelines should not be constrictive (due to several methodological biases and rhetorical tricks of which the clinician should be aware, sometimes respondent to extra-scientific, economical requests). At the epistemological level it is shown that the clinical stance is shaped by implicit philosophical beliefs about the mind/body problem (reductionism, dualism, interactionism, pragmatism), and that philosophy can aid physicians to be more aware of their beliefs in order to choose the most useful view and to practice coherently

  7. Ethical issues in psychopharmacology

    PubMed Central

    McHenry, L

    2006-01-01

    The marketing of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the psychopharmacological industry presents a serious moral problem for the corporate model of medicine. In this paper I examine ethical issues relating to the efficacy and safety of these drugs. Pharmaceutical companies have a moral obligation to disclose all information in their possession bearing on the true risks and benefits of their drugs. Only then can patients make fully informed decisions about their treatment. PMID:16816041

  8. Who Is Teaching Psychopharmacology? Who Should Be Teaching Psychopharmacology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubovsky, Steven L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To review the current status of psychopharmacology education for medical students, residents, and practitioners in psychiatry and other specialties. Methods: A search of the MEDLINE and PsychInfo data bases was conducted using four keywords: pharmacology, psychopharmacology, teaching, and student. Additional references were obtained…

  9. Motivational Interviewing and Adolescent Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilallo, John J.; Weiss, Gony

    2009-01-01

    The use of motivational interviewing strategies in the practice of adolescent psychopharmacology is described. Motivational interviewing is an efficient and collaborative style of clinical interaction and this helps adolescent patients to integrate their psychiatric difficulties into a more resilient identity.

  10. Psychopharmacology in pediatric critical care.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Frederick J; Usher, Craigan T; Abrams, Annah N

    2006-07-01

    Psychopharmacologic treatment in pediatric critical care requires a careful child or adolescent psychiatric evaluation, including a thorough review of the history of present illness or injury, any current or pre-existing psychiatric disorder, past history, and laboratory studies. Although there is limited evidence to guide psychopharmacologic practice in this setting, psychopharmacologic treatment is increasing in critical care, with known indications for treatment, benefits, and risks; initial dosing guidelines; and best practices. Treatment is guided by the knowledge bases in pediatric physiology, psycho-pharmacology, and treatment of critically ill adults. Pharmacologic considerations include pharmacokinetic and pharmcodynamic aspects of specific drugs and drug classes, in particular elimination half-life, developmental considerations, drug interactions, and adverse effects. Evaluation and management of pain is a key initial step, as pain may mimic psychiatric symptoms and its effective treatment can ameliorate them. Patient comfort and safety are primary objectives for children who are acutely ill and who will survive and for those who will not. Judicious use of psychopharmacolgic agents in pediatric critical care using the limited but growing evidence base and a clinical best practices collaborative approach can reduce anxiety,sadness, disorientation, and agitation; improve analgesia; and save lives of children who are suicidal or delirious. In addition to pain, other disorders or indications for psychopharmacologic treatment are affective disorders;PTSD; post-suicide attempt patients; disruptive behavior disorders (especially ADHD); and adjustment, developmental, and substance use disorders. Treating children who are critically ill with psychotropic drugs is an integral component of comprehensive pediatric critical care in relieving pain and delirium; reducing inattention or agitation or aggressive behavior;relieving acute stress, anxiety, or depression; and

  11. Psychopharmacology in autism.

    PubMed

    Tsai, L Y

    1999-01-01

    Autism is a neurobiological disorder. The core clinical features of autism include impairment in social interaction, impairments in verbal and nonverbal communication, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. Autism often has coexisting neuropsychiatric disorders, including seizure disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, affective disorders, anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and Tourette disorder. No etiology-based treatment modality has been developed to cure individuals with autism. However, comprehensive intervention, including parental counseling, behavior modification, special education in a highly structured environment, sensory integration training, speech therapy, social skill training, and medication, has demonstrated significant treatment effects in many individuals with autism. Findings from preliminary studies of major neurotransmitters and other neurochemical agents strongly suggest that neurochemical factors play a major role in autism. The findings also provide the rationale for psychopharmacotherapy in individuals with autism. This article reviews studies of neurochemical systems and related psychopharmacological research in autism and related neuropsychiatric disorders. Clinical indications for pharmacotherapy are described, and uses of various medications are suggested. This article also discusses new avenues of investigation that may lead to the development of more effective medication treatments in persons with autism. PMID:10511014

  12. Psychopharmacology in Primary Care Settings.

    PubMed

    Benich, Joseph J; Bragg, Scott W; Freedy, John R

    2016-06-01

    Psychopharmacology requires clinicians to stay current on the latest guidelines and to use dynamic treatment strategies. Psychiatric conditions are prevalent in the primary care population. Choice of treatment with psychopharmacology should be based on controlling the patient's predominant symptoms while taking into consideration patient age, treatment compliance, patient past response to treatments, dosing frequency, patient preference, medication side effects, potential medication interactions, drug precautions/warnings, and cost. Response to therapy, as well as side effects, needs to be evaluated at regular intervals. The goal is to minimize symptoms and return patients to their maximal level of functioning. PMID:27262011

  13. Alternate Methods of Teaching Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zisook, Sidney; Benjamin, Sheldon; Balon, Richard; Glick, Ira; Louie, Alan; Moutier, Christine; Moyer, Trenton; Santos, Cynthia; Servis, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This article reviews methods used to teach psychopharmacology to psychiatry residents that utilize principles of adult learning, enlist active participation of residents, and provide faculty with skills to seek, analyze, and use new information over the course of their careers. Methods: The pros and cons of five "nonlecture" methods of…

  14. Ethical problems in psychopharmacological research.

    PubMed

    Gentili, C; Ferrari, G

    1979-01-01

    1. Scientific research poses considerable ethical problems which in human psychopharmacological studies are frequently faced by singling out consent as the only reliable source of human respect, although it is never free, spontaneous, or informed. 2. On the other hand, various ethical problems present in the "life" of a new substance in the case of industry and preclinical, clinical and mass experiments, are left behind. 3. Thus there arise justified protests which go so far as disowning science and technology. To criticize science and technology is of no use: incorrect use of them must be prevented. 4. Such a guarantee can only come from an international control committee, capable of coping with a multinational power such as industry, supported by peripheral elective committees, which grant the citizens a direct participation in the administration of health. PMID:400986

  15. [Psychopharmacological treatment of bipolar disease].

    PubMed

    Licht, Rasmus W; Vestergaard, Per

    2002-05-01

    This paper gives an update on the psychopharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder. The antimanic efficacy of lithium is well documented. The same applies to valproate, which is also efficacious in mixed mania. Conventional antipsychotics act fast in mania and do not require blood tests, but they have considerable neurological side effects. The newer antipsychotics, olanzapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone, have also been shown to have antimanic efficacy. Clozapine is extremely effective, also when other treatment fails. For the treatment of bipolar depression, lithium, lamotrigine, and antidepressants all seem to work, but antidepressants may sometimes precipitate mania or worsen the course of illness. For prophylaxis, lithium is still to be considered the first drug of choice. However, for several reasons, for instance treatment failure or side effects, long-term treatment with antiepileptics may often be necessary. Among the antiepileptics, carbamazepine, valproate, and lamotrigine are the best studied. PMID:12025705

  16. Psychopharmacologic treatment of borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Ripoll, Luis H

    2013-06-01

    The best available evidence for psychopharmacologic treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is outlined here. BPD is defined by disturbances in identity and interpersonal functioning, and patients report potential medication treatment targets such as impulsivity, aggression, transient psychotic and dissociative symptoms, and refractory affective instability Few randomized controlled trials of psychopharmacological treatments for BPD have been published recently, although multiple reviews have converged on the effectiveness of specific anticonvulsants, atypical antipsychotic agents, and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Stronger evidence exists for medication providing significant improvements in impulsive aggression than in affective or other interpersonal symptoms. Future research strategies will focus on the potential role of neuropeptide agents and medications with greater specificity for 2A serotonin receptors, as well as optimizing concomitant implementation of evidence-based psychotherapy and psychopharmacology, in order to improve BPD patients' overall functioning. PMID:24174895

  17. Psychopharmacologic treatment of borderline personality disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ripoll, Luis H.

    2013-01-01

    The best available evidence for psychopharmacologic treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is outlined here. BPD is defined by disturbances in identity and interpersonal functioning, and patients report potential medication treatment targets such as impulsivity, aggression, transient psychotic and dissociative symptoms, and refractory affective instability Few randomized controlled trials of psychopharmacological treatments for BPD have been published recently, although multiple reviews have converged on the effectiveness of specific anticonvulsants, atypical antipsychotic agents, and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Stronger evidence exists for medication providing significant improvements in impulsive aggression than in affective or other interpersonal symptoms. Future research strategies will focus on the potential role of neuropeptide agents and medications with greater specificity for 2A serotonin receptors, as well as optimizing concomitant implementation of evidence-based psychotherapy and psychopharmacology, in order to improve BPD patients' overall functioning. PMID:24174895

  18. Psychopharmacology with the Behaviorally Disturbed: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, William A.; Jerman, George

    Reviewed on a layman's level was research on psychopharmacology with the emotionally and behaviorally disturbed. General conclusions drawn from the man y studies were that the effect of drugs on intellectual functioning had not been determined and that there was little evidence to indicate that the learning process was consistently and reliably…

  19. Teaching Critical Appraisal of Articles on Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Pavel; Hoschl, Cyril; Volavka, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Psychiatrists and other physicians sometimes read publications superficially, relying excessively on abstracts. The authors addressed this problem by teaching critical appraisal of individual articles. Method: The authors developed a 23-item appraisal instrument to assess articles in the area of psychopharmacology. The results were…

  20. [Psychopharmacologic properties of Lippia multiflora].

    PubMed

    Abena, A A; Ngondzo-Kombeti, G R; Bioka, D

    1998-01-01

    Lippia multiflora (L.m.) is a verbenacea used in Congo as conventional tea decoction. No traditional indication is known in this country. Nevertheless, in Ghana the plant is used for the treatment of arterial hypertension. The aim of this study is to investigate the psychotropic activity of the aqueous extract of L.m. using the classical tests of experimental psychopharmacology. The extract of L.m. is constituted by lyophilisated powder obtained from an infusion of dried leaves. Different doses are prepared: 200, 400, 600, 800, 1,000 and 1,200 mg/kg dissolved in 1 ml of NaCl 0.9%. L.m. is administered by intraperitoneal or oral route. The wistar rats of both sexes, weighing between 150-200 g, are used. Animal's behaviour is observed macroscopically. The spontaneous motor activity is appreciated by using the number of squares crossed by animal with the four paws in ten minutes (Martin and al. method slightly modified). The rectal temperature is measured. The effect of L.m. on stereotypies induced by apomorphin and anesthesia induced by phenobarbital are studied. The traction test is used to investigate the muscle relaxant effect of L.m. and analgesic activity is evaluated by using acetic acid and hot plate methods by comparison with diazepam 2 and 4 mg/kg. Fischer-t test is used for the statistical analysis of results. L.m. is well tolerated by rats. No mortality is observed with the doses used. So the doses of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg were selected for experiments. At theses doses L.m. caused: a precocious ataxia, a sedation, a ptosis and a yellow coloration of urines, these effects are dose dependent; a significant reduction of spontaneous motor activity: control 61.60 +/- 6.48, L.m. 200: 16.40 +/- 5.68 (P < 0.01), L.m. 400: 12.20 +/- 2.01 and L.m. 600: 9.60 +/- 1.90 (P < 0.01); no modification of rectal temperature and apomorphin stereotypies; a reduction of sleep latence: control 22.40 +/- 1.89 min, L.m. 200: 17.20 +/- 2.74 min (P < 0.01), L.m. 400: 13.80 +/- 1

  1. Pediatric psychopharmacology: too much or too little?

    PubMed Central

    Rapoport, Judith L

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a selective overview of the past, present and future of pediatric psychopharmacology. The acceptance of medication use in child psychiatry was based on the results of double-blind, placebo-controlled trials documenting the efficacy of drug treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, enuresis, depression, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder and psychoses. This period of success was followed by a series of challenges, including a growing awareness of the long-term adverse effects of medications and of the inadequacy of long-term drug surveillance. There is great concern today that children are being overtreated with medication, especially in the US. Further advances in pediatric psychopharmacology may come from examination of large medical data sets including both pharmacological and psychiatric information, which could lead to drug repurposing, as well as from preclinical translational studies such as those using human induced pluripotent stem cells. PMID:23737413

  2. Advancing Social Work Curriculum in Psychopharmacology and Medication Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rosemary L.; Bentley, Kia J.; Walsh, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    The authors reviewed current literature and curriculum resources on psychopharmacology and social work. They argue that baccalaureate and master of social work courses need to routinely include more in-depth knowledge on psychopharmacology and provide a more critical social work-focused approach to this content due to the increasing complexity of…

  3. The Limited Role of Expert Guidelines in Teaching Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzman, Carl

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To consider the limited usefulness of expert guidelines for teaching psychopharmacology. Method: Potential problems using expert guidelines for teaching psychopharmacology are reviewed. Results: Expert guidelines are an important contribution to the growth of evidence-based psychiatry. As such, they may also be used to teach…

  4. Teaching the Prescriber's Role: The Psychology of Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The author examines one aspect of the psychopharmacology curriculum: the psychology of psychopharmacology. Method: Drawing from his experience teaching this subject to trainees at many different levels and from an emerging evidence base suggesting that psychosocial factors in the doctor-patient relationship may be crucial for medication…

  5. Prescription Privileges, Psychopharmacology and School Psychology: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Cindy; Kubiszyn, Tom

    1994-01-01

    Focuses on psychopharmacology and prescription privileges for psychologists. Summarizes nine major findings from Task Force on Psychopharmacology in the Schools, created to review literature on prescription privileges for psychologists; identify specific issues attendant to use of psychoactive medications with children; and clarify implications…

  6. Treatment of Bulimia Nervosa: Psychological and Psychopharmacologic Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Elaine L.; Greydanus, Donald E.; Pratt, Helen D.; Patel, Dilip R.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the current literature on psychological and psychopharmacologic treatments for bulimia nervosa in the adolescent population. Describes the two most researched psychological treatments--cognitive behavior therapy and interpersonal therapy--in terms of treatment protocols and outcome research. Reviews psychopharmacologic treatment, including…

  7. Challenges and Promises of Pediatric Psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Giles, Lisa L; Martini, D Richard

    2016-08-01

    Most prescriptions for psychotropic medications are written by primary care physicians, yet pediatricians, many of whom are teaching residents and medical students about pediatric psychopharmacology, often feel inadequately trained to treat mental health concerns. Over the past several decades, the number, size, and quality of psychopharmacologic studies in youth has greatly increased. Here we review the current evidence for efficacy and safety of each of the major pharmacologic drug classes in youth (psychostimulants, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and antipsychotics). Psychostimulants have a robust body of literature supporting their evidence as first-line treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have documented efficacy for pediatric depression and multiple different anxiety disorders with childhood onset. Combining cognitive-behavioral therapy with SSRI treatment enhances treatment benefit and minimizes adverse events of medication. Mood stabilizers, including lithium and anticonvulsant medications, have a less robust strength of evidence and come with more problematic side effects. However, they are increasingly prescribed to youth, often to treat irritability, mood lability, and aggression, along with treatment of bipolar disorder. Antipsychotics have long been a mainstay of treatment for childhood-onset schizophrenia, and in recent years, the evidence base for providing antipsychotics to youth with bipolar mania and autistic disorder has grown. Most concerning with antipsychotics are the metabolic side effects, which appear even more problematic in youth than adults. By better understanding the evidence-based psychopharmacologic interventions, academic pediatricians will be able to treat patients and prepare future pediatrician to address the growing mental health care needs of youth. PMID:27064142

  8. Cardiovascular side effects of psychopharmacologic therapy.

    PubMed

    Potočnjak, Ines; Degoricija, Vesna; Vukičević Baudoin, Dina; Čulig, Josip; Jakovljević, Miro

    2016-09-15

    WHO defined in 1976 psychopharmaca as drugs affecting psychological functions, behaviour and self-perception. Psychopharmacology is the study of pharmacological agents that affect mental and emotional functions. Creative approach to psychopharmacotherapy reflects a transdisciplinary, integrative and person-centered psychiatry. Psychiatric disorders often occur in cardiac patients and can affect the clinical presentation and morbidity. Cardiovascular (CV) side effects (SE) caused by psychopharmaceutic agents require comprehensive attention. Therapeutic approach can increase placebo and decrease nocebo reactions. The main purpose of this review is to comprehend CV SE of psychotropic drugs (PD). Critical overview of CV SE of PD will be presented in this review. Search was directed but not limited to CV effects of psychopharmacological substances, namely antipsychotics, anxiolytics, hypnotics, sedatives, antidepressants and stimulants. Literature review was performed and data identified by searches of Medline and PubMed for period from 2004 to 2015. Only full articles and abstracts published in English were included. SE of PD are organized according to the following types of CV effects: cardiac and circulatory effects, abnormalities of cardiac repolarisation and arrhythmias and heart muscle disease. There is wide spectrum and various CV effects of PD. Results of this review are based on literature research. The reviewed data came largely from prevalence studies, case reports, and cross-sectional studies. Psychopharmacotherapy of psychiatric disorders is complex and when concomitantly present with CV disease, presentation of drug SEs can significantly contribute to illness course. Further development of creative psychopharmacotherapy is required to deal with CV effects of PD. PMID:27352209

  9. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Treatments and Pediatric Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey, Joseph M.; Walter, Garry; Soh, Nerissa

    2008-01-01

    Children and adolescents often use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments outside their indications, particularly to lose weight. Some of the herbal remedies and dietary supplements that may of relevance for psychopharmacological practice are discussed with respect to CAM treatments.

  10. [Generic drugs in psychopharmacology: pros and cons].

    PubMed

    Cuenca, E; Zaragozá, F

    1999-01-01

    Legislation to facilitate process for generic products has been enacted and generic drugs have entered the market soon after the patent for the brand-name agent have expired. In every instance, the rationale has been economic since it is generally assumed that the copies are not only therapeutically equivalent but also a great deal less expensive than the original. Sometimes this may be so. In this short review several comments are made in order to establish the variables that may influence bioequivalence between the brand-name drug and its generics. Among them emphasis is given to the particle sizes, pharmaceutical supply, choice of the right excipient, in order to avoid possible interactions with the drug, ingredient quality and purity, etc. All these variables must be carefully controlled. Even so a patient who is changed from a trade name product to a generic drug (or vice versa) may respond a little differently, which is important in Psychopharmacology. Two or more products should be considered biologically equivalent only when it can demonstrated that they fulfil three conditions: that they have the same pharmaceutical properties; that they are equally effective in therapeutic use and that they are tolerated equally by patients being treated for the indicated uses. Regulatory agencies could require subsequent versions of an original therapeutic product the type of data regarding pharmacology, toxicology and chemical assessment that was mandatory for the introduction of the original. PMID:10611558

  11. Psychopharmacologic treatment of eating disorders: emerging findings.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Susan L; Guerdjikova, Anna I; Mori, Nicole; Keck, Paul E

    2015-05-01

    Psychopharmacologic treatment is playing a greater role in the management of patients with eating disorders. In this paper, we review randomized, placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and other eating disorders over the past 3 years. Fluoxetine remains the only medication approved for an eating disorder, that being BN. RCTs of antipsychotics in AN have had mixed results; the only agent with some evidence of efficacy is olanzapine. One study suggests dronabinol may induce weight gain in AN. Preliminary studies suggest lack of efficacy of alprazolam, dehydroepiandrosterone, or physiologic estrogen replacement in AN; erythromycin in BN; and the opioid antagonist ALKS-33 in BED. In BED with obesity or overweight, bupropion may cause mild weight loss without seizures, and chromium may improve glucose regulation. Also in BED, three RCTs suggest the stimulant prodrug lisdexamfetamine may reduce binge eating episodes, and another RCT suggests intranasal naloxone may decrease time spent binge eating. There remains a disconnection between the size of eating disorders as a public health problem and the lack of pharmacotherapy research of these conditions. PMID:25796197

  12. Child psychopharmacology: Is it more similar than different from adult psychopharmacology?

    PubMed

    Sareen, Himanshu; Trivedi, Jitendra Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Despite having a large chunk of human population, Asian countries face shortage of mental health professionals. There is further shortage of doctors dealing with special groups of population like the children, the elderly, and the medically ill. However, in this era of super-specializations, are the basic principles of general psychopharmacology being forgotten? Dealing with child population is different and often more difficult than adult population but are management guidelines for the two populations vastly divergent? A close look at this paints a different picture. Psychotherapies applied in adults and those in children and adolescents are disparate owing to cognitive, social, emotional, and physical immaturation in children and adolescents. But the drugs for the treatment of pediatric psychiatric disorders are mostly similar to those prescribed for adults (case in point -bipolar disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, schizophrenia). Rather than focusing energy on propagating the differences in assorted subgroups of population, honing of skills regarding intricacies of psychopharmacology is required to be emphasized. Detailed history taking, careful evaluation of the patient, sound diagnostic formulation, and prescribing medications which are tailor made to the patient will all go a long way in ensuring a functional recovery of the patients irrespective of the group they belong to. PMID:24082257

  13. Tinnitus psychopharmacology: A comprehensive review of its pathomechanisms and management

    PubMed Central

    Fornaro, Michele; Martino, Matteo

    2010-01-01

    Background: Subjective tinnitus is a frequent, impairing condition, which may also cause neurotransmitter imbalance at the cochlea. Psychopharmacologic agents, although not being the first-line treatment for tinnitus, may modulate cochlear neurotransmission, thereby influencing the subjective tinnitus experience. Method: A comprehensive review of MEDLINE literature (from January 1990–January 2010) was performed searching for: “tinnitus”, major classes of psychopharmacological agents, and psychiatric disorders. The most relevant clinical evidence is reported briefly along with a concise description of the main neurotransmitters purported to be involved in tinnitus, in order to provide the reader with a rational evaluation of tinnitus therapy with psychopharmacological agents. Results: Although strong methodological issues limit the reliability of the current results, a broad number of psychopharmacological agents have already been considered for tinnitus, both as candidate triggers or potential therapies. Conclusions: Selected psychopharmacological drugs may play a role in the clinical management of this disorder. While the rational use of these agents for the treatment of tinnitus should not be overlooked, research should be undertaken on their neuromodulating actions at the cochlea. PMID:20628627

  14. The ethics of psychopharmacological research in legal minors

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jacinta OA; Koelch, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Research in psychopharmacology for children and adolescents is fraught with ethical problems and tensions. This has practical consequences as it leads to a paucity of the research that is essential to support the treatment of this vulnerable group. In this article, we will discuss some of the ethical issues which are relevant to such research, and explore their implications for both research and standard care. We suggest that finding a way forward requires a willingness to acknowledge and discuss the inherent conflicts between the ethical principles involved. Furthermore, in order to facilitate more, ethically sound psychopharmacology research in children and adolescents, we suggest more ethical analysis, empirical ethics research and ethics input built into psychopharmacological research design. PMID:19063724

  15. Psychopharmacological interventions in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Politte, Laura C; Henry, Charles A; McDougle, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    After participating in this educational activity, the physician should be better able to1. Prescribe the appropriate psychotropic medication to treat symptoms of ASD.2. Identify the side effects of the psychotropic medications used to treat ASD.Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by core deficits in social communication and language, and restrictive and repetitive behaviors that cause significant functional impairment and distress for affected individuals and their caregivers. The increasing prevalence of ASD, most recently estimated as 1 in 88 children, presents an ever-increasing burden on families, schools, medical systems, and society at large. Individuals with ASD commonly present for treatment of associated emotional and behavioral disturbances that include anxiety, symptoms of ADHD, compulsions and other repetitive behaviors, mood lability, irritability, aggression, and sleep disturbance. Psychotropic medications are widely utilized in alleviating these symptoms, though rigorous clinical trials in ASD are lacking for most areas of impairment. Strong evidence from randomized, placebo-controlled trials supports the use of atypical antipsychotics, particularly risperidone and aripiprazole, for managing severe irritability and aggression in ASD. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors are commonly used to treat anxiety and compulsions, though reports of efficacy in the literature are mixed, and behavioral side effects in children are common. Minimal evidence supports the utility of anticonvulsants and traditional mood stabilizers in managing mood lability and aggression. Stimulant and nonstimulant ADHD medications can be effective for reducing hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity, though to a lesser degree than in ADHD populations without ASD and with greater risk of adverse effects. Psychopharmacological interventions in development for core symptoms of autism include those that target the glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmitter systems and the

  16. Computer System for Monitoring Drug Effects in Psychopharmacologic Research

    PubMed Central

    Latham, Georgia S.; Martinez, Rick; Sunderland, Trey

    1990-01-01

    To aid in the evaluation of cognitive effects and side effects of drugs in psychopharmacologic trials, a computerized battery was developed to assess memory, attention, mood, physical side effects, and reaction time. Parallel forms of the battery allow for repeated measures within subjects design. All aspects of task performance are automatically recorded, permitting qualification of drug-induced effects on multiple stages of information processing. Data collected with the battery can be output as hard copy case reports or files formatted for statistical analysis. The battery and its utility in psychopharmacologic trials are described.

  17. 76 FR 65736 - Psychopharmacologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Psychopharmacologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The meeting will be...

  18. 78 FR 13349 - Psychopharmacologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Psychopharmacologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The meeting will be...

  19. Psychopharmacology and Mental Retardation: A 10 Year Review (1990- 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Bamburg, Jay W.; Mayville, Erik A.; Pinkston, Jim; Bielecki, Joanne; Kuhn, David; Smalls, Yemonja; Logan, James R.

    2000-01-01

    Review of the literature on psychopharmacology and mental retardation from 1990-1999 found most studies had major methodological flaws. Also, most drug administrations were not based in science, were not evaluated appropriately, and generally did not follow best practices for treatment of persons with mental retardation. A table lists the studies…

  20. Using Game-Based Learning to Teach Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarlet, Janina; Ampolos, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews several approaches used to teach psychopharmacology for graduate clinical psychology students. In order to promote engagement and increase student interest, students were broken up into groups and were asked to demonstrate their understanding of the material through a variety of interactive games (i.e., game-based learning, or…

  1. Psychopharmacology: A Guide for Helping Professionals. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert L.; Garcia, Elda E.

    Certain mental disorders are caused by or accompanied by neurochemical abnormalities. The use of psychotropic medications has dramatically increased over the past two decades in all age groups, particularly with children. Therefore, psychopharmacology, the branch of pharmacology dealing with the psychological effects of drugs, needs to be…

  2. Teaching a Psychopharmacology Course to Counselors: Justification, Structure, and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, R. Elliot

    2000-01-01

    In the last decade, the use of medication to treat psychological disorders has greatly expanded. In order to work effectively in school and community settings, counselors will need a sophisticated knowledge of psychopharmacology. This article describes the curriculum, structure, resources, and teaching methods suggested for effective instruction…

  3. Improving the Pedagogy Associated with the Teaching of Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Ira D.; Salzman, Carl; Cohen, Bruce M.; Klein, Donald F.; Moutier, Christine; Nasrallah, Henry A.; Ongur, Dost; Wang, Po; Zisook, Sidney

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors summarize two special sessions focused on the teaching of psychopharmacology at the 2003 and 2004 annual meeting of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ACNP). The focus was on whether "improving the teaching-learning process" in psychiatric residency programs could improve clinical practice. Method: Problems of…

  4. Child Psychopharmacology: How School Psychologists Can Contribute to Effective Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.; Carlson, John S.

    2005-01-01

    Psychopharmacological treatments have been used with increased frequency to treat a variety of internalizing and externalizing disorders in children. Given the potential impact that medication has on children's school performance, school psychologists should be involved in helping physicians and families make effective decisions by assisting with…

  5. 75 FR 47309 - Psychopharmacologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Psychopharmacologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The meeting will be...

  6. Psychopharmacology in School-Based Mental Health Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Mundo, Amor S.; Pumariega, Andres J.; Vance, Hubert R.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses issues regarding the use of a pharmacological approach to the treatment of children with serious emotional and mental disorders that interfere with learning. Addresses the current state of psychopharmacological treatment for diagnostic entities and behavioral symptomatology. Discusses the roles of the child, family, and health and…

  7. Psychopharmacology of Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Selective Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohiuddin, Sarah; Ghaziuddin, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    While there is no cure for autism spectrum disorder, psychopharmacologic agents are often used with behavioral and educational approaches to treat its comorbid symptoms of hyperactivity, irritability, and aggression. Studies suggest that at least 50% of persons with autism spectrum disorder receive psychotropic medications during their life span.…

  8. Practical Clinical Trials in Psychopharmacology: a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Vitiello, Benedetto

    2015-01-01

    Practical clinical trials (PCT) are randomized experiments under typical practice conditions with the aim of testing the “real life” benefits and risks of therapeutic interventions. Influential PCTs have been conducted in cardiology, oncology, and internal medicine. Psychotropic medications are widely and increasingly used in medical practice. This review examines recent progress in conducting PCTs in psychopharmacology. The January 2000 – October 2014 MEDLINE, Scopus, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched for peer-reviewed publications of PCTs with at least 100 subjects per treatment arm. Most PCTs in psychiatry evaluated mental health services or psychosocial interventions rather than specific pharmacotherapies. Of 157 PCTs in psychiatry, 30 (19%) were in psychopharmacology, with a median of 2 publications per year and no increase over the period of observation. Sample size ranged from 200 to 18,154; only 11 studies randomized 500 patients or more. Psychopharmacology PCTs were equally likely to be funded by industry as by public agencies. There were 10 PCTs of antidepressants, for a total of 4,206 patients (in comparison with at least 46 PCT of antihypertensive medications, for a total of 208,014 patients). Some psychopharmacology PCTs used suicidal behavior, treatment discontinuation, or mortality as primary outcome, and produced effectiveness and safety data that have influenced both practice guidelines and regulatory decisions. PCTs can constitute an important source of information for clinicians, patients, regulators, and policy makers, but have been relatively underutilized in psychopharmacology. Electronic medical records and integrated practice research networks offer promising platforms for a more efficient conduct of PCTs. PMID:25679131

  9. Somatic treatments excluding psychopharmacology in obsessive- compulsive disorder: a review.

    PubMed

    Atmaca, Murad

    2013-06-01

    Somatic treatments other than psychotropic drugs are increasingly used in the patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), however there has been little systematic review of them. Therefore, the present review deals with a variety of somatic treatment methods excluding psychotropic drugs. A literature search was performed on the PubMed database from the beginning of 1980, to September 2012, for published English, Turkish and French-language articles of somatic treatment approaches (excluding psychopharmacological agents) in the treatment of OCD. The search was carried out by using some terms in detail. Afterwards, the obtained investigations on electroconvusive therapy (ECT), deep brain stimulation (DBS), neurosurgical methods and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were presented. Although psychopharmacological treatment and psychotherapeutic approaches are primary treatment modalities in the management of OCD, other somatic treatment options seem to be used as alternatives, especially for patients with treatmentresistant OCD. PMID:24032546

  10. Psychopharmacology of ADHD in pediatrics: current advances and issues

    PubMed Central

    Greydanus, Donald E; Nazeer, Ahsan; Patel, Dilip R

    2009-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral developmental disorder found in 3% to 8% of children and adolescents. An important part of ADHD management is psychopharmacology, which includes stimulants, norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, alpha-2 agonists, and antidepressants. Medications with the best evidence-based support for ADHD management are the stimulants methylphenidate and amphetamine. A number of newer, long-acting stimulants are now available and a number of new medications are considered that are under current research. PMID:19557112

  11. Females' participation in psychopharmacology research as authors, editors, and subjects.

    PubMed

    Poling, Alan; Durgin, Amy; Bradley, Kelly P; Porter, Lindsay K; Van Wagner, Karen; Weeden, Marc; Panos, John J

    2009-04-01

    This study determined the involvement of women as first authors and other authors for every article published in Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, and Psychopharmacology in 1991, 1996, 2001, and 2006. Their involvement as editors also was determined. Women's participation as authors, but not as editors, slightly increased over time. In 2006, 43% of first authors, 38% of other authors, and 24% of editors were women. The gender of subjects was examined for the same years and journals, but could not be determined for 6% and 9% of articles employing nonhuman and human subjects, respectively. In 2006, when subjects' gender could be determined, 77% of articles involving nonhuman subjects used only males, 9% only females, and 14% both males and females. In articles using human subjects in that same year, 17% involved only males, 6% only females, and 77% both males and females. Women researchers clearly make substantial contributions to the psychopharmacology literature, but are nonetheless underrepresented as editors. Findings regarding subjects indicate that there is growing recognition of the importance of gender as a determinant of drug effects, although the vast majority of nonhuman studies continue to involve only male subjects. PMID:19331487

  12. Survey of Nationally Certified School Psychologists' Roles and Training in Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahidullah, Jeffrey D.; Carlson, John S.

    2014-01-01

    A randomly selected group of Nationally Certified School Psychologists (NCSPs; n = 817) were mailed the 42-item "School Psychopharmacology Roles and Training Evaluation" (SPRTE) which inquired about their caseloads, practice roles as proposed by DuPaul and Carlson ([DuPaul, G. J., 2005]), and prior training in psychopharmacology. A…

  13. A Survey of School Psychologists' Knowledge and Training in Child Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, John S.; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick; Hunter-Oehmke, Shana

    2006-01-01

    A national sample of 320 school-based, practicing members of the National Association of School Psychologists provided information on (a) their caseloads receiving medications, (b) types of school psychopharmacology training opportunities available and perceptions of their current training in child psychopharmacology, and (c) information about…

  14. Assessment of Psychopharmacology on the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juul, Dorthea; Winstead, Daniel K.; Sheiber, Stephen C.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report the assessment of psychopharmacology on the certification and recertification exams in general psychiatry and in the subspecialties administered by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN). METHODS: The ABPN's core competencies for psychiatrists were reviewed. The number of items addressing psychopharmacology or…

  15. Psychopharmacology in Medical Practice—The Benefits and the Risks

    PubMed Central

    Sack, Robert L.; Shore, James H.

    1981-01-01

    Psychopharmacology has become a major approach to treatment in primary medical care. However, combined psychiatric and medical illness can give rise to some challenging diagnostic problems. Furthermore, drug treatment of patients with such illnesses can involve important drug-disease interactions and drug-drug interactions. One should keep in mind the issues that arise when an emotionally troubled patient would benefit from a psychotropic drug but a concurrent medical illness complicates this treatment. An awareness of both the medical and psychiatric issues involved may make successful treatment possible. PMID:7269559

  16. [Adherence to psychopharmacological treatment: Psychotherapeutic strategies to enhance adherence].

    PubMed

    Lencer, R; Korn, D

    2015-05-01

    Effective psychopharmacological medication with good tolerability represents the cornerstone of treatment for severe mental illness; however, the 1-year adherence rates are only approximately 50%. The term adherence emphasizes the collaborative responsibility of the clinician and the patient for a positive treatment outcome. Reasons for non-adherence are manifold and include patient-specific factors, such as self-stigmatization, lack of social and familial support, cognitive impairment and substance use besides insufficient effectiveness and the occurrence of side effects of the psychotropic drugs. To enhance adherence, both clinician and patient have to fully understand all the reasons for and against adherence to medication before a collaborative decision is made on future long-term treatment. A positive attitude towards medication critically depends on whether patients feel that the medication supports the attainment of the individual goals. PMID:25903501

  17. Psychopharmacological options for adult patients with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Miniati, Mario; Mauri, Mauro; Ciberti, Agnese; Mariani, Michela Giorgi; Marazziti, Donatella; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this review was to summarize evidence from research on psychopharmacological options for adult patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). Database searches of MEDLINE and PsycINFO (from January 1966 to January 2014) were performed, and original articles published as full papers, brief reports, case reports, or case series were included. Forty-one papers were screened in detail, and salient characteristics of pharmacological options for AN were summarized for drug classes. The body of evidence for the efficacy of pharmacotherapy in AN was unsatisfactory, the quality of observations was questionable (eg, the majority were not blinded), and sample size was often small. More trials are needed, while considering that nonresponse and nonremission are typical of patients with AN. PMID:26145463

  18. Clinical psychopharmacology and medical malpractice: the four Ds.

    PubMed

    Preskorn, Sheldon H

    2014-09-01

    The four Ds of medical malpractice are duty, dereliction (negligence or deviation from the standard of care), damages, and direct cause. Each of these four elements must be proved to have been present, based on a preponderance of the evidence, for malpractice to be found. The principles of psychopharmacology and the information in the package insert for a drug often play a central role in deciding whether dereliction and direct cause for damages were or were not applicable in a particular case. The author uses data from two cases in which patients were inadvertently fatally poisoned by medication to illustrate two ways in which such information can affect the outcome. In one case, the clinician should have known that he was giving a toxic dose to the patient, whereas that was not true in the other case. PMID:25226197

  19. Legal and Ethical Issues in School Psychologists' Participation in Psychopharmacological Interventions with Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMers, Stephen T.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses expanded role for psychologists and school psychologists ranging from increased knowledge about psychopharmacology to collaborative practice with prescribing physician to obtaining limited independent prescription privileges. Explores legal issues associated with such role expansion: credential concerns, malpractice liability, and record…

  20. Brave New World versus Island--utopian and dystopian views on psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Schermer, M H N

    2007-06-01

    Aldous Huxley's Brave New World is a famous dystopia, frequently called upon in public discussions about new biotechnology. It is less well known that 30 years later Huxley also wrote a utopian novel, called Island. This paper will discuss both novels focussing especially on the role of psychopharmacological substances. If we see fiction as a way of imagining what the world could look like, then what can we learn from Huxley's novels about psychopharmacology and how does that relate to the discussion in the ethical and philosophical literature on this subject? The paper argues that in the current ethical discussion the dystopian vision on psychopharmacology is dominant, but that a comparison between Brave New World and Island shows that a more utopian view is possible as well. This is illustrated by a discussion of the issue of psychopharmacology and authenticity. The second part of the paper draws some further conclusions for the ethical debate on psychopharmacology and human enhancement, by comparing the novels not only with each other, but also with our present reality. It is claimed that the debate should not get stuck in an opposition of dystopian and utopian views, but should address important issues that demand attention in our real world: those of evaluation and governance of enhancing psychopharmacological substances in democratic, pluralistic societies. PMID:17486431

  1. Behavioral and psychopharmacological treatment of the paraphilic and hypersexual disorders.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Richard B; Kaplan, Meg S

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the second of a two-part series, the authors present information on the clinical assessment of individuals with paraphilias and hypersexual disorders. They review ethical considerations in the assessment and treatment of individuals with paraphilias. The role of interview and subjective and objective instruments in the assessment of individuals with paraphilias and hypersexual disorders is discussed. The authors discuss the use of penile plethysmography or phallometry, polygraphy, and viewing time assessments. Risk assessment of sexual offenders is reviewed. The authors then discuss behavioral, environmental, and psychopharmacological treatments for paraphilias and hypersexual disorders. Cognitive-behavioral therapy appears to be the most effective nonpharmacological strategy. The authors describe cognitive-behavioral techniques for decreasing and/or controlling sexual urges (e.g., satiation, covert sensitization, fading, cognitive restructuring, victim empathy therapy) as well as methods for enhancing appropriate sexual interest and arousal (e.g., social skills training, assertiveness skills training, sex education, couples therapy). The authors also discuss the role of relapse prevention therapy and 12-step programs, as well as other nonbiological therapies such as surveillance networks. The importance of providing appropriate treatment for comorbid conditions (e.g., depression, substance abuse or dependence) is stressed. The authors then review psychopharmacological treatments, including serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) and antiandrogens, in particular, the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH) agonists. SRIs have been studied in these disorders in an uncontrolled way and appear promising. Earlier antiandrogens (e.g., estrogen, progesterone, and cyproterone acetate) have demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of paraphilias. The newer GNRH agonists have the advantage over the earlier treatments of being available in long-acting depot

  2. Odds and ends in psychopharmacology from the past 10 years.

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    Seven topics previously described in this column are revisited. The use of quantitative electroencephalography has been shown in a prospective study to be effective for predicting antidepressant treatment response. A novel antidepressant drug, agomelatine, has generated much controversy, and its development for the U.S. market was discontinued. A long awaited revised system for categorizing the safety of medications during pregnancy and lactation has finally been published by the Food and Drug Administration. Dextromethorphan/quinidine, eslicarbazepine acetate, levomilnacipran, and esketamine are recent examples of drugs that were developed based on the complex concepts of chirality and stereochemistry. Lisdexamfetamine, a stimulant drug, failed to show benefit as an augmentation therapy for the treatment of depression. The combination drug naltrexone/bupropion was finally approved as a therapy for obesity, after its cardiovascular safety was confirmed in a prospective premarketing study. Further development of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist drug mifepristone as a treatment for psychotic depression was stopped based on a large negative trial, but the drug continues to be investigated for other potential psychiatric indications. These examples illustrate how the field of psychopharmacology continues to evolve. PMID:25622272

  3. Autism spectrum disorders: early detection, intervention, education, and psychopharmacological management.

    PubMed

    Bryson, Susan E; Rogers, Sally J; Fombonne, Eric

    2003-09-01

    Our understanding and treatment of children with autism have changed dramatically since Leo Kanner first formally documented the disorder in 1943. With reference to the historical context, this paper reviews recent research addressing 4 major issues: early detection, intervention, education, and psychopharmacological management of children with autism and related (autistic) spectrum disorders (hereafter, "autism"). We conclude from our review of the evidence that, in the absence of additional, more compelling data, the clinical usefulness of existing screening instruments remains questionable. However, the potential importance of such research is underscored by the clear benefits of early behavioural intervention: despite differences in orientation, outcomes for children with autism can be significantly enhanced with early intensive intervention. Although many questions remain (notably, What are the critical therapeutic components? For whom? For what domains of development? For what level of intensity and duration?), interventions shown to be effective are all carefully planned, engineered, monitored, and designed to target specific skill domains. Including children with autism in regular classes within the public school system poses several challenges, the most pressing of which is the large number of school personnel who need to be trained in evidence-based teaching and behavioural management practices. Finally, psychotropic drugs may help to reduce some symptoms, but they are neither curative nor a substitute for other forms of support and intervention. PMID:14574826

  4. [A unique psychopharmacologic profile of adrafinil in mice].

    PubMed

    Rambert, F A; Pessonnier, J; de Sereville, J E; Pointeau, A M; Duteil, J

    1986-01-01

    The following psychopharmacological effects of adrafinil have been observed in mice: increase in locomotor activity (64-256 mg.kg-1), antagonism (16-128 mg.kg-1) of the hypnotic effects of barbitone but not of pentobarbitone, reduction of immobility duration in the forced swimming test (16-256 mg.kg-1); slight antagonism (256 mg.kg-1) of electroshock-induced convulsions; no modification of rectal temperature; no stereotyped or climbing behaviour; no increase in lethality in aggregated mice (LD50 isolated = 1022 mg.kg-1, LD50 aggregated = 859 mg.kg-1); lack of effects on the provisional tests for antidepressants: no interaction with reserpine-, oxotremorine-, or apomorphine-induced hypothermia but potentiation of yohimbine-induced toxicity; lack of peripheral sympathetic effects (no mydriasis, no salivation, no contraction of the pilomotor muscles, no antagonism of reserpine-induced ptosis); lack of peripheral anticholinergic effects (no mydriasis, no antagonism of oxotremorine-induced salivation or lacrimation). As compared to no analeptic, anticholinergic or antidepressant drugs, adrafinil shows a unique behavioural profile in mice defined on the one hand by a specific stimulant activity associated with antidepressant-like effects that do no seem related to a beta-adrenergic mechanism and on the other hand by a lack of dopaminergic effects. Most adrafinil-induced effects (increase in locomotor activity, reduction of immobility duration in the forced swimming test) may correspond to a central alpha 1-adrenergic stimulation, but the unexpected lack of peripheral sympathetic effects remains unexplained. PMID:3713198

  5. Psychodynamic Trojan horses: using psychopharmacology to teach psychodynamics.

    PubMed

    Mintz, David

    2006-01-01

    Concurrences of scientific, cultural, and economic developments in the past decade have changed psychiatric practice and psychiatric training. The explosion in neurobiological sciences has left residents with an overwhelming amount of neurobiology to master at the same time that managed care has led to a de-emphasis on psychiatrists providing psychotherapy. Consequently, many residents are left questioning the relevance of psychodynamics for psychiatry, given that the majority will function primarily as prescribers. However, the illusion, increasingly common in our culture, that medications are a simple fix leaves residents unprepared to make sense of the complex and irrational processes that happen in the acts of prescribing and taking medications (or not taking medications). Consequently, residents may feel confused, angry, hopeless, and/or abandoned in their role. These residents are often hungry for a context to explain why they feel hopeless, confused, or defeated in carrying out the "simple" task of prescribing. A psychodynamic understanding can provide such a holding context, just as it can give residents tools for backing out of futile and/or destructive enactments and turning conflicts around medications to some therapeutic good. Many psychodynamic concepts that initially may have seemed to residents part of some arcane and outmoded pseudoscience suddenly become relevant when they provide both a context for understanding the resident's distress and useful clinical tools. Those psychodynamic psychiatrists wishing to promulgate a psychodynamic understanding may need to meet psychiatric trainees at their developmental level and take seriously the current emphasis on providing effective somatic treatments. By engaging trainees at the junction of psychodynamics and psychopharmacology, psychodynamic psychiatrists may find a more receptive audience and open the door for greater interest in developing psychodynamic understanding and technical skills. PMID:16548753

  6. Defensive burying in rodents: ethology, neurobiology and psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    De Boer, Sietse F; Koolhaas, Jaap M

    2003-02-28

    Defensive burying refers to the typical rodent behavior of displacing bedding material with vigorous treading-like movements of their forepaws and shoveling movements of their heads directed towards a variety of noxious stimuli that pose a near and immediate threat, such as a wall-mounted electrified shock-prod. Since its introduction 25 years ago by Pinel and Treit [J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 92 (1978) 708], defensive (shock-prod) burying has been the focus of a considerable amount of research effort delineating the methodology/ethology, psychopharmacology and neurobiology of this robust and species-specific active avoidance or coping response. The present review gives a summary of this research with special reference to the behavioral (face and construct) and pharmacological (predictive) validity of the shock-prod burying test as an animal model for human anxiety. Emphasis is also placed on some recent modifications of the paradigm that may increase its utility and reliability as to individual differences in expressed emotional coping responses and sensitivity to pharmacological treatments. Overall, the behavioral and physiological responses displayed in the shock-prod paradigm are expressions of normal and functionally adaptive coping patterns and the extremes of either active (i.e., burying) or passive (i.e., freezing) forms of responding in this test cannot simply be regarded as inappropriate, maladaptive or pathological. For this reason, the shock-prod paradigm is not an animal model for anxiety disorder or for any other psychiatric disease, but instead possesses a high degree of face and construct validity for normal and functionally adaptive human fear and anxious apprehension. However, the apparent good pharmacological validation (predictive validity) of this test reinforces the view that normal and pathological anxiety involves, at least partly, common neurobiological substrates. Therefore, this paradigm is not only suitable for screening potential

  7. Practical Paediatric Psychopharmacological Prescribing in Autism: The Potential and the Pitfalls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gringras, Paul

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses the evidence behind two approaches to psychopharmacological management in children with autism: selecting and treating target symptoms or treatment or curing the primary social impairment underlying autism. The effectiveness of stimulants, antidepressants, melatonin, naltrexone, fenfluramine, and secretin is appraised. The…

  8. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children and Adolescents: A Review of Psychopharmacological Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huemer, J.; Erhart, F.; Steiner, H.

    2010-01-01

    PTSD in children and adolescents differs from the adult disease. Therapeutic approaches involve both psychotherapy and psychopharmacotherapy. Objectives: The current paper aims at reviewing studies on psychopharmacological treatment of childhood and adolescent PTSD. Additionally, developmental frameworks for PTSD diagnosis and research along with…

  9. Integrating Genetic, Psychopharmacological and Neuroimaging Studies: A Converging Methods Approach to Understanding the Neurobiology of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durston, Sarah; Konrad, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to illustrate how combining multiple approaches can inform us about the neurobiology of ADHD. Converging evidence from genetic, psychopharmacological and functional neuroimaging studies has implicated dopaminergic fronto-striatal circuitry in ADHD. However, while the observation of converging evidence from multiple vantage points…

  10. The Challenge of Teaching Psychopharmacology in the New Millennium: The Role of Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Ira D.; Zisook, Sidney

    2005-01-01

    Objective: For a variety of pedagogical, political and financial reasons, there are major problems in achieving effective teaching of cutting-edge psychopharmacology for psychiatric residents. This article focuses on ways to improve the teaching/learning process, in part through the use of structured curricula. The authors review 1) attempted…

  11. Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology in the New Millennium: A Workshop for Academia, Industry, and Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deveaugh-Geiss, Joseph; March, John; Shapiro, Mark; Andreason, Paul J.; Emslie, Graham; Ford, Lisa M.; Greenhill, Laurence; Murphy, Dianne; Prentice, Ernest; Roberts, Rosemary; Silva, Susan; Swanson, James M.; van Zwieten-Boot, Barbara; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Mangum, Barry

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To give academic researchers, government officials, and industry scientists an opportunity to assess the state of pediatric psychopharmacology and identify challenges facing professionals in the field. Method: Increased federal spending and the introduction of pediatric exclusivity led to large increases in pediatric psychopharmacology…

  12. Comparison of Increasingly Detailed Elicitation Methods for the Assessment of Adverse Events in Pediatric Psychopharmacology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhill, Laurence L.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Fisher, Prudence; Levine, Jerome; Davies, Mark; Abikoff, Howard; Chrisman, Allan K.; Chuang, Shirley; Findling, Robert L.; March, John; Scahill, Lawrence; Walkup, John; Riddle, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To improve the gathering of adverse events (AEs) in pediatric psychopharmacology by examining the value and acceptability of increasingly detailed elicitation methods. Method: Trained clinicians administered the Safety Monitoring Uniform Report Form (SMURF) to 59 parents and outpatients (mean age [+ or -] SD = 11.9 [+ or -] 3.2 years)…

  13. Guidelines, Algorithms, and Evidence-Based Psychopharmacology Training for Psychiatric Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osser, David N.; Patterson, Robert D.; Levitt, James J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe a course of instruction for psychiatry residents that attempts to provide the cognitive and informational tools necessary to make scientifically grounded decision making a routine part of clinical practice. Methods: In weekly meetings over two academic years, the course covers the psychopharmacology of various…

  14. Psychopharmacology Training and Canadian Counsellors: Are We Getting What We Want and Need?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, David; Wong-Wylie, Gina

    2008-01-01

    The psychopharmacology training experiences and attitudes of Canadian counsellors were the focus of our national Internet-based survey. This study was part of a larger investigation on Canadian counsellors' attitudes, practices, and training experiences related to clients on antidepressants. Results of the current study indicate Canadian…

  15. The Role of the Pharmaceutical Industry in Teaching Psychopharmacology: A Growing Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodkey, Amy C.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe and examine the role of the pharmaceutical industry in the teaching of psychopharmacology to residents and medical students and to make recommendations for changes in curriculum and policy based on these findings. METHODS: Literature reviews and discussions with experts, educators, and trainees. RESULTS: The pharmaceutical…

  16. Psychopharmacology for Children and Adolescents: Commentary on Current Issues and Future Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochwill, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    Notes that biological interventions have been relatively neglected within field of school psychology in terms of its professional training, research agendas, and professional relationships with other specialties within psychology. Responds to previous articles in this special miniseries on psychopharmacology with children and adolescents, and…

  17. Pediatric Psychopharmacology and Prescription Privileges: Implications and Opportunities for School Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiszyn, Tom

    1994-01-01

    Reviews literature on pediatric psychopharmacology practice, lack of empirical support for efficacy and safety of most psychotropics for pediatric use, and need for further basic and clinical trials research and evaluation. Identifies shortcomings in training and experience that must be addressed if school psychology is to meet demands of three…

  18. Mental Health Issues among College Students: Who Gets Referred for Psychopharmacology Evaluation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirsch, Daniel J.; Doerfler, Leonard A.; Truong, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe diagnostic and psychotropic medication prescription characteristics among college students referred by college counseling centers for psychopharmacologic evaluation. Participants: Participants were 540 college students referred by 6 college counseling centers in Massachusetts between November 2005 and May 2011. Methods:…

  19. Current Practices and Future Directions in Psychopharmacological Training and Collaboration in School Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulkowski, Michael L.; Jordan, Cary; Nguyen, Matthew L.

    2009-01-01

    School psychologists frequently examine children who are prescribed psychotropic medications. With advanced training in psychological assessment and professional consultation, school psychologists may play an integral role in assisting with children's psychopharmacological treatment regimens. In this vein, this article discusses various ways for…

  20. The Formal Instruction of Psychopharmacology in CACREP-Accredited Counselor Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sepulveda, Victoria I.

    2011-01-01

    Counseling professionals and researchers have advocated for counselor training in psychopharmacology in order to heighten counselors' awareness of client needs and treatment standards (Ingersoll, 2000; King & Anderson, 2004; Smith & Garcia, 2003). There has been a lack of this training within counselor education graduate programs (Buelow, Hebert,…

  1. Psychopharmacologic treatment of dissociative fugue and PTSD in an Ethiopian refugee.

    PubMed

    Liu-Barbaro, Dorothy; Stein, Murray

    2015-07-01

    Despite widespread awareness of their frequent co-occurrence, little is known about treatment of individuals with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative disorders. Patients with dissociative disorders do not respond well to standard exposure therapy, and few psychopharmacologic trials exist. Fluoxetine proved ineffective for depersonalization disorder, but paroxetine showed efficacy in decreasing dissociative symptoms in PTSD patients. PMID:26115334

  2. Psychopharmacological Treatment Options for Global Child and Adolescent Mental Health: The WHO Essential Medicines Lists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutcher, Stan; Murphy, Andrea; Gardner, David

    2008-01-01

    The article examines the World Health Organization's Model List of Essential Medicines (EML) and suggests modification for appropriate psychopharmacological treatment of child- and adolescent-onset mental disorders. The EML enlists few of the psychotropic medicines that are useful for the treatment of young people thereby limiting the…

  3. Assessment of various psychopharmacological combinations in the treatment of presenile and senile primary degenerative dementia.

    PubMed

    Tudorache, B; Lupulescu, R; Duţan, I; Sârbulescu, A

    1990-01-01

    The effects of various psychopharmacological combinations were used in a sample of 90 patient fulfilling the DMS-III criteria for presenile or senile primary degenerative dementia divided into 3 equal subgroups. Regardless of the drug combination used, an improvement of verbal test performances was noticed. PMID:2100154

  4. Off-Label Prescription of Psychopharmacological Drugs in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Braüner, Julie Vestergaard; Johansen, Lily Manzello; Roesbjerg, Troels; Pagsberg, Anne Katrine

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to describe the frequency of off-label prescriptions of psychopharmacological drugs in a child and adolescent psychiatric setting. A cross-sectional study was conducted on November 1, 2014, including all inpatients and outpatients at the Mental Health Centre for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Capital Region of Denmark, aged 0 to 17 years receiving medical treatment with antidepressants, antipsychotic agents, benzodiazepines, melatonin and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication. We included a total of 5555 prescriptions representing 2932 patients. The main findings were that 32.3% of all prescriptions were off-label, and 41.6% of subjects received at least 1 off-label prescription. The most frequent off-label category was low age, 72.2%, meaning that the drug was not approved for the age group of the patient. The off-label rates for each drug class were as follows: melatonin, 100%; antipsychotic agents, 95.6%; benzodiazepines, 72.5%; antidepressants, 51.1%; and ADHD medication, 2.7%. Prescription of 2 or more psychopharmacological drugs per patient was common (31.5%). The group of subjects with 4 or more prescriptions (n = 36) was characterized by a higher frequency of inpatients, older age, and a different distribution of diagnoses. This study found a frequent use of off-label prescriptions when treating children and adolescents with psychopharmacological drugs other than ADHD medication. In addition, prescription of more than 1 psychotropic drug is common. These findings support the need for extending the evidence base for psychopharmacologic treatment in children and adolescents. PMID:27529772

  5. Does psychopharmacology training enhance the knowledge of mental health nurses who prescribe?

    PubMed

    Jones, M; Robson, D; Whitfield, S; Gray, R

    2010-11-01

    The implementation of Mental Health Nurse (MHN) prescribing in the UK remains disappointing. A much cited critique of MHNs prescribing is that it would be unsafe, as MHN would not have the appropriate knowledge of pharmacology to practise mental health prescribing. The knowledge of pharmacology of MHNs with the prescribing qualification has not been assessed in the UK. In addition, the views of MHNs with the prescribing qualification who have undertaken a psychopharmacology course have not been explored. The aims of this study are to measure the efficacy of a 10-day advanced training programme on psychopharmacology on the knowledge levels of MHNs with the prescribing qualification; and to explore the positive and negative experiences of individual participants of the training in psychopharmacology and how it supported their prescribing practice. A repeated measures design was used in which participants acted as their own controls. Participants were assessed 10 weeks before the training programme and again on day one of the training programme using a Multiple Choice Questionnaire. In addition, a series of focus groups were conducted to explore the helpful and unhelpful aspects of the course in sustaining the MHNs' prescribing practice. Following the training period there were significant increases in the MHNs' knowledge of psychopharmacology in comparison with the two base line means. Participants when interviewed 18 months after completing the training described the training as a helpful though they described it had not resulted in large increases in prescribing practice, citing systemic barriers to its implementation. Short and focussed training for MHNs who prescribe may increase their knowledge of psychopharmacology. The development of such programmes may well be part of the solution to support MHNs with the prescribing qualification to prescribe, supported by the views of the MHNs who participated in the focus groups. However, further work is required to remove

  6. 'Is getting well ever an art?': Psychopharmacology and madness in Robert Lowell's Day by Day.

    PubMed

    Travis, Isabelle

    2011-12-01

    On the publication of Robert Lowell's Life Studies in 1959, some critics were shocked by the poet's use of seemingly frank autobiographical material, in particular the portrayal of his hospitalizations for bipolar disorder. During the late fifties and throughout the sixties, a rich vein, influenced by Lowell, developed in American poetry. Also during this time, the nascent science of psychopharmacology competed with and complemented the more established somatic treatments, such as psychosurgery, shock treatments, and psychoanalytical therapies. The development of Thorazine was a remarkable breakthrough allowing patients previously thought incurable to leave hospital. In 1955, the release of Miltown, the first 'minor' tranquilizer, was heralded with a media fanfare promising a new dawn of psychological cure-all. These two events blurred the boundary between 'normality' and madness by making treatment in the community more widely possible and by medicalizing more commonplace distress. Lowell's early depictions of madness situate it as emblematic of the cultural malaise of 'the tranquilized fifties.' By his final collection, Day by Day (1977), mental illness had lost its symbolic power. These late poems explore the power of art as a way of representing and remedying suffering in a culture where psychopharmacology has normalized madness. PMID:21853380

  7. Pediatric psychopharmacological research in the post EU regulation 1901/2006 era.

    PubMed

    Schmäl, Christine; Becker, Katja; Berg, Ruth; Brünger, Michael; Lehmkuhl, Gerd; Oehler, Klaus-Ulrich; Ruppert, Thorsten; Staudter, Claus; Trott, Götz-Erik; Dittmann, Ralf W

    2014-11-01

    Although the use of psychotropic medications in child and adolescent psychiatry in Germany is on the increase, most compounds are in fact prescribed "off-label" because of a lack of regulatory approval in these age groups. In 2007, the European Parliament introduced Regulation 1901/2006 concerning medicinal products in pediatric populations, with a subsequent amendment in the form of Regulation 1902/2006. The main aim of this legislation was to encourage research and clinical trials in children and adolescents, and thus promote the availability of medications with marketing authorization for these age groups. Furthermore, initiatives such as the European 7th Framework Program of the European Union now offer substantial funding for pediatric pharmacological research. At a recent Congress of the German Society for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy (DGKJP), experts from the field and the pharmaceutical industry held a symposium with lay representatives in order to discuss attitudes toward, and experience with, pediatric psychopharmacology research in Germany since 2007. Several areas of concern were identified. The present paper derives from that symposium and provides an overview of these opinions, which remain crucial to the field. A wider discussion of how to facilitate psychopharmacological research in Germany in order to optimize the treatment and welfare of children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders is now warranted. PMID:25335522

  8. [Critical flicker fusion frequency in psychopathology and psychopharmacology. Review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Bobon, D P; Lecoq, A; von Frenckell, R; Mormont, I; Lavergne, G; Lottin, T

    1982-01-01

    As far back as the second century, Ptolemy reported the apparent immobility of wheel radius at a certain speed. The psychophysical laws of this flicker fusion phenomenon related to the frequency of the light stimulus were established in 1834-1835 by the Englishman Talbot and by the Belgian Plateau, whose thesis in Liège is described as a landmark in the field. CFF is more a measurement of cortical arousal than of visual functions. In psychophysiology, CFF underwent periods of success and oblivion, at the mercy of researcher's enthusiasm or disappointment. At the turn of this century, Pierre Janet measured CFF in the laboratory of physiology of the Salpêtrière Hospital and demonstrated its decrease 'in hysteria, in states of depression, of lowered tension'. All reviewers of CFF literature have overlooked these observations, reported by Henri Piéron in the 'Melanges dedicated to Monsieur Pierre Janet'. When CFF falls into disgrace, it is because of the variability of its results, due to differences in apparatus and designs of the trials as well as the great number and the intrication of the variables which modify CFF thresholds, among them the nonsensory variables. When CFF is reappraised, as it has been the case in psychopharmacology in recent years, the reason is that it represents a brief, easy and economical measure of vigilance which, under certain conditions, seems to be also reliable, valid and sensitive. In the present monograph, the first in French on CFF, the authors try to analyze the most important contributions of the literature from the standpoint of the most relevant variables: characteristics of the stimulus (light intensity, wave form, wavelength, light-dark-ratio, diameter of the flickering point), test procedure (light vs. dark adaptation, visual angle, continuous vs. discontinuous presentation, monocular vs. binocular vision), influence of various physiological or psychological conditions (pupillary diameter, age, training, IQ; anxiety

  9. Ahead of the game: the use of gaming to enhance knowledge of psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Beek, Terra S; Boone, Cheryl; Hubbard, Grace

    2014-12-01

    Experiential teaching strategies have the potential to more effectively help students with critical thinking than traditional lecture formats. Gaming is an experiential teaching-learning strategy that reinforces teamwork, interaction, and enjoyment and introduces the element of play. Two Bachelor of Science in Nursing students and a clinical instructor created a Jeopardy!(®)-style game to enhance understanding of psychopharmacology, foster student engagement in the learning process, and promote student enjoyment during clinical postconference. The current article evaluates the utility, relevance, and effectiveness of gaming using a Jeopardy!(®)-style format for the psychiatric clinical setting. Students identified the strengths of this learning activity as increased awareness of knowledge deficits, as well as the reinforcement of existing knowledge and the value of teamwork. PMID:25207557

  10. Is the efficacy of psychopharmacological drugs comparable to the efficacy of general medicine medication?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate concerning the risk benefit ratio of psychopharmacologic compounds. With respect to the benefit, recent reports and meta-analyses note only small effect sizes with comparably high placebo response rates in the psychiatric field. These reports together with others lead to a wider, general critique on psychotropic drugs in the scientific community and in the lay press. In a recently published article, Leucht and his colleagues compare the efficacy of psychotropic drugs with the efficacy of common general medicine drugs in different indications according to results from reviewed meta-analyses. The authors conclude that, overall, the psychiatric drugs were generally not less effective than most other medical drugs. This article will highlight some of the results of this systematic review and discuss the limitations and the impact of this important approach on the above mentioned debate. PMID:22335858

  11. Psychopharmacological treatments in persons with dual diagnosis of psychiatric disorders and developmental disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Antochi, R; Stavrakaki, C; Emery, P

    2003-01-01

    People with developmental disabilities are at considerable risk for the development of comorbid psychiatric conditions. Psychopharmacological treatments may have a crucial role in a multidisciplinary and multimodal approach to the management of psychopathology in this population. Psychiatric illnesses that are particularly amenable include mood disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHDs) and antidepressants, mood stabilisers, anxiolytics, antipsychotics, and stimulants should be considered, respectively. ADHD may also respond to α2-agonists. Psychotropic agents such as ß-antagonists can target aggressive, self injurious, and stereotypical behaviours and opioid antagonists may be helpful in treating self injurious behaviour and stereotypy. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, newer anticonvulsants, and atypical neuroleptics are preferred when treating psychiatric disorders among people with developmental disabilities. This paper will review the major studies of pharmacological treatment of mental illness in individuals with developmental disabilities. PMID:12697912

  12. Herbal medicine for depression, anxiety and insomnia: a review of psychopharmacology and clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; Panossian, Alexander; Schweitzer, Isaac; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has increased markedly over the past decades. To date however, a comprehensive review of herbal antidepressant, anxiolytic and hypnotic psychopharmacology and applications in depression, anxiety and insomnia has been absent. A search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to February 21st 2011) on commonly used psychotropic herbal medicines. A review of the literature was conducted to ascertain mechanisms of action of these botanicals, in addition to a systematic review of controlled clinical trials for treatment of mood, anxiety and sleep disorders, which are common comorbid psychiatric disorders. Specific emphasis was given to emerging phytomedicines. Analysis of evidence levels was conducted, as were effect sizes (Cohen's d) where data were available. Results provided evidence of a range of neurochemical, endocrinological, and epigenetic effects for 21 individual phytomedicines, which are detailed in this paper. Sixty six controlled studies were located involving eleven phytomedicines. Several of these provide a high level of evidence, such as Hypericum perforatum for major depression, and Piper methysticum for anxiety disorders. Several human clinical trials provide preliminary positive evidence of antidepressant effects (Echium amoenum, Crocus sativus, and Rhodiola rosea) and anxiolytic activity (Matricaria recutita, Ginkgo biloba, Passiflora incanata, E. amoenum, and Scutellaria lateriflora). Caution should however be taken when interpreting the results as many studies have not been replicated. Several herbal medicines with in vitro and in vivo evidence are currently unexplored in human studies, and along with use of emerging genetic technologies "herbomics", are areas of potential future research. PMID:21601431

  13. Changes in Clinical Trials Methodology Over Time: A Systematic Review of Six Decades of Research in Psychopharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Brunoni, André R.; Tadini, Laura; Fregni, Felipe

    2010-01-01

    Background There have been many changes in clinical trials methodology since the introduction of lithium and the beginning of the modern era of psychopharmacology in 1949. The nature and importance of these changes have not been fully addressed to date. As methodological flaws in trials can lead to false-negative or false-positive results, the objective of our study was to evaluate the impact of methodological changes in psychopharmacology clinical research over the past 60 years. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a systematic review from 1949 to 2009 on MEDLINE and Web of Science electronic databases, and a hand search of high impact journals on studies of seven major drugs (chlorpromazine, clozapine, risperidone, lithium, fluoxetine and lamotrigine). All controlled studies published 100 months after the first trial were included. Ninety-one studies met our inclusion criteria. We analyzed the major changes in abstract reporting, study design, participants' assessment and enrollment, methodology and statistical analysis. Our results showed that the methodology of psychiatric clinical trials changed substantially, with quality gains in abstract reporting, results reporting, and statistical methodology. Recent trials use more informed consent, periods of washout, intention-to-treat approach and parametric tests. Placebo use remains high and unchanged over time. Conclusions/Significance Clinical trial quality of psychopharmacological studies has changed significantly in most of the aspects we analyzed. There was significant improvement in quality reporting and internal validity. These changes have increased study efficiency; however, there is room for improvement in some aspects such as rating scales, diagnostic criteria and better trial reporting. Therefore, despite the advancements observed, there are still several areas that can be improved in psychopharmacology clinical trials. PMID:20209133

  14. Reassessing the cultural and psychopharmacological significance of Banisteriopsis caapi: preparation, classification and use among the Piaroa of Southern Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Rodd, Robin

    2008-09-01

    Recent attention to the monoamine oxidase inhibiting properties of Banisteriopsis caapi's harmala alkaloids has precluded a balanced assessment of B. caapi's overall significance to indigenous South American societies. Relatively little attention has been paid to the cultural contexts, local meanings and patterns of use of B. caapi among snuff-using societies, such as the Piaroa, who do not prepare decoctions containing N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) admixtures. This article reviews the psychopharmacological literature on B. caapi in light of recent ethnographic work conducted among the Piaroa of southern Venezuela. Piaroa shamans use only B. caapi's cambium, identify at least five distinct varieties of B. caapi, and emphasise the plant's importance for heightening empathy. Some Piaroa people also attribute a range of extra-shamanic uses to B. caapi, including as a stimulant and hunting aid. In light of the psychopharmacological complexity of harmala alkaloids, and ethnographic evidence for a wide range of B. caapi uses,future research should reconsider B. caapi's cultural heritage and psychopharmacological potential as a stimulant and antidepressant-like substance. PMID:19004422

  15. State of the art psychopharmacological treatment options in seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Mesut; Batmaz, Sedat; Songur, Emrah; Oral, Esat Timuçin

    2016-03-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is defined as a subtype of mood disorders in DSM 5, and it is characterized by a seasonal onset. SAD is proposed to be related to the seasonal changes in naturally occurring light, and the use of bright light therapy for depressive symptoms has been shown to reduce them in placebo controlled trials. Cognitive behavioral therapy has also been demonstrated to be effective in SAD. This review article aims to focus on the psychopharmacological treatment options for SAD. According to clinical trial results, first line treatment options seem to be sertraline and fluoxetine, and are well tolerated by the patients. There is some evidence that other antidepressants (e.g. bupropion) might be effective as well. Although clinical trials have shown that some of these antidepressants may be of benefit, a recent review has concluded that there is not enough evidence to support the use of any of these agents for the treatment of SAD yet. Moreover, more studies are still needed to evaluate the effectiveness of other treatment options, e.g., propranolol, melatonin, hypericum, etc. In addition to the above proposed treatments, patients with seasonal depressive symptoms should thoroughly be evaluated for any cues of bipolarity, and their treatment should be planned accordingly. PMID:26938817

  16. The Psychopharmacology Algorithm Project at the Harvard South Shore Program: An Algorithm for Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

    PubMed

    Abejuela, Harmony Raylen; Osser, David N

    2016-01-01

    This revision of previous algorithms for the pharmacotherapy of generalized anxiety disorder was developed by the Psychopharmacology Algorithm Project at the Harvard South Shore Program. Algorithms from 1999 and 2010 and associated references were reevaluated. Newer studies and reviews published from 2008-14 were obtained from PubMed and analyzed with a focus on their potential to justify changes in the recommendations. Exceptions to the main algorithm for special patient populations, such as women of childbearing potential, pregnant women, the elderly, and those with common medical and psychiatric comorbidities, were considered. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are still the basic first-line medication. Early alternatives include duloxetine, buspirone, hydroxyzine, pregabalin, or bupropion, in that order. If response is inadequate, then the second recommendation is to try a different SSRI. Additional alternatives now include benzodiazepines, venlafaxine, kava, and agomelatine. If the response to the second SSRI is unsatisfactory, then the recommendation is to try a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI). Other alternatives to SSRIs and SNRIs for treatment-resistant or treatment-intolerant patients include tricyclic antidepressants, second-generation antipsychotics, and valproate. This revision of the GAD algorithm responds to issues raised by new treatments under development (such as pregabalin) and organizes the evidence systematically for practical clinical application. PMID:27384395

  17. Involvement of the endogenous opioid system in the psychopharmacological actions of ethanol: the role of acetaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Font, Laura; Luján, Miguel Á.; Pastor, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    Significant evidence implicates the endogenous opioid system (EOS) (opioid peptides and receptors) in the mechanisms underlying the psychopharmacological effects of ethanol. Ethanol modulates opioidergic signaling and function at different levels, including biosynthesis, release, and degradation of opioid peptides, as well as binding of endogenous ligands to opioid receptors. The role of β-endorphin and µ-opioid receptors (OR) have been suggested to be of particular importance in mediating some of the behavioral effects of ethanol, including psychomotor stimulation and sensitization, consumption and conditioned place preference (CPP). Ethanol increases the release of β-endorphin from the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (NArc), which can modulate activity of other neurotransmitter systems such as mesolimbic dopamine (DA). The precise mechanism by which ethanol induces a release of β-endorphin, thereby inducing behavioral responses, remains to be elucidated. The present review summarizes accumulative data suggesting that the first metabolite of ethanol, the psychoactive compound acetaldehyde, could participate in such mechanism. Two lines of research involving acetaldehyde are reviewed: (1) implications of the formation of acetaldehyde in brain areas such as the NArc, with high expression of ethanol metabolizing enzymes and presence of cell bodies of endorphinic neurons and (2) the formation of condensation products between DA and acetaldehyde such as salsolinol, which exerts its actions via OR. PMID:23914161

  18. The psychopharmacology algorithm project at the Harvard South Shore Program: an algorithm for acute mania.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Othman; Osser, David N

    2014-01-01

    This new algorithm for the pharmacotherapy of acute mania was developed by the Psychopharmacology Algorithm Project at the Harvard South Shore Program. The authors conducted a literature search in PubMed and reviewed key studies, other algorithms and guidelines, and their references. Treatments were prioritized considering three main considerations: (1) effectiveness in treating the current episode, (2) preventing potential relapses to depression, and (3) minimizing side effects over the short and long term. The algorithm presupposes that clinicians have made an accurate diagnosis, decided how to manage contributing medical causes (including substance misuse), discontinued antidepressants, and considered the patient's childbearing potential. We propose different algorithms for mixed and nonmixed mania. Patients with mixed mania may be treated first with a second-generation antipsychotic, of which the first choice is quetiapine because of its greater efficacy for depressive symptoms and episodes in bipolar disorder. Valproate and then either lithium or carbamazepine may be added. For nonmixed mania, lithium is the first-line recommendation. A second-generation antipsychotic can be added. Again, quetiapine is favored, but if quetiapine is unacceptable, risperidone is the next choice. Olanzapine is not considered a first-line treatment due to its long-term side effects, but it could be second-line. If the patient, whether mixed or nonmixed, is still refractory to the above medications, then depending on what has already been tried, consider carbamazepine, haloperidol, olanzapine, risperidone, and valproate first tier; aripiprazole, asenapine, and ziprasidone second tier; and clozapine third tier (because of its weaker evidence base and greater side effects). Electroconvulsive therapy may be considered at any point in the algorithm if the patient has a history of positive response or is intolerant of medications. PMID:25188733

  19. Psychopharmacological properties of an aqueous extract of Tetracarpidium conophorum Hutch. & Dalziel in mice.

    PubMed

    Aladeokin, Aderemi C; Umukoro, Solomon

    2011-07-01

    The extract of the nut of Tetracarpidium conophorum (TC), commonly known as African walnut, is widely used to relieve pain, increase sperm count, enhance sexual performance in males and as a nerve tonic in ethnomedicine. This study describes the psychopharmacological properties of the aqueous extract of the nut of TC in mice. The spectrum of activities studied were the effects of TC on the duration of immobility in the forced swim test of the behavioural despair model of depression; prolongation of the duration of sleep produced by thiopentone; amphetamine-induced stereotyped behaviour; and on pain episodes produced by acetic acid and by formalin. Orally administered TC (50-200 mg/kg) produced a significant and dose-related decrease in the duration of immobility in the forced swim test in mice. TC also exhibited analgesic property, as shown by its ability to reduce the frequency of abdominal constrictions induced by acetic acid and to inhibit the nociceptive responses produced by formalin. However, at the tested oral doses of 50-200 mg/kg, TC did not prolong the duration of sleep produced by thiopentone nor alter the pattern of the stereotyped behaviour induced by amphetamine. This investigation provides evidence that may support the ethnomedicinal applications of the extract of the nut of TC in the treatment of pain. The study also revealed that TC seems to demonstrate antidepressant-like activity, as evidenced by its ability to shorten the period of immobility in the forced swim test; however, further studies are necessary to clearly define the role of TC in depression. PMID:21327522

  20. Investigation of serotonin-1A receptor function in the human psychopharmacology of MDMA.

    PubMed

    Hasler, F; Studerus, E; Lindner, K; Ludewig, S; Vollenweider, F X

    2009-11-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) release is the primary pharmacological mechanism of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') action in the primate brain. Dopamine release and direct stimulation of dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors also contributes to the overall action of MDMA. The role of 5-HT1A receptors in the human psychopharmacology of MDMA, however, has not yet been elucidated. In order to reveal the consequences of manipulation at the 5-HT1A receptor system on cognitive and subjective effects of MDMA, a receptor blocking study using the mixed beta-adrenoreceptor blocker/5-HT1A antagonist pindolol was performed. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subject design, 15 healthy male subjects were examined under placebo (PL), 20 mg pindolol (PIN), MDMA (1.6 mg/kg b.wt.), MDMA following pre-treatment with pindolol (PIN-MDMA). Tasks from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery were used for the assessment of cognitive performance. Psychometric questionnaires were applied to measure effects of treatment on core dimensions of Altered States of Consciousness, mood and state anxiety. Compared with PL, MDMA significantly impaired sustained attention and visual-spatial memory, but did not affect executive functions. Pre-treatment with PIN did not significantly alter MDMA-induced impairment of cognitive performance and only exerted a minor modulating effect on two psychometric scales affected by MDMA treatment ('positive derealization' and 'dreaminess'). Our findings suggest that MDMA differentially affects higher cognitive functions, but does not support the hypothesis from animal studies, that some of the MDMA effects are causally mediated through action at the 5-HT1A receptor system. PMID:18635693

  1. Clinical practice with anti-dementia drugs: a consensus statement from British Association for Psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Burns, Alistair; O'Brien, John; Auriacombe, Sophie; Ballard, Clive; Broich, Karl; Bullock, Roger; Feldman, Howard; Ford, Gary; Knapp, Martin; McCaddon, Andrew; Iliffe, Steve; Jacova, Claudia; Jones, Roy; Lennon, Sean; McKeith, Ian; Orgogozo, Jean-Marc; Purandare, Nitin; Richardson, Mervyn; Ritchie, Craig; Thomas, Alan; Warner, James; Wilcock, Gordon; Wilkinson, David

    2006-11-01

    The British Association for Psychopharmacology (BAP) coordinated a meeting of experts to review the evidence on the drug treatment for dementia. The level of evidence (types) was rated using a standard system: Types 1a and 1b (evidence from meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials or at least one controlled trial respectively); types 2a and 2b (one well-designed study or one other type of quasi experimental study respectively); type 3 (non-experimental descriptive studies); and type 4 (expert opinion). There is type 1a evidence for cholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil, rivastigmine and galantamine) for mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease; memantine for moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease; and for the use of bright light therapy and aromatherapy. There is type 1a evidence of no effect of anti inflammatory drugs or statins. There is conflicting evidence regarding oestrogens, with type 2a evidence of a protective effect of oestrogens but 1b evidence of a harmful effect. Type 1a evidence for any effect of B12 and folate will be forthcoming when current trials report. There is type 1b evidence for gingko biloba in producing a modest benefit of cognitive function; cholinesterase inhibitors for the treatment of people with Lewy body disease (particularly neuropsychiatric symptoms); cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine in treatment cognitive impairment associated with vascular dementia; and the effect of metal collating agents (although these should not be prescribed until more data on safety and efficacy are available). There is type 1b evidence to show that neither cholinesterase inhibitors nor vitamin E reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease in people with mild cognitive impairment; and there is no evidence that there is any intervention that can prevent the onset of dementia. There is type 1b evidence for the beneficial effects of adding memantine to cholinesterase inhibitors, and type 2b evidence of positive switching outcomes from one

  2. Receptor and transporter imaging studies in schizophrenia, depression, bulimia and Tourette's disorder--implications for psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Siegfried; Tauscher, Johannes; Willeit, Matthäus; Stamenkovic, Mara; Neumeister, Alexander; Küfferle, Bernd; Barnas, Christian; Stastny, Jürgen; Praschak-Rieder, Nicole; Pezawas, Lukas; de Zwaan, Martina; Quiner, Sylvia; Pirker, Walter; Asenbaum, Susanne; Podreka, Ivo; Brücke, Thomas

    2002-07-01

    significantly decreased the beta-CIT binding potential, however, no significant dose relationship has been obtained in depression. Genotyping depressed patients for the serotonin transporter promoter gene region (5-HTTLPR) did not provide evidence for in vivo functional regulation of 5-HTT availability by 5-HTTLPR in the thalamus-hypothalamus and mesencephalon-pons of healthy subjects. In patients suffering from Tourette's disorder (TD) we were unable to detect differences of dopamine transporter densities between psychotropic drug-naïve TD patients and controls. Furthermore, no difference could be found between currently treated (with antipsychotics) and psychotropic drug-naïve TD patients. Our data provide insight into the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders and may guide future psychopharmacological drug developments. PMID:12478878

  3. [Review of psychopharmacological treatments in adolescents and adults with autistic disorders].

    PubMed

    Baghdadli, A; Gonnier, V; Aussilloux, C

    2002-01-01

    Autism is an early developmental disorder. It leads to severe and durable disturbances. Given this problem, no treatment can be excluded a priori. Thus, many approaches are used to deal with autistic disorders. In France, pharmacological treatments are, for instance, largely and mostly used in adults. In the USA, these treatments concern 50% of persons with autism of any age. Nevertheless, they are rarely based on controlled studies. At the present, however, prescriptions and expected effects appear to be hard to localize. Furthermore, only few controlled studies validate their use. Aim - We offer a review of studies about medical treatments used in adolescents and adults with autism. They are classified in 3 categories: the first (category I) includes drugs used for their neurochemical effects focusing on autistic signs. The second (category II) covers drugs used for treatment of behavioural disorders frequently associated with autism. The third (category III) corresponds to a wide range of drugs or vitamins for wich only few case studies exist reporting irregular positive effects. The main hypothesis of this review is that autism involves a dysfunction of the neuromediation systems. This hypothesis opens new perspectives in the research of medical treatments in autism by focusing on molecules, which are supposed to have an effect on neuromediation systems. Method - Our review is based on studies, which have been published during the past twenty years. For many studies, data are limited to adolescents and adults. So we expanded our review to data available in children. The data bases that we have used are medline and psyclit. Keywords have been chosen according to: pharmacological considerations (psychotropic, psychoactive drugs, psychopharmacology) and clinical symptoms (autism, automutilations, aggressive behavior, and hyperactivity). Hypothesis of a dysfunction in the neuromediation systems in autism - Many studies exist about biochemical abnormalities in

  4. Lights! Camera! Action Projects! Engaging Psychopharmacology Students in Service-based Action Projects Focusing on Student Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol abuse continues to be an issue of major concern for the health and well-being of college students. Estimates are that over 80% of college students are involved in the campus “alcohol culture.” Annually, close to 2000 students die in the United States due to alcohol-related accidents, with another 600,000 sustaining injury due to alcohol-related incidents (NIAAA, 2013). Students enrolled in a Psychopharmacology course engaged in action projects (community outreach) focused on alcohol abuse on our campus. Research has indicated that these types of projects can increase student engagement in course material and foster important skills, including working with peers and developing involvement in one’s community. This paper describes the structure and requirements of five student outreach projects and the final projects designed by the students, summarizes the grading and assessment of the projects, and discusses the rewards and challenges of incorporating such projects into a course. PMID:27385923

  5. Brain Functional Effects of Psychopharmacological Treatments in Schizophrenia: A Network-based Functional Perspective Beyond Neurotransmitter Systems

    PubMed Central

    De Rossi, Pietro; Chiapponi, Chiara; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    Psychopharmacological treatments for schizophrenia have always been a matter of debate and a very important issue in public health given the chronic, relapsing and disabling nature of the disorder. A thorough understanding of the pros and cons of currently available pharmacological treatments for schizophrenia is critical to better capture the features of treatment-refractory clinical pictures and plan the developing of new treatment strategies. This review focuses on brain functional changes induced by antipsychotic drugs as assessed by modern functional neuroimaging techniques (i.e. fMRI, PET, SPECT, MRI spectroscopy). The most important papers on this topic are reviewed in order to draw an ideal map of the main functional changes occurring in the brain during antipsychotic treatment. This supports the hypothesis that a network-based perspective and a functional connectivity approach are needed to fill the currently existing gap of knowledge in the field of psychotropic drugs and their mechanisms of action beyond neurotransmitter systems. PMID:26412063

  6. Brain Functional Effects of Psychopharmacological Treatments in Schizophrenia: A Network-based Functional Perspective Beyond Neurotransmitter Systems.

    PubMed

    De Rossi, Pietro; Chiapponi, Chiara; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    Psychopharmacological treatments for schizophrenia have always been a matter of debate and a very important issue in public health given the chronic, relapsing and disabling nature of the disorder. A thorough understanding of the pros and cons of currently available pharmacological treatments for schizophrenia is critical to better capture the features of treatment-refractory clinical pictures and plan the developing of new treatment strategies. This review focuses on brain functional changes induced by antipsychotic drugs as assessed by modern functional neuroimaging techniques (i.e. fMRI, PET, SPECT, MRI spectroscopy). The most important papers on this topic are reviewed in order to draw an ideal map of the main functional changes occurring in the brain during antipsychotic treatment. This supports the hypothesis that a network-based perspective and a functional connectivity approach are needed to fill the currently existing gap of knowledge in the field of psychotropic drugs and their mechanisms of action beyond neurotransmitter systems. PMID:26412063

  7. Lights! Camera! Action Projects! Engaging Psychopharmacology Students in Service-based Action Projects Focusing on Student Alcohol Abuse.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol abuse continues to be an issue of major concern for the health and well-being of college students. Estimates are that over 80% of college students are involved in the campus "alcohol culture." Annually, close to 2000 students die in the United States due to alcohol-related accidents, with another 600,000 sustaining injury due to alcohol-related incidents (NIAAA, 2013). Students enrolled in a Psychopharmacology course engaged in action projects (community outreach) focused on alcohol abuse on our campus. Research has indicated that these types of projects can increase student engagement in course material and foster important skills, including working with peers and developing involvement in one's community. This paper describes the structure and requirements of five student outreach projects and the final projects designed by the students, summarizes the grading and assessment of the projects, and discusses the rewards and challenges of incorporating such projects into a course. PMID:27385923

  8. The role of psychopharmacology in the medical abuses of the Third Reich: from euthanasia programmes to human experimentation.

    PubMed

    López-Muñoz, Francisco; Alamo, Cecilio; García-García, Pilar; Molina, Juan D; Rubio, Gabriel

    2008-12-16

    German psychiatry and pharmacology both enjoyed an extraordinary international reputation prior to the promulgation of the Third Reich. However, with the triumph of eugenic ideas and the imposition of a "racial hygiene" policy by the Nazi regime, various organs of the German health system saw themselves involved in a perverse system of social control, in which the illicit use of psychopharmacological tools became customary. In the present work, we review, from the historical perspective, the factors that helped to bring about this situation and we analyze the abuses (known and documented) committed through the specific use of psychotropic drugs during the Nazi period. Among such abuses we can identify the following illegitimate activities: the use of psychoactive drugs, mainly sedatives from the barbiturates family, in the different euthanasia programmes implemented by the Nazi authorities, in police activity and various types of repression, and for purely criminal and extermination purposes within the so-called "Final Solution"; psychopharmacological research on the mentally ill, without the slightest ethical requirements or legal justification; and the use of psychotropic agents in research on healthy subjects, recruited from concentration camps. Finally, we refer to the role of poisonous nerve agents (tabun, sarin and soman) as instruments of chemical warfare and their development by the German authorities. Many of these activities, though possibly only a small portion of the total - given the destruction of a great deal of documentation just before the end of World War II - came to light through the famous Nuremberg Trials, as well as through other trials in which specific persons were brought to justice unilaterally by individual Allied nations or by the authorities of the new German government after the War. PMID:18848972

  9. British Association for Psychopharmacology consensus statement on evidence-based treatment of insomnia, parasomnias and circadian rhythm disorders.

    PubMed

    Wilson, S J; Nutt, D J; Alford, C; Argyropoulos, S V; Baldwin, D S; Bateson, A N; Britton, T C; Crowe, C; Dijk, D-J; Espie, C A; Gringras, P; Hajak, G; Idzikowski, C; Krystal, A D; Nash, J R; Selsick, H; Sharpley, A L; Wade, A G

    2010-11-01

    Sleep disorders are common in the general population and even more so in clinical practice, yet are relatively poorly understood by doctors and other health care practitioners. These British Association for Psychopharmacology guidelines are designed to address this problem by providing an accessible up-to-date and evidence-based outline of the major issues, especially those relating to reliable diagnosis and appropriate treatment. A consensus meeting was held in London in May 2009. Those invited to attend included BAP members, representative clinicians with a strong interest in sleep disorders and recognized experts and advocates in the field, including a representative from mainland Europe and the USA. Presenters were asked to provide a review of the literature and identification of the standard of evidence in their area, with an emphasis on meta-analyses, systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials where available, plus updates on current clinical practice. Each presentation was followed by discussion, aimed to reach consensus where the evidence and/or clinical experience was considered adequate or otherwise to flag the area as a direction for future research. A draft of the proceedings was then circulated to all participants for comment. Key subsequent publications were added by the writer and speakers at draft stage. All comments were incorporated as far as possible in the final document, which represents the views of all participants although the authors take final responsibility for the document. PMID:20813762

  10. Evidence-based guidelines for treating bipolar disorder: revised third edition Recommendations from the British Association for Psychopharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, G.M.; Haddad, P. M.; Ferrier, I.N.; Aronson, J.K.; Barnes, T.R.H.; Cipriani, A.; Coghill, D.R.; Fazel, S.; Geddes, J.R.; Grunze, H.; Holmes, E.A.; Howes, O.; Hudson, S.; Hunt, N.; Jones, I.; Macmillan, I.C.; McAllister-Williams, H.; Miklowitz, D.M.; Morriss, R.; Munafò, M.; Paton, C.; Saharkian, B.J.; Saunders, K.E.A.; Sinclair, J.M.A.; Taylor, D.; Vieta, E.; Young, A.H.

    2016-01-01

    The British Association for Psychopharmacology guidelines specify the scope and targets of treatment for bipolar disorder. The third version is based explicitly on the available evidence and presented, like previous Clinical Practice Guidelines, as recommendations to aid clinical decision making for practitioners: it may also serve as a source of information for patients and carers, and assist audit. The recommendations are presented together with a more detailed review of the corresponding evidence. A consensus meeting, involving experts in bipolar disorder and its treatment, reviewed key areas and considered the strength of evidence and clinical implications. The guidelines were drawn up after extensive feedback from these participants. The best evidence from randomized controlled trials and, where available, observational studies employing quasi-experimental designs was used to evaluate treatment options. The strength of recommendations has been described using the GRADE approach. The guidelines cover the diagnosis of bipolar disorder, clinical management, and strategies for the use of medicines: in short-term treatment of episodes, relapse prevention and stopping treatment. The use of medication is integrated with a coherent approach to psychoeducation and behaviour change. PMID:26979387

  11. Evidence-based guidelines for treating bipolar disorder: Revised third edition recommendations from the British Association for Psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, G M; Haddad, P M; Ferrier, I N; Aronson, J K; Barnes, Trh; Cipriani, A; Coghill, D R; Fazel, S; Geddes, J R; Grunze, H; Holmes, E A; Howes, O; Hudson, S; Hunt, N; Jones, I; Macmillan, I C; McAllister-Williams, H; Miklowitz, D R; Morriss, R; Munafò, M; Paton, C; Saharkian, B J; Saunders, Kea; Sinclair, Jma; Taylor, D; Vieta, E; Young, A H

    2016-06-01

    The British Association for Psychopharmacology guidelines specify the scope and targets of treatment for bipolar disorder. The third version is based explicitly on the available evidence and presented, like previous Clinical Practice Guidelines, as recommendations to aid clinical decision making for practitioners: it may also serve as a source of information for patients and carers, and assist audit. The recommendations are presented together with a more detailed review of the corresponding evidence. A consensus meeting, involving experts in bipolar disorder and its treatment, reviewed key areas and considered the strength of evidence and clinical implications. The guidelines were drawn up after extensive feedback from these participants. The best evidence from randomized controlled trials and, where available, observational studies employing quasi-experimental designs was used to evaluate treatment options. The strength of recommendations has been described using the GRADE approach. The guidelines cover the diagnosis of bipolar disorder, clinical management, and strategies for the use of medicines in short-term treatment of episodes, relapse prevention and stopping treatment. The use of medication is integrated with a coherent approach to psychoeducation and behaviour change. PMID:26979387

  12. The interface between publicly funded and industry-funded research in pediatric psychopharmacology: opportunities for integration and collaboration.

    PubMed

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Heiligenstein, John H; Riddle, Mark A; Greenhill, Laurence L; Fegert, Jörg M

    2004-07-01

    Pediatric psychopharmacology research is undergoing a major expansion consequent to increasing use of psychotropic medications in children and recent legislative incentives to industry. In this rapidly changing context, the interface between publicly and privately funded research needs to be reconsidered to integrate activities and avoid unnecessary duplication of efforts. Once, by default, the almost exclusive domain of public research, child research is now increasingly funded by industry. There are, however, important issues unlikely to be addressed through private funding for which public support is needed, such as direct comparisons between active medications, between pharmacological and psychosocial interventions, or between combined and single treatment modalities; development of effective treatment strategies for patients unresponsive to first-line treatments; development of better research methods to assess efficacy and safety; identification of moderators and mechanisms of treatment response; and impact of treatment on illness course and prognosis. Industry-sponsored research is limited by the restricted access to proprietary databases, which impedes independent analyses and meta-analyses. Translation of basic neuroscience discoveries into treatment applications for children with mental illness is a critical area of inquiry that can benefit from integration of efforts and collaborations among academia, government, and industry. PMID:15219466

  13. The Psychopharmacology of ±3,4 Methylenedioxymethamphetamine and its Role in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Amoroso, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Prior to 1985, ±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) was readily used as a psychotherapeutic adjunct. As MDMA became popular in treating various psychiatric illnesses by mental health professionals, the public started to abuse the MDMA-containing recreational drug "ecstasy." This alarmed the DEA, which led to emergency scheduling of MDMA as a Schedule I drug. Due to its scheduling in 1985, human research and clinical use has been limited. The majority of research on MDMA has been focused on the drug's potential harmful effects rather than its possible therapeutic effects. The limitations on retrospective human studies and preclinical animal models of MDMA neurotoxicity are examined in this analysis. New research has shown that MDMA, used as a catalyst in psychotherapy, is effective in treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This review also examines the psychopharmacological basis for the efficacy of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy. Specifically, the brain regions involved with both PTSD and those activated by MDMA (i.e., amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, and hippocampus) are examined. Also, the possible neurochemical mechanisms involved in MDMA's efficacy in treating PTSD are reviewed. PMID:26579955

  14. CCNP Award Paper: Unveiling the role of melatonin MT2 receptors in sleep, anxiety and other neuropsychiatric diseases: a novel target in psychopharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Comai, Stefano; Gobbi, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    Background Melatonin (MLT) is a pleiotropic neurohormone controlling many physiological processes and whose dysfunction may contribute to several different diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases, circadian and mood disorders, insomnia, type 2 diabetes and pain. Melatonin is synthesized by the pineal gland during the night and acts through 2 G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), MT1 (MEL1a) and MT2 (MEL1b). Although a bulk of research has examined the physiopathological effects of MLT, few studies have investigated the selective role played by MT1 and MT2 receptors. Here we have reviewed current knowledge about the implications of MT2 receptors in brain functions. Methods We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar and articles reference lists for studies on MT2 receptor ligands in sleep, anxiety, neuropsychiatric diseases and psychopharmacology, including genetic studies on the MTNR1B gene, which encodes the melatonin MT2 receptor. Results These studies demonstrate that MT2 receptors are involved in the pathophysiology and pharmacology of sleep disorders, anxiety, depression, Alzheimer disease and pain and that selective MT2 receptor agonists show hypnotic and anxiolytic properties. Limitations Studies examining the role of MT2 receptors in psychopharmacology are still limited. Conclusion The development of novel selective MT2 receptor ligands, together with further preclinical in vivo studies, may clarify the role of this receptor in brain function and psychopharmacology. The superfamily of GPCRs has proven to be among the most successful drug targets and, consequently, MT2 receptors have great potential for pioneer drug discovery in the treatment of mental diseases for which limited therapeutic targets are currently available. PMID:23971978

  15. Clinical practice with anti-dementia drugs: a revised (second) consensus statement from the British Association for Psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, John T; Burns, Alistair

    2011-08-01

    The British Association for Psychopharmacology (BAP) coordinated a meeting of experts to review and revise its first (2006) Guidelines for clinical practice with anti-dementia drugs. As before, levels of evidence were rated using accepted standards which were then translated into grades of recommendation A to D, with A having the strongest evidence base (from randomized controlled trials) and D the weakest (case studies or expert opinion). Current clinical diagnostic criteria for dementia have sufficient accuracy to be applied in clinical practice (B) and brain imaging can improve diagnostic accuracy (B). Cholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine) are effective for mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (A) and memantine for moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (A). Until further evidence is available other drugs, including statins, anti-inflammatory drugs, vitamin E and Ginkgo biloba, cannot be recommended either for the treatment or prevention of Alzheimer's disease (A). Neither cholinesterase inhibitors nor memantine are effective in those with mild cognitive impairment (A). Cholinesterase inhibitors are not effective in frontotemporal dementia and may cause agitation (A), though selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors may help behavioural (but not cognitive) features (B). Cholinesterase inhibitors should be used for the treatment of people with Lewy body dementias (Parkinson's disease dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB)), especially for neuropsychiatric symptoms (A). Cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine can produce cognitive improvements in DLB (A). There is no clear evidence that any intervention can prevent or delay the onset of dementia. Although the consensus statement focuses on medication, psychological interventions can be effective in addition to pharmacotherapy, both for cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms. Many novel pharmacological approaches involving strategies to reduce amyloid and/or tau deposition are in

  16. A Pharmacovigilance Study in First Episode of Psychosis: Psychopharmacological Interventions and Safety Profiles in the PEPs Project

    PubMed Central

    Bioque, Miquel; Llerena, Adrián; Cabrera, Bibiana; Mezquida, Gisela; Lobo, Antonio; González-Pinto, Ana; Díaz-Caneja, Covadonga M.; Corripio, Iluminada; Aguilar, Eduardo J.; Bulbena, Antoni; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Vieta, Eduard; Lafuente, Amàlia; Mas, Sergi; Parellada, Mara; Saiz-Ruiz, Jerónimo; Cuesta, Manuel J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The characterization of the first episode of psychosis and how it should be treated are principal issues in actual research. Realistic, naturalistic studies are necessary to represent the entire population of first episode of psychosis attended in daily practice. Methods: Sixteen participating centers from the PEPs project recruited 335 first episode of psychosis patients, aged 7 to 35 years. This article describes and discusses the psychopharmacological interventions and safety profiles at baseline and during a 60-day pharmacovigilance period. Results: The majority of first episode of psychosis patients received a second-generation antipsychotic (96.3%), orally (95%), and in adjusted doses according to the product specifications (87.2%). A total of 24% were receiving an antipsychotic polytherapy pattern at baseline, frequently associated with lower or higher doses of antipsychotics than the recommended ones. Eight patients were taking clozapine, all in monotherapy. Males received higher doses of antipsychotic (P=.043). A total of 5.2% of the patients were being treated with long-acting injectable antipsychotics; 12.2% of the patients received anticholinergic drugs, 12.2% antidepressants, and 13.7% mood stabilizers, while almost 40% received benzodiazepines; and 35.52% reported at least one adverse drug reaction during the pharmacovigilance period, more frequently associated with higher antipsychotic doses and antipsychotic polytherapy (85.2% vs 45.5%, P<.001). Conclusions: These data indicate that the overall pharmacologic prescription for treating a first episode of psychosis in Spain follows the clinical practice guideline recommendations, and, together with security issues, support future research of determinate pharmacological strategies for the treatment of early phases of psychosis, such as the role of clozapine, long-acting injectable antipsychotics, antipsychotic combination, and the use of benzodiazepines. PMID:26506856

  17. Mood stabilizer psychopharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Todd D.; Chen, Guang; Manji, Husseini K.

    2012-01-01

    Mood stabilizers represent a class of drugs that are efficacious in the treatment of bipolar disorder. The most established medications in this class are lithium, valproic acid, and carbamazepine. In addition to their therapeutic effects for treatment of acute manic episodes, these medications often are useful as prophylaxis against future episodes and as adjunctive antidepressant medications. While important extracellular effects have not been excluded, most available evidence suggests that the therapeutically relevant targets of this class of medications are in the interior of cells. Herein we give a prospective of a rapidly evolving field, discussing common effects of mood stabilizers as well as effects that are unique to individual medications. Mood stabilizers have been shown to modulate the activity of enzymes, ion channels, arachidonic acid turnover, G protein coupled receptors and intracellular pathways involved in synaptic plasticity and neuroprotection. Understanding the therapeutic targets of mood stabilizers will undoubtedly lead to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder and to the development of improved therapeutics for the treatment of this disease. Furthermore, the involvement of mood stabilizers in pathways operative in neuroprotection suggests that they may have utility in the treatment of classical neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:22707923

  18. Serendipity and psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2010-10-01

    This article describes several examples where the development of drugs and devices for use in psychiatry followed from initial serendipitous observations. The potential psychotropic properties of chlorpromazine (Thorazine(®)) were first noted in surgical patients when the drug was being investigated as a potentiator of anesthesia. Similar findings were noted with iproniazid (Marsilid(®)), developed for the treatment of tuberculosis, and the drug was later released for clinical use as an antidepressant agent. The development of meprobamate (Miltown(®)), an approved treatment for anxiety, evolved from initial efforts to find a chemical that would inhibit the enzymatic destruction of the antibiotic drug penicillin. The psychiatric uses of lamotrigine (Lamictal(®)) and vagus nerve stimulation were prompted by initial observations that epilepsy patients receiving these treatments had positive mood effects. Nurses should be familiar with the concept of serendipity, as they often are in the best position to observe, record, and report on unexpected clinical effects in patients taking any kind of prescription or nonprescription medication. PMID:20873698

  19. Brain Peptides and Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arehart-Treichel, Joan

    1976-01-01

    Proteins isolated from the brain and used as drugs can improve and apparently even transfer mental states and behavior. Much of the pioneering work and recent research with humans and animals is reviewed and crucial questions that are being posed about the psychologically active peptides are related. (BT)

  20. Neuroimaging and Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Pliszka, Steve R.

    2005-01-01

    This review presents the most recent research concerning neuroimaging in developmental disabilities. Changes in structure and activation have been found in children with ADHD and learning disabilities, following intervention. For the children with learning disabilities changes in activation have been found following intensive behavioral and…

  1. Psychopharmacology in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Laura; Flood, Jillian; Phelps, LeAdelle

    2006-01-01

    Psychotropic medications prescribed frequently to children and adolescents for the treatment of anxiety, depression, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are reviewed. Pediatric pharmacological options based on double-blind, randomized studies are examined. We advocate that psychotropic medications be used only in conjunction with…

  2. Psychopharmacology of lycanthropy.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, W M; Wellwuff, H G; Garew, L; Kydd, O U

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop pharmacotherapies for the orphan disease lycanthropy through the pursuit of the etiologic hypothesis of a genetically determined hypersecretion of endogenous lycanthropogens. DESIGN: Quadruple-blind, Rubik's Cube matrix analysis. SETTING: Community practice and malpractice. PARTICIPANTS: Subjects selected from inbred Ruficolla populations in Mississippi, Georgia, North Carolina and Minnesota. All who entered the study finished it. INTERVENTIONS: Chemical screening of blood samples over a hypothesized secretory cycle of lycanthropogen peaking on the day of maximum lunar illumination. Administration of synthetic lycanthropogens for behavioural testing. Experimental lycosomatization through the illumination method of Kirschbaum. OUTCOME MEASURES: None were post hoc, but some are still in hock. MAIN RESULTS: Two putative lycanthropogens were isolated from the blood samples. Structural elucidation and synthesis permitted animal and clinical trials; in each of these, behavioural dysfunction was observed. Antilycanthropogen strategies included application of the principle of caged compounds and generation of a therapeutic immunoglobulin. The effects of a newly developed antihirsutic agent seemed promising. An interaction of the lycanthropogen-secretion system and ethanol was noted, which may explain behavioural aspects of alcoholism. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of lycomania in North America is underestimated. Soon-to-be-available pharmacotherapies should promote its early detection and treatment. Full control may depend upon advances in gene therapy. PMID:1555146

  3. Psychopharmacology and Bariatric Surgery.

    PubMed

    Roerig, James L; Steffen, Kristine

    2015-11-01

    Currently, it has been demonstrated that psychotropic drugs, particularly antidepressants, are frequently prescribed for patients who seek bariatric surgery. Many bariatric surgery patients have a history of a mood disorder. Unlike medications for diabetes, hypertension or hyperlipidemia, which are generally reduced and at times discontinued, postsurgery antidepressants use is only slightly reduced. The Roux-en-Y procedure is most frequently associated with alteration in drug exposure. Medication disintegration, dissolution, absorption, metabolism and excretion have been found to be altered in postbariatric patients, although data are sparse at this time. This paper will review the current evidence regarding the effect of bariatric surgery on drug treatment including mechanism of interference as well as the extent of changes identified to date. Data will be presented as controlled trials followed by case series and reports. PMID:26338011

  4. Data acquisition instruments: Psychopharmacology

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, D.S. III

    1998-01-01

    This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field of psychiatry, with the goal of identifying commonalities of data and strategies for handling and using the data in the most advantageous fashion. Data acquisition instruments from 12 sources were provided by Dr. Jobson. Several commonalities were identified and a potentially useful data strategy is reported here. Analysis of the information collected for utility in performing diagnoses is recommended. In addition, further work is recommended to refine the commonalities into a directly useful computer systems structure.

  5. Aggression: Psychopharmacologic Management

    PubMed Central

    Conlon, Patrick; Frommhold, Kristine

    1989-01-01

    Aggression may be part of a variety of psychiatric diagnoses. The appropriate treatment requires that the physician recognize the underlying cause. Pharmacologic agents may form part of the overall treatment of the patient. The number of possible drugs for treating aggression has expanded rapidly, and it is important that the physician be familiar with the various options avilable. PMID:21248947

  6. Introduction to the special issue: 50th anniversary of APA Division 28: The past, present, and future of psychopharmacology and substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Stoops, William W; Sigmon, Stacey C; Evans, Suzette M

    2016-08-01

    This is an introduction to the special issue "50th Anniversary of APA Division 28: The Past, Present, and Future of Psychopharmacology and Substance Abuse." Taken together, the scholarly contributions included in this special issue serve as a testament to the important work conducted by our colleagues over the past five decades. Division 28 and its members have advanced and disseminated knowledge on the behavioral effects of drugs, informed efforts to prevent and treat substance abuse, and influenced education and policy issues more generally. As past and current leaders of the division, we are excited to celebrate 50 years of Division 28 and look forward to many more successful decades for our division and its members. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454671

  7. A pilot study of actigraphy as an objective measure of SSRI activation symptoms; results from a randomized placebo controlled psychopharmacological treatment study

    PubMed Central

    Bussing, Regina; Reid, Adam M.; McNamara, Joseph P.H.; Meyer, Johanna M.; Guzick, Andrew G.; Mason, Dana M.; Storch, Eric A.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2015-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are an efficacious and effective treatment for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but have received scrutiny due to a potential side effect constellation called activation syndrome. While recent research introduced a subjective measure of activation syndrome, objective measures have not been tested. This pilot study, using data from a larger randomized-controlled trial, investigated the potential of actigraphy to provide an objective measure of activation symptoms in 44 youths with OCD beginning an SSRI medication regimen. Data were collected over the first four weeks of a multisite, parallel, double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled psychopharmacological treatment study and statistical modeling was utilized to test how activation syndrome severity predicts daily and nightly activity levels. Results indicated that youths with higher activation symptoms had lower daytime activity levels when treatment averages were analyzed; in contrast youths who experienced onset of activation symptoms one week were more likely to have higher daytime and night-time activity ratings that week. Results support actigraphy as a potential objective measure of activation symptoms. Subsequent studies are needed to confirm these findings and test clinical applications for use by clinicians to monitor activation syndrome during SSRI treatment. National Institutes of Health (5UO1 MH078594-01); NCT00382291. PMID:25535011

  8. Self-management of psychiatric symptoms using over-the-counter (OTC) psychopharmacology: the S-DTM therapeutic model--Self-diagnosis, self-treatment, self-monitoring.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2005-01-01

    Pharmacological self-management is becoming more widespread in modernizing societies, as part of a general expansion of health care. This may exert a vital corrective balance to the professionalization of health by ensuring that the individual perspective of patients is not neglected. There are many 'good ideas' for new treatments being published which have a plausible scientific rationale for effectiveness and a low likelihood of harm, yet are essentially ignored by mainstream medical research. The most likely avenue for progress is probably the spread of self-management, together with increased sharing of experience via the internet. There is considerable scope for self-management of psychiatric symptoms with psychoactive medication purchased 'over-the-counter' (OTC) and without prescription. A surprisingly wide range of effective psychoactive agents are available with the potential to self-treat many of the common psychiatric problems. These include 'medical' psychopharmacological agents such as analgesics and antihistamines, a plant extract called St. John's Wort (Hypericum), and physical treatments such as early morning bright light therapy. But self-management currently lacks an explicit therapeutic model. A three stage process of S-DTM - self-diagnosis, self-treatment and self-monitoring is proposed and described in relation to psychiatric symptoms. Self-diagnosis describes the skill of introspection to develop awareness of inner bodily states and emotions. A specific sensation is identified and isolated as the 'focal symptom' for subsequent treatment and monitoring. Self-treatment involves choosing a drug (or other therapy) which is intended to alleviate the focal symptom. Self-monitoring entails a continued awareness of the focal system and of general well-being in order to evaluate effect of therapy. Self-monitoring could involve repeated cycles of dose-adjustment, and on-off ('challenge-dechallenge-rechallenge') therapeutic trials. An example of S

  9. The ethics of elective psychopharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Ahmed D.; Sahakian, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacological cognitive enhancers (PCEs) are used to improve cognitive functions, such as attention, learning, memory and planning in patients with impairments in cognition resulting from traumatic brain injury (TBI) or from neuropsychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment, schizophrenia, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Moreover, PCEs have been shown to improve cognition in healthy volunteers with no psychiatric disorders. This article describes the rationale behind the need for their use in neuropsychiatric patients and illustrates how PCEs can ameliorate cognitive impairments, improve quality of life and wellbeing, and therefore reduce the economic burden associated with these disorders. We also describe evidence that PCEs are being used as cognitive enhancers by healthy people. Crucially, as the lifestyle use of these drugs becomes very popular in the healthy population, a final aim is to present an overview of the current and future neuroethical considerations of enhancing the healthy brain. As information regarding their actual use, benefits and harms in various healthy populations is currently lacking, we propose research that aims to obtain relevant empirical data, monitor the short- and long-term effectiveness and side-effects, and initiate accurate surveys to determine current patterns and quantity of usage of PCE drugs by healthy people. Furthermore, in order to instigate a dialogue between neuroethics and neuropsychopharmacology, we urge scientists to explore and communicate the social and ethical implications of their research to the public. Finally, we discuss and highlight other means of enhancing cognition in both patients and healthy adults, including education and physical exercise. PMID:21396152

  10. [Pre-Columbian indigenous psychopharmacology].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Olivares, E

    1978-01-01

    A careful review has been carried out on texts concerning Mexican medicine plants, especially on texts obtained directly from the XVI century Indian reports. The plants utilized for psychiatric purposes have been separated from the huge group of 1 500 medicine plants used by the prehispanic Indians, and have been found about 150 plants which have been classified in the modern way of antipsychotic, antidepressant, minor tranquilizer, hallucinogens, sedatives, hypnotics, brain tonics, stimulants and anticonvulsants. The intention in making this research is to awake the interest of the people in the experimenting field; as experiments have been effected only on hallucinogen up to now, and if these have proved to possess the effects caused to the Indians, supposedly large part of the other plants have the effects according to the indications they have mentioned. PMID:360092

  11. Psychopharmacological enhancement: a conceptual framework

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The availability of a range of new psychotropic agents raises the possibility that these will be used for enhancement purposes (smart pills, happy pills, and pep pills). The enhancement debate soon raises questions in philosophy of medicine and psychiatry (eg, what is a disorder?), and this debate in turn raises fundament questions in philosophy of language, science, and ethics. In this paper, a naturalistic conceptual framework is proposed for addressing these issues. This framework begins by contrasting classical and critical concepts of categories, and then puts forward an integrative position that is based on cognitive-affective research. This position can in turn be used to consider the debate between pharmacological Calvinism (which may adopt a moral metaphor of disorder) and psychotropic utopianism (which may emphasize a medical metaphor of disorder). I argue that psychiatric treatment of serious psychiatric disorders is justified, and that psychotropics are an acceptable kind of intervention. The use of psychotropics for sub-threshold phenomena requires a judicious weighing of the relevant facts (which are often sparse) and values. PMID:22244084

  12. Evidence-based guidelines for management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adolescents in transition to adult services and in adults: recommendations from the British Association for Psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Nutt, D J; Fone, K; Asherson, P; Bramble, D; Hill, P; Matthews, K; Morris, K A; Santosh, P; Sonuga-Barke, E; Taylor, E; Weiss, M; Young, S

    2007-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an established diagnosis in children, associated with a large body of evidence on the benefits of treatment. Adolescents with ADHD are now leaving children's services often with no readily identifiable adult service to support them, which presents problems as local pharmacy regulations often preclude the prescription of stimulant drugs by general practitioners (GPs). In addition, adults with ADHD symptoms are now starting to present to primary care and psychiatry services requesting assessment and treatment. For these reasons, the British Association for Psychopharmacology (BAP) thought it timely to hold a consensus conference to review the body of evidence on childhood ADHD and the growing literature on ADHD in older age groups. Much of this initial guidance on managing ADHD in adolescents in transition and in adults is based on expert opinion derived from childhood evidence. We hope that, by the time these guidelines are updated, much evidence will be available to address the many directions for future research that are detailed here. PMID:17092962

  13. [25 Years After Re-Unification of Germany: An Overview on Eastern German Psychiatry. Part 1: Post-War Era, Pavlovization, Psychopharmacological Era and Social Psychiatric Reform Movement].

    PubMed

    Steinberg, H

    2016-04-01

    This is the first of a 2-part study on the history of psychiatry in Eastern Germany, i. e. the Soviet Occupied Zone and later German Democratic Republic. It mainly covers the years post World War II up until the beginning of the 1970s. The first post-war years were determined by the new power holders' attempts to overcome National Socialist (Nazi) heritage and to re-organize mental health and care in general. The doctrine of a strict denazifization in East Germany must, however, be regarded as a myth. Promoted by centralized organization, there was an increase in communist party-ideological influence and harassment as well as aligning scientific views and research with Soviet paradigms (Pavlovization) during the 1950s and early 1960s. This, however, led to an enormous rise in exodus of skilled labor to West Germany, which in turn further increased the notorious lack of staff. After the erection of the inner-German wall, this problem was mitigated, yet never fully solved over the 40 years of the existence of the GDR. Despite adverse conditions, East German psychiatrists made major original contributions to the development of psychiatry in general, at least up until the 1960s. Academic psychiatry was mainly based on biological concepts that were further promoted by new somatic and psychopharmacological therapeutic options. In the 1960s, social psychiatric reformist forces emerged, primarily in the large psychiatric hospitals. The improvements achieved by these forces, however, were not implemented on a nation-wide scale, but mainly restricted to one particular or several institutions. PMID:27100844

  14. A group approach to psychopharmacology with schizophrenics.

    PubMed Central

    Skolnick, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    Theoretical and practical issues involved in integrating pharmacotherapy and psychosocial therapy in a long-term day hospital for schizophrenics are addressed. The limitations and risks of relying too heavily on a biomedical conceptual framework are discussed. In addition to diagnosis, target symptoms, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics, individual interpersonal, family, and institutional dynamics can exert profound effects on the effectiveness of medication. Through case illustrations it is shown how an open systems model and a group approach can allow for an integration of the many variables involved in the medication process. A weekly medication group which emphasizes education, informed choice, patient responsibility, and the examination of the boundary between medication effect and the need for psychological work is described. It is shown that the chemical control of psychosis alone may reinforce the psychosocial aspects of the schizophrenic syndrome. A distinction is drawn between chemical control of psychosis and the sensitive use of medication as a facilitator of growth-promoting psychosocial treatment. PMID:2864762

  15. Psychopharmacologic treatment of depression during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gold, Liza H

    2003-06-01

    Increasing numbers of patients are being treated for mood disorders. Most of these patients, particularly those with the diagnosis of major depression, are women of childbearing years. Depression can also occur in the context of bipolar disorder. Concerns regarding fetal exposure to medication, either planned or unplanned, are becoming more pressing in the clinical practices of psychiatrists and primary care physicians. There are relatively few study data available to guide clinicians in the use of psychotropic medications during pregnancy, owing to obvious problems in designing studies of the effects of medications on pregnant women, fetuses, and infants. In this article clinically relevant study and practice information is provided, and suggestions regarding the approach to the treatment of mood disorders during pregnancy based on a risk assessment mode are given. PMID:12734035

  16. Pediatric Psychopharmacology for Prepubertal Internalizing Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiszyn, Tom; Carlson, John S.; DeHay, Tamara

    2005-01-01

    Evidence-based studies of drug, psychosocial and combined treatments for prepubertal internalizing disorders (depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD], and non-OCD anxiety) were reviewed. No age effects were found. Although no combined studies met evidence-based criteria, efficacious and possibly efficacious psychosocial and pharmacological…

  17. Training School Psychologists in Psychopharmacology Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Holly J.; Floress, Margaret T.; Ellis, Cynthia R.

    2009-01-01

    The number of children taking psychotropic medications has dramatically increased in recent years. These children typically take medication during school hours, thereby making the school setting an optimal venue in which evaluate the effectiveness of medications. Given their training in data-based decision making, intervention, and assessment,…

  18. Psychopharmacological treatment of aggression in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Brieden, T; Ujeyl, M; Naber, D

    2002-05-01

    Aggressive behavior is frequently observed in schizophrenic patients. More than 50 % of all psychiatric patients and 10 % of schizophrenic patients show aggressive symptoms varying from threatening behavior and agitation to assault. The pharmacological treatment of acute, persisting and repetitive aggression is a serious problem for other patients and staff members. Not only is violent behavior from mentally ill patients the most detrimental factor in their stigmatization, aggression is also a considerable direct source of danger for the patients themselves. Based on rather limited evidence, a wide variety of medications for the pharmacological treatment of aggression has been recommended: typical and atypical antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, mood stabilizers, beta-blockers and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Most clinical information on treating aggression has been collected for atypical neuroleptics, particularly for clozapine. Several retrospective and open studies indicate its efficacy. Treatment duration of 6 months is recommended to induce a stable reduction of physical and verbal aggression. Severe side effects have very rarely been seen. At the moment, clozapine seems to be the first choice in aggression treatment. Within the last few years, about 10 articles were published showing that this is the most effective antiaggressive agent in the treatment of aggression and agitation in psychiatric patients, independent of psychiatric diagnosis. However, clozapine, like all the other substances used, does not have an established indication for the treatment of aggressive symptoms. Noncompliance with medication makes it difficult to choose the right preparation for the medication: tablets, liquids, intramuscular injections and readily soluble "FDDFs" are available. Ethical, juridical and methodological problems prevent controlled studies from establishing a reference in the treatment of aggression in mentally ill patients. This review summarizes the current discussion and publications on the pharmacological treatment of aggression in schizophrenic patients of the last 20 years. In addition, we will briefly present studies and case reports concerning the treatment of aggression in other psychiatric patients. PMID:12107851

  19. Psychopharmacological interactions between nicotine and ethanol.

    PubMed

    Rose, Jed E; Brauer, Lisa H; Behm, Frederique M; Cramblett, Matthew; Calkins, Kevin; Lawhon, Dawn

    2004-02-01

    Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory evidence has shown a positive correlation between cigarette smoking and ethanol use, and previous studies suggest some commonality in the neural pathways mediating effects of nicotine and ethanol. In this study, the subjective and behavioral interactions among nicotine, ethanol, and the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine were investigated. The main objectives were to determine how the rewarding effects of nicotine might be modified by ethanol, and to compare the effects of ethanol with those of a nicotinic antagonist (mecamylamine). A total of 48 smokers who regularly consumed alcoholic beverages participated in four laboratory sessions presenting a 2 (nicotine vs. denicotinized cigarette smoke)x2 (10 mg oral mecamylamine hydrochloride vs. placebo)x2 (ethanol.5 g/kg vs. placebo) design, with ethanol as a between-subjects factor. Dependent measures included blood alcohol concentration (BAC), as assessed by breath alcohol detector; subjective drug effects; and rate of ad lib smoking during a 2-hr period. Results showed that peak BAC averaged.03 g/dl in the ethanol condition. Ethanol potentiated some of the subjective rewarding effects of nicotine, including smoking satisfaction, stimulant as well as calming effects, and relief of craving for cigarettes. During the ad lib smoking period, mecamylamine decreased satisfaction associated with the nicotine-containing cigarettes; mecamylamine also induced smoking but only in the placebo ethanol condition. These results highlight the potent interaction between ethanol and nicotinic systems, and suggest that ethanol can potentiate the rewarding effects of nicotine as well as offset some of the effects of a nicotinic antagonist. PMID:14982697

  20. The psychopharmacology of violence: making sensible decisions.

    PubMed

    Citrome, Leslie; Volavka, Jan

    2014-10-01

    Violent behavior associated with mental disorders is a common reason for admission to a psychiatric inpatient unit. Once hospitalized, patients may continue to be intermittently agitated and have persistent aggressive behaviors, preventing their discharge back into the community. Managing agitation quickly with effective pharmacological agents can avoid further escalation to aggression and violence. In the acute setting, this usually involves the parenteral use of antipsychotics, with or without benzodiazepines. Within the past decade, short-acting intramuscular formulations of second-generation antipsychotics have become available and provide a means to induce calm with a substantially lower risk of acute dystonia or akathisia compared with haloperidol. New alternative formulations that avoid injections include inhalation and sublingual administration. Longer-term management of persistent aggressive behavior by reducing the frequency and intensity of future episodes of agitation is more complex. In contrast to agitation associated with schizophrenia or bipolar mania, no agents have yet been approved by regulatory agencies for the treatment of persistent aggressive behavior. The strongest evidence supports the use of clozapine as an antihostility agent, followed by olanzapine. Adjunctive strategies with anticonvulsants and beta-adrenergic agents may also be worthwhile to consider. PMID:24571828

  1. Human psychopharmacology of N,N-dimethyltryptamine.

    PubMed

    Strassman, R J

    1996-01-01

    We generated dose-response data for the endogenous and ultra-short-acting hallucinogen, N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), in a cohort of experienced hallucinogen users, measuring multiple biological and psychological outcome measures. Subjective responses were quantified with a new rating scale, the HRS, which provided better resolution of dose effects than did the biological variables. A tolerance study then was performed, in which volunteers received four closely spaced hallucinogenic doses of DMT. Subjective responses demonstrated no tolerance, while biological measures were inconsistently reduced over the course of the sessions. Thus, DMT remains unique among classic hallucinogens in its inability to induce tolerance to its psychological effects. To assess the role of the 5-HT1A site in mediating DMT's effects, a pindolol pre-treatment study was performed. Pindolol significantly increased psychological responses to DMT, suggesting a buffering effect of 5-HT1A agonism on 5-HT2-mediated psychedelic effects. These data are opposite to those described in lower animal models of hallucinogens' mechanisms of action. PMID:8788488

  2. Behavioral addictions: a novel challenge for psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Marazziti, Donatella; Presta, Silvio; Baroni, Stefano; Silvestri, Stefano; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2014-12-01

    Although addictive syndromes have been traditionally related to substance-use disorders, during the last few decades a novel addictive group, including the so-called "behavioral or no-drug addictions," has been recognized and has attracted increasing attention for its relevant social impact. This group includes pathological gambling, compulsive shopping, TV/Internet/social network/videogame addictions, workaholism, sex and relationship addictions, orthorexia, and overtraining syndrome. Substance and behavioral addictions show similar phenomenological features, such as craving, dependence, tolerance, and abstinence, and perhaps they share a common possible pathophysiology. It is, however, controversial whether all or at least some of them should be considered real disorders or just normal, albeit extreme, behaviors. The aim of this article is to review current data on pharmacological treatment of behavioral addictions. As no specific and validated treatment algorithms are currently available, only an improved knowledge on their psychopathological, clinical, and neurobiological features may have relevant implications for more focused preventive and therapeutic strategies. PMID:24589040

  3. Low Dose Effects in Psychopharmacology: Ontogenetic Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia; Varlinskaya, Elena I.

    2005-01-01

    Low doses of psychoactive drugs often elicit a behavioral profile opposite to that observed following administration of more substantial doses. Our laboratory has observed that these effects are often age-specific in rats. For instance, whereas moderate to high doses of the dopamine agonist apomorphine increase locomotion, suppressed locomotor activity is seen following low dose exposure, with this low dose effect not emerging consistently until adolescence. A somewhat earlier emergence of a low dose “paradoxical” effect is seen with the 5HT1a receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, with late preweanling, but not neonatal, rats showing increases in ingestive behavior at low doses but suppression at higher doses. In contrast to these ontogenetic increases in expression of low dose drug effects, low dose facilitation of social behavior is seen following ethanol only in adolescent rats and not their mature counterparts, although suppression of social interactions at higher doses is seen at both ages. This hormesis-like low dose stimulation appears related in part to overcompensation, with brief social suppression preceding the subsequent stimulation response, and also bears a number of ontogenetic similarities to acute tolerance, a well characterized, rapidly emerging adaptation to ethanol. Implications of these and other ontogenetic findings for studies of hormesis are discussed. PMID:19330157

  4. The psychopharmacology of European herbs with cognition-enhancing properties.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David O; Scholey, Andrew B

    2006-01-01

    Extensive research suggests that a number of plant-derived chemicals and traditional Oriental herbal remedies possess cognition-enhancing properties. Widely used current treatments for dementia include extracts of Ginkgo biloba and several alkaloidal, and therefore toxic, plant-derived cholinergic agents. Several non-toxic, European herbal species have pan-cultural traditions as treatments for cognitive deficits, including those associated with ageing. To date they have not received research interest commensurate with their potential utility. Particularly promising candidate species include sage (Salvia lavandulaefolia/officinalis), Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis). In the case of sage, extracts possess anti-oxidant, estrogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, and specifically inhibit butyryl- and acetyl-cholinesterase. Acute administration has also been found to reliably improve mnemonic performance in healthy young and elderly cohorts, whilst a chronic regime has been shown to attenuate cognitive declines in sufferers from Alzheimer's disease. In the case of Melissa officinalis, extracts have, most notably, been shown to bind directly to both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in human brain tissue. This property has been shown to vary with extraction method and strain. Robust anxiolytic effects have also been demonstrated following acute administration to healthy humans, with mnemonic enhancement restricted to an extract with high cholinergic binding properties. Chronic regimes of aromatherapy and essential oil respectively have also been shown to reduce agitation and attenuate cognitive declines in sufferers from dementia. Given the side effect profile of prescribed cholinesterase inhibitors, and a current lack of a well tolerated nicotinic receptor agonist, these herbal treatments may well provide effective and well-tolerated treatments for dementia, either alone, in combination, or as an adjunct to conventional treatments. PMID:17168769

  5. The Impact of Psychopharmacology on Contemporary Clinical Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez, Gustavo H

    2014-01-01

    Clinical psychiatric evaluations of patients have changed dramatically in recent decades. Both initial assessments and follow-up visits have become brief and superficial, focused on searching for categorical diagnostic criteria from checklists, with limited inquiry into patient-reported symptomatic status and tolerability of treatments. The virtually exclusive therapeutic task has become selecting a plausible psychotropic, usually based on expert consensus guidelines. These guidelines and practice patterns rest mainly on published monotherapy trials that may or may not be applicable to particular patients but are having a profound impact, not only on modern psychiatric practice but also on psychiatric education, research, and theory. PMID:25161065

  6. Efficacy Profiles of Psychopharmacology: Divalproex Sodium in Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanzode, Leena A.; Saxena, Kirti; Kraemer, Helena; Chang, Kiki; Steiner, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about how deeply medication treatment penetrates different levels of the mind/brain system. Psychopathology consists of relatively simple constructs (e.g., anger, irritability), or complex ones (e.g., responsibility). This study examines the efficacy of a specific compound, divalproex sodium (DVPX), on the various levels of…

  7. Psychopharmacology in Fragile X Syndrome--Present and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Potanos, Kristina

    2004-01-01

    In addition to cognitive disability, fragile X syndrome (FXS) is associated with behavioral problems that are often functionally limiting. There are few controlled trials to guide treatment; however, available information does suggest that medications can be quite helpful for a number of categories of behavioral disturbance in FXS. Specifically,…

  8. Effect of certain psychopharmacological preparations on adaptation under stress conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanishevskaya, A. V.; Mezentseva, L. N.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments staged on rats demonstrated that the formation of pathological states caused by stress and accompanied by the development of ulcerative lesion of the gastric mucosa are associated with the degree of the catecholamines level drop in the mesencephalon and hypothalamus. The application of seduxen and also of combinations consisting of L-DOPA with seduxen, or with an L-adrenoblocking agent pyroxan tends to reduce the frequency of developing alcerative lesions of the stomach. The protective effect produced by the combination of L-DOPA with an L-adrenoblocking agent pyroxan is barred by an additional administration of an B-adrenoblocking agent, inderal.

  9. Practitioner Review: Psychopharmacology in Children and Adolescents with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handen, Benjamin L.; Gilchrist, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Background: The use of psychotropic medication to treat children and adults with mental retardation (MR) has a long and extensive history. There are no identified medications to address specific cognitive deficits among persons with MR. Instead, psychotropic medications are used to treat specific behavioral symptoms and/or psychiatric syndromes.…

  10. Systems psychopharmacology: A network approach to developing novel therapies

    PubMed Central

    Gebicke-Haerter, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    The multifactorial origin of most chronic disorders of the brain, including schizophrenia, has been well accepted. Consequently, pharmacotherapy would require multi-targeted strategies. This contrasts to the majority of drug therapies used until now, addressing more or less specifically only one target molecule. Nevertheless, quite some searches for multiple molecular targets specific for mental disorders have been undertaken. For example, genome-wide association studies have been conducted to discover new target genes of disease. Unfortunately, these attempts have not fulfilled the great hopes they have started with. Polypharmacology and network pharmacology approaches of drug treatment endeavor to abandon the one-drug one-target thinking. To this end, most approaches set out to investigate network topologies searching for modules, endowed with “important” nodes, such as “hubs” or “bottlenecks”, encompassing features of disease networks, and being useful as tentative targets of drug therapies. This kind of research appears to be very promising. However, blocking or inhibiting “important” targets may easily result in destruction of network integrity. Therefore, it is suggested here to study functions of nodes with lower centrality for more subtle impact on network behavior. Targeting multiple nodes with low impact on network integrity by drugs with multiple activities (“dirty drugs”) or by several drugs, simultaneously, avoids to disrupt network integrity and may reset deviant dynamics of disease. Natural products typically display multi target functions and therefore could help to identify useful biological targets. Hence, future efforts should consider to combine drug-target networks with target-disease networks using mathematical (graph theoretical) tools, which could help to develop new therapeutic strategies in long-term psychiatric disorders. PMID:27014599

  11. Medication Adherence in Psychopharmacologically Treated Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safren, Steven A.; Duran, Petra; Yovel, Iftah; Perlman, Carol A.; Sprich, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: One of the potential causes of residual symptoms of ADHD in adults can be difficulties with consistent adherence to medications. Method: This formative study examined self-reported medication adherence in adults with ADHD with clinically significant symptoms despite medication treatment. Results: Mean adherence for the two-week period…

  12. Novel psychopharmacological therapies for psychiatric disorders: psilocybin and MDMA.

    PubMed

    Mithoefer, Michael C; Grob, Charles S; Brewerton, Timothy D

    2016-05-01

    4-phosphorloxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (psilocybin) and methylenedioxymethamfetamine (MDMA), best known for their illegal use as psychedelic drugs, are showing promise as therapeutics in a resurgence of clinical research during the past 10 years. Psilocybin is being tested for alcoholism, smoking cessation, and in patients with advanced cancer with anxiety. MDMA is showing encouraging results as a treatment for refractory post-traumatic stress disorder, social anxiety in autistic adults, and anxiety associated with a life-threatening illness. Both drugs are studied as adjuncts or catalysts to psychotherapy, rather than as stand-alone drug treatments. This model of drug-assisted psychotherapy is a possible alternative to existing pharmacological and psychological treatments in psychiatry. Further research is needed to fully assess the potential of these compounds in the management of these common disorders that are difficult to treat with existing methods. PMID:27067625

  13. [Administrative and juridicial problems in psychopharmacology (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Heimann, H

    1975-11-01

    The problem of a juridical and administrative regulation for therapeutic drugs is analyzed. There are 3 concurring factors of public interest: 1. protection of the patient against dangerous side-effects, 2. promotion of new effective therapies. 3. position and responsibility of the physician. Risks and problems of control are discussed in the light of development of a new preparation. A scheme of functions in the clinical trial under auspices of medico-ethical postulations is mentioned. Restrictive facts on behalf of a quick development of drug therapy are discussed. The necessity of intensifying biological basic research is emphasized. PMID:1106443

  14. Psychopharmacologic analysis of an alleged oneirogenic plant: Calea zacatechichi.

    PubMed

    Mayagoitia, L; Díaz, J L; Contreras, C M

    1986-12-01

    Calea zacatechichi is a plant used by the Chontal Indians of Mexico to obtain divinatory messages during dreaming. At human doses, organic extracts of the plant produce the EEG and behavioral signs of somnolence and induce light sleep in cats. Large doses elicit salivation, ataxia, retching and occasional vomiting. The effects of the plant upon cingulum discharge frequency were significantly different from hallucinogenic-dissociative drugs (ketamine, quipazine, phencyclidine and SKF-10047). In human healthy volunteers, low doses of the extracts administered in a double-blind design against placebo increased reaction time and time-lapse estimation. A controlled nap sleep study in the same volunteers showed that Calea extracts increased the superficial stages of sleep and the number of spontaneous awakenings. The subjective reports of dreams were significantly higher than both placebo and diazepam, indicating an increase in hypnagogic imagery occurring during superficial sleep stages. PMID:3821139

  15. Understanding the agreements and controversies surrounding childhood psychopharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Parens, Erik; Johnston, Josephine

    2008-01-01

    The number of children in the US taking prescription drugs for emotional and behavioral disturbances is growing dramatically. This growth in the use of psychotropic drugs in pediatric populations has given rise to multiple controversies, ranging from concerns over off-label use and long-term safety to debates about the societal value and cultural meaning of pharmacological treatment of childhood behavioral and emotional disorders. This commentary summarizes the authors' eight main findings from the first of five workshops that seek to understand and produce descriptions of these controversies. The workshop series is convened by The Hastings Center, a bioethics research institute located in Garrison, New York, U.S.A. PMID:18261228

  16. Early Onset Bipolar Spectrum Disorder: Psychopharmacological, Psychological, and Educational Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, David E.; Trotter, Jeffrey S.

    2006-01-01

    Although published research continues to advocate medication as the first line of treatment for early onset bipolar spectrum disorder (EOBSD; N. Lofthouse & M.A. Fristad, 2004), preliminary research demonstrating the utility of cognitive, cognitive-behavioral, and psychoeducational therapies is promising. It appears as if future treatment of EOBSD…

  17. Psychopharmacology of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Effects and Side Effects.

    PubMed

    Golmirzaei, Javad; Mahboobi, Hamidreza; Yazdanparast, Maryam; Mushtaq, Gohar; Kamal, Mohammad A; Hamzei, Enayatollah

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children which manifests with hyperactivity, impulsivity, and/or inattention. Several drugs are used in treatment of ADHD. Stimulants, atomoxetine, anti-depressants, and bupropion are common medications used in the treatment of ADHD. Stimulants are widely used as the first line treatment in children with ADHD. Their mechanism of action is the release of dopamine and norepinephrine in central nervous system. Methylphenidate is the most common stimulant used for the treatment of ADHD. Methylphenidate significantly reduces ADHD symptoms in children both at home and school and improves their social skills. Methylphenidate is safe in healthy children and has shown to have no cardiac side effects in these patients. Other medications include: Atomoxetine, Amphetamines, Clonidine, Melatonin, and anti-depressants. Effects, side effects, and mechanism of action these drugs have been discussed in this paper. PMID:26601963

  18. Human psychopharmacology of hoasca, a plant hallucinogen used in ritual context in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Grob, C S; McKenna, D J; Callaway, J C; Brito, G S; Neves, E S; Oberlaender, G; Saide, O L; Labigalini, E; Tacla, C; Miranda, C T; Strassman, R J; Boone, K B

    1996-02-01

    A multinational, collaborative, biomedical investigation of the effects of hoasca (ayahuasca), a potent concoction of plant hallucinogens, was conducted in the Brazilian Amazon during the summer of 1993. This report describes the psychological assessment of 15 long-term members of a syncretic church that utilizes hoasca as a legal, psychoactive sacrament as well as 15 matched controls with no prior history of hoasca ingestion. Measures administered to both groups included structured psychiatric diagnostic interviews, personality testing, and neuropsychological evaluation. Phenomenological assessment of the altered state experience as well as semistructured and open-ended life story interviews were conducted with the long-term use hoasca group, but not the hoasca-naive control group. Salient findings included the remission of psychopathology following the initiation of hoasca use along with no evidence of personality or cognitive deterioration. Overall assessment revealed high functional status. Implications of this unusual phenomenon and need for further investigation are discussed. PMID:8596116

  19. Drugs Are Not Enough: Some Principles of Psychopharmacology for General Medical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Ross, W. Donald

    1963-01-01

    There is no necessary antagonism between the judicious use of drugs and a psychotherapeutic approach to patients in general medical practice. A table is presented with a simple pragmatic classification of types of drugs for altering emotional and mental states. Three general principles are given for the use of such drugs, illustrated by examples of the use and misuse of tranquillizers. Some differentiation is made between sedatives and tranquillizers and between different types of tranquillizers, particularly with reference to the need to consider depressive features in patients. Suggestions are made for the use of drugs for mild depressions and for depressions accompanying organic disease. One may have to take an “experimental” approach to new drugs to determine which to them are of value in relation to the particular emotional states of one's own patients. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:14060167

  20. Psychopharmacological Intervention. I: Teacher Perceptions of Psychotropic Medication for Students with Serious Emotional Disturbance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The study examined perceptions, knowledge, and opinions regarding medication of 146 teachers of students with serious emotional disturbances. Among findings were that global impressions were most often used to evaluate drug effects and that hyperactivity and delusions/hallucinations were most likely to lead to medication. (DB)

  1. Herbal Insomnia Medications that Target GABAergic Systems: A Review of the Psychopharmacological Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yuan; Dong, Jing-Wen; Zhao, Jiang-He; Tang, Li-Na; Zhang, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Insomnia is a common sleep disorder which is prevalent in women and the elderly. Current insomnia drugs mainly target the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor, melatonin receptor, histamine receptor, orexin, and serotonin receptor. GABAA receptor modulators are ordinarily used to manage insomnia, but they are known to affect sleep maintenance, including residual effects, tolerance, and dependence. In an effort to discover new drugs that relieve insomnia symptoms while avoiding side effects, numerous studies focusing on the neurotransmitter GABA and herbal medicines have been conducted. Traditional herbal medicines, such as Piper methysticum and the seed of Zizyphus jujuba Mill var. spinosa, have been widely reported to improve sleep and other mental disorders. These herbal medicines have been applied for many years in folk medicine, and extracts of these medicines have been used to study their pharmacological actions and mechanisms. Although effective and relatively safe, natural plant products have some side effects, such as hepatotoxicity and skin reactions effects of Piper methysticum. In addition, there are insufficient evidences to certify the safety of most traditional herbal medicine. In this review, we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding a variety of natural plant products that are commonly used to treat insomnia to facilitate future studies. PMID:24851093

  2. Salvia divinorum: a psychopharmacological riddle and a mind-body prospect.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Jose-Luis

    2013-03-01

    The multidisciplinary research on Salvia divinorum and its chemical principles is analyzed concerning whether the ethnobotany, phytochemistry, mental effects, and neuropharmacology of this sacred psychoactive plant and main principle clarify its experienced effects and divinatory uses. The scientific pursuit spans from the traditional practices, continues with the botanical identification, isolation of active molecules, characterization of mental and neural effects, possible therapeutic applications, and impinges upon the mind-body problem. The departure point is ethnopharmacology and therefore the traditional beliefs, ritual uses, and mental effects of this Mazatec sacred mint recorded during a 1973- 1983 field research project are described. A water potion of crushed leaves produced short-lasting light-headedness, dysphoria, tactile and proprioceptive sensations, a sense of depersonalization, amplified sound perception, and an increase visual and auditory imagery, but not actual hallucinations. Similar effects were described using questionnaires and are attributable to salvinorin A, but cannot be explained solely by its specific and potent brain kappa-opioid receptor agonist activity. Some requirements for a feasible classification and mechanism of action of consciousness-altering products are proposed and include the activation of neural networks comprising several neurochemical systems. Top-down analyses should be undertaken in order to characterize such neural networks and eventually allowing to explore the differential ethnic effects. As is the case for other consciousness-altering preparations, a careful and encompassing research on this plant and principle can be consequential to endeavors ranging from the mind-body problem, a better understanding of shamanic ecstasy, to the potential generation of analgesic, antidepressant, and drug-abuse attenuating products. PMID:23627785

  3. Future Trends in the Application and Impact of Psychopharmacology within the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noggle, Chad A.

    2009-01-01

    The number of children and adolescents using prescription medications is continually climbing. The preceding articles have offered discussions on a multitude of areas within this subject matter. This article will serve to summarize some of those points raised with particular emphasis on where we go from here in terms of training and professional…

  4. Current Practice in Psychopharmacology for Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Elizabeth Freeman; McIntosh, David E.

    2009-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a complex group of neurodevelopmental conditions that develop in early childhood and involve a range of impairments in core areas of social interaction, communication, and restricted behavior and interests. Associated behavioral problems such as tantrums, aggression, and self-injury frequently compound the core…

  5. Positive Attitude Change toward Psychiatry in Pharmacy Students Following an Active Learning Psychopharmacology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einat, Haim; George, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Psychiatric care in many rural communities has been demonstrated to be less adequate compared with urban environments partially because of attitudes and stigmatization issues. Educated pharmacists with professional attitudes can have a major impact in helping mental health patients receive more accurate diagnostic assessments and safe…

  6. Aacap 2002 Research Forum: Placebo and Alternatives to Placebo in Randomized Controlled Trials in Pediatric Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, John; Kratochvil, Christopher; Clarke, Gregory; Beardslee, William; Derivan, Albert; Emslie, Graham; Green, Evelyn P.; Heiligenstein, John; Hinshaw, Stephen; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Jensen, Peter; Lavori, Philip; Leonard, Henrietta; McNulty, James; Michaels, M. Alex; Mossholder, Andrew; Osher, Trina; Petti, Theodore; Prentice, Ernest; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wells, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The use of placebo in the pediatric age group has come under increasing scrutiny. At the 2002 Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, the Academy's Workgroup on Research conducted a research forum. The purpose was to identify challenges and their solutions regarding the use of placebo in randomized…

  7. Psychopharmacological profile of Chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) essential oil in mice.

    PubMed

    Can, Ozgür Devrim; Demir Özkay, Umide; Kıyan, Hülya Tuba; Demirci, Betül

    2012-02-15

    In this study, the effect of Matricaria recutita L. essential oil (MEO) on the central nervous system (CNS) of mice was investigated using some behavioral methods. Chemical profiling both by GC and GC-MS analyses of the hydrodistilled essential oil of M. recutita revealed α-bisabolol oxide A (28%), α-bisabolol oxide B (17.1%), (Z)-β-Farnesene (15.9%) and α-bisabolol (6.8%) as the main components. Changes induced by MEO (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) and reference drug caffeine (25 mg/kg) in spontaneous locomotor activities and motor coordinations of mice were investigated by activity cage measurements and Rota-Rod tests, respectively. Open field, social interaction and elevated plus-maze tests were applied to assess the emotional state of the animals. Further, tail-suspension test was performed for evaluating the effect of MEO on depression levels of mice. As a result, at 50 and 100 mg/kg, MEO significantly increased the numbers of spontaneous locomotor activities, exhibited anxiogenic effect in the open field, elevated plus-maze and social interaction tests and decreased the immobility times of animals in tail suspension tests. The falling latencies in Rota-Rod tests did not change. This activity profile of MEO was similar to the typical psychostimulant caffeine. The exact mechanism of action underlying this stimulant-like effect should be clarified with further detailed studies. PMID:22070986

  8. Towards a Better Understanding of the Psychopharmacology of Nutmeg: Activities in the Mouse Tetrad Assay

    PubMed Central

    El-Alfy, Abir; Wilson, Lisa; ElSohly, Mahmoud A.; Abourashed, Ehab A.

    2009-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Nutmeg, the seeds of Myritica fragrans (family Myristicaceae), is a well known kitchen spice with a long-standing reputation as a psychoactive herb. Nutmeg at high doses is considered a cheap substitute to several drugs of abuse. Earlier reports have attributed amphetamine-like activities to nutmeg. Aim of the study To characterize the neuropharmacological effects of different nutmeg extracts, administered orally and intraperitoneally, in comparison to Δ9-terahydrocannabinol, amphetamine, and morphine. Materials and methods Methanolic (ME), dichloromethane (DE), and hexane (HE) extracts were obtained from a chromatographically fingerprinted batch of nutmeg. Biological evaluation was conducted in sets of 6–8 mice in the tetrad assay at doses ranging from 100–500 and 500–1000 mg/kg for i.p. and oral administration, respectively. Results While oral administration of all the nutmeg extracts at 500 mg/kg caused a significant increase in locomotor activity, the i.p. administration of DE showed significant reduction in rectal temperature along with a significant increase in tail flick latency at 300 mg/kg. A significant decrease in core body temperature was observed with HE at 100 mg/kg, while higher doses caused significant increases in hot plate latency. Conclusion Different behavioral effects were observed that varied by the type of extract as well as by the route of administration. PMID:19703539

  9. Psychopharmacology of chronic pain: a focus on antidepressants and atypical antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Khouzam, Hani Raoul

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain is considered one of the most prevalent causes of costly and disabling medical conditions. This review will define chronic pain and its categories and then will summarize the effectiveness and side effects associated with the use of various antidepressants, including the tricyclics, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, the serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, other miscellaneous antidepressants and the atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of chronic pain. PMID:26821680

  10. Off-label psychopharmacologic prescribing for children: History supports close clinical monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Zito, Julie M; Derivan, Albert T; Kratochvil, Christopher J; Safer, Daniel J; Fegert, Joerg M; Greenhill, Laurence L

    2008-01-01

    The review presents pediatric adverse drug events from a historical perspective and focuses on selected safety issues associated with off-label use of medications for the psychiatric treatment of youth. Clinical monitoring procedures for major psychotropic drug classes are reviewed. Prior studies suggest that systematic treatment monitoring is warranted so as to both minimize risk of unexpected adverse events and exposures to ineffective treatments. Clinical trials to establish the efficacy and safety of drugs currently being used off-label in the pediatric population are needed. In the meantime, clinicians should consider the existing evidence-base for these drugs and institute close clinical monitoring. PMID:18793403

  11. Metabolic syndrome and obesity among users of second generation antipsychotics: A global challenge for modern psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Leonel E; Gaspar, Pablo A; Silva, H; Risco, L; Arena, Pamela; Cubillos-Robles, Karen; Jara, Belen

    2015-11-01

    Second generation antipsychotics (SGAs), such as clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone and quetiapine, are among the most effective therapies to stabilize symptoms schizophrenia (SZ) spectrum disorders. In fact, clozapine, olanzapine and risperidone have improved the quality of life of billions SZ patients worldwide. Based on the broad spectrum of efficacy and low risk of extrapyramidal symptoms displayed by SGAs, some regulatory agencies approved the use of SGAs in non-schizophrenic adults, children and adolescents suffering from a range of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, increasing number of reports have shown that SGAs are strongly associated with accelerated weight gain, insulin resistance, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and increased cardiovascular risk. These metabolic alterations can develop in as short as six months after the initiation of pharmacotherapy, which is now a controversial fact in public disclosure. Although the percentage of schizophrenic patients, the main target group of SGAs, is estimated in only 1% of the population, during the past ten years there was an exponential increase in the number of SGAs users, including millions of non-SZ patients. The scientific bases of SGAs metabolic side effects are not yet elucidated, but the evidence shows that the activation of transcriptional factor SRBP1c, the D1/D2 dopamine, GABA2 and 5HT neurotransmitions are implicated in the SGAs cardiovascular toxicity. Polypharmacological interventions are either non- or modestly effective in maintaining low cardiovascular risk in SGAs users. In this review we critically discuss the clinical and molecular evidence on metabolic alterations induced by SGAs, the evidence on the efficacy of classical antidiabetic drugs and the emerging concept of antidiabetic polyphenols as potential coadjutants in SGA-induced metabolic disorders. PMID:26218604

  12. Sex Hormones, Neurotransmitters, and Psychopharmacological Treatments in Men with Paraphilic Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleh, Fabian M.; Berlin, Fred S.

    2003-01-01

    Paraphilic disorders are psychiatric syndromes primarily characterized by deviant sexual thoughts, cravings, urges, and/or behaviors. Paraphilic men may engage in inappropriate sexual behaviors when cravings for socially unacceptable sexual acts become overpowering. These often chronic disorders may not only cause emotional distress and social…

  13. [Determinants of chilliness among young women and their application to psychopharmacological trials].

    PubMed

    Yamada, Noriko; Yoshimura, Hiroyuki

    2009-11-01

    Chilliness is a common complaint among menopausal women. Increasing evidence indicates that young women also suffer from chilliness, resulting in decreased learning, motivation, and concentration. Neither diagnostic criteria nor drug therapies exist for chilliness, and thus, young women suffer from insomnia, fatigue, and mood disturbance. Because chilliness is correlated with hormonal changes observed during premenstrual, postpartum, and menopausal periods, reproductive hormones are likely involved. Recently, we elucidated methodological issues related to identifying young women with chilliness. We used a new questionnaire to determine complaint severity with regard to chills and assessed physical parameters (BMI, body fat ratio, basal metabolism, blood pressure), peripheral circulation, and recovery of skin surface temperature after mild cold-water finger immersion. Using a discriminant analysis (hit ratio, 84.5%), we demonstrated that four parameters (blood flow, difference between underarm and surface temperature, recovery rate after mild cold exposure, and score for chilliness-related complaints) were important determinants of chilliness. Among traditional candidate substances for alleviating chilliness, Piper longum and royal jelly showed significant effects. Additionally, we investigated seasonal change in the experience of chilliness and found that young women suffer from chilliness during the summer. These findings have important implications for understanding chilliness in women. PMID:20030189

  14. Separate and combined psychopharmacological effects of alprazolam and oxycodone in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Zacny, James P.; Paice, Judith A.; Coalson, Dennis W.

    2013-01-01

    Background There are epidemiological data indicating that medical and/or nonmedical use of prescription opioids oftentimes involves concurrent use of other substances. One of those substances is benzodiazepines. It would be of relevance to characterize the effects of an opioid and a benzodiazepine when taken together to determine if measures related to abuse liability-related effects and psychomotor performance impairment are increased compared to when the drugs are taken alone. Methods Twenty volunteers participated in a crossover, randomized, double-blind study in which they received placebo, 0.5 mg alprazolam, 10mg oxycodone, and 0.5 mg alprazolam combined with 10mg oxycodone, all p.o. Subjective, psychomotor, and physiological measures were assessed during each of the four sessions. Results Oxycodone by itself increased drug liking and “take again” ratings relative to placebo, but these ratings were not increased when oxycodone was taken with alprazolam, which by itself did not increase either of these ratings. The two drugs in combination produced stronger effects (larger in magnitude or longer lasting) than when either was taken alone on a number of measures, including psychomotor performance impairment. Conclusions In healthy volunteers, abuse liability-related subjective effects of oxycodone were not enhanced by alprazolam. There was enhanced behavioral toxicity when the drugs were taken together, and thus, this is of significant concern from a public safety standpoint. PMID:22365897

  15. Tourette syndrome associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: The impact of tics and psychopharmacological treatment options.

    PubMed

    Oluwabusi, Olumide O; Parke, Susan; Ambrosini, Paul J

    2016-02-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple chronic motor and vocal tics beginning in childhood. Several studies describe the association between TS and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Fifty percent of children diagnosed with ADHD have comorbid tic disorder. ADHD related symptoms have been reported in 35% to 90% of children with TS. Since ADHD is the most prevalent comorbid condition with TS and those with concomitant TS and ADHD present with considerable psychosocial and behavioral impairments, it is essential for clinicians to be familiar with these diagnoses and their management. This paper highlights the association between treating ADHD with stimulants and the development of tic disorders. The two cases discussed underscore the fact that children with TS may present with ADHD symptomatology prior to the appearance of any TS related symptoms. Appropriate management of TS in a patient diagnosed with ADHD can lead to quality of life improvements and a reduction in psychosocial impairments. PMID:26862512

  16. [Psychopharmacology of anxiety and depression: Historical aspects, current treatments and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Javelot, H

    2016-03-01

    Pharmacological treatment of acute anxiety still relies on benzodiazepines, while chronic anxiety disorders and depression are treated with different antidepressants, according to specific indications. The monoaminergic axis is represented by two families which are being developed: (i) serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors (SNDRI), also called triple reuptake inhibitors (TRI), for the treatment of depression (amitifadine), (ii) multimodal antidepressants for depression and anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder mainly) (tedatioxetine, vortioxetine and vilazodone). Third-generation antipsychotics (aripiprazole, lurasidone, brexpiprazole, cariprazine) appear relevant in the treatment of resistant depression and some anxiety disorders. Among the modulators of the glutamatergic axis, promising compounds include: (i) ionotropic regulators of NMDA receptors: esketamine, AVP-923 and AVP-786, CERC-301, rapastinel (Glyx-13), NRX-1074 developed for depression, rapastinel and bitopertine developed for obsessive compulsive disorder, (ii) metabotropic glutamate receptors modulators: decoglurant and basimglurant developed for depression and mavoglurant developed for obsessive compulsive disorder. PMID:26472602

  17. Music Performance Anxiety: An Overview of Technological Advances in Therapy, Psychopharmacology & Bio-Feedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipple, John

    Incidence of anxiety among musicians has been investigated mostly among classical players and music students. This paper determines that any intervention requires a comprehensive understanding of the primary problem. The presentation of music performance anxiety varies from individual to individual with many possible sources of origin as well as…

  18. Medical treatment overview: traditional and novel psycho-pharmacological and complementary and alternative medications

    PubMed Central

    Anagnostou, Evdokia; Hansen, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Up to 35% of children and youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) receive at least one psychotropic medication. 50–70% of this population also receives biologically based complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The data evaluating such practices are being reviewed. Recent findings There are accumulating data to suggest that atypical antipsychotics and stimulants may be useful for the treatment of irritability and hyperactivity in children and youth with ASD. The data for the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are less promising. New avenues of pharmacologic research targeting molecular targets identified by genomics, animal models and neuropathology are being evaluated. Areas of interest include glutamate/gamma-aminobutyric acid systems, neuropeptides such as oxytocin, and immune dysfunction, among others. In the case of biologically based CAM, a few compounds have been shown to be well tolerated, although efficacy is still being evaluated, such as melatonin, certain vitamins, and omega 3 fatty acids. Others have safety concerns without demonstrated efficacy, such as chelation therapies. Summary Accumulating data suggest a series of existing medications may be useful in ASD and large randomized clinical trials are necessary to evaluate safety and efficacy of both pharmaceuticals and alternative treatments. PMID:22001766

  19. Neurobiological and psychopharmacological basis in the therapy of bulimia and anorexia.

    PubMed

    Mauri, M C; Rudelli, R; Somaschini, E; Roncoroni, L; Papa, R; Mantero, M; Longhini, M; Penati, G

    1996-02-01

    1. Eating disorders can be found in several psychiatric pathologies: schizophrenia, delusional disorder (somatic type), bipolar disorders, major depressive disorder, borderline personality disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, somatization disorder and conversion disorder. 2. Although their clinical features have been defined, relatively little is known about the role of neurobiological patterns in the pathogenesis of these disorders. Several CNS neurotransmitters and neuromodulators are involved in the regulation of eating behavior in animals and have been implicated in symptoms such as depression and anxiety often observed in patients with eating disorders. The authors will review some studies on NA, DA, 5-HT, beta-endorphins, CRH, VP, OT, CCK, NPY and PYY involved in eating disorders. Furthermore, we will highlight some of the studies on drug therapy of eating disorders taking into account the effects of these agents on neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. 3. Antidepressant drugs have long been used for anorexia nervosa and bulimia, these disorders been claimed to be affective equivalent. Antidepressant agents seem to be effective in reducing the frequency of binge-eating episodes, purging behavior and depressive symptomatology. It is notable that antidepressant agents have been proved to be effective in patients with chronic bulimic symptoms, even in cases persisting for many years and in patients who had repeatedly failed courses of alternative therapeutic approaches. In all of the positive studies, antidepressant agents appeared effective even in bulimic subjects who did not display concomitant depression. 4. Few controlled studies on use of medications for anorexia nervosa have been published. Central serotonergic receptor-blocking compounds such as cyproheptadine cause marked increase in appetite and body weight. Zinc supplementation or cisapride could be a therapeutic option in addition to psychological and other approaches in anorexia nervosa. 5. There is no therapy as yet which is fully effective in alimentary disorders. Psychotropic drugs give some relief from symptoms, but they cannot cure the disorders. An integrated approach, either pharmacological or psychological, is still recommendable. PMID:8861189

  20. Tourette syndrome associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: The impact of tics and psychopharmacological treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Oluwabusi, Olumide O; Parke, Susan; Ambrosini, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple chronic motor and vocal tics beginning in childhood. Several studies describe the association between TS and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Fifty percent of children diagnosed with ADHD have comorbid tic disorder. ADHD related symptoms have been reported in 35% to 90% of children with TS. Since ADHD is the most prevalent comorbid condition with TS and those with concomitant TS and ADHD present with considerable psychosocial and behavioral impairments, it is essential for clinicians to be familiar with these diagnoses and their management. This paper highlights the association between treating ADHD with stimulants and the development of tic disorders. The two cases discussed underscore the fact that children with TS may present with ADHD symptomatology prior to the appearance of any TS related symptoms. Appropriate management of TS in a patient diagnosed with ADHD can lead to quality of life improvements and a reduction in psychosocial impairments. PMID:26862512

  1. Psychopharmacologic Services for Homeless Veterans: Comparing Psychotropic Prescription Fills Among Homeless and Non-Homeless Veterans with Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Hermes, Eric; Rosenheck, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Using national Veterans Health Administration (VHA) administrative data, this study evaluated differences in psychotropic medication use between homeless and non-homeless adults with serious mental illness (SMI) who used VHA services in 2010. The adjusted mean number of psychotropic prescription fills associated with homeless individuals were identified using regression models adjusted for socio-demographics, diagnoses, and use of health services. Of the 876,989 individuals with SMI using VHA services, 7.2 % were homeless at some time during 2010. In bivariate analysis, homeless individuals filled more psychotropic medication prescriptions compared with non-homeless individuals. However, after adjusting for potentially confounding variables, homeless individuals were found to have filled 16.2 % fewer prescriptions than non-homeless individuals when all psychotropics were analyzed together (F = 6947.1, p < .001) and for most individual classes of psychotropics. Greater use of residential/inpatient mental health services by the homeless was the most important single factor associated with filling more psychotropic prescriptions than non-homeless individuals. PMID:26202545

  2. Brief Report: Social Disability in Autism Spectrum Disorder--Results from Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology (RUPP) Autism Network Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scahill, Lawrence; Hallett, Victoria; Aman, Michael G.; McDougle, Christopher J.; Arnold, L. Eugene; McCracken, James T.; Tierney, Elaine; Deng, Yanhong; Dziura, James; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2013-01-01

    There is growing interest in measuring social disability as a core element of autism spectrum disorders in medication trials. We conducted a secondary analysis on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist Social Withdrawal subscale using data from two federally-funded, multi-site, randomized trials with risperidone. Study 1 included 52 subjects assigned to…

  3. Psychopharmacological treatment of 2195 in-patients with borderline personality disorder: A comparison with other psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Bridler, René; Häberle, Anne; Müller, Sabrina T; Cattapan, Katja; Grohmann, Renate; Toto, Sermin; Kasper, Siegfried; Greil, Waldemar

    2015-06-01

    Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are usually prescribed a variety of psychotropic drugs; however, none is recommended in the guidelines nor has any been approved for this indication. As data on drug prescriptions for BPD are sparse, cross-sectional data from the European Drug Safety Project AMSP were used to analyse drug prescriptions of 2195 in-patients with BPD between 2001 and 2011, and the mean values, confidence intervals and regression analyses were calculated. 70% of all BPD patients were medicated with antipsychotics and/or antidepressants, 33% with anticonvulsants, 30% with benzodiazepines, and 4% with lithium; 90% received at least one, 80%≥2, and 54%≥3 psychotropic drugs concomitantly (mean: 2.8). Prescription rates for quetiapine, the single drug most often used in BPD (22%), increased significantly over time. In view of the high percentage of young females with BPD, 18-40 year-old female patients with BPD were compared with patients of the same age but with depression (unipolar and bipolar) and schizophrenia. Typical sedative antipsychotics and anticonvulsants were prescribed more often in BPD than in the other diagnostic groups, with the exception of bipolar depression; this was true for the single substances quetiapine, levomepromazine, chlorprothixene, carbamazepine, and valproate. A limitation of the study was the use of clinical data without verifying the diagnoses by structured interviews. Contrary to the guidelines, about 90% of in-patients with BPD received psychotropic drugs. Polypharmacy was common, and antipsychotics with sedative profiles such as quetiapine and mood-stabilizing anticonvulsants such as valproate appear to be preferred. PMID:25907249

  4. The Role of the Noradrenergic System in the Exploration–Exploitation Trade-Off: A Psychopharmacological Study

    PubMed Central

    Jepma, Marieke; te Beek, Erik T.; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; van Gerven, Joop M.A.; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2010-01-01

    Animal research and computational modeling have indicated an important role for the neuromodulatory locus coeruleus–norepinephrine (LC–NE) system in the control of behavior. According to the adaptive gain theory, the LC–NE system is critical for optimizing behavioral performance by regulating the balance between exploitative and exploratory control states. However, crucial direct empirical tests of this theory in human subjects have been lacking. We used a pharmacological manipulation of the LC–NE system to test predictions of this theory in humans. In a double-blind parallel-groups design (N = 52), participants received 4 mg reboxetine (a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor), 30 mg citalopram (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor), or placebo. The adaptive gain theory predicted that the increased tonic NE levels induced by reboxetine would promote task disengagement and exploratory behavior. We assessed the effects of reboxetine on performance in two cognitive tasks designed to examine task (dis)engagement and exploitative versus exploratory behavior: a diminishing-utility task and a gambling task with a non-stationary pay-off structure. In contrast to predictions of the adaptive gain theory, we did not find differences in task (dis)engagement or exploratory behavior between the three experimental groups, despite demonstrable effects of the two drugs on non-specific central and autonomic nervous system parameters. Our findings suggest that the LC–NE system may not be involved in the regulation of the exploration–exploitation trade-off in humans, at least not within the context of a single task. It remains to be examined whether the LC–NE system is involved in random exploration exceeding the current task context. PMID:21206527

  5. Brain Functional Effects of Psychopharmacological Treatment in Major Depression: A Focus on Neural Circuitry of Affective Processing

    PubMed Central

    Wessa, Michèle; Lois, Giannis

    2015-01-01

    In the last two decades, neuroimaging research has reached a much deeper understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of major depression (MD) and has converged on functional alterations in limbic and prefrontal neural networks, which are mainly linked to altered emotional processing observed in MD patients. To date, a considerable number of studies have sought to investigate how these neural networks change with pharmacological antidepressant treatment. In the current review, we therefore discuss results from a) pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies investigating the effects of selective serotonin or noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors on neural activation patterns in relation to emotional processing in healthy individuals, b) treatment studies in patients with unipolar depression assessing changes in neural activation patterns before and after antidepressant pharmacotherapy, and c) predictive neural biomarkers of clinical response in depression. Comparing results from pharmacological fMRI studies in healthy individuals and treatment studies in depressed patients nicely showed parallel findings, mainly for a reduction of limbic activation in response to negative stimuli. A thorough investigation of the empirical findings highlights the importance of the specific paradigm employed in every study which may account for some of the discrepant findings reported in treatment studies in depressed patients. PMID:26412066

  6. The Application of Child Analytic Principles to Educational Models, School Consultations, and Psychopharmacology: Introduction to the Section.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Laura

    2015-01-01

    In this collection of papers, psychoanalytic principles come to life in a variety of settings: in a therapeutic nursery, in two schools serving children with special needs, in mainstream schools, and in a psychiatric practice. From dyadic work with a two-year-old's tantrums, to play therapy using deep-sea symbolism with a five-year-old; from the interchange with parents and school administrators in a middle school regarding "sexting, " to the in-depth assessment of children upon entry to a special school, these papers illustrate enriching exchanges between psychoanalysts, educators, children, and their communities. PMID:27337821

  7. Psychopharmacological and Other Treatments in Preschool Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Current Evidence and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, L. Eugene; Anthony, Bruno J.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objective This article reviews rational approaches to treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in preschool children, including pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments. Implications for clinical practice are discussed. Data Sources We searched MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health, Educational Resources Information Center, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects for relevant literature published in English from 1967 to 2007 on preschool ADHD. We also reviewed the references cited in identified reports. Study Selection Studies were reviewed if the sample included at least some children younger than 6 years of age or attending kindergarten, the study participants had a diagnosis of ADHD or equivalent symptoms, received intervention aimed at ADHD symptoms, and included a relevant outcome measure. Data Extraction Studies were reviewed for type of intervention and outcome relevant to ADHD and were rated for the level of evidence for adequacy of the data to inform clinical practice. Conclusions The current level of evidence for adequacy of empirical data to inform clinical practice for short-term treatment of ADHD in preschool children is Level A for methylphenidate and Level B for parent behavior training, child training, and additive-free elimination diet. PMID:18844482

  8. A Systematic Review of Treatments for Anxiety in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasa, Roma A.; Carroll, Laura M.; Nozzolillo, Alixandra A.; Mahajan, Rajneesh; Mazurek, Micah O.; Bennett, Amanda E.; Wink, Logan K.; Bernal, Maria Pilar

    2014-01-01

    This study systematically examined the efficacy and safety of psychopharmacological and non-psychopharmacological treatments for anxiety in youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Four psychopharmacological, nine cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and two alternative treatment studies met inclusion criteria. Psychopharmacological studies were…

  9. Research Units of Pediatric Psychopharmacology (RUPP) Autism Network Randomized Clinical Trial of Parent Training and Medication: One-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, L. Eugene; Aman, Michael G.; Li, Xiaobai; Butter, Eric; Humphries, Kristina; Scahill, Lawrence; Lecavalier, Luc; McDougle, Christopher J.; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Handen, Benjamin; Wilson, Krystina; Stigler, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To follow up on a three-site, 24-week randomized clinical trial (N = 124) comparing antipsychotic medication alone (MED) with antipsychotic medication plus parent training in the behavior management (COMB) of children with autism spectrum disorders and severe behavior problems. The COMB treatment had shown a significant advantage for…

  10. Recreational 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) or 'ecstasy' and self-focused compassion: Preliminary steps in the development of a therapeutic psychopharmacology of contemplative practices.

    PubMed

    Kamboj, Sunjeev K; Kilford, Emma J; Minchin, Stephanie; Moss, Abigail; Lawn, Will; Das, Ravi K; Falconer, Caroline J; Gilbert, Paul; Curran, H Valerie; Freeman, Tom P

    2015-09-01

    3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) produces diverse pro-social effects. Cognitive training methods rooted in Eastern contemplative practices also produce these effects through the development of a compassionate mindset. Given this similarity, we propose that one potential mechanism of action of MDMA in psychotherapy is through enhancing effects on intrapersonal attitudes (i.e. pro-social attitudes towards the self). We provide a preliminary test of this idea. Recreational MDMA (ecstasy) users were tested on two occasions, having consumed or not consumed ecstasy. Self-critical and self-compassionate responses to self-threatening scenarios were assessed before (T1) and after (T2) ecstasy use (or non-use), and then after compassionate imagery (T3). Moderating roles of dispositional self-criticism and avoidant attachment were examined. Separately, compassionate imagery and ecstasy produced similar sociotropic effects, as well as increases in self-compassion and reductions in self-criticism. Higher attachment-related avoidance was associated with additive effects of compassionate imagery and ecstasy on self-compassion. Findings were in line with MDMA's neuropharmacological profile, its phenomenological effects and its proposed adjunctive use in psychotherapy. However, although conditions were balanced, the experiment was non-blind and MDMA dose/purity was not determined. Controlled studies with pharmaceutically pure MDMA are still needed to test these effects rigorously. PMID:25990558

  11. A systematic review of treatments for anxiety in youth with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Vasa, Roma A; Carroll, Laura M; Nozzolillo, Alixandra A; Mahajan, Rajneesh; Mazurek, Micah O; Bennett, Amanda E; Wink, Logan K; Bernal, Maria Pilar

    2014-12-01

    This study systematically examined the efficacy and safety of psychopharmacological and non-psychopharmacological treatments for anxiety in youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Four psychopharmacological, nine cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and two alternative treatment studies met inclusion criteria. Psychopharmacological studies were descriptive or open label, sometimes did not specify the anxiety phenotype, and reported behavioral activation. Citalopram and buspirone yielded some improvement, whereas fluvoxamine did not. Non-psychopharmacological studies were mainly randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with CBT demonstrating moderate efficacy for anxiety disorders in youth with high functioning ASD. Deep pressure and neurofeedback provided some benefit. All studies were short-term and included small sample sizes. Large scale and long term RCTs examining psychopharmacological and non-psychopharmacological treatments are sorely needed. PMID:25070468

  12. Psychotherapists' Perceptions and Understanding of Pharmacotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brammer, Robert; Haller, Katherine; Roberson, Janice

    Attendees at the 1998 Texas Counseling Association's annual convention were given a brief survey and short test on psychopharmacology. Analysis was performed to examine the effects of demographic and ideological variables. The model moderately explained the variance on the psychopharmacology test with only 2.5% of the adjusted variance explained…

  13. A Catalog of Psychiatric Medications Used in the Treatment of Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Susan Hackbarth; Nims, Donald R.

    1996-01-01

    Although school counselors are increasingly involved in administering medications to students with emotional, conduct, and behavioral problems, few counselors have training in psychopharmacology. Gives a brief history of psychopharmacological interventions, and describes usage and side effects of drugs for psychosis, depression, anxiety, and…

  14. Erratum.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Erratum for THE LINK BETWEEN USE OF PSYCHEDELIC DRUGS AND MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS BY: Nesvåg R, Bramness JG, Ystrom E. Journal of Psychopharmacology October 2015 29: 1035-1036, doi: 10.1177/0269881115596156. PMID:27166388

  15. Outcome Studies in the Treatment of Panic Disorder: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beamish, Patricia M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reviews outcome studies in the treatment of panic disorder without agoraphobia for adults. Presents evidence supporting the efficacy of psychopharmacological and cognitive-behavioral interventions. Addresses the need for standards of care in counseling persons with panic disorder. (RB)

  16. 40 CFR 798.6200 - Motor activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... addition to the reporting requirements specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J the final test report... activity,” Handbook of Psychopharmacology. Vol. 7. Eds. Iversen, L.L., Iversen, D.S., Snyder, S.H....

  17. 40 CFR 798.6200 - Motor activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... addition to the reporting requirements specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J the final test report... activity,” Handbook of Psychopharmacology. Vol. 7. Eds. Iversen, L.L., Iversen, D.S., Snyder, S.H....

  18. 40 CFR 798.6200 - Motor activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... addition to the reporting requirements specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J the final test report... activity,” Handbook of Psychopharmacology. Vol. 7. Eds. Iversen, L.L., Iversen, D.S., Snyder, S.H....

  19. The pharmacologic approach to the critically ill patient

    SciTech Connect

    Chernow, B. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains papers addressing the pharmacologic approach to the critically ill patient. Chapter topics include: Radiation injury; Red cell substitutes: a current appraisal; and Psychopharmacology in the ICU.

  20. 40 CFR 798.6200 - Motor activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... addition to the reporting requirements specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J the final test report... activity,” Handbook of Psychopharmacology. Vol. 7. Eds. Iversen, L.L., Iversen, D.S., Snyder, S.H....

  1. 40 CFR 798.6200 - Motor activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... addition to the reporting requirements specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J the final test report... activity,” Handbook of Psychopharmacology. Vol. 7. Eds. Iversen, L.L., Iversen, D.S., Snyder, S.H....

  2. Diagnosis, assessment, and treatment of hypersexuality.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Meg S; Krueger, Richard B

    2010-03-01

    This article reviews the current evidence base for the diagnosis, assessment, and treatment of hypersexual conditions. Controversy concerning this diagnosis is discussed. Terminology and diagnostic criteria, as well as psychological, psychopharmacological, and other treatment approaches, are presented. PMID:20358460

  3. Predisposition Factors in Anorexia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, K. L.; Jones, Karen H.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews literature concerned with investigating psychiatric disturbances and genetic variables hypothesized as predisposing factors in etiology of anorexia nervosa. Gives particular emphasis to research which discusses association between anorexia nervosa and depression. Reviews psychopharmacological evidence and family genetics studies. Offers…

  4. [Psychopharmacotherapy in pregnancy and lactation. 2: Lactation].

    PubMed

    Lanczik, M; Knoche, M; Fritze, J

    1998-01-01

    Whilst the incidence of psychiatric disorders decreases during pregnancy, the risk during the postpartum period increases significantly, often leading to the necessity of psychopharmacological intervention during the puerperium, and subsequently during lactation and breast-feeding. The necessity for lithium prophylaxis in manic-depressive women after childbirth has been identified, and it is recommended that weaning rather than omission of psychopharmacological treatment is preferable during the puerperium. PMID:9522328

  5. The Sociopharmacology of Tobacco Addiction: Implications for Understanding Health Disparities.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-02-01

    Efforts to reduce the public health burden of tobacco use have not equally benefited all members of society, leading to disparities in tobacco use as a function of ethnicity/race, socioeconomic position, physical/behavioral comorbidity, and other factors. Although multilevel transdisciplinary models are needed to comprehensively understand sources of tobacco-related health disparities (TRHD), the incorporation of psychopharmacology into TRHD research is rare. Similarly, psychopharmacology researchers have often overlooked the societal context in which tobacco is consumed. In an effort to facilitate transdisciplinary research agendas for studying TRHD and the psychopharmacology of tobacco use, this article introduces a novel paradigm, called "sociopharmacology." Sociopharmacology is a platform for investigating how contextual factors amplify psychopharmacological determinants of smoking to disproportionately enhance vulnerability to smoking in populations subject to TRHD. The overall goal of sociopharmacology is to identify proximal person-level psychopharmacological mechanisms that channel distal societal-level influences on TRHD. In this article I describe: (1) sociopharmacology's overarching methodology and theoretical framework; (2) example models that apply sociopharmacology to understand mechanisms underlying TRHD; (3) how sociopharmacological approaches may enhance the public health impact of basic research on the psychopharmacology of tobacco use; and (4) how understanding sociopharmacological mechanisms of TRHD might ultimately translate into interventions that reduce TRHD. PMID:25890832

  6. Intervening in the psychopath's brain.

    PubMed

    Glannon, Walter

    2014-02-01

    Psychopathy is a disorder involving personality and behavioral features associated with a high rate of violent aggression and recidivism. This paper explores potential psychopharmacological therapies to modulate dysfunctional neural pathways in psychopaths and reduce the incidence of their harmful behavior, as well as the ethical and legal implications of offering these therapies as an alternative to incarceration. It also considers whether forced psychopharmacological intervention in adults and children with psychopathic traits manifesting in violent behavior can be justified. More generally, the paper addresses the question of how to weigh the psychopath's presumptive right to non-interference in his brain and mind against the public interest in avoiding harm. PMID:24381085

  7. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Individualized and Traditional Instructional Methods for Student Nurses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biegert, Lydia E.; Withrow, M. Jean

    The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an audio-visual instrument in teaching psychopharmacology to high and low achieving associate degree nursing students at Alvin Community College (Texas). Students were grouped as either high or low achieving according to their scores on an American College Testing (ACT) program test…

  8. Bibliography on the Hyperkinetic Behavior Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirson, Tamara; And Others

    The bibliography on the hyperkinetic behavior syndrome focuses on the behavior characteristics of and treatment for hyperactivity. Entries are divided into the following sections (sample subsections are in parentheses): general review of pediatric psychopharmacology; the hyperkinetic behavior syndrome (overview, diagnosis and evaluation,…

  9. The Current State of Empirical Support for the Pharmacological Treatment of Selective Mutism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, John S.; Mitchell, Angela D.; Segool, Natasha

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the current state of evidence for the psychopharmacological treatment of children diagnosed with selective mutism within the context of its link to social anxiety disorder. An increased focus on potential medication treatment for this disorder has resulted from significant monetary and resource limitations in typical practice,…

  10. Understanding Bipolar Disorder: Implications for Mental Health Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Withrow, J. Steve; Hinkle, J. Scott

    1990-01-01

    Provides an overview of bipolar disorder, including a discussion of diagnostic indicators, etiological theories, and psychopharmacological treatment. Examines treatment implications for mental health counselors, including role in psychiatric liaison, individual counseling, marriage and family therapy, and vocational counseling. (Author/ABL)

  11. Antipsychotics, Lithium, Benzodiazepines, Beta-Blockers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karper, Laurence P.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The psychopharmacologic treatment of aggression is a critical component of the treatment of psychiatric patients. The diagnostic assessment of aggressive patients is reviewed and relevant literature is presented to help clinicians select appropriate medication. Side-effects, dosages, and methods of administration are highlighted. (JPS)

  12. Best Practices for Mental Health in Child Welfare: Screening, Assessment, and Treatment Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanelli, Lisa Hunter; Landsverk, John; Levitt, Jessica Mass; Leslie, Laurel K.; Hurley, Maia M.; Bellonci, Christopher; Gries, Leonard T.; Pecora, Peter J.; Jensen, Peter S.

    2009-01-01

    The Best Practices for Mental Health in Child Welfare Consensus Conference focused on developing guidelines in five key areas (screening and assessment, psychosocial interventions, psychopharmacologic treatment, parent engagement, and youth empowerment) related to children's mental health. This paper provides an overview of issues related to the…

  13. The Boston State Hospital case: "involuntary mind control," the constitution, and the "right to rot".

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, P S; Gutheil, T G

    1980-06-01

    The recent Boston State Hospital case represents a problematic decision on the right of inpatients to refuse treatment. The authors describe how basic misconceptions of psychopharmacology led to questionable analysis of the constitutional issues at stake. The effects of the decision may seriously impair proper care for the hospitalized mentally ill. PMID:7377395

  14. Mind Altering Drugs and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Wayne O.

    1971-01-01

    A researcher in psychopharmacology foresees a flood of new drugs that will make man feel happy, cause him to forget his past, and arouse his sexual desires. Man may actually have the possibility of attaining sustained happiness, or something like it, through drugs, and so must ask the question, Is happiness what I most want?" (Author)

  15. Developmental Pharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Anker, Johannes N.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs used in psychopharmacology across the pediatric age spectrum from infants to adolescents represents a major challenge for clinicians. In pediatrics, treatment protocols use either standard dose reductions for these drugs for children below a certain age or use less conventional…

  16. On the Difference between Designing Children and Raising Them: Ethics and the Use of Educationally Oriented Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Zachary

    2010-01-01

    The use of educationally oriented biotechnology has grown drastically in recent decades and is likely to continue to grow. Advances in both the neurosciences and genetics have opened up important areas of application and industry, from psychopharmacology to gene-chip technologies. This article reviews the current state of educationally oriented…

  17. Factor Structure and Differential Validity of the Expanded Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Adrian; Donnell, Alison J.; Young, Tony R.

    2004-01-01

    The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) is one of the most widely used measures in psychiatric outcome and clinical psychopharmacology research. To date, however, research on the psychometric properties of the expanded version of the BPRS (BPRS-E) has been limited. An exploratory factor analysis (n = 360) using maximum likelihood extraction with…

  18. The Role of Exercise in Reducing Childhood and Adolescent PTSD, Anxiety, and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motta, Robert W.; Kuligowski, Jenna M.; Marino, Dawn M.

    2010-01-01

    A great many interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adults have been described in the literature. These include, but are not limited to, cognitive-behavioral therapy, psychodynamic therapy, psychopharmacology, exposure therapy, anxiety management training, stress management techniques, eye movement desensitization and…

  19. Parting Reflections on Education of Children with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders [and] Response to Forness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forness, Steven R.; Oswald, Donald

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the need to incorporate research findings in developmental psychopathology, psychiatric comorbidity, and psychopharmacology in school mental health programs to enable early detection and primary prevention of emotional and behavioral disorders in students. A response stresses the need for a multidisciplinary approach.…

  20. Therapeutic Implications of Pharmacotherapy: Current Trends and Ethical Issues.(practice & Theory)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Jason H.; Anderson, Shannon M.

    2004-01-01

    The use of psychotropic medications (pharmacotherapy) in conjunction with psychotherapy is regarded as the standard of care for many mental health disorders. Counselors, therefore, need to be knowledgeable about psychopharmacology to monitor its impact on the therapeutic relationship and on client outcome. Discussed are potential ethical dilemmas…

  1. Predictors and Moderators of Parent Training Efficacy in a Sample of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Serious Behavioral Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Cristan; Lecavalier, Luc; Yu, Sunkyung; Arnold, L. Eugene; McDougle, Christopher J.; Scahill, Lawrence; Handen, Benjamin; Johnson, Cynthia R.; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Bearss, Karen; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Aman, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    The Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology-Autism Network reported additional benefit when adding parent training (PT) to antipsychotic medication in children with autism spectrum disorders and serious behavior problems. The intent-to-treat analyses were rerun with putative predictors and moderators. The "Home Situations Questionnaire"…

  2. Teaching Medication Compliance to Psychiatric Residents: Placing an Orphan Topic into a Training Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiden, Peter J.; Rao, Nyapati

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Medication compliance is an orphan topic. Training in the understanding and management of noncompliance does not neatly fall within the domain of psychopharmacology, nor does it clearly fit into other core curricula areas, such as clinical interviewing or psychotherapy training. The objective of this article is to increase awareness…

  3. Gastrointestinal Symptoms in a Sample of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolov, Roumen N.; Bearss, Karen E.; Lettinga, Jelle; Erickson, Craig; Rodowski, Maria; Aman, Michael G.; McCracken, James T.; McDougle, Christopher J.; Tierney, Elaine; Vitiello, Benedetto; Arnold, L. Eugene; Shah, Bhavik; Posey, David J.; Ritz, Louise; Scahill, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate gastrointestinal (GI) problems in a large, well-characterized sample of children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). Methods: One hundred seventy two children entering one of two trials conducted by the Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology (RUPP) Autism Network were assessed comprehensively prior to…

  4. Sensitivity of the Modified Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale to Detect Change: Results from Two Multi-Site Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scahill, Lawrence; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Anderberg, Emily; Dimitropoulos, Anastasia; Dziura, James; Aman, Michael G.; McCracken, James; Tierney, Elaine; Hallett, Victoria; Katz, Karol; Vitiello, Benedetto; McDougle, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive behavior is a core feature of autism spectrum disorder. We used 8-week data from two federally funded, multi-site, randomized trials with risperidone conducted by the Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism Network to evaluate the sensitivity of the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for autism…

  5. Use and Management of Medications for Children Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollins, Scott H.; Barkley, Russell A.; DuPaul, George J.

    2001-01-01

    This article provides information and guidelines for the effective use of medication in treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Basic principles of psychopharmacology, different types of medications that have been used successfully to treat ADHD, and best practices for assessing the effects of medication in children with ADHD are…

  6. The Control of Responsiveness in ADHD by Catecholamines: Evidence for Dopaminergic, Noradrenergic and Interactive Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oades, Robert D.; Sadile, Adolfo G.; Sagvolden, Terje; Viggiano, Davide; Zuddas, Alessandro; Devoto, Paola; Aase, Heidi; Johansen, Espen B.; Ruocco, Lucia A.; Russell, Vivienne A.

    2005-01-01

    We explore the neurobiological bases of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from the viewpoint of the neurochemistry and psychopharmacology of the catecholamine-based behavioural systems. The contributions of dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) neurotransmission to the motor and cognitive symptoms of ADHD (e.g. hyperactivity, variable…

  7. Current Directions in ADHD and Its Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norvilitis, Jill M., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a matter of ongoing research and debate, with considerable data supporting both psychopharmacological and behavioral approaches. Researchers continue to search for new interventions to be used in conjunction with or in place of the more traditional approaches. These interventions run the…

  8. An Assessment of the Role of Computer Technology in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Katherine

    This study assessed the impact of two teaching styles on how well 30 students mastered a section of the psychopharmacology unit within the Survey of Physiological Psychology course. The first method consisted of the instructor's primary method of instruction, a lecture supplemented by demonstrations and discussions, neither of which involved…

  9. Adequacy of Antidepressant Treatment by Psychiatric Residents: The Antidepressant Treatment History Form as a Possible Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dew, Rachel Elizabeth; Kramer, Stephen I.; McCall, W. Vaughn

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Facility in psychopharmacology is a major goal of psychiatric residency. This study assesses the adequacy of pharmacotherapy provided to depressed patients in a resident clinic. Methods: Charts of all 285 patients seen in an outpatient triage clinic during 2000 were reviewed. One hundred twelve patients had diagnoses of major…

  10. Selecting an Antidepressant for the Treatment of Pediatric Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Brent, David; Bostic, Jeff Q.; Naylor, Michael W.

    2006-01-01

    This column aims to discuss practical approaches to everyday issues in pediatric pharmacotherapy. The cases and discussions specifically target aspects of clinical care related to psychopharmacology for which there are no adequate applicable controlled trials. Given the need to address symptoms in youths with complex, severe, and comorbid…

  11. Assessment in Multisite Randomized Clinical Trials of Patients with Autistic Disorder: The Autism RUPP Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, L. Eugene; Aman, Michael G.; Martin, Andres; Collier-Crespin, Angie; Vitiello, Benedetto; Tierney, Elaine; Asarnow, Robert; Bell-Bradshaw, Felicia; Freeman, Betty Jo; Gates-Ulanet, Patricia; Klin, Ami; McCracken, James T.; McDougle, Christopher J.; McGough, James J.; Posey, David J.; Scahill, Lawrence; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Ritz, Louise; Volkmar, Fred

    2000-01-01

    This paper explains how the Autism Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology (RUPP Autism Network) resolved common assessment problems including communication problems compromising use of the patient as informant, broad subject heterogeneity, difficulties in assessing low-end IQs, scarcity of autism-adapted cognitive and neuropsychological…

  12. Review of Research for People with ID and Mental Health Problems: A View from the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Colin; Deb, Shoumitro; Chaplin, Eddie; Hardy, Steve; Mukherjee, Rittick

    2013-01-01

    This review of research into mental disorders in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) focuses on research in this field that has originated from the United Kingdom in the last 2 decades. It considers research developments into the epidemiology of mental disorders and problem behaviors, psychopharmacology, psychosocial interventions, and…

  13. Panic Disorder in Clinically Referred Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerfler, Leonard A.; Connor, Daniel F.; Volungis, Adam M.; Toscano, Peter F., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the frequency and characteristics of panic disorder in children and adolescents who had been referred to a pediatric psychopharmacology clinic. Of the 280 children and adolescents evaluated in this clinic, 35 were diagnosed with panic disorder using a semi-structured clinical interview (K-SADS) and other objective…

  14. Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scahill, Lawrence; McDougle, Christopher J.; Williams, Susan K.; Dimitropoulos, Anastasia; Aman, Michael G.; McCracken, James T.; Tierney, Elaine; Arnold, L. Eugene; Cronin, Pegeen; Grados, Marco; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Koenig, Kathleen; Lam, Kristen S. L.; McGough, James; Posey, David J.; Ritz, Louise; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the psychometric properties of the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scales (CYBOCS) modified for pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). Method: Raters from five Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology (RUPP) Autism Network were trained to reliability. The modified scale (CYBOCS-PDD), which contains only…

  15. The Heavy Burden of Psychiatric Comorbidity in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Large Comparative Study of a Psychiatrically Referred Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joshi, Gagan; Petty, Carter; Wozniak, Janet; Henin, Aude; Fried, Ronna; Galdo, Maribel; Kotarski, Meghan; Walls, Sarah; Biederman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to systematically examine patterns of psychiatric comorbidity in referred youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) including autistic disorder and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. Consecutively referred children and adolescents to a pediatric psychopharmacology program were assessed with…

  16. The Effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Families of Children on the Autism Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Marjorie; Ono, Michele; Timmer, Susan; Goodlin-Jones, Beth

    2008-01-01

    We report the results of a pilot trial of an evidence-based treatment--Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT; Eyberg et al. "Psychopharmacology Bulletin", 31(1), 83-91, 1995) for boys aged 5-12 with high functioning autism spectrum disorders and clinically significant behavioral problems. The study also included an investigation of the role of…

  17. Evaluating Psychotropic Drugs in People with Mental Retardation: Where Are the Social Validity Data?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan; LeSage, Mark

    1995-01-01

    Journal articles dealing with drug treatment of individuals with mental retardation were examined to determine treatment goals and outcomes of treating behavior problems. Analysis of articles published from 1987 to 1993 in 5 major journals revealed that none of the 68 articles concerned with the psychopharmacology of mental retardation reported…

  18. The Texas Children's Medication Algorithm Project: Revision of the Algorithm for Pharmacotherapy of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pliszka, Steven R.; Crismon, M. Lynn; Hughes, Carroll W.; Corners, C. Keith; Emslie, Graham J.; Jensen, Peter S.; McCracken, James T.; Swanson, James M.; Lopez, Molly

    2006-01-01

    Objective: In 1998, the Texas Department of Mental Health and Mental Retardation developed algorithms for medication treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Advances in the psychopharmacology of ADHD and results of a feasibility study of algorithm use in community mental health centers caused the algorithm to be modified and…

  19. Psychotropic Medication Consultation in Schools: An Ethical and Legal Dilemma for School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, John S.; Thaler, Cara L.; Hirsch, Amanda J.

    2006-01-01

    Assessing, consulting, and intervening with students being treated with psychotropic medications is an increasingly common activity for school psychologists. This article reviews some of the literature providing evidence for the greater need for training in school psychopharmacology. A legal and ethical case study is presented that highlights the…

  20. Psychotropic Medications: An Investigation of the Knowledge of Counseling Graduate Students and Attitudes toward Coursework of Counselor Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobedo, Pedro Sanchez; Beamish, Patricia M.; Stump, Earl; Krause, Naomi

    Counselors working in clinical settings are frequently confronted with clients taking psychotropic medications. Counselors working in non-clinical school and industrial settings are often required to identify clients who need referral for psychopharmacological support. If counselors are to assist their clients in exploring treatment options, it is…

  1. Parting Reflections on Education of Children with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forness, Steven R.

    2003-01-01

    The author urges the field of education for children with emotional or behavioral disorders to address three critical areas: (1) developmental psychopathology (to improve early identification and prevention); (2) psychiatric comorbidity (e.g., disruptive disorders present with depression or anxiety disorder); and (3) psychopharmacology (especially…

  2. A Mindfulness-Based Strategy for Self-Management of Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Manikam, Ramasamy; Winton, Alan S. W.; Singh, Ashvind N. A.; Singh, Judy; Singh, Angela D. A.

    2011-01-01

    Some individuals with autism engage in physical aggression to an extent that interferes with not only their quality of life, but also that of their parents and siblings. Behavioral and psychopharmacological treatments have been the mainstay of treatments for aggression in children and adolescents with autism. We evaluated the effectiveness of a…

  3. Research on Disorders of the Mind. Progress & Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    The 14 conference papers on mental illness focus on the biological, genetic, psychopharmacological, psychopathological, and epidemiological and social factors related to psychoses. Divided into five sections each preceded by a brief introduction, entries include the following titles and authors: "The Biological Substrates of Schizophrenia" (S.…

  4. Pharmacotherapy of Disruptive Behavior in Mentally Retarded Subjects: A Review of the Current Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassler, Frank; Reis, Olaf

    2010-01-01

    The review presented here describes the state of the art of pharmacological treatment of aggression in subjects with mental retardation (MR) summing up results for both, children and adults. In general, psychopharmacological treatment of disruptive behavior in individuals with MR is similar to the treatment in subjects without MR. Compared to…

  5. Guidelines for the Clinical Evaluation of Psychoactive Drugs in Infants and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Drug Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    These guidelines are intended to help those who design and conduct investigations of psychopharmacologic agents in children. A progression of studies in four phases is advocated. First, early short term studies should establish single and multiple dose safety baselines. Second, early pilot efficacy studies may be initiated jointly with longer…

  6. Mechanisms of Action in Cognitive-Behavioral and Pharmacological Interventions for Obesity and Bulimia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craighead, Linda W.; Agras, W. Stewart

    1991-01-01

    Summarizes data pertaining to separate and combined effects of cognitive-behavioral and psychopharmacologic treatments for obesity and bulimia nervosa. Anorexiant medication appears to enhance restraint and facilitates weight loss with behavioral interventions in the treatment of obesity, but relapse occurs once medication is withdrawn.…

  7. Antidepressants and Suicidal Ideation in Adolescence: A Paradoxical Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierson, Eric E.

    2009-01-01

    The past two decades have seen a rapid increase in the number and types of psychopharmacological medications that are available for the treatment of depression in children and adolescents. Parents and adolescents often raise questions as to the potential increase in suicidal ideation associated with the use of primarily selective serotonin…

  8. 78 FR 104 - Advisory Committees; Tentative Schedule of Meetings for 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... Medicine (the IOM) conducted a study of the use of FDA's advisory committees. In its final report, one of... Pharmaceutical Date(s), if needed, to be Science and Clinical Pharmacology. determined. Psychopharmacologic Drugs... Devices Panel....... May 17, May 24, June 27, September 27, November 22. Clinical Chemistry and...

  9. 76 FR 78931 - Advisory Committees; Tentative Schedule of Meetings for 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... Institute of Medicine (the IOM) conducted a study of the use of FDA's advisory committees. In its final... Committee for Pharmaceutical March 14. Science and Clinical Pharmacology. Psychopharmacologic Drugs Advisory... determined. Clinical Chemistry and Clinical April 20, July 18-19, September Toxicology Devices Panel....

  10. The Dialogic Instructor: Co-Teaching across the Disciplines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jankiewicz, Henry

    This paper explains that an interdepartmental writing across the curriculum course at Syracuse University was developed and proposed by a writing teacher and a professor of experimental psychology and psychopharmacology. The paper states that the course, Perspectives on Drug Experience, was to be offered in both writing and psychology and sought…