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Sample records for psychosocial risk recovering

  1. Cell phones: the psychosocial risks.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2013-01-01

    Cell phones are a relatively novel and evolving technology. While the potential benefits of this technology continue to emerge, so do the potential psychosocial risks. For example, one psychosocial risk is user stress, which appears to be related to feeling compelled to promptly respond to cell-phone activity in order to maintain spontaneity and access with others. Other potential psychosocial risks include disruptions in sleep; the user's risk of exposure to cyberbullying, particularly the unwanted exposure of photographs and/or videos of the victim; and overuse, particularly among adolescents. With regard to the latter phenomenon, the boundaries among overuse, misuse, dependence, and addiction are not scientifically clear. Therefore, while cell phones are a convenient and expedient technology, they are not without their potential psychosocial hazards. PMID:23439568

  2. Configurations of Common Childhood Psychosocial Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…

  3. Psychosocial Factors in Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Ruth A; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease that is increasing in prevalence globally. Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in diabetes, and lifestyle and clinical risk factors do not fully account for the link between the conditions. This article provides an overview of the evidence concerning the role of psychosocial stress factors in diabetes risk, as well as in cardiovascular complications in people with existing diabetes. Several types of psychosocial factors are discussed including depression, other types of emotional distress, exposure to stressful conditions, and personality traits. The potential behavioral and biological pathways linking psychosocial factors to diabetes are presented and implications for patient care are highlighted. PMID:27566328

  4. The perinatal assessment of psychosocial risk.

    PubMed

    Haglund, L J; Britton, J R

    1998-06-01

    Although evaluation of psychosocial risk factors prior to perinatal hospital discharge has been advocated, the means for accomplishing such an evaluation are not well established. This article reviews several major psychosocial risk factors together with instruments that have been utilized to assess them during the perinatal period. Formal constructs reviewed include anxiety, depression, self-concept, general attitudes, life events, stress, adaptation, social support, marital and family functioning, and the home environment. Ongoing assessment of psychosocial status using formal instruments during routine perinatal care may provide a more complete picture of the psychosocial needs of the individual mother and her family, allowing for more appropriate, timely intervention and utilization of social and health care resources. PMID:9647002

  5. Adolescent Suicide Risk: Four Psychosocial Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Philip A.; Behrendt, Andrew E.

    2004-01-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among adolescents. This study examined the suicidal ideation, behavior, and attempt history of 100 adolescents ages seventeen to nineteen. Four psychosocial factors were found to be important for overall suicide risk: hopelessness, hostility, negative self-concept, and isolation. It is suggested that focusing on…

  6. Potential Psychosocial Risks of Sequencing Newborns.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Leslie Ann; Pereira, Stacey; McGuire, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    Various stakeholders have issued recommendations regarding the use of genomics in pediatrics. These guidelines are driven in part by concerns about psychosocial risks of disclosing predictive genomic information during childhood. As genomic sequencing becomes more commonly used in pediatric settings, it is important to systematically study the psychosocial impact of genomic sequencing of newborns, including the impact on family dynamics. Through review of the psychological and genetic counseling literature, we identify the following 3 domains of family dynamics that have potential to be impacted by the return of genomic results during the newborn period: perceived child vulnerability, parent-child bonding, and self and partner blame. In this article, we outline the complexity of studying these psychosocial outcomes and our plan to examine them in the BabySeq Project, a randomized controlled trial in both healthy and sick infants, in which the return of genomic information will be compared with standard of care. PMID:26729699

  7. Psychosocial risk factors for coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Glozier, Nick; Tofler, Geoffrey H; Colquhoun, David M; Bunker, Stephen J; Clarke, David M; Hare, David L; Hickie, Ian B; Tatoulis, James; Thompson, David R; Wilson, Alison; Branagan, Maree G

    2013-08-01

    In 2003, the National Heart Foundation of Australia published a position statement on psychosocial risk factors and coronary heart disease (CHD). This consensus statement provides an updated review of the literature on psychosocial stressors, including chronic stressors (in particular, work stress), acute individual stressors and acute population stressors, to guide health professionals based on current evidence. It complements a separate updated statement on depression and CHD. Perceived chronic job strain and shift work are associated with a small absolute increased risk of developing CHD, but there is limited evidence regarding their effect on the prognosis of CHD. Evidence regarding a relationship between CHD and job (in)security, job satisfaction, working hours, effort-reward imbalance and job loss is inconclusive. Expert consensus is that workplace programs aimed at weight loss, exercise and other standard cardiovascular risk factors may have positive outcomes for these risk factors, but no evidence is available regarding the effect of such programs on the development of CHD. Social isolation after myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with an adverse prognosis. Expert consensus is that although measures to reduce social isolation are likely to produce positive psychosocial effects, it is unclear whether this would also improve CHD outcomes. Acute emotional stress may trigger MI or takotsubo ("stress") cardiomyopathy, but the absolute increase in transient risk from an individual stressor is low. Psychosocial stressors have an impact on CHD, but clinical significance and prevention require further study. Awareness of the potential for increased cardiovascular risk among populations exposed to natural disasters and other conditions of extreme stress may be useful for emergency services response planning. Wider public access to defibrillators should be available where large populations gather, such as sporting venues and airports, and as part of the response

  8. Young child socioemotional/behavioral problems and cumulative psychosocial risk.

    PubMed

    Weitzman, Carol; Edmonds, Diana; Davagnino, Judith; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J

    2014-01-01

    Limited information is available about the rates and risk correlates of socioemotional/behavioral problems in young children in pediatric primary care settings serving low-income families. Our objective was to determine rates of clinically significant socioemotional/behavior problems in 12- to 48-month-olds from low-income families and identify associations between problems and individual and cumulative demographic and psychosocial risks. In this study, 378 Spanish- and English-speaking mothers attending a pediatric primary care practice serving low-income families were surveyed before well-child visits to assess socioemotional/behavioral problems (Brief Infant-Toddler Social-Emotional Assessment; M.J. Briggs-Gowan & A.S. Carter, ) and psychosocial and demographic risks (e.g., unemployment, low social support) (Parent Risk Questionnaire; D.I. Lowell, A.S. Carter, L. Godoy, B. Paulicin, & M.J. Briggs-Gowan, ). We found that 19.8% of children had clinically significant problems, and 53.2% experienced one or more psychosocial risks. Clinically significant socioemotional/behavioral problems were modestly to strongly associated with individual psychosocial risks, with the strongest associations with parental medical problems, parent depression/anxiety, and extreme parental distress, Adjusted Relative Risk (ARR) = 4.8-6.6, p < .0001. Cumulative demographic and psychosocial risk were uniquely associated with clinically significant problems, particularly among children experiencing three to four psychosocial risks, ARR = 3.0-11.6, p < .05. Psychosocial risks affect the majority of low-income families with young children, with a steep increase in likelihood of clinically significant socioemotional/behavioral problems as risks accumulate, underscoring the need to address both socioemotional/behavioral issues and psychosocial risk in young children. PMID:25424401

  9. [Psychosocial risk factors at work as predictors of mobbing].

    PubMed

    Meseguer de Pedro, Mariano; Soler Sánchez, María I; García-Izquierdo, Mariano; Sáez Navarro, M C; Sánchez Meca, Julio

    2007-05-01

    This work analyses the way in which various psychosocial risk indicators may predict mobbing. A sample of 638 workers, 168 men and 470 women, from the fruit-and-vegetable sector was evaluated. An anonymous questionnaire was administered to all employees who were present on the evaluation days in the companies comprising the study. After analysing the data obtained with the mobbing questionnaire NAQ-RE (Sáez, García-Izquierdo, and Llor, 2003) and with the psychosocial risk factors evaluation method of the INSHT (Martín and Pérez, 1997), using canonical regression, we found that several psychosocial factors such as role definition, mental workload, interest in the workers, and supervision / participation predict two types of mobbing: personal mobbing and work-performance-related mobbing. PMID:17425890

  10. Psychosocial Risk Factors for Future Adolescent Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewinsohn, Peter M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined psychosocial risk factors for attempting suicide in 1,508 high school students, 26 of whom attempted suicide during year following entry into study. Strongest predictors of future suicide attempt were history of past attempt, current suicidal ideation and depression, recent attempt by friend, low self-esteem, and having been born to…

  11. Risk assessment and psychosocial interventions for suicidal patients

    PubMed Central

    Chesin, Megan; Stanley, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Suicide is a leading cause of death in the US. Although factors elevating long-term risk for suicide are known and include bipolar disorder, signs of imminent suicide risk are difficult to study and not well-specified. Acute risk determinations must be made to determine the appropriate level of care to safeguard patients. To increase safety among at-risk patients in the short term and to decrease risk over time, psychosocial interventions to prevent suicide have been developed and tested in acute care and outpatient settings. Methods A narrative review of studies of imminent risk factors for suicide, suicide risk decision making, and psychosocial suicide prevention interventions was conducted. Results While some long-term risk factors of suicide have been established, accurate identification of individuals at imminent risk for suicide is difficult. Therefore, prevention efforts targeting individuals at high suicide behavior risk discharging from acute care settings tend to be generic and focus on psychoeducation and supportive follow-up contact. Data regarding the effectiveness of brief interventions (i.e., those not requiring more than one individualized treatment session) is mixed, showing better outcomes in the shorter term and when incidence of suicidal behavior or ideation is the outcome. With respect to longer term suicide prevention interventions (i.e., those with a minimum of 10 sessions), Dialectical Behavior Therapy has the largest evidence base. Conclusions To improve suicide prevention efforts, more rigorous study of imminent risk factors and psychosocial interventions is needed. Adaptations specific to individuals with bipolar disorder are possible and needed. PMID:23782460

  12. Psychosocial Distress and Stroke Risk in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Kimberly M.; Clark, Cari J.; Lewis, Tené T.; Aggarwal, Neelum T.; Beck, Todd; Guo, Hongfei; Lunos, Scott; Brearley, Ann; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.; Evans, Denis A.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association of psychosocial distress with risk of stroke mortality and incident stroke in older adults. Methods Data were from the Chicago Health and Aging Project, a longitudinal population-based study conducted in three contiguous neighborhoods on the south side of Chicago, Illinois. Participants were community-dwelling black and non-Hispanic white adults, age 65 and older (N=4,120 for stroke mortality; N=2,649 for incident stroke). Psychosocial distress was an analytically-derived composite measure of depressive symptoms, perceived stress, neuroticism, and life dissatisfaction. Cox proportional hazards models examined the association of distress with stroke mortality and incident stroke over 6 years of follow-up. Results 151 stroke deaths and 452 incident strokes were identified. Adjusting for age, race, and sex, the hazard ratio (HR) for each 1-SD increase in distress was 1.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.28–1.70) for stroke mortality and 1.18 (95% CI, 1.07–1.30) for incident stroke. Associations were reduced following adjustment for stroke risk factors and remained significant for stroke mortality (HR=1.29; 95% CI=1.10–1.52) but not for incident stroke (HR=1.09; 95% CI=0.98–1.21). Secondary analyses of stroke subtypes showed that distress was strongly related to incident hemorrhagic strokes (HR=1.70; 95% CI=1.28–2.25) but not ischemic strokes (HR=1.02; 95% CI=0.91–1.15) in fully adjusted models. Conclusions Increasing levels of psychosocial distress are related to excess risk of both fatal and nonfatal stroke in older black and white adults. Additional research is needed to examine pathways linking psychosocial distress to cerebrovascular disease risk. PMID:23238864

  13. Antenatal psychosocial risk factors associated with adverse postpartum family outcomes.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, L M; Reid, A J; Midmer, D K; Biringer, A; Carroll, J C; Stewart, D E

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the strength of the association between antenatal psychosocial risk factors and adverse postpartum outcomes in the family, such as assault of women by their partner, child abuse, postpartum depression, marital dysfunction and physical illness. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Cinahl, Famli, Psych Abstracts and the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials were searched from relevant articles published from Jan. 1, 1980, to Dec. 31, 1993, with the use of MeSH terms "depression, involutional," "child abuse," "child neglect," "domestic violence," "family," "marital adjustment," "family health," "newborn health," "child health," "physical illness," "social support," "psychosocial risk," "prediction," "risk factors," "obstetrics" and "prenatal care." Further articles were identified from bibliographies. STUDY SELECTION: Of the 370 articles identified through the search, 118 were included for review. Studies were included if they examined the association between psychosocial risk factors and the outcomes of interest. Articles were excluded if they were reviews of poor quality or they had one or more of the following features: insufficient description of the sample, a high attrition rate, a lack of standardized outcome measures, outcomes other than the ones of interest or results that had already been reported in a previous study. DATA EXTRACTION: The strength of evidence of each study was evaluated. On the basis of the evidence, each risk factor was assigned a rating of the strength of its association with each of the postpartum outcomes. The ratings were class A (good evidence of association), class B (fair evidence) and class C (no clear evidence). Of the 129 antenatal psychosocial risk factors studied, 15 were found to have a class A association with at least one of the postpartum outcomes. DATA SYNTHESIS: Child abuse and abuse of the mother by her partner were most strongly correlated (class A evidence) with a history of lack of social support, recent life

  14. Psychosocial Risks: Is Risk Management Strategic Enough in Business and Policy Making?

    PubMed Central

    Langenhan, Melissa K.; Leka, Stavroula; Jain, Aditya

    2013-01-01

    Background In times of continuous change and volatile markets, organizations are increasingly characterized by downsizing, work intensification, and resource rationalization. This has resulted in diversification, and the emergence of new risks within the field of occupational health and safety, with an important impact. This paper focuses on one such type of risk in the modern workplace—psychosocial risks. The current study aimed to explore stakeholder perspectives, regarding the extent to which psychosocial risks are incorporated into strategic risk management practices, at both the business and policy level. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 professionals, representing employer, expert, policy maker, and trade union stakeholder perspectives. Results It was found that the majority of organizations do not sufficiently, if at all, understand and incorporate psychosocial risks into strategic decision making, whereby the key barrier related to practical difficulties of not knowing how to manage psychosocial risks adequately. Conclusion The study found that there is a need to close the gap between policy and practice on a number of levels. Future recommendations comprise a policy framework and infrastructure underpinned by educational initiatives, partnerships, and networks to drive a shift in attitudes toward recognizing the duality of the concept of risk (including both potential negative and positive outcomes) and moving beyond simple regulatory compliance. PMID:23961331

  15. Emergency preparedness for higher risk populations: psychosocial considerations.

    PubMed

    Lemyre, Louise; Gibson, Stacey; Zlepnig, Jennifer; Meyer-Macleod, Robin; Boutette, Paul

    2009-06-01

    This paper was meant to be on 'vulnerable populations', as some population sub-groups do require special care, special planning and special integration of needs. However, the issue should be reframed in terms of groups at higher risks. The text explains how (1) there are contextual vulnerabilities, in (a) higher susceptibility, i.e. higher exposure to risk, (b) higher sensitivity, i.e. higher damage or higher brittleness, and (c) weaknesses and gaps in the emergency system; (2) that these higher susceptibility, sensitivity and system weaknesses involve important psychosocial considerations, which may stem from socio-demographic status or ripple effects in the community; and finally, (3) that addressing those 'soft spots' using the phrase 'vulnerable populations' can be misleading and disserving because it disempowers, stigmatises and deters one from a more thorough analysis. PMID:19447815

  16. Psychosocial risk and protective influences in Hawaiian adolescent psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Nahulu, L B; Andrade, N N; Makini, G K; Yuen, N Y; McDermott, J F; Danko, G P; Johnson, R C; Waldron, J A

    1996-01-01

    A large community sample of adolescents of a Native Hawaiian (Asian/ Pacific Islander) minority group was studied along with a small comparison group of non-Hawaiians, for the relationship between psychopathology (as measured by standard symptom scales) and (a) perceived support from family and friends, and (b) discussing problems with others. Expected gender patterns for friend support but not for family support were found. The Hawaiian boys appeared atypical, reporting nearly equal family support as Hawaiian girls. Discussing problems with another person was correlated with lower anxiety and depression scores but not aggression and substance abuse scores. It is concluded that gender and cultural factors influence symptom prevalence and severity as well as the impact of psychosocial risk factors. PMID:9225566

  17. [Changes in work organization and management of psychosocial risk factors].

    PubMed

    Costa, G

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, major changes have occurred in Italian working conditions and employment patterns due to several concurrent factors: increasing occupation in the tertiary sector, implementation of new technologies, labour market globalization, higher variability of working time arrangements, decrease of traditional physical-chemical risks, ageing of general/working population, access to work of people with disabilities, growing immigration of extra-community workers. Thus, psychosocial risk factors are becoming crucial issues of the present work organization, dealing with job content (complexity, meaning, uncertainties), mental work load, time pressure, variable working hours; career perspectives, role conflicts and ambiguity, education and training, personal relations, social support, work/family conflicts; age and cultural discrimination. The Occupational Health Physician has to deal with these multidimensional and multifaceted aspects of work stress by different and concurrent approaches, at both group and individual levels, with epidemiological and clinical perspectives, enacting preventive and therapeutic strategies. Both "external" work load and individual "responses" have to be properly considered and risk has to be assessed with "relative" rather than "absolute" criteria, addressed not only at fitness to work, but also to corrective actions. Hence, the OHP has to act in closer collaboration with work psychologists, sociologists, human resources managers and work organisation experts. PMID:19288799

  18. Psychosocial risk factors for HIV sexual risk among Indian men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Biello, Katie Brooks; Sivasubramanian, Murugesan; Mayer, Kenneth H; Anand, Vivek Raj; Safren, Steven A

    2013-01-01

    Indian men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk for HIV compared to the general Indian population. Psychosocial factors may be uniquely associated with HIV risk among Indian MSM and may moderate the beneficial impact of standard HIV prevention approaches. Psychiatric diagnostic interviews and psychosocial and sexual risk assessments were conducted among 150 MSM in Mumbai, India. Logistic regression was employed to examine the association of psychiatric disorders and psychosocial problems to recent sexual risk behavior. Twenty-five percent of participants reported engaging in unprotected anal sex (UAS) during their last sexual contact with a man. Men who were married to a woman were more likely to have engaged in UAS during their last sexual contact with a man (35% vs. 17%, p=0.018). In multivariable models, significant predictors of engaging in UAS were current major depression (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=2.61; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07, 6.39) and number of stressful life events (AOR=0.91; 95% CI 0.83, 0.99). Alcohol dependence, anxiety, and self-esteem were not associated with engaging in UAS. Indian MSM with depression are at higher odds of engaging in UAS compared to MSM without depression. HIV prevention programs for Indian MSM may benefit from incorporating treatment or triage for mental health problems. PMID:23339580

  19. Assessment of psychosocial risks faced by workers in Almería-type greenhouses, using the Mini Psychosocial Factor method.

    PubMed

    Montoya-García, M E; Callejón-Ferre, A J; Pérez-Alonso, J; Sánchez-Hermosilla, J

    2013-03-01

    This work reports the use of the Mini Psychosocial Factor (MPF) method for assessing the psychosocial risks faced by agricultural workers in the greenhouses of Almería (Spain) with the aim of improving their health. The variables Rhythm, Mobbing, Relationships, Health, Recognition, Autonomy, Emotional Involvement, Support, Compensation, Control, Demands, and Mental Load were recorded using a pre-validated questionnaire containing 15 questions. The sex, age, and nationality of the respondents (n = 310) were also recorded, as were the type of greenhouse in which each worked, the size of the greenhouse, and the crop grown. The results showed psychosocial risks to exist for the workers. Multiple correspondence analysis, however, showed that moderate risks can be offset by new prevention programmes that improve Spanish legislation in terms of workers' salaries, worker-employer social days, work timetables to facilitate family life, and training courses. This could improve the work environment and health of Almería's greenhouse workers as well as their productivity. PMID:22981469

  20. Psychosocial Risks Generated By Assets Specific Design Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remus, Furtună; Angela, Domnariu; Petru, Lazăr

    2015-07-01

    The human activity concerning an occupation is resultant from the interaction between the psycho-biological, socio-cultural and organizational-occupational factors. Tehnological development, automation and computerization that are to be found in all the branches of activity, the level of speed in which things develop, as well as reaching their complexity, require less and less physical aptitudes and more cognitive qualifications. The person included in the work process is bound in most of the cases to come in line with the organizational-occupational situations that are specific to the demands of the job. The role of the programmer is essencial in the process of execution of ordered softwares, thus the truly brilliant ideas can only come from well-rested minds, concentrated on their tasks. The actual requirements of the jobs, besides the high number of benefits and opportunities, also create a series of psycho-social risks, which can increase the level of stress during work activity, especially for those who work under pressure.

  1. Emerging aspects of psychosocial risks: violence and harassment at work.

    PubMed

    Gilioli, R; Campanini, P; Fichera, G P; Punzi, S; Cassitto, M G

    2006-01-01

    In the last twenty years, psychosocial risks have become crucial in Occupational Health. Particularly, there is an increasing interest about psychological and physical violence at the workplaces. Psychological violence (mobbing or workplace bullying) is described as a situation in which the person has been the victim of negative acts directed to the person and work, with offences, discriminations and isolation. Physical violence at work, still underestimated in many parts of the world, is becoming a topical subject both for its frequency and its pathogenic potential and consist of violence among workers (internal violence) and between workers and external persons (external violence). Examples of external violence are bank robberies, which are prevalent in many European countries, particulary in Italy. The costs of psychological and physical workplace violence are very high at all levels; individual, for the implication of violence for health and quality of life as well as organizational, for the increase of absenteeism, turnover and health care demands and claims. The Medical Centre for Occupational Stress and Harassment (CDL) of the "Clinica de Lavoro Luigi Devoto" was set up in 1996 with a day-hospital service for the diagnosis, rehabilitation and prevention of work related psychological diseases. From its opening, about 5000 patients have been examined. PMID:17017341

  2. Psychosocial Risk Factors Associated with Internet Addiction in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju Young; Shin, Kyoung Min; Cho, Sun-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of Internet addiction in middle school students and to identify associated psychosocial risk factors and depression. Methods This study was part of a larger epidemiological study on childhood psychiatric disorders conducted in Osan, a city of Republic of Korea. We used IAS for internet addiction, K-YSR for subjects' emotional and behavioral problems and K-CDI for depressive symptoms. We used the data of n=1217 completed cases. We put on independent variables, which are sex, age, smoking and alcohol experiences, economic status, age of first Internet use, K-YSR and K-CDI score. Results The subjects consisted of addicted users (2.38%), over users (36.89%) and normal Internet users (60.72%). Attention problems, sex, delinquent problems, K-CDI scores, thought problems, age and aggressive behavior were predictable variables of internet addiction. Age of initial Internet use negatively predicted Internet addiction. Conclusion This result showed similar to other researches about sociodemographic, emotional or behavioral factors related to internet addiction. Generally, subjects with more severe internet addiction had more emotional or behavioral problems. It means that they already have had various difficulties when we found internet addiction of adolescents. Therefore it is necessary to evaluate whether the subjects have any emotional or behavioral troubles and to intervene to prevent internet addiction. PMID:25395968

  3. Adolescent Problem Behavior in Navi Mumbai: An Exploratory Study of Psychosocial Risk and Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, R. J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: A conceptual framework about protective factors (models protection, controls protection, support protection) and risk factors (models risk, opportunity risk, vulnerability risk) was employed to articulate the content of five psychosocial contexts of adolescent life--individual, family, peers, school, and neighborhood--in a study of…

  4. Psychosocial Risk Factors for Hypertension: An Update of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Cuffee, Yendelela; Ogedegbe, Chinwe; Williams, Natasha J.; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Schoenthaler, Antoinette

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of research demonstrates that psychosocial factors play an important role in the development of hypertension. Previous reviews have identified several key factors (i.e., occupational stress) that contribute to the onset of hypertension, however they are now outdated. In this review, we provide an updated synthesis of the literature from 2010 to April 2014. We identified 21 articles for inclusion in the review, of which there were six categories of psychosocial stressors: occupational stress, personality, mental health, housing instability, social support/isolation, and sleep quality. Sixteen of the studies reported an association between the psychosocial stressor and blood pressure. While several findings were consistent with previous literature, new findings regarding mediating and moderating factors underlying the psychosocial-hypertension association help to untangle inconsistences reported in the literature. Moreover, sleep quality is a novel additional factor that should undergo further exploration. Areas for future research based on these findings are discussed. PMID:25139781

  5. Adolescent Psychosocial Risk Factors for Severe Intimate Partner Violence in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined prospective measures of psychosocial risk factors as predictors of severe intimate partner violence among a community sample of 610 young adults at risk for intergenerational transmission of depression. The hypothesized risk factors were youth history of depression by age 15 and maternal history of depression. Youth social…

  6. Biomechanical, psychosocial and individual risk factors predicting low back functional impairment among furniture distribution employees

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Sue A.; Allread, W. Gary; Burr, Deborah L.; Heaney, Catherine; Marras, William S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Biomechanical, psychosocial and individual risk factors for low back disorder have been studied extensively however few researchers have examined all three risk factors. The objective of this was to develop a low back disorder risk model in furniture distribution workers using biomechanical, psychosocial and individual risk factors. Methods This was a prospective study with a six month follow-up time. There were 454 subjects at 9 furniture distribution facilities enrolled in the study. Biomechanical exposure was evaluated using the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (2001) lifting threshold limit values for low back injury risk. Psychosocial and individual risk factors were evaluated via questionnaires. Low back health functional status was measured using the lumbar motion monitor. Low back disorder cases were defined as a loss of low back functional performance of −0.14 or more. Findings There were 92 cases of meaningful loss in low back functional performance and 185 non cases. A multivariate logistic regression model included baseline functional performance probability, facility, perceived workload, intermediated reach distance number of exertions above threshold limit values, job tenure manual material handling, and age combined to provide a model sensitivity of 68.5% and specificity of 71.9%. Interpretation: The results of this study indicate which biomechanical, individual and psychosocial risk factors are important as well as how much of each risk factor is too much resulting in increased risk of low back disorder among furniture distribution workers. PMID:21955915

  7. Psychosocial Functioning in Youths at High Risk to Develop Major Depressive Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birmaher, Boris; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Williamson, Douglas E.; Brent, David A.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Axelson, David A.; Dorn, Lorah D.; Ryan, Neal D.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare the psychosocial functioning of children and adolescents at high risk of major depressive disorder with youths with acute major depressive disorder and healthy controls. Method: High-risk (n = 57), major depressive disorder (n = 71), and healthy control (n = 48) youths and their families were recruited from 1987 to 1996 and…

  8. Specificity of Putative Psychosocial Risk Factors for Psychiatric Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Lilly; Copeland, William; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Background: Most psychosocial risk factors appear to have general rather than specific patterns of association with common childhood and adolescence disorders. However, previous research has typically failed to 1) control for comorbidity among disorders, 2) include a wide range of risk factors, and 3) examine sex by developmental stage effects on…

  9. Why Does ADHD Confer Risk for Cigarette Smoking? A Review of Psychosocial Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Kerrie; Flory, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Research has documented that adolescents and young adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for cigarette smoking, but less attention has examined why this risk exists. The current paper reviews the literature on different psychosocial mechanisms [self-medication hypothesis, social factors (social modeling,…

  10. Nurse versus community health worker identification of psychosocial risks in pregnancy through a structured interview.

    PubMed

    Godecker, Amy L; Harrison, Patricia A; Sidebottom, Abbey C

    2013-11-01

    A structured psychosocial risk screening interview, the Prenatal Risk Overview, was administered to 733 women in prenatal care. Either a community health worker (CHW) or a registered nurse (RN) conducted the interview based on day of the week. A comparison of identified risk factors found no significant differences between study samples for six of 13 domains. For CHW interviews, significantly more participants were classified as Moderate/ High Risk for Depression, Lack of Telephone Access, Food Insecurity, and Housing Instability, and as High Risk for Lack of Social Support, Lack of Transportation Access, and Housing Instability. For RN interviews, significantly more participants were classified as High Risk for Alcohol Use. Community health workers successfully conducted psychosocial screening and elicited more self-reported risk than RNs, especially lack of basic needs. Comparing the hourly salary/ wage, the cost for CHWs was 56% lower than for RNs. Preliminary findings support use of paraprofessionals for structured screening interviews. PMID:24185153

  11. 12 CFR 370.8 - Systemic risk emergency special assessment to recover loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Systemic risk emergency special assessment to... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY TEMPORARY LIQUIDITY GUARANTEE PROGRAM § 370.8 Systemic risk emergency special assessment to recover loss. To the extent that the assessments provided under § 370.6 or § 370.7, other...

  12. 12 CFR 370.8 - Systemic risk emergency special assessment to recover loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Systemic risk emergency special assessment to... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY TEMPORARY LIQUIDITY GUARANTEE PROGRAM § 370.8 Systemic risk emergency special assessment to recover loss. To the extent that the assessments provided under § 370.6 or § 370.7, other...

  13. [Psychosocial Risk Evaluation in the Workplace: Expert-based Development of a Checklist for Occupational Physicians].

    PubMed

    Weigl, M; Müller, A; Angerer, P; Petru, R

    2016-03-01

    The implementation of psychosocial risk assessment at the workplace often fails in practice. One reason is the lack of competence of those who are in charge of the process. We present a checklist for the effective implementation of psychosocial risk assessment at workplace. This tool shall support occupational physicians in the preparation, planning and implementation of a psychosocial risks assessment process. Based on a stepwise development and validation process, specific steps and factors for the successful implementation were identified qualitatively with 15 occupational physicians and experts. This was conducted in a 2-stage Delphi study. In the following, the identified steps and factors were transferred into a checklist. Subsequently, the checklist was evaluated in a focus group of occupational physicians (user evaluation). Thereafter, the contents were subjected to an expert evaluation. Our checklist for the effective implementation of the process of psychosocial risk management in the workplace aims to strengthen the competence of occupational physicians, especially in the implementation of risk assessments in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). PMID:26335655

  14. Predicting Preschool Cognitive Development from Infant Temperament, Maternal Sensitivity, and Psychosocial Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Tarabulsy, George M.; Provost, Marc A.

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the relative contributions of infant temperament, maternal sensitivity, and psychosocial risk to individual differences in preschool children's cognitive development. It also examined specific moderating effects between predictors as well as the specific mediating role of maternal sensitivity in the relation…

  15. Children of Mothers at Psychosocial Risk Growing Up: A Follow up at the Age of 16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsby, Marie; Svedin, Carl Goran; Sydsjo, Gunilla

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to make a 16-year follow-up of children of psychosocial risk mothers as concerns emotional/behavioural problems, self-esteem, life events, and academic grades. Forty-three teenagers (index group) and 61 reference teenagers were personally interviewed and asked to answer the Youth Self-report (YSR), the Self-image…

  16. Exposure to psychosocial risk factors in the context of work: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Cláudia; Pereira, Anabela

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the scientific literature about the effects of exposure to psychosocial risk factors in work contexts. METHODS A systematic review was performed using the terms “psychosocial factors” AND “COPSOQ” in the databases PubMed, Medline, and Scopus. The period analyzed was from January 1, 2004 to June 30, 2012. We have included articles that used the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) as a measuring instrument of the psychosocial factors and the presentation of quantitative or qualitative results. German articles, psychometric studies or studies that did not analyze individual or work factors were excluded. RESULTS We included 22 articles in the analysis. Individual factors, such as gender, age, and socioeconomic status, were analyzed along with work-related factors such as labor demands, work organization and content, social relationships and leadership, work-individual interface, workplace values, justice and respect, personality, health and well-being, and offensive behaviors. We analyzed the sample type and the applied experimental designs. Some population groups, such as young people and migrants, are more vulnerable. The deteriorated working psychosocial environment is associated with physical health indicators and weak mental health. This environment is also a risk factor for the development of moderate to severe clinical conditions, predicting absenteeism or intention of leaving the job. CONCLUSIONS The literature shows the contribution of exposure to psychosocial risk factors in work environments and their impact on mental health and well-being of workers. It allows the design of practical interventions in the work context to be based on scientific evidences. Investigations in specific populations, such as industry, and studies with more robust designs are lacking. PMID:27253900

  17. Exposure to psychosocial risk factors in the context of work: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Cláudia; Pereira, Anabela

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the scientific literature about the effects of exposure to psychosocial risk factors in work contexts. METHODS A systematic review was performed using the terms "psychosocial factors" AND "COPSOQ" in the databases PubMed, Medline, and Scopus. The period analyzed was from January 1, 2004 to June 30, 2012. We have included articles that used the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) as a measuring instrument of the psychosocial factors and the presentation of quantitative or qualitative results. German articles, psychometric studies or studies that did not analyze individual or work factors were excluded. RESULTS We included 22 articles in the analysis. Individual factors, such as gender, age, and socioeconomic status, were analyzed along with work-related factors such as labor demands, work organization and content, social relationships and leadership, work-individual interface, workplace values, justice and respect, personality, health and well-being, and offensive behaviors. We analyzed the sample type and the applied experimental designs. Some population groups, such as young people and migrants, are more vulnerable. The deteriorated working psychosocial environment is associated with physical health indicators and weak mental health. This environment is also a risk factor for the development of moderate to severe clinical conditions, predicting absenteeism or intention of leaving the job. CONCLUSIONS The literature shows the contribution of exposure to psychosocial risk factors in work environments and their impact on mental health and well-being of workers. It allows the design of practical interventions in the work context to be based on scientific evidences. Investigations in specific populations, such as industry, and studies with more robust designs are lacking. PMID:27253900

  18. Childhood Psychosocial Cumulative Risks and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Adulthood: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study

    PubMed Central

    Hakulinen, Christian; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Elovainio, Marko; Kubzansky, Laura D.; Jokela, Markus; Hintsanen, Mirka; Juonala, Markus; Kivimäki, Mika; Josefsson, Kim; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Raitakari, Olli T

    2015-01-01

    Objective Adverse experiences in childhood may influence cardiovascular risk in adulthood. We examined the prospective associations between types of psychosocial adversity as well as having multiple adversities (e.g., cumulative risk) with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and its progression among young adults. Higher cumulative risk score in childhood was expected to be associated with higher IMT and its progression. Methods Participants were 2265 men and women (age range: 24-39 years in 2001) from the on-going Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study whose carotid IMT were measured in 2001 and 2007. A cumulative psychosocial risk score, assessed at the study baseline in 1980, was derived from four separate aspects of the childhood environment that may impose risk (childhood stressful life-events, parental health behavior family, socioeconomic status, and childhood emotional environment). Results The cumulative risk score was associated with higher IMT in 2007 (b=.004; se=.001; p<.001) and increased IMT progression from 2001 to 2007 (b=.003; se=.001; p=.001). The associations were robust to adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors in childhood and adulthood, including adulthood health behavior, adulthood socioeconomic status and depressive symptoms. Among the individual childhood psychosocial risk categories, having more stressful life-events was associated with higher IMT in 2001 (b=.007; se=.003; p=.016) and poorer parental health behavior predicted higher IMT in 2007 (b=.004; se=.002; p=.031) after adjustment for age, sex and childhood cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions Early life psychosocial environment influences cardiovascular risk later in life and considering cumulative childhood risk factors may be more informative than individual factors in predicting progression of preclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood. PMID:26809108

  19. Depression and Psychosocial Risk Factors among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Theng, Yin-Leng; Foo, Schubert

    2015-12-01

    Depression is the most common mental and emotional disorder that emerges in the late stages of life. It is closely associated with poor health, disability, mortality, and suicide. The study examines the risk factors of depression in late life, especially the psychosocial factors, among a sample comprising 162 community-dwelling Singaporean adults aged 65 years and above. An interview-based structured survey was conducted in multiple senior activity centers located in different parts of Singapore. Results from the hierarchical regression analysis show that 32.9% of the variance in geriatric depression can be explained by the three psychosocial factors, among which loneliness, perceived social support, and the emotional regulation component of resilience are significantly associated with depression in older adults. Large-scale studies should be conducted to confirm the findings of the present study, and to further examine the predictive effects of these psychosocial factors on depression among older adults. PMID:26428668

  20. Psychosocial Work Characteristics Predict Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Health Functioning in Rural Women: The Wisconsin Rural Women's Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chikani, Vatsal; Reding, Douglas; Gunderson, Paul; McCarty, Catherine A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between psychosocial work characteristics and health functioning and cardiovascular disease risk factors among rural women of central Wisconsin and compare psychosocial work characteristics between farm and nonfarm women. Methods: Stratified sampling was used to select a…

  1. Psychosocial Predictors of Emerging Adults' Risk and Reckless Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Graham; Wildman, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Studied risk and reckless behavior in 375 emerging adults using self-report measures and a cross-sectional design. Risk behaviors were found to be reliably predicted by sensation seeking, but not by antisocial peer pressure, while the reverse pattern was more true in relation to "reckless" behaviors. (SLD)

  2. The essential role of psychosocial risk and protective factors in pediatric traumatic brain injury research.

    PubMed

    Gerring, Joan P; Wade, Shari

    2012-03-01

    This article builds upon Traumatic Brain Injury Common Data Elements (TBI CDE) version 1.0 and the pediatric CDE Initiative by emphasizing the essential role of psychosocial risk and protective factors in pediatric TBI research. The goals are to provide a compelling rationale for including psychosocial risk and protective factors in addition to socioeconomic status (SES), age, and sex in the study design and analyses of pediatric TBI research and to describe recommendations for core common data elements in this domain. Risk and protective factor research is based on the ecological theory of child development in which children develop through a series of interactions with their immediate and more distant environments. Home, school, religious, and social influences are conceptualized as risk and/or protective factors. Child development and TBI researchers have interpreted risk and protective variables as main effects or as interactions and have used cumulative risk indices and moderation models to describe the relationship among these variables and outcomes that have to do with development and with recovery from TBI. It is likely that the number, type, and interaction among risk and protective factors each contribute unique variance to study outcomes. Longitudinal designs in TBI research will be essential to understanding the reciprocal relationships between risk/protective factors and the recovery/outcome made by the child. The search for effective interventions to hasten TBI recovery mandates the need to target modifiable risks and to promote protective factors in the child's environment. PMID:22091875

  3. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Risk Perceptions for Chronic Diseases in Younger and Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Jada G.; Lobel, Marci

    2016-01-01

    Perceptions of disease risk play an important role in motivating people to adopt healthy behaviors. However, little is known about psychosocial factors that influence women’s perceived risk for developing disease. The present study investigated the extent to which individual traits, social influences, objective risk factors, and demographic characteristics were associated with women’s risk perceptions for cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, and lung cancer. Using structural equation modeling, we examined hypothesized associations among 452 younger (ages 18-25 years) and 167 middle-aged (ages 40-64 years) women. A greater number and variety of factors were associated with middle-aged women’s risk perceptions compared to younger women. For both groups, some objective risk factors were associated with risk perceptions; yet, associations also existed between multiple psychosocial variables (optimism, health locus of control, social exposure to disease, perceived stigma) and risk perceptions. Results suggested that women may base their risk estimates on factors beyond those considered important by healthcare providers. PMID:26110993

  4. The Essential Role of Psychosocial Risk and Protective Factors in Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury Research

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Shari

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This article builds upon Traumatic Brain Injury Common Data Elements (TBI CDE) version 1.0 and the pediatric CDE Initiative by emphasizing the essential role of psychosocial risk and protective factors in pediatric TBI research. The goals are to provide a compelling rationale for including psychosocial risk and protective factors in addition to socioeconomic status (SES), age, and sex in the study design and analyses of pediatric TBI research and to describe recommendations for core common data elements in this domain. Risk and protective factor research is based on the ecological theory of child development in which children develop through a series of interactions with their immediate and more distant environments. Home, school, religious, and social influences are conceptualized as risk and/or protective factors. Child development and TBI researchers have interpreted risk and protective variables as main effects or as interactions and have used cumulative risk indices and moderation models to describe the relationship among these variables and outcomes that have to do with development and with recovery from TBI. It is likely that the number, type, and interaction among risk and protective factors each contribute unique variance to study outcomes. Longitudinal designs in TBI research will be essential to understanding the reciprocal relationships between risk/protective factors and the recovery/outcome made by the child. The search for effective interventions to hasten TBI recovery mandates the need to target modifiable risks and to promote protective factors in the child's environment. PMID:22091875

  5. Interaction between physical and psychosocial risk factors on the presence of neck/shoulder symptoms and its consequences.

    PubMed

    Widanarko, Baiduri; Legg, Stephen; Devereux, Jason; Stevenson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify the interaction between physical and psychosocial factors on the presence of neck/shoulder symptoms (NSS) and its consequences (reduced activities and absenteeism) among 1294 coal mining workers in Indonesia. A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on current workplace exposure and NSS and its consequences. Participants were grouped into one of four combination exposure groups: low physical and low psychosocial (as the reference group); low physical and high psychosocial; high physical and low psychosocial, and high physical and high psychosocial (HPhyHPsy). The attributable proportion (AP) due to interaction between both factors was examined. Individuals in the HPhyHPsy group were most likely to report NSS [odds ratio (OR) 4.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.43-9.58], reduced activities (OR 3.90, 95% CI 2.36-6.43), and absenteeism (OR 3.91, 95% CI 2.11-7.25). This study has shown an interaction between physical and psychosocial factors that increases the OR of NSS (AP 0.49, 95% CI 0.08-0.89). Practitioner Summary: Although physical and psychosocial factors are known to be predictors for NSS, little is known about their interaction. Self-reported questionnaire was used to obtain information about physical and psychosocial factors at work. This study found an interaction between the physical and psychosocial risk factors that increases the odds ratio of NSS. PMID:25815974

  6. Psychosocial and ethical implications of defining genetic risk for cancers.

    PubMed

    Kash, K M

    1995-09-30

    In summary, we need to provide fully informed consent regarding the hazards and the benefits of genetic testing and defining risk. This reflects the first ethical principle of autonomy. It is the responsibility of the counseling team to make sure that the individual is psychologically equipped to deal with the emotional distress that may result from testing. An undue burden must not be placed on someone and harm must not be inflicted. This is the second ethical principle of beneficence. Third, awareness of the potential problems of testing is extremely important. These issues are those of disclosure, insurance problems, and employment problems--the third ethical principle of confidentiality. Recommendations for screening guidelines, regardless of testing results, should be provided. It is important for women who are not gene carriers to know that they still need to go for screening. Lastly, we need to find ways to help individuals cope with their risk status, whether it is actual high risk or perceived high risk. Helping women to develop positive coping strategies and to adhere to screening is extremely important. As the Huntington's data indicated, over time, regardless of their risk levels, individuals do learn how to cope and adapt with the outcome of testing. Women and men need to learn how to live with their risk status so that the negative psychological sequelae will be minimized. PMID:8526383

  7. Physical and psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders in Brazilian and Italian nurses

    PubMed Central

    Carugno, Michele; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Ferrario, Marco Mario; Ferrari, Andrea Lepos; da Silva, Fábio Jose; Martins, Aline Caldas; Felli, Vanda Elisa Andres; Coggon, David; Bonzini, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    As part of the international CUPID investigation, we compared physical and psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders among nurses in Brazil and Italy. Using questionnaires, we collected information on musculoskeletal disorders and potential risk factors from 751 nurses employed in public hospitals. By fitting country specific multiple logistic regression models, we investigated the association of stressful physical activities and psychosocial characteristics with site-specific and multisite pain, and associated sickness absence. We found no clear relationship between low back pain and occupational lifting, but neck and shoulder pain were more common among nurses who reported prolonged work with the arms in an elevated position. After adjustment for potential confounding variables, pain in the low back, neck and shoulder, multisite pain, and sickness absence were all associated with somatizing tendency in both countries. Our findings support a role of somatizing tendency in predisposing to musculoskeletal disorders, acting as an important mediator of the individual response to triggering exposures, such as workload. PMID:23033179

  8. Course of comorbidity of tobacco and marijuana use: Psychosocial risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Yeon; Finch, Stephen J.; Brown, Elaine N.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: This longitudinal study examined the psychosocial factors associated with the comorbidity of pairs of tobacco and marijuana use trajectories from adolescence extending into adulthood in two ethnic groups, Blacks and Puerto Ricans. Methods: Data on psychosocial functioning and tobacco and marijuana use at four points in time were obtained. Results: The association between the trajectories of tobacco and marijuana use was quite high. Pairs of comorbid trajectories of tobacco and marijuana use may share at least three kinds of influence: (a) a constellation of externalizing personality risk factors, (b) Depressive Mood and low Ego Integration, and (c) identification with certain group values. Discussion: Knowledge of the risk and protective factors for pairs of comorbid trajectories of use may strengthen the foundation for individual and group targets for prevention and treatment programs. PMID:20231241

  9. Biomechanical and psychosocial risk factors for low back pain at work.

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, M S; Frank, J W; Shannon, H S; Norman, R W; Wells, R P; Neumann, W P; Bombardier, C

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study determined whether the physical and psychosocial demands of work are associated with low back pain. METHODS: A case-control approach was used. Case subjects (n = 137) reported a new episode of low back pain to their employer, a large automobile manufacturing complex. Control subjects were randomly selected from the study base as cases accrued (n = 179) or were matched to cases by exact job (n = 65). Individual, clinical, and psychosocial variables were assessed by interview. Physical demands were assessed with direct workplace measurements of subjects at their usual jobs. The analysis used multiple logistic regression adjusted for individual characteristics. RESULTS: Self-reported risk factors included a physically demanding job, a poor workplace social environment, inconsistency between job and education level, better job satisfaction, and better coworker support. Low job control showed a borderline association. Physical-measure risk factors included peak lumbar shear force, peak load handled, and cumulative lumbar disc compression. Low body mass index and prior low back pain compensation claims were the only significant individual characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified specific physical and psychosocial demands of work as independent risk factors for low back pain. PMID:11441733

  10. Psychosocial Risk Factors for Child Welfare among Postpartum Mothers with a History of Childhood Maltreatment and Neglect

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, A. M.; Schury, K.; Reister, F.; Köhler-Dauner, F.; Schauer, M.; Ruf-Leuschner, M.; Gündel, H.; Ziegenhain, U.; Fegert, J. M.; Kolassa, I.-T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood maltreatment (CM) can increase the risk of psychosocial risk factors in adulthood (e. g. intimate partner violence, financial problems, substance abuse or medical problems). The transition to parenthood presents those affected by CM with particular challenges, in addition to usual birth-related stressors. Methods: In this cross-sectional study a total of 240 women were interviewed in the puerperium with respect to CM experiences, using the German version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Current psychosocial risk factors (e. g. financial concerns, maternal mental illness, single parent) were assessed using the Constance Index (KINDEX) for early childhood risk factors. Associations between CM experience and psychosocial risk factors were calculated using simple correlation. Results: The average age of participants was 33 years. On the CTQ 13.8 % of participants reported emotional abuse, 6.7 % physical abuse and 12.5 % sexual abuse, while 32.1 % reported emotional neglect and 7.5 % physical neglect during childhood. With rising severity of CM, more psychosocial risk factors (KINDEX) were present. Conclusions: This study shows a clear association between experiences of maltreatment during childhood and the presence of psychosocial stressors among women in the puerperium. Regular screening for a history of CM and parental psychosocial stressors should be conducted early, i.e. during pregnancy, to avoid negative consequences for the child. PMID:27064835

  11. Climatic and psychosocial risks of heat illness incidents on construction site.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yunyan Andrea; Rowlinson, Steve; Ciccarelli, Marina

    2016-03-01

    The study presented in this paper aims to identify prominent risks leading to heat illness in summer among construction workers that can be prioritised for developing effective interventions. Samples are 216 construction workers' cases at the individual level and 26 construction projects cases at the organisation level. A grounded theory is generated to define the climatic heat and psychosocial risks and the relationships between risks, timing and effectiveness of interventions. The theoretical framework is then used to guide content analysis of 36 individual onsite heat illness cases to identify prominent risks. The results suggest that heat stress risks on construction site are socially constructed and can be effectively managed through elimination at supply chain level, effective engineering control, proactive control of the risks through individual interventions and reactive control through mindful recognition and response to early symptoms. The role of management infrastructure as a base for effective interventions is discussed. PMID:26674401

  12. Identifying At-Risk Employees: Modeling Psychosocial Precursors of Potential Insider Threats

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Kangas, Lars J.; Noonan, Christine F.; Dalton, Angela C.; Hohimer, Ryan E.

    2012-01-04

    In many insider crimes, managers and other coworkers observed that the offenders had exhibited signs of stress, disgruntlement, or other issues, but no alarms were raised. Barriers to using such psychosocial indicators include the inability to recognize the signs and the failure to record the behaviors so that they can be assessed. A psychosocial model was developed to assess an employee's behavior associated with an increased risk of insider abuse. The model is based on case studies and research literature on factors/correlates associated with precursor behavioral manifestations of individuals committing insider crimes. To test the model's agreement with human resources and management professionals, we conducted an experiment with positive results. If implemented in an operational setting, the model would be part of a set of management tools for employee assessment to identify employees who pose a greater insider threat.

  13. The association between adolescent sexting, psychosocial difficulties, and risk behavior: integrative review.

    PubMed

    Van Ouytsel, Joris; Walrave, Michel; Ponnet, Koen; Heirman, Wannes

    2015-02-01

    When a sexting message spreads to an unintended audience, it can adversely affect the victim's reputation. Sexting incidents constitute a potential school safety risk. Just as with other types of adolescent risk behavior, school nurses might have to initiate the first response when a sexting episode arises, but a school nurse's role goes beyond intervention. They can also play an important role in the prevention of sexting and its related risks. This article reviews the links between adolescent sexting, other types of risk behavior, and its emotional and psychosocial conditions. Seven databases were examined and nine studies remained for further review. The review of the literature shows that adolescent sexting is cross sectionally associated with a range of health-risk behaviors. Youth who engage in sexting are also found to experience peer pressure and a range of emotional difficulties. The results can guide school nurse education and practice. PMID:25027261

  14. [Effects of psychosocial risk at work on mental health of the forensic medical service officials in Chile].

    PubMed

    Ansoleaga, Elisa; Urra, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Although numerous studies have shown the harmful effects of exposure to psychosocial risk at work on the mental health of workers, there are particularly hazardous occupations product of their nature and the conditions under which the work is done. This article analyzes the associations between psychosocial risk at work and mental health in the Forensic Medical Service (SML) in Chile. The national and representative sample of 757 employees (46% men and 54% women) of SML, answered an online survey in 2013, to measure risk exposure to psychosocial risk and mental health outcomes. Data analysis considered descriptive and inferential statistics. The results show that workers have a high psychosocial risk: high psychological demands (83%), low social support (53%), Jobstrain (15%), Isostrain (12%), effort- rewards imbalance (69%). Also, one in three reported depressive symptoms, distress and consumption of psychotropic drugs. The workers reported that the problems of work contribute to the symptoms or consumption. Finally, subjects exposed to psychosocial risk had a greater chance of experiencing mental health problems than those not exposed. Diligent preventive interventions are needed to address this high risk population. PMID:27089163

  15. Psychosocial stress and cardiovascular risk: what is the role of daily experience?

    PubMed

    Kamarck, Thomas W; Schwartz, Joseph E; Shiffman, Saul; Muldoon, Matthew F; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Janicki, Denise L

    2005-12-01

    We describe an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) protocol designed to measure daily life experiences along several psychosocial dimensions (Social Conflict, Task Demand, Decisional Control, Negative Affect, and Arousal) hypothesized to be relevant for cardiovascular disease risk. In a large community sample, these assessments have been administered in conjunction with ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring and measures of subclinical cardiovascular disease. Several results have emerged that support the promise of this approach. First of all, each of these dimensions of experience appears to be a trigger for cardiovascular activation, with movement on each scale being associated with significant within-person changes in heart rate and blood pressure in the natural environment. Second, there appear to be individual differences in physiological responsiveness to these dimensions of daily experience, with such differences being associated in some cases with laboratory-based assessments of cardiovascular reactivity, as might be expected. Third, EMA ratings are associated in several instances with (between-person) stable individual differences in ABP readings. And finally, we have found that some of the characteristics defined by our EMA ratings are related to measures of subclinical atherosclerosis. Such effects appear to be mediated, in part, by ABP. The advantages of using EMA measures for capturing the effects of psychosocial stressors are highlighted by comparing the predictive validity of these daily life assessments to traditional global self-reports. We conclude by describing future plans for use of this type of assessment protocol for helping us to characterize psychosocial characteristics relevant to cardiovascular disease risk. Personality and social processes during daily living may have an important impact not only on psychological functioning but also on physical health and disease. In this article we review our recent work involving the assessment

  16. Psychosocial Modeling of Insider Threat Risk Based on Behavioral and Word Use Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Kangas, Lars J.; Noonan, Christine F.; Brown, Christopher R.; Ferryman, Thomas A.

    2013-10-01

    In many insider crimes, managers and other coworkers observed that the offenders had exhibited signs of stress, disgruntlement, or other issues, but no alarms were raised. Barriers to using such psychosocial indicators include the inability to recognize the signs and the failure to record the behaviors so that they can be assessed. A psychosocial model was developed to assess an employee’s behavior associated with an increased risk of insider abuse. The model is based on case studies and research literature on factors/correlates associated with precursor behavioral manifestations of individuals committing insider crimes. A complementary Personality Factor modeling approach was developed based on analysis to derive relevant personality characteristics from word use. Several implementations of the psychosocial model were evaluated by comparing their agreement with judgments of human resources and management professionals; the personality factor modeling approach was examined using email samples. If implemented in an operational setting, these models should be part of a set of management tools for employee assessment to identify employees who pose a greater insider threat.

  17. Psychosocial factors associated with cancer behavioural risk in relatives of cancer patients.

    PubMed

    López, M L; Comas, A; del Valle, M O; López, S; García, J Bautista; Cueto-Espinar, A

    2004-04-01

    The European Code against Cancer includes some primary cancer prevention behaviours, which can be studied in the framework of psychosocial models of human behaviour as the ASE model (attitude-social influence-efficacy model). The objective of this study was to detect the factors that better explain cancer behavioural risk in relatives of cancer patients. A convenience sample of 3031 people was selected in primary care centres. A three-step multivariate analysis was carried out by means of a multiple linear regression, introducing cancer behavioural risk as the dependent variable and the following covariables: psychosocial factors in the ASE model, sociodemographic variables and the family history of cancer. At least five difficulties and four needs were perceived in following the preventive advice by 25% of patients. The main difficulties were tobacco and alcohol addiction and the demands of a social life. Principal needs were access to cessation programmes, family support, and being controlled and pressured by health workers. The highest risk profile is to be a young man with a low sociocultural level. The ASE determinants were the best predictors of cancer behavioural risk, so programmes that forget these predictors may not achieve any impact and may waste resources. PMID:15100576

  18. Psychosocial Outcomes of Sexual Risk Reduction in a Brief Intervention for Urban African American Female Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bangi, Audrey; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Harper, Gary W.; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Pollack, Lance M.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes psychosocial outcomes of a group randomized controlled trial of a friendship-based HIV/STI prevention intervention grounded in the AIDS Risk Reduction Model (ARRM). A total of 264 African American adolescent females were randomized to a single-session Project ÒRÉ HIV/STI prevention intervention or a nutrition/exercise health promotion intervention with their friendship group. At posttest, Project ÒRÉ participants scored higher on knowledge of HIV/STI prevention and protection (p < .01), knowledge of living with HIV/STI (p < .01), perceived HIV risk (p < .05), perceived STI risk (p < .01), and intentions to use condoms for vaginal sex (p < .05). Findings suggest that a brief friendship-based HIV/STI prevention intervention for youth can impact ARRM factors that increase the ability to recognize and label risky sexual behaviors as problematic and promote commitment to changing high-risk behaviors. PMID:24039550

  19. Psychosocial variables and obesity-risk-reduction behaviors in Chinese Americans.

    PubMed

    Liou, Doreen; Bauer, Kathleen D; Bai, Yeon

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to utilize social-psychological theories to explain obesity-risk-reduction behaviors. A questionnaire based on the health belief model and theory of planned behavior was administered to a convenience sample of 300 Chinese Americans in the New York metropolitan area. Psychosocial variables accounted for 40.4% of the variance of obesity-risk-reduction behaviors. Self-efficacy, behavioral intention, and perceived benefits emerged as most influential variables. Forty-eight percent of the variance of behavioral intention was accounted with self-efficacy predominating. Health professionals targeting Chinese Americans need to address self-efficacy, behavioral intention, and perceived benefits of adopting obesity-risk-reduction behaviors. PMID:22077929

  20. Understanding Psychosocial and High-Risk Sexual Behaviors Among Detained Juveniles: A Descriptive Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background African American women are disproportionately impacted by sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as chlamydia and gonorrhea, which are known risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. STIs, particularly chlamydia and gonorrhea, are even more prevalent among young African American women with a juvenile detention history. The population with experiences with the criminal justice system has greater rates of STIs and is diagnosed more often with mental health issues, often related to sexual abuse or intimate partner violence, compared to peers who have not been detained by law enforcement. Psychosocial factors, especially those related to intimate relationships (ie, the imperativeness of being in a relationship and the power one has in their relationship), have emerged as important explanatory factors for acquiring STIs, including HIV, and a component of risk reduction interventions. Objective To investigate more comprehensively the relationship between psychosocial risk factors and STIs, including HIV, as it relates to reduction and prevention of these diseases. The long-term goal is to improve the effectiveness of evidence-based interventions with a major focus on intimate relationship dynamics. Methods This descriptive study surveys young women (ages 13-17) who have been detained (incarcerated) by a department of juvenile justice. In addition to being female and detained, eligibility criteria include being detained longer than 30 days and being free of cognitive impairments. This study will include young women from one juvenile detention center. The primary outcomes to be measured are STI knowledge, intimate relationship dynamics (ie, imperativeness and power), and high-risk sexual behaviors. High-risk sexual behaviors will be assessed using data extracted from health records. Results Preliminarily, we have received assent from 26 primarily young African American women. The majority of participants (81%) had inadequate knowledge

  1. Ethic Identity as a Moderator of Psychosocial Risk and Adolescent Alcohol and Marijuana Use: Concurrent and Longitudinal Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheier, Lawrence; Botvin, Gilbert J.; Diaz, Tracy; Ifill-Williams, Michelle

    1997-01-01

    Examined African American and Hispanic seventh graders (N=1,815) to study ethnic identity's moderating effect on psychosocial risk and drug use. Results based on cross-sectional analyses and longitudinal analyses indicate that low levels of ethnic identity were associated with both low risk and low use. Other results are reported. (RJM)

  2. Injury and the orchestral environment: part I. The role of work organisation and psychosocial factors in injury risk.

    PubMed

    Rickert, Dale L; Barrett, Margaret S; Ackermann, Bronwen J

    2013-12-01

    That orchestral musicians are exposed to a high risk of playing-related injury is well established, but despite this, little is known about how work organisation and psychosocial factors may contribute to this risk. Lack of research in this area is surprising considering the importance of these factors in managing occupational health risks in a wide range of other working populations. To address this, we conducted a qualitative study with the following aims: to investigate orchestral musicians' and managers' perceptions of those workplace environmental factors that contribute to injury, and to investigate the potential influence of work organisation and psychosocial factors on injury risk for orchestral musicians. Using a qualitative case-study methodology, in-depth, semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 10 professional orchestral cellists (2 casual and 8 full-time members) from a single Australian orchestra. After initial data analysis, further interviews were undertaken with a set of 5 orchestral management staff as a means of data triangulation. All data were analysed using a "themes-based" analysis of narrative approach. The findings indicate that musicians perceive that stress in the orchestral environment increases injury risk. The perceived stressors were divided into two broad categories: psychosocial injury risks, which included performance stress and interpersonal relationships, and combined psychosocial/physical injury risks such as work organisation and lack of control. This article evaluates the findings in terms of existing literature and makes recommendations for better management of environmental injury risk for orchestral musicians. PMID:24337034

  3. Psychosocial Correlates of AUDIT-C Hazardous Drinking Risk Status: Implications for Screening and Brief Intervention in College Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahesh, Edward; Lewis, Todd F.

    2015-01-01

    The current study identified psychosocial variables associated with AUDIT-C hazardous drinking risk status for male and female college students. Logistic regression analysis revealed that AUDIT-C risk status was associated with alcohol-related negative consequences, injunctive norms, and descriptive norms for both male and female participants.…

  4. Modifiable Disease Risk, Readiness to Change, and Psychosocial Functioning Improve With Integrative Medicine Immersion Model

    PubMed Central

    Wolever, Ruth Q.; Webber, Daniel M.; Meunier, Justin P.; Greeson, Jeffrey M.; Lausier, Evangeline R.; Gaudet, Tracy W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Stroke, diabetes, and coronary heart disease (CHD) remain leading causes of death in the United States and are largely attributable to lifestyle behaviors. Integrative medicine can provide a supportive partnership that focuses on improving health by identifying and implementing lifestyle changes based upon personal values and goals. Objective This prospective observational study was designed to assess the effectiveness of an integrative medicine intervention on modifiable disease risk, patient activation, and psychosocial risk factors for stroke, diabetes, and CHD. Design Sixty-three adults participated in a 3-day comprehensive, multimodal health immersion program at Duke Integrative Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina. Participants received follow-up education, physician support, and telephonic health coaching between the immersion program and the endpoint 7 to 9 months later. Primary Outcome Measures Psychosocial functioning, read iness to change health behaviors, and risk of developing diabetes, stroke, and CHD were assessed at baseline and endpoint. Results Although cardiac risk remained unchanged (P = .19) during the study period, risk of diabetes (P = .02) and stroke (P < .01) decreased significantly. Perceived stress remained unchanged, but improvements were seen in mood (P < .05) and relationship satisfaction (P < .004). Patients became more activated towards self-management of health (P <.001), endorsed greater readiness to change health behaviors (P <.01), and reported increased aerobic exercise (P <.001) and stretching (P = .006) following the intervention. Conclusion An integrative health model can help patients become more engaged in self-management of health and support them in making and maintaining healthy lifestyle changes. These findings provide support for use of an integrative health model in adult disease risk reduction. PMID:22314632

  5. Psychosocial Risk Factors for Cognitive Decline in Late-Life Depression: Findings from the MTLD-III Study

    PubMed Central

    Rej, Soham; Begley, Amy; Gildengers, Ariel; Dew, Mary Amanda; Reynolds, Charles F.; Butters, Meryl A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cognitive impairment and depression frequently co-occur in late life. There remains a need to better characterize psychosocial risk factors of cognitive decline in older adults with depression. We hypothesized that certain psychosocial factors would be associated with higher risk of cognitive decline in individuals with late-life depression. Methods 130 individuals aged ≥ 65 years who had achieved remission from a major depressive episode were randomized to donepezil or placebo and then closely followed for two years. Using Cox proportional hazard models, we examined the association between baseline median household income, education level, race, marital status, and social support and cognitive decline over the follow-up. Results Lower interpersonal support (OR = 0.86 [0.74–0.99], p = .04) and lower baseline global neuropsychological score (OR = 0.56 [0.36–0.87], p = .001) predicted shorter time to conversion to MCI or dementia in univariate models. These exposures did not remain significant in multivariate analyses. Neither socioeconomic status nor other psychosocial factors independently predicted cognitive diagnostic conversion (p > .05). Conclusions We did not find reliable associations between cognitive outcome and any of the psychosocial factors examined. Future large-scale, epidemiological studies, ideally using well-validated subjective measures, should better characterize psychosocial risk factors for cognitive decline in late-life depression. PMID:26180559

  6. Individual- and family-level psychosocial correlates of HIV risk behavior among youth in rural Kenya.

    PubMed

    Puffer, Eve S; Meade, Christina S; Drabkin, Anya S; Broverman, Sherryl A; Ogwang-Odhiambo, Rose A; Sikkema, Kathleen J

    2011-08-01

    Associations between individual- and family-level psychosocial factors and sexual behavior were examined among 325 adolescents ages 10-18 in rural Kenya. History of sexual activity was reported by 51% of males and 30% of females. Among those reporting sex within the past year, 64% of males and 32% of females had multiple partners; 85% of males and 54% of females reported not using a condom at last sex. Multivariate logistic regression modeling demonstrated sexually active adolescents were significantly more likely to be older, male, more accepting of risky behavior, and have greater perceived HIV risk, caregiver social support, social support related to HIV, and emotional problems. Youths reporting high-risk behavior (unprotected sex or multiple partners) were significantly more likely to be younger, male, and have lower sex-related self-efficacy, lower caregiver monitoring, and more externalizing problems. Future studies should evaluate HIV prevention interventions targeting improvements in mental health and family relationships. PMID:20945157

  7. Individual- and Family-Level Psychosocial Correlates of HIV Risk Behavior Among Youth in Rural Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Puffer, Eve S.; Meade, Christina S.; Drabkin, Anya S.; Broverman, Sherryl A.; Ogwang-Odhiambo, Rose A.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2012-01-01

    Associations between individual- and family-level psychosocial factors and sexual behavior were examined among 325 adolescents ages 10–18 in rural Kenya. History of sexual activity was reported by 51% of males and 30% of females. Among those reporting sex within the past year, 64% of males and 32% of females had multiple partners; 85% of males and 54% of females reported not using a condom at last sex. Multivariate logistic regression modeling demonstrated sexually active adolescents were significantly more likely to be older, male, more accepting of risky behavior, and have greater perceived HIV risk, caregiver social support, social support related to HIV, and emotional problems. Youths reporting high-risk behavior (unprotected sex or multiple partners) were significantly more likely to be younger, male, and have lower sex-related self-efficacy, lower caregiver monitoring, and more externalizing problems. Future studies should evaluate HIV prevention interventions targeting improvements in mental health and family relationships. PMID:20945157

  8. The intergenerational transfer of psychosocial risk: mediators of vulnerability and resilience.

    PubMed

    Serbin, Lisa A; Karp, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    The recurrence of social, behavioral, and health problems in successive generations of families is a prevalent theme in both the scientific and popular literatures. This review discusses recent conceptual models and findings from longitudinal studies concerning the intergenerational transfer of psychosocial risk, including intergenerational continuity, and the processes whereby a generation of parents may place their offspring at elevated risk for social, behavioral, and health problems. Key findings include the mediational effects of parenting and environmental factors in the transfer of risk. In both girls and boys, childhood aggression and antisocial behavior appear to predict long-term trajectories that place offspring at risk. Sequelae of childhood aggression that may threaten the well-being of offspring include school failure, adolescent risk-taking behavior, early and single parenthood, and family poverty. These childhood and adolescent behavioral styles also predict harsh, aggressive, neglectful, and unstimulating parenting behavior toward offspring. Buffering factors within at-risk families include maternal educational attainment and constructive parenting practices (e.g., emotional warmth, consistent disciplinary practices, and cognitive scaffolding). These findings highlight the potential application and relevance of intergenerational studies for social, educational, and health policy. PMID:14744219

  9. Cumulative Psychosocial and Medical Risk as Predictors of Early Infant Development and Parenting Stress in an African-American Preterm Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candelaria, Margo A.; O'Connell, Melissa A.; Teti, Douglas M.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined predictive linkages between cumulative psychosocial and medical risk, assessed neonatally, and infant development and parenting stress at 4 months of infant corrected age. Predominantly low-income, African-American mothers and their preterm infants served as participants. Cumulative psychosocial risk predicted early…

  10. Early childhood caries: analysis of psychosocial and biological factors in a high-risk population.

    PubMed

    Quiñonez, R B; Keels, M A; Vann, W F; McIver, F T; Heller, K; Whitt, J K

    2001-01-01

    The influences that link social factors and caries development are not well understood, although mediation by stress has been suggested. The association between caregiver stress and early childhood caries (ECC), in particular, remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between parenting stress and ECC while controlling for behavioral and biological factors in a high-risk population. One hundred and fifty healthy children aged 18-36 months were examined in a cross-sectional study design. Parental interviews were conducted to obtain demographic, oral health behavior and parenting stress data. Clinical data included parent and child bacterial measures, fingernail fluoride analyses, caries prevalence and presence of child enamel hypoplasia. Bivariate analyses revealed that parenting stress predicted caries. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that a combination of psychosocial, behavioral, temporal and biological variables predicted ECC outcomes. Total parenting stress did not contribute independently to the best prediction model. Our findings suggest the need for the development of a multidimensional stress model that considers the parent-child dyad to elucidate further the link between psychosocial factors and ECC. PMID:11641574

  11. A prospective study of positive early life psychosocial factors and favorable cardiovascular risk in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Appleton, Allison A.; Buka, Stephen L.; Loucks, Eric B.; Rimm, Eric; Martin, Laurie T.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2013-01-01

    Background The American Heart Association’s national goals for cardiovascular health promotion emphasize that cardiovascular risk originates early in life, but little is known about child factors that may increase the likelihood of having favorable cardiovascular risk (FCR) in adulthood. We examined the prospective association between positive child factors and likelihood of midlife FCR. We also considered pathways through which child factors may influence FCR. Methods and Results We studied 415 adults (mean age=42.2 years) of the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a national cohort initiated in 1959–1966. We examined three positive child factors assessed at age 7 years: attention regulation (ability to stay focused), cognitive ability and positive home environment. 10.6% had FCR in midlife. Adjusting for demographics and child cardiovascular health, a one unit increase in child attention regulation, cognitive ability and positive home environment was associated with 2.4 (95%CI: 1.1 to 4.7), 1.8 (95%CI: 1.1 to 2.9), and 1.3 (95%CI: 1.1 to 1.6) higher respective odds of having midlife FCR. The association with child attention regulation was maintained when accounting for adult factors; education and diet partly explained the associations with child cognitive ability and home environment. The effect of each attribute was additive as those with high levels of each child factor had 4.3 higher odds (95%CI: 1.01 to 18.2) of midlife FCR compared to those low in all factors. Conclusions Positive child psychosocial factors may promote healthy adult cardiovascular functioning. Primordial prevention efforts aimed at preventing the development of cardiovascular risk should consider building on child psychosocial resources. PMID:23339873

  12. Resilience amongst Australian Aboriginal Youth: An Ecological Analysis of Factors Associated with Psychosocial Functioning in High and Low Family Risk Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Katrina D.; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Taylor, Catherine L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether the profile of factors protecting psychosocial functioning of high risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth are the same as those promoting psychosocial functioning in low risk exposed youth. Data on 1,021 youth aged 12–17 years were drawn from the Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey (WAACHS 2000–2002), a population representative survey of the health and well-being of Aboriginal children, their families and community contexts. A person-centered approach was used to define four groups of youth cross-classified according to level of risk exposure (high/low) and psychosocial functioning (good/poor). Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the influence of individual, family, cultural and community factors on psychosocial outcomes separately for youth in high and low family-risk contexts. Results showed that in high family risk contexts, prosocial friendship and low area-level socioeconomic status uniquely protected psychosocial functioning. However, in low family risk contexts the perception of racism increased the likelihood of poor psychosocial functioning. For youth in both high and low risk contexts, higher self-esteem and self-regulation were associated with good psychosocial functioning although the relationship was non-linear. These findings demonstrate that an empirical resilience framework of analysis can identify potent protective processes operating uniquely in contexts of high risk and is the first to describe distinct profiles of risk, protective and promotive factors within high and low risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth. PMID:25068434

  13. Cross-Cultural Comparisons of Child-Reported Emotional and Physical Abuse: Rates, Risk Factors and Psychosocial Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebre, Sandra; Sprugevica, Ieva; Novotni, Antoni; Bonevski, Dimitar; Pakalniskiene, Vilmante; Popescu, Daniela; Turchina, Tatiana; Friedrich, William; Lewis, Owen

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to assess the incidence of child emotional and physical abuse, associated risk factors and psychosocial symptoms in a cross-cultural comparison between post-communist bloc countries. Method: One-thousand one-hundred forty-five children ages 10-14 from Latvia (N=297), Lithuania (N=300), Macedonia (N=302), and…

  14. Effect of Intense Lifestyle Modification and Cardiac Rehabilitation on Psychosocial Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldana, Steven G.; Whitmer, William R.; Greenlaw, Roger; Avins, Andrew L.; Thomas, Dean; Salberg, Audrey; Greenwell, Andrea; Lipsenthal, Lee; Fellingham, Gill W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effect of the Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease and cardiac rehabilitation(CR) on psychosocial risk factors and quality of life in patients with confirmed coronary artery disease. Participants had previously undergone a revascularization procedure. The 84 patients self-selected to participate in the Ornish Program…

  15. An Exploratory Study of Psychosocial Risk Behaviors of Adolescents Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Comparisons and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Kenneth M.; Cutler, Martin M.; Thobro, Patti; Haas, Robin; Powell, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    The study compared psychosocial risk behaviors of adolescents who were deaf or hard of hearing with those of their hearing peers in a residential treatment facility. Statistically significant differences emerged between groups. The adolescents who were deaf or hard of hearing demonstrated clinically higher scores than those of their hearing peers…

  16. Computeen: A Randomized Trial of a Preventive Computer and Psychosocial Skills Curriculum for At-Risk Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Jason M.; Waterman, Jill; Baker, Bruce L.

    2009-01-01

    Computeen, a preventive technology and psychosocial skills development program for at-risk adolescents, was designed to improve computer skills, self-esteem, and school attitudes, and reduce behavior problems, by combining elements of community-based and empirically supported prevention programs. Fifty-five mostly Latino adolescents from 12 to 16…

  17. HIV Risk Behavior and Theory-Based Psychosocial Determinants in Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basen-Engquist, Karen; Tortolero, Susan; Parcel, Guy S.

    1997-01-01

    Assessed differences between Hispanic and non-Hispanic White adolescents' HIV risk behaviors and psychosocial determinants. Surveys indicated that attitude was the strongest predictor of intention and risky behavior for both sexes. There were ethnic differences in sexual experience and condom use for females but not for males. Other predictor…

  18. The Prevalence of and Psychosocial Risks for Suicide Attempts in Male and Female College Students in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Cheng Hsiang; Ko, Huei Chen; Wu, Jo Yung-Wei; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of and psychosocial risks for suicide attempts was investigated in college students in Taiwan by gender, after controlling for depressive symptoms. Self-reported data were collected from a nationally representative sample of 2,835 college students; 11.90% of females and 8.87% of males reported they had attempted suicide in the…

  19. [Crespi d'Adda: psychosocial risk factors in a late 19th century company town].

    PubMed

    Punzi, S

    2012-01-01

    Crespi d'Adda is a late 19th century company town established around a textile factory by Cristoforo Benigno Crespi and his son Silvio. It was an ideal model of company residency being a self-sufficient microcosm equipped with all the services needed by a community where the life of workers and their families was revolving around the factory and the working requirements. It was the expression of philanthropic and patronizing enlightened entrepreneurs at that time, committed in protecting workers' life inside and outside the factory, resulting into a more affectionate and productive manpower. Silvio Benigno Crespi developed an extensive activity to improve working conditions, with special reference to accident prevention and work-related diseases, as well as night work in factories, weekly day off, reduction of working hours: we can say that in some ways he was concerned also with psychosocial risks. PMID:23405777

  20. Biomedical risk, psychosocial influences, and developmental outcomes: lessons from the pediatric HIV population in Africa.

    PubMed

    Abubakar, Amina

    2014-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is home to millions of HIV-affected children. These children are likely to experience multiple developmental delays. In this chapter, I present data highlighting compromised neurobehavioral, mental health, and scholastic outcomes for children affected by HIV. Furthermore, I discuss biomedical factors (e.g., disease severity and nutritional status) that may exacerbate the adverse effects of HIV on childhood outcomes. I also present evidence on how psychosocial risk factors such as poor maternal mental health, orphanhood, and poverty may aggravate the effects of HIV. The concluding section of the chapter highlights conceptual and methodological refinements in research on the impact of HIV on child development in Sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25512044

  1. Protection from psychosocial risks at work under the European Convention on Human Rights: is it possible?

    PubMed

    Sychenko, Elena

    2016-09-01

    This paper argues the possibility of establishing common principles of protection from psychosocial risks (PSR) on the basis of the legal positions of the European Court of Human Rights (the Court) expressed in recent cases on degrading treatment and occupational health. The author focuses on the positive obligations of the States to ensure the protection of the right for life and of the right to respect for private life. The prohibition of degrading treatment in relations between private persons is also considered as relevant to the issue of the protection from PSR. Analyzing the Court's case law (judgments of the Court) we substantiate the possibility of claiming protection from PSR under the European Convention on Human Rights, namely, articles 2, 3 and 6, 8. PMID:27064417

  2. A pilot with computer-assisted psychosocial risk –assessment for refugees

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Refugees experience multiple health and social needs. This requires an integrated approach to care in the countries of resettlement, including Canada. Perhaps, interactive eHealth tools could build bridges between medical and social care in a timely manner. The authors developed and piloted a multi-risk Computer-assisted Psychosocial Risk Assessment (CaPRA) tool for Afghan refugees visiting a community health center. The iPad based CaPRA survey was completed by the patients in their own language before seeing the medical practitioner. The computer then generated individualized feedback for the patient and provider with suggestions about available services. Methods A pilot randomized trial was conducted with adult Afghan refugees who could read Dari/Farsi or English language. Consenting patients were randomly assigned to the CaPRA (intervention) or usual care (control) group. All patients completed a paper-pencil exit survey. The primary outcome was patient intention to see a psychosocial counselor. The secondary outcomes were patient acceptance of the tool and visit satisfaction. Results Out of 199 approached patients, 64 were eligible and 50 consented and one withdrew (CaPRA = 25; usual care = 24). On average, participants were 37.6 years of age and had lived 3.4 years in Canada. Seventy-two percent of participants in CaPRA group had intention to visit a psychosocial counselor, compared to 46 % in usual care group [X2 (1)=3.47, p = 0.06]. On a 5-point scale, CaPRA group participants agreed with the benefits of the tool (mean = 4) and were ‘unsure’ about possible barriers to interact with the clinicians (mean = 2.8) or to privacy of information (mean = 2.8) in CaPRA mediated visits. On a 5-point scale, the two groups were alike in patient satisfaction (mean = 4.3). Conclusion The studied eHealth tool offers a promising model to integrate medical and social care to address the health and settlement needs of refugees

  3. Psychosocial and behavioral factors associated to STD/AIDS risk among health students.

    PubMed

    Dessunti, Elma Mathias; Advincula Reis, Alberto Olavo

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to identify and compare psychosocial and behavioral factors associated to STD/AIDS risk among students enrolled in the first and last years of the Nursing and Medical Undergraduate Programs at State University of Londrina. A convenience sample was selected from 263 enrolled students, and the 183 students who were sexually active (70.4%) had their data assessed. The Aids Risk Reduction Model framework was used to design the questionnaire in which a 5% statistical significance level was considered. Some risk factors were identified such as the perception of invulnerability, multiple sexual partners, consumption of alcoholic beverages before intercourse, and the discontinuous use or no use of condom. The risk factors are common both to the freshman and senior students, with no significant differences related to the passage of time or to the students' higher educational level. Senior students tend to be monogamous which makes them feel safer and decrease the use of condom with their sexual partners. PMID:17546359

  4. Cumulative Neighborhood Risk of Psychosocial Stress and Allostatic Load in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Theall, Katherine P.; Drury, Stacy S.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the impact of cumulative neighborhood risk of psychosocial stress on allostatic load (AL) among adolescents as a mechanism through which life stress, including neighborhood conditions, may affect health and health inequities. They conducted multilevel analyses, weighted for sampling and propensity score-matched, among adolescents aged 12–20 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2006). Individuals (first level, n = 11,886) were nested within families/households (second level, n = 6,696) and then census tracts (third level, n = 2,191) for examination of the contextual effect of cumulative neighborhood risk environment on AL. Approximately 35% of adolescents had 2 or more biomarkers of AL. A significant amount of variance in AL was explained at the neighborhood level. The likelihood of having a high AL was approximately 10% higher for adolescents living in medium-cumulative-risk neighborhoods (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08, 1.09), 28% higher for those living in high-risk neighborhoods (adjusted OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.27, 1.30), and 69% higher for those living in very-high-risk neighborhoods (adjusted OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.68, 1.70) as compared with adolescents living in low-risk areas. Effect modification was observed by both individual- and neighborhood-level sociodemographic factors. These findings offer support for the hypothesis that neighborhood risks may culminate in a range of biologically mediated negative health outcomes detectable in adolescents. PMID:23035140

  5. Suicide among soldiers: a review of psychosocial risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Nock, Matthew K; Deming, Charlene A; Fullerton, Carol S; Gilman, Stephen E; Goldenberg, Matthew; Kessler, Ronald C; McCarroll, James E; McLaughlin, Katie A; Peterson, Christopher; Schoenbaum, Michael; Stanley, Barbara; Ursano, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is difficult to predict and prevent and remains a leading cause of death worldwide. Although soldiers historically have had a suicide rate well below that of the general population, the suicide rate among members of the U.S. Army has increased markedly over the past several years and now exceeds that of the general population. This paper reviews psychosocial factors known to be associated with the increased risk of suicidal behavior in general and describes how some of these factors may be especially important in understanding suicide among soldiers. Moving forward, the prevention of suicide requires additional research aimed at: (a) better describing when, where, and among whom suicidal behavior occurs, (b) using exploratory studies to discover new risk and protective factors, (c) developing new methods of predicting suicidal behavior that synthesize information about modifiable risk and protective factors from multiple domains, and (d) understanding the mechanisms and pathways through which suicidal behavior develops. Although the scope and severity of this problem is daunting, the increasing attention and dedication to this issue by the Armed Forces, scientists, and society provide hope for our ability to better predict and prevent these tragic outcomes in the future. PMID:23631542

  6. Suicide Among Soldiers: A Review of Psychosocial Risk and Protective Factors

    PubMed Central

    Nock, Matthew K.; Deming, Charlene A.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Gilman, Stephen E.; Goldenberg, Matthew; Kessler, Ronald C.; McCarroll, James E.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Peterson, Christopher; Schoenbaum, Michael; Stanley, Barbara; Ursano, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is difficult to predict and prevent and remains a leading cause of death worldwide. Although soldiers historically have had a suicide rate well below that of the general population, the suicide rate among members of the U.S. Army has increased markedly over the past several years and now exceeds that of the general population. This paper reviews psychosocial factors known to be associated with the increased risk of suicidal behavior in general and describes how some of these factors may be especially important in understanding suicide among soldiers. Moving forward, the prevention of suicide requires additional research aimed at: (a) better describing when, where, and among whom suicidal behavior occurs, (b) using exploratory studies to discover new risk and protective factors, (c) developing new methods of predicting suicidal behavior that synthesize information about modifiable risk and protective factors from multiple domains, and (d) understanding the mechanisms and pathways through which suicidal behavior develops. Although the scope and severity of this problem is daunting, the increasing attention and dedication to this issue by the Armed Forces, scientists, and society provide hope for our ability to better predict and prevent these tragic outcomes in the future. PMID:23631542

  7. African American Adolescents and New Media: Associations with HIV/STI risk behavior and psychosocial variables

    PubMed Central

    Whiteley, Laura B.; Brown, Larry K.; Swenson, Rebecca R.; Romer, Daniel; DiClemente, Ralph J.P.; Salazar, Laura F.; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Valois, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Cell phones and online media are used frequently but we know little about their use among African American adolescents. This study examines the frequency of such use and its relationship to psychosocial variables and STI/HIV risk behavior. Setting/Participants 1,518 African American, 13 to 18 years of age, from 2 Northeast U.S. cities (Providence, RI; Syracuse, NY) and 2 Southeast U.S. cities (Columbia, SC; Macon, GA) were assessed from 2008–2009. Design Participants were assessed on frequency of cell phone and Internet use, psychological constructs (depression, life satisfaction, impulsivity) and HIV/STI risk behaviors (history of intercourse, sexual sensation seeking attitudes, peer sexual risks norms) with reliable scales and measures using an audio computer-assisted self-interview. Results Over 90% of African American adolescents used cell phones everyday or most days and 60% used social networking sites everyday or most days (96% used Myspace). Greater requency of cell phone use was associated with sexual sensation seeking (p=.000), riskier peer sexual norms (p=.000), and impulsivity (p=.016). Greater frequency of Internet use was associated with a history of oral/vaginal/anal sex (OR= 1.03, CI=1.0–1.05) and sexual sensation seeking (p=.000). Conclusion These findings suggest that riskier youth are online and using cell phones frequently. The Internet and cell phones maybe useful platforms for targeted health promotion and prevention efforts with AA adolescents. PMID:21749027

  8. Exposure to psychosocial risks at work in prisons: does contact with inmates matter? A pilot study among prison workers in Spain.

    PubMed

    Ghaddar, Ali; Ronda, Elena; Nolasco, Andreu; Álvares, Nahum; Mateo, Inmaculada

    2011-04-01

    Research has lately increased its focus on work conditions as predictors of stress among prison workers but only few studies have focused on how the exposure of workers to psychosocial risks vary according to their occupational groups and their contact with inmates. Work psychosocial risks (demands, control and social support) were assessed using the Spanish version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire among 164 Spanish prison workers (43 per cent of those surveyed). Regression analysis was used to explore how psychosocial hazards and their combinations (outcome variables) vary according to occupational groups. Results suggest that psychosocial risks were highest among guards that have more contact with inmates. Implications of the findings for policy making and practice application are discussed. PMID:26876976

  9. Perinatal Risks and Childhood Premorbid Indicators of Later Psychosis: Next Steps for Early Psychosocial Interventions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cindy H; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Tronick, Ed; Seidman, Larry J

    2015-07-01

    Schizophrenia and affective psychoses are debilitating disorders that together affect 2%-3% of the adult population. Approximately 50%-70% of the offspring of parents with schizophrenia manifest a range of observable difficulties including socioemotional, cognitive, neuromotor, speech-language problems, and psychopathology, and roughly 10% will develop psychosis. Despite the voluminous work on premorbid vulnerabilities to psychosis, especially on schizophrenia, the work on premorbid intervention approaches is scarce. While later interventions during the clinical high-risk (CHR) phase of psychosis, characterized primarily by attenuated positive symptoms, are promising, the CHR period is a relatively late phase of developmental derailment. This article reviews and proposes potential targets for psychosocial interventions during the premorbid period, complementing biological interventions described by others in this Special Theme issue. Beginning with pregnancy, parents with psychoses may benefit from enhanced prenatal care, social support, parenting skills, reduction of symptoms, and programs that are family-centered. For children at risk, we propose preemptive early intervention and cognitive remediation. Empirical research is needed to evaluate these interventions for parents and determine whether interventions for parents and children positively influence the developmental course of the offspring. PMID:25904724

  10. Cortisol reactivity to experimentally manipulated psychosocial stress in young adults at varied risk for depression.

    PubMed

    Morris, Matthew C; Rao, Uma; Wang, Lily; Garber, Judy

    2014-01-01

    This study examined cortisol and affective reactivity to a psychosocial stress task in 102 young adults who varied in risk for depression (56 remitted depressed, 46 never depressed). Participants were randomly assigned to either a stress (i.e., social-evaluative threat) or control (i.e., no social-evaluative threat) condition. For never-depressed individuals, cortisol responses were significantly greater in the stress compared to the control condition. Moreover, cortisol responses were significantly greater for never-depressed than remitted-depressed individuals in the stress condition. For individuals with a history of depression, cortisol responses did not differ significantly between the stress and control conditions. Negative affective reactivity also was higher for never depressed, but not remitted depressed, individuals in the stress compared to the control condition. Moreover, cortisol responses were inversely related to negative affect during the recovery phase in both stress and control conditions. Findings indicate the lack of a robust cortisol response to social evaluation stress among remitted-depressed individuals as compared to that of never-depressed controls. Future studies should investigate unique and interactive links between these hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and affective reactivity alterations and risk for subsequent depressive episodes. PMID:23606237

  11. Psychosocial Stress and Risk of Myocardial Infarction: A Case-Control Study in Belgrade (Serbia)

    PubMed Central

    Vujcic, Isidora; Vlajinac, Hristina; Dubljanin, Eleonora; Vasiljevic, Zorana; Matanovic, Dragana; Maksimovic, Jadranka; Sipetic, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate which psychosocial risk factors show the strongest association with occurrence of myocardial infarction (MI) in the population of Belgrade in peacetime, after the big political changes in Serbia. Methods A case-control study was conducted involving 154 consecutive newly diagnosed patients with MI, and 308 controls matched by gender, age, and place of residence. Results According to conditional logistic regression analysis, after adjustment for conventional coronary risk factors, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for work-related stressful events, financial stress, deaths and diseases, and general stress were 3.78 (1.83-7.81), 3.80 (1.96-7.38), 1.69 (1.03-2.78), and 3.54 (2.01-6.22), respectively. Among individual stressful life events, the following were independently related to MI: death of a close family member, 2.21 (1.01-4.84); death of a close friend, 42.20 (3.70-481.29); major financial problems, 8.94 (1.83-43.63); minor financial problems, 4.74 (2.02-11.14); changes in working hours, 4.99 (1.64-15.22); and changes in working conditions, 30.94 (5.43-176.31). Conclusions During this political transition period , stress at work, financial stress, and stress in general as they impacted the population of Belgrade, Serbia were strongly associated with occurence of MI. PMID:27274168

  12. Perinatal Risks and Childhood Premorbid Indicators of Later Psychosis: Next Steps for Early Psychosocial Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cindy H.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Tronick, Ed; Seidman, Larry J.

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia and affective psychoses are debilitating disorders that together affect 2%–3% of the adult population. Approximately 50%–70% of the offspring of parents with schizophrenia manifest a range of observable difficulties including socioemotional, cognitive, neuromotor, speech-language problems, and psychopathology, and roughly 10% will develop psychosis. Despite the voluminous work on premorbid vulnerabilities to psychosis, especially on schizophrenia, the work on premorbid intervention approaches is scarce. While later interventions during the clinical high-risk (CHR) phase of psychosis, characterized primarily by attenuated positive symptoms, are promising, the CHR period is a relatively late phase of developmental derailment. This article reviews and proposes potential targets for psychosocial interventions during the premorbid period, complementing biological interventions described by others in this Special Theme issue. Beginning with pregnancy, parents with psychoses may benefit from enhanced prenatal care, social support, parenting skills, reduction of symptoms, and programs that are family-centered. For children at risk, we propose preemptive early intervention and cognitive remediation. Empirical research is needed to evaluate these interventions for parents and determine whether interventions for parents and children positively influence the developmental course of the offspring. PMID:25904724

  13. [Psychosocial aspects of the direct path from infertility to the "instant family": are all risks known].

    PubMed

    Baor, Liora; Blickstein, Isaac

    2005-05-01

    Infertility is invariably described as a crisis event. Couples who encounter infertility are further challenged with the accompanied sense of profound losses: loss of health, sexuality, status and prestige, relationship, self-confidence, self-esteem, security, and the fantasy for biological parenthood. Fertility treatments (ART) create hope and cure for the problem on one hand, but place a tremendous burden on the couple's resources on the other. Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART), carry potential risks for both the infant and for the mother, in addition to diverse negative psychosocial consequences for the couple. However, it seems that couples either ignore these risks or are unaware of them, and therefore, wish to accomplish the "instant family" (more than one child) via a shortcut (one pregnancy). Although it is impossible to ignore the numerous children born with the aid of ART, it is crucial that professionals inform the couple about the medical as well as the psychological consequences that accompany fertility treatments, to enable couples to make more realistic decisions. PMID:15931897

  14. Psychosocial factors and uptake of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in women at high risk for ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Meiser, Bettina; Price, Melanie A; Butow, Phyllis N; Karatas, Janan; Wilson, Judy; Heiniger, Louise; Baylock, Brandi; Charles, Margaret; McLachlan, Sue-Anne; Phillips, Kelly-Anne

    2013-03-01

    Bilateral risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) has been shown to significantly reduce the risk of ovarian cancer. This study assessed factors predicting uptake of RRSO. Women participating in a large multiple-case breast cancer family cohort study who were at increased risk for ovarian and fallopian tube cancer (i.e. BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carrier or family history including at least one first- or second-degree relative with ovarian or fallopian tube cancer), with no personal history of cancer and with at least one ovary in situ at cohort enrolment, were eligible for this study. Women who knew they did not carry the BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation segregating in their family (true negatives) were excluded. Sociodemographic, biological and psychosocial factors, including cancer-specific anxiety, perceived ovarian cancer risk, optimism and social support, were assessed using self-administered questionnaires and interviews at cohort enrolment. RRSO uptake was self-reported every three years during systematic follow-up. Of 2,859 women, 571 were eligible. Mean age was 43.3 years; 62 women (10.9 %) had RRSO a median of two years after cohort entry. Factors predicting RRSO were: being parous (OR 3.3, p = 0.015); knowing one's mutation positive status (OR 2.9, p < 0.001) and having a mother and/or sister who died from ovarian cancer (OR 2.5, p = 0.013). Psychological variables measured at cohort entry were not associated with RRSO. These results suggest that women at high risk for ovarian cancer make decisions about RRSO based on risk and individual socio-demographic characteristics, rather than in response to psychological factors such as anxiety. PMID:23203849

  15. Eating Disorder Psychopathology as a Marker of Psychosocial Distress and Suicide Risk in Female and Male Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Zaitsoff, Shannon L.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine psychosocial correlates of specific aspects of eating disorder (ED) psychopathology (i.e., dietary restriction, body dissatisfaction, binge eating, and self-induced vomiting) in psychiatrically-hospitalized adolescent girls and boys. Method Four hundred and ninety-two psychiatric inpatients (286 girls and 206 boys), aged 12 to 19 years, completed self-report measures of psychosocial and behavioral functioning including measures of suicide risk and ED psychopathology. Associations between ED psychopathology and psychosocial functioning were examined separately by sex and after controlling for depressive/negative affect using Beck Depression Inventory scores. Results Among boys and girls, after controlling for depressive/negative affect, ED psychopathology was significantly associated with anxiety, low self-esteem, and current distress regarding childhood abuse. Among girls, after controlling for depressive/negative affect, ED psychopathology was significantly related to hopelessness and suicidality. Among boys, after controlling for depressive/negative affect, ED psychopathology was positively related to self-reported history of sexual abuse and various externalizing problems (drug abuse, violence, and impulsivity). Conclusion In psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents, ED psychopathology may be an important marker of broad psychosocial distress and behavioral problems among girls and boys although the nature of the specific associations differs by sex. PMID:20152294

  16. Interpersonal circumplex descriptions of psychosocial risk factors for physical illness: application to hostility, neuroticism, and marital adjustment.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy W; Traupman, Emily K; Uchino, Bert N; Berg, Cynthia A

    2010-06-01

    Personality risk factors for physical illness are typically studied individually and apart from risk factors reflecting the social environment, potentially fostering a piecemeal understanding of psychosocial influences on health. Because it can be used to describe both personality and social relationship processes, the interpersonal circumplex (IPC) provides an integrative approach to psychosocial risk. In 301 married couples we examined IPC correlates of 3 risk factor domains: anger, hostility, and aggressiveness; neuroticism; and marital adjustment. Risk factors displayed IPC locations ranging from hostile dominance (e.g., verbal aggressiveness, marital conflict) to hostility (e.g., anger) to hostile submissiveness (e.g., anxiety, depression); protective factors (marital satisfaction and support) reflected warmth or friendliness in the IPC. Similar descriptions were found using self-reports and spouse ratings of IPC dimensions, indicating that interpersonal styles associated with risk factors do not simply reflect common method variance. Findings identify interpersonal processes reflecting low affiliation or high hostility as a common component of risk and indicate distinctions among risk factors along the dominance dimension. PMID:20573134

  17. Psychosocial outcome following genetic risk counselling for familial colorectal cancer. A comparison of affected patients and family members.

    PubMed

    Keller, M; Jost, R; Haunstetter, C M; Sattel, H; Schroeter, C; Bertsch, U; Cremer, F; Kienle, P; Tariverdian, M; Kloor, M; Gebert, J; Brechtel, A

    2008-11-01

    Few studies have reported prospective data on psychosocial outcomes after genetic counselling in families with suspected hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). This prospective study examines the impact of multidisciplinary risk counselling on the psychosocial outcome of 139 affected cancer patients and 233 family members without cancer at risk for HNPCC. Participants completed questionnaires specific to HNPCC before and 8 weeks after attending the familial cancer clinic. Affected patients' levels of distress were closely related to their health status and exceeded that of unaffected individuals, as did worry regarding their relatives' risk. A significant reduction in general anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), distress specific to familial CRC (Impact of Events Scale) and general cancer worry (Distress Hereditary Disorder) was demonstrated after counselling in both affected patients and unaffected individuals. Reduction in distress was more pronounced in affected patients given a high risk of HNPCC compared with those at intermediate risk. Among unaffected individuals, distress declined regardless of what clinical risk they were assigned. Their perceptions of risk and cancer-related threat declined, while confidence in effective surveillance increased. These results suggest the beneficial effects of multidisciplinary counselling even when high-risk information is conveyed. A patient's previous cancer experience is likely to contribute to clinically relevant distress (15% of those patients), indicating the need for appropriate counselling. PMID:18954412

  18. [Violence and psychosocial risks: narratives of adolescents living in shelters in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Botelho, Adriana Pedreira; Moraes, Mayara Cristina Muniz Bastos; Leite, Ligia Costa

    2015-01-01

    This article contains part of the results of the "Youth, Disaffiliation and Violence" extension project developed at the Institute of Psychiatry of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro in 2008. It seeks to present experiences of violence experienced in three different contexts, namely in the family home, on the streets and in shelter units (SU), from the standpoint of adolescents. Thirty adolescents in five SUs in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro were interviewed. A qualitative approach was used in order to examine a relatively unknown reality, seeking a contextual understanding from the perspective of the social actors. To achieve this goal, this study sought the contribution of oral reports as the methodology for data collection. The theory of communication was the method of analysis, through the objective/subjective narratives of experiences of adolescents, establishing categories and points of analysis that permeate these experiences. The results revealed that youths housed in shelters are exposed to various psychosocial risks related to violence experienced in the environments visited. Lastly, the need for setting up an intersectorial network aiming at providing effective and comprehensive care for adolescents was highlighted. PMID:25650593

  19. Tackling psychosocial risk factors for adolescent cyberbullying: Evidence from a school-based intervention.

    PubMed

    Barkoukis, Vassilis; Lazuras, Lambros; Ourda, Despoina; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos

    2016-01-01

    Cyberbullying is an emerging form of bullying that takes place through contemporary information and communication technologies. Building on past research on the psychosocial risk factors for cyberbullying in this age group, the present study assessed a theory-driven, school-based preventive intervention that targeted moral disengagement, empathy and social cognitive predictors of cyberbullying. Adolescents (N = 355) aged between 16 and 18 years were randomly assigned into the intervention and the control group. Both groups completed anonymous structured questionnaires about demographics, empathy, moral disengagement and cyberbullying-related social cognitive variables (attitudes, actor prototypes, social norms, and behavioral expectations) before the intervention, post-intervention and 6 months after the intervention. The intervention included awareness-raising and interactive discussions about cyberbullying with intervention group students. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that, after controlling for baseline measurements, there were significant differences at post-intervention measures in moral disengagement scores, and in favorability of actor prototypes. Further analysis on the specific mechanisms of moral disengagement showed that significant differences were observed in distortion of consequences and attribution of blame. The implications of the intervention are discussed, and guidelines for future school-based interventions against cyberbullying are provided. PMID:26350445

  20. Effects of a Workplace Intervention Targeting Psychosocial Risk Factors on Safety and Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Truxillo, Donald M.; Bodner, Todd; Rineer, Jennifer; Pytlovany, Amy C.; Richman, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of a workplace intervention targeting work-life stress and safety-related psychosocial risk factors on health and safety outcomes. Data were collected over time using a randomized control trial design with 264 construction workers employed in an urban municipal department. The intervention involved family- and safety-supportive supervisor behavior training (computer-based), followed by two weeks of behavior tracking and a four-hour, facilitated team effectiveness session including supervisors and employees. A significant positive intervention effect was found for an objective measure of blood pressure at the 12-month follow-up. However, no significant intervention results were found for self-reported general health, safety participation, or safety compliance. These findings suggest that an intervention focused on supervisor support training and a team effectiveness process for planning and problem solving should be further refined and utilized in order to improve employee health with additional research on the beneficial effects on worker safety. PMID:26557703

  1. [Psychosocial risks, quality of employment, and workplace stress in Chilean wage-earning workers: a gender perspective].

    PubMed

    Ansoleaga, Elisa; Díaz, Ximena; Mauro, Amalia

    2016-07-21

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of work-related stress in Chile and its association with exposure to workplace psychosocial risks and quality of employment, considering gender differences. The cross-sectional study included a representative probabilistic national sample of 3,010 salaried workers (1,486 women and 1,524 men). Eighteen percent reported work-related stress (23.8% of women and 14.8% of men). People exposed to psychosocial risks had a higher probability of experiencing stress, and women were more likely to suffer stress than men. Women and men in precarious work showed increased likelihood of distress, compared to workers with less precarious jobs. However, women in precarious jobs were more likely to suffer stress than men in the same situation. The study concluded that women had more precarious jobs, experienced greater exposure to psychosocial risks, and suffered more stress than men. This is evidence of double discrimination (social and gender-based) in the Chilean labor market. PMID:27462856

  2. Psychosocial risk assessment in organizations: Concurrent validity of the brief version of the Management Standards Indicator Tool

    PubMed Central

    Houdmont, Jonathan; Randall, Raymond; Kerr, Robert; Addley, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The Management Standards Indicator Tool (MSIT) is a 35-item self-report measure of the psychosocial work environment designed to assist organizations with psychosocial risk assessment. It is also used in work environment research. Edwards and Webster presented a 25-item version of the MSIT based on the deletion of items having a factor loading of < .65. Stress theory and research suggest that psychosocial hazard exposures may result in harm to the health of workers. Thus, using data collected from three UK organizations (N = 20,406) we compared the concurrent validity of the brief and full versions of the MSIT by exploring the strength of association between each version of the instrument and a measure of psychological wellbeing (GHQ-12 and Maslach Burnout Inventory). Analyses revealed that the brief instrument offered similar but not always equal validity to that of the full version. The results indicate that use of the brief instrument, which would be less disruptive for employees, would not elevate the risk of false negative or false positive findings in risk assessment. PMID:24482553

  3. Psychosocial risk factors in home and community settings and their associations with population health and health inequalities: A systematic meta-review

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Matt; Tannahill, Carol; Petticrew, Mark; Thomas, Sian

    2008-01-01

    Background The effects of psychosocial risk factors on population health and health inequalities has featured prominently in epidemiological research literature as well as public health policy strategies. We have conducted a meta-review (a review of reviews) exploring how psychosocial factors may relate to population health in home and community settings. Methods Systematic review (QUORUM) of literature reviews (published in any language or country) on the health associations of psychosocial risk factors in community settings. The literature search included electronic and manual searches. Two reviewers appraised included reviews using criteria for assessing systematic reviews. Data from the more robust reviews were extracted, tabulated and synthesised. Results Thirty-one reviews met our inclusion criteria. These explored a variety of psychosocial factors including social support and networks, social capital, social cohesion, collective efficacy, participation in local organisations – and less favourable psychosocial risk factors such as demands, exposure to community violence or anti-social behaviour, exposure to discrimination, and stress related to acculturation to western society. Most of the reviews focused on associations between social networks/support and physical or mental health. We identified some evidence of favourable psychosocial environments associated with better health. Reviews also found evidence of unfavourable psychosocial risk factors linked to poorer health, particularly among socially disadvantaged groups. However, the more robust reviews each identified studies with inconclusive findings, as well as studies finding evidence of associations. We also identified some evidence of apparently favourable psychosocial risk factors associated with poorer health. Conclusion From the review literature we have synthesised, where associations have been identified, they generally support the view that favourable psychosocial environments go hand in hand

  4. Importance of substance use and violence in psychosocial syndemics among women with and at-risk for HIV.

    PubMed

    W Batchelder, Abigail; Lounsbury, David W; Palma, Anton; Carrico, Adam; Pachankis, John; Schoenbaum, Ellie; Gonzalez, Jeffrey S

    2016-10-01

    Women in the US continue to be affected by HIV through heterosexual contact. Sexual risk behaviors among women have been associated with a syndemic, or a mutually reinforcing set of conditions, including childhood sexual abuse (CSA), depression, substance use, violence, and financial hardship. Baseline data from a cohort of women with and at-risk for HIV (N = 620; 52% HIV+) were analyzed with Poisson regression to assess evidence for additive, independent and interactive effects among syndemic conditions in relation to reported sexual risk behaviors (e.g., unprotected and transactional sex) over the past 6 months, controlling for age and HIV status. The number of syndemic conditions was incrementally associated with more types of sexual risk behaviors. For example, women with all five syndemic conditions reported 72% more types of risk behaviors over 6 months, as compared to women without any syndemic conditions. Compared to women with no syndemic conditions, women with three syndemic conditions reported 34% more and women with one syndemic condition reported 13% more types of risk behaviors. Endorsing substance use in the past 6 months, reporting CSA, and experiencing violence as an adult were independently associated with 49%, 12%, and 8% more types of risk behaviors, respectively compared to women without these conditions. Endorsing both substance use and violence was associated with 27% more types of risk behaviors. These associations were not moderated by HIV status. Understanding specific relationships and interactions are needed to more effectively prioritize limited resources in addressing the psychosocial syndemic associated with sexual risk behavior among women with and at-risk for HIV. Our results identify interrelated psychosocial factors that could be targeted by intervention studies aiming to reduce high-risk sex in this population. PMID:27110841

  5. Perceptions of Social Mobility: Development of a New Psychosocial Indicator Associated with Adolescent Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda Lucia; Fernald, Lia C. H.; Adler, Nancy; Bertozzi, Stefano; Syme, S. Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Social class gradients have been explored in adults and children, but not extensively during adolescence. The first objective of this study was to examine the association between adolescent risk behaviors and a new indicator of adolescent relative social position, adolescent “perceived social mobility.” Second, it investigated potential underlying demographic, socioeconomic, and psychosocial determinants of this indicator. Data were taken from the 2004 urban adolescent module of Oportunidades, a cross-sectional study of Mexican adolescents living in poverty. Perceived social mobility was calculated for each subject by taking the difference between their rankings on two 10-rung ladder scales that measured (1) projected future social status and (2) current subjective social status within Mexican society. Adolescents with higher perceived social mobility were significantly less likely to report alcohol consumption, drinking with repercussions, compensated sex, police detainment, physical fighting, consumption of junk food or soda, or watching ≥4 h of television during the last viewing. They were significantly more likely to report exercising during the past week and using a condom during last sexual intercourse. These associations remained significant with the inclusion of covariates, including parental education and household expenditures. Multiple logistic regression analyses show higher perceived social mobility to be associated with staying in school longer and having higher perceived control. The present study provides evidence for the usefulness of perceived social mobility as an indicator for understanding the social gradient in health during adolescence. This research suggests the possibility of implementing policies and interventions that provide adolescents with real reasons to be hopeful about their trajectories. PMID:25932460

  6. Psychosocial Assessment of Self-Harm Patients and Risk of Repeat Presentation: An Instrumental Variable Analysis Using Time of Hospital Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Robert; Steeg, Sarah; Davies, Neil M.; Cooper, Jayne; Kapur, Nav

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical guidelines have recommended psychosocial assessment of self-harm patients for years, yet estimates of its impact on the risk of repeat self-harm vary. Assessing the association of psychosocial assessment with risk of repeat self-harm is challenging due to the effects of confounding by indication. Methods We analysed data from a cohort study of 15,113 patients presenting to the emergency departments of three UK hospitals to investigate the association of psychosocial assessment with risk of repeat hospital presentation for self-harm. Time of day of hospital presentation was used as an instrument for psychosocial assessment, attempting to control for confounding by indication. Results Conventional regression analysis suggested psychosocial assessment was not associated with risk of repeat self-harm within 12 months (Risk Difference (RD) 0.00 95% confidence interval (95%CI) -0.01 to 0.02). In contrast, IV analysis suggested risk of repeat self-harm was reduced by 18% (RD -0.18, 95%CI -0.32 to -0.03) in those patients receiving a psychosocial assessment. However, the instrument of time of day did not remove all potential effects of confounding by indication, suggesting the IV effect estimate may be biased. Conclusions We found that psychosocial assessments reduce risk of repeat self-harm. This is in-line with other non-randomised studies based on populations in which allocation to assessment was less subject to confounding by indication. However, as our instrument did not fully balance important confounders across time of day, the IV effect estimate should be interpreted with caution. PMID:26918579

  7. Psychosocial Risk Factors and Musculoskeletal Symptoms among White and Blue-collar Workers at Private and Public Sectors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate musculoskeletal and psychosocial perception and compare these conditions regarding the type of job (white or blue-collar) and the type of management model (private or public). Methods Forty-seven public white-collar (PuWC), 84 private white-collar (PrWC) and 83 blue-collar workers (PrBC) were evaluated. Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) were applied to evaluate psychosocial factors. Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) was used to assess musculoskeletal symptoms. Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT) was measured to evaluate sensory responses. Results According to JCQ, all groups were classified as active profile. There was a significant association between work engagement and workers’ categories (p < 0.05). PrWC workers had the highest scores for all the UWES domains, while PrBC had the lowest ones. PPT showed that PrBC workers had an increased sensitivity for left deltoid (p < 0.01), and for both epicondyles (p < 0.01), when compared to the other groups. PrWC workers had an increased sensitivity for both epicondyles than PuWC (right p < 0.01; left, p = 0.05). There was no significant association in the report of symptoms across the groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion This study showed differences in psychosocial risk factors and musculoskeletal symptoms in workers engaged in different types of jobs and work organization. Personal and work-related characteristics, psychosocial factors and PPT responses were different across workers’ group. Despite all, there was no significant difference in reported symptoms across the groups, possibly indicating that the physical load is similar among the sectors. PMID:25854836

  8. Childhood Experiences and Psychosocial Influences on HIV Risk among Adolescent Latinas in Southern California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcomb, Michael D.; Locke, Thomas F.; Goodyear, Rodney K.

    2003-01-01

    This study determined how adverse childhood experiences influenced risky sexual behavior in a community sample of Latina adolescents in Los Angeles. Psychosocial, sociocultural, and environmental mediators of the relations between childhood experiences and risky sexual behavior were tested. Childhood maltreatment was associated with risky sexual…

  9. Health-endangering behaviours among Japanese college students: a test of psychosocial model of risk-taking behaviours.

    PubMed

    Omori, Mika; Ingersoll, Gary M

    2005-02-01

    Adolescents' health-endangering behaviours receive attention because they are presumed to threaten the health of individuals in either the short or long term. The present study examined the role of psychosocial determinants on adolescents' health-endangering behaviours using elements of a biopsychosocial model proposed by Irwin and Millstein (1986). It was hypothesized that egocentrism, self-esteem, and perceived social environment affect the onset of risk-taking behaviours, mediating risk perception. Eight hundred and eight Japanese college students completed questionnaires. Results from a structural equation analysis partly supported the hypothesized model. Egocentrism contributes directly to health-endangering behaviours while influences of self-esteem and perceived social norms are mediated by risk perception. PMID:15683632

  10. Psychosocial predictors of self-esteem in a multiethnic sample of women over 50 at risk for HIV.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Robin J; Kane, Michael N

    2011-01-01

    Self-esteem is linked to high-risk behaviors in other populations but has not been examined in women aged 50 and older. This study explored how self-esteem is related to variables that can influence high-risk sexual behaviors in women over 50. A multiethnic community-based sample of 572 women aged 50 and older completed an anonymous questionnaire on sexual behaviors, sociodemographic characteristics, and psychosocial measures relevant to midlife and older women. Regression analysis showed sensation-seeking, HIV stigma, sexual assertiveness, and self-silencing predicted self-esteem in women over 50 (F = 43.632, p < .001). Factors such as relational context, interpersonal power, and silencing can affect self-esteem and may be contributing to HIV risk in this group. PMID:21271442

  11. Value of planar 201Tl imaging in risk stratification of patients recovering from acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, R.S.; Watson, D.D. )

    1991-09-01

    Although exercise ECG testing has been shown to have important prognostic value after acute myocardial infarction, exercise 201Tl scintigraphy offers several potential advantages, including: (1) increased sensitivity for detecting residual myocardial ischemia; (2) the ability to localize ischemia to a specific area or areas subtended by a specific coronary artery; (3) the ability to identify exercise-induced left ventricular dysfunction, which is manifested by increased lung uptake or transient left ventricular dilation; and (4) more reliable risk stratification of individual patients. The more optimal prognostic efficiency of 201Tl scintigraphy partially results from the fact that the error rate in falsely classifying patients as low risk is significantly smaller with 201Tl scintigraphy than with stress ECG. Because of these substantial advantages, there seems to be adequate rationale for recommending exercise perfusion imaging rather than exercise ECG alone as the preferred method for evaluating mortality and morbidity risks after acute myocardial infarction.

  12. Syndemics of psychosocial problems and HIV risk: A systematic review of empirical tests of the disease interaction concept

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Alexander C.; Burns, Bridget F.O.

    2015-01-01

    In the theory of syndemics, diseases co-occur in particular temporal or geographical contexts due to harmful social conditions (disease concentration) and interact at the level of populations and individuals, with mutually enhancing deleterious consequences for health (disease interaction). This theory has widespread adherents in the field, but the extent to which there is empirical support for the concept of disease interaction remains unclear. In January 2015 we systematically searched 7 bibliographic databases and tracked citations to highly cited publications associated with the theory of syndemics. Of the 783 records, we ultimately included 34 published journal articles, 5 dissertations, and 1 conference abstract. Most studies were based on a cross-sectional design (32 [80%]), were conducted in the U.S. (32 [80%]), and focused on men who have sex with men (21 [53%]). The most frequently studied psychosocial problems were related to mental health (33 [83%]), substance abuse (36 [90%]), and violence (27 [68%]); while the most frequently studied outcome variables were HIV transmission risk behaviors (29 [73%]) or HIV infection (9 [23%]). To test the disease interaction concept, 11 (28%) studies used some variation of a product term, with less than half of these (5/11 [45%]) providing sufficient information to interpret interaction both on an additive and on a multiplicative scale. The most frequently used specification (31 [78%]) to test the disease interaction concept was the sum score corresponding to the total count of psychosocial problems. Although the count variable approach does not test hypotheses about interactions between psychosocial problems, these studies were much more likely than others (14/31 [45%] vs. 0/9 [0%]; χ2=6.25, P=0.01) to incorporate language about “synergy” or “interaction” that was inconsistent with the statistical models used. Therefore, more evidence is needed to assess the extent to which diseases interact, either at the

  13. Syndemics of psychosocial problems and HIV risk: A systematic review of empirical tests of the disease interaction concept.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Alexander C; Burns, Bridget F O

    2015-08-01

    In the theory of syndemics, diseases co-occur in particular temporal or geographical contexts due to harmful social conditions (disease concentration) and interact at the level of populations and individuals, with mutually enhancing deleterious consequences for health (disease interaction). This theory has widespread adherents in the field, but the extent to which there is empirical support for the concept of disease interaction remains unclear. In January 2015 we systematically searched 7 bibliographic databases and tracked citations to highly cited publications associated with the theory of syndemics. Of the 783 records, we ultimately included 34 published journal articles, 5 dissertations, and 1 conference abstract. Most studies were based on a cross-sectional design (32 [80%]), were conducted in the U.S. (32 [80%]), and focused on men who have sex with men (21 [53%]). The most frequently studied psychosocial problems were related to mental health (33 [83%]), substance abuse (36 [90%]), and violence (27 [68%]); while the most frequently studied outcome variables were HIV transmission risk behaviors (29 [73%]) or HIV infection (9 [23%]). To test the disease interaction concept, 11 (28%) studies used some variation of a product term, with less than half of these (5/11 [45%]) providing sufficient information to interpret interaction both on an additive and on a multiplicative scale. The most frequently used specification (31 [78%]) to test the disease interaction concept was the sum score corresponding to the total count of psychosocial problems. Although the count variable approach does not test hypotheses about interactions between psychosocial problems, these studies were much more likely than others (14/31 [45%] vs. 0/9 [0%]; χ2 = 6.25, P = 0.01) to incorporate language about "synergy" or "interaction" that was inconsistent with the statistical models used. Therefore, more evidence is needed to assess the extent to which diseases interact, either at the

  14. Prevalence and psychosocial risk factors associated with internet addiction in a nationally representative sample of college students in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Min-Pei; Ko, Huei-Chen; Wu, Jo Yung-Wei

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of Internet addiction in a nationally representative sample of college students and to identify any associated psychosocial risk factors. The present study was constructed using a cross-sectional design with 3,616 participants. Participants were surveyed during the middle of the spring and fall semesters and recruited from colleges around Taiwan using stratified and cluster random sampling methods. Associations between Internet addiction and psychosocial risk factors were examined using stepwise logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of Internet addiction was found to be 15.3 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 14.1 percent to 16.5 percent). More depressive symptoms, higher positive outcome expectancy of Internet use, higher Internet usage time, lower refusal self-efficacy of Internet use, higher impulsivity, lower satisfaction with academic performance, being male, and insecure attachment style were positively correlated with Internet addiction. The prevalence of Internet addiction among college students in Taiwan was high, and the variables mentioned were independently predictive in the logistic regression analysis. This study can be used as a reference for policy making regarding the design of Internet addiction prevention programs and can also aid in the development of strategies designed to help Internet-addicted college students. PMID:21651418

  15. Psychosocial Intervention Is Associated with Altered Emotion Processing: An Event-Related Potential Study in At-Risk Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pincham, Hannah L.; Bryce, Donna; Kokorikou, Danae; Fonagy, Peter; Fearon, R. M. Pasco

    2016-01-01

    Emotion processing is vital for healthy adolescent development, and impaired emotional responses are associated with a number of psychiatric disorders. However, it is unclear whether observed differences between psychiatric populations and healthy controls reflect modifiable variations in functioning (and thus could be sensitive to changes resulting from intervention) or stable, non-modifiable, individual differences. The current study therefore investigated whether the Late Positive Potential (LPP; a neural index of emotion processing) can be used as a marker of therapeutic change following psycho-social intervention. At-risk male adolescents who had received less than four months intervention (minimal-intervention, N = 32) or more than nine months intervention (extended-intervention, N = 32) passively viewed emotional images whilst neural activity was recorded using electroencephalography. Significant differences in emotion processing, indicated by the LPP, were found between the two groups: the LPP did not differ according to valence in the minimal-intervention group, whereas the extended-intervention participants showed emotion processing in line with low risk populations (enhanced LPP for unpleasant images versus other images). Further, an inverse relationship between emotional reactivity (measured via the LPP) and antisocial behaviour was observed in minimal-intervention participants only. The data therefore provide preliminary cross-sectional evidence that abnormal neural responses to emotional information may be normalised following psychosocial intervention. Importantly, this study uniquely suggests that, in future randomised control trials, the LPP may be a useful biomarker to measure development and therapeutic change. PMID:26808519

  16. The role of burnout syndrome as a mediator for the effect of psychosocial risk factors on the intensity of musculoskeletal disorders: a structural equation modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Gholami, Tahereh; Pahlavian, Ahmad Heidari; Akbarzadeh, Mahdi; Motamedzade, Majid; Moghaddam, Rashid Heidari

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that burnout syndrome mediates effects of psychosocial risk factors and intensity of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among hospital nurses. The sample was composed of 415 nurses from various wards across five hospitals of Iran's Hamedan University of Medical Sciences. Data were collected through three questionnaires: job content questionnaire, Maslach burnout inventory and visual analogue scale. Results of structural equation modeling with a mediating effect showed that psychosocial risk factors were significantly related to changes in burnout, which in turn affects intensity of MSDs. PMID:27075269

  17. Recovering substance-impaired pharmacists’ views regarding occupational risks for addiction

    PubMed Central

    Merlo, Lisa J.; Cummings, Simone M.; Cottler, Linda B.

    2013-01-01

    Substance misuse, abuse, and dependence are serious problems among a minority of pharmacists. Though various environmental risk factors have been implicated, few data are available describing the underlying mechanisms or the extent to which the environmental risk factors actually contribute to the problem. In the present study, 32 pharmacists (72.7% male), under contract with a State impaired healthcare provider monitoring program, were recruited to participate in one of 6 guided group discussions regarding substance use among healthcare providers. These groups included 4-6 pharmacists, on average, and lasted approximately 60-90 minutes each. Participants anonymously contributed to the group discussions, providing in-depth commentary and describing their substance-related experiences. The discussions were digitally audio-recorded and transcribed for analysis using the Grounded Theory method. Results indicated that several occupational hazards unique to the pharmacy profession might contribute to the problem of substance use disorders among some members of this population, including: increased access to potent drugs of abuse, a stressful/unpleasant working environment, a culture that unofficially condones medication diversion, lack of education related to addiction, and lack of support for individuals seeking treatment. These results have important implications for the education of pharmacy students, the continuing education of licensed pharmacists, and the management of pharmacies in which these individuals work. PMID:22825228

  18. Can Early Intervention Have an Impact on Future Life? A Study of Life Events, Social Interaction, and Child Behavior among Mothers at Psychosocial Risk and Their Children Eight Years after Interaction Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsby, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Forty-six mothers at psychosocial risk who had undergone interaction treatment when their children were babies were studied with respect to experienced negative life events, social network, and behavior problems in children. One reference group comprising 45 nontreated mothers at psychosocial risk and one comprising 56 mothers without psychosocial…

  19. Impaired mental well-being and psychosocial risk: a cross-sectional study in female nursing home direct staff

    PubMed Central

    Pélissier, C; Fontana, L; Fort, E; Vohito, M; Sellier, B; Perrier, C; Glerant, V; Couprie, F; Agard, J P; Charbotel, B

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study sought to quantify the impaired mental well-being and psychosocial stress experienced by nursing home staff and to determine the relationship between impaired mental well-being assessed on the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and exposure to psychosocial stress assessed on Siegrist's effort/reward and overcommitment model. Methods A transverse study was conducted in France on 2471 female employees in 105 nursing homes for the elderly. Personal and occupational data were collected by questionnaire for 668 housekeepers, 1454 nursing assistants and 349 nurses. Results 36.8% of participants (n=896) showed impaired mental well-being, 42.7% (n=1039) overcommitment and 9% (n=224) effort/reward imbalance. Overcommitment (prevalence ratio (PR)=1.27; 95% CI (1.21 to 1.34)) and effort–reward imbalance (PR=1.19; 95% CI (1.12 to 1.27)) were significantly associated with presence of impaired mental well-being after adjustment for personal factors (age and private life events). Taking effort and reward levels into account, the frequency of impaired mental well-being was highest in case of exposure to great extrinsic effort and low rewards of any type: esteem, PR=3.53, 95% CI (3.06 to 4.08); earnings, PR=3.48, 95% CI (2.99 to 4.06); or job security, PR=3.30, 95% CI (2.88 to 3.78). Participants in situations of overcommitment and of effort/reward imbalance were at the highest risk of impaired mental well-being: PR=3.86, 95% CI (3.42 to 4.35). Conclusions Several changes in nursing home organisation can be suggested to reduce staff exposure to factors of psychosocial stress. Qualitative studies of the relation between impaired mental well-being and psychosocial stress in nursing home staff could guide prevention of impaired mental well-being at work. PMID:25829371

  20. Risk and protection factors in the peer context: how do other children contribute to the psychosocial adjustment of the adolescent?

    PubMed

    Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Trempe, Sophie-Caroline; Paiva, Alexandra Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    As children become adolescents, peers assume greater importance in their lives. Peer experiences can either help them thrive or negatively affect their psychosocial adjustment. In this review article definitions for the types of peer experiences are provided followed by an overview of common psychosocial issues encountered by adolescents. Past research that has pointed to risk and protection factors that emerge from peer experiences during adolescence and the role of peer influences in the context of current issues relevant to adolescent education are discussed. Research suggests that friendships with deviant peers, involvement in bullying and the experience of rejection from the overall peer group are related to adjustment problems, whereas friendships with prosocial and academically oriented peers and social acceptance in the peer group are related to healthy development. Friendship quality, popularity among peers, and involvement in friendship cliques cannot be clearly categorized as either positive or negative influences, because they interact with other factors in shaping the development of adolescents. The promotion of social skills and positive youth leadership as an integral part of the student's learning process in school is recommended. PMID:24714885

  1. A Syndemic of Psychosocial Health Disparities and Associations With Risk for Attempting Suicide Among Young Sexual Minority Men

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Rebecca; Herrick, Amy; Stall, Ron; Schnarrs, Phillip W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined a syndemic of psychosocial health issues among young men who have sex with men (MSM), with men and women (MSMW), and with women (MSW). We examined hypothesized drivers of syndemic production and effects on suicide attempts. Methods. Using a pooled data set of 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys from 11 jurisdictions, we used structural equation modeling to model a latent syndemic factor of depression symptoms, substance use, risky sex, and intimate partner violence. Multigroup models examined relations between victimization and bullying experiences, syndemic health issues, and serious suicide attempts. Results. We found experiences of victimization to increase syndemic burden among all male youths, especially MSMW and MSM compared with MSW (variance explained = 44%, 38%, and 10%, respectively). The syndemic factor was shown to increase the odds of reporting a serious suicide attempt, particularly for MSM (odds ratio [OR] = 5.75; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.36, 24.39; P < .001) and MSMW (OR = 5.08; 95% CI = 2.14, 12.28; P < .001) compared with MSW (OR = 3.47; 95% CI = 2.50, 4.83; P < .001). Conclusions. Interventions addressing multiple psychosocial health outcomes should be developed and tested to better meet the needs of young MSM and MSMW. PMID:24328641

  2. Influence of psychosocial risk factors on the trajectory of mental health problems from childhood to adolescence: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Longitudinal epidemiological studies involving child/adolescent mental health problems are scarce in developing countries, particularly in regions characterized by adverse living conditions. We examined the influence of psychosocial factors on the trajectory of child/adolescent mental health problems (CAMHP) over time. Methods A population-based sample of 6- to 13-year-olds with CAMHP was followed-up from 2002–2003 (Time 1/T1) to 2007–2008 (Time 2/T2), with 86 out of 124 eligible children/adolescents at T1 being reassessed at T2 (sample loss: 30.6%). Outcome: CAMHP at T2 according to the Child Behavior Checklist/CBCL’s total problem scale. Psychosocial factors: T1 variables (child/adolescent’s age, family socioeconomic status); trajectory of variables from T1 to T2 (child/adolescent exposure to severe physical punishment, mother exposure to severe physical marital violence, maternal anxiety/depression); and T2 variables (maternal education, child/adolescent’s social support and pro-social activities). Results Multivariate analysis identified two risk factors for child/adolescent MHP at T2: aggravation of child/adolescent physical punishment and aggravation of maternal anxiety/depression. Conclusions The current study shows the importance of considering child/adolescent physical punishment and maternal anxiety/depression in intervention models and mental health care policies. PMID:23327711

  3. Psychosocial vulnerability and HIV-related sexual risk among men who have sex with men and women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Typhanye P; Regan, Rotrease; Pacek, Lauren R; Acheampong, Abenaa; Khan, Maria R

    2015-02-01

    In the U.S., HIV is concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM), some of whom have had female partners (MSMW). MSMW are disproportionately impacted by psychosocial vulnerabilities, like depression and substance use that increase sexually transmitted infection (STI) and HIV risk. Research on psychosocial vulnerability and HIV-related sexual risk among MSMW is warranted to reduce infection transmission among MSM and to prevent bridging to female partners. We analyzed data from Wave IV (2007-2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to assess psychosocial vulnerability and HIV risk-taking among MSMW. Using lifetime and past year sexual activity, we classified men as ever having sex with: women only (MSW), men only (MSMO) or MSMW, with further refined categorization of MSMW with male only partners in the past 12 months, only female partners in the past 12 months, and both male and female partners in the past 12 months (N = 6,945). We compared psychosocial vulnerability characteristics and HIV-related risk behaviors among the five categories of men. MSMW were more likely to report depression, suicidality, substance use, and incarceration than MSW and MSMO. Compared to MSW, MSMW with current female partners had greater odds of unprotected sex, exchange sex, and STI. MSMW with male partners in the past year had greater odds of multiple or concurrent partners in the past year. HIV risk and psychosocial vulnerability factors are elevated among MSMW, a priority population for HIV risk reduction. HIV risk reduction interventions should address this and heterogeneity of sexual partnerships among MSMW. PMID:25183549

  4. Psychosocial Vulnerability and HIV-related Sexual Risk among Men who have Sex with Men and Women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, Typhanye P.; Regan, Rotrease; Pacek, Lauren R.; Acheampong, Abenaa; Khan, Maria R.

    2014-01-01

    In the U.S., HIV is concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM), some of whom have had female partners (MSMW). MSMW are disproportionately impacted by psychosocial vulnerabilities, like depression and substance use that increase sexually transmitted infection (STI) and HIV risk. Research on psychosocial vulnerability and HIV-related sexual risk among MSMW is warranted to reduce infection transmission among MSM and to prevent bridging to female partners. We analyzed data from Wave IV (2007–2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to assess psychosocial vulnerability and HIV risk-taking among MSMW. Using lifetime and past year sexual activity, we classified men as ever having sex with: women only (MSW), men only (MSMO) or MSMW, with further refined categorization of MSMW with male only partners in the past 12 months, only female partners in the past 12 months, and both male and female partners in the past 12 months (N = 6,945). We compared psychosocial vulnerability characteristics and HIV-related risk behaviors among the five categories of men. MSMW were more likely to report depression, suicidality, substance use, and incarceration than MSW and MSMO. Compared to MSW, MSMW with current female partners had greater odds of unprotected sex, exchange sex, and STI. MSMW with male partners in the past year had greater odds of multiple or concurrent partners in the past year. HIV risk and psychosocial vulnerability factors are elevated among MSMW, a priority population for HIV risk reduction. HIV risk reduction interventions should address this and heterogeneity of sexual partnerships among MSMW. PMID:25183549

  5. In-Service Teacher Training to Provide Psychosocial Support and Care in High-Risk and High-Need Schools: School-Based Intervention Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebersöhn, Liesel; Loots, Tilda; Eloff, Irma; Ferreira, Ronél

    2015-01-01

    This article uses a South African case study to argue that postcolonial, emerging economy societies in transition often contain schools characterised as high risk and high need. Such schools require teachers to adapt to roles other than facilitating learning, such as psychosocial support and care, and which requires additional professional…

  6. Predicting Developmental Change in Healthy Eating and Regular Exercise among Adolescents in China and the United States: The Role of Psychosocial and Behavioral Protection and Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessor, Richard; Turbin, Mark S.; Costa, Frances M.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a cross-national study of developmental change in health-enhancing behavior--healthy eating and regular exercise--among adolescents in China and the United States. The application of a conceptual framework comprising psychosocial and behavioral protective and risk factors--both proximal and distal and at both the individual…

  7. A Practice/Research Collaborative: An Innovative Approach to Identifying and Responding to Psychosocial Functioning Problems and Recidivism Risk among Juvenile Arrestees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Walters, Wansley; Meyers, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Effectively identifying and responding to the psychosocial problems and recidivism risk of arrested youths remain critical needs in the field. Centralized intake facilities, such as juvenile assessment centers (JACs), can play a key role in this process. As part of a U.S. National Demonstration Project, the Miami-Dade JAC, serving a…

  8. Psychosocial mediators of a nurse intervention to increase skin self-examination in patients at high risk for melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hay, Jennifer L; Oliveria, Susan A; Dusza, Stephen W; Phelan, Deborah L; Ostroff, Jamie S; Halpern, Allan C

    2006-06-01

    This prospective study examines psychosocial mediators of an efficacious skin self-examination (SSE) intervention that includes provision of a whole-body digital photography book depicting the entire skin surface. Individuals (n = 100) with established risk factors for melanoma were recruited from the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Pigmented Lesion Clinic during their initial dermatologist visit and were randomized to receive a photobook immediately (n = 49) or 4 months after intervention delivery (n = 51). Potential mediators included self-efficacy and response efficacy drawn from Social Cognitive Theory, melanoma worry, and SSE anxiety drawn from Self-Regulation Theory, and skin cancer knowledge, and skin awareness. Only self-efficacy was a significant mediator, accounting for 8% of the total effect of photobook enhancement on SSE adherence at 4 months. PMID:16775183

  9. Cortisol awakening response and diurnal cortisol among children at elevated risk for schizophrenia: relationship to psychosocial stress and cognition.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Alexis E; Zunszain, Patricia A; Dickson, Hannah; Roberts, Ruth E; Fisher, Helen L; Pariante, Carmine M; Laurens, Kristin R

    2014-08-01

    Abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, as indexed by elevated diurnal cortisol levels and/or a blunted cortisol awakening response (CAR), has been observed among patients with first episode psychosis and associated with neurocognitive deficits in this population. However, the extent to which these features precede illness onset is unclear. The current study aimed to determine whether children who are at putatively elevated risk for psychosis because they present multiple antecedents of schizophrenia (ASz), and high-risk children with a family history of illness (FHx), are characterized by abnormal cortisol levels when compared with their typically developing (TD) peers. A further aim was to investigate the extent to which cortisol levels are associated with psychosocial stress and neurocognitive function. Thirty-three ASz children, 22 FHx children, and 40 TD children were identified at age 9-12 years using a novel community-based screening procedure or as relatives of individuals with schizophrenia. All participants were antipsychotic-naive and not currently seeking treatment for their symptoms. At age 11-14 years, participants provided salivary cortisol samples and completed psychosocial stress measures and tests of memory and executive function. Results indicated that FHx children, but not ASz children, were characterized by a blunted CAR relative to their TD peers (effect size=-0.73, p=0.01) that was not explained by psychosocial stress exposure or by distress relating to these experiences. Neither FHx nor ASz children were characterized by elevated diurnal cortisol. Among both FHx and ASz children, more pronounced HPA axis function abnormalities (i.e., higher diurnal cortisol levels and greater blunting of the CAR) were associated with poorer performance on tests of verbal memory and executive function. These findings support the notion that at least some HPA axis abnormalities described in psychosis precede illness onset, rather than

  10. Cortisol awakening response and diurnal cortisol among children at elevated risk for schizophrenia: Relationship to psychosocial stress and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Alexis E.; Zunszain, Patricia A.; Dickson, Hannah; Roberts, Ruth E.; Fisher, Helen L.; Pariante, Carmine M.; Laurens, Kristin R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, as indexed by elevated diurnal cortisol levels and/or a blunted cortisol awakening response (CAR), has been observed among patients with first episode psychosis and associated with neurocognitive deficits in this population. However, the extent to which these features precede illness onset is unclear. The current study aimed to determine whether children who are at putatively elevated risk for psychosis because they present multiple antecedents of schizophrenia (ASz), and high-risk children with a family history of illness (FHx), are characterized by abnormal cortisol levels when compared with their typically developing (TD) peers. A further aim was to investigate the extent to which cortisol levels are associated with psychosocial stress and neurocognitive function. Thirty-three ASz children, 22 FHx children, and 40 TD children were identified at age 9–12 years using a novel community-based screening procedure or as relatives of individuals with schizophrenia. All participants were antipsychotic-naive and not currently seeking treatment for their symptoms. At age 11–14 years, participants provided salivary cortisol samples and completed psychosocial stress measures and tests of memory and executive function. Results indicated that FHx children, but not ASz children, were characterized by a blunted CAR relative to their TD peers (effect size = −0.73, p = 0.01) that was not explained by psychosocial stress exposure or by distress relating to these experiences. Neither FHx nor ASz children were characterized by elevated diurnal cortisol. Among both FHx and ASz children, more pronounced HPA axis function abnormalities (i.e., higher diurnal cortisol levels and greater blunting of the CAR) were associated with poorer performance on tests of verbal memory and executive function. These findings support the notion that at least some HPA axis abnormalities described in psychosis precede illness

  11. The impact of lean production on musculoskeletal and psychosocial risks: an examination of sociotechnical trends over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Koukoulaki, Theoni

    2014-03-01

    This paper provides an extensive review of studies carried out in lean production environments in the last 20 years. It aims to identify the effects of lean production (negative or positive) on occupational health and related risk factors. Thirty-six studies of lean effects were accepted from the literature search and sorted by sector and type of outcome. Lean production was found to have a negative effect on health and risk factors; the most negative outcomes being found in the earliest studies in the automotive industry. However, examples of mixed and positive effects were also found in the literature. The strongest correlations of lean production with stress were found for characteristics found in Just-In-Time production that related to reduced cycle time and reduction of resources. Increased musculoskeletal risk symptoms were related to increases of work pace and lack of recovery time also found in Just-In-Time systems. An interaction model is developed to propose a pathway from lean production characteristics to musculoskeletal and psychosocial risk factors and also positive outcomes. An examination is also made of the changing focus of studies investigating the consequences of lean production over a 20-year period. Theories about the effects of lean production have evolved from a conceptualization that it is an inherently harmful management system, to a view that it can have mixed effects depending on the management style of the organization and the specific way it is implemented. PMID:23981516

  12. Reducing psychosocial risks through supervisors' development: a contribution for a brief version of the "Stress Management Competency Indicator Tool".

    PubMed

    Toderi, Stefano; Gaggia, Andrea; Balducci, Cristian; Sarchielli, Guido

    2015-06-15

    With the recent changes in the world of work psychosocial risks are increasingly prevalent, causing work stress and physical and mental illnesses, which have a tremendous impact on public health and social participation. Supervisors' behaviour development was proposed as an innovative intervention that can reduce psychosocial risks. The "Stress Management Competency Indicator Tool" is one of the most important questionnaires that assess managers' preventive behaviour. However, its psychometric properties have never been evaluated and the length of the questionnaire (66 items) limits its practical applicability. The aim of this study was to contribute to the development of the questionnaire by providing psychometric evidence on a brief version of the tool focusing on the "Managing and Communicating existing and future Work" cluster of behaviours, which has been found to be the crucial one in terms of stress prevention. A questionnaire was administered to 178 employees of two Italian public organizations (a municipality and a hospital), measuring the supervisors' "Managing and Communicating existing and future Work" competency, and the affective well-being and work team effectiveness. The results showed excellent psychometric properties of the supervisors' behaviour scale and confirmed the expected relationships with criterion outcomes (affective well-being and team effectiveness). Overall, the factorial structure and dimensionality, the construct validity and reliability, and the concurrent validity of the tool were strongly supported by this study. We concluded that the brief version of the scale is a valid and reliable measure that can be easily used in practice and that can contribute to the development of research and practice on this topic. PMID:25770947

  13. Gender-specific secondary prevention? Differential psychosocial risk factors for major cardiovascular events

    PubMed Central

    Kure, Christina E; Chan, Yih-Kai; Ski, Chantal F; Thompson, David R; Carrington, Melinda J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the psychosocial determinants and interhospital variability on a major acute cardiovascular event (MACE), during follow-up of a multicenter cohort of patients hospitalised with heart disease, participating in a nurse-led secondary prevention programme. Methods Outcome data were retrospectively analysed from 602 cardiac inpatients randomised to postdischarge standard care (n=296), or home-based intervention (n=306), with prolonged follow-up of individualised multidisciplinary support. Baseline psychosocial profiling comprised depressive status, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), social isolation and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Multivariate analyses examined the independent correlates of a composite 2-year MACE rate of all-cause mortality and unplanned cardiovascular-related hospitalisation, according to gender. Results Participants were aged 70±10 years, 431 (72%) were men and 377 (63%) had coronary artery disease. During 2-year follow-up, 165 (27%) participants (114 men, 51 women; p=0.431) experienced a MACE. Independent correlates of a MACE in men were depressive status (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.58; p=0.032), low physical HRQoL (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.00; p=0.027) and increasing comorbidity (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.25; p=0.004). In women, age (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.12; p=0.008), MCI (OR 2.38, 95% CI 1.09 to 5.18; p=0.029) and hospital site predicted a MACE (OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.09 to 4.93; p=0.029). Conclusions Psychological determinants, cognitive impairment and responses to secondary prevention are different for men and women with heart disease and appear to modulate cardiovascular-specific outcomes. Early detection of psychosocial factors through routine screening and gender-specific secondary prevention is encouraged. Trial registration number 12608000014358. PMID:27099759

  14. The effect of psychosocial syndemic production on 4-year HIV incidence and risk behavior in a large cohort of sexually active men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    MIMIAGA, Matthew J.; O’CLEIRIGH, Conall; BIELLO, Katie B.; ROBERTSON, Angela M.; SAFREN, Steven A.; COATES, Thomas J.; KOBLIN, Beryl A.; CHESNEY, Margaret A.; DONNELL, Deborah J.; STALL, Ron D.; MAYER, Kenneth H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional studies have suggested that co-occurring epidemics or “syndemics” of psychosocial health problems may accelerate HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. We aimed to assess how five syndemic conditions (depressive symptoms, heavy alcohol use, stimulant use, polydrug use, and childhood sexual abuse) affected HIV incidence and sexual risk behavior over time. Methods Eligible men in a large, prospective cohort of sexually active, HIV-uninfected MSM completed HIV testing and behavioral surveys at baseline and every 6 months for 48 months. We examined interrelationships between psychosocial problems and whether these interactions increased the odds of HIV risk behaviors and risk of seroconversion over study follow-up. Results Among 4295 men, prevalence of psychosocial conditions was substantial at baseline and was positively associated with each other. We identified a statistically significant positive dose-response relationship between numbers of syndemic conditions and HIV seroconversion for all comparisons (with the greatest hazard among those with 4-5 conditions, aHR=8.69; 95% CI: 4.78-15.44). The number of syndemic conditions also predicted increased HIV related risk behaviors over time, which mediated the syndemic-HIV seroconversion association. Conclusions The accumulation of “syndemic” psychosocial problems predicted HIV-related sexual risk behaviors and seroconversion in a large sample of U.S. MSM. Given the high prevalence of syndemic conditions among MSM and the moderate effect sizes attained by traditional brief behavioral interventions to date, the HIV prevention agenda requires a shift toward improved assessment of psychosocial comorbidities and stronger integration with mental health and substance abuse treatment services. PMID:25501609

  15. Association between psychosocial distress with cardio metabolic risk factors and liver enzymes in a nationally-representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-III study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study was designed to evaluate association of psychosocial distress with cardio metabolic risk factors and liver enzymes in Iranian children and adolescents. Method This nationwide study was conducted as the third survey of the school-based surveillance system that was conducted among 5593 school students, 10–18 years in Iran. High triglyceride (TG), high fasting blood sugar (FBS), high total cholesterol (TC), high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), hypertension (HTN), generalized obesity and abdominal obesity were considered as cardio metabolic risk factors and alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were considered as liver enzymes. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression (MLR) analysis. Result Psychosocial distress was detected in2027 (71.2%) of boys and 1759 (63.3%) of girls. Among boys, the mean of LDL, AST and DBP were higher and the mean FBS and HDL were lowering those with psychiatric distress than their other counterparts. Girls with psychosocial distress had significantly higher mean of HDL and FBS than those without psychiatric distress. Psychosocial distress significantly increased the odds of high LDL (OR = 2.36, 95%CI 1.53, 3.64), high FBS (OR = 1.23, 95%CI 1.02, 1.49) and low HDL (OR = 1.65, 95%CI 1.41, 1.95). Conclusion Psychosocial distress in adolescents is associated with increased risk of some cardio metabolic risk factors. PMID:24602504

  16. Multi-Risk Infants: Predicting Attachment Security from Sociodemographic, Psychosocial, and Health Risk among African-American Preterm Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candelaria, Margo; Teti, Douglas M.; Black, Maureen M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ecological and transactional theories link child outcomes to accumulated risk. This study hypothesized that cumulative risk was negatively related to attachment, and that maternal sensitivity mediated linkages between risk and attachment. Methods: One hundred and twelve high-risk African-American premature infant-mother dyads…

  17. Risk profiles associated with postnatal depressive symptoms among women in a public sector hospital in Mexico: the role of sociodemographic and psychosocial factors.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Filipa; Place, Jean Marie S; Billings, Deborah L; Rivera, Leonor; Frongillo, Edward A

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the association between postnatal depressive symptoms and a set of demographic and psychosocial factors among 604 women attending a public hospital for postnatal care in Mexico City. Specific profiles of women that would indicate an increased probability for developing postnatal depression (PND) based on discrete combinations of risk and protective factors were generated. In a logistic model, followed by the estimation of predicted probabilities, we examined the association between depressive symptomatology and psychosocial factors: low social support, unplanned pregnancies, history of depression, and exposure to moderate or severe intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy. Postnatal depressive symptomatology was reported by 10.6 % of the women, as measured by scores at 12 or above on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The cumulative probability of presenting PND in the simultaneous presence of the psychosocial factors was 67.0 %; however, this could be reduced to 5.5 % through preventive measures that work to eliminate low social support, unplanned pregnancy, and exposure to severe IPV during pregnancy. Early identification of psychosocial risk factors, specifically low social support, unplanned pregnancies, history of depression, and exposure to violence during pregnancy, is recommended. PMID:25416532

  18. An Evaluation of the Policy Context on Psychosocial Risks and Mental Health in the Workplace in the European Union: Achievements, Challenges, and the Future.

    PubMed

    Leka, Stavroula; Jain, Aditya; Iavicoli, Sergio; Di Tecco, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Despite the developments both in hard and soft law policies in the European Union in relation to mental health and psychosocial risks in the workplace, a review of these policies at EU level has not been conducted to identify strengths, weaknesses, and gaps to be addressed in the future. Keeping in mind that the aim should be to engage employers in good practice, ideally such policies should include key definitions and elements of the psychosocial risk management process, covering risk factors, mental health outcomes, risk assessment and preventive actions, or interventions. The current paper aims to fill this gap by reviewing hard and soft law policies on mental health in the workplace and psychosocial risks applicable at EU level and conducting a gap analysis according to a set of dimensions identified in models of good practice in this area. Our review of ninety-four policies in total revealed several gaps, especially in relation to binding in comparison to nonbinding policies. These are discussed in light of the context of policy-making in the EU, and recommendations are offered for future actions in this area. PMID:26557655

  19. An Evaluation of the Policy Context on Psychosocial Risks and Mental Health in the Workplace in the European Union: Achievements, Challenges, and the Future

    PubMed Central

    Leka, Stavroula; Jain, Aditya; Iavicoli, Sergio; Di Tecco, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Despite the developments both in hard and soft law policies in the European Union in relation to mental health and psychosocial risks in the workplace, a review of these policies at EU level has not been conducted to identify strengths, weaknesses, and gaps to be addressed in the future. Keeping in mind that the aim should be to engage employers in good practice, ideally such policies should include key definitions and elements of the psychosocial risk management process, covering risk factors, mental health outcomes, risk assessment and preventive actions, or interventions. The current paper aims to fill this gap by reviewing hard and soft law policies on mental health in the workplace and psychosocial risks applicable at EU level and conducting a gap analysis according to a set of dimensions identified in models of good practice in this area. Our review of ninety-four policies in total revealed several gaps, especially in relation to binding in comparison to nonbinding policies. These are discussed in light of the context of policy-making in the EU, and recommendations are offered for future actions in this area. PMID:26557655

  20. Psychosocial risk and protective factors of secondary school dropout in Luxembourg: the protocol of an exploratory case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Luxembourg, the extensive phenomenon of school dropout is a prime policy concern in the light of individual, social and economic consequences. Although the authorities report an overall decrease of the national dropout rate, the proportion of early school leavers who remain without any specific occupation is still alarming. Therefore, this study intends a shift of focus from system-inherent to individual factors, including mental health and family correlates, to provide a more comprehensive analysis of the dropout phenomenon. Methods/Design The objectives of this study are to investigate the type and prevalence of psychiatric disorders among school dropouts and to compare the findings with those by a matched control group of regularly enrolled students. Furthermore, family variables and socioeconomic status will be analysed, as they are factors likely to interfere with both educational attainment and mental health. A trained psychologist will use structured interviews and self-report forms to investigate for mental health issues, information on schooling, socioeconomic situation and family life. Controls will be matched for gender, age, school type and educational grade. Discussion As school dropouts face a serious risk of long term professional and social marginalization, there is an evident need for action. Identifying psychosocial risk and protective factors of school dropout will deliver solid insight on how to conceive public health strategies for young people who may need a more customized support to carry out their academic potential. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01354236 PMID:21752239

  1. The Role of Labour Inspectorates in Tackling the Psychosocial Risks at Work in Europe: Problems and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Toukas, Dimitrios; Delichas, Miltiadis; Toufekoula, Chryssoula; Spyrouli, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Significant changes in the past year have taken place in the world of work that are bringing new challenges with regard to employee safety and health. These changes have led to emerging psychosocial risks (PSRs) at work. The risks are primarily linked to how work is designed, organized, and managed, and to the economic and social frame of work. These factors have increased the level of work-related stress and can lead to serious deterioration in mental and physical health. In tackling PSRs, the European labor inspectorates can have an important role by enforcing preventive and/or corrective interventions in the content and context of work. However, to improve working conditions, unilateral interventions in the context and content of work are insufficient and require adopting a common strategy to tackle PSRs, based on a holistic approach. The implementation of a common strategy by the European Labor Inspectorate for tackling PSRs is restricted by the lack of a common legislative frame with regard to PSR evaluation and management, the different levels of labor inspectors' training, and the different levels of employees' and employers' health and safety culture. PMID:26929837

  2. The Role of Labour Inspectorates in Tackling the Psychosocial Risks at Work in Europe: Problems and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Toukas, Dimitrios; Delichas, Miltiadis; Toufekoula, Chryssoula; Spyrouli, Anastasia

    2015-12-01

    Significant changes in the past year have taken place in the world of work that are bringing new challenges with regard to employee safety and health. These changes have led to emerging psychosocial risks (PSRs) at work. The risks are primarily linked to how work is designed, organized, and managed, and to the economic and social frame of work. These factors have increased the level of work-related stress and can lead to serious deterioration in mental and physical health. In tackling PSRs, the European labor inspectorates can have an important role by enforcing preventive and/or corrective interventions in the content and context of work. However, to improve working conditions, unilateral interventions in the context and content of work are insufficient and require adopting a common strategy to tackle PSRs, based on a holistic approach. The implementation of a common strategy by the European Labor Inspectorate for tackling PSRs is restricted by the lack of a common legislative frame with regard to PSR evaluation and management, the different levels of labor inspectors' training, and the different levels of employees' and employers' health and safety culture. PMID:26929837

  3. Psychosocial work environment as a risk factor for absence with a psychiatric diagnosis: an instrumental-variables analysis.

    PubMed

    Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Kawachi, Ichiro; Ferrie, Jane E; Oksanen, Tuula; Joensuu, Matti; Pentti, Jaana; Salo, Paula; Elovainio, Marko; Virtanen, Marianna

    2010-07-15

    Recent reviews show that self-reported psychosocial factors related to work, such as job demands and job control, are associated with employee mental health, but it is not known whether this association is attributable to reporting bias. The authors examined this question using objectively measured hospital ward overcrowding as an instrument. The extent of overcrowding provided a strong instrument for self-reported job demands but not for job control, and it was used to examine unbiased associations between self-reported job demands and sickness absence with a psychiatric diagnosis among 2,784 female nurses working in somatic illness wards in Finland. During the 12-month follow-up period (2004-2005), 102 nurses had an absence with a psychiatric diagnosis, 33 with a diagnosis of depressive disorder. Both greater extent of overcrowding and higher self-reported job demands were associated with increased risk of psychiatric absence. The latter association was stronger but less precisely estimated in an instrumental-variables analysis which took into account only the variation in self-reported job demands that was explained by overcrowding. Repeating these analyses with absence due to depressive disorders as the outcome led to similar results. Findings from this instrumental-variables analysis support the status of high self-reported job demands as a risk factor for absence with a psychiatric diagnosis. PMID:20534822

  4. The Association between Adolescent Sexting, Psychosocial Difficulties, and Risk Behavior: Integrative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ouytsel, Joris; Walrave, Michel; Ponnet, Koen; Heirman, Wannes

    2015-01-01

    When a sexting message spreads to an unintended audience, it can adversely affect the victim's reputation. Sexting incidents constitute a potential school safety risk. Just as with other types of adolescent risk behavior, school nurses might have to initiate the first response when a sexting episode arises, but a school nurse's role goes…

  5. Interaction between physical and psychosocial work risk factors for low back symptoms and its consequences amongst Indonesian coal mining workers.

    PubMed

    Widanarko, Baiduri; Legg, Stephen; Devereux, Jason; Stevenson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the interaction between physical and psychosocial factors for low back symptoms (LBS) and its consequences (reduced activities and absenteeism) in a developing country. A sample of 1294 Indonesian coal mining workers reported occupational exposures, LBS and its consequences using a self-administered questionnaire. Respondents were placed into one of four combination exposure groups: high physical and high psychosocial (HPhyHPsy); high physical and low psychosocial (HPhyLPsy); low physical and high psychosocial (LPhyHPsy), and; low physical and low psychosocial (LPhyLPsy). The attributable proportion due to interaction between physical and psychosocial factors was examined. Individuals in the HPhyHPsy group were most likely to report LBS (OR 5.42, 95% CI 3.30-8.89), reduced activities (OR 4.89, 95% CI 3.09-7.74), and absenteeism (OR 4.96, 95% CI 3.05-8.06). Interactions between physical and psychosocial factors were present for LBS, reduced activities, and absenteeism; although for LBS and absenteeism the interactions were not significant. Current smokers were more likely to report LBS consequences. Permanent employment and night shift work increased the odds of LBS and its consequences. We conclude that interventions aimed at reducing LBS and its consequences should address both physical and psychosocial factors, with a focus on smokers, permanent employment and night shift work. PMID:25151314

  6. Resting frontal EEG asymmetry in children: meta-analyses of the effects of psychosocial risk factors and associations with internalizing and externalizing behavior.

    PubMed

    Peltola, Mikko J; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Alink, Lenneke R A; Huffmeijer, Renske; Biro, Szilvia; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2014-09-01

    Asymmetry of frontal cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) activity in children is influenced by the social environment and considered a marker of vulnerability to emotional and behavioral problems. To determine the reliability of these associations, we used meta-analysis to test whether variation in resting frontal EEG asymmetry is consistently associated with (a) having experienced psychosocial risk (e.g., parental depression or maltreatment) and (b) internalizing and externalizing behavior outcomes in children ranging from newborns to adolescents. Three meta-analyses including 38 studies (N = 2,523) and 50 pertinent effect sizes were carried out. The studies included in the analyses reported associations between frontal EEG asymmetry and psychosocial risk (k = 20; predominantly studies with maternal depression as the risk factor) as well as internalizing (k = 20) and externalizing (k = 10) behavior outcomes. Psychosocial risk was significantly associated with greater relative right frontal asymmetry, with an effect size of d = .36 (p < .01), the effects being stronger in girls. A non-significant relation was observed between right frontal asymmetry and internalizing symptoms (d = .19, p = .08), whereas no association between left frontal asymmetry and externalizing symptoms was observed (d = .04, p = .79). Greater relative right frontal asymmetry appears to be a fairly consistent marker of the presence of familial stressors in children but the power of frontal asymmetry to directly predict emotional and behavioral problems is modest. PMID:24863548

  7. Sexual Compulsivity, Co-Occurring Psychosocial Health Problems, and HIV Risk Among Gay and Bisexual Men: Further Evidence of a Syndemic

    PubMed Central

    Grov, Christian; Golub, Sarit A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated whether sexual compulsivity fits into a syndemic framework, in which sexual compulsivity is one of a number of co-occurring psychosocial health problems that increase HIV risk among men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods. In 2003 and 2004, we conducted an anonymous cross-sectional survey of MSM in New York City (n = 669) by approaching attendees at gay, lesbian, and bisexual community events. We analyzed data by bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results. We found strong positive interrelationships among syndemic factors including sexual compulsivity, depression, childhood sexual abuse, intimate partner violence, and polydrug use. In bivariate analyses, all syndemic health problems except for childhood sexual abuse were positively related to HIV seropositivity and high-risk sexual behavior. Our multivariate models revealed an array of interrelationships among psychosocial health problems. We found amplified effects of these problems on HIV seropositivity and on the likelihood of engaging in high-risk sexual behavior. Conclusions. Our findings support the conclusion that sexual compulsivity is a component of a syndemic framework for HIV risk among MSM. HIV prevention interventions should consider the overlapping and compounding effects of psychosocial problems, including sexual compulsivity. PMID:22095358

  8. Psychosocial pathways to childhood obesity: a pilot study involving a high risk preschool sample.

    PubMed

    Braungart-Rieker, Julia M; Moore, Elizabeth S; Planalp, Elizabeth M; Lefever, Jennifer Burke

    2014-12-01

    This pilot study adopts a systems theory perspective to explore associations between parent and child factors and children's body mass index (BMI). Forty mothers and their preschool-aged children (3-6years) who were eligible for Head Start were recruited. Measures included demographic risk, maternal depression, negative parenting, children's impulsivity, children's approach to eating, and BMI. Structural Equation Modeling supported a mediating model such that mothers who reported greater demographic risk and more depressive symptoms showed higher rates of negative parenting. In turn, more negative parenting predicted higher child impulsivity ratings, which were related to higher food approach scores. Finally, children who scored higher in food approach had higher BMIs. Tests of sub-models excluding any of the mediating variables indicated a significantly worse fit to the data in each case. Results have implications for family-wide intervention strategies to help lower the risk for early-onset obesity in high-risk children. PMID:25098723

  9. Understanding the Association of Biomedical, Psychosocial and Behavioral Risks with Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kiely, Michele; El-Mohandes, Ayman A.E.; Gantz, Marie G.; Chowdhury, Dhuly; Thornberry, Jutta S.; El-Khorazaty, M. Nabil

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study investigates the relationship between diabetes, hypertension, preeclampsia, and Body Mass Index (BMI) -- the most common and interrelated medical conditions occurring during pregnancy; sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors; and adverse pregnancy outcomes in high-risk urban African American women in Washington, DC. Methods Data are from a randomized controlled trial conducted in 6 prenatal clinics. Women in their 1st or 2nd trimester were screened for behavioral risks (smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, depression, and intimate partner violence) and demographic eligibility. 1,044 were eligible, interviewed and followed through their pregnancies. Classification and Regression Trees (CART) methodology was used to: 1) explore the relationship between medical and behavioral risks (reported at enrollment), sociodemographic factors and pregnancy outcomes, 2) identify the relative importance of various predictors of adverse pregnancy outcomes, and 3) characterize women at the highest risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. Results Overall, the strongest predictors of poor outcomes were prepregnancy BMI, preconceptional diabetes, employment status, intimate partner violence, and depression. In CART analysis, preeclampsia was the first splitter for low birthweight; preconceptional diabetes was the first splitter for preterm birth (PTB) and neonatal intensive care admission; BMI was the first splitter for very PTB, large for gestational age, Cesarean section and perinatal death; and employment was the first splitter for miscarriage. Conclusions Preconceptional factors play a very important role in pregnancy outcomes. For many of these women, the risks that they bring into the pregnancy were more likely to impact their pregnancy outcome than events during pregnancy. PMID:21785892

  10. Urinary Incontinence among older Mexican American men: Risk factors and psycho-social consequences

    PubMed Central

    Gerst, K.; Ray, L.A.; Samper-Ternent, R; Espino, D.V; Markides, K.S.

    2011-01-01

    Extant literature on Urge Urinary Incontinence (UUI) focuses on women and non-Hispanic White and little is known about ethnic minority men. We analyzed 700 Mexican-American men aged 75 and older from the fifth Wave (2004/5) of the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemologic Study of the Elderly. Logistic regression analyses examined risk factors for self-reported UUI and the impact of UUI on mental health and social support. Twenty-nine percent reported having difficulty holding their urine until they could get to a toilet. Men with more co-morbid conditionsand men with prostate problems were more likely to report UUI symptoms. Men with UUI were less likely to report having a confidant and had a higher risk of high depressive symptoms. This study is the first to examine risk factors for and consequences of self-reported UUI among older Mexican-American men using a large community-based survey. PMID:20811953

  11. A Model for Opioid Risk Stratification: Assessing the Psychosocial Components of Orofacial Pain.

    PubMed

    Kulich, Ronald J; Backstrom, Jordan; Brownstein, Jennifer; Finkelman, Matthew; Dhadwal, Shuchi; DiBennedetto, David

    2016-08-01

    This article describes a model of opiate risk stratification with a special focus on dentistry and oral surgery. A brief overview covers the scope of the US opioid abuse and misuse epidemic, and the role of the dentist in mitigating the problems of diversion and misuse of controlled substances. The expanding role of dentistry is summarized. An assessment outlines gathering critical risk information, screening questionnaires, access to state prescription monitoring programs, and communication with cotreating providers. Special populations are discussed. Barriers and possible solutions for effective implementation of these strategies are summarized. PMID:27475506

  12. Discotheques and the Risk of Hearing Loss among Youth: Risky Listening Behavior and Its Psychosocial Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Ineke; Brug, Johannes; Van Der Ploeg, Catharina P. B.; Raat, Hein

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing population at risk of hearing loss and tinnitus due to increasing high-volume music listening. To inform prevention strategies and interventions, this study aimed to identify important protection motivation theory-based constructs as well as the constructs "consideration of future consequences" and "habit strength" as…

  13. Family and Psychosocial Risk Factors in a Longitudinal Epidemiological Study of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuffe, Steven P.; McKeown, Robert E.; Addy, Cheryl L.; Garrison, Carol Z.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the association of family and social risk factors with psychopathology in a longitudinal study of adolescents. Method: From 1986 to 1988, 3,419 seventh through ninth graders were screened with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The top decile scorers and a random sample of the remainder were interviewed…

  14. [Psychosocial risk factors in adolescent tobacco use: negative mood-states, peer group and parenting styles].

    PubMed

    Julià Cano, Albert; Escapa Solanas, Sandra; Marí-Klose, Marga; Marí-Klose, Pau

    2012-01-01

    There are multiple factors that can affect the risk of tobacco use in adolescence. By analyzing these factors together we can disentangle the specific relevance of each of them in shaping teenagers' individual behavior. The goal of this research study is to deepen our understanding of the relationship between tobacco use in adolescence and socio-demographic and socio-emotional variables. We worked with a representative sample of 2,289 Catalan teenagers (aged 15-18) who responded to a questionnaire drawn up by the Families and Children Panel. Regression models were developed to assess the statistical associations of different mood states (sadness, nervousness and loneliness), peer-group characteristics and parenting styles, with tobacco use. The results indicate that addictive behavior is more likely when teenagers show negative mood states, controlling for socio-demographic variables and other risk factors. Among these additional factors, authoritative parenting styles reduce the risk of tobacco use, compared to authoritarian, permissive and neglectful parenting. Extensive tobacco use within the peer group is the risk factor most strongly associated with teenagers' individual behavior. PMID:23241718

  15. The Impact of Childhood Bullying among HIV-Positive Men: Psychosocial Correlates and Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamen, Charles; Bergstrom, Jessica; Vorasarun, Chaniga; Mardini, Mona; Patrick, Rudy; Lee, Susanne; Lazar, Rachael; Koopman, Cheryl; Gore-Felton, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: While some studies have examined the deleterious effects of childhood bullying on adults, no studies to date have focused on the effects of bullying on Persons Living with HIV (PLH), a particularly at-risk population. PLH experience higher rates of childhood and adulthood physical and sexual abuse than the population at large, and…

  16. Repeat Offending and Repeat Victimization: Assessing Similarities and Differences in Psychosocial Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Abigail A.; Mazerolle, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The overlap between victims and offenders is increasingly being recognized, with mounting evidence that victims and offenders have similar demographic characteristics, that victimization increases the likelihood of offending, and that offenders are at high risk for becoming victims of crime. Despite this evidence, there is limited research…

  17. Psychosocial Functioning Problems over Time among High-Risk Youths: A Latent Class Transition Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Wareham, Jennifer; Poythress, Norman; Meyers, Kathleen; Schmeidler, James

    2008-01-01

    The authors report the results of latent class analyses and latent class transition analyses of antisocial behavior risk factors among 137 youths participating in a juvenile diversion program. The study examined the youths' latent classifications using baseline and 1-year follow-up measures of family, peer, education, and mental health risk…

  18. Risk and Protective Factors Contributing to the Longitudinal Psychosocial Well-Being of Adopted Foster Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmel, Cassandra

    2007-01-01

    This study is based on a statewide longitudinal sample of adopted foster youth and explores the relationship between early pre-adoption risk factors and subsequent elevated levels of psychopathology symptomatology. One central goal of the study was to evaluate the impact of preadoption stressors (prenatal drug/nicotine exposure, early…

  19. Behavioral and Psychosocial Risk Factors Associated with First and Recurrent Cystitis in Indian Women: A Case-control Study

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Bharti; Srivastava, Richa; Agarwal, Jyotsna; Srivastava, Sugandha; Pandey, Amita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The risk factors for urinary tract infections (UTIs) from developed countries are not applicable to women from developing world. Objective: To analyze the behavioral practices and psychosocial aspects pertinent to women in our region and assess their association with acute first time or recurrent UTI. Materials and Methods: Sexually active premenopausal women with their first (145) and recurrent (77) cystitis with Escherichia coli as cases and women with no prior history of UTI as healthy controls (257) were enrolled at a tertiary care hospital in India, between June 2011 and February 2013. Questionnaire-based data was collected from each participant through a structured face-to-face interview. Results: Using univariate and multivariate regression models, independent risk factors for the first episode of cystitis when compared with healthy controls were (presented in odds ratios [ORs] with its 95% confidence interval [CI]): Anal sex (OR = 3.68, 95% CI = 1.59-8.52), time interval between last sexual intercourse and current episode of UTI was <5 days (OR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.22-4.23), use of cloth during menstrual cycle (OR = 2.36, 95% CI = 1.31-4.26), >250 ml of tea consumption per day (OR = 4.73, 95% CI = 2.67-8.38), presence of vaginal infection (OR = 3.23, 95% CI = 1.85-5.62) and wiping back to front (OR = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.45-4.38). Along with the latter three, history of UTI in a first-degree female relative (OR = 10.88, 95% CI = 2.41-49.07), constipation (OR = 4.85, 95% CI = 1.97-11.92) and stress incontinence (OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.18-5.06) were additional independent risk factors for recurrent cystitis in comparison to healthy controls. Conclusion: Most of the risk factors for initial infection are potentially modifiable but sufficient to also pose risk for recurrence. Many of the findings reflect the cultural and ethnic practices in our country. PMID:26917870

  20. Cortisol reactivity to psychosocial stress is greater in sexual risk takers

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Claire; Ratcliffe, Joanne M.; Mitchell, Melanie; Smith, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have reported an association between deviant behaviour and cortisol reactivity to stress. However, relatively few studies have investigated the relationship between psychobiological stress reactivity and sexual risk-taking behaviours. In this study, cortisol reactivity to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was measured in 26 healthy young adults prior to the administration of a sexual health and behaviour questionnaire. The cortisol response to the TSST was greater in those individuals who reported that at least one of their previous two sexual partners was someone whom they had just met. Results are discussed in the context of a model which suggests that early life stress dysregulates the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and increases the likelihood of later life risk-taking behaviour. The findings have implications in terms of improving our understanding of psychobiological factors which predispose individuals to engage in adverse sexual health behaviours. PMID:25750779

  1. Self-report depressive symptoms do not directly predict suicidality in nonclinical individuals: Contributions toward a more psychosocial approach to suicide risk.

    PubMed

    Campos, Rui C; Holden, Ronald R; Laranjeira, Patrícia; Troister, Talia; Oliveira, Ana Rita; Costa, Fátima; Abreu, Marta; Fresca, Natália

    2016-07-01

    Although suicidality is associated with mental illness in general and depression in particular, many depressed individuals do not attempt suicide and some individuals who attempt to or do die by suicide do not present depressive symptoms. This article aims to contribute to a more psychosocial approach to understanding suicide risk in nonclinical populations. In advocating a psychosocial perspective rather than a depression-focused approach, this article presents four diverse studies that demonstrate sampling and measurement invariance in findings across different populations and specific measures. Study 1 tests the mediation effects of 2 interpersonal variables, thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, in the association between depressive symptoms and recent suicidality. Studies 2 and 3 evaluate the contribution of hopelessness and psychache, beyond depressive symptoms, to suicidality. Study 4 tests the contribution of life events behind depressive symptoms, and other relevant sociodemographic and clinical variables, to the estimation of "future suicidality." Overall, results demonstrate that depressive symptoms do not directly predict suicidality in nonclinical individuals, but that other psychosocial variables mediate the association between depressive symptoms and suicidality or predict suicidality when statistically controlling for depressive symptoms. The article contributes to understanding some of the nonpsychopathological factors that potentially link depressive symptoms to suicide risk and that might themselves contribute to suicidality, even when controlling for depressive symptoms. PMID:26890066

  2. Psychosocial Stress as a Risk Factor for Sepsis: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ojard, Connor; Donnelly, John P.; Safford, Monika M.; Griffin, Russell

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize the relationship between stress and future risk of sepsis. We also evaluated the role of depression in this relationship. METHODS We used population-based data on 30,183 participants in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort, characterizing stress using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and depressive symptoms using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). We identified incident sepsis events as hospitalizations for a serious infection with the presence of ≥2 SIRS criteria. We assessed associations between PSS and incidence of sepsis over one- and ten-years of follow-up, adjusting for demographics and chronic medical conditions and assessing the role of health behaviors and CES-D in these relationships. RESULTS During 2003–2012, 1,500 participants experienced an episode of sepsis. Mean PSS and CES-D scores were 3.2±2.9 and 1.2±2.1. PSS was associated with increased one-year adjusted incidence of sepsis (HR 1.21 per PSS standard deviation; 95% CI: 1.06–1.38); multivariable adjustment for health behaviors and CES-D did not change this association (1.20; 1.20; 1.03–1.39). PSS was also associated with increased 10-year adjusted incidence of sepsis (HR 1.07 per PSS standard deviation; 95% CI: 1.02–1.13). Multivariable adjustment showed that health behaviors did not affect this long-term association whereas addition of CES-D reduced the association between PSS and sepsis during 10-year follow-up (HR 1.04; 0.98–1.11). CONCLUSIONS Increased stress was associated higher one-year adjusted incidence of sepsis, even after accounting for depressive symptoms. The association between stress and ten-year adjusted incidence of sepsis was also significant, but this association was reduced when adjusting for depressive symptoms. Reduction of stress may limit short-term sepsis risk. PMID:25469683

  3. Psychosocial and contextual correlates of opioid overdose risk among drug users in St. Petersburg, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Grau, Lauretta E; Green, Traci C; Torban, Mikhail; Blinnikova, Ksenia; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Ilyuk, Ruslan; Kozlov, Andrei P; Heimer, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Background Opioid overdose in Russia is a problem that has grown more severe as heroin abuse expanded over the past decade, yet few studies have explored it in detail. In order to gain a clearer understanding of the situation, 60 drug users, both in and out of drug treatment in St. Petersburg, were interviewed concerning their overdose experience and knowledge about overdose recognition and prevention. Methods Using a semi-structured interview, we sought to identify and describe local attitudes, knowledge and experience (both self-sustained and witnessed) of opioid overdose. Bi-variate and multiple logistic regressions were performed in order to identify the relationship between overdose experience and sociodemographic factors, risk behaviors, and clinical psychiatric measures. Results We found that having experienced or witnessed an opioid overdose within the previous year was common, overdose knowledge was generally high, but nearly half the participants reported low self-efficacy for effectively intervening in an overdose situation. In bivariate analyses, self-reported family problems (i.e., perceived problematic family interactions) were positively associated with both experiencing (t56 = 2.49; p < 0.05) and with witnessing a greater number of overdoses in the previous year (rhos = 0.31; p < 0.05). Having previously overdosed [Adjusted Risk Ratio (ARR) 1.7, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.1–2.6] and higher SCL-90-R somatization scores (ARR 1.2, 95% CI 0.96 – 1.5) were independently associated in multivariable analyses with self-sustained overdose experience in the past year. Greater perceived likelihood of experiencing a future overdose and concern about medical problems were independently associated with witnessing a higher number of overdoses within the previous year. Over two thirds of the participants expressed interest in receiving training in overdose prevention and response. Conclusion Opioid overdose experience is very common among drug users in St

  4. Psychosocial risk factors, job characteristics and self-reported health in the Paris Military Hospital Group (PMHG): a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Verret, Catherine; Trichereau, Julie; Rondier, Jean-Philippe; Viance, Patrice; Migliani, René

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the associations between psychosocial risk factors and self-reported health, taking into account other occupational risk factors. Design Cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire. Setting The three military hospitals in Paris, France. Participants Surveys were distributed to 3173 employees (1807 military and 1336 civilian), a total of 1728 employees completed surveys. Missing data prohibited the use of 26 surveys. Primary and secondary outcome measures The authors used Karasek's model in order to identify psychosocial factors (psychological demands, decisional latitude, social support) in the workplace. The health indicator studied was self-reported health. Adjustments were made for covariates: age, gender, civil or military status, work injury, ergonomic score, physical and chemical exposures, and occupational profile. Occupational profile was defined by professional category, department, work schedule, supervisor status and service-related length in the hospital. Results Job strain (defined as high psychological demands and low decisional latitude) (adjusted OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5 to 2.8, p<0.001) and iso-strain (job strain with low social support) were significantly associated with moderate or poor self-reported health. Among covariates, occupational profile (p<0.001) and an unsatisfactory ergonomic score (adjusted OR 2.3 95% CI 1.6 to 3.2, p<0.001) were also significantly associated with moderate or poor self-reported health. Conclusions The results support findings linking moderate or poor self-reported health to psychosocial risk factors. The results of this study suggest that workplace interventions that aim to reduce exposure to psychological demands as well as to increase decisional latitude and social support could help improve self-reported health. PMID:22855624

  5. Health-Endangering Behaviours among Japanese College Students: A Test of Psychosocial Model of Risk-Taking Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omori, Mika; Ingersoll, Gary M.

    2005-01-01

    Adolescents' health-endangering behaviours receive attention because they are presumed to threaten the health of individuals in either the short or long term. The present study examined the role of psychosocial determinants on adolescents' health-endangering behaviours using elements of a biopsychosocial model proposed by Irwin and Millstein…

  6. Sexual risk behaviors and psychosocial health concerns of female-to-male transgender men screening for STDs at an urban community health center.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Sari L; White, Jaclyn M; Mayer, Kenneth H; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    The sexual health of female-to-male (FTM) transgender men remains understudied. De-identified electronic medical records of 23 FTMs (mean age = 32, 48% racial/ethnic minority) who screened for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) between July and December 2007 at a Boston, Massachusetts area health center were analyzed. Almost half (48%) were on testosterone and 39% had undergone chest surgery; none had undergone genital reconstruction. The majority (57%) were bisexual, and 30% reported sex with nontransgender males only in the prior three months. One individual was HIV-infected (4.3%) and two (8.7%) had a history of STDs (all laboratory-confirmed). Overall, 26% engaged in sexual risk behavior in the prior three months (i.e., unprotected sex with a nontransgender male, condom breakage, or anonymous sex). The majority (61%) had a DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition) diagnosis (52% depression, 52% anxiety, and 26% adjustment disorder), and regular alcohol use was common (65%). Alcohol use, psychosocial distress histories, and sex with males only (versus with males and females) were associated with sexual risk in the past three months. Transgender men have concomitant psychosocial health vulnerabilities which may contribute to sexual risk behaviors. Future research is needed to understand the myriad social, behavioral, and biological factors that contribute to HIV and STD vulnerability for FTMs. PMID:24206043

  7. Sexual risk behaviors and psychosocial health concerns of female-to-male transgender men screening for STDs at an urban community health center

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, Sari L.; White, Jaclyn M.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    The sexual health of female-to-male (FTM) transgender men remains understudied. De-identified electronic medical records of 23 FTMs (mean age = 32, 48% racial/ethnic minority) who screened for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) between July and December 2007 at a Boston, Massachusetts area health center were analyzed. Almost half (48%) were on testosterone and 39% had undergone chest surgery; none had undergone genital reconstruction. The majority (57%) were bisexual, and 30% reported sex with nontransgender males only in the prior three months. One individual was HIV-infected (4.3%) and two (8.7%) had a history of STDs (all laboratory-confirmed). Overall, 26% engaged in sexual risk behavior in the prior three months (i.e., unprotected sex with a nontransgender male, condom breakage, or anonymous sex). The majority (61%) had a DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition) diagnosis (52% depression, 52% anxiety, and 26% adjustment disorder), and regular alcohol use was common (65%). Alcohol use, psychosocial distress histories, and sex with males only (versus with males and females) were associated with sexual risk in the past three months. Transgender men have concomitant psychosocial health vulnerabilities which may contribute to sexual risk behaviors. Future research is needed to understand the myriad social, behavioral, and biological factors that contribute to HIV and STD vulnerability for FTMs. PMID:24206043

  8. Helping Middle School Girls at Risk for School Failure Recover Their Confidence and Achieve School Success: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Middle school girls who are at risk have experienced a disproportionate number of intense and disruptive traumatic life events. Such events can adversely affect healthy development and often contribute to higher levels of school failure and problem behavior. Few programs focus on helping at-risk middle school girls achieve school success through…

  9. Gender differences in behavioural and psychosocial predictors of HIV testing and return for test results in a high-risk population.

    PubMed

    Stein, J A; Nyamathi, A

    2000-06-01

    We assessed gender differences in psychosocial and behavioural predictors of HIV testing and returning for results in a high-risk sample of 1,049 predominately minority, impoverished, homeless and/or drug-abusing women (n = 621) and men (n = 428). Predictors included latent variables representing injection drug use, self-esteem, social support, AIDS knowledge, poor access to health services, perceived risk for AIDS, sexual risk behaviour and the mediators of positive and negative coping styles. Significant predictors of test and return for women included injection drug use, greater social support, more AIDS knowledge, a higher perceived risk for AIDS and a positive coping style. Significant predictors for the men included injection drug use, greater AIDS knowledge, a higher perceived risk for AIDS and a positive coping style. Although greater social support was not significant for the men, the significant predictors of HIV testing and return were generally similar for the men and women. However, the men evaluated their risk of AIDS significantly lower than the women, although they reported more sexual risk behaviours and equally risky injection drug use behaviours. Results suggest that interventions designed to increase AIDS knowledge, to raise the perception of risk and to promote a positive coping style would be effective in encouraging more HIV testing for both men and women, but raising perceptions of what constitutes personal risk behaviours may need special emphasis when delivering prevention programmes to men. PMID:10928212

  10. Impact of early psychosocial factors (childhood socioeconomic factors and adversities) on future risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic disturbances and obesity: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES) have a notable impact on health disparities, including type 2 diabetes risk. However, the link between childhood psychosocial factors, such as childhood adversities or parental SES, and metabolic disturbances is less well established. In addition, the lifetime perspective including adult socioeconomic factors remains of further interest. We carried out a systematic review with the main question if there is evidence in population- or community-based studies that childhood adversities (like neglect, traumata and deprivation) have considerable impact on type 2 diabetes incidence and other metabolic disturbances. Also, parental SES was included in the search as risk factor for both, diabetes and adverse childhood experiences. Finally, we assumed that obesity might be a mediator for the association of childhood adversities with diabetes incidence. Therefore, we carried out a second review on obesity, applying a similar search strategy. Methods Two systematic reviews were carried out. Longitudinal, population- or community-based studies were included if they contained data on psychosocial factors in childhood and either diabetes incidence or obesity risk. Results We included ten studies comprising a total of 200,381 individuals. Eight out of ten studies indicated that low parental status was associated with type 2 diabetes incidence or the development of metabolic abnormalities. Adjustment for adult SES and obesity tended to attenuate the childhood SES-attributable risk but the association remained. For obesity, eleven studies were included with a total sample size of 70,420 participants. Four out of eleven studies observed an independent association of low childhood SES on the risk for overweight and obesity later in life. Conclusions Taken together, there is evidence that childhood SES is associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity in later life. The database on the role of psychological factors such as

  11. Antenatal Risk Factors of Postpartum Depression at 20 Weeks Gestation in a Japanese Sample: Psychosocial Perspectives from a Cohort Study in Tokyo

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, Yoshiyuki; Koizumi, Tomoe; Takehara, Kenji; Kakee, Naoko; Tsujii, Hiromi; Mori, Rintaro; Inoue, Eisuke; Ota, Erika; Yoshida, Keiko; Kasai, Keiko; Okuyama, Makiko; Kubo, Takahiko

    2015-01-01

    Background Prevalence of postnatal depression (PND) is high (Western countries, 10–15%; Japan, 17%). PND can cause parenting impairment and affect family health (e.g. child behaviors, cognitive development and physical health). This study aimed to reveal the risk factors of PND during the pregnancy period in a Japanese sample, and to identify the psychosocial risk factors of PND that should be appended to existing obstetric interview sheets. A cohort study with a Japanese sample was conducted. Methods All 14 obstetrics hospitals in the Setagaya ward, Tokyo, Japan, participated in this study. Pregnant women who booked their delivery between December 2012 and May 2013 were enrolled. Data used for this study were collected at 20 weeks gestation, a few days and one month postnatal. The questionnaires consisted of psychosocial factors and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). To identify PND risk factors, multivariate analyses were performed. Results A total of 1,775 women participated in this study. Eventually, the data of 1,133 women were used for the multivariate analyses. The demonstrated significant risk factors include EPDS score, primipara, “a perceived lack of family cohesion”, “current physical illness treatment” and “current psychiatric illness treatment”. Conclusion This study highlights the importance of mental health screening using psychological measures during the pregnancy period. In addition, family environment, parity, physical and psychiatric illness should be paid attention by professionals in maternal and child health. The results also suggest that mothers’ feelings of developing their families should be supported. PMID:26625132

  12. Risk factors and psychosocial characteristics of potential problematic and problematic internet use among adolescents: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Problematic internet use (PIU) is associated with a plethora of psychosocial adversities. The study objectives were to assess the determinants and psychosocial implications associated with potential PIU and PIU among adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study design was applied among a random sample (n = 866) of Greek adolescents (mean age: 14.7 years). Self-completed questionnaires, including internet use characteristics, Young Internet Addiction Test, and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, were utilized to examine the study objectives. Results Among the study population, the prevalence rates of potential PIU and PIU were 19.4% and 1.5%, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression indicated that male gender (Odds Ratio, OR: 2.01; 95% Confidence Interval, 95% CI: 1.35-3.00), as well as utilizing the internet for retrieving sexual information (OR: 2.52; 95% CI: 1.53-4.12), interactive game playing (OR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.21-2.82), and socialization, including chat-room use (OR: 1.97; 95% CI: 1.36-2.86) and email (OR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.05-2.24), were independently associated with potential PIU and PIU. Adolescents with potential PIU had an increased likelihood of concomitantly presenting with hyperactivity (OR: 4.39; 95% CI: 2.03-9.52) and conduct (OR: 2.56; 95% CI: 1.46-4.50) problems. Moreover, adolescent PIU was significantly associated with hyperactivity (OR: 9.96; 95% CI: 1.76-56.20) and conduct (OR: 8.39; 95% CI: 2.04-34.56) problems, as well as comprehensive psychosocial maladjustment (OR: 8.08; 95% CI: 1.44-45.34). Conclusions The determinants of potential PIU and PIU include accessing the internet for the purposes of retrieving sexual information, game playing, and socialization. Furthermore, both potential PIU and PIU are adversely associated with notable behavioral and social maladjustment among adolescents. PMID:21794167

  13. Psychosocial interventions in the treatment of youth diagnosed or at high-risk for pediatric bipolar disorder: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Frías, Álvaro; Palma, Cárol; Farriols, Núria

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) has emerged as a research field in which psychosocial treatments have provided a plethora of empirical findings over the last decade. We addressed this issue through a systematic review aimed of establishing their effectiveness and feasibility as adjunctive therapies for youth with PBD or at high-risk for PBD. A comprehensive search of databases was performed between 1990 and September 2014. Overall, 33 studies were specifically related to the issue and 20 of them were original articles. Evidence suggests that both "multi-family psychoeducational psychotherapy' and "family-focused therapy" are possible effective treatments for PBD. Likewise, "child and family-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy" may be characterized as a treatment in its experimental phase. The remaining therapies fail to obtain enough empirical support due to inconsistent findings among clinical trials or data solely based on case reports. Studies of psychosocial treatments provide concluding results concerning their feasibility and acceptability. Larger sample sizes and more randomized controlled trials are mandatory for diminishing methodological shortcomings encountered in the treatments displayed. PMID:25620426

  14. What does it mean when we screen? A closer examination of perinatal depression and psychosocial risk screening within one MCH home visiting program.

    PubMed

    Price, Sarah Kye; Masho, Saba W

    2014-05-01

    Perinatal depression screening has become an imperative for maternal and child health (MCH) home visitation programs. However, contextual life experiences and situational life stress may be equally important in determining program response. As one component of a larger research study with an urban MCH home visitation program, we examined the results from multiple measures of depression and anxiety symptoms, social support and stressful life events in a sample of 30 newly enrolled program participants. We compared commonly used tools in identifying women who were "at risk" for perinatal depression. The analysis used published and agency practice cut-off scores, examined correlations between measures, and reflected on the role of stressful life events in this assessment. In this low-income, predominantly African-American sample, the assessed tools were inconsistent in identifying "at risk" women for perinatal depression, ranging from 22 % (Edinburgh Perinatal Depression Scale) to 75 % (Center for Epidemiological Studies, Depression Scale) depending on the instrument. Depression and anxiety were correlated across most measures, although provider-collected data did not correlate as anticipated with other measures. The combination of screening for perinatal depression and stressful life events offered an additional perspective on possible symptom alleviation and psychosocial intervention that could occur within the home visiting program. Our experience suggests that introducing a brief inventory of stressful life events accompanying perinatal depression screening allowed for a more comprehensive understanding of women's experiences than perinatal depression screening alone. We encourage psychosocial risk screening which integrates assessment of social support, stressful life events and perinatal depression symptoms. PMID:23793488

  15. A national standard for psychosocial safety climate (PSC): PSC 41 as the benchmark for low risk of job strain and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Tessa S; Dollard, Maureen F; Richards, Penny A M

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of research from around the world now permeating occupational health and safety (OHS) legislation and guidelines, there remains a lack of tools to guide practice. Our main goal was to establish benchmark levels of psychosocial safety climate (PSC) that would signify risk of job strain (jobs with high demands and low control) and depression in organizations. First, to justify our focus on PSC, using interview data from Australian employees matched at 2 time points 12 months apart (n = 1081), we verified PSC as a significant leading predictor of job strain and in turn depression. Next, using 2 additional data sets (n = 2097 and n = 1043) we determined benchmarks of organizational PSC (range 12-60) for low-risk (PSC at 41 or above) and high-risk (PSC at 37 or below) of employee job strain and depressive symptoms. Finally, using the newly created benchmarks we estimated the population attributable risk (PAR) and found that improving PSC in organizations to above 37 could reduce 14% of job strain and 16% of depressive symptoms in the working population. The results provide national standards that organizations and regulatory agencies can utilize to promote safer working environments and lower the risk of harm to employee mental health. PMID:25347684

  16. The design, implementation and acceptability of an integrated intervention to address multiple behavioral and psychosocial risk factors among pregnant African American women

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Kathy S; Blake, Susan M; Milligan, Renee A; Sharps, Phyllis W; White, Davene B; Rodan, Margaret F; Rossi, Maryann; Murray, Kennan B

    2008-01-01

    Background African American women are at increased risk for poor pregnancy outcomes compared to other racial-ethnic groups. Single or multiple psychosocial and behavioral factors may contribute to this risk. Most interventions focus on singular risks. This paper describes the design, implementation, challenges faced, and acceptability of a behavioral counseling intervention for low income, pregnant African American women which integrated multiple targeted risks into a multi-component format. Methods Six academic institutions in Washington, DC collaborated in the development of a community-wide, primary care research study, DC-HOPE, to improve pregnancy outcomes. Cigarette smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, depression and intimate partner violence were the four risks targeted because of their adverse impact on pregnancy. Evidence-based models for addressing each risk were adapted and integrated into a multiple risk behavior intervention format. Pregnant women attending six urban prenatal clinics were screened for eligibility and risks and randomized to intervention or usual care. The 10-session intervention was delivered in conjunction with prenatal and postpartum care visits. Descriptive statistics on risk factor distributions, intervention attendance and length (i.e., with < 4 sessions considered minimal adherence) for all enrolled women (n = 1,044), and perceptions of study participation from a sub-sample of those enrolled (n = 152) are reported. Results Forty-eight percent of women screened were eligible based on presence of targeted risks, 76% of those eligible were enrolled, and 79% of those enrolled were retained postpartum. Most women reported a single risk factor (61%); 39% had multiple risks. Eighty-four percent of intervention women attended at least one session (60% attended ≥ 4 sessions) without disruption of clinic scheduling. Specific risk factor content was delivered as prescribed in 80% or more of the sessions; 78% of sessions were

  17. Change in Age-Specific, Psychosocial Correlates of Risky Sexual Behaviors Among Youth: Longitudinal Findings From a Deep South, High-Risk Sample

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Rebecca J.; Traylor, Amy C.; Church, Wesley T.; Bolland, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined psychosocial predictors of change in intercourse frequency and number of sexual partners among youth within a socio-ecological framework and assessed whether these determinants vary by stage of adolescent development. Longitudinal data were derived from a large, community study of adolescent risky behavior among predominantly high-risk, African American youth. Significant predictors of intercourse frequency for early adolescents included age, gender, self-worth, and familial factors; for older youth, age, gender, self-worth, curfews, and sense of community exerted significant effects. Among early adolescents, age, gender, self-worth, familial factors, and sense of community predicted change in the number of sexual partners in the previous year, while age, gender, self-worth, parental knowledge, curfews, and sense of community were predictive of change in the number of sexual partners in the previous year among older youth. Study implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:26388682

  18. The co-occurrence of non-suicidal self-injury and attempted suicide among adolescents: distinguishing risk factors and psychosocial correlates

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Although attempted suicide and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) are distinct behaviors differing in intent, form, and function, the behaviors co-occur at a high rate in both adults and adolescents. Researchers have begun to investigate the association between attempted suicide and NSSI among adolescents. The purpose of this paper is to present current research on this association. First, we discuss definitional issues associated with self-injurious behaviors. Next, we present research on the co-occurrence of attempted suicide and NSSI, including prevalence and associations with self-injury characteristics. We then discuss psychosocial variables associated with engaging in both NSSI and attempted suicide or one type of self-injury alone. Finally, we present the research to date on risk factors uniquely associated with either attempted suicide or NSSI. Implications for mental health professionals and future avenues of research are discussed. PMID:22463065

  19. Development and validation of a brief screening instrument for psychosocial risk associated with genetic testing: a pan-Canadian cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Esplen, Mary Jane; Cappelli, Mario; Wong, Jiahui; Bottorff, Joan L; Hunter, Jon; Carroll, June; Dorval, Michel; Wilson, Brenda; Allanson, Judith; Semotiuk, Kara; Aronson, Melyssa; Bordeleau, Louise; Charlemagne, Nicole; Meschino, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To develop a brief, reliable and valid instrument to screen psychosocial risk among those who are undergoing genetic testing for Adult-Onset Hereditary Disease (AOHD). Design A prospective two-phase cohort study. Setting 5 genetic testing centres for AOHD, such as cancer, Huntington's disease or haemochromatosis, in ambulatory clinics of tertiary hospitals across Canada. Participants 141 individuals undergoing genetic testing were approached and consented to the instrument development phase of the study (Phase I). The Genetic Psychosocial Risk Instrument (GPRI) developed in Phase I was tested in Phase II for item refinement and validation. A separate cohort of 722 individuals consented to the study, 712 completed the baseline package and 463 completed all follow-up assessments. Most participants were female, at the mid-life stage. Individuals in advanced stages of the illness or with cognitive impairment or a language barrier were excluded. Interventions Phase I: GPRI items were generated from (1) a review of the literature, (2) input from genetic counsellors and (3) phase I participants. Phase II: further item refinement and validation were conducted with a second cohort of participants who completed the GPRI at baseline and were followed for psychological distress 1-month postgenetic testing results. Primary and secondary outcome measures GPRI, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and Impact of Event Scale (IES). Results The final 20-item GPRI had a high reliability—Cronbach's α at 0.81. The construct validity was supported by high correlations between GPRI and BSI and IES. The predictive value was demonstrated by a receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.78 plotting GPRI against follow-up assessments using HAM-D and HAM-A. Conclusions With a cut-off score of 50, GPRI identified 84% of participants who displayed distress postgenetic testing results, supporting its

  20. Social and psychosocial factors associated with high-risk sexual behaviour among university students in the United Kingdom: a web-survey.

    PubMed

    Chanakira, E; Goyder, E C; Freeman, J V; O'Cathain, A; Kinghorn, G; Jakubovic, M

    2015-05-01

    In the UK there are limited data about university students' risky sexual behaviour. A cross-sectional web-survey was conducted to investigate factors associated with high-risk sex among students at two UK universities. High-risk sex was reported by 25% of 1108. High personal sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk perception and permissive attitudes towards casual sex were associated with high-risk sex for both men (odds ratio [OR]: 12.12; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.10-35.81; OR: 2.49; 95%CI: 1.11-5.56, respectively) and women (OR: 22.31; 95% CI: 9.34-53.26; OR: 3.02; 95% CI: 1.82-5.01, respectively). For men, drinking alcohol (OR: 17.67; 95% CI: 1.90-164.23) and for women age and frequent drinking (OR: 2.02; 95% CI: 1.05-3.89; OR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.08-3.31, respectively) were associated with high-risk sex. However, perceiving an average student as more likely to contract STIs (men, OR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.16-0.75) or HIV (men, OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.20-0.96; women, OR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.28-0.63) and finding it difficult to discuss sexual matters (women, OR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.39-0.91) were negatively associated with high-risk sex. Most of the factors found were similar to other populations, but some psychosocial factors showed complex patterns of association that require further investigation. PMID:24912538

  1. [Psychosocial stress and disease risks in occupational life. Results of international studies on the demand-control and the effort-reward imbalance models].

    PubMed

    Siegrist, J; Dragano, N

    2008-03-01

    Given the far-reaching changes of modern working life, psychosocial stress at work has received increased attention. Its influence on stress-related disease risks is analysed with the help of standardised measurements based on theoretical models. Two such models have gained special prominence in recent years, the demand-control model and the effort-reward imbalance model. The former model places its emphasis on a distinct combination of job characteristics, whereas the latter model's focus is on the imbalance between efforts spent and rewards received in turn. The predictive power of these models with respect to coronary or cardiovascular disease and depression was tested in a number of prospective epidemiological investigations. In summary, twofold elevated disease risks are observed. Effects on cardiovascular disease are particularly pronounced among men, whereas no gender differences are observed for depression. Additional evidence derived from experimental and ambulatory monitoring studies supplements this body of findings. Current scientific evidence justifies an increased awareness and assessment of these newly discovered occupational risks, in particular by occupational health professionals. Moreover, structural and interpersonal measures of stress prevention and health promotion at work are warranted, with special emphasis on gender differences. PMID:18369565

  2. "It's a struggle but I can do it. I'm doing it for me and my kids": the psychosocial characteristics and life experiences of at-risk homeless parents in transitional housing.

    PubMed

    Holtrop, Kendal; McNeil, Sharde'; McWey, Lenore M

    2015-04-01

    Families experiencing homelessness face a number of risks to their psychosocial health and well-being, yet few studies have examined the topic of parenting among homeless families. The purpose of this multimethod, descriptive study was to acquire a better understanding of the psychosocial status and life experiences of homeless parents residing in transitional housing. Quantitative data were collected from 69 parents and primary caregivers living in a transitional housing community, with a cohort of 24 participants also contributing qualitative data. The quantitative results suggest risk associated with depression, parenting stress, and negative parenting practices. The qualitative findings highlight five themes that convey both the challenges faced by homeless parents as well as the resilience they display in spite of such adversity. These results extend current scholarship on homeless families with children and can better inform how couple and family therapists work with this at-risk population. PMID:24148072

  3. Street Workers and Internet Escorts: Contextual and Psychosocial Factors Surrounding HIV Risk Behavior among Men Who Engage in Sex Work with Other Men

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, Sari L.; Tinsley, Jake P.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Safren, Steven A.

    2008-01-01

    Sex work has been associated with elevated risk for HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in many settings. This mixed methods study examined sexual risk among MSM sex workers in Massachusetts, collecting formative data on HIV risk behavior by sex worker type in order to gain a better understanding of how to tailor prevention interventions to this unique and high-risk subgroup of MSM. Two groups of MSM sex workers were recruited between January and March 2008: street workers (n = 19) and internet escorts (n = 13). Participants completed a semistructured qualitative interview and quantitative psychosocial assessment battery; interviews were conducted until redundancy in responses was achieved. Almost one third (31%) were HIV-infected. The majority of participants (69%) reported at least one episode of unprotected serodiscordant anal sex (either insertive or receptive) with a mean of 10.7 (SD = 42.2) male sex partners of an unknown or different HIV serostatus in the past 12 months. Salient findings included: (a) internet sex workers reported being paid substantially more for sex than street sex workers; (b) inconsistent condom use, high rates of unprotected sex, and low rates of HIV status disclosure with sex work partners for both internet and street workers; general perceptions of a lack of trust on the part of sex work partners (i.e., telling them what they want to hear), offers of more money for unprotected sex; (c) contextual differences in risk taking: internet sex workers reported that they are more likely to engage in sexual risk-taking with noncommercial sex partners than sex partners who pay; (d) HIV status and STI history: two street workers became infected in the context of sex work, and 25% of the entire sample had never been tested for sexually transmitted infections (STI); and (e) motivations and reasons for doing sex work, such as the “lucrativeness” of sex work, as a means to obtain drugs, excitement, power, “why not

  4. Changes of individual perception in psychosocial stressors related to German reunification in 1989/1990 and cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular diseases in a population-based study in East Germany

    PubMed Central

    Kluttig, Alexander; Werdan, Karl; Nuding, Sebastian; Greiser, Karin Halina; Kuss, Oliver; Markus, Marcello Ricardo Paulista; Schmidt, Carsten Oliver; Völzke, Henry; Krabbe, Christine; Haerting, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Aim was to examine the relationship between individually perceived changes in psychosocial stressors associated with German reunification and cardiovascular effects. We hypothesised that higher levels of psychosocial stress related to German reunification were associated with an increase in cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Design Cross-sectional data from 2 cohort studies in East Germany were used: Cardiovascular Disease, Living and Ageing in Halle Study (CARLA), and Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP). Setting 2 populations in East Germany. Participants CARLA study: 1779 participants, aged 45–83 years at baseline (812 women), SHIP study: 4308 participants, aged 20–79 years at baseline (2193 women). Primary and secondary outcome measures Psychosocial stressors related to reunification were operationalised by the Reunification Stress Index (RSI; scale from 0 to 10). This index was composed of questions that were related to individually perceived changes in psychosocial stressors (occupational, financial and personal) after reunification. To examine the associations between the RSI and each stressor separately with cardiovascular risk factors and CVD, regression models were used. Results RSI was associated with CVD in women (RR=1.15, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.33). Cardiovascular risk factors were associated with RSI for both men and women, with strongest associations between RSI and diabetes in women (RR=1.10, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.20) and depressive disorders in men (RR=1.15, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.77). The change in occupational situation related to reunification was the major contributing psychosocial stressor. We observed a strong association with CVD in women who experienced occupational deterioration after reunification (RR=4.04, 95% CI 1.21 to 13.43). Conclusions Individually perceived deterioration of psychosocial stressors (occupational, financial and personal) related to German reunification was associated with cardiovascular

  5. Patterns of Service Use, Individual and Contextual Risk Factors, and Resilience among Adolescents Using Multiple Psychosocial Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungar, Michael; Liebenberg, Linda; Dudding, Peter; Armstrong, Mary; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Very little research has examined the relationship between resilience, risk, and the service use patterns of adolescents with complex needs who use multiple formal and mandated services such as child welfare, mental health, juvenile justice, and special educational supports. This article reports on a study of 497 adolescents in…

  6. Psychosocial Adjustment and Sibling Relationships in Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Risk and Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Katherine M.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared sibling adjustment and relationships in siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD-Sibs; n = 69) and siblings of children with typical development (TD-Sibs; n = 93). ASD-Sibs and TD-Sibs demonstrated similar emotional/behavioral adjustment. Older male ASD-Sibs were at increased risk for difficulties. Sibling…

  7. Predicting Persistent Back Symptoms by Psychosocial Risk Factors: Validity Criteria for the ÖMPSQ and the HKF-R 10 in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Riewe, E.; Neubauer, E.; Pfeifer, A. C.; Schiltenwolf, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective 10% of all individuals in Germany develop persistent symptoms due to nonspecific back pain (NSBP) causing up to 90% of direct and indirect expenses for health care systems. Evidence indicates a strong relationship between chronic nonspecific back pain and psychosocial risk factors. The Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire (ÖMPSQ) and the German Heidelberger Kurzfragebogen Rückenschmerz (HKF-R 10) are deemed valid in prediction of persistent pain, functional loss or amount of sick leave. This study provides and discusses validity criteria for these questionnaires using ROC-curve analyses. Quality measurements included sensitivity and specificity, likelihood-ratio related test-efficiencies and clinical utility in regard to predictive values. Methods 265 patients recruited from primary and secondary care units completed both questionnaires during the same timeframe. From the total, 133 patients returned a 6-month follow-up questionnaire to assess the validity criteria for outcomes of pain, function and sick leave. Results Based on heterogeneous cut-offs for the ÖMPSQ, sensitivity and specificity were moderate for outcome of pain (72%/75%). Very high sensitivity was observed for function (97%/57%) and high specificity for sick leave (63%/85%). The latter also applied to the HKF-R 10 (pain 50%/84%). Proportions between sensitivity and specificity were unbalanced except for the ÖMPSQ outcome of pain. Likelihood-ratios and positive predictive values ranged from low to moderate. Conclusion Although the ÖMPSQ may be considered useful in identification of long-term functional loss or pain, over- and underestimation of patients at risk of chronic noncspecific back pain led to limited test-efficiencies and clinical utility for both questionnaires. Further studies are required to quantify the predictive validity of both questionnaires in Germany. PMID:27442020

  8. Health Status, Sexual and Drug Risk, and Psychosocial Factors Relevant to Post-release Planning for HIV+ Prisoners

    PubMed Central

    Feaster, Daniel J.; Reznick, Olga Grinstead; Zack, Barry; McCartney, Kathleen; Gregorich, Steven; Brincks, Ahnalee M.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of HIV infection among male prison inmates is significantly higher than the United States population. Adequate planning to ensure continued medication adherence and continuity of care after release is important for this population. This study describes the pre-release characteristics of 162 incarcerated HIV-positive men (40 from jails and 122 from prisons). The results include a demographic description of the sample and their sexual risk behaviors, substance use, health status and HIV medication adherence, health care utilization, mental health, and family and social support. The results highlight a potentially high level of need for services and low levels of support and social connectedness. Post-release planning should include support for improving HIV medication adherence as well as reducing both sexual and IDU-related transmission risk for these individuals. PMID:24078623

  9. A case-control study of psychosocial risk and protective factors of self-immolation in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Alireza; Mohammadi, Reza; Almasi, Afshin; Amini-Saman, Javad; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Svanström, Leif

    2015-03-01

    Self-immolation is the third leading cause of years of life lost (YLL) among women in Iran. The aim of this study is to investigate self-immolation-related risk and protective factors in the western region of Iran, a province with the highest prevalent of self-immolation in the country. Using a case-control design, we compared 151 cases of self-immolation attempters who were admitted to a burn center in Kermanshah with 302-matched control group from the same community/locality between March 21st, 2009, and March 20th, 2012. We conducted descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analysis to examine the associations of self-immolation with demographic and familial risk factors, adverse life events, mental disorders, as well as potential protective factors. According to our findings, the highest percentage of self-immolation was in the 16-25 year-old age group (60%) and in females (76%). Of the potential risk factors in the study, major depression, adjustment disorders, individual history of suicide attempts and opium dependence, were statistically significant predictors of self-immolation. Suggestions for translating the local picture of self-immolation portrayed by our findings, into meaningful prevention strategies that have a good fit with the social and interpersonal context within which self-immolation takes place are discussed. PMID:25406886

  10. Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landon, Lauren Blackwell; Vessey, William B.; Barrett, Jamie D.

    2015-01-01

    A team is defined as: "two or more individuals who interact socially and adaptively, have shared or common goals, and hold meaningful task interdependences; it is hierarchically structured and has a limited life span; in it expertise and roles are distributed; and it is embedded within an organization/environmental context that influences and is influenced by ongoing processes and performance outcomes" (Salas, Stagl, Burke, & Goodwin, 2007, p. 189). From the NASA perspective, a team is commonly understood to be a collection of individuals that is assigned to support and achieve a particular mission. Thus, depending on context, this definition can encompass both the spaceflight crew and the individuals and teams in the larger multi-team system who are assigned to support that crew during a mission. The Team Risk outcomes of interest are predominantly performance related, with a secondary emphasis on long-term health; this is somewhat unique in the NASA HRP in that most Risk areas are medically related and primarily focused on long-term health consequences. In many operational environments (e.g., aviation), performance is assessed as the avoidance of errors. However, the research on performance errors is ambiguous. It implies that actions may be dichotomized into "correct" or "incorrect" responses, where incorrect responses or errors are always undesirable. Researchers have argued that this dichotomy is a harmful oversimplification, and it would be more productive to focus on the variability of human performance and how organizations can manage that variability (Hollnagel, Woods, & Leveson, 2006) (Category III1). Two problems occur when focusing on performance errors: 1) the errors are infrequent and, therefore, difficult to observe and record; and 2) the errors do not directly correspond to failure. Research reveals that humans are fairly adept at correcting or compensating for performance errors before such errors result in recognizable or recordable failures

  11. Recovering lead from batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David Prengaman, R.

    1995-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, a significant number of processes have been developed to recover lead from scrap batteries. These processes recover lead via hydrometallurgical processing of the paste component of the battery followed by electrowinning. A number of pilot plant operations have been conducted, but thus far none of the processes have become operational.

  12. Assessment of psychosocial risk factors for the development of non-specific chronic disabling low back pain in Japanese workers-findings from the Japan Epidemiological Research of Occupation-related Back Pain (JOB) study.

    PubMed

    Matsudaira, Ko; Kawaguchi, Mika; Isomura, Tatsuya; Inuzuka, Kyoko; Koga, Tadashi; Miyoshi, Kota; Konishi, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the associations between psychosocial factors and the development of chronic disabling low back pain (LBP) in Japanese workers. A 1 yr prospective cohort of the Japan Epidemiological Research of Occupation-related Back Pain (JOB) study was used. The participants were office workers, nurses, sales/marketing personnel, and manufacturing engineers. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed twice: at baseline and 1 yr after baseline. The outcome of interest was the development of chronic disabling LBP during the 1 yr follow-up period. Incidence was calculated for the participants who experienced disabling LBP during the month prior to baseline. Logistic regression was used to assess risk factors for chronic disabling LBP. Of 5,310 participants responding at baseline (response rate: 86.5%), 3,811 completed the questionnaire at follow-up. Among 171 eligible participants who experienced disabling back pain during the month prior to baseline, 29 (17.0%) developed chronic disabling LBP during the follow-up period. Multivariate logistic regression analysis implied reward to work (not feeling rewarded, OR: 3.62, 95%CI: 1.17-11.19), anxiety (anxious, OR: 2.89, 95%CI: 0.97-8.57), and daily-life satisfaction (not satisfied, ORs: 4.14, 95%CI: 1.18-14.58) were significant. Psychosocial factors are key to the development of chronic disabling LBP in Japanese workers. Psychosocial interventions may reduce the impact of LBP in the workplace. PMID:26051289

  13. The cost-effectiveness and public health benefit of nalmefene added to psychosocial support for the reduction of alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent patients with high/very high drinking risk levels: a Markov model

    PubMed Central

    Laramée, Philippe; Brodtkorb, Thor-Henrik; Rahhali, Nora; Knight, Chris; Barbosa, Carolina; François, Clément; Toumi, Mondher; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether nalmefene combined with psychosocial support is cost-effective compared with psychosocial support alone for reducing alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent patients with high/very high drinking risk levels (DRLs) as defined by the WHO, and to evaluate the public health benefit of reducing harmful alcohol-attributable diseases, injuries and deaths. Design Decision modelling using Markov chains compared costs and effects over 5 years. Setting The analysis was from the perspective of the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. Participants The model considered the licensed population for nalmefene, specifically adults with both alcohol dependence and high/very high DRLs, who do not require immediate detoxification and who continue to have high/very high DRLs after initial assessment. Data sources We modelled treatment effect using data from three clinical trials for nalmefene (ESENSE 1 (NCT00811720), ESENSE 2 (NCT00812461) and SENSE (NCT00811941)). Baseline characteristics of the model population, treatment resource utilisation and utilities were from these trials. We estimated the number of alcohol-attributable events occurring at different levels of alcohol consumption based on published epidemiological risk-relation studies. Health-related costs were from UK sources. Main outcome measures We measured incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained and number of alcohol-attributable harmful events avoided. Results Nalmefene in combination with psychosocial support had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of £5204 per QALY gained, and was therefore cost-effective at the £20 000 per QALY gained decision threshold. Sensitivity analyses showed that the conclusion was robust. Nalmefene plus psychosocial support led to the avoidance of 7179 alcohol-attributable diseases/injuries and 309 deaths per 100 000 patients compared to psychosocial support alone over the course of 5 years. Conclusions

  14. Guideline 3: Psychosocial Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

    2000-01-01

    The third in seven sets of guidelines based on the consensus of experts in the treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in mental retardation (MR) focuses on psychosocial treatment. Guidelines cover general principles, choosing among psychosocial treatments, severity of MR and psychiatric/behavior symptoms, diagnosable disorders, target…

  15. Friendships Moderate Psychosocial Maladjustment in Socially Anxious Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erath, Stephen A.; Flanagan, Kelly S.; Bierman, Karen L.; Tu, Kelly M.

    2010-01-01

    Close mutual friendships may help protect socially anxious early adolescents against concurrent psychosocial risks. This study investigated whether close mutual friendships moderated associations among social anxiety and several indices of psychosocial maladjustment (loneliness, peer victimization, and low social self-efficacy) in early…

  16. Expressed racial identity and hypertension in a telephone survey sample from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada: do socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress explain the relatively high risk of hypertension for Black Canadians?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Canadian research on racial health inequalities that foregrounds socially constructed racial identities and social factors which can explain consequent racial health inequalities is rare. This paper adopts a social typology of salient racial identities in contemporary Canada, empirically documents consequent racial inequalities in hypertension in an original survey dataset from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada, and then attempts to explain the inequalities in hypertension with information on socioeconomic status, perceived experiences with institutionalized and interpersonal discrimination, and psychosocial stress. Methods Telephone interviews were conducted in 2009 with 706 randomly selected adults living in the City of Toronto and 838 randomly selected adults living in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression modeling were used to examine relationships between racial identity, hypertension, socio-demographic factors, socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress. Results The Black Canadians in the sample were the most likely to report major and routine discriminatory experiences and were the least educated and the poorest. Black respondents were significantly more likely than Asian, South Asian and White respondents to report hypertension controlling for age, immigrant status and city of residence. Of the explanatory factors examined in this study, only educational attainment explained some of the relative risk of hypertension for Black respondents. Most of the risk remained unexplained in the models. Conclusions Consistent with previous Canadian research, socioeconomic status explained a small portion of the relatively high risk of hypertension documented for the Black respondents. Perceived experiences of discrimination both major and routine and self-reported psychosocial stress did not explain these racial inequalities in hypertension. Conducting subgroup analyses by gender

  17. Clustering of cardiac risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome and associations with psychosocial distress in a young Asian Indian population.

    PubMed

    Suchday, Sonia; Bellehsen, Mayer; Friedberg, Jennifer P; Almeida, Maureen; Kaplan, Erica

    2014-08-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a precursor for coronary heart disease. However, its pathophysiology is not clear, its phenotypic expression may vary by region; also, the phenotypic manifestation may be exacerbated by psychosocial distress and family history. The purpose of the current study was to assess the factor structure of the metabolic syndrome in young urban Asian Indians. Asian Indian youth (N = 112) were evaluated for body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio, blood pressure (systolic: SBP; diastolic: DBP), blood sugar, triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, psychosocial distress and family health history. Factor analyses were computed on components of the metabolic syndrome. Three factors were identified for the entire sample: hemodynamic-obesity (SBP, DBP, waist-hip ratio), Lipid (cholesterol, triglyceride), and insulin-obesity (blood sugar, BMI, insulin). Similar to previous research with this population, three distinct factors with no overlap were identified. Factors did not correlate with psychosocial distress or family history. Lack of correlation with family history and psychosocial distress may be a function of the young age and demographics of the sample. PMID:23775637

  18. Common psychosocial stressors in middle-aged women related to longstanding distress and increased risk of Alzheimer's disease: a 38-year longitudinal population study

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Lena; Guo, Xinxin; Hällström, Tore; Norton, Maria C; Waern, Margda; Östling, Svante; Bengtsson, Calle; Skoog, Ingmar

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the relation among psychosocial stressors, long-standing distress and incidence of dementia, in a sample of women followed from midlife to late life. Design Prospective longitudinal population study. Setting The analyses originate from the prospective population study of women in Gothenburg, Sweden, a representative sample of women examined in 1968 (participation rate 90%) and re-examined in 1974, 1980, 1992, 2000 and 2005. Participants 800 women born in 1914, 1918, 1922 and 1930 who were systematically selected for a psychiatric examination at baseline, in 1968. Primary and secondary outcome measures 18 psychosocial stressors (eg, divorce, widowhood, work problems and illness in relative) were obtained at baseline. Symptoms of distress were measured according to a standardised question at each study wave. Dementia was diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III-R) criteria based on information from neuropsychiatric examinations, informant interviews, hospital records, and registry data, and measured through the whole study period. Results During the 37 years of follow-up, 153 women developed dementia (104 of those had Alzheimer's disease (AD)). Number of psychosocial stressors in 1968 was associated (HR, 95% CI) with higher incidence of dementia (1.15, 1.04 to 1.27) and AD (1.20, 1.07 to 1.35) between 1968 and 2005, in multivariate Cox regressions. Number of psychosocial stressors in 1968 was also associated (OR, 95% CI) with distress in 1968 (1.48, 1.32 to 1.67), 1974 (1.31, 1.17 to 1.46), 1980 (1.27, 1.11 to 1.45), 2000 (1.39, 1.14 to 1.70) and 2005 (1.35, 1.02 to 1.79), in multivariate logistic regressions. Number of psychosocial stressors (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.33) and long-standing distress (1968–1974–1980) (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.45) were independently associated with AD. Conclusions Our study shows that common psychosocial stressors may have severe and long-standing physiological and

  19. Psychosocial Risk Factors, Interventions, and Comorbidity in Patients with Non-Specific Low Back Pain in Primary Care: Need for Comprehensive and Patient-Centered Care

    PubMed Central

    Ramond-Roquin, Aline; Bouton, Céline; Bègue, Cyril; Petit, Audrey; Roquelaure, Yves; Huez, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Non-specific low back pain (LBP) affects many people and has major socio-economic consequences. Traditional therapeutic strategies, mainly focused on biomechanical factors, have had moderate and short-term impact. Certain psychosocial factors have been linked to poor prognosis of LBP and they are increasingly considered as promising targets for management of LBP. Primary health care providers (HCPs) are involved in most of the management of people with LBP and they are skilled in providing comprehensive care, including consideration of psychosocial dimensions. This review aims to discuss three pieces of recent research focusing on psychosocial issues in LBP patients in primary care. In the first systematic review, the patients’ or HCPs’ overall judgment about the likely evolution of LBP was the factor most strongly linked to poor outcome, with predictive validity similar to that of multidimensional scales. This result may be explained by the implicit aggregation of many prognostic factors underlying this judgment and suggests the relevance of considering the patients from biopsychosocial and longitudinal points of view. The second review showed that most of the interventions targeting psychosocial factors in LBP in primary care have to date focused on the cognitive-behavioral factors, resulting in little impact. It is unlikely that any intervention focusing on a single factor would ever fit the needs of most patients; interventions targeting determinants from several fields (mainly psychosocial, biomechanical, and occupational) may be more relevant. Should multiple stakeholders be involved in such interventions, enhanced interprofessional collaboration would be critical to ensure the delivery of coordinated care. Finally, in the third study, the prevalence of psychosocial comorbidity in chronic LBP patients was not found to be significantly higher than in other patients consulting in primary care. Rather than specifically screening for psychosocial conditions

  20. Psychosocial and Family Functioning in Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Devine, Katie A.

    2010-01-01

    A developmentally-oriented bio-neuropsychosocial model is introduced to explain variation in family functioning and psychosocial adjustment in youth and young adults with spina bifida (SB). Research on the family functioning and psychosocial adjustment of individuals with SB is reviewed. The findings of past research on families of youth with SB support a resilience-disruption view of family functioning. That is, the presence of a child with SB disrupts normative family functioning, but many families adapt to such disruption and exhibit considerable resilience in the face of adversity. Parents of youth with SB, and particularly those from lower SES homes, are at-risk for psychosocial difficulties. Individuals with SB are at-risk for developing internalizing symptoms, attention problems, educational difficulties, social maladjustment, and delays in the development of independent functioning. Emerging adults are often delayed in achieving milestones related to this stage of development (e.g., vocational and educational achievements). Methodologically-sound, longitudinal, and theory-driven studies of family and psychosocial functioning are needed, as are randomized family-based intervention trials, to promote adaptive functioning and better psychosocial outcomes in families of individuals with SB. PMID:20419770

  1. Latent class profiles of internalizing and externalizing psychosocial health indicators are differentially associated with sexual transmission risk: Findings from the CFAR Network of Integrated Clinical Systems (CNICS) cohort study of HIV-infected men engaged in primary care in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Biello, Katie; Reisner, Sari L.; Crane, Heidi M.; Wilson, Johannes; Grasso, Chris; Kitahata, Mari M.; Mathews, Wm. Christopher; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Safren, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine whether latent class indicators of negative affect and substance use emerged as distinct psychosocial risk profiles among HIV-infected men, and if these latent classes were associated with high-risk sexual behaviors that may transmit HIV. Methods Data were from HIV-infected men who reported having anal intercourse in the past six months and received routine clinical care at four U.S. sites in the Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems (CNICS) cohort (n=1,210). Latent class membership was estimated using binary indicators for: anxiety, depression, alcohol and/or drug use during sex, and polydrug use. Generalized estimating equations modeled whether latent class membership was associated with HIV sexual transmission risk in the past six months. Results Three latent classes of psychosocial indicators emerged: (1) internalizing (15.3%) (high probability of anxiety and major depression); (2) externalizing (17.8%) (high probability of alcohol and/or drug use during sex and polydrug use); (3) low psychosocial distress (67.0%) (low probability of all psychosocial factors examined). Internalizing and externalizing latent class membership were associated with HIV sexual transmission risk, compared to low psychosocial class membership; externalizing class membership was also associated with higher sexual transmission risk compared to internalizing class membership. Conclusions Distinct patterns of psychosocial health characterize this sexually active HIV-infected male patient population and are strongly associated with HIV sexual transmission risk. Public health intervention efforts targeting HIV sexual risk transmission may benefit from considering symptom clusters that share internalizing or externalizing properties. PMID:25642839

  2. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Carter, J.M.; Larson, C.E.

    1958-10-01

    A process is presented for recovering uranium values from calutron deposits. The process consists in treating such deposits to produce an oxidlzed acidic solution containing uranium together with the following imparities: Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Zn. The uranium is recovered from such an impurity-bearing solution by adjusting the pH of the solution to the range 1.5 to 3.0 and then treating the solution with hydrogen peroxide. This results in the precipitation of uranium peroxide which is substantially free of the metal impurities in the solution. The peroxide precipitate is then separated from the solution, washed, and calcined to produce uranium trioxide.

  3. [Psychosocial interventions in dementia].

    PubMed

    Kurz, A

    2013-01-01

    Psychosocial interventions improve cognitive abilities (cognitive stimulation, cognitive training), enhance emotional well-being (activity planning, reminiscence), reduce behavioral symptoms (aromatherapy, music therapy) and promote everyday functioning (occupational therapy). Through these effects they reinforce and augment pharmacological treatments for dementia. In addition, psychosocial interventions complement the treatment of patients by supporting family caregivers (educational groups, support programs). The potential of psychosocial interventions in dementia needs to be explored further in studies using improved methodology to determine effective components, clinical relevance and duration of effects, predictors of individual treatment response and health-economic implications. PMID:23306213

  4. The combined effect of physical, psychosocial/organisational and/or environmental risk factors on the presence of work-related musculoskeletal symptoms and its consequences.

    PubMed

    Widanarko, Baiduri; Legg, Stephen; Devereux, Jason; Stevenson, Mark

    2014-11-01

    This study assessed the combined effect of physical and psychosocial/organisational and/or environmental factors on the presence of musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) and its consequences (reduced activities and absenteeism due to MSS) in a random sample of 3003 workers in New Zealand. By telephone interview, participants reported their current workplace exposures and MSS (neck/shoulder, arm/elbow, wrist and low back) and its consequences. Data were analysed using multivariable logistic regression. Combined exposure to physical and psychosocial/organisational and/or environmental factors increased the odds of MSS in the neck/shoulder (OR 3.14, 95% CI 1.79-5.52), arms/elbow regions (OR 4.14, 95% CI 2.21-7.76) and low back (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.28-2.37) and its consequences, i.e. reduced activities due to neck/shoulder symptoms (OR 5.45, 95% CI 2.28-13.00), absenteeism due to neck/shoulder symptoms (OR 5.19, 95% CI 2.24-12.01) and absenteeism due to low back symptoms (OR 4.37, 95% CI 2.92-6.53). In contrast, favourable psychosocial/organisational work conditions reduced the odds of wrist symptoms due to poor physical work conditions (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.44-3.34). We conclude that to reduce MSS and its consequences, employers need to adopt a multifaceted approach: concentrate on improving physical conditions as well as the psychosocial/organisational and environmental aspects of the working environment. PMID:24934982

  5. Assessment of psychosocial risk factors for the development of non-specific chronic disabling low back pain in Japanese workers—findings from the Japan Epidemiological Research of Occupation-related Back Pain (JOB) study

    PubMed Central

    MATSUDAIRA, Ko; KAWAGUCHI, Mika; ISOMURA, Tatsuya; INUZUKA, Kyoko; KOGA, Tadashi; MIYOSHI, Kota; KONISHI, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the associations between psychosocial factors and the development of chronic disabling low back pain (LBP) in Japanese workers. A 1 yr prospective cohort of the Japan Epidemiological Research of Occupation-related Back Pain (JOB) study was used. The participants were office workers, nurses, sales/marketing personnel, and manufacturing engineers. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed twice: at baseline and 1 yr after baseline. The outcome of interest was the development of chronic disabling LBP during the 1 yr follow-up period. Incidence was calculated for the participants who experienced disabling LBP during the month prior to baseline. Logistic regression was used to assess risk factors for chronic disabling LBP. Of 5,310 participants responding at baseline (response rate: 86.5%), 3,811 completed the questionnaire at follow-up. Among 171 eligible participants who experienced disabling back pain during the month prior to baseline, 29 (17.0%) developed chronic disabling LBP during the follow-up period. Multivariate logistic regression analysis implied reward to work (not feeling rewarded, OR: 3.62, 95%CI: 1.17–11.19), anxiety (anxious, OR: 2.89, 95%CI: 0.97–8.57), and daily-life satisfaction (not satisfied, ORs: 4.14, 95%CI: 1.18–14.58) were significant. Psychosocial factors are key to the development of chronic disabling LBP in Japanese workers. Psychosocial interventions may reduce the impact of LBP in the workplace. PMID:26051289

  6. A European framework to address psychosocial hazards.

    PubMed

    Leka, Stavroula; Kortum, Evelyn

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decades, emphasis has been placed on the changing nature of work and new forms of risk that could negatively affect employee health and safety. These are mainly associated with new types of occupational hazards that have been termed psychosocial. Issues such as work-related stress, bullying and harassment are now receiving attention on a global basis and efforts have been made to address them at the workplace level. However, it has been acknowledged that despite developments of policy in this area, there still appear to be a broad science-policy gap and an even broader one between policy and practice. The WHO Network of Collaborating Centers in Occupational Health has, since the late 1990s, been supporting a dedicated program of work on psychosocial factors and work-related stress. Part of the Network's work is currently focusing on the translation of existing knowledge into practice in the area of psychosocial risk management. This program has identified that the optimum way forward lies in the development of a European framework for psychosocial risk management. This framework will serve as the basis for coordination of research activities and preventive action with an emphasis on evidence based interventions and best practice on an international basis. PMID:18408344

  7. Closing the loop: an interactive action-research conference format for delivering updated medical information while eliciting Latina patient/family experiences and psychosocial needs post-genetic cancer risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Deborah J; Deri, Julia; Ricker, Charité; Perez, Martin A; Ogaz, Raquel; Feldman, Nancy; Viveros, Lori A; Paz, Benjamin; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Blazer, Kathleen R

    2012-09-01

    A patient/family-centered conference was conducted at an underserved community hospital to address Latinas' post-genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA) medical information and psychosocial support needs, and determine the utility of the action research format. Latinas seen for GCRA were recruited to a half-day conference conducted in Spanish. Content was partly determined from follow-up survey feedback. Written surveys, interactive discussions, and Audience Response System (ARS) queries facilitated the participant-healthcare professional action research process. Analyses included descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. The 71 attendees (41 patients and 27 relatives/friends) were primarily non-US born Spanish-speaking females, mean age 43 years. Among patients, 73 % had a breast cancer history; 85 % had BRCA testing (49 % BRCA+). Nearly all (96 %) attendees completed the conference surveys and ARS queries; ≥48 % participated in interactive discussions. Most (95 %) agreed that the format met their personal interests and expectations and provided useful information and resources. Gaps/challenges identified in the GCRA process included pre-consult anxiety, uncertainty about reason for referral and expected outcomes, and psychosocial needs post-GCRA, such as absorbing and disseminating risk information to relatives and concurrently coping with a recent cancer diagnosis. The combined action research and educational conference format was innovative and effective for responding to continued patient information needs and addressing an important data gap about support needs of Latina patients and family members following genetic cancer risk assessment. Findings informed GCRA process improvements and provide a basis for theory-driven cancer control research. PMID:22678665

  8. Recovering plant biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Studying recovering plant biodiversity on Mount Pinatubo may provide valuable insights that improve our understanding of recovery of other ecosystems following disturbances of all types. Ongoing sheet and rill erosion coupled with mass waste events in the unstable pyroclastic flow deposits persist, effectively re-setting primary succession at micro-landscape scale without affecting habitat level diversity. Spatial factors and micro-habitat diversity may exert more control over continued succession as the riparian systems become more deeply dissected and complex. The number of taxa within functional groups and conservation concerns are botanical issues that deserve further research. PMID:22019638

  9. Women with heart failure are at high psychosocial risk: a systematic review of how sex and gender influence heart failure self-care.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jody R; Clark, Alexander M

    2011-01-01

    To improve patient support, it is important to understand how people view and experience Heart Failure (HF) self-care. This systematic review of qualitative studies included all published studies that examine the influence of sex and gender on HF self-care. A systematic search was done for papers (1995-2010) indexed in Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Medline, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid PsycINFO, CSA Sociological Abstracts, OVID AARP Ageline, EBSCO Academic Search Complete, EBSCO CINAHL, EBSCO SocINDEX, ISI Web of Science: Social Sciences Citation Index and Science Citation Index Expanded, and Scopus. After screening of 537 citations, six qualitative studies identified that differences existed in perceptions of symptoms with women having less family involvement and psychosocial support around self-care. Moreover, women had considerably more negative views of the future, themselves and their ability to fulfill social self-care roles. Women with HF represent a highly vulnerable population and need more support for psychosocial wellbeing and self-care. PMID:21403845

  10. Women with Heart Failure Are at High Psychosocial Risk: A Systematic Review of How Sex and Gender Influence Heart Failure Self-Care

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jody R.; Clark, Alexander M.

    2011-01-01

    To improve patient support, it is important to understand how people view and experience Heart Failure (HF) self-care. This systematic review of qualitative studies included all published studies that examine the influence of sex and gender on HF self-care. A systematic search was done for papers (1995–2010) indexed in Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Medline, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid PsycINFO, CSA Sociological Abstracts, OVID AARP Ageline, EBSCO Academic Search Complete, EBSCO CINAHL, EBSCO SocINDEX, ISI Web of Science: Social Sciences Citation Index and Science Citation Index Expanded, and Scopus. After screening of 537 citations, six qualitative studies identified that differences existed in perceptions of symptoms with women having less family involvement and psychosocial support around self-care. Moreover, women had considerably more negative views of the future, themselves and their ability to fulfill social self-care roles. Women with HF represent a highly vulnerable population and need more support for psychosocial wellbeing and self-care. PMID:21403845

  11. Key psychosocial challenges in vascularized composite allotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Kumnig, Martin; Jowsey-Gregoire, Sheila G

    2016-03-24

    Psychosocial factors are important elements in the assessment and follow-up care for vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) and require multidisciplinary evaluation protocols. This review will highlight differences between VCA with solid organ transplantation (SOT), provide information on the psychosocial selection of VCA candidates, ethical issues, psychological outcomes, and on the need for multicenter research. VCA is primarily a life-enhancing procedure to improve recipients' quality of life and psychological well-being and it represents a potential option to provide reproduction in case of penile or uterine transplantation. The risk benefit ratio is distinctly different than SOT with candidates desiring life enhancing outcomes including improved body image, return to occupations, restored touch, and for uterine transplant, pregnancy. The Chauvet Workgroup has been convened with membership from a number of transplant centers to address these issues and to call for multicenter research. A multicenter research network would share similar evaluation approaches so that meaningful research on psychosocial variables could inform the transplant community and patients about factors that increase risk of non-adherence and other adverse psychosocial and medical outcomes. PMID:27011907

  12. Key psychosocial challenges in vascularized composite allotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kumnig, Martin; Jowsey-Gregoire, Sheila G

    2016-01-01

    Psychosocial factors are important elements in the assessment and follow-up care for vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) and require multidisciplinary evaluation protocols. This review will highlight differences between VCA with solid organ transplantation (SOT), provide information on the psychosocial selection of VCA candidates, ethical issues, psychological outcomes, and on the need for multicenter research. VCA is primarily a life-enhancing procedure to improve recipients’ quality of life and psychological well-being and it represents a potential option to provide reproduction in case of penile or uterine transplantation. The risk benefit ratio is distinctly different than SOT with candidates desiring life enhancing outcomes including improved body image, return to occupations, restored touch, and for uterine transplant, pregnancy. The Chauvet Workgroup has been convened with membership from a number of transplant centers to address these issues and to call for multicenter research. A multicenter research network would share similar evaluation approaches so that meaningful research on psychosocial variables could inform the transplant community and patients about factors that increase risk of non-adherence and other adverse psychosocial and medical outcomes. PMID:27011907

  13. AIDS: Psychosocial Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Dan

    1986-01-01

    In order to provide comprehensive care to patients who have AIDS, it is important for the family physician to understand the psychosocial elements of the disease. Homosexual men who have AIDS face particular problems, such as the disclosure of sexual orientation to family and friends. Issues discussed in this article include the reactions of the patient, family and friends to the diagnosis, the stigma of AIDS, the patient's support network, and preparations for disability and death. The facts about AIDS are discussed briefly, and the psychosocial implications of the illness for patients and their “significant others” are examined. The role of the family physician is highlighted. PMID:21267233

  14. Psychosocial Predictors of Coronary Artery Calcification Progression in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Low, Carissa A.; Matthews, Karen A.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Edmundowicz, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Objective Coronary artery calcification (CAC) has been associated with psychosocial factors in some but not all cross-sectional analyses. The goal of this study was to determine whether positive and negative psychosocial factors prospectively predict CAC progression in postmenopausal women. Methods Participants from the Healthy Women Study who also participated in the Pittsburgh Mind-Body Center protocol (n = 149) completed self-report psychosocial measures prior to two electron beam tomography scans of CAC separated by an average of 3.3 years. Results of exploratory factor analysis were used to create aggregate psychosocial indices: Psychological Risk (depressive symptoms, perceived stress, cynicism, anger-in) and Psychosocial Resources (optimism, purpose in life, mastery, self-esteem, and social support). Results The Psychological Risk index predicted significantly greater CAC progression over three years (β = .16, p = .035, ΔR2 = .03) while the Psychosocial Resources index was not predictive of CAC progression (β = -.08, p = .30, ΔR2 = .01). On individual scales, higher scores on cynicism emerged as a significant predictor of CAC progression, along with a trend linking anger-in to atherosclerosis progression. A post-hoc analysis showed a significant interaction between cynicism and anger-in (β =.20, p = .01, ΔR2 = .03), such that women reporting high levels of both cynicism and anger suppression exhibited the most CAC progression. Conclusions These findings highlight psychosocial risk factors that may accelerate the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in older women, suggest the potential importance of examining combinations of psychosocial risk factors, and represent potential targets for psychological interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:22042881

  15. METHOD OF RECOVERING THORIUM

    DOEpatents

    Fisher, R.W.

    1957-12-10

    A method is described for recovering thorium from impurities found in a slag containing thorium and said impurities, comprising leaching a composition containing thorium with water, removing the water solution, treating the residue with hydrochloric acid, separating the solution from the insoluble residue, adjusting its acidity to 1 to 3 normal, adding oxalic acid, and thereafter separating the precipitated thorium oxalate digesting the residue from the hydrochloric acid treatment with a strong solution of sodium hydroxide at an elevated temperature, removing said solution and treating the insoluble residue with hydrochloric acid, separating the solution from the insoluble residue, adjusting the acidity of this solution to 1 to 3 normal, adding nitric acid to oxidize the iron present, adding oxalic acid and thereafter separating the thorium oxalate thus precipitated.

  16. PROCESS FOR RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    MacWood, G.E.; Wilder, C.D.; Altman, D.

    1959-03-24

    A process is described for recovering uranium from deposits on stainless steel liner surfaces of calutrons. The deposit is removed from the stainless steel surface by washing with aqueous nitric acid. The solution obtained containing uranium, chromium, nickels copper, and iron is treated with excess of ammonium hydroxide to precipitatc the uranium, irons and chromium and convert thc nickel and copper to soluble ammonia complexions. The precipitated material is removed, dried, and treated with carbon tetrachloride at an elevated temperature of about 500 to 600 deg C to form a vapor mixture of UCl/sub 4/, UCl/sub 5/, FeCl/ sub 3/, and CrCl/sub 4/. The UCl/sub 4/ is separated from this vapor mixture by selective fractional condensation at a temprrature of about 300 to400 deg C.

  17. Process for recovering uranium

    DOEpatents

    MacWood, G. E.; Wilder, C. D.; Altman, D.

    1959-03-24

    A process useful in recovering uranium from deposits on stainless steel liner surfaces of calutrons is presented. The deposit is removed from the stainless steel surface by washing with aqueous nitric acid. The solution obtained containing uranium, chromium, nickel, copper, and iron is treated with an excess of ammonium hydroxide to precipitnte the uranium, iron, and chromium and convert the nickel and copper to soluble ammonio complexions. The precipitated material is removed, dried and treated with carbon tetrachloride at an elevated temperature of about 500 to 600 deg C to form a vapor mixture of UCl/ sub 4/, UCl/sub 5/, FeCl/sub 3/, and CrCl/sub 4/. The UCl/sub 4/ is separated from this vapor mixture by selective fractional condensation at a temperature of about 500 to 400 deg C.

  18. A pilot study of a family focused, psychosocial intervention with war-exposed youth at risk of attack and abduction in north-eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Paul; Branham, Lindsay; Shannon, Ciarán; Betancourt, Theresa S; Dempster, Martin; McMullen, John

    2014-07-01

    Rural communities in the Haut-Uele Province of northern Democratic Republic of Congo live in constant danger of attack and/or abduction by units of the Lord's Resistance Army operating in the region. This pilot study sought to develop and evaluate a community-participative psychosocial intervention involving life skills and relaxation training and Mobile Cinema screenings with this war-affected population living under current threat. 159 war-affected children and young people (aged 7-18) from the villages of Kiliwa and Li-May in north-eastern DR Congo took part in this study. In total, 22% of participants had been abduction previously while 73% had a family member abducted. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress reactions, internalising problems, conduct problems and pro-social behaviour were assessed by blinded interviewers at pre- and post-intervention and at 3-month follow-up. Participants were randomised (with an accompanying caregiver) to 8 sessions of a group-based, community-participative, psychosocial intervention (n=79) carried out by supervised local, lay facilitators or a wait-list control group (n=80). Average seminar attendance rates were high: 88% for participants and 84% for caregivers. Drop-out was low: 97% of participants were assessed at post-intervention and 88% at 3 month follow-up. At post-test, participants reported significantly fewer symptoms of post-traumatic stress reactions compared to controls (Cohen's d=0.40). At 3 month follow up, large improvements in internalising symptoms and moderate improvements in pro-social scores were reported, with caregivers noting a moderate to large decline in conduct problems among the young people. Trial Registration clinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT01542398. PMID:24636358

  19. The Psychosocial Burden of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Sarwer, David B; Polonsky, Heather M

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is associated with several comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, sleep apnea, osteoarthritis, and several forms of cancer. Obesity and its comorbidities also come with a significant psychosocial burden, impacting numerous areas of psychosocial functioning. The evaluation of psychosocial functioning is an important part of the assessment and treatment planning for the patient with obesity. This article provides an overview of the psychosocial burden of obesity. The article also describes the psychological changes typically seen with weight loss. A particular focus is on the psychosocial functioning of individuals with extreme obesity who present for and undergo bariatric surgery. PMID:27519139

  20. Predictors of Psychosocial Outcomes in Hard-of-Hearing Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugen, Nina J.; Jacobsen, Karl H.; Rieffe, Carolien; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Children with hearing loss are at risk for developing psychosocial problems. Children with mild to severe hearing loss are less frequently subject to research, in particular in preschool, and we therefore know less about the risk in this particular group. To address this, we compared psychosocial functioning in thirty-five 4-5-year olds with…

  1. Psychosocial considerations about children and radiological events.

    PubMed

    Lemyre, Louise; Corneil, Wayne; Johnson, Colleen; Boutette, Paul

    2010-11-01

    Children are identified as a vulnerable population in the case of radiological events because of their increased physical sensitivity to radiation and its impact on critical development stages. Using a comprehensive integrated risk framework, psychosocial risk protective factors are discussed in a social ecology paradigm. Children have been shown to be both vulnerable and resilient; they are both easily impressionable and also quick to adapt and learn. Psychosocial interventions during, after and most efficiently before an event can improve outcome, especially if they involve parents and schools, media and work organisations. Public education through children should be encouraged to increase knowledge of radiation and strategies to minimise exposure and irradiation. Children can become vectors of prevention, preparedness and mitigation through information and behavioural rehearsal. Special consideration must therefore be given to education, school programmes, practice rehearsal and media exposure. PMID:20798186

  2. Psychosocial adjustment and craniofacial malformations in childhood.

    PubMed

    Pertschuk, M J; Whitaker, L A

    1985-02-01

    Forty-three children between the ages of 6 and 13 years with congenital facial anomalies underwent psychosocial evaluation prior to surgery. Also evaluated were healthy children matched to the craniofacial subjects by sex, age, intelligence, and economic background. Relative to this comparison group, the craniofacial children were found to have poorer self-concept, greater anxiety at the time of evaluation, and more introversion. Parents of the craniofacial children noted more frequent negative social encounters for their children and more hyperactive behavior at home. Teachers reported more problematic classroom behavior. Examination of these results revealed craniofacial malformations to be associated with psychosocial limitations rather than marked deficits. These children tended to function less well than the comparison children, but with few exceptions, they were not functioning in a psychosocially deviant range. Explanations for the observed circumscribed impact of facial deformity include the use of denial as a coping mechanism, possible diminished significance of appearance for younger children, and the restricted environment experienced by most of the subjects. It can be predicted that time would render these protective influences ineffective, so that adolescent and young adult patients could be at far greater psychosocial risk. PMID:3969404

  3. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Kilner, S.B.

    1959-12-29

    A method is presented for separating and recovering uranium from a complex mixure of impurities. The uranium is dissolved to produce an aqueous acidic solution including various impurities. In accordance with one method, with the uranium in the uranyl state, hydrogen cyanide is introduced into the solution to complex the impurities. Subsequently, ammonia is added to the solution to precipitate the uraniunn as ammonium diuranate away from the impurities in the solution. Alternatively, the uranium is precipitated by adding an alkaline metal hydroxide. In accordance with the second method, the uranium is reduced to the uranous state in the solution. The reduced solution is then treated with solid alkali metal cyanide sufficient to render the solution about 0.1 to 1.0 N in cyanide ions whereat cyanide complex ions of the metal impurities are produced and the uranium is simultaneously precipituted as uranous hydroxide. Alternatively, hydrogen cyanide may be added to the reduced solution and the uranium precipitated subsequently by adding ammonium hydroxide or an alkali metal hydroxide. Other refinements of the method are also disclosed.

  4. Reducing HIV-related risk and mental health problems through a client-centred psychosocial intervention for vulnerable adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Jani, Nrupa; Vu, Lung; Kay, Lynnette; Habtamu, Kassahun; Kalibala, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ethiopia is experiencing an increasingly urban HIV epidemic, alongside a rise in urban adolescent migration. Adolescent migrants are often confronted by unique social challenges, including living in a difficult environment, abuse and mental health problems. These issues can increase adolescents’ vulnerability to HIV and compromise their capacity to protect themselves and others from HIV. We piloted and assessed the effects of a targeted psychosocial intervention to reduce mental health problems and improve HIV-related outcomes among migrant adolescents in Addis Ababa. Methods A pre- and post-comparison design was used in a cohort of 576 female and 154 male migrant adolescents aged 15 to 18 years in Addis Ababa receiving services from two service delivery organizations, Biruh Tesfa and Retrak. We implemented a three-month client-centred, counsellor-delivered psychosocial intervention, based on findings from formative research among the same target population, to address participants’ increased vulnerability to HIV. The intervention package comprised individual, group and creative arts therapy counselling sessions. Key outcome indicators included anxiety, depression, aggressive behaviour, attention problems, social problems, knowledge of HIV, safer sex practices and use of sexual health services. Longitudinal data analysis (McNemar test and random effects regression) was used to assess changes over time in key indicators by gender. Results For females, aggressive behaviour decreased by 60% (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.4 (0.25 to 0.65)) and any mental health problem decreased by 50% (AOR: 0.5 (0.36 to 0.81)) from baseline to end line. In addition, knowledge of HIV increased by 60% (AOR: 1.6 (1.08 to 2.47)), knowledge of a place to test for HIV increased by 70% (AOR: 1.7 (1.12 to 2.51)) and HIV testing increased by 80% (AOR: 1.8 (1.13 to 2.97)). For males, HIV knowledge increased by 110% (AOR: 2.1 (1.1 to 3.94)), knowledge of a place to test for HIV

  5. Psychosocial Challenges in Solid Organ Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kuntz, Kristin; Weinland, Stephan R; Butt, Zeeshan

    2015-09-01

    Organ transplantation is often a life-saving surgery for individuals with end-stage organ disease. However, for most types of solid organ transplant, the demand for organs outweighs the supply, resulting in the need to institute a waiting list for suitable patients who cannot immediately receive an organ. Individuals who need transplants must undergo an assessment process that includes medical, surgical, and psychosocial evaluations. The transplant psychosocial evaluation considers whether surgical candidates are able and willing to care for the transplanted organ for many years. The evaluation must also consider a number of psychosocial risk factors that can lead to complications, which may cause premature loss of the graft. Some of these risk factors include a history of poor medical adherence, psychopathology (including substance use disorders), poor social support, and cognitive dysfunction. This article briefly summarizes the assessment of each of these risk factors and how they can be mitigated to ensure the best outcomes for patients and their families. PMID:26370201

  6. The psychosocial environment at work: an assessment of the World Health Organization Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Join, A; Saeed, K; Arnaout, S; Kortum, E

    2012-04-01

    Psychosocial risks are widely recognised as major challenges to occupational health and safety. The risk management approach, which starts with an assessment of the risk that they pose, is acknowledged as the most effective way of preventing and managing psychosocial risks at the workplace. This paper presents the findings and action taken following a risk assessment of psychosocial risks, at the World health Organization Regional Officeforthe Eastern Mediterranean (EMRO) and country offices, carried outon behalf of the Committee on Health and Safety in the Workplace in EMRO. The findings show that psychosocial risks pose a threat to the mental well-being of staff. Management and co-worker support, rewards, possibilities for development, and trust mitigate the negative impact of psychosocial risks. The results of this risk assessment are being used to develop interventions aimed at enhancing the sense of well-being of staff, initially through actions at the employee level. PMID:22768693

  7. Predictors of Psychosocial Outcomes in Hard-of-Hearing Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Laugen, Nina J; Jacobsen, Karl H; Rieffe, Carolien; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2016-07-01

    Children with hearing loss are at risk for developing psychosocial problems. Children with mild to severe hearing loss are less frequently subject to research, in particular in preschool, and we therefore know less about the risk in this particular group. To address this, we compared psychosocial functioning in thirty-five 4-5-year olds with hearing aids to that of 180 typically hearing children. Parent ratings of psychosocial functioning and social skills, as well as scores of receptive vocabulary, were obtained. Children with hearing loss evidenced more psychosocial problems than hearing agemates. Female gender and early detection of hearing loss predicted better psychosocial functioning among children with hearing loss, whereas vocabulary and degree of hearing loss did not. Early intervention addressing psychosocial functioning is warranted for children with all degrees of hearing loss, including mild and moderate. Gender differences should be investigated in future research. PMID:26921612

  8. Psychosocial Aspects of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Beck, Amy R

    2016-01-01

    This article is the sixth in a series of the comorbidities of childhood obesity and reviews psychosocial aspects with a focus on weight-based victimization and discrimination stemming from weight bias and stigma. Outcomes from these bullying and discriminatory experiences are pervasive and impact youth across all settings, including school. Lastly, this article provides recommendations on how to reduce bias and stigma to better serve these students in the school environment. PMID:26739931

  9. [Adolescent psychosocial development].

    PubMed

    Gaete, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly necessary that pediatricians have greater knowledge of adolescent health. To begin with they should be familiar with the psychosocial development of this period, an issue which is imperative for the health care of the age group. With that purpose, this article reviews the normal adolescent psychosocial development. Adolescence is a stage that has been progressively prolonged, during which fast and big changes occur, that lead human beings to become biologically, psychologically and socially mature, and potentially able to live independently. Developmental tasks of this period are the establishment of identity and the achievement of autonomy. Although it is a process of high individual variability in terms of its beginning and end, the progression through stages, the synchrony of development between the various areas, and in other aspects, the psychosocial development of this period usually have common characteristics and a progressive pattern of 3 phases: early, middle and late adolescence. Psychological, cognitive, social, sexual and moral development of young people in each of them are described in this article. PMID:26342392

  10. Adolescent obesity and future substance use: Incorporating the psychosocial context.

    PubMed

    Lanza, H Isabella; Grella, Christine E; Chung, Paul J

    2015-12-01

    A growing body of work has shown that obese adolescents are at risk of engaging in problematic substance use, but mixed findings highlight the complexity of the relationship. Incorporating the psychosocial context into this research may inform past discrepancies. The current study assessed whether obese adolescents had a higher likelihood of experiencing a psychosocial context that predicted problematic substance use in young adulthood. Latent class analysis on 10,637 adolescents from The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) identified four psychosocial classes in adolescence: Adjusted, Deviant Peer/Victimization, Moderate Depression, and Maladjusted. Obese adolescents were more likely to belong to the Maladjusted class, characterized by higher levels of depression and deviant peer affiliation. Those in the Maladjusted class had the second highest levels of cigarette smoking and marijuana use in young adulthood. Obese adolescents' psychosocial context should be considered in future research linking obesity and substance use. PMID:26349450

  11. Perinatal and psychosocial circumstances associated with risk of attempted suicide, non-suicidal self-injury and psychiatric service use. A longitudinal study of young people

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Past studies using large population based datasets link certain perinatal circumstances (birth weight, parity, etc) with mental health outcomes such as suicide, self-harm and psychiatric problems. Problematically, population datasets omit a number of social confounds. The aim of this study is to replicate past research linking perinatal circumstances and mental health (suicidality and use of psychiatric services) and to determine if such associations remain after adjusting for social circumstances. Methods A longitudinal school-based survey of 2157 young people (surveyed at age 11, 13, 15) followed up in early adulthood (age 19). At age 11 parents of participants provided information about perinatal circumstances (birth weight, birth complications, etc.) and psychiatric service use. Participants provided data about their mental health at age 15 (attempted suicide, suicidal thoughts) and at ages 19 (self-harm, psychiatric service use). In addition, data were collected about their social and psychosocial circumstances (gender, deprivation, religion, sexual behaviour, etc.). Results Predictably, social factors were linked to mental health outcomes. For example, those with same sex partners were more likely (OR 4.84) to self-harm than those without a same sex partner. With a single exception, in both unadjusted and adjusted models, perinatal circumstances were not or only marginally associated with mental health outcomes. The exception was the number of birth complications; young people with two or more complications were approximately 2-3 times more likely than those without complications to use psychiatric services. Conclusions While we failed to replicate results found using large population based datasets, some of our results are compatible with prior research findings. Further, evidence from this study supports the influence of perinatal circumstances (birth complications) on later psychiatric problems, or at least higher than expected contact with

  12. Psychosocial health among immigrants in central and southern Europe.

    PubMed

    Toselli, Stefania; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela; Marzouk, Diaa; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2014-08-01

    Migration exposes people to a number of risks that threaten their health, including those related to psychosocial health. Self-perceived health is usually the main indicator used to assess psychosocial health. Electronic databases were used to examine the literature on the psychosocial health of immigrants in Europe and of North Africans living in their own countries. Immigrants of various ethnic groups show a similar risk of psychosocial disorders but generally present a higher risk than the local population. This risk is related to gender (being higher in women), poor socio-economic status and acculturation, discrimination, time elapsed since migration and age on arrival in the new country. Although the stressors and situations the different ethnic groups experience in the host country may be shared, the way they deal with them may differ according to cultural factors. There is a need to collect detailed data on psychosocial health among the various immigrant groups in Europe, as well as to monitor this aspect in North African residents who lack access to specific services. PMID:25107995

  13. Psychosocial Implications During Adolescence for Infant Heart Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Vidhya; Freier Randall, Catherin; Chinnock, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Background & Objectives: As more heart transplant recipients survive into late adolescence, research addressing long-term psychosocial and neurodevelopmental outcomes is imperative. The limited literature available suggests risk for psychosocial difficulties and lower cognitive, academic, and neuropsychological functioning. This paper reviews topic-related literature and provides preliminary data examining psychosocial and neuropsychological functioning of adolescents who received their heart transplant during infancy. Method: This paper offers a literature review AND presents preliminary data from studies conducted through Loma Linda University Children’s Hospital (LLUCH). Study one examined psychosocial functioning and quality of life of adolescent infant heart transplant recipients. In study two, cognitive, academic, and neuropsychological data were analyzed. Results: Study 1: Overall psychosocial functioning fell in the Average range, however, a significant percentage of participants presented with difficulties on one or more of the psychosocial domains. Quality of life was also within normal limits, though concerns with general health and bodily discomfort were noted. Study 2: Cognitive functioning was assessed to be Below Average, with 43-62% of the participants demonstrating significant impairments. Neuropsychological functioning yielded significant weakness on language functioning, and mild weakness on visual-motor integration and executive functioning. Conclusion: While the majority of the participants demonstrate psychosocial resiliency, a subgroup present with difficulties suggesting the need for intervention. Cognitive/neuropsychological functioning suggests poorer functioning with patterns similar to other high-risk pediatric populations. These results are preliminary and further research on long-term psychosocial and neuropsychological development of pediatric heart transplant recipients is needed to better understand and ameliorate developmental

  14. Psychosocial Factors Related to Cannabis Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Finch, Stephen J.; Koppel, Jonathan; Brook, David W.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the association between psychosocial risk and protective factors and cannabis use disorders (CUDs) in a cohort of African American and Puerto Rican young adults. A representative sample (N=838) from the East Harlem area of New York City was assessed at four points in time (at mean ages 14.1, 19.2, 24.5, and 29.2). The psychosocial measures came from six domains: personality attributes, family, peer, work, neighborhood, and substance use The psychosocial measures were assessed at each of the first three waves of the study, and CUDs were assessed at the fourth and final wave of the study. Multivariate logistic regression and a cumulative risk analysis were conducted. Increased psychological symptoms (OR=1.21; 95% CI, 1.05–1.39; p<.01), problems resulting from cannabis use (OR=2.69; 95% CI, 1.33–5.46; p<.01), frequent arguments with one’s partner (OR=1.84; 95% CI, 1.09–3.10; p<.05), high levels of deviance (OR=1.81; 95% CI, 1.21–2.71; p<.01), and frequent acts of violence directed toward the participant (OR=1.19; 95% CI, 1.01–1.42; p<.05) were all associated with an increased risk for CUDs. An increase in the number of risks was associated with an increase in the probability of having CUDs at the fourth wave (again, at a mean age of 29.2). A decrease in the number of risk factors may lead to a decrease in CUDs. PMID:22014255

  15. Psychosocial Pathways to Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) Risk Among Youth Transitioning Out of Foster Care: Evidence from a Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Cari; Simoni, Jane; Dworsky, Amy; Courtney, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To test the fit of a theoretically driven conceptual model of pathways to STI risk among foster youth transitioning to adulthood. The model included: 1) historical abuse and foster care experiences, 2) mental health and attachment style in late adolescence, and 3) STI risk in young adulthood. Methods We used path analysis to analyze data from a longitudinal study of 732 youth transitioning out of foster care. Covariates included gender, race and an inverse probability weight. We also performed moderation analyses comparing models constrained and unconstrained by gender. Results Thirty percent reported they or a partner had been diagnosed with an STI. Probability of other measured STI risk behaviors ranged from 9% (having sex for money) to 79% (inconsistent condom use). Overall model fit was good (Standardized Root Mean Squared Residual of 0.026). Increased risk of oppositional/delinquent behaviors mediated an association between abuse history and STI risk, via increased inconsistent condom use. There was also a borderline association with having greater than 5 partners. Having a very close relationship with a caregiver and remaining in foster care beyond age 18 decreased STI risk. Moderation analysis revealed better model fit when coefficients were allowed to vary by gender versus a constrained model, but few significant differences in individual path coefficients were found between male and female-only models. Conclusions Interventions/policies that: 1) address externalizing trauma sequelae, 2) promote close, stable substitute caregiver relationships, and 3) extend care to age 21 years have the potential to decrease STI risk in this population. PMID:23859955

  16. The Impact of an Ergonomics Intervention on Psychosocial Factors and Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Thai Hospital Orderlies

    PubMed Central

    Chanchai, Withaya; Songkham, Wanpen; Ketsomporn, Pranom; Sappakitchanchai, Punnarat; Siriwong, Wattasit; Robson, Mark Gregory

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: Musculoskeletal disorders have a multifactorial etiology that is not only associated with physical risk factors, but also psychosocial risk factors; (2) Objective: This study evaluated the effects of an ergonomic intervention on musculoskeletal disorders and psychosocial risk factors; (3) Material and Methods: This study took a participatory ergonomic (PE) approach with a randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted at tertiary care hospitals during July to December 2014. A group of hospital orderlies in Thailand were randomly selected for examination. Fifty orderlies were placed in a case group and another 50 orderlies were placed in the control group. The Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire (NMQ) and the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) were used for data collection before and after the intervention program; (4) Results: The most commonly reported problem among hospital orderlies was found to be lower back symptoms (82%). The study found significant differences in prevalence rates of reported musculoskeletal conditions in the arm, upper back, and lower back regions before and after intervention. Findings showed that psychosocial risk factors were affected by the intervention. COPSOQ psychosocial risk factors were significantly different pre/post intervention. These variables included: work pace, influence at work, meaning of work, predictability, rewards, role conflicts, and social support from supervisors. No other psychosocial risk factors were found to be significant; (5) Conclusions: Positive results were observed following the intervention in the work environment, particularly in terms of reducing physical work environment risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders and increasing promotion factors of the psychosocial work environment. PMID:27153076

  17. The Impact of an Ergonomics Intervention on Psychosocial Factors and Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Thai Hospital Orderlies.

    PubMed

    Chanchai, Withaya; Songkham, Wanpen; Ketsomporn, Pranom; Sappakitchanchai, Punnarat; Siriwong, Wattasit; Robson, Mark Gregory

    2016-01-01

    (1) BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal disorders have a multifactorial etiology that is not only associated with physical risk factors, but also psychosocial risk factors; (2) OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effects of an ergonomic intervention on musculoskeletal disorders and psychosocial risk factors; (3) MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study took a participatory ergonomic (PE) approach with a randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted at tertiary care hospitals during July to December 2014. A group of hospital orderlies in Thailand were randomly selected for examination. Fifty orderlies were placed in a case group and another 50 orderlies were placed in the control group. The Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire (NMQ) and the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) were used for data collection before and after the intervention program; (4) RESULTS: The most commonly reported problem among hospital orderlies was found to be lower back symptoms (82%). The study found significant differences in prevalence rates of reported musculoskeletal conditions in the arm, upper back, and lower back regions before and after intervention. Findings showed that psychosocial risk factors were affected by the intervention. COPSOQ psychosocial risk factors were significantly different pre/post intervention. These variables included: work pace, influence at work, meaning of work, predictability, rewards, role conflicts, and social support from supervisors. No other psychosocial risk factors were found to be significant; (5) CONCLUSIONS: Positive results were observed following the intervention in the work environment, particularly in terms of reducing physical work environment risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders and increasing promotion factors of the psychosocial work environment. PMID:27153076

  18. [Psychosocial aspects of preeclampsia].

    PubMed

    Szita, Bernadett; Baji, Ildikó; Rigó, János

    2015-12-13

    Distress conditions during pregnancy may contribute to the development of preeclampsia by altering functions of the neuroendocrine and immune systems, e.g. activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increase in plasma proinflammatory cytokines. Preeclampsia may also precipitate mental health problems due to long-term hospitalization or unpredictable and uncontrollable events such as preterm labor and newborn complications. Besides, preeclampsia may induce persistent neurocognitive complaints with a negative impact on patients' quality of life. As growing evidence indicates that poor maternal mental health has an adverse effect on pregnancy outcome and fetal development, psychosocial interventions may be beneficial for women with preeclampsia. PMID:26639644

  19. Psychosocial Recovery and Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Antai-Otong, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    This article discusses a psychosocial recovery and rehabilitation recovery model that uses an intensive case management approach. The approach offers an interdisciplinary model that integrates pharmacotherapy, social skills training, cognitive remediation, family involvement, and community integration. This evidence-based plan of care instills hope and nurtures one's capacity to learn and improve function and quality of life. It is cost-effective and offers psychiatric nurses opportunities to facilitate symptomatic remission, facilitate self-efficacy, and improve communication and social cognition skills. Nurses in diverse practice settings must be willing to plan and implement innovative treatment models that provide seamless mental health care across the treatment continuum. PMID:27229282

  20. Uptake of Genetic Counseling, Knowledge of Bleeding risks and Psychosocial Impact in a South African Cohort of Female Relatives of People with Hemophilia.

    PubMed

    Gillham, Anne; Greyling, Brenda; Wessels, Tina-Marie; Mbele, Bongi; Schwyzer, Rosemarie; Krause, Amanda; Mahlangu, Johnny

    2015-12-01

    In excess of 200 people with hemophilia (PWH) and their families have received genetic counseling (GC) at the Hemophilia Comprehensive Care Centre at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital. However, very few of their at-risk female relatives have attended GC to discuss their reproductive risks and options, or their potential bleeding risks. Limited research has been conducted internationally on factors influencing uptake of GC and testing amongst female relatives of PWH. This prospective study aimed to explore the factors that influence the uptake of GC and testing by female relatives of PWH. An open-ended semi-structured interview schedule was developed. Participants included female relatives of PWH who at least had a family member who had received GC. Seventeen participants were interviewed; 7 who had GC previously and 10 who had not. All participants who had previously received GC found the service helpful and were mothers referred because their sons had hemophilia. Of those who had not had GC, possible deterrents included: being unaware of GC service, focus in clinic on PWH and not potential carriers, misunderstood risks related to hemophilia and carrier status, fear of finding out carrier status, and non-disclosure in families. Most participants were unaware of potential bleeding risks for carriers. The information will be used to provide a better service to female relatives of PWH with a goal being to set up a dedicated hemophilia carrier clinic. PMID:25828422

  1. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Follow-Up Study of Psychosocial Adjustment and Community Reintegration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Borisova, Ivelina Ivanova; Williams, Timothy Philip; Brennan, Robert T.; Whitfield, Theodore H.; de la Soudiere, Marie; Williamson, John; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first prospective study to investigate psychosocial adjustment in male and female former child soldiers (ages 10-18; n = 156, 12% female). The study began in Sierra Leone in 2002 and was designed to examine both risk and protective factors in psychosocial adjustment. Over the 2-year period of follow-up, youth who had wounded or killed…

  2. Financial Stress, Shaming Experiences and Psychosocial Ill-Health: Studies into the Finances-Shame Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starrin, Bengt; Aslund, Cecilia; Nilsson, Kent W.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test the Finances-Shame model and its explanatory power regarding the prevalence of psychosocial ill-health. The Finances-Shame model postulates that (i) the greater the financial stress and the more experiences of having been shamed, the greater the risk for psychosocial ill-health, (ii) the lesser the financial stress…

  3. Psychosocial Characteristics of Pregnancy Women with and without a History of Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcenko, Maureen O.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined psychosocial characteristics and service needs of pregnant women with substance abuse histories. Interviewed 225 pregnant women defined as having high-risk pregnancies for psychosocial reasons. Compared to non-substance-abusing women, those with admitted history of substance abuse were significantly older, had more children, were more…

  4. Psychosocial stress and prostate cancer: a theoretical model.

    PubMed

    Ellison, G L; Coker, A L; Hebert, J R; Sanderson, S M; Royal, C D; Weinrich, S P

    2001-01-01

    African-American men are more likely to develop and die from prostate cancer than are European-American men; yet, factors responsible for the racial disparity in incidence and mortality have not been elucidated. Socioeconomic disadvantage is more prevalent among African-American than among European-American men. Socioeconomic disadvantage can lead to psychosocial stress and may be linked to negative lifestyle behaviors. Regardless of socioeconomic position, African-American men routinely experience racism-induced stress. We propose a theoretical framework for an association between psychosocial stress and prostate cancer. Within the context of history and culture, we further propose that psychosocial stress may partially explain the variable incidence of prostate cancer between these diverse groups. Psychosocial stress may negatively impact the immune system leaving the individual susceptible to malignancies. Behavioral responses to psychosocial stress are amenable to change. If psychosocial stress is found to negatively impact prostate cancer risk, interventions may be designed to modify reactions to environmental demands. PMID:11572415

  5. Which psychosocial factors best predict cognitive performance in older adults?

    PubMed

    Zahodne, Laura B; Nowinski, Cindy J; Gershon, Richard C; Manly, Jennifer J

    2014-05-01

    Negative affect (e.g., depression) is associated with accelerated age-related cognitive decline and heightened dementia risk. Fewer studies examine positive psychosocial factors (e.g., emotional support, self-efficacy) in cognitive aging. Preliminary reports suggest that these variables predict slower cognitive decline independent of negative affect. No reports have examined these factors in a single model to determine which best relate to cognition. Data from 482 individuals 55 and older came from the normative sample for the NIH Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function. Negative and positive psychosocial factors, executive functioning, working memory, processing speed, and episodic memory were measured with the NIH Toolbox Emotion and Cognition modules. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling characterized independent relations between psychosocial factors and cognition. Psychosocial variables loaded onto negative and positive factors. Independent of education, negative affect and health status, greater emotional support was associated with better task-switching and processing speed. Greater self-efficacy was associated with better working memory. Negative affect was not independently associated with any cognitive variables. Findings support the conceptual distinctness of negative and positive psychosocial factors in older adults. Emotional support and self-efficacy may be more closely tied to cognition than other psychosocial variables. PMID:24685143

  6. Cumulative psychosocial stress, coping resources, and preterm birth.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Sheila W; Kingston, Dawn; Bayrampour, Hamideh; Dolan, Siobhan M; Tough, Suzanne C

    2014-12-01

    Preterm birth constitutes a significant international public health issue, with implications for child and family well-being. High levels of psychosocial stress and negative affect before and during pregnancy are contributing factors to shortened gestation and preterm birth. We developed a cumulative psychosocial stress variable and examined its association with early delivery controlling for known preterm birth risk factors and confounding environmental variables. We further examined this association among subgroups of women with different levels of coping resources. Utilizing the All Our Babies (AOB) study, an ongoing prospective pregnancy cohort study in Alberta, Canada (n = 3,021), multinomial logistic regression was adopted to examine the independent effect of cumulative psychosocial stress and preterm birth subgroups compared to term births. Stratified analyses according to categories of perceived social support and optimism were undertaken to examine differential effects among subgroups of women. Cumulative psychosocial stress was a statistically significant risk factor for late preterm birth (OR = 1.73; 95 % CI = 1.07, 2.81), but not for early preterm birth (OR = 2.44; 95 % CI = 0.95, 6.32), controlling for income, history of preterm birth, pregnancy complications, reproductive history, and smoking in pregnancy. Stratified analyses showed that cumulative psychosocial stress was a significant risk factor for preterm birth at <37 weeks gestation for women with low levels of social support (OR = 2.09; 95 % CI = 1.07, 4.07) or optimism (OR = 1.87; 95 % CI = 1.04, 3.37). Our analyses suggest that early vulnerability combined with current anxiety symptoms in pregnancy confers risk for preterm birth. Coping resources may mitigate the effect of cumulative psychosocial stress on the risk for early delivery. PMID:24948100

  7. Decision making, psychological wellbeing and psychosocial outcomes for high risk women who choose to undergo bilateral prophylactic mastectomy - A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Glassey, Rachael; Ives, Angela; Saunders, Christobel; Musiello, Toni

    2016-08-01

    A bilateral prophylactic, or preventative, mastectomy (BPM) for women at high risk of developing breast cancer (BC) can reduce their risk of developing the disease by up to 90% (relative risk reduction). An increasing number of women, including young women, are taking up this option. However, there is a dearth of information for younger women (under 40 years) choosing preventative mastectomy. In fact, no studies to date have specifically focused on younger women's experiences of a BPM and investigated their informational needs. The purpose of this review is to report on the current literature surrounding the psychological experience of a BPM and the informational needs for women at high risk of developing BC with a particular emphasis on younger women. Research has highlighted a range of psychological outcomes linked to preventative mastectomy, including positives such as reduced anxiety and negatives including impaired body image and sexuality. The literature strongly suggests women want more information surrounding BPM, particularly related to the after effects of the surgery, and the impact on their psychological wellbeing. Research method limitations and reporting has resulted in conflicting conclusions, making it difficult for women to be well informed. In particular, there has been little focus on the experiences and needs of younger women opting for BPM. Due to the unique needs of younger women and an increase in BPM rates for younger women, it is imperative that the needs of this group are addressed. Together these findings provide justification and recommendation for further research in this area. PMID:27318167

  8. Paternal psychiatric disorders and children's psychosocial development.

    PubMed

    Ramchandani, Paul; Psychogiou, Lamprini

    2009-08-22

    Psychiatric disorders of parents are associated with an increased risk of psychological and developmental difficulties in their children. Most research has focused on mothers, neglecting psychiatric disorders affecting fathers. We review findings on paternal psychiatric disorders and their effect on children's psychosocial development. Most psychiatric disorders that affect fathers are associated with an increased risk of behavioural and emotional difficulties in their children, similar in magnitude to that due to maternal psychiatric disorders. Some findings indicate that boys are at greater risk than girls, and that paternal disorders, compared with maternal disorders, might be associated with an increased risk of behavioural rather than emotional problems. Improved paternal mental health is likely to improve children's wellbeing and life course. PMID:19411102

  9. Psychosocial-Environmental Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts in Adolescents with Suicidal Ideation: Findings from a Sample of 73,238 Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Mi; Baek, Ji Hyun; Han, Doug Hyun; Lee, Young Sik; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A

    2015-08-01

    We determined risk factors that discriminate between suicide attempt (SA) adolescents and suicidal ideation only (SI only) adolescents using data from the 2010 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (12-19 years; N = 73,238). In males, heavy alcohol use, drug use, and high perceived sadness/hopelessness showed significant effects on the presence of SA versus the presence of SI only. In females, along with these variables, low academic achievement, poor perceived health status, high perceived stress, and unhealthy coping strategy were also significantly related to the presence of SA versus SI only. Therefore, clinical interventions targeting adolescents' psychological distress are warranted to prevent suicide. PMID:25443162

  10. Ventricular Assist Devices as Destination Therapy: Psychosocial and Ethical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Grogan, Sherry; Kostick, Kristin; Delgado, Estevan; Bruce, Courtenay R.

    2015-01-01

    One of the candidate evaluation challenges is determining when and how psychosocial domains influence short- and long-term destination therapy ventricular assist device (DT-VAD) outcomes. There are very few DT-VAD studies and no validated instruments to identify psychosocial risk factors. General practice is to borrow from the transplant literature, which may not be applicable to this unique device application. We question the relevance of using transplant psychosocial evaluation for patients who are candidates for DT-VAD only, particularly because these patients require a certain level of cognitive, psychological, and behavioral functioning to ensure proper long-term self-care with the VAD. We may be missing important psychological characteristics in our pre-evaluations by “borrowing” from the transplant literature, thereby underplaying significant factors that are especially relevant for DT-VAD candidates. Conversely, we may be screening out candidates who may benefit greatly from DT-VAD by using transplant criteria as part of the screening process. We use a case study to illustrate some of the challenges of weighing psychosocial risk factors in the DT-VAD population and to emphasize the need for developing distinct psychosocial assessment criteria for DT-VAD patients. PMID:25793023