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Sample records for pthirus pubis history

  1. First report of family infestation with pubic louse (Pthirus pubis; Insecta: Anoplura: Pthiridae) in Iran--a case report.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, R; Limoee, M; Ahaki, A R

    2013-03-01

    The sucking lice including the head, body and pubic louse infest humans and so they are of high hygienic importance. Pubic lice are transmitted during sexual contact in adults. Thus, infestation of children with pubis louse is very rare. A case of infestation with pubic louse (Pthirus pubis) in a family in Kashan was seen. On examination of family members, the parasites were collected and observed under the light microscope. Infestation of eyelashes with P. pubis lice was confirmed. Since this parasite can be observed on the skin, infestation with this louse has always been one of the concerns of human communities. Pthiriasis has frequently been reported in many parts of the world; however, there are few reports on this infestation in Iran, especially familial infestation with this louse. Hence, this article could be the first report on the familial infestation with P. pubis in Iran and it can be suggested that infestation with pubic lice occurs in sporadic form in all over the country. PMID:23665721

  2. Symphysis pubis separation during childbirth.

    PubMed

    Senechal, P K

    1994-01-01

    A severe case of separation of the symphysis pubis during labor and delivery is reported, which included severe pain and unusual complications of urinary outflow incontinence and fecal incontinence that gradually resolved with conservative treatment. The incidence of symphysis pubis separation is reported to be between 1:600 and 1:3400 obstetric patients. Treatment should generally be conservative and symptomatic. Prognosis for recovery is excellent. Recurrent separation of the symphysis pubis could occur during subsequent deliveries but generally is no worse than the first occurrence. This case report illustrates the unusual complications that can occur with severe diastasis of the symphysis pubis during pregnancy. Family physicians, obstetricians, and orthopedic surgeons could encounter this complication of childbirth in their own practices. Although the symptoms are dramatically severe in presentation, a conservative management approach is effective. PMID:8184705

  3. Osteitis pubis in elite athletes: Diagnostic and therapeutic approach

    PubMed Central

    Angoules, Antonios G

    2015-01-01

    Osteitis pubis (OP) is a debilitating overuse syndrome characterizing by pelvic pain and local tenderness over the pubic symphysis commonly encountered in athletes often involved in kicking, twisting and cutting activities in sports such as soccer and rugby and to a lesser degree distance running. It is a common source of groin pain in elite athletes attributable to pubis sympysis instability as the result of microtrauma caused by repetitive muscle strains on pubic bones. Diagnosis is based mainly on detailed sports history and a meticulous clinical examination, although occasionally is difficult to distinguish this nosological entity from other pathologies affecting the involved area which may occur concomitantly in the same patient. Radiologic examinations such as plain radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging and 3 phase bone isotope scanning may be helpful to differentiate from other clinical entities with similar clinical presentation. Most cases respond well to conservative treatment which includes several physical modalities and especially a progressive rehabilitation programmed individualized to each one of patients diagnosed with OP. Local injection therapies have been also been proposed as a non-operative therapeutic option for the efficient management of these patients. In refractory cases, surgical therapeutic strategies are warranted. These include several open or minimally invasive surgical interventions such as arthroscopic or open symphysis curettage, wedge or total resection of pubic sympysis, polypropylene mesh placement and pubic fusion. In this review a critical analysis of OP in elite athletes is performed with special focus on current concepts of diagnosis and management of this source of athletic groin pain. PMID:26495244

  4. COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN THE PUBIS OF ASYMPTOMATIC ATHLETES AND NON-ATHLETES WITH MRI

    PubMed Central

    Branco, Rodrigo Castelo; da Costa Fontenelle, César Rubens; Miranda, Leandro Marques; Junior, Yonder Archanjo Ching San; Vianna, Evandro Miguelote

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the magnetic resonance imaging findings from the pubis of professional soccer players without any history or clinical findings of groin pain, and from sedentary individuals, also without symptoms, and to determine the prevalence of changes compatible with pubic overload. Methods: Nineteen professional soccer players without complaints of groin pain and seventeen sedentary individuals, also asymptomatic, underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the pubis. The results from the examinations were analyzed regarding the presence of degenerative changes, boned medullary edema and tendinopathy, and the two study groups were compared. Results: High prevalence of bone edema, tendinopathy and degenerative findings in the pubic symphysis was seen in the athletes, with statistically significant higher odds ratios and relative risk in the population studied. Conclusion: Professional soccer players are at a higher risk of developing changes in the pubic region, shown in magnetic resonance images, compared with sedentary individuals. These findings are not necessarily caused by groin pain, and are probably related to intense exertion.

  5. Infectious osteitis pubis in an HIV seropositive female.

    PubMed Central

    Desmond, N; Bignardi, G E; Coker, R J; Grech, P; Harris, J R

    1994-01-01

    We report a case of infectious osteitis pubis following a first trimester abortion in a female seropositive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Joint aspiration yielded Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the patient was successfully treated with oral ciprofloxacin. Images PMID:8206472

  6. Acute Osteomyelitis of the Symphysis Pubis after Inguinal Hernia Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tekin, Recep; Ceylan Tekin, Rojbin; Ceylan Cevik, Figen; Cevik, Remzi

    2015-01-01

    Osteomyelitis of pubic symphysis is infectious inflammatory condition of the symphysis pubis and rare complication of surgery around inguinal and groin region. It should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of lower pelvic pain and should be sought in cases of pelvic insufficiency fractures. Herein, we present a case of a 55-year-old man with osteomyelitis of the symphysis pubis following inguinal hernia surgery for diagnosis and management of this rare condition. PMID:25973280

  7. Endoscopic Pubic Symphysectomy for Athletic Osteitis Pubis

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Dean K.; Sehgal, Bantoo; Matsuda, Nicole A.

    2015-01-01

    Osteitis pubis is a common form of athletic pubalgia associated with femoroacetabular impingement. Endoscopic pubic symphysectomy was developed as a less invasive option than open surgical curettage for recalcitrant osteitis pubis. This technical note demonstrates the use of the anterior and suprapubic portals in the supine lithotomy position for endoscopic burr resection of pubic symphyseal fibrocartilage and hyaline endplates. Key steps include use of the suprapubic portal for burr resection of the posteroinferior symphysis and preservation of the posterior and arcuate ligaments. Endoscopic pubic symphysectomy is a minimally invasive bone-conserving surgery that retains stability and may be useful in the treatment of recalcitrant osteitis pubis or osteoarthritis. It nicely complements arthroscopic surgery for femoroacetabular impingement and may find broader application in this group of co-affected athletes. PMID:26258039

  8. [Massive localized lymphoedema (MLL) in the mons pubis].

    PubMed

    Bognár, Gábor; Novák, András; István, Gábor

    2014-08-01

    Massive localized lymphoedema (MLL) is a relatively frequent complication in obesity. MLL is present as a giant swelling and associated with characteristic skin changes. Due to the pathologic and morphologic similarity to sarcoma, MLL is also called "pseudosarcoma". MLL can degenerate into angiosarcoma without surgery. We present a case of MLL of the mons pubis in a 54-year-old man with a BMI of 48.6. PMID:25123802

  9. Osteitis pubis: can early return to elite competition be contemplated?

    PubMed Central

    Jardí, Jaume; Rodas, Gil; Pedret, Carles; Til, Lluis; Cusí, Manuel; Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos; Del Buono, Angelo; Maffulli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose In elite athletes, osteitis pubis is a common painful degenerative process of the pubic symphysis and surrounding soft tissues and tendons. We report the diagnostic pathway and the rehabilitation protocol of six elite athletes with osteitis pubis in three different sports, and compare protocol stages and time to return to competition. Methods 6 athletes (2 soccer, 2 basketball, 2 rugby players) were diagnosed with osteitis pubis stage III and IV according to Rodriguez classification using standard clinical and imaging criteria. After performing a baseline lumbo-pelvic assessment, the rehabilitation protocol described by Verrall was adapted to each individual athlete. Results The length of time for each stage of the protocol was as follows; Stage 1 (rest from sport) was 26 +/? 5 days, Stage 2 (to achieve pain free running), 18 +/? 5 days, Stage 3 (squad training) 63 +/? 7, Stage 4 (return to competition) 86 +/? 15. Soccer players took longer to return to competition than basketball and rugby players. No recurrences were reported at 2 year follow-up. Conclusion The protocol presented ensures a safe return to elite athletes. The time from diagnosis to full recovery is longer in football players, and seems to increase with age. PMID:25147768

  10. Diastasis of symphysis pubis and labor: Systematic review.

    PubMed

    Urraca-Gesto, M Alicia; Plaza-Manzano, Gustavo; Ferragut-Garcías, Alejandro; Pecos-Martín, Daniel; Gallego-Izquierdo, Tomás; Romero-Franco, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Symphysis pubis diastasis (SPD) is an infrequent complication of labor that can impair womens' general health through failure of the passive stability of the pelvic girdle. Although conservative approaches are often used to decrease symptoms and interpubic separation, notably few studies have analyzed the effect of these methods on managing the symptoms of women with SPD. The purpose of this study was to review the available literature on the conservative treatment of SPD during pregnancy and labor. A computer-based search using PubMed, PEDro, and CINAHL was performed up to November 2014. We selected all studies that considered women with SPD during pregnancy or labor and treated them with conservative methods and excluded those that included surgical intervention. Eighteen studies were selected, most of which were case reports. Although the overall results of conservative treatment were unclear because of the type and design of the obtained studies, most of the studies reported bed rest in the lateral decubitus position and a pelvic girdle as basic treatments. Additionally, the few clinical trials reported recommended additional physiotherapy, including strengthening and stabilizing exercises, to reduce SPD symptoms. PMID:26560443

  11. Osteitis or osteomyelitis of the pubis? A diagnostic and therapeutic challenge: report of 9 cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Knoeller, Stefan Michael; Uhl, Markus; Herget, Georg Werner

    2006-10-01

    Osteitis pubis is a noninfective inflammation of the symphysis pubis, without distinct aetiology. It has often been reported after urological or gynaecological procedures, and is also associated with trauma, rheumatic disorders, pregnancy and parturition. Symptoms mostly resolve spontaneously. On the other hand, osteomyelitis of the pubis is a classical infective inflammation of bone. The differential diagnosis between both entities may be difficult. The most common complaint in both inflammatory diseases is pain under load, either local or pseudoradicular in nature. The biochemistry is normal or slightly inflammatory in osteitis pubis, but frankly inflammatory in osteomyelitis. A 3-phase bone scan may be positive in the mineralisation or delayed phase in case of osteitis, and in all three phases in case of osteomyelitis. Aspiration is the ultimate diagnostic test: in case of osteomyelitis pubis, culture of the aspirate will usually lead to the diagnosis, sometimes even after antibiotic therapy. PMID:17152416

  12. PUBIS STRESS FRACTURE IN A 15-YEAR-OLD SOCCER PLAYER

    PubMed Central

    Bertolini, Fabrício Melo; Vieira, Rodrigo Barreiros; Oliveira, Lucas Henrique Araujo de; Lasmar, Rodrigo Pace; Junior, Otaviano de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    This case report presents a 15-year-old football player who was diagnosed with a pubis stress fracture and underwent conservative treatment with satisfactory results. After a review of the literature, the clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment are described. The importance of this paper comes from the rarity of finding reports about this kind of injury in the literature.

  13. Diagnosing adductor muscle avulsion at the symphysis pubis with ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Chen, David J; Caldera, Franklin E; Kim, Woojin

    2014-04-01

    A 58-yr-old woman presented after experiencing left hip and groin pain for 1 mo. She denies any history of trauma, falls or any bruising, or history of sports injury or extreme physical exertion before her symptoms. On ultrasonography, she was found to have an avulsion tear at the origin of the adductor muscles, predominantly involving the adductor longus and brevis muscles. The treatment course was conservative: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for pain control and physical therapy for muscle strengthening and balance improvement. Upon follow-up, she demonstrated significant improvement and resolution of her pain. PMID:24196970

  14. Pregnancy-related symphysis pubis dysfunction management and postpartum rehabilitation: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Emily R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Two case reports review the chiropractic treatment and rehabilitation management of Symphysis Pubis Dysfunction (SPD). Clinical features Patient 1: a 35-year-old female presented at 30 weeks pregnant with severe left sided Symphysis Pubis Dysfunction and low back pain. Patient 2: a 33-year-old female also 30 weeks pregnant, presented with right sided Symphysis Pubis Dysfunction and sacroiliac pain. Intervention and Outcome Treatment included soft tissue therapy, pregnancy support belt, side-lying mobilizations, pelvic blocks and instrument-assisted pubic symphysis adjustments. Home advice included: ice, staying active, moving as a unit, stretching, use of a pillow between the knees while sleeping, regular breaks from sitting and pelvic floor (Kegel) exercises. Both patients reported some relief with treatment and home care. Post-partum, rehabilitation exercises were prescribed to restore muscular endurance, control and pelvic stability. On long-term follow-up patient 1 reported no pubic symphysis pain, but some low back pain secondary to a subsequent knee injury. Patient 2 reported being mostly pain free with a rare re-exacerbation of pubic symphysis pain. Summary Conservative chiropractic management appears to reduce pain and improve mobility and function for SPD. Post partum rehabilitation of the associated lumbo-pelvic musculature with specific stabilization exercises is recommended to reduce pain, improve long term outcomes and prevent chronicity. PMID:22675223

  15. The prevalence of chondrocalcinosis of the symphysis pubis on CT scan and correlation with calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease.

    PubMed

    Patel, Trusha; Ryan, Lawrence; Dubois, Melissa; Carrera, Guillermo; Baynes, Keith; Mannem, Rajeev; Mulkerin, Jennifer; Visotcky, Alexis

    2016-03-01

    Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPP) crystal deposition in the articular cartilage can often be seen radiographically as chondrocalcinosis (CC). CPP crystals preferentially deposit in fibrocartilages such as the knee menisci and symphysis pubis (SP). We sought to determine the prevalence of CC in the SP on computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis. This retrospective study involved readings on 1070 consecutive CTs of the abdomen and pelvis performed over 3 months in patients over 65 years of age. Medical records of 226 patients found to have CC were reviewed to determine age, gender, documentation of CPPD on problem lists or in medical histories, and whether radiology readings of the CTs mentioned CC. SP CC was identified in 21.1 % (226/1070) of consecutive CT scans with the mean age of CT+ patients being 78.6. Of the 226 patients with SP CC, the observation of CC was documented in only 5.3 % (12/226) of the radiology reports. Of the 12 instances in which the radiology reports mentioned CC, this observation was never (0/12) transmitted to the medical history or problem list. The prevalence of SP CC in patients older than 65 was 21.1 %. Since the majority of CTs of the abdomen and pelvis are not ordered for evaluation of musculoskeletal conditions, this is likely a true prevalence without selection bias. When CC of the SP was present on images, radiologists routinely overlooked or chose not to report CC. Even in the rare instances when it was reported, that information was not added to the medical history or problem list. There are several clinical situations (e.g., acute monoarthritis or atypical osteoarthritis) in which recognizing that a patient has CPP deposition would be useful. Taking the time to review images may yield clinically important findings that are not mentioned anywhere on the patient chart. PMID:26861035

  16. The functional role of the ischiopubic membrane for the mechanical loading of the pubis in the domestic fowl (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Fechner, Regina; Stratmann, Matthias; Gößling, Rainer; Sverdlova, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Soft tissues other than muscles are supposed to be of mechanical importance, yet they are rarely integrated into finite element models. Here, we investigate the functional role of the ischiopubic membrane for the loading of the pubis of the domestic fowl using 2D finite element analysis. For this purpose, a specimen of the domestic fowl was dissected and soft tissues attaching to the pubis were studied in great detail. Muscles were removed and measurements taken. For the 2D finite element model, the outline was taken from the dissected specimen. Two 2D finite element models were generated: one without and one with ischiopubic membrane. The same muscular loading based on own measurements and electromyographic data was applied to both models. The model without ischiopubic membrane shows anteroventral bending deformation of the scapus pubis, resulting in high compressive and tensile principal stresses at the level of ultimate bone stress values. The model with ischiopubic membrane shows low compressive principal stresses in the pubis consistent with the levels of steady state remodelling of bone. Based on these results, the ischiopubic membrane of the domestic fowl potentially establishes a physiological loading of the pubis and therefore might be of great mechanical significance for the loading of the bone. PMID:23171269

  17. Ontogeny of Size and Shape Sexual Dimorphism in the Pubis: A Multislice Computed Tomography Study by Geometric Morphometry.

    PubMed

    Bilfeld, Marie Faruch; Dedouit, Fabrice; Sans, Nicolas; Rousseau, Hervé; Rougé, Daniel; Telmon, Norbert

    2015-09-01

    Few studies have been conducted to determine sex differences in the immature coxal bone and the results were often contradictory. The authors studied sexual dimorphic differences of the pubis using geometric morphometric analysis of five osteometric landmarks recorded by multislice computed tomography (MSCT), based on three-dimensional reconstructions of 188 children (95 boys, 93 girls) living in the region of Toulouse, southwestern France, ranging in age from 1 to 18 years old. They used geometric morphometric methodology first to test sexual dimorphism in size (centroid size) and shape (Procrustes residuals) and second to examine patterns of shape change with age (development) and size change with age (growth). Based on statistical significance test results, the pubic shape became sexually dimorphic at 13 years old, although visible shape differences were observed as early as 9 years old. This work showed that the trajectories of pubis shape (development) and size (growth) differed throughout ontogeny and between sexes. PMID:25782723

  18. Isokinetic imbalance of hip muscles in soccer players with osteitis pubis.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Walaa Sayed; Abdelraouf, Osama Ragaa; Elhafez, Salam Mohamed; Abdel-Aziem, Amr Almaz; Nassif, Nagui Sobhi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we compared the isokinetic torques of hip flexors/extensors and abductors/adductors in soccer players suffering from osteitis pubis (OP), with normal soccer players. Twenty soccer male athletes with OP and 20 normal soccer athletes were included in this study. Peak torque/body weight (PT/BW) was recorded from hip flexor/extensor and abductor/adductor muscles during isokinetic concentric contraction modes at angular velocity of 2.1 rad · s(-1), for both groups. The results showed a significant difference between the normal and OP groups for hip flexors (P < 0.05). The normal group had significant, lower PT/BW value than the OP group for their hip flexors (P < 0.05). The hip flexor/extensor PT ratio of OP affected and non-affected limbs was significantly different from that of normal dominant and non-dominant limbs. There were no significant differences between the normal and OP groups for hip extensor, adductor and abductor muscles (P > 0.05). Regarding the hip adductor/abductor PT ratio, there was no significant difference between the normal and OP groups of athletes (P > 0.05). The OP group displayed increase in hip flexor strength that disturbed the hip flexor/extensor torque ratio of OP. Therefore, increasing the hip extensor strength should be part of rehabilitation programmes of patients with OP. PMID:24499182

  19. Degeneration of the symphysis pubis presenting as a submucosal urinary bladder tumour

    PubMed Central

    Szopi?ski, Tomasz R.; Sudo?-Szopi?ska, Iwona; Furmanek, Mariusz I.; Dzik, Tomasz; Borówka, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Urinary bladder sonography is a sensitive diagnostic technique used for visualizing urinary bladder tumours. The aim of our communication is to present a case of a pseudotumour of the urinary bladder originating from the symphysis pubis syndesmosis. A 58-year-old woman was seen by a urologist with symptoms of lower urinary tract infection. Urinary bladder sonography was performed, followed by magnetic resonance imaging. Sonographic images of the bladder showed an exophytic mass on the urinary bladder's anterior wall. A transurethral resection of the tumour was performed. A histopathological examination revealed a necrotic extramural mass, without traits of malignancy. The mass reappeared in the follow-up vesical sonography. Subsequently, its transurethral resection was repeated with the same histopathological findings. The next urinary bladder sonography revealed the presence of the mass again. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging was performed, which showed advanced degenerative changes in the pubic symphysis syndesmosis that protruded into the bladder, imitating a urinary bladder tumour. To avoid unnecessary surgery, both radiologists and urologists should be made aware that there is a possibility of similar cases in patients. Magnetic resonance imaging enabled correct determination of the primary site of the growth, which, together with the histopathological examination results, influenced the choice of the implemented therapeutic procedures. PMID:23256002

  20. Case report: Physiotherapy strategies for a woman with symphysis pubis diastasis occurring during labour.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jae-Hun; Oh, Duck-Won

    2012-03-01

    This case report demonstrates a therapeutic exercise program as a noninvasive functional treatment for symphysis pubis diastasis (SPD) and reports its results. A 32-year-old primigravida with SPD during labour received a specific functional exercise program, which consisted of abdominal stabilization and strengthening of the pelvic floor muscles, hip adductors, and extensors; training for bed mobility; and walking training with suitable aids. The program was performed for 1-hour per session, twice a day, for 2 weeks. Before the intervention, the patient was totally dependent on others for performing her daily activities owing to severe pain in the pelvic region. After the 2-week intervention, however, the interpubic distance was reduced by 36% (from 22 mm to 14 mm), and pain and functional disability were remarkably improved. Moreover, the patient could walk independently for 30 m with a pelvic corset. Our results suggest that a systematically designed functional rehabilitation program may be beneficial in the functional recovery of patients suffering from SPD related to pregnancy. PMID:22265390

  1. Osteitis pubis after standard bipolar TURP surgery: insight into aetiology, diagnosis, management and prevention of this rarity.

    PubMed

    Davis, Niall F; Torregiani, William; Thornhill, John

    2016-01-01

    Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) surgery is standard treatment for symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia when medical therapy has failed. We describe a rare case of osteitis pubis secondary to a prostato-symphocoele sinus after standard bipolar TURP surgery. We also discuss diagnostic techniques and management strategies, and provide an insight into the aetiology of this rare phenomenon. Conservative management with intravenous antibiotics and an indwelling catheter was successful in our case. Treatment in more severe cases may include laparotomy with peritoneal or omental interposition or open retropubic radical prostatectomy to remove the entire sinus tract. PMID:26729825

  2. Reconstruction of the symphysis pubis to repair a complex midline hernia in the setting of congenital bladder exstrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, J. E.; Friedstat, J. S.; Jacobs, M. A.; Voelzke, B. B.; Foy, H. M.; Grady, R. W.; Gruss, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A 40-year-old man with congenital midline defect and wide pubic symphysis diastasis secondary to bladder exstrophy presented with a massive incisional hernia resulting from complications of multiple prior abdominal repairs. Using a multi-disciplinary team of general, plastic, and urologic surgeons, we performed a complex hernia repair including creation of a pubic symphysis with rib graft for inferior fixation of mesh. Methods The skin graft overlying the peritoneum was excised, and the posterior rectus sheath mobilized, then re-approximated. The previously augmented bladder and urethra were mobilized into the pelvis, after which a rib graft was constructed from the 7th rib and used to create a symphysis pubis using a mortise joint. This rib graft was used to fix the inferior portion of a 20 × 25 cm porcine xenograft mesh in a retro-rectus position. With the defect closed, prior skin scars were excised and the wound closed over multiple drains. Results The patient tolerated the procedure well. His post-operative course was complicated by a vesico-cutaneous fistula and associated urinary tract and wound infections. This resolved by drainage with a urethral catheter and bilateral percutaneous nephrostomies. The patient has subsequently healed well with an intact hernia repair. The increased intra-abdominal pressure from his intact abdominal wall has been associated with increased stress urinary incontinence. Conclusions Although a difficult operation prone to serious complications, reconstruction of the symphysis pubis is an effective means for creating an inferior border to affix mesh in complex hernia repairs associated with bladder exstrophy. PMID:25156539

  3. Pubic Lice (Pediculosis Pubis)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... commonly affect the pubic hair, but other hair-bearing areas, such as the armpits and eyelashes, eyebrows, ... doctor should prescribe treatment for all infested hair-bearing areas to prevent the infestation from coming back. ...

  4. Localisations particulières de l'histiocytose langerhansienne chez l'enfant, scapula et pubis: à propos de deux cas

    PubMed Central

    Atarraf, Karima; Chater, Lamiae; Arroud, Mounir; Afifi, My Abderrahman

    2014-01-01

    L'histiocytose X ou histiocytose de Langerhans est une maladie de l'enfant et de l'adulte jeune. Dont l'incidence est estimée à 1 cas sur 200 000 par an. C'est une maladie au spectre clinique très divers, allant du simple granulome éosinophile à la forme grave multiviscérale avec dysfonctionnement d'organe. Les auteurs rapportent deux observations concernant deux localisations assez rares de cette maladie, au niveau du pubis chez le premier enfant, et au niveau de la scapula chez le deuxième. Chez nos deux malades la localisation était focale, et l’évolution était favorable. A travers ces deux observations, nous allons essayer de décrire les différents aspects cliniques et radiologiques et discuter a travers une revue de littérature les démarches diagnostiques et thérapeutiques de cette maladie rare. PMID:25478049

  5. Phthiriasis palpebrarum misdiagnosed as allergic blepharoconjunctivitis in a 6-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jun Wen; Li, Li; Luo, Da Wei

    2014-01-01

    Phthiriasis palpebrarum is an infestation of the eyelashes caused by the louse Pthirus pubis (Linnaeus, 1758). We report a case of phthiriasis palpebrarum in a 6-year-old girl, which was initially misdiagnosed as allergic blepharoconjunctivitis. Parasites and their nits were found adhering to the eyelashes and eyelids of her right eye as well as scalp hairs. No abnormality was found in the left eye. The histopathology exam revealed the presence of adults and eggs of Pthirus pubis. We mechanically removed all the eyelashes of the right eye at their base, with lice and nits. The scalp was shaved and washed with phenothrin shampoo. No recurrence was found during 3 months of follow-up. Removal of the eyelashes, cutting of scalp hairs, and phenothrin shampoo may be effective in treating phthiriasis palpebrarum. In cases of blepharoconjunctivitis, eyelids and eyelashes should be carefully examined by slit lamp to avoid misdiagnosis. PMID:24909484

  6. Intellectual History, Social History, Cultural History...and Our History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, David Paul

    1990-01-01

    Defines and explores the links among intellectual, social, and cultural history. Warns that an adequate foundation must be laid in the economic and institutional social history of mass media before communication historians jump into cultural history. (SR)

  7. Quantum Histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Adrian

    There are good motivations for considering some type of quantum histories formalism. Several possible formalisms are known, defined by different definitions of event and by different selection criteria for sets of histories. These formalisms have a natural interpretation, according to which nature somehow chooses one set of histories from among those allowed, and then randomly chooses to realise one history from that set; other interpretations are possible, but their scientific implications are essentially the same.

  8. Canadian History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Libraries in Canada, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Includes 22 articles that address Canadian history and the importance of having students honor Canada's past by providing articles relating to the areas of History and Social Studies covering: historical fiction as instructional material; Canadian scientists; agricultural fairs; the Historical Foundation; social science books on Canada; student…

  9. Family History

    MedlinePLUS

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  10. Library Histories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fentress, Helen Woodward; Taylor, Carole R.; Register, Janet L.; Thomas, Susan E.

    1997-01-01

    These 13 articles provide histories of Georgia libraries that include junior college libraries, rural libraries, county and regional systems, private and special libraries, black universities, public libraries, and academic libraries. (LRW)

  11. Family History

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sign-Up Contact Us Understanding Brain Aneurysm Basics Warning Signs/Symptoms Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History Early Detection and Screening Unruptured Brain Aneurysms Subarachnoid Hemorrhage ...

  12. Lunar History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmunson, Jennifer E.

    2009-01-01

    This section of the workshop describes the history of the moon, and offers explanations for the importance of understanding lunar history for engineers and users of lunar simulants. Included are summaries of the initial impact that is currently in favor as explaining the moon's formation, the crust generation, the creation of craters by impactors, the era of the lunar cataclysm, which some believe effected the evolution of life on earth, the nature of lunar impacts, crater morphology, which includes pictures of lunar craters that show the different types of craters, more recent events include effect of micrometeorites, solar wind, radiation and generation of agglutinates. Also included is a glossary of terms.

  13. Minting History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohl, Gary

    2003-01-01

    Presents a project where fourth-grade students depicted images on coins to reflect important conflicts in Canadian history, such as September 11, 2001. Explains how to create the coins in detail. States that the students each wrote a "proclamation" that described their time period depicted on the coins. (CMK)

  14. Making History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shein, Esther

    2008-01-01

    Jennifer Dorman was in a fix. Teaching ninth-grade US history at Holicong Middle School in Doylestown, Pennsylvania, Dorman wanted to tap into her students' interest in creating "something of value not just for their teachers, but something they could share with other students and people." But that required something a conventional paper-based…

  15. Arguing History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2013-01-01

    The history of science illustrates some exciting--and sometimes controversial--moments. Unfortunately, textbooks tend to focus on results in a scientific discipline and only occasionally showcase an interesting historical vignette, telling the story behind those results. Although required studies may leave teachers little classroom time for…

  16. Making History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shein, Esther

    2008-01-01

    Jennifer Dorman was in a fix. Teaching ninth-grade US history at Holicong Middle School in Doylestown, Pennsylvania, Dorman wanted to tap into her students' interest in creating "something of value not just for their teachers, but something they could share with other students and people." But that required something a conventional paper-based…

  17. Humanistic History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrow, Alvin J.

    1982-01-01

    Utilizing the theories of McGregor, Maslow, and Herzberg, presents a model for teaching history which involves students in designing their own course objectives. Includes humanistic approaches, organizational management assumptions, and models with motivational, hygiene, physiological, and safety factors. (DMM)

  18. River history.

    PubMed

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2012-05-13

    During the last half century, advances in geomorphology-abetted by conceptual and technical developments in geophysics, geochemistry, remote sensing, geodesy, computing and ecology-have enhanced the potential value of fluvial history for reconstructing erosional and depositional sequences on the Earth and on Mars and for evaluating climatic and tectonic changes, the impact of fluvial processes on human settlement and health, and the problems faced in managing unstable fluvial systems. PMID:22474674

  19. Uncovering History for Future History Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Fritz

    2010-01-01

    The art of history teaching is at a crossroads. Recent scholarship focuses on the need to change the teaching of history so students can better learn history, and insists that history teachers must move beyond traditional structures and methods of teaching in order to improve their students' abilities to think with history. This article presents…

  20. Uncovering History for Future History Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Fritz

    2010-01-01

    The art of history teaching is at a crossroads. Recent scholarship focuses on the need to change the teaching of history so students can better learn history, and insists that history teachers must move beyond traditional structures and methods of teaching in order to improve their students' abilities to think with history. This article presents…

  1. Cygnus History

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Henderson, Raymond E. Gignac, Douglas E. Good, Mark D. Hansen, Charles V. Mitton; Daniel S. Nelson, Eugene C. Ormond; Steve R. Cordova, Isidro Molina; John R. Smith, Evan A. Rose

    2009-07-02

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources: Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2. This Radiographic Facility is located in an underground tunnel test area at the Nevada Test Site. The sources were developed to produce high-resolution images for dynamic plutonium experiments. This work will recount and discuss salient maintenance and operational issues encountered during the history of Cygnus. A brief description of Cygnus systems and rational for design selections will set the stage for this historical narrative. It is intended to highlight the team-derived solutions for technical problems encountered during extended periods of maintenance and operation. While many of the issues are typical to pulsed power systems, some of the solutions are unique. It is hoped that other source teams will benefit from this presentation, as well as other necessary disciplines (e.g., source users, system architects, facility designers and managers, funding managers, and team leaders).

  2. Ras history

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Although the roots of Ras sprouted from the rich history of retrovirus research, it was the discovery of mutationally activated RAS genes in human cancer in 1982 that stimulated an intensive research effort to understand Ras protein structure, biochemistry and biology. While the ultimate goal has been developing anti-Ras drugs for cancer treatment, discoveries from Ras have laid the foundation for three broad areas of science. First, they focused studies on the origins of cancer to the molecular level, with the subsequent discovery of genes mutated in cancer that now number in the thousands. Second, elucidation of the biochemical mechanisms by which Ras facilitates signal transduction established many of our fundamental concepts of how a normal cell orchestrates responses to extracellular cues. Third, Ras proteins are also founding members of a large superfamily of small GTPases that regulate all key cellular processes and established the versatile role of small GTP-binding proteins in biology. We highlight some of the key findings of the last 28 years. PMID:21686117

  3. Oral History and History of Education: Interactive History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieder, Alan

    1988-01-01

    Reviews William Cutler's plea for using oral history "to capture the education experiences of Americans." Explores the interactive possibilities of oral history with educational history, presenting contrasting views and methodological problems. Examines how experience, memory and events affect observation, interpretation and reporting of…

  4. KSC History Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dethloff, Henry C.

    2001-01-01

    The KSC History Project focuses on archival research and oral history interviews on the history of Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Related projects include the preparation of a precis and chapter outline for a proposed book-length narrative history, a bibliography of key primary and secondary resources, a brief monograph overview of the history of KSC, and a monograph on the history of safety at the Center. Finally, there is work on the development of a web page and a personal history data base associated with the oral history project. The KSC History Project has been a joint endeavor between Henry C. Dethloff and Dr. Noble Lee Snaples, Jr.

  5. History of Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Mott T.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses: (1) geologists and the history of geology; (2) American historians and the history of geology; (3) history of geology in the 1980s; (4) sources for the history of geology (bibliographies, dictionaries, encyclopedias, handbooks, periodicals, public/official histories, compilations, and books); (5) research opportunities; and (6) other…

  6. National History Day 1998: Migration in History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorn, Cathy

    This booklet describes the theme for National History Day 1997-1998, "Migration in History." The supplement provides teachers with classroom materials to help students begin thinking about the theme, analyze and think critically about the topic's significance in history in relation to the theme, and to help students conduct research on the theme.…

  7. Microforms and Sport History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Peter

    1986-01-01

    Explores the importance of sport history as it reflects the social and cultural history of the United States. Discussion covers the various sport history materials that are available in microform, including the Spalding Collection, twentieth-century microfilm sources, and sports and social history (Sports Periodicals microfilm series). (EJS)

  8. Integrating Women's History and Regular History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filene, Peter G.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a university course which synthesizes women's history with traditional history. The four-part curricular sequence comprises the socioeconomic situation; occupations, including housework and how and whether women were employed; values, ideas, and images; and politics, including movements such as suffragism, birth control, and temperance.…

  9. History Circles: The Doing of Teaching History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sarah Drake

    2009-01-01

    Lesson planning is a critical task in the education of pre-service teachers, but the author has often questioned the extent to which traditional lesson plan formats truly contribute to the teaching and learning of history. Since current research in history education calls for an emphasis on building "historical thinking" skills and content…

  10. History, Stories and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucholz, Arden

    1971-01-01

    Children who take avid pleasure in history told as a good story more often than not forsake it as adults. History has too often ceased to be a good story and become simply analytical, arid, tedious. (Author)

  11. World History Internet Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landeryou, Sarah

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of Internet resources relevant to reference work in world history. It also presents URLs to select sites representing different uses of the World Wide Web in presenting information for the subject of World History. (Author)

  12. KSC History Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snaples, Lee

    2001-01-01

    The project is a joint endeavor between Dr. Henry Dethloff and myself and is producing a number of products related to KSC history. This report is a summary of those projects. First, there is an overview monograph covering KSC history. Second, there is a chapter outline for an eventual book-length history. Third, there is monograph on safety at KSC. Finally, there is a web page and database dedicated to the KSC oral history project.

  13. Studying Ancient History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Robin

    1982-01-01

    Defends the value and relevance of the study of ancient history and classics in history curricula. The unique homogeneity of the classical period contributes to its instructional manageability. A year-long, secondary-level course on fifth-century Greece and Rome is described to illustrate effective approaches to teaching ancient history. (AM)

  14. Who Owns History?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackney, Sheldon

    1995-01-01

    Presents an interview with historian Cary Carson of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation and author William Styron on the role of history in society. Outlines the once-proposed Disney history theme park near Mannassas, Virginia. Discusses historical interpretation, museums, historical sites, and popular history. (CFR)

  15. Historiography: Reclaiming Constitutional History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tachau, Mary K. Bonsteel

    1988-01-01

    Recommends Paul L. Murphy's 25-year-old article "Time to Reclaim: The Current Challenge of American Constitutional History" as a starting place for teachers interested in teaching about the history of the U.S. Constitution. Includes a three-page annotated bibliography of books on constitutional history. (BSR)

  16. History of Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Albert E.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the history of American physics, indicating that much effort has been on the atomic bond and high-energy physics, to the detriment of other topics and areas. To offset this tendency, significant research is going on in the history of solid-state physics, with glimmerings in the history of physics education. (JN)

  17. Conducting the Medical History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Martin A.; Alexander, Randell A.

    2011-01-01

    A key portion of the medical evaluation of child sexual abuse is the medical history. This differs from interviews or histories obtained by other professionals in that it is focuses more on the health and well-being of the child. Careful questions should be asked about all aspects of the child's medical history by a skilled, compassionate,…

  18. Film and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaber, Robin L.

    2002-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of Web sites that focus on using film to teach history. Includes Web sites in five areas: (1) film and education; (2) history of cinema; (3) film and history resources; (4) film and women; and (5) film organizations. (CMK)

  19. Diet History Questionnaire: Database Revision History

    Cancer.gov

    The following details all additions and revisions made to the DHQ nutrient and food database. This revision history is provided as a reference for investigators who may have performed analyses with a previous release of the database.

  20. History of Science and History of Philologies.

    PubMed

    Daston, Lorraine; Most, Glenn W

    2015-06-01

    While both the sciences and the humanities, as currently defined, may be too heterogeneous to be encompassed within a unified historical framework, there is good reason to believe that the history of science and the history of philologies both have much to gain by joining forces. This collaboration has already yielded striking results in the case of the history of science and humanist learning in early modern Europe. This essay argues that first, philology and at least some of the sciences (e.g., astronomy) remained intertwined in consequential ways well into the modern period in Western cultures; and second, widening the scope of inquiry to include other philological traditions in non-Western cultures offers rich possibilities for a comparative history of learned practices. The focus on practices is key; by shifting the emphasis from what is studied to how it is studied, deep commonalities emerge among disciplines--and intellectual traditions--now classified as disparate. PMID:26353442

  1. KSC History Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Patrick K.

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 NASA/ASEE KSC History Project focused on a series of seven history initiatives designed to acquire, preserve, and interpret the history of Kennedy Space Center. These seven projects included the co-authoring of Voices From the Cape, historical work with NASA historian Roger Launius, the completion of a series of oral histories with key KSC personnel, a monograph on Public Affairs, the development of a Historical Concept Map (CMap) for history knowledge preservation, advice on KSC history database and web interface capabilities, the development of a KSC oral history program and guidelines of training and collection, and the development of collaborative relationships between Kennedy Space Center, the University of West Florida, and the University of Central Florida.

  2. KSC History Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Patrick K.

    2003-01-01

    The 2003 NASA/ASEE KSC History Project focused on a series of six history initiatives designed to acquire, preserve, and interpret the history of Kennedy Space Center. These six projects included the completion of Voices From the Cape, historical work co-authored with NASA historian Roger Launius, the completion of a series of oral histories with key KSC personnel, expansion of monograph on Public Affairs into two comprehensive pieces on KSC press operations and KSC visitor operations, the expansion of KSC Historical Concept Maps (Cmap) for history knowledge preservation, the expansion of the KSC oral history program through the administration of an oral history workshop for KSC-based practitioners, and the continued collaborative relationships between Kennedy Space Center, the University of West Florida, the University of Central Florida and other institutions including the University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

  3. History of mathematics and history of science.

    PubMed

    Mann, Tony

    2011-09-01

    This essay argues that the diversity of the history of mathematics community in the United Kingdom has influenced the development of the subject and is a significant factor behind the different concerns often evident in work on the history of mathematics when compared with that of historians of science. The heterogeneous nature of the community, which includes many who are not specialist historians, and the limited opportunities for academic careers open to practitioners have had a profound effect on the discipline, leading to a focus on elite mathematics and great mathematicians. More recently, reflecting earlier developments in the history of science, an increased interest in the context and culture of the practice of mathematics has become evident. PMID:22073776

  4. Osteitis Pubis After TURP: A Rare Complication Difficult to Recognize

    PubMed Central

    Elshout, Pieter Jan; Verleyen, Pieter; Putzeys, Guy

    2015-01-01

    TURP is a widespread urologic procedure that is performed by many urologists. This report describes a rare complication that causes serious morbidity because it is not recognized in time. This is also the first report of a prostatosymphyseal fistula treated without major surgery. Eventually diagnosis is made by a MRI 5 months after surgery. Decompressive surgery was necessary to treat pubic osteïtis with invalidating pain. Culture results revealed Escherichia coli but eventually the diagnosis was made by fistulography. Treatment consisted of bladder drainage and long-term antibiotic treatment and these could eventually heal the fistula.

  5. American History Activators (Early American History).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacey, Bill

    This document consists of a package of seven separately published "activities" or simulations that allow students to learn about and participate in many of the aspects of United States history that have influenced our present institutions and way of life. The seven units include: (1) First Americans Arrive: 11.000 BC; (2) Puritan General Court,…

  6. Teaching Nuclear History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holl, Jack M.; Convis, Sheila C.

    1991-01-01

    Presents results of a survey of the teaching about nuclear history at U.S. colleges and universities. Reports the existence of a well-established and extensive literature, a focus on nuclear weapons or warfare, and a concentration on nuclear citizenship, therapy, or eschatology for courses outside of history departments. Discusses individual…

  7. Women's History Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruthsdotter, Mary, Ed.; Eisenberg, Bonnie, Ed.

    This curriculum guide is designed to facilitate teachers' first efforts to introduce information about women in U.S. history. The guide promotes a multicultural awareness of women's history beginning with the Native Americans and proceeding to current issues of diversity. Activities are divided for grades 1-6 and 7-12 but may be adapted as…

  8. Microscale acceleration history discriminators

    DOEpatents

    Polosky, Marc A. (Albuquerque, NM); Plummer, David W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A new class of micromechanical acceleration history discriminators is claimed. These discriminators allow the precise differentiation of a wide range of acceleration-time histories, thereby allowing adaptive events to be triggered in response to the severity (or lack thereof) of an external environment. Such devices have applications in airbag activation, and other safety and surety applications.

  9. Family History Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookmark, 1991

    1991-01-01

    The 12 articles in this issue focus on the theme of family history resources: (1) "Introduction: Family History Resources" (Joseph F. Shubert); (2) "Work, Credentials, and Expectations of a Professional Genealogist" (Coreen P. Hallenbeck and Lewis W. Hallenbeck); (3) "Computers and Genealogy" (Theresa C. Strasser); (4) "Finding Historical Records…

  10. Teaching Nuclear History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holl, Jack M.; Convis, Sheila C.

    1991-01-01

    Presents results of a survey of the teaching about nuclear history at U.S. colleges and universities. Reports the existence of a well-established and extensive literature, a focus on nuclear weapons or warfare, and a concentration on nuclear citizenship, therapy, or eschatology for courses outside of history departments. Discusses individual…

  11. Implementing Big History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welter, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Contends that world history should be taught as "Big History," a view that includes all space and time beginning with the Big Bang. Discusses five "Cardinal Questions" that serve as a course structure and address the following concepts: perspectives, diversity, change and continuity, interdependence, and causes. (CMK)

  12. Make History Come Alive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karwoski, Gail Langer

    2003-01-01

    Suggests activities that school library media specialists can use to encourage students to think of history as fun and relevant and to want to read history books. Discusses heroism in poems and songs; writing poems based on historical figures; biographies; limericks; and publishing student writings on parchment paper. (LRW)

  13. The Two World Histories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Ross E.

    2008-01-01

    In the arenas where the two world histories have taken shape, educators vigorously debate among themselves intellectual, pedagogical, and policy issues surrounding world history as a school subject. The people in each arena tend to share, despite internal disagreements, a common set of premises and assumptions for ordering the discussion of world…

  14. Preaching in American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, DeWitte, Ed.

    This volume of twenty essary by nineteen authors attempts to describe the message, issues, and impact of American preaching as it has interacted with history and shaped American churches and society. The twenty topics, treated by individuals with advanced degrees in theology or speech, are: the role of preaching in American history; Puritan…

  15. History of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oversby, John

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses why the history of science should be included in the science curriculum in schools. He also presents some opportunities that can come out of using historical contexts, and findings from a study assessing the place of history of science in readily available textbooks.

  16. Women's History Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruthsdotter, Mary, Ed.; Eisenberg, Bonnie, Ed.

    This curriculum guide is designed to facilitate teachers' first efforts to introduce information about women in U.S. history. The guide promotes a multicultural awareness of women's history beginning with the Native Americans and proceeding to current issues of diversity. Activities are divided for grades 1-6 and 7-12 but may be adapted as…

  17. Revising Russian History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertsch, James V.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the production of new history textbooks that appeared after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Argues that the radical revisions in official history in this context are shaped by the Bakhtinian process of "hidden dialogicality." Suggests that the importance of hidden dialogicality between narrative forms must be considered. (SC)

  18. Writing American Indian History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noley, Grayson B.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to critique the manner in which history about American Indians has been written and propose a rationale for the rethinking of what we know about this subject. In particular, histories of education as regards the participation of American Indians is a subject that has been given scant attention over the years and when…

  19. Homes in History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of "The Goldfinch," an Iowa history magazine for children, focuses on issues relating to housing. Articles address such subjects as homelessness, neighborhood history, architecture, and local folklore. One student activity is the "Building Blocks" game that calls upon students to fill in blanks to complete words from the issue relating…

  20. Exploring mental health history.

    PubMed

    2015-10-14

    Caring for people with mental health problems has a colourful past, from the horrors of electroconvulsive therapy to the Handbook for Attendants of the Insane. An exhibition called Out of the Asylum: the History of Mental Health Nursing, which opened at the RCN library and heritage centre last week, brings all this history together. PMID:26463770

  1. Foundations/History/Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelin, John R.

    Patterns that emerged from reviewing 20 syllabi for courses on educational foundations, history, and philosophy are discussed, and five sample syllabi are presented. These courses are offered as part of graduate level studies in the field of higher education administration. The review revealed the following profile: the history of higher education…

  2. History of reinforced plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Milewski, J.V.; Rosato, D.V.

    1981-01-01

    This history of reinforced plastics is told by combining the individual histories of each reinforcement and the way in which they added to and changed the direction and rate of growth of the industry. The early history is based on all resins, fillers, and fibers found in nature. Then came the Baekeland revolution with the first synthetic resin which lasted about 25 years, at which time synthetic fiber glass and polyester resin dramatically changed the industry. Now, for the 1980s, the high modulus fibers developed 10 to 20 years ago are reshaping the industry. 32 figures.

  3. Collecting and Using Local History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Marcia Muth

    The local history collection should contain: county histories; city and village histories; state and regional histories; anniversary booklets; company histories; local newspapers; local magazines; genealogies; family albums; diaries; journals, and letters; account books; club yearbooks; school annuals; telephone books, city directories and local…

  4. Singing American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Fred

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how to use music when teaching U.S. History. Provides examples such as teaching about the Civil War, the Great Depression, and the Vietnam War and showing the contributions of African Americans. Includes a discography. (CMK)

  5. History of Chiropractic Care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Public Policies Committees American Chiropractic Foundation Origins and History of Chiropractic Care The word ‘Chiropractic’ comes from ... field was therefore the codification of the philosophy, art and science of chiropractic which was based on ...

  6. Arithmetic and History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josephson, Charles H.

    1970-01-01

    The author discusses how quantitative aspects enrich and clarify our knowledge of history. Statistical concepts of population and economic value are described for the Pilgrims, the American Revolution, and the Civil War. (RS)

  7. Teaching American Environmental History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Douglas H.

    1974-01-01

    Themes, issues, teaching approaches, and bibliographic references to sources for a course in environmental history, offered with the hope of preparing students to formulate principles to guide our further conduct toward the environment, are described. (JH)

  8. Canadian Military History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Stephen J.

    1985-01-01

    Military activities have played a part in shaping the nature of contemporary Canada. The main books dealing with recent Canadian military history that might be of interest to high school students are discussed. (RM)

  9. History and Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Diana S.

    2004-01-01

    The history of the computer usage in high school laboratories is discussed. Students learned scientific methods by acknowledging measurement errors, using significant digits, questioning their own results, and without doubts, they benefited from applying skill learned in mathematics classes.

  10. Family Health History and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diabetes > Know Your Family Health History Family Health History and Diabetes En español Haywood, a physical education ... story > 1 2 3 4 5 Family health history is an important risk factor for developing type ...

  11. History society launches journal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    A fledgling international organization plans to launch, in the next few months, a journal devoted to the study of the history of the earth sciences. The journal, to be published by the History of Earth Sciences Society (HESS), will be edited by Gerald M. Friedman ot the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.HESS will promote interest and scholarship in the history of the earth sciences by publishing the semiannual journal, by organizing meetings about the history of earth sciences, and by supporting the efforts of other associations displaying similar interests, according to the society's draft constitution. An organizational meeting to ratify the constitution and to elect officers will be held in conjunction with the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America in October. The interim officers and the proposed slate for 1983 include David B. Kitts (University of Oklahoma, Norman), president; Albert V. Carrozi (University of Illinois, Urbana), president-elect; and Ellis L. Yochelson (U.S. Geological Survey, National Museum of Natural History), secretary.

  12. History of psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Shorter, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review The present review examines recent contributions to the evolving field of historical writing in psychiatry. Recent findings Interest in the history of psychiatry continues to grow, with an increasing emphasis on topics of current interest such as the history of psychopharmacology, electroconvulsive therapy, and the interplay between psychiatry and society. The scope of historical writing in psychiatry as of 2007 is as broad and varied as the discipline itself. Summary More than in other medical specialties such as cardiology or nephrology, treatment and diagnosis in psychiatry are affected by trends in the surrounding culture and society. Studying the history of the discipline provides insights into possible alternatives to the current crop of patent-protected remedies and trend-driven diagnoses. PMID:18852567

  13. AIDS, drugs and history.

    PubMed

    Berridge, V

    1992-03-01

    This paper analyses the relationship of history to two current and inter-related policy issues, AIDS and drugs. AIDS, in particular in its early years, was a disease surrounded by history; and historians and others actively brought the 'lesson of history' into the public debates. Cholera and the Black Death provided historical examples of reactions to past epidemic disease; and the record of voluntarism in Britain in the area of sexually transmitted diseases was used to justify a non-punitive response to AIDS. As the perception of AIDS has changed from epidemic to chronic disease, as reactions to the disease have become 'normalized', so the type of historical input has also altered. The 'lesson of history' approach has appeared less relevant, or has changed focus to encompass chronic--TB, multiple sclerosis--rather than epidemic disease. The concept of AIDS itself as an historic event, of the 'contemporary history' of AIDS has also come to the fore. The paper contrasts the relationship of AIDS and history with the historical reaction to the particular impact of AIDS on drug policy. The policy reaction to illicit drugs has been historically conscious, in particular in the 1960's. But little of this historical perspective filtered into the reaction to AIDS on drug policy. Drugs, unlike AIDS, was not an open policy arena. The paper argues that overall drug policy objectives were already clear and it suited no policy interest to call on the historical record. The achievement of established policy objectives was better achieved by an emphasis on the newness of development, a response to potentially epidemic and unusual circumstances. PMID:1559035

  14. History of psychology.

    PubMed

    Weidman, Nadine

    2016-02-01

    The editor of History of Psychology discusses her plan to vary the journal's content and expand its scope in specific ways. The first is to introduce a "Spotlight" feature, a relatively brief, provocative thought piece that might take one of several forms. Along with this new feature, she hopes further to broaden the journal's coverage and its range of contributors. She encourages submissions on the history of the psy-sciences off the beaten path. Finally, she plans to continue the journal's tradition of special issues, special sections, and essay reviews of two or more important recently published books in the field. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26844648

  15. Investigating human evolutionary history

    PubMed Central

    WOOD, BERNARD

    2000-01-01

    We rely on fossils for the interpretation of more than 95% of our evolutionary history. Fieldwork resulting in the recovery of fresh fossil evidence is an important component of reconstructing human evolutionary history, but advances can also be made by extracting additional evidence for the existing fossil record, and by improving the methods used to interpret the fossil evidence. This review shows how information from imaging and dental microstructure has contributed to improving our understanding of the hominin fossil record. It also surveys recent advances in the use of the fossil record for phylogenetic inference. PMID:10999269

  16. Student Papers in Local History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson County Community Coll., Overland Park, KS. Johnson County Center for Local History.

    Thirteen papers on Kansas and Johnson County, Kansas history are presented. The papers were written by students in a course at the Johnson County Center for Local History or for independent study in local history. The papers are: "Conditions and Construction of Gardner Lake"; "The History of St. Joseph's Church, Shawnee, Kansas"; "Patrons of…

  17. Treatment of Phthiriasis Palpebrarum and Crab Louse: Petrolatum Jelly and 1% Permethrin Shampoo

    PubMed Central

    Karabela, Yunus; Yardimci, Gurkan; Yildirim, Isik; Atalay, Eray; Karabela, Semsi Nur

    2015-01-01

    Phthiriasis palpebrarum is an uncommon cause of blepharoconjunctivitis in which Pthirus pubis infest the eyelashes. We report a case of unilateral phthiriasis palpebrarum with crab louse. A 45-year-old man presented with conjunctival hyperaemia and moderate itching associated with irritation, and crusty excretions of the eyelashes in the left eye. Careful slit-lamp examination revealed many lice and nits in left eye and mild conjunctival hyperaemia. No abnormality was found in the right eye. On dermatologic examination, only one louse was found at the pubic area. The patient was treated effectively with petrolatum jelly (Vaseline) and 1% permethrin shampoo (Kwellada 1% shampoo). At the end of the first week no louse or nit was present on eyelashes and pubic area. PMID:26451147

  18. Treatment of Phthiriasis Palpebrarum and Crab Louse: Petrolatum Jelly and 1% Permethrin Shampoo.

    PubMed

    Karabela, Yunus; Yardimci, Gurkan; Yildirim, Isik; Atalay, Eray; Karabela, Semsi Nur

    2015-01-01

    Phthiriasis palpebrarum is an uncommon cause of blepharoconjunctivitis in which Pthirus pubis infest the eyelashes. We report a case of unilateral phthiriasis palpebrarum with crab louse. A 45-year-old man presented with conjunctival hyperaemia and moderate itching associated with irritation, and crusty excretions of the eyelashes in the left eye. Careful slit-lamp examination revealed many lice and nits in left eye and mild conjunctival hyperaemia. No abnormality was found in the right eye. On dermatologic examination, only one louse was found at the pubic area. The patient was treated effectively with petrolatum jelly (Vaseline) and 1% permethrin shampoo (Kwellada 1% shampoo). At the end of the first week no louse or nit was present on eyelashes and pubic area. PMID:26451147

  19. Music in Iowa History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frese, Millie K., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue of "The Goldfinch" focuses on music as an art using sound in time to express ideas and emotions and contains articles featuring appreciations of some of Iowa's renowned musical artists. The first article gives an overview of music in Iowa's history. The next article describes Antonin Dvorak's summer sojourn in Spillville where he…

  20. PAGES OF HISTORY.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The International Journal of Health Services is glad to publish a brief note about the origins of what is now known as the International Association of Health Policy, a worldwide association of professionals working on how to improve the health and well-being of the populations. The International Journal of Health Services was part of that history as well. PMID:26460457

  1. History of Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maienschein, Jane

    1985-01-01

    Examines the history of biology in the United States by considering: (1) general trends about the nature of American biology; (2) sources of information; (3) biographies; (4) biological institutions; and (5) disciplinary studies. Indicates that the field is dominated by internalists who focus on particular persons and topics. (JN)

  2. History of Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Servos, John W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the development of chemistry in the United States by considering: (1) chemistry as an evolving body of ideas/techniques, and as a set of conceptual resources affecting and affected by the development of other sciences; and (2) chemistry related to the history of American social and economic institutions and practices. (JN)

  3. Storytelling and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henegar, Steven

    1998-01-01

    Draws a connection between the techniques of storytelling and the content knowledge of history. Notes the many fables, tall tales, and legends that have historical incidents as their inspiration. Outlines some specific functions and steps of a story and provides an exercise for students or teachers to develop their own stories. (MJP)

  4. Brazilian History through Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaher, Celia Ribeiro; Varella, Maria Angelica

    This paper provides an overview of the beginnings of the newspaper in Brazil with information on the more significant titles and their role in the history of journalism and their impact on social change that occurred between the Imperial and Republican periods. Current collections at the National Library and legal deposit are discussed. It…

  5. History of vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Plotkin, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before. PMID:25136134

  6. Diet History Questionnaire

    Cancer.gov

    NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH Diet History Questionnaire Today's date: MONTH DAY YEAR |___|___| 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 6 7 8 01 Jan 02 Feb 03 Mar 04 Apr 05 May 06 Jun 07 Jul 08 Aug 09 Sep 10 Oct 11 Nov 12

  7. Understanding World Economic History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whaples, Robert

    2013-01-01

    One joy of studying history is discovering people living meaningful lives and behaving in unusual ways that are startling to the modern reader--young or old. Why did pre-modern people living hundreds or even thousands of years ago do things so differently than we do? Robert Whaples states that Economic historians conclude that the key difference…

  8. Teaching Local History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Alan, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This Social Science Docket theme issue focuses on teaching local history and included theme and non-themed articles, lesson plans, learning activities, and book, movie, and museum reviews designed for K-12 social studies teachers. Articles and materials in this issue are: "Editing Is Not Censorship" (Alan Singer); "Teachers Respond to 'Editing Is…

  9. History and Civility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Larry Schaefer's history of civility is a succinct summary of the implicit and evolving definitions of civility over 2500 years of civilization. Beginning with the Romans and the root word "civitas," meaning the rights and duties of citizenship, civility appears in classical literature as integral to the roots of democracy in the context…

  10. History in Present Tense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakrewsky, Jackie

    1994-01-01

    Eschewing Little Mermaid and Ninja Turtle costumes, students at a Washington Montessori school celebrate Halloween dressed as John Adams, Clara Barton, and other historical figures. U.S. Department of Education recently recognized eight schools for using interdisciplinary approaches, devoting adequate instructional time to history, and addressing…

  11. What Is World History?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, survey courses in world history have been staples of school programs for almost a century. But no consensus has emerged on the exact goals toward which these courses should be directed. Nor is there agreement on what topics to include or in what order topics should be studied. This article introduces some of the reasons for…

  12. History Comes Alive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Gary

    This chapter describes the development of a set of programs called "History Comes Alive," a series of historical simulations and interactive experiences for students at heritage sites in Ontario. The programs allow students from Ontario and New York to relive the past by spending 3 days and 2 nights in a simulated historical setting. In addition…

  13. In a Word, History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dohan, Mary Helen

    1977-01-01

    Understanding words like "bionics" will open the mind to the horizons of another time when words like "railroad" evoked wonder and "to fly to the moon" was a metaphor for the impossible dream. Suggests that history teachers and English teachers should join together in using words to teach both subjects. (Editor/RK)

  14. Black History Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noldon, Carl

    2007-01-01

    The author argues in this speech that one cannot expect students in the school system to know and understand the genius of Black history if the curriculum is Eurocentric, which is a residue of racism. He states that his comments are designed for the enlightenment of those who suffer from a school system that "hypocritically manipulates Black…

  15. Understanding World Economic History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whaples, Robert

    2013-01-01

    One joy of studying history is discovering people living meaningful lives and behaving in unusual ways that are startling to the modern reader--young or old. Why did pre-modern people living hundreds or even thousands of years ago do things so differently than we do? Robert Whaples states that Economic historians conclude that the key difference…

  16. Ancient Egypt: History 380.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Laraine D.

    "Ancient Egypt," an upper-division, non-required history course covering Egypt from pre-dynastic time through the Roman domination is described. General descriptive information is presented first, including the method of grading, expectation of student success rate, long-range course objectives, procedures for revising the course, major course…

  17. Black History Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noldon, Carl

    2007-01-01

    The author argues in this speech that one cannot expect students in the school system to know and understand the genius of Black history if the curriculum is Eurocentric, which is a residue of racism. He states that his comments are designed for the enlightenment of those who suffer from a school system that "hypocritically manipulates Black…

  18. Writing Futures Histories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Les

    The paper presents an innovative approach to the future by examining the concept of time in the 20th century, the development of a sense of chronology, and the role of futures history through the process of "invention." The model is based on the Einsteinian theory of the relativity of time. The author suggests that learning a sense of chronology…

  19. Redefining American Literary History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruoff, A. LaVonne Brown, Ed.; Ward, Jerry W., Jr., Ed.

    This book is a collection of essays which provide starting points for a redefinition of American literary history based on a multiethnic and multiracial, rather than European, theory of culture. After an introduction by the editors, essays in the book are: "The Literatures of America: A Comparative Discipline" (Paul Lauter); "Defining the Canon"…

  20. Black History Month.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and additional resources focuses on Black History month. Specifies age levels for resources that include Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines; includes professional resources; and presents a relevant class activity. (LRW)

  1. [History of pelvic prolapse].

    PubMed

    Ziouziou, I; Zizi, M; Bennani, H; Karmouni, T; El Khader, K; Koutani, A; Iben Attya Andaloussi, A

    2013-04-01

    The history of pelvic prolapse back to the era of the pharaohs, about 1500 years before Christ. Hippocrates practiced succussion. Grenades, pieces of soaked linen were used as pessaries.Over the centuries, the eolution in understanding of this female pathology led to different treatment modalities, some of which we can currently seem strange. PMID:23673698

  2. History at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The efforts of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to capture and record the events of the past are described, particularly the research accomplishments of NASA's agency-wide history program. A concise guide to the historical research resources available at NASA Headquarters in Washington, D.C., at NASA facilities around the country, and through the federal records systems is given.

  3. Making Invisible Histories Visible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanssen, Ana Maria

    2012-01-01

    This article features Omaha Public Schools' "Making Invisible Histories Visible" program, or MIHV. Omaha's schools have a low failure rate among 8th graders but a high one among high school freshmen. MIHV was created to help at-risk students "adjust to the increased demands of high school." By working alongside teachers and mentors, the program's…

  4. Kentucky History and Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breckinridge County Board of Education, Hardinsburg, KY.

    Designed for use in grades 6, 7, and 8, this curriculum guide provides 11 individual units for teaching Kentucky history and geography with the recommended text "Kentucky Heritage" published by Steck-Vaughn. Unit titles are The Blue Grass State, Early Explorations of Kentucky, Development of the Government of Kentucky, The Constitution of…

  5. Ownership and Object History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Ori; Neary, Karen R.; Defeyter, Margaret A.; Malcolm, Sarah L.

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate behavior in relation to an object often requires judging whether it is owned and, if so, by whom. The authors propose accounts of how people make these judgments. Our central claim is that both judgments often involve making inferences about object history. In judging whether objects are owned, people may assume that artifacts (e.g.,…

  6. American History. Computer Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengel, James G.

    1983-01-01

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: Seven interactive computer programs are available to help with the study of American History. They cover the period of the 17th century up through the present day, and involve a variety of approaches to instruction. These programs were conceived and programmed by Jim Lengel, a former state social…

  7. A Biospheric Natural History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomashow, Mitchell

    2001-01-01

    A group of Maine birdwatchers recognizes that the presence or absence of migrating songbirds is related to complex biospheric patterns. For schoolchildren, community groups, and environmental scientists, such local natural history observations can be a pathway to perceiving and understanding global ecological change and then to developing…

  8. Runaways in History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipschutz, Mark R.

    1977-01-01

    Although running away is a glorified part of American folk tradition, today's runaway runs afoul of a host of laws, including those which make the act itself illegal. This article examines the history of the social and legal status of youth and why they run away. (Author)

  9. Life History and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.

    2013-01-01

    This article uses the life history method to chronicle the challenges of a low-income, first-generation student en route to college. The paper addresses three questions: how Manuel navigates college and related topics such as roommates, family, and money; how he creates social networks; and how he works with adults such as teachers and…

  10. Why Military History?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunting, Josiah, III

    2008-01-01

    Interest in military history is as strong as it has ever been--except on American college campuses. Lt. Gen. Josiah Bunting III examines why today's undergraduates need to study the facts of war, and why knowing its causes and consequences remain a vital part of our common knowledge.

  11. History of the RSRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putley, E. H.

    The history of the United Kingdom Royal Signal and Radar Establishment is summarized. Its development of radar was an indirect result of investigations of so-called death rays in the 1930s. Other contributions include work on solid state detectors, infrared imagery, and the discovery of molecular gas lasers.

  12. Features of Korean History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John-hee

    1988-01-01

    Traces the history of Korea from ancient times to the present, discussing the Koryo and Choson Kingdoms, the development of the Republic of Korea, and efforts to unite the country. Examines Korean cultural creativity, the development of new schools of thought, and reforms under Chong Yag-yong, a prominent eighteenth- and nineteenth-century…

  13. AFA-NIET History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Guy; Schnoor, Larry

    2000-01-01

    Presents a history of the American Forensic Association regarding its splintering within the forensic community. Discusses the incorporation of the National Individual Events Tournament (NIET). Considers how the NIET Committee has encouraged research projects related to forensic pedagogy as well as other issues related to forensics. (NH)

  14. National History. Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham-Van-Trong; Huynh-Van-Do

    This textbook is the second in the national history series developed by the Ministry of Education in Saigon and used in all public schools in Vietnam. The three books in this series have been reprinted in their entirety from the original editions for use in elementary schools in the United States which have Vietnamese students. The grade 3 text…

  15. Five Colleges: Five Histories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Story, Ronald, Ed.

    This book presents essays on the histories of five Massachusetts schools of higher education (Amherst College, Mount Holyoke College, the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, Smith College, Hampshire College) who together have had a successful consortia lasting for 25 years. The first essay, by Theodore P. Greene, depicts the temper of Amherst…

  16. Picturing Iowa's History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth, Amy, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue focuses on how advancements in photography affected Iowans and the pictures they took of their communities. Five famous and not so famous photographers who have taken pictures of Iowa's history are featured: (1) John Plumbe, Jr.; (2) Isaac A. Wetherby; (3) D. C. Hale; (4) Duluth Pieper; and (5) E. M. Clark. Instructions for making…

  17. Mathematics in History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallenberg, Harvey

    1995-01-01

    Presents ideas for creating mathematical classroom activities associated with the history of mathematics: calculating sums and products the way ancient Greeks did it, using an abacus or moving stones on a sanded floor, and engaging elementary students through role playing specific mathematicians. Suggests that through such techniques, mathematics…

  18. Ancient Egypt: History 380.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Laraine D.

    "Ancient Egypt," an upper-division, non-required history course covering Egypt from pre-dynastic time through the Roman domination is described. General descriptive information is presented first, including the method of grading, expectation of student success rate, long-range course objectives, procedures for revising the course, major course…

  19. History in Present Tense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakrewsky, Jackie

    1994-01-01

    Eschewing Little Mermaid and Ninja Turtle costumes, students at a Washington Montessori school celebrate Halloween dressed as John Adams, Clara Barton, and other historical figures. U.S. Department of Education recently recognized eight schools for using interdisciplinary approaches, devoting adequate instructional time to history, and addressing…

  20. The Holocaust and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Alan, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This theme based journal issue consists of articles and teaching ideas focusing on the Holocaust and history. This publication contains the following materials: (1) "Multiple Perspectives on the Holocaust?" (Alan Singer); (2) "Responses to 'Multiple Perspectives on the Holocaust'"; (3) "Escape to Cuba: Story of Laura Kahn, a Holocaust Survivor"…

  1. Making History Come Alive: The Place of History in the Schools. Report of the History Commission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, James; Mendenhall, Thomas

    This report argues for renewed attention to the teaching of history in the schools and provides suggestions for improving the state of history in our educational system. Much of history's trouble in the schools derives from a misunderstanding about what the subject is and what it is not. History is not social studies; it is essentially narrative.…

  2. History of autostereoscopic cinema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, Walter

    2012-03-01

    This paper covers the history of autostereoscopic cinema, from the beginnings of autostereoscopy in the 1800s, the development of motion capability and it's subsequent evolution to present techniques. Public viewings of autostereoscopic movies have occurred on a semi-ongoing basis since the early 1940s. In Moscow and other cities, theaters were constructed called stereokinos, for showing autostereoscopic films, with specially positioned seating for proper viewing. The Cyclostéréoscope was an autostereoscopic cinema system invented by François Savoye in France. It was based around a drum made of metal bars that revolve around a screen. For several years in the 1940s and 1950s, it was open to the public in Paris. Any film made in a dual film format could be shown. Besides dedicated theaters in Russia and France, exhibits of content have occurred outside devoted theaters. The paper focuses on the history of autostereoscopic technology developed for entertainment, public viewing of content, the individuals involved and the content itself.

  3. Stress and life history.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, Pat; Spencer, Karen A

    2014-05-19

    In his book on behavioural endocrinology, Randy Nelson describes 'stress' as a 'notoriously ethereal concept'. Yet, despite this lack of clarity, studies of the consequences of stress across different time scales, life history stages, taxa and levels of biological enquiry form a large part of modern biology and biomedicine. Organisms need to recognise and respond to environmental challenges. Being able to do so appropriately, and with minimal costs, is an important physiological attribute, with great adaptive value. The costs and benefits of different mechanisms that enable organisms to cope with unpredictable environmental changes can be manifest to different degrees at different life stages. Accordingly, the level of stress experienced in the environment can act as a strong selective pressure that drives the evolution of life histories. PMID:24845673

  4. History of Oriental Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, S. M. Razaullah

    2002-12-01

    This volume deals specifically with recent original research in the history of Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Islamic, and Indian astronomy. It strikes a balance between landmarks of history of Ancient and Medieval Astronomy in the Orient on one hand, and on the other the transmission of the European Astronomy into the countries of the Orient. Most contributions are based on research by the experts in this field. The book also indicates the status of astronomy research in non-European cultural areas of the world. The book is especially of interest to historians of astronomy and science, and students of cultural heritage. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-0657-8

  5. Ownership and object history.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Ori; Neary, Karen R; Defeyter, Margaret A; Malcolm, Sarah L

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate behavior in relation to an object often requires judging whether it is owned and, if so, by whom. The authors propose accounts of how people make these judgments. Our central claim is that both judgments often involve making inferences about object history. In judging whether objects are owned, people may assume that artifacts (e.g., chairs) are owned and that natural objects (e.g., pinecones) are not. However, people may override these assumptions by inferring the history of intentional acts made in relation to objects. In judging who owns an object, people may often consider which person likely possessed the object in the past--such reasoning may be responsible for people's bias to assume that the first person known to possess an object is its owner. PMID:21671343

  6. Sequence History Update Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanampompan, Teerapat; Gladden, Roy; Fisher, Forest; DelGuercio, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The Sequence History Update Tool performs Web-based sequence statistics archiving for Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Using a single UNIX command, the software takes advantage of sequencing conventions to automatically extract the needed statistics from multiple files. This information is then used to populate a PHP database, which is then seamlessly formatted into a dynamic Web page. This tool replaces a previous tedious and error-prone process of manually editing HTML code to construct a Web-based table. Because the tool manages all of the statistics gathering and file delivery to and from multiple data sources spread across multiple servers, there is also a considerable time and effort savings. With the use of The Sequence History Update Tool what previously took minutes is now done in less than 30 seconds, and now provides a more accurate archival record of the sequence commanding for MRO.

  7. [History of sun protection].

    PubMed

    Couteau, Céline; Coiffard, Laurence

    2010-07-01

    Human behavior towards the sun has changed over the years along with trends. Tan succeeded the white complexion. The sunscreens appeared recently in history. It is lining up with the discovery of bad effects due to prolonged exposure to ultraviolet at the end of the 19th century. Initially, those products had no signs of efficacy on their packaging, then the solar protection factors increased gradually, up to a limit value of 50+ more recently. PMID:21032925

  8. Brief History of Syphilis

    PubMed Central

    Tampa, M; Sarbu, I; Matei, C; Benea, V; Georgescu, SR

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Before the discovery of Treponema pallidum as the etiologic agent, the origins of syphilis have been the subject of several debates. Diverse therapeutic agents were employed in an attempt to cure the disease. Examining the milestones in the history of syphilis, the present article reviews the existing theories that tried to explain the origins of the disease, the approach in art, the cultural and the evolution of the treatments from the empiric means to the discovery of penicillin. PMID:24653750

  9. History of hadrontherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaldi, Ugo

    2015-05-01

    Hadrontherapy is today an established modality in cancer radiation therapy. Based on the superior ballistic and radiobiological properties of accelerated ions, this discipline experienced a remarkable growth in the last 20 years. This paper reviews the history of hadrontherapy, from the early days to the most recent developments. In particular, the evolution of proton and carbon ion therapy is presented together with a glance at future solutions such as single-room facilities.

  10. Amityville Memorial High School History Journal Advance Placement History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howlett, Charles F., Ed.

    The history of Amityville, New York, compiled by 11th and 12th grade advance placement history students, is presented in journal form. Six papers focus on: (1) South Oaks: The Long Island Home; (2) A History of Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church, Amityville; (3) Amityville: A Vacationland; (4) Amityville School System from 1904 to Present;…

  11. The New Labor History in American History Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobble, Dorothy Sue; Kessler-Harris, Alice

    1993-01-01

    Reports labor history coverage in seven college-level introductory history courses. Finds that all incorporated some material about unions and offered an interpretation of their effectiveness. Also finds the absence of gender and race as shaping forces in labor history to be the most neglected topic. (CFR)

  12. Functions of History Education: History Teacher Trainees' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinoglu, Orhan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate history teacher trainees' views and perceptions of the functions of history education. 36 teacher trainees participated in the study. All of the participants were registered to the History Education masters degree (without dissertation), within the Secondary Education Social Sciences discipline at…

  13. Functions of History Education: History Teacher Trainees' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinoglu, Orhan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate history teacher trainees' views and perceptions of the functions of history education. 36 teacher trainees participated in the study. All of the participants were registered to the History Education masters degree (without dissertation), within the Secondary Education Social Sciences discipline at…

  14. The History of Secondary Education in History of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Gary

    2012-01-01

    "History of Education" has published a steady stream of papers on the history of secondary education over the first 40 years of its existence. This corpus of research has been generated in the context of renewed interest in the history of secondary education that has been stimulated by developments in social and historical inquiry as well as by…

  15. Creating a Family Health History

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health History? Click for more information A Family Tree for Health A family health history is a ... family members grew up. It's like a family tree for health. Click for more information What a ...

  16. Quantum histories without contrary inferences

    SciTech Connect

    Losada, Marcelo; Laura, Roberto

    2014-12-15

    In the consistent histories formulation of quantum theory it was shown that it is possible to retrodict contrary properties. We show that this problem do not appear in our formalism of generalized contexts for quantum histories. - Highlights: • We prove ordinary quantum mechanics has no contrary properties. • Contrary properties in consistent histories are reviewed. • We prove generalized contexts for quantum histories have no contrary properties.

  17. Should History Textbooks Remember Differently?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Helen C.

    The failure of history textbooks to teach about ordinary people and events is examined, and what teachers can do to overcome this shortcoming of texts is discussed. History texts emphasize political history, wars, battles, and chronicles of great persons and events of the past. Scant attention is paid to the lives of ordinary men and women. This…

  18. The International Big History Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Michael; Duffy, D'Neil

    2013-01-01

    IBHA, the International Big History Association, was organized in 2010 and "promotes the unified, interdisciplinary study and teaching of history of the Cosmos, Earth, Life, and Humanity." This is the vision that Montessori embraced long before the discoveries of modern science fleshed out the story of the evolving universe. "Big History" is a…

  19. Women's History Curriculum Resource Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermont State Dept. of Education, Montpelier.

    These resources, designed for recognizing Women's History Week in Vermont elementary and secondary classrooms, are suitable for use nationwide. Oral history materials include recommended strategies for conducting oral history projects, a list of general interview questions, sample questionnaires for interviews concerning women's work and immigrant…

  20. Book History and Ideological Hierarchies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilevko, Juris; Dali, Keren

    2006-01-01

    The evolving field of Book History has had difficulty in integrating the experiences of immigrant culture. In explaining the origins of print culture in North America, Book History has a tendency to associate lowbrow with immigrants and their struggles to establish a foothold in a new land. Book History therefore symbolically defines immigrant…

  1. The History of Wound Care

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Jayesh B.

    2012-01-01

    The history of wound healing is, in a sense, the history of humankind. This brief history of wound healing has been compiled for the benefit of readers. It is amazing to see that some of the basic principles of wound healing have been known since 2000 bc. PMID:24525756

  2. Lesson Study and History Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halvorsen, Anne-Lise; Kesler Lund, Alisa

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the experiences of a group of fifth-grade teachers who used lesson study, a teacher-driven form of professional development, to teach history in a project supported by a Teaching American History Grant. The project addressed the following questions: What does a lesson study cycle for history education look like? What…

  3. William Faulkner as History Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, C. Ben

    1976-01-01

    William Faulkner's novel "Absalom, Absalom!" is described as a valuable teaching resource for an introduction to the philosophy of history. At least six ways of viewing history are presented in the book, which is useful and motivating in helping students understand the complex nature of history. (AV)

  4. The Bibliographic Databases in History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Joyce Duncan

    This examination of abstracting-indexing services for the field of history focuses on Historical Abstracts (HA) and America--History and Life (AHL), and their relationship to the American Bibliographical Center's Subject Profile Index (ABC-SPIndex). The history, scope, selection criteria, and classification arrangements of the two databases are…

  5. Save Our History: Our Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Libby Haight; Gordon, Sarah; Suisman, David

    2003-01-01

    The Fall 2003 Idea Book features: "Save Our History Study Guide: Our Documents"; "History International Study Guide: Pyramids"; "The History Channel Study Guide: Lewis and Clark" (Ideas from Our Teachers Contest Rules; Ideas from Our Teachers Context Winners); "A&E Classroom Study Guide: Post Impressionists"; and "The Biography Channel Study…

  6. Build Skills by Doing History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monte-Sano, Chauncey

    2012-01-01

    No Child Left Behind has profoundly limited the teaching of history over the past 10 years. Now, the Common Core State Standards offers an opportunity to reverse this decline by giving history a more prominent place in the school curriculum alongside literacy goals. Learning history and argumentative writing is key to developing analytical ways of…

  7. Lesson Study and History Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halvorsen, Anne-Lise; Kesler Lund, Alisa

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the experiences of a group of fifth-grade teachers who used lesson study, a teacher-driven form of professional development, to teach history in a project supported by a Teaching American History Grant. The project addressed the following questions: What does a lesson study cycle for history education look like? What…

  8. History + Mystery = Inquiring Young Historians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchner, Jana; Helm, Allison; Pierce, Kristin; Galloway, Michele

    2011-01-01

    While social studies content about communities, neighborhood jobs, and maybe even some state history is taught in the early elementary grades, often the upper elementary grades are the first time students learn about the larger progression of history. How do teachers begin to teach the progression of U.S. history and the themes and questions that…

  9. Studying Russian and Soviet History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Abraham, Ed.

    These essays were written to assist teachers in the task of making Russian history intelligible to young U.S. students. In "An Approach to Russian History," Edward Keenan proposes that students need to gain a better understanding of how Russians perceive themselves and their history. In "Pre-Petrine Russia," Andrzej S. Kaminski focuses on the…

  10. History + Mystery = Inquiring Young Historians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchner, Jana; Helm, Allison; Pierce, Kristin; Galloway, Michele

    2011-01-01

    While social studies content about communities, neighborhood jobs, and maybe even some state history is taught in the early elementary grades, often the upper elementary grades are the first time students learn about the larger progression of history. How do teachers begin to teach the progression of U.S. history and the themes and questions that…

  11. Recasting History: The Public Option

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salerno, Beth

    2014-01-01

    If you ask Americans what is studied in history classrooms, many will answer "facts and dates." If you ask them what people can do with a history degree, they answer "teach." Yet those same Americans acknowledge the power and practical relevance of history as they flock to national parks, historic sites, museums, and cultural…

  12. Build Skills by Doing History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monte-Sano, Chauncey

    2012-01-01

    No Child Left Behind has profoundly limited the teaching of history over the past 10 years. Now, the Common Core State Standards offers an opportunity to reverse this decline by giving history a more prominent place in the school curriculum alongside literacy goals. Learning history and argumentative writing is key to developing analytical ways of…

  13. NEWE: A Western Shoshone History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada, Reno.

    One in a series of four histories of native Nevadans, this volume relates the history of the Western Shoshone, or Newe, whose territory included parts of the Great Basin area which extends from southern California to Idaho. Based on the spoken word of tribal elders and research conducted at numerous archives, the history begins with ancient…

  14. Recasting History: The Public Option

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salerno, Beth

    2014-01-01

    If you ask Americans what is studied in history classrooms, many will answer "facts and dates." If you ask them what people can do with a history degree, they answer "teach." Yet those same Americans acknowledge the power and practical relevance of history as they flock to national parks, historic sites, museums, and cultural…

  15. A History Worth Preserving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Cynthia

    2008-04-01

    The Manhattan Project transformed the course of American and world history, science, politics and society. If we can read about this in books and watch History Channel documentaries, why do we need to preserve some of the properties of this enormous undertaking? The presentation, ``A History Worth Preserving,'' will address why some of the physical properties need to be preserved and which ones we are struggling to maintain for future generations. The story of this effort begins in 1997 as the Department of Energy was posed to demolish the last remaining Manhattan Project properties at the Los Alamos laboratory. Located deep behind security fences, the ``V Site's'' asbestos-shingled wooden buildings looked like humble garages with over-sized wooden doors. The ``V Site'' properties were almost lost twice, first to bulldozers and then the Cerro Grande fire of 2000. Now, visitors can stand inside the building where J. Robert Oppenheimer and his crew once worked and imagine the Trinity ``gadget'' hanging from its hoist shortly before it ushered in the Atomic Age on July 16, 1945. As Richard Rhodes has commented, we preserve what we value of the physical past because it specifically embodies our social past. But many challenge whether the Manhattan Project properties ought to be preserved. Rather than recognize the Manhattan Project as a great achievement worthy of commemoration, some see it as a regrettable event, producing an instrument to take man's inhumanity to man to extremes. While these divergent views will no doubt persist, the significance of the Manhattan Project in producing the world's first atomic bombs is irrefutable. Preserving some of its tangible remains is essential so that future generations can understand what the undertaking entailed from its humble wooden sheds to enormous first-of-a-kind industrial plants with 125,000 people working in secret and living in frontier-like communities. With continuing pressure for their demolition, what progress has been made in preserving some properties of the Manhattan Project? The presentation will share the handful of remaining properties that we believe are needed to tell the story of the Manhattan Project. It will share our successes, what is still at risk, and the on-going struggle to preserve this history.

  16. Climate in Earth history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, W. H.; Crowell, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Complex atmosphere-ocean-land interactions govern the climate system and its variations. During the course of Earth history, nature has performed a large number of experiments involving climatic change; the geologic record contains much information regarding these experiments. This information should result in an increased understanding of the climate system, including climatic stability and factors that perturb climate. In addition, the paleoclimatic record has been demonstrated to be useful in interpreting the origin of important resources-petroleum, natural gas, coal, phosphate deposits, and many others.

  17. Laennec: his medical history.

    PubMed Central

    Keers, R Y

    1981-01-01

    Critical study of the career of Théophile Laënnec, with particular reference to his medical history, gives cause to query the commonly accepted belief that his whole life was a constant battle against pulmonary tuberculosis. He developed respiratory symptoms almost immediately on his arrival in Paris but they were those of bronchial asthma and responded promptly and completely to a change of environment. It was only in the concluding years of his life and when he was worn out by overwork that the symptoms of tuberculosis appeared and thereafter the disease progressed rapidly to its fatal termination. PMID:7022739

  18. Atmospheric refraction: a history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehn, Waldemar H.; van der Werf, Siebren

    2005-09-01

    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of uniform density up to a sharp upper transition to the ether, at which the refraction occurred. Alhazen and Witelo transmitted his knowledge to medieval Europe. The first accurate measurements were made by Tycho Brahe in the 16th century. Finally, Kepler, who was aware of unusually strong refractions, used the Ptolemaic model to explain the first documented and recognized mirage (the Novaya Zemlya effect).

  19. [History of hip arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    P?omi?ski, Janusz; Kwiatkowski, Krzysztof

    2007-02-01

    The authors present the history of hip prosthesis in treatment of coxarthrosis. Despite eighty years of experience the problem of gaining good and long-term results still exist and is difficult to solve. Even changing the way on cementless stabilization of prosthesis doesn't has result in solving the problem of aseptic loosening of hip arthroplasty. Problems of wear derbies made the producers find new to reduce particulate debris. The future of hip arthroplasty is connected with hip resurfacing. Moreover, the higher number of primary hip plasty the more prosthesis are loosening. The treatment is far more difficult and more expensive. PMID:17598648

  20. History of ball bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowson, D.; Hamrock, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    The familiar precision rolling-element bearings of the twentieth century are products of exacting technology and sophisticated science. Their very effectiveness and basic simplicity of form may discourage further interest in their history and development. Yet the full story covers a large portion of recorded history and surprising evidence of an early recognition of the advantages of rolling motion over sliding action and progress toward the development of rolling-element bearings. The development of rolling-element bearings is followed from the earliest civilizations to the end of the eighteenth century. The influence of general technological developments, particularly those concerned with the movement of large building blocks, road transportation, instruments, water-raising equipment, and windmills are discussed, together with the emergence of studies of the nature of rolling friction and the impact of economic factors. By 1800 the essential features of ball and rolling-element bearings had emerged and it only remained for precision manufacture and mass production to confirm the value of these fascinating machine elements.

  1. History of Human Parasitology

    PubMed Central

    Cox, F. E. G.

    2002-01-01

    Humans are hosts to nearly 300 species of parasitic worms and over 70 species of protozoa, some derived from our primate ancestors and some acquired from the animals we have domesticated or come in contact with during our relatively short history on Earth. Our knowledge of parasitic infections extends into antiquity, and descriptions of parasites and parasitic infections are found in the earliest writings and have been confirmed by the finding of parasites in archaeological material. The systematic study of parasites began with the rejection of the theory of spontaneous generation and the promulgation of the germ theory. Thereafter, the history of human parasitology proceeded along two lines, the discovery of a parasite and its subsequent association with disease and the recognition of a disease and the subsequent discovery that it was caused by a parasite. This review is concerned with the major helminth and protozoan infections of humans: ascariasis, trichinosis, strongyloidiasis, dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, loasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, cestodiasis, paragonimiasis, clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, amoebiasis, giardiasis, African trypanosomiasis, South American trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, cyclosporiasis, and microsporidiosis. PMID:12364371

  2. [Pierre Janet observes history].

    PubMed

    Fischer-Homberger, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Janet, philosopher and physician, Freud's junior by three years, not only described traumatic dissociation and pathogenic subconscious ideas; he outlined a comprehensive system of psychology. Still, he considered his concepts to be mere linguistic tools, designed to grasp mental phenomena as precisely as possible. His prime interest was in observations - his own and those of others, whether his contemporaries at home and abroad or predecessors of all kinds. Janet never regarded himself as a historian, but his works as well as his way of thinking are most interesting from a historiographical point of view. His three-volume Médications psychologiques of 1919 contains a wealth of material about the history of psychotherapy. Furthermore, he dealt with his sources in a critical and historically reflexive manner. The later Janet considered any explanation and theory to be "inventions", more or less useful and basically open to change. By working with the notion of "narration", he described scientific statements as narratives, different from lies, fairy-tales or novels only in their claim to be verifiable. Every narration, however, is placed in a social context: narrators always wish to evoke a particular image of the real in their audience. Thus Janet established the link between scientific edifices and individual motivation, an unsettling link in terms of the history of science and certainly alien, if not positively abhorrent to Freud. PMID:24988805

  3. Zebra mussel life history

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, J.D.

    1995-06-01

    The success of introduced zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) and Dreissena bugensis Andrusova) can be related in large parttot a life history that is unlike that of the indigenous freshwater fauna and yet is conserved with marine bivalves. Following external fertilization and embryological development, there is a brief trochophore stage. With the development of a velum and the secretion of a D-shaped larval shell, the larva becomes a D-shaped veliger, which is the first recognizable planktonic larva. Later, the secretion of a second larval shell leads to the last obligate free-swimming veliger stage known as the veliconcha. The last larval stage known as the pediveliger, however, can both swim using its velum or crawl using its fully-functional foot. Pediveligers actively select substrates on which they {open_quotes}settle{close_quotes} by secreting byssal threads and undergo metamorphosis to become plantigrade mussels. The secretion of the adult shell and concomitant changes in growth axis leads to the heteromyariant or mussel-like shape, which is convergent with marine mussels. Like a number of other bivalves, zebra mussels produce byssal threads as adults, but these attachments may be broken enabling their translocation to new areas. The recognition and examination of these life history traits will lead to a better understanding of zebra mussel biology.

  4. The history of COSPAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willmore, Peter

    The Space Age started with the launch of Sputnik 1 in 1958, during the International Geophysical Year and at the height of the Cold War. The International Geophysical Year showed the power and spirit of which international collaboration in science was capable in a world just emerging from the Second World War, which had now become again deeply riven by the Cold War. COSPAR was born out of a determination to harness the former in spite of the latter. By the 1980's, the moderation of the Cold War meant this was no longer a reason for COSPAR's continued existence and new forms and objectives needed to be formulated. That debate has continued right until the Paris Assembly of 2004 and we now see COSPAR revitalized and, by objective measures, once more growing. This history will be reviewed from, in the early years, a rather personal viewpoint.

  5. [History of atrial fibrillation].

    PubMed

    Fazekas, T; Liszkai, G; Bielik, H; Lüderitz, B

    2003-02-01

    The authors review the history of atrial fibrillation, the most frequent clinically observed cardiac arrhythmia. A French "clinicopathologist", Jean Baptist de Sénac (1693-1770), was the first who assumed a correlation between "rebellious palpitation" and a stenosis of the mitral valve. From an analysis of simultaneously recorded arterial and venous pressure curves, the Scottish Sir James Mackenzie (1853-1925) demonstrated that a presystolic a wave cannot be seen on the jugular phlebogram during "pulsus irregularis perpetuus". The first human ECG depicting atrial fibrillation was published by Willem Einthoven (1860-1927) in 1906. The proof of a direct connection between absolute arrhythmia and auricular fibrillation was established by two Viennese physicians, Rothberger and Winterberg. The major discoveries relating to the pathomechanism and the clinical features of atrial fibrillation in the 20(th) century stemmed from the scientific activities of Karel Frederik Wenckebach, Sir Thomas Lewis, Gordon Moe, and Maurits Allessie. PMID:12596073

  6. [History of atrial fibrillation].

    PubMed

    Fazekas, Tamás; Liszkai, Gizella

    2002-02-10

    The authors review the history of atrial fibrillation, the most frequent clinically observed cardiac arrhythmia. A French "clinicopathologist", Jean Baptist de Sénac (1693-1770), was the first who assumed a correlation between "rebellious palpitation" and a stenosis of the mitral valve. From an analysis of simultaneously recorded arterial and venous pressure curves, the Scottish Sir James Mackenzie (1853-1925) demonstrated that a praesystolic a wave can not be seen on the jugular phlebogram during "pulsus irregularis perpetuus". The first human ECG depicting atrial fibrillation was published by Willem Einthoven (1860-1927) in 1906. The proof of a direct connection between absolute arrhythmia and auricular fibrillation was established by two Viennese physicians, Rothberger and Winterberg. The major discoveries relating to the pathomechanism and the clinical features of atrial fibrillation in the 20th century stemmed from the scientific activities of Karel Frederik Wenckebach, Sir Thomas Lewis, Gordon Moe and Maurits Allessie. PMID:11915187

  7. History of Presolar Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    Papers on the History of Presolar Grains. This has been a very productive period in which much of the laboratory work conducted in the previous year and during this funding cycle were brought to completion. In the last year we have published or submitted for peer review 4 research papers, 4 review papers, and 11 abstracts in research areas supported under this grant. Brief synopses of the results of the research papers are presented, followed by short summaries of the topics discussed in the review papers. Several areas of research are of course being actively pursued, and the appended list of abstracts gives citations to this ongoing work. In a paper submitted to the Astrophysical Journal, the results of an investigation into the physical conditions in the mass outflows of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) carbon stars that are required for the formation of micron-sized presolar graphite grains, with and without previously formed internal crystals of titanium carbide (TIC) are reported.

  8. History of Entomopathogenic Nematology

    PubMed Central

    Poinar, G. O.; Grewal, P. S.

    2012-01-01

    The history of entomopathogenic nematology is briefly reviewed. Topic selections include early descriptions of members of Steinernema and Heterorhabditis, how only morphology was originally used to distinguish between the species; descriptions of the symbiotic bacteria and elucidating their role in the nematode- insect complex, including antibiotic properties, phase variants, and impeding host defense responses. Other topics include early solutions regarding production, storage, field applications and the first commercial sales of entomopathogenic nematodes in North America. Later studies centered on how the nematodes locate insect hosts, their effects on non-target organisms and susceptibility of the infective juveniles to soil microbes. While the goals of early workers was to increase the efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes for pest control, the increasing use of Heterorhabditis and Photorhabdus as genetic models in molecular biology is noted. PMID:23482453

  9. Cultural history and psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Loewenberg, Peter

    2007-01-01

    There is a congruence of hermeneutic method between cultural history and psychoanalysis which includes a recognition of the subjectivity and self-reflexivity of interpretation and of the centrality of emotions in the structuring of historical motivation and action. Psychoanalysis is a humanistic discipline that offers tentative multi-causal conclusions, combining in its method both self-reflection and empiricism, but basing itself on a unique process of inquiry different from either the natural or the cultural sciences. Distinguished shapers of the historian's craft, including Dilthey, Collingwood, and Bloch, used the self as an instrument of research and insight. Freud was a cultural pessimist, as was Burckhardt whom he admired. Leading contemporary American historians, such as Williamson, foreground self-reflection as an acknowledged tool of historical discovery and cognition. The "Bauhaus," 1919-1939, is presented as a case study of creative group process utilizing Winnicott's concepts of transitional space. PMID:19780235

  10. Atmospheric refraction: a history.

    PubMed

    Lehn, Waldemar H; van der Werf, Siebren

    2005-09-20

    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of uniform density up to a sharp upper transition to the ether, at which the refraction occurred. Alhazen and Witelo transmitted his knowledge to medieval Europe. The first accurate measurements were made by Tycho Brahe in the 16th century. Finally, Kepler, who was aware of unusually strong refractions, used the Ptolemaic model to explain the first documented and recognized mirage (the Novaya Zemlya effect). PMID:16201423

  11. Some History of Nitrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnum, Dennis W.

    2003-12-01

    The history of saltpeter is an interesting combination of chemistry, world trade, technology, politics, and warfare. Originally it was obtained from the dirt floors of stables, sheep pens, pigeon houses, caverns, and even peasants' cottages; any place manure and refuse accumulated in soil under dry conditions. When these sources became inadequate to meet demand it was manufactured on saltpeter plantations, located in dry climates, where piles of dirt, limestone, and manure were allowed to stand for three to five years while soil microbes oxidized the nitrogen to nitrate—an example of early bioengineering. Extensive deposits of sodium nitrate were mined in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile from 1830 until the mid 1920s when the mines were displaced by the Haber Ostwald process.

  12. History of San Marco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caporale, A. J.

    1968-01-01

    A brief history is reported of the first San Marco project, a joint program of the United States and Italy. The Project was a three phase effort to investigate upper air density and associated ionosphere phenomena. The initial phase included the design and development of the spacecraft, the experiments, the launch complex, and a series of suborbital flights, from Wallops Island. The second phase, consisting of designing, fabricating, and testing a spacecraft for the first orbital mission, culminated in an orbital launch also from Wallops Island. The third phase consisted of further refining the experiments and spacecraft instrumentation and of establishing a full-bore scout complex in Kenya. The launch of San Marco B, in April 1967, from this complex into an equatorial orbit, concluded the initial San Marco effort.

  13. Pseudohallucinations: a conceptual history.

    PubMed

    Berrios, G E; Dening, T R

    1996-07-01

    The term 'pseudohallucination' is currently used to name imaginal experiences whose relationship to one another and to hallucinations 'proper' remains obscure. Clinicians, including specialists in psychopathology, disagree on how pseudohallucination must be defined and on its diagnostic role. Empirical research is unlikely to help as the term does not have a stable referent. Historical and conceptual analyses, on the other hand, are of great use to show how this untidy state of affairs has obtained. This paper includes a full account of the history of pseudohallucination and concludes that: (a) the problem has resulted from the fact that the history of the word, concept(s) and putative behaviour(s) failed to 'converge' (i.e. there never has been a time when the three components have formed a stable complex); (b) failure to converge has been caused by the fact that the concept of pseudohallucination is parasitical upon that of hallucination, and that the latter has proved to be far more unstable than what is usually recognized; (c) hence, pseudohallucination is a vicarious construct (i.e. one created by a temporary conceptual need, and which is not associated with a biological invariant); (d) pseudohallucination is used as the 'joker' in a poker game (i.e. made to take diagnostic values according to clinical need)- this has led to diagnostic complacency and retarded important decisions as to the nature and definition of hallucinations; and (e) the language of current descriptive psychopathology is not fine-grained enough to generate a stable frame for pseudohallucination. This suggests that its boundaries and usage will remain fuzzy and unbridled. PMID:8817710

  14. The History of Nature and the Nature of History: Stephen Jay Gould on Science, Philosophy, and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaser, Kent

    1999-01-01

    Considers Stephen Jay Gould's writings on the nature of history, specifically on the relationship between science and history. Addresses the scientific method, the foundations and procedures of historical explanation in science, history as contingency, and evolution as history. (CMK)

  15. A New History, Macrohistory, and Structure in History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Mark F.

    Toward the improvement of teaching history and to provide student insights into the study of history, a course involving structure, relevancy, an interdisciplinary approach, and innovation is suggested which advocates analyzing what has happened in the past as a whole, as revealed by the various sciences of archaeology, anthropology, paleontology,…

  16. Access to History: A News Exchange of History Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Richard H., Ed.

    This is the first issue of a newsletter for educators interested in new approaches to history teaching and learning, elementary school through graduate school. The purpose is to provide information about significant new ideas in history study, present a forum for analysis and criticism, and encourage similar analysis in existing professional…

  17. Doing Justice to History: Transforming Black History in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamud, Abdul; Whitburn, Robin

    2016-01-01

    "Doing Justice to History" challenges everyday racism in society and offers counter-stories to the singular narratives that still prevail among national historians and in school curricula. It will be a key resource for the annual Black History Month in both the UK and the US. But the book's key purpose is to argue for deeper and…

  18. Recovering our Histories: Studying Educational History through Stories and Memoirs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christou, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    History is an eminently human quest to recover human experiences and stories. Far from theoretical, the history of education can be seen as vital to the study and practice of teaching if anchored in the cultures and contexts of stories. In university Faculties of Education, the reading of stories and memoirs can lead to open-ended discussion in…

  19. Resources for History Day 1991: "Rights in History."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shabbas, Audrey

    1991-01-01

    This newsletter issue brings to students' attention some of the topics they could explore in working toward an award that the Arab World and Islamic Resources and School Services (AWAIR) organization presented to students participating in History Day 1991. The special category of the awards is Arab or Islamic history. The topics presented were not…

  20. Lessons about Art in History and History in Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Mary, Ed.; Clark, Gilbert, Ed.

    Written by teachers from the United States and Canada, these lesson plans focus on integrating the teaching of history and art history. Seventeen lesson plans cover the topics of (1) Slavery, Henry Ossawa Tanner, and His Family--Grades: Elementary; (2) Chinese Landscape Painting--Grades: Elementary; (3) Regionalism: American Art of the Great…

  1. Doing Justice to History: Transforming Black History in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamud, Abdul; Whitburn, Robin

    2016-01-01

    "Doing Justice to History" challenges everyday racism in society and offers counter-stories to the singular narratives that still prevail among national historians and in school curricula. It will be a key resource for the annual Black History Month in both the UK and the US. But the book's key purpose is to argue for deeper and…

  2. Improving History Learning through Cultural Heritage, Local History and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magro, Graça; de Carvalho, Joaquim Ramos; Marcelino, Maria José

    2014-01-01

    History learning is many times considered dull and demotivating by young students. Probably this is due because the learning process is disconnected from these students' reality and experience. One possible way to overcome this state of matters is to use technology like mobile devices with georeferencing software and local history and heritage…

  3. Longing for the Present in the History of History Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wils, Kaat; Verschaffel, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The public debates on history education that occurred in many countries over the past decades have given rise to the idea that people live in an age of "history wars". While these wars are primarily fought on a national level, they are increasingly looked at as a global phenomenon. In most cases, they are the expression of tensions between the…

  4. The Third History: Observations on the Practice of Academic History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowney, Don Karl

    1981-01-01

    Defines and explains organizational and conceptual problems encountered by practitioners of academic history today. An argument is presented for more systematic and self-conscious links between academic history and other academic disciplines that use historical data extensively. (Author/DB)

  5. Early history of selenogony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brush, Stephen G.

    Modern theories of the origin of the Moon developed from general schemes for the origin of the solar system and also from detailed analyses of the "secular acceleration" of the Moon. After William Ferrel and C. E. Delaunay had suggested that tidal forces slow the Earth's rotation so that the Moon is actually moving more slowly in her orbit, G. H. Darwin extrapolated the history of the lunar orbit back to a time when the Moon was very close to the Earth. He proposed in 1878 that fission of a previous proto-Earth had been triggered by the sun's action in resonance with free oscillations. The hypothesis that the Pacific Ocean basin is the scar left by the Moon's departure from Earth was added by Osmond Fisher. Alternative selenogonies were proposed by Edouard Roche (condensation from a circumterrestrial ring) and Thomas J. J. See (capture after formation in the outer solar system). Darwin's fission theory was rejected following criticism by Harold Jeffreys in 1930.

  6. History of animal bioacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popper, Arthur N.; Dooling, Robert J.

    2002-11-01

    The earliest studies on animal bioacoustics dealt largely with descriptions of sounds. Only later did they address issues of detection, discrimination, and categorization of complex communication sounds. This literature grew substantially over the last century. Using the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America as an example, the number of papers that fall broadly within the realm of animal sound production, communication, and hearing rose from two in the partial first decade of the journal in the 1930's, to 20 in the 1970's, to 92 in the first 2 years of this millennium. During this time there has been a great increase in the diversity of species studied, the sophistication of the methods used, and the complexity of the questions addressed. As an example, the first papers in JASA focused on a guinea pig and a bird. In contrast, since the year 2000 studies are often highly comparative and include fish, birds, dolphins, dogs, ants, crickets, and snapping shrimp. This paper on the history of animal bioacoustics will consider trends in work over the decades and discuss the formative work of a number of investigators who have spurred the field by making critical theoretical and experimental observations.

  7. The history of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Thomas M

    2006-11-01

    Tuberculosis has claimed its victims throughout much of known human history. It reached epidemic proportions in Europe and North America during the 18th and 19th centuries, earning the sobriquet, "Captain Among these Men of Death." Then it began to decline. Understanding of the pathogenesis of tuberculosis began with the work of Théophile Laennec at the beginning of the 19th century and was further advanced by the demonstration of the transmissibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection by Jean-Antoine Villemin in 1865 and the identification of the tubercle bacillus as the etiologic agent by Robert Koch in 1882. Clemens von Pirquet developed the tuberculin skin test in 1907 and 3 years later used it to demonstrate latent tuberculous infection in asymptomatic children. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries sanatoria developed for the treatment of patients with tuberculosis. The rest provided there was supplemented with pulmonary collapse procedures designed to rest infected parts of lungs and to close cavities. Public Health measures to combat the spread of tuberculosis emerged following the discovery of its bacterial cause. BCG vaccination was widely employed following World War I. The modern era of tuberculosis treatment and control was heralded by the discovery of streptomycin in 1944 and isoniazid in 1952. PMID:16949809

  8. Confabulations: a conceptual history.

    PubMed

    Berrios, G E

    1998-12-01

    Confabulations are inaccurate or false narratives purporting to convey information about world or self. It is the received view that they are uttered by subjects intent on "covering up" for a putative memory deficit. The epidemiology of confabulations is unknown. Speculated causes include amnesia, embarrassment, "frontal lobe" damage, a subtype of "personality", a dream-like event, and a disturbance of the self. Historical analysis shows that "confabulation" was constructed at the turn of the century as part of a network of concepts (e.g. delusion, fixed idea, etc.) meant to capture narratives with dubious content. This paper deals with the history of the construction of the word and concept of confabulation and with earlier recognitions of the behaviours that serve as their referent and puts forward a model based on historical data. Two phenomena are included under "confabulation": "untrue" utterances by subjects with memory impairment and "fantastic" utterances marshalled with conviction by subjects suffering from psychoses and no memory deficit. Under different disguises, the "covering up" or "gap filling" hypothesis is still going strong. Although superficially plausible, it poses problems in regards to the issue of "awareness of purpose": if full awareness is presumed then the semantics of the concept of "purpose" is severely stretched and confabulations cannot be differentiated from delusions. PMID:11623845

  9. History of magnetorheological finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Daniel C.

    2011-06-01

    Magnetorheological finishing (MRF) is a deterministic method for producing complex optics with figure accuracy <50 nm and surface roughness <1 nm. MRF was invented at the Luikov Institute of Heat and Mass Transfer in Minsk, Belarus in the late 1980s by a team led by William Kordonski. When the Soviet Union opened up, New York businessman Lowell Mintz was invited to Minsk in 1990 to explore possibilities for technology transfer. Mintz was told of the potential for MRF, but did not understand whether it had value. Mintz was referred to Harvey Pollicove at the Center for Optics Manufacturing of the University of Rochester. As a result of their conversation, they sent Prof. Steve Jacobs to visit Minsk and evaluate MRF. From Jacobs' positive findings, and with support from Lowell Mintz, Kordonski and his colleagues were invited in 1993 to work at the Center for Optics Manufacturing with Jacobs and Don Golini to refine MRF technology. A "preprototype" finishing machine was operating by 1994. Prof. Greg Forbes and doctoral student Paul Dumas developed algorithms for deterministic control of MRF. In 1996, Golini recognized the commercial potential of MRF, secured investment capital from Lowell Mintz, and founded QED Technologies. The first commercial MRF machine was unveiled in 1998. It was followed by more advanced models and by groundbreaking subaperture stitching interferometers for metrology. In 2006, QED was acquired by and became a division of Cabot Microelectronics. This paper recounts the history of the development of MRF and the founding of QED Technologies.

  10. Francis Bacon's natural history and civil history: a comparative survey.

    PubMed

    Manzo, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to offer a comparative survey of Bacon's theory and practice of natural history and of civil history, particularly centered on their relationship to natural philosophy and human philosophy. I will try to show that the obvious differences concerning their subject matter encompass a number of less obvious methodological and philosophical assumptions which reveal a significant practical and conceptual convergence of the two fields. Causes or axioms are prescribed as the theoretical end-products of natural history, whereas precepts are envisaged as the speculative outcomes derived from perfect civil history. In spite of this difference, causes and precepts are thought to enable effective action in order to change the state of nature and of man, respectively. For that reason a number of common patterns are to be found in Bacon's theory and practice of natural and civil history. PMID:22702165

  11. History of infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogalski, A.

    2012-09-01

    This paper overviews the history of infrared detector materials starting with Herschel's experiment with thermometer on February 11th, 1800. Infrared detectors are in general used to detect, image, and measure patterns of the thermal heat radiation which all objects emit. At the beginning, their development was connected with thermal detectors, such as thermocouples and bolometers, which are still used today and which are generally sensitive to all infrared wavelengths and operate at room temperature. The second kind of detectors, called the photon detectors, was mainly developed during the 20th Century to improve sensitivity and response time. These detectors have been extensively developed since the 1940's. Lead sulphide (PbS) was the first practical IR detector with sensitivity to infrared wavelengths up to ˜3 μm. After World War II infrared detector technology development was and continues to be primarily driven by military applications. Discovery of variable band gap HgCdTe ternary alloy by Lawson and co-workers in 1959 opened a new area in IR detector technology and has provided an unprecedented degree of freedom in infrared detector design. Many of these advances were transferred to IR astronomy from Departments of Defence research. Later on civilian applications of infrared technology are frequently called "dual-use technology applications." One should point out the growing utilisation of IR technologies in the civilian sphere based on the use of new materials and technologies, as well as the noticeable price decrease in these high cost technologies. In the last four decades different types of detectors are combined with electronic readouts to make detector focal plane arrays (FPAs). Development in FPA technology has revolutionized infrared imaging. Progress in integrated circuit design and fabrication techniques has resulted in continued rapid growth in the size and performance of these solid state arrays.

  12. Art History in 3-D

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Students often have a hard time equating time spent on art history as time well spent in the art room. Likewise, art teachers struggle with how to keep interest in their classrooms high when the subject turns to history. Some teachers show endless videos, with the students nodding sleepily along to the narrator. Others try to incorporate small…

  13. Weaving History through the Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, Betty

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of including the study of the history of mathematics in the education of mathematics majors have been discussed at length elsewhere. Many colleges and universities now offer a History of Mathematics course for mathematics majors, for mathematics education majors, or for general credit. At Hood College, we emphasize our commitment to…

  14. History Microcomputer Games: Update 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, James E.

    1985-01-01

    Provides full narrative reviews of B-1 Nuclear Bomber (Avalon, 1982); American History Adventure (Social Science Microcomputer Review Software, 1985); Government Simulations (Prentice-Hall, 1985); and The Great War, FDR and the New Deal, and Hitler's War, all from New Worlds Software, 1985. Lists additional information on five other history and…

  15. History of Higher Education, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    History of Higher Education, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This annual compilation offers six articles on the history of higher education. In the first article, "The Historical Matrix of American Higher Education," Roger L. Geiger provides an overview of the history of American higher education. Following it, E. D. Duryea, Jurgen Herbst, and W. Bruce Leslie comment on his hypothesis which identifies eight…

  16. Dynamic Analysis of Event Histories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuma, Nancy Brandon; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Demonstrates the value of dynamic analysis of event-history data for the sociological study of change in categorical variables. An event history records dates of events that occur for some unit of analysis (i.e., an individual's marital or employment status, or outbreaks of riots or wars). (Author/AV)

  17. The Challenge of World History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldana, Cristobal T.

    2012-01-01

    The author started teaching world history during his first year of teaching at Harlingen High School. To be given such an assignment, because of the breadth of the course, in one's first year might be considered a great misfortune. However, looking back, the author would not have preferred it any other way. World history quickly became his…

  18. The Florida Library History Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasper, Catherine; McCook, Kathleen de la Pena

    The Florida Library History Project (FLHP) began in January 1998. Letters requesting histories were sent to all public libraries in Florida with follow-up letters sent after an initial response was received from the libraries. E-mail messages were sent out to FL-LIB listservs encouraging participation in the project. A poster session was presented…

  19. Perspectives: Women in Nebraska History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Paul G., Ed.; Machacek, Rosemary, Ed.

    Seventeen essays direct attention to the lives and achievements of outstanding women in Nebraska history. Most of the women described in the essays did their major work in literature, the arts, education, or some other related human service. Only two essays are not focused on specific women--"Union Maids in Omaha Labor History, 1887-1945," which…

  20. Oral History in Louisiana Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Joel, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Theme issue shares experiences of librarians who have done oral history projects in school, parish, and university libraries throughout Louisiana. Articles cover the roles of the library and of oral history, how to begin projects, and how to involve students in the production of tapes and their organization for retrieval. (CDD)

  1. A Structural History of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nist, John

    This book combines a traditional history-of-the-language approach with modern linguistic analysis to discuss the history of English from Old English through Middle English, Early Modern English, Authoritarian English, Mature Modern English, to American English. The book begins with a discussion of the present status and structure of English. Each…

  2. The Challenge of World History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldana, Cristobal T.

    2012-01-01

    The author started teaching world history during his first year of teaching at Harlingen High School. To be given such an assignment, because of the breadth of the course, in one's first year might be considered a great misfortune. However, looking back, the author would not have preferred it any other way. World history quickly became his…

  3. NUWUVI: A Southern Paiute History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada, Reno.

    The first in a series of four histories of native Nevadans, this volume presents the story of the Southern Paiutes, or Nuwuvi. Based on interviews with tribal members and research conducted at numerous archives and record centers, the history begins with a description of the ancient culture and territory of the many Nuwuvi bands that lived,…

  4. Introduction to Media Literacy History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordac, Sarah Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    Why is it important for us to consider the history of media literacy? Beyond forging connections of the past to the present, exploring the history of the field can deepen intellectual curiosity and understanding for those who work in media literacy education, ignite interest in others, and drive investigation into understanding the relationships…

  5. Drug Use in American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliams, John C.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses drug use in U.S. history. Argues that a "get-tough" approach did not work in the past and will not work in the future. Suggests that history can provide a scholarly assessment of drugs, foster understanding of drugs in contemporary society, and enable students to evaluate drug policies more objectively. (DK)

  6. The Case for "Big History."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, David

    1991-01-01

    Urges an approach to the teaching of history that takes the largest possible perspective, crossing time as well as space. Discusses the problems and advantages of such an approach. Describes a course on "big" history that begins with time, creation myths, and astronomy, and moves on to paleontology and evolution. (DK)

  7. American Indian Standards for History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC. Office of Indian Education Programs.

    This document presents American Indian history standards that are closely aligned with the 1996 expanded edition of the U.S. national standards for history. The American Indian standards should be used in conjunction with the national standards document itself and therefore, follow the same format, organization, and language. The Indian-specific…

  8. Orphan Trains in Iowa History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frese, Millie K., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    The "Goldfinch" is a magazine that introduces children to different aspects of Iowa history. Each issue contains articles that provide in-depth knowledge of a topic about Iowa. The focus of this issue is orphan trains in Iowa it introduces readers to some of the people heroes of modern history who rode the trains west between 1854 and 1929 in…

  9. History of Higher Education: Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harada, Myra

    This paper reviews the history of undergraduate curriculum in the United States from the colonial period to the present, arguing that the drive for utility has been the main force shaping curricular trends. It discusses the purpose of early colonial colleges and their curricula, which emphasized Latin, Greek, Hebrew, ancient history, theology,…

  10. Art History in 3-D

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Students often have a hard time equating time spent on art history as time well spent in the art room. Likewise, art teachers struggle with how to keep interest in their classrooms high when the subject turns to history. Some teachers show endless videos, with the students nodding sleepily along to the narrator. Others try to incorporate small…

  11. Teaching Irish History through Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Raymond J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes and evaluates a course dealing with Irish history presented through closed-circuit television at the University of Connecticut (Storrs). Explores the use of televised instruction as a means of teaching history to undergraduates. Reports that this approach, supplemented by a live interactive component, was deemed successful by students…

  12. History Microcomputer Games: Update 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, James E.

    1985-01-01

    Provides full narrative reviews of B-1 Nuclear Bomber (Avalon, 1982); American History Adventure (Social Science Microcomputer Review Software, 1985); Government Simulations (Prentice-Hall, 1985); and The Great War, FDR and the New Deal, and Hitler's War, all from New Worlds Software, 1985. Lists additional information on five other history and…

  13. American Educational History Journal, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watras, Joseph, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This 2001 annual publication contains 31 articles on topics germane to the history of education. Each year, this journal publishes papers presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest History of Education Society. After the "Introduction" (R. J. Taggart) articles in this year's issue are: "Origins of the American Federation of Teachers: Issues…

  14. NUWUVI: A Southern Paiute History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada, Reno.

    The first in a series of four histories of native Nevadans, this volume presents the story of the Southern Paiutes, or Nuwuvi. Based on interviews with tribal members and research conducted at numerous archives and record centers, the history begins with a description of the ancient culture and territory of the many Nuwuvi bands that lived,…

  15. Weaving History through the Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, Betty

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of including the study of the history of mathematics in the education of mathematics majors have been discussed at length elsewhere. Many colleges and universities now offer a History of Mathematics course for mathematics majors, for mathematics education majors, or for general credit. At Hood College, we emphasize our commitment to…

  16. History Sources on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Kenneth D.

    This paper provides descriptions of key online history resources useful to teachers, librarians, and other education professionals. Highlights include: primary sources on the Internet; archives; Online Public Access Catalogs (OPACs); the American Historical Association (AHA) Web site; state and federal government resources; business history…

  17. Teaching Social History: An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stearns, Peter N.

    The bulk of the most innovative and widely noted research over the past 20 years has fallen into the category of social history. It adds a list of new topics to the understanding of the past and a sense of excitement that traditional history instruction lacks. It has the potential of bringing a wider range of students toward an interest in…

  18. History of American Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Margaret Cain

    2011-01-01

    "History of American Higher Education" documents the fascinating evolution of American colleges and universities, touching on the historical events that shaped them, from the colonial era through the early twenty-first century. Throughout history, higher education has played an important role in the transmission of cultural identity from one…

  19. Rhetorical Histories and Arms Negotiations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    Argues that the use of historical events as rhetorical artifacts has sustained cold war assumptions and attitudes; that rhetorical events provide composites for rhetorical histories which become the basis for argumentative appeals; and that these rhetorical histories continue to permeate American diplomacy in general and arms negotiations in…

  20. Celebration Time: Black History Month

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkney, Andrea Davis

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, more students, teachers, and librarians are aware of African-American History Month and try to give it greater attention. However, the author questions herself if people do really "celebrate" African-American History Month or is it just something folks feel obligated to do, so they "celebrate" by displaying a collection of books about…

  1. Anthropometric History: What Is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komlos, John

    1992-01-01

    Describes the contributions of anthropometric history to the understanding of standards of living in the past. Defines anthropometric history as a methodology that uses body height as a proxy measure for economic variables determining how well the human organism thrives in its socioeconomic environment. Suggests that anthropometric methodology…

  2. The Genius of Montessori History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Larry

    2000-01-01

    This article focuses on Maria Montessori's pedagogy of history. Part one traces the development of Montessori's thoughts on the pedagogy of the past, and parts two and three are meditations on "cosmic history": one on creation and the creation story and the other on time and timelines. (KB)

  3. World History Textbooks: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewall, Gilbert T.

    2004-01-01

    This world history review examines standard textbooks used between the sixth and twelfth grades in schools across the nation. These established textbooks dominate the field and set the pitch for new and forthcoming volumes. The 2002 Texas history textbook adoption and the California list have influenced what textbooks will dominate the national…

  4. History's Purpose in Antebellum Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInnis, Edward Cromwell

    2012-01-01

    Many scholars have argued that history education during the antebellum period in the United States supported conservative values and sought to produce close-minded citizens. History textbooks of that era, they frequently posit, cast Americans as God's chosen people and present the past in a style that reaffirms established social conventions. Ruth…

  5. Anthropometric History: What Is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komlos, John

    1992-01-01

    Describes the contributions of anthropometric history to the understanding of standards of living in the past. Defines anthropometric history as a methodology that uses body height as a proxy measure for economic variables determining how well the human organism thrives in its socioeconomic environment. Suggests that anthropometric methodology…

  6. The history of African trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Steverding, Dietmar

    2008-01-01

    The prehistory of African trypanosomiasis indicates that the disease may have been an important selective factor in the evolution of hominids. Ancient history and medieval history reveal that African trypanosomiasis affected the lives of people living in sub-Saharan African at all times. Modern history of African trypanosomiasis revolves around the identification of the causative agents and the mode of transmission of the infection, and the development of drugs for treatment and methods for control of the disease. From the recent history of sleeping sickness we can learn that the disease can be controlled but probably not be eradicated. Current history of human African trypanosomiasis has shown that the production of anti-sleeping sickness drugs is not always guaranteed, and therefore, new, better and cheaper drugs are urgently required. PMID:18275594

  7. Danish auroral science history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauning, P.

    2011-01-01

    Danish auroral science history begins with the early auroral observations made by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe during the years from 1582 to 1601 preceding the Maunder minimum in solar activity. Included are also the brilliant observations made by another astronomer, Ole Rømer, from Copenhagen in 1707, as well as the early auroral observations made from Greenland by missionaries during the 18th and 19th centuries. The relations between auroras and geomagnetic variations were analysed by H. C. Ørsted, who also played a vital role in the development of Danish meteorology that came to include comprehensive auroral observations from Denmark, Iceland and Greenland as well as auroral and geomagnetic research. The very important auroral investigations made by Sophus Tromholt are outlined. His analysis from 1880 of auroral observations from Greenland prepared for the significant contributions from the Danish Meteorological Institute, DMI, (founded in 1872) to the first International Polar Year 1882/83, where an expedition headed by Adam Paulsen was sent to Greenland to conduct auroral and geomagnetic observations. Paulsen's analyses of the collected data gave many important results but also raised many new questions that gave rise to auroral expeditions to Iceland in 1899 to 1900 and to Finland in 1900 to 1901. Among the results from these expeditions were 26 unique paintings of the auroras made by the artist painter, Harald Moltke. The expedition to Finland was headed by Dan la Cour, who later as director of the DMI came to be in charge of the comprehensive international geomagnetic and auroral observations made during the Second International Polar Year in 1932/33. Finally, the article describes the important investigations made by Knud Lassen during, among others, the International Geophysical Year 1957/58 and during the International Quiet Sun Year (IQSY) in 1964/65. With his leadership the auroral and geomagnetic research at DMI reached a high international level that came to be the background for the first Danish satellite, Ørsted, successfully launched in 1999 and still in operation.

  8. California earthquake history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toppozada, T.; Branum, D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the advancement in our knowledge of California's earthquake history since ??? 1800, and especially during the last 30 years. We first review the basic statewide research on earthquake occurrences that was published from 1928 through 2002, to show how the current catalogs and their levels of completeness have evolved with time. Then we review some of the significant new results in specific regions of California, and some of what remains to be done. Since 1850, 167 potentially damaging earthquakes of M ??? 6 or larger have been identified in California and its border regions, indicating an average rate of 1.1 such events per year. Table I lists the earthquakes of M ??? 6 to 6.5 that were also destructive since 1812 in California and its border regions, indicating an average rate of one such event every ??? 5 years. Many of these occurred before 1932 when epicenters and magnitudes started to be determined routinely using seismographs in California. The number of these early earthquakes is probably incomplete in sparsely populated remote parts of California before ??? 1870. For example, 6 of the 7 pre-1873 events in table I are of M ??? 7, suggesting that other earthquakes of M 6.5 to 6.9 occurred but were not properly identified, or were not destructive. The epicenters and magnitudes (M) of the pre-instrumental earthquakes were determined from isoseismal maps that were based on the Modified Mercalli Intensity of shaking (MMI) at the communities that reported feeling the earthquakes. The epicenters were estimated to be in the regions of most intense shaking, and values of M were estimated from the extent of the areas shaken at various MMI levels. MMI VII or greater shaking is the threshold of damage to weak buildings. Certain areas in the regions of Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Eureka were each shaken repeatedly at MMI VII or greater at least six times since ??? 1812, as depicted by Toppozada and Branum (2002, fig. 19).

  9. History Untold: Celebrating Ohio History Through ABLE Students. Ohio History Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent State Univ., OH. Ohio Literacy Resource Center.

    This document is a compilation of 33 pieces of writing presenting Ohio adult basic and literacy education (ABLE) students' perspectives of community and personal history. The items included in the compilation were written by ABLE students across Ohio in celebration of Ohio History Day. The compilation is organized in five sections as follows: (1)…

  10. Quantum transitions between classical histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartle, James; Hertog, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    In a quantum theory of gravity spacetime behaves classically when quantum probabilities are high for histories of geometry and field that are correlated in time by the Einstein equation. Probabilities follow from the quantum state. This quantum perspective on classicality has important implications. (a) Classical histories are generally available only in limited patches of the configuration space on which the state lives. (b) In a given patch, states generally predict relative probabilities for an ensemble of possible classical histories. (c) In between patches classical predictability breaks down and is replaced by quantum evolution connecting classical histories in different patches. (d) Classical predictability can break down on scales well below the Planck scale, and with no breakdown in the classical equations of motion. We support and illustrate (a)-(d) by calculating the quantum transition across the de Sitter-like throat connecting asymptotically classical, inflating histories in the no-boundary quantum state. This supplies probabilities for how a classical history on one side transitions and branches into a range of classical histories on the opposite side. We also comment on the implications of (a)-(d) for the dynamics of black holes and eternal inflation.

  11. History, Medicine, and Culture: History for Science Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balog, C. Edward

    1980-01-01

    Describes college level history course entitled "Healers and Persons" for undergraduate medicine students. Topics include Greek medicine and Hippocrates, Galen of Pergamum, Islamic and Roman culture, medieval medicine, the Renaissance, Harvey, Pasteur, Lister, and Mendel. (KC)

  12. [The history of medicine and the history of public health].

    PubMed

    Nosko, J

    1997-01-01

    The paper reports on the new phenomena which have occurred in the Western countries during recent three decades. The main stress has been put on the principles of methodology and the scope of the research involved in so-called social history of medicine, taking the U.S.A., France and Germany as the example. Research scope and methodological approach to the history of public health has been also discussed, using as an example G. Rosen's A History of Public Health and E. Fee's remarks on the work contained in its second (extended) edition. It has been concluded that the research workers dealing with the Polish history of medicine ought to assimilate the results of both research trends quoted above. PMID:11625426

  13. Organizing the History of Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misa, Thomas J.

    This paper tries to distill some of the ‘lessons learned’ from the Charles Babbage Institute’s quarter-century experience (1980-present) in organizing the history of computing. It draws on the author’s (recent) experience as CBI director; conversations with Arthur Norberg, CBI’s long-time founding director; and papers delivered at a special symposium appraising CBI’s role in computing history, which appeared in the IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 29 no. 4 (October-December 2007).

  14. [History of tracheotomy].

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Jurek; Mi?o?ski, Jaros?aw

    2007-01-01

    The present notion - tracheotomy, originates from the Latin words trachea - windpipe, which comes from the combination of Latin "tracheia" and Greek "arteria" indicating an uneven road, and "tome" - cut. Procedures of pharyngotomy have a long-lasting history. First similar operations were found on the ancient Egyptian clay tablets dating back to 3600 BC. Mentions of pharyngotomy operations were found in the papyrus called Ebers's Papyrus dating back to about 1550 BC, which can obviously be treated as an encyclopaedia of the medical knowledge that the ancient Egyptians possessed. Guidelines for the person performing pharyngotomy were described in Rig Veda - the holy scriptures of Hindi medicine, about 2000 BC. Asclepiads of Prussia in Bithynia (124-156 BC), a Greek physician practising in Rome, is commonly considered the father of pharyngotomy. In the 1st century BC he documented an operation similar to pharyngotomy. Procedures similar to pharyngotomy were conducted by Claudius Galenus of Pergamon (about 130-200 AD) who was treating gladiators at the beginning of his medical career. A precise description of the technique in pharyngotomy performed by the method adopted from Antilla (3rd century AD) was presented by Paulos Aeginata (625-690 AD), whereas in modern times the first surgical pharyngotomy was performed by Antonio Brasavola (1490-1554) in 1546. In those times pharyngotomy operations were applied as life saving procedures and were associated with a desperate fight for life. The best example is given by Sanctorio Santorius (1561-1636) who pierced the trachea lumen with a trocar. All the experiences connected with the pharyngotomy technique were collected by Lorenz Heister (1683-1758) and published in his work "Surgery" in 1716. Until the end of 18th century the work finally established views about performing pharyngotomy operations. In 1856 Eugeniusz Bonchut conducted the first pharyngotomy in a child with passing an intubation tube into the trachea lumen. The operation was performed according to theoretical assumptions by Armando Trausseau (1801-1867), whose contributions to emergency pharyngotomy methods are enormous. Finally, at the beginning of the 20th century Chevalier Jackson (1865-1958) set principles for surgical techniques in pharyngotomy that still remain in force. The return to Sanctorius's method and also adaptation of Selinger's method (1953) of cannulation of blood vessels turned out to be fundamental for the further development of transdermal pharyngotomy. The first set for multistage, dilatation pharyngotomy was provided by P. Ciaglia et al. in 1985. A one-stage pharyngotomy by special forceps was described by W. M. Griggs et al. in 1990. A technique of transdermal pharyngotomy from inside the trachea was presented in 1995 by A. Fantoni with his group. Modern methods of transdermal pharyngotomy are good complementary techniques for classical methods of pharyngotomy in both emergency and chronic cases. PMID:17847797

  15. Diet History Questionnaire: Suggested Citations

    Cancer.gov

    Use of the Diet History Questionnaire and Diet*Calc Analysis Software for publication purposes should contain a citation which includes version information for the software, questionnaire, and nutrient database.

  16. Australian History and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Theo; Maddox, Graham

    1970-01-01

    There has been extraordinary growth of activities of local Historical Societies in Australia. The weekend adult education school is a most useful vehicle to harness the energy of people who undertake the gathering and recording of local history. (DM)

  17. Child Labor in America's History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Harold

    1976-01-01

    A brief history of child labor and the fight for legislation to control it at both the state and federal level. The current legal status and the continued existence of child labor in modern times are also discussed. (MS)

  18. Wire Jewelry/Black History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Robert A.; Robinson, Charles C.

    1984-01-01

    Described is a project which made the study of Black history more real to fifth graders by having them make wire jewelry, smaller versions of the ornate filigreed ironwork produced by slave blacksmiths. (RM)

  19. A Short History of Contraception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Janet J.

    1973-01-01

    Outlines the history of contraception, tracing the development of contraceptive methods from those used in primitive societies to the most recent techniques made available by medical science. Also describes the activities of the pioneers who have popularized birth control. (JR)

  20. A philatelic history of anesthesiology

    PubMed Central

    Sekhar, K C

    2013-01-01

    Thematic or topical philately deals with stamp collection based on a particular topic or theme. This article deals with a thematic depiction of the history of anesthesia from ancient to modern times using stamps, postal stationery and cancellations. PMID:23492850

  1. Diet History Questionnaire: International Applications

    Cancer.gov

    ARP staff adapted the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) for use by Canadian populations in collaboration with the Alberta Cancer Board. This questionnaire takes into account the different food fortification polices of the U.S. and Canada.

  2. Commission 41: History of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive; Kochhar, Rajesh; Il-Seong, Nha; Belmonte, Juan; Corbin, Brenda; de Jong, Teije; Norris, Ray; Pigatto, Luisa; Soma, Mitsuru; Sterken, Chris; Xiaochun, Sun

    2012-04-01

    Commission 41 was created at the VIIth IAU General Assembly in Zürich in 1948. From an inauspicious start-Otto Neugebauer was appointed the first President in his absence, but proceeded to express his conviction that ``an international organization in the history of astronomy has no positive function. . .my only activity during my term of service consisted in iterated attempts to resign''-the Commission quickly assumed a key role in the international development of the history of astronomy as an academic discipline.

  3. [The practice of research in history].

    PubMed

    Poisson, Michel

    2013-11-01

    History is a discipline whose research methods present similarities with those of other human and social sciences, with certain specificities. The nursing profession can use these methods to showcase its history and the history of nursing care. PMID:24409625

  4. The history of neuromyelitis optica

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of a novel serum autoantibody (termed NMO-IgG or AQP4-Ab) in a subset of patients in 2004 has revived interest in neuromyelitis optica (NMO). While the history of classical multiple sclerosis has been extensively studied, only little is known about the history of NMO. In the present article, we provide a comprehensive review of the early history of this rare but intriguing syndrome. We trace the origins of the concept of NMO in the 19th century medical literature and follow its evolution throughout the 20th and into the 21st century. Finally, we discuss recent proposals to revise the concept of NMO and explain why there is indeed a need for a more systematic and descriptive nomenclature. PMID:23320783

  5. The history of psychological categories.

    PubMed

    Smith, Roger

    2005-03-01

    Psychological terms, such as 'mind', 'memory', 'emotion' and indeed 'psychology' itself, have a history. This history, I argue, supports the view that basic psychological categories refer to historical and social entities, and not to 'natural kinds'. The case is argued through a wide ranging review of the historiography of western psychology, first, in connection with the field's extreme modern diversity; second, in relation to the possible antecedents of the field in the early modern period; and lastly, through a brief introduction to usage of the words 'soul', 'mind', 'memory' and 'emotion'. The discussion situates the history of psychology within a large historical context, questions assumptions about the continuity of meaning, and draws out implications for the philosophical and social constitution of 'psychology' and 'the psychological' from the existing literature. The historical evidence, this paper concludes, does not support the conventional presumption that modern psychological terms describe 'natural kinds'. PMID:16120260

  6. Tradeoffs in bacteriophage life histories

    PubMed Central

    Keen, Eric C

    2014-01-01

    Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on the planet, yet most classical principles of evolutionary biology and ecology were not developed with viruses in mind. Here, the concept of biological tradeoffs, a fundamental tenet of life history theory, is examined in the context of bacteriophage biology. Specifically, several important parameters of phage life histories—replication, persistence, host range, and adsorption—are evaluated for tradeoffs. Available data indicate that replication rate is strongly negatively correlated with both persistence and host range, suggesting that the well-documented tradeoff in macroorganisms between offspring production and offspring quality also applies to phages. The biological tradeoffs that appear to characterize viruses’ life histories have potential importance for viral evolution, ecology, and pathogenesis. PMID:24616839

  7. Defining History for Library Statistics, or Everything Has a History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchens, Joel D.; Mosley, Pixey Anne; Marner, Jonathan C.; Highsmith, Anne L.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study that measured the subject area and call number correspondence for the discipline of history at the Texas A&M University libraries. Considers the rise in interdisciplinary scholarship that challenges the frequent assumption that a correlation exists between topicality and call number range for collection management decisions.…

  8. Trade and Industry in History. National History Day, 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Womack, Miriam L.; And Others

    Presented are winning essays written by junior and senior high school students for the historical paper category of the 1982 National History Day program contest. This unique program encourages young people to explore a historical subject related to a specific theme. The winning papers, responding to the 1982 theme of trade and industry in…

  9. History and Quasi-History in Physics Education - Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, M. A. B.

    1979-01-01

    Examines how quasi-history, by eliminating the social dimension, distorts its description of major scientific advances in one of two distinct ways; either almost trivial or almost mystical. Uses two examples, Einstein's theory of the photoelectric effect and Planck's discovery of his law. (GA)

  10. Curriculum History, Schooling and the History of the Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popkewitz, Thomas S.

    2011-01-01

    The essay focuses on curriculum history as the study of systems of reason. The first section considers curriculum as "converting ordinances", inscribing Puritan notions of education as evangelizing and calculating designs in American Progressive education. The second section examines the Social Question, a cross-Atlantic Protestant reformist…

  11. Curriculum History, Schooling and the History of the Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popkewitz, Thomas S.

    2011-01-01

    The essay focuses on curriculum history as the study of systems of reason. The first section considers curriculum as "converting ordinances", inscribing Puritan notions of education as evangelizing and calculating designs in American Progressive education. The second section examines the Social Question, a cross-Atlantic Protestant reformist…

  12. History Untold: Celebrating Ohio History through ABLE Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent State Univ., OH. Ohio Literacy Resource Center.

    This document is a compilation of 25 pieces of writing presenting Ohio adult basic and literacy education (ABLE) students' perspectives of community and personal history. The items included in the compilation were written by ABLE students across Ohio. The compilation is organized in three sections as follows: (1) people (9 items, including a…

  13. Revolution, Reaction, Reform in History. National History Day 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Beatriz, Ed.; Gorn, Cathy, Ed.

    National History Day, a year-long educational program, fosters academic achievement and intellectual growth. In addition to acquiring historical knowledge and perspective while developing entries and competing in a series of district, state, and national contests, students develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills that help them manage…

  14. History without time: Buffon's natural history as a nonmathematical physique.

    PubMed

    Hoquet, Thierry

    2010-03-01

    While "natural history" is practically synonymous with the name of Buffon, the term itself has been otherwise overlooked by historians of science. This essay attempts to address this omission by investigating the meanings of "physique," "natural philosophy," and "history," among other terms, with the purpose of understanding Buffon's actual objectives. It also shows that Buffon never claimed to be a Newtonian and should not be considered as such; the goal is to provide a historical analysis that resituates Buffon's thought within his own era. This is done, primarily, by eschewing the often-studied question of time in Buffon. Instead, this study examines the nontemporal meanings of the word "history" within the naturalist's theory and method. The title of his Natural History is examined both as an indicator of the kind of science that Buffon was hoping to achieve and as a source of great misinterpretation among his peers. Unlike Buffon, many of his contemporaries actually envisioned the study of nature from a Baconian perspective where history was restricted to the mere collection of facts and where philosophy, which was the implicit and ultimate goal of studying nature, was seen, at least for the present, as unrealizable. Buffon confronts this tendency insofar as his Histoire naturelle claims to be the real physique that, along with describing nature, also sought to identify general laws and provide clear insight into what true knowledge of nature is or should be. According to Buffon, history (both natural and civil) is not analogous to mathematics; it is a nonmathematical method whose scope encompasses both nature and society. This methodological stance gives rise to the "physicization" of certain moral concepts--a gesture that was interpreted by his contemporaries as Epicurean and atheist. In addition, Buffon reduces a number of metaphysically tainted historical concepts (e.g., antediluvian monuments) to objects of physical analysis, thereby confronting the very foundation of natural theology. In Buffon, as this essay makes clear, natural history is paving the way for a new physique (science of natural beings), independent from mathematics and from God, that treats naturalia in a philosophical and "historical" manner that is not necessarily "temporal." PMID:20575489

  15. History of manned space flight

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.

    1981-01-01

    This book is the history of all the great moments of failure, tension, drama, euphoria, and success that characterized the beginning of man's adventure in space. It covers the technology and scientific knowledge, the vision, the politics, and the dedication of all those involved in the space program. One chapter is devoted to the experiments and observations of the astronauts as they explored the moon. An integral part of the history of space exploration is the race between Russia and the US to establish man in space. This is included. The book vividly portrays the experiences of the astronauts from Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and the Apollo-Soyuz missions. (SC)

  16. The history of space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Martin J.; Kraemer, Sylvia K.

    1994-01-01

    Presented are the acknowledgements and introduction sections of the book 'Space: Discovery and Exploration.' The goal of the book is to address some basic questions of American space history, including how this history compares with previous eras of exploration, why the space program was initiated when it was, and how the U.S. space program developed. In pursuing these questions, the intention is not to provide exhaustive answers, but to point the reader toward a more varied picture of how our venture in space has intersected with American government, politics, business, and science.

  17. Why history matters to nursing.

    PubMed

    Holme, Annie

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposes that poor knowledge and understanding of the history of nursing particularly in the UK influences the media and public analysis of nursing practice. Comparing reports of current poor practice with a 'golden age' of nursing in the past undermines public confidence in today's nursing and nurse education and has the potential to lead to simplistic and flawed policy decisions in response. The lack of detailed knowledge of past nursing practice, experience and values suggests the need for more historical research in this field. A greater critical understanding of nursing history could strengthen and enrich nursing identity and further develop critical thinking skills in nursing students. PMID:25729009

  18. Pyschodermatology: a trip through history*

    PubMed Central

    França, Katlein; Chacon, Anna; Ledon, Jennifer; Savas, Jessica; Nouri, Keyvan

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between the mind and diseases of the skin has been the study focus for many researchers worldwide. The field of Psychodermatology, or Psychocutaneous Medicine, is the result of the merging of two major medical specialties, psychiatry and dermatology. Although the history of Psychodermatology is rather old and interesting, the field has only recently gained popularity. Since ancient times, philosophers, surgeons, dermatologists and psychiatrists have reported the presence of psychocutaneous diseases in various scenarios. In this article, the authors describe curious and remarkable facts in the history of Psychodermatology. PMID:24173201

  19. Pyschodermatology: a trip through history.

    PubMed

    França, Katlein; Chacon, Anna; Ledon, Jennifer; Savas, Jessica; Nouri, Keyvan

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between the mind and diseases of the skin has been the study focus for many researchers worldwide. The field of Psychodermatology, or Psychocutaneous Medicine, is the result of the merging of two major medical specialties, psychiatry and dermatology. Although the history of Psychodermatology is rather old and interesting, the field has only recently gained popularity. Since ancient times, philosophers, surgeons, dermatologists and psychiatrists have reported the presence of psychocutaneous diseases in various scenarios. In this article, the authors describe curious and remarkable facts in the history of Psychodermatology. PMID:24173201

  20. History of electroweak symmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibble, T. W. B.

    2015-07-01

    In this talk, I recall the history of the development of the unified electroweak theory, incorporating the symmetry-breaking Higgs mechanism, as I saw it from my standpoint as a member of Abdus Salam's group at Imperial College. I start by describing the state of physics in the years after the Second World War, explain how the goal of a unified gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions emerged, the obstacles encountered, in particular the Goldstone theorem, and how they were overcome, followed by a brief account of more recent history, culminating in the historic discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012.

  1. Resources for Teaching with Computers in History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiter, David M.

    1988-01-01

    Highlights seven resources for teaching history with computers. Titles include "Technology and the Social Studies: A Vision"; "Using Databases in History Teaching"; "Computers and Database Management in the History Curriculum"; "Social Studies. Microsoft Courseware Evaluations"; "Teaching Comparative Local History: Upper Mississippi River Towns";…

  2. Women and History: Outside the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Mimi

    2007-01-01

    The active participation of women in the field of American history dates back to the earliest writings on the subject. The rich and long history of women writing, teaching and researching in the field of American History, however, is obscured by narrow disciplinary definitions of what actually counts as history and who is qualified to represent…

  3. History Through Biography? A Conceptual Research Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Robert W.

    Social studies classroom teachers can enliven high school history courses and motivate students to learn about history by using dramatic or heroic biographies in teaching history. The biographical approach centers on study of the lives, beliefs, and surroundings of historical actors. This approach differs from the "great man" theory of history in…

  4. Women and History: Outside the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Mimi

    2007-01-01

    The active participation of women in the field of American history dates back to the earliest writings on the subject. The rich and long history of women writing, teaching and researching in the field of American History, however, is obscured by narrow disciplinary definitions of what actually counts as history and who is qualified to represent…

  5. Developing Oral History in Chinese Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Songhui, Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Compared with oral history in most Western countries, oral history theory and practice in Mainland China lag behind in both study and practice. This paper outlines the experience of oral history work in the Shantou university library, and the types and features of the oral history collected by the library. It examines problems in the development…

  6. History Through Biography? A Conceptual Research Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Robert W.

    Social studies classroom teachers can enliven high school history courses and motivate students to learn about history by using dramatic or heroic biographies in teaching history. The biographical approach centers on study of the lives, beliefs, and surroundings of historical actors. This approach differs from the "great man" theory of history in…

  7. Between History and Apocalypse: Stumbling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalu, Premesh

    2016-01-01

    Apartheid rested on a division of the senses as much as it did on a reductive politics of racial subjection and its accompanying violence. As an instance of the division of the senses, it produced a condition of stasis in which history and a post-apartheid future were increasingly marked by a politico-religious discourse of apocalypse, and a moral…

  8. Using Wikis to Experience History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Vance Scott

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is an action research study examining the use of technology to encourage critical thinking and digital literacy in a community college history class. The students are responsible for researching course material and teaching the class. They then use a wiki to contribute to and edit an interactive, online textbook that has been…

  9. The Farm in American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shideler, James H.

    1991-01-01

    Explores the family farm as an economic institution and cultural symbol in U.S. history. Explains how farms worked as economic units. Contrasts the idyllic family farm against realities of business failures and family problems. Examines the family farm's role in shaping the U.S. character and asks what its essential demise will mean. (CH)

  10. Columbus 500: History's Other Voice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yolen, Jane

    1992-01-01

    A children's book author explains why she chose to write "Encounter," an accurate story of Christopher Columbus's first meeting with the gentle Taino tribe 500 years ago. The article presents suggestions for using "Encounter" as a springboard for activities to help elementary students interpret history. (SM)

  11. Genocide in World History Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Dan

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes the treatment of genocide in secondary world history textbooks. Acknowledges that textbook space is limited, but argues that all should contain some reference to the subject. Concludes that the Armenian genocide, as well as the genocidal acts of Hitler, Stalin, and Mao Tse-tung should be presented in all survey texts. (GEA)

  12. Guide to Sources: American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Thomas H., Comp.

    Designed to introduce students to some of the basic bibliographic tools in American history available in the Fogler Library at the University of Maine, this guide begins by listing examples of relevant Library of Congress Subject Headings and providing brief explanations of the call numbers and classification systems (Library of Congress and Dewey…

  13. A Bibliography for Chicano History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Matt S.; Rivera, Feliciano

    The principal objective of this bibliography is to provide the beginning student in Chicano history a selective list of items useful to understanding each of the major historical periods from the Mexican American's origins to the present day. The bibliography is arranged chronologically to include: books; some Federal, state, and local…

  14. Living History: Clark M. Blatteis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quan, Ning

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the American Physiological Society (APS) initiated the Living History Project to recognize senior members who have made extraordinary contributions during their career to the advancement of the discipline and profession of physiology. During 2007, the APS Section of Environmental and Exercise Physiology selected Clark M. Blatteis to be…

  15. Living History: Elsworth R. Buskirk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipton, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the American Physiological Society (APS) initiated the Living History of Physiology Archival Program to recognize senior members who have made significant contributions during their career to the advancement of the discipline and the profession of physiology. Subsequently, the leadership of the APS Section of Environmental and Exercise…

  16. The history of the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    2010-05-11

    Abstract: From the civil engineering, to the manufacturing of the various magnet types, each building block of this extraordinary machine required ambitious leaps in innovation. This lecture will review the history of the LHC project, focusing on the many challenges -- scientific, technological, managerial -- that had to be met during the various phases of R&D;, industrialization, construction, installation and commissioning.

  17. Modelling river history and evolution.

    PubMed

    Coulthard, T J; Van de Wiel, M J

    2012-05-13

    Over the last few decades, a suite of numerical models has been developed for studying river history and evolution that is almost as diverse as the subject of river history itself. A distinction can be made between landscape evolution models (LEMs), alluvial architecture models, meander models, cellular models and computational fluid dynamics models. Although these models share some similarities, there also are notable differences between them, which make them more or less suitable for simulating particular aspects of river history and evolution. LEMs embrace entire drainage basins at the price of detail; alluvial architecture models simulate sedimentary facies but oversimplify flow characteristics; and computational fluid dynamics models have to assume a fixed channel form. While all these models have helped us to predict erosion and depositional processes as well as fluvial landscape evolution, some areas of prediction are likely to remain limited and short-term owing to the often nonlinear response of fluvial systems. Nevertheless, progress in model algorithms, computing and field data capture will lead to greater integration between these approaches and thus the ability to interpret river history more comprehensively. PMID:22474678

  18. A Treasure Hunt through History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frese, Millie K., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    The "Goldfinch" is a magazine that introduces young children to different aspects of Iowa history. Each issue contains articles to provide in-depth knowledge about Iowa. The theme of this issue is searching through historical sources, such as letters, diaries, manuscripts, newspapers, clothing, old buildings, time capsules, statistics, and…

  19. Used planet: a global history.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Erle C; Kaplan, Jed O; Fuller, Dorian Q; Vavrus, Steve; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Verburg, Peter H

    2013-05-14

    Human use of land has transformed ecosystem pattern and process across most of the terrestrial biosphere, a global change often described as historically recent and potentially catastrophic for both humanity and the biosphere. Interdisciplinary paleoecological, archaeological, and historical studies challenge this view, indicating that land use has been extensive and sustained for millennia in some regions and that recent trends may represent as much a recovery as an acceleration. Here we synthesize recent scientific evidence and theory on the emergence, history, and future of land use as a process transforming the Earth System and use this to explain why relatively small human populations likely caused widespread and profound ecological changes more than 3,000 y ago, whereas the largest and wealthiest human populations in history are using less arable land per person every decade. Contrasting two spatially explicit global reconstructions of land-use history shows that reconstructions incorporating adaptive changes in land-use systems over time, including land-use intensification, offer a more spatially detailed and plausible assessment of our planet's history, with a biosphere and perhaps even climate long ago affected by humans. Although land-use processes are now shifting rapidly from historical patterns in both type and scale, integrative global land-use models that incorporate dynamic adaptations in human-environment relationships help to advance our understanding of both past and future land-use changes, including their sustainability and potential global effects. PMID:23630271

  20. Internationalizing the American History Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paquette, William

    New programs promoting global or international education have been started all over the country. At Tidewater Community College (TCC) in Virginia, efforts to add an international dimension to the curriculum began in 1988, when 20 faculty members from the disciplines of psychology, sociology, economics, mathematics, history, English, and business…

  1. History of School of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Wanda Eileen; Kosub, Mariann

    2006-01-01

    The history of the Bowie State University School of Education is traced from very humble beginnings in 1865 with its formation to provide teachers for Freedmen following the Civil War to a School of Education in a comprehensive university. Maryland Archives, student publications, college catalogues, legislative and other records were searched to…

  2. A Bibliography for Chicano History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Matt S.; Rivera, Feliciano

    The principal objective of this bibliography is to provide the beginning student in Chicano history a selective list of items useful to understanding each of the major historical periods from the Mexican American's origins to the present day. The bibliography is arranged chronologically to include: books; some Federal, state, and local…

  3. World History. Focus on Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Jean; Clark, James; Herscher, Walter

    This book opens with an exploration of the first economic revolution, which set the stage for the dramatic unfolding of the role economics has played in world history. The lessons focus on two topics: (1) why some economies grew and prospered while others remained stagnant or declined; and (2) what causes people to make choices that help or hinder…

  4. History of Physical Terms: "Energy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frontali, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Difficulties encountered by teachers in giving a definition of the term "energy", and by students in grasping its actual meaning, reflect the lengthy process through which the concept eventually came to maturity around 1850. Tracing the history of this process illuminates the different aspects covered by the term and shows the important…

  5. History of the Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cravens, Hamilton

    1985-01-01

    Reviews the history of the social sciences in America, indicating that the field is still chiefly a collection of topics, albeit important ones such as mental hospitals, child development, and eugenics. Also indicates that although source materials are vast, synthetic overviews are needed in a number of areas. (JN)

  6. Introducing Students to Family History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Describes a family history course for first-year college students that emphasizes critical thinking skills. The course is organized first chronologically, through three historically-ideal types of families, and then by topics, such as generational relations and courtship. Includes a list of concepts and words students must know. (CMK)

  7. Between History and Apocalypse: Stumbling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalu, Premesh

    2016-01-01

    Apartheid rested on a division of the senses as much as it did on a reductive politics of racial subjection and its accompanying violence. As an instance of the division of the senses, it produced a condition of stasis in which history and a post-apartheid future were increasingly marked by a politico-religious discourse of apocalypse, and a moral…

  8. National History Day Contest Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National History Day, Inc., Cleveland, OH.

    The guide presents an overview of a national contest designed to make history come alive to students in grades 6 through 12 through imaginative projects, original performances, media presentations, and papers. Students submit their entries into contests in which they are judged by historians, educators, and other experienced professionals.…

  9. Used planet: A global history

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Erle C.; Kaplan, Jed O.; Fuller, Dorian Q.; Vavrus, Steve; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Verburg, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    Human use of land has transformed ecosystem pattern and process across most of the terrestrial biosphere, a global change often described as historically recent and potentially catastrophic for both humanity and the biosphere. Interdisciplinary paleoecological, archaeological, and historical studies challenge this view, indicating that land use has been extensive and sustained for millennia in some regions and that recent trends may represent as much a recovery as an acceleration. Here we synthesize recent scientific evidence and theory on the emergence, history, and future of land use as a process transforming the Earth System and use this to explain why relatively small human populations likely caused widespread and profound ecological changes more than 3,000 y ago, whereas the largest and wealthiest human populations in history are using less arable land per person every decade. Contrasting two spatially explicit global reconstructions of land-use history shows that reconstructions incorporating adaptive changes in land-use systems over time, including land-use intensification, offer a more spatially detailed and plausible assessment of our planet's history, with a biosphere and perhaps even climate long ago affected by humans. Although land-use processes are now shifting rapidly from historical patterns in both type and scale, integrative global land-use models that incorporate dynamic adaptations in human–environment relationships help to advance our understanding of both past and future land-use changes, including their sustainability and potential global effects. PMID:23630271

  10. Concurrent Resurgence and Behavioral History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Silva, Stephanie P.; Maxwell, Megan E.; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2008-01-01

    The contribution of past experiences to concurrent resurgence was investigated in three experiments. In Experiment 1, resurgence was related to the length of reinforcement history as well as the reinforcement schedule that previously maintained responding. Specifically, more resurgence occurred when key pecks had been reinforced on a…

  11. Mathematical History, Philosophy and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otte, Michael

    2007-01-01

    History of mathematics occupies itself describing processes of growth and development, whereas philosophy of mathematics is concerned with questions of justification. Both play an essential role within the educational context. But there is a problem because genuine historical studies necessitate ever greater particularity whereas mathematics and…

  12. Using Databases in History Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, P.; Timmins, G.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses advantages and limitations of database software in meeting the educational objectives of history instruction; reviews five currently available computer programs (FACTFILE, QUEST, QUARRY BANK 1851, Census Analysis, and Beta Base); highlights major considerations that arise in designing such programs; and describes their classroom use.…

  13. History of Higher Education, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Robert L., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This annual compilation presents four papers on different aspects of the history of higher education in Europe and the United States. The first paper is "The Rights of Man and the Rites of Youth: Fraternity and Riot at Eighteenth Century Harvard" by Leon Jackson. This paper argues that the lines of division in the student body at…

  14. Natural history museums and cyberspace

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wemmer, C.; Erixon-Stanford, M.; Gardner, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    Natural history museums are entering the electronic age as they increasingly use computers to build accessible and shareable databases that support research and education on a world-wide basis. Museums are exploring the Internet and other shared uses of electronic media to enhance their traditional roles in education, training, identifications, technical assistance, and collections management.

  15. Dinetah: Navajo History. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessel, Robert A., Jr.

    Using archaeological data, written chronicles of Spanish explorers and missionaries, and oral narratives and legends, the book traces the history of the Navajo people to their original homeland, Dinetah, located primarily off the present reservation in an area south and east of Farmington, New Mexico. The book discusses various theories on Navajo…

  16. Lookback Time: Observing Cosmic History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, Mike; Wachowiak, Dale

    1989-01-01

    The difference in time between the emission and reception of light is called the "lookback" time. This article explores implications of lookback time and explains some of the puzzling questions posed by the scientific observation of cosmic history. Provides several pictures and diagrams. (YP)

  17. Using Wikis to Experience History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Vance Scott

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is an action research study examining the use of technology to encourage critical thinking and digital literacy in a community college history class. The students are responsible for researching course material and teaching the class. They then use a wiki to contribute to and edit an interactive, online textbook that has been…

  18. History of Higher Education, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Robert L., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This annual compilation presents four papers on different aspects of the history of higher education in Europe and the United States. The first paper is "The Rights of Man and the Rites of Youth: Fraternity and Riot at Eighteenth Century Harvard" by Leon Jackson. This paper argues that the lines of division in the student body at…

  19. History of Westport and Norwalk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahar, John L.

    The history of immigration to Norwalk and Westport, Connecticut, from the Revolutionary War period to 1979 is presented. The reading is part of a project to investigate the ethnically varied cultural heritage of the Norwalk-Westport area. It is arranged in two major sections. Section I focuses on Westport--described as an attractive suburban town…

  20. The history of the LHC

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Abstract: From the civil engineering, to the manufacturing of the various magnet types, each building block of this extraordinary machine required ambitious leaps in innovation. This lecture will review the history of the LHC project, focusing on the many challenges -- scientific, technological, managerial -- that had to be met during the various phases of R&D;, industrialization, construction, installation and commissioning.

  1. Teaching the Mystery of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, David; Carroll, Jeff; Doolittle, Peter; Lee, John; Oliver, Brian

    2004-01-01

    In a history class, students typically listen to the teacher lecture, read from their textbook, then take a test. Although they may sometimes be required to memorize information or read stories about historical events and people, they rarely work with other students, use original documents, write term papers, or discuss the significance of what…

  2. Computerized History Games: Narrative Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kee, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    How may historians best express history through computer games? This article suggests that the answer lies in correctly correlating historians' goals for teaching with the capabilities of different kinds of computer games. During the development of a game prototype for high school students, the author followed best practices as expressed in the…

  3. History Microcomputer Simulations: An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, James E.

    1985-01-01

    This article summarizes seven currently available microcomputer simulations for history. The seven included are: Government Simulations (Prentice-Hall, 1984), Nomination (Brady Company, 1984), Tigers in the Snow (Strategic Simulations, 1981), Lincoln's Decisions (Educational Activities, 1982), Watergate Simulation (Social Science Research and…

  4. Living History: F. Eugene Yates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urquhart, John

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the American Physiological Society (APS) initiated the Living History of Physiology Archival Program to recognize senior members who have made significant contributions during their career to the advancement of the discipline and the profession of physiology. During 2008, the APS Cardiovascular Section selected Francis Eugene Yates to be…

  5. History of Physical Terms: "Energy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frontali, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Difficulties encountered by teachers in giving a definition of the term "energy", and by students in grasping its actual meaning, reflect the lengthy process through which the concept eventually came to maturity around 1850. Tracing the history of this process illuminates the different aspects covered by the term and shows the important…

  6. Animal Magnetism and Curriculum History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bernadette

    2007-01-01

    This article elaborates the impact that crises of authority provoked by animal magnetism, mesmerism, and hypnosis in the 19th century had for field formation in American education. Four layers of analysis elucidate how curriculum history's repetitive focus on public school policy and classroom practice became possible. First, the article surveys…

  7. A History of Indian Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, S. Lyman

    The study brings together in one work a brief history of American Indian policy in the United States for the use of students, teachers, government employees, and the general reader. More detail has been supplied for the period since 1930 to enable the reader to see the processes involved in the adoption, administration, and eventual changes in…

  8. Family Health History and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... History Prevent Type 2 Diabetes in Your Family Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ... Direction! It’s Never Too Early to Prevent Diabetes. ​​​​ Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ...

  9. Englert-Brout Mechanism (history)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibble, Tom W. B.

    This article summarizes the history of the development of the Englert-Brout-Higgs-Guralnik-Hagen-Kibble mechanism. Many of the important papers have been reprinted in a volume edited by C. H. Lai,18 and/or in the review volume by John C. Taylor.27

  10. History Microcomputer Simulations: An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, James E.

    1985-01-01

    This article summarizes seven currently available microcomputer simulations for history. The seven included are: Government Simulations (Prentice-Hall, 1984), Nomination (Brady Company, 1984), Tigers in the Snow (Strategic Simulations, 1981), Lincoln's Decisions (Educational Activities, 1982), Watergate Simulation (Social Science Research and…

  11. Fighting To Preserve Black History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conciatore, Jacqueline

    2000-01-01

    Examines the urgent need for yet lack of federal funding for restoration of historic properties on historically black college campuses, including many on the National Register of Historic Places. Reviews legislative history of federal funding, notes other funding sources, summarizes costs of restoration, and gives examples from Talladega College…

  12. Content of the History Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewy, Arieh

    1977-01-01

    Criteria are described for selecting specific issues, events, and documents to be covered in history courses. Teachers should base content selection on basic concepts within the discipline, social needs and values of the class, pedagogical considerations, and the principle of economy in meeting multiple needs. (Author/AV)

  13. Nonreaders Anonymous: Reading History Collaboratively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Robert D.

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the issue of teaching students in the U.S. history survey course to read historical works by shifting the focus from the lecture method to collaborative learning techniques. Describes various techniques that can be used in the classroom such as expert groups, Particulars into Generalizations (PIG), and making lists and evaluative…

  14. An Historian Who Writes History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barzun, Jacques

    1993-01-01

    British historian Max Beloff's "An Historian in the 20th Century: Chapters in Intellectual Autobiography" is discussed and his many interests examined, including his scholarly preoccupation with Great Britain, Russia, and the United States; his approach to the study of history; and his establishment of a university in Britain, funded without…

  15. Ehanna Woyakapi (History). [Supplementary Guide].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe, Inc., SD.

    Designed as a supplementary guide to "History of the Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe of the Lake Traverse Reservation" (1972 edition), this curriculum guide presents 12 elementary/secondary education units. Among the major items included in most units are concepts; behavioral objectives; vocabulary lists; activities and the materials needed for the…

  16. Animal Magnetism and Curriculum History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bernadette

    2007-01-01

    This article elaborates the impact that crises of authority provoked by animal magnetism, mesmerism, and hypnosis in the 19th century had for field formation in American education. Four layers of analysis elucidate how curriculum history's repetitive focus on public school policy and classroom practice became possible. First, the article surveys…

  17. NUMA: A Northern Paiute History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada, Reno.

    One in a series of four histories of native Nevadans, this volume presents the story of the Northern Paiute people, or Numa, who lived, hunted, and travelled in the Great Basin area which occupies one-third of present day Nevada and parts of Oregon, Idaho, and California. Based on interviews with tribal elders and research conducted at numerous…

  18. A Mandate for Native History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pember, Mary Annette

    2007-01-01

    The Montana Indian Education For All Act may be setting an audacious national precedent for America's primary and secondary schools. The law requires all Montana schools to include curricula about the history, culture and contemporary status of the state's American Indian population. The new constitutional mandate has eyes throughout Native…

  19. Military History in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Desmond

    1985-01-01

    Current developments in military history are reviewed; special attention is given to classroom needs. One argument for incorporating a better understanding of war through responsible classroom teaching is that alternative sources of information often used by students to find out about war are so trivial and misleading. (RM)

  20. Recherche: Teaching Our Life Histories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collay, Michelle

    1998-01-01

    Examines the dynamic process of "recherche" on new teacher learning, presenting collaborative research as a shared quest for understanding by participant and researcher. Describes reflective, interpretive research and reveals how the life histories of three new teachers, provided via their reflections upon their first months of teaching, emerged…

  1. Islamic Education: History and Tendency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgendorf, Eric

    2003-01-01

    Examines the history and tendency of Islamic education, discussing how, after 1,000 years of intellectual leadership, the Islamic world has not retained its dominance, and examining the educational institutions that both spawned and doomed the Eastern intellectual revolution. The article addresses: the role of knowledge in Islam; emphasis on…

  2. Getting Carried Away with History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reecer, Marcia

    1994-01-01

    Introduces "The Concord Review," a journal that prints the works of students, usually from high school advanced-placement classes, and specializes in scholarly articles. Essays are submitted by public and private school students, with American history the most popular subject. As a showcase for student achievement the "Review" deserves support.…

  3. Natural history of Khat psychosis.

    PubMed

    Jager, A D; Sireling, L

    1994-06-01

    A paranoid psychosis, resembling amphetamine psychosis, caused by chewing Khat (stems and leaves from the plant Catha edulis) has been well described. Our case demonstrates the natural history of Khat psychosis which, in previous case reports, has been vigorously treated with major tranquillisers. PMID:7993291

  4. Why Teach Physical Education History?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Jan

    2004-01-01

    The physical education discipline has had a long development, incorporating concepts learned and appreciated from ancient and modern Olympics, exercise and training, physical activity and sport, and the history of physical education itself. Nevertheless, it continues to evolve as educators improve their instructional methods, medical experts…

  5. A natural history of hygiene

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Valerie A

    2007-01-01

    In unpacking the Pandora's box of hygiene, the author looks into its ancient evolutionary history and its more recent human history. Within the box, she finds animal behaviour, dirt, disgust and many diseases, as well as illumination concerning how hygiene can be improved. It is suggested that hygiene is the set of behaviours that animals, including humans, use to avoid harmful agents. The author argues that hygiene has an ancient evolutionary history, and that most animals exhibit such behaviours because they are adaptive. In humans, responses to most infectious threats are accompanied by sensations of disgust. In historical times, religions, social codes and the sciences have all provided rationales for hygiene behaviour. However, the author argues that disgust and hygiene behaviour came first, and that the rationales came later. The implications for the modern-day practice of hygiene are profound. The natural history of hygiene needs to be better understood if we are to promote safe hygiene and, hence, win our evolutionary war against the agents of infectious disease. PMID:18923689

  6. Signals in Communication Engineering History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consonni, Denise; Silva, Magno T. M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a study of various electric signals, which have been employed throughout the history of communication engineering in its two main landmarks: the telegraph and the telephone. The signals are presented in their time and frequency domain representations. The historical order has been followed in the presentation: wired systems, spark…

  7. World History. Focus on Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Jean; Clark, James; Herscher, Walter

    This book opens with an exploration of the first economic revolution, which set the stage for the dramatic unfolding of the role economics has played in world history. The lessons focus on two topics: (1) why some economies grew and prospered while others remained stagnant or declined; and (2) what causes people to make choices that help or hinder…

  8. A History of College Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokosz, Francis M.

    The history of football is traced as it evolved from the English game of rugby. The game as it is known today was conceived only after a long series of changes. Three prominent reasons for the change were: to make football more interesting to the spectator; to balance the competition between offense and defense; and to modify the dangerous…

  9. Getting Our Hands on History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrich, Cherry; Brown, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    It all began with a discussion about storage. Rows of dusty boxes were sitting in the cellar of Vaughan College, home to the University of Leicester's Institute for Lifelong Learning. They contained papers, booklets and publicity leaflets, the outpourings of the Leicester Workers' Educational Association (WEA) branch's 100-year history. When the…

  10. Diet History Questionnaire: Canadian Version

    Cancer.gov

    The Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) and the DHQ nutrient database were modified for use in Canada through the collaborative efforts of Dr. Amy Subar and staff at the Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch, and Dr. Ilona Csizmadi and colleagues in the Division of Population Health and Information at the Alberta Cancer Board in Canada.

  11. Nonfiction Film; A Critical History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barsam, Richard Meran

    In this survey history of the documentary or nonfiction cinema, major emphasis is placed upon John Grierson and the British documentary movement as exemplary of the factual films with goals of social improvement and on Robert Flaherty, whose movement stressed poetic or humanistic nonfiction film treatment. Newsreels and current trends in…

  12. The history of radical hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Dursun, Polat; Gultekin, Murat; Ayhan, Ali

    2011-07-01

    Carcinoma of the uterine cervix provides one of the few examples in medical history of a method of treatment that was once discarded by most of the medical profession and was later reclaimed. In addition, radical hysterectomy (RH) competed with radical vaginal hysterectomy during the early history of RH. The primitive form of RH was first described by Clark and Reis in 1895. Radical hysterectomy was then described in detail and performed by Wertheim, more than 100 years ago. Afterward, RH was abandoned for the treatment of carcinomas because of the use of radiotherapy; however, RH was then modified and repopularized by Meigs in the 1950s. The surgical principles of this operation have undergone only minor modifications throughout the years and remained the basis of the surgical approach used by gynecologic oncologists today. The history of the treatment of cervical carcinoma and the history of RH are unique in medicine. Because of the efforts of the surgeons and scientists, cervical carcinoma has become rarer, and its mortality rate has decreased, although it is still common in undeveloped countries. The history of the treatment of cervical carcinoma includes 3 Nobel Prize winners and 1 Nobel Prize nominee. We therefore think that knowledge of the historical development of this filed will inspire and contribute to the education of future generations. In this article, the historical development of the surgical treatment of cervical carcinoma, the contributors to this surgical procedure, and the pioneers of the surgical and medical treatment of cervical carcinoma are summarized; pictures and illustrations are also provided. Our aim was to inform the gynecologic oncology community about the pioneers that devoted their professional lives to develop of these techniques. PMID:21427603

  13. Histories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that peoples' encoded historical understandings are significant and therefore central to research. Delineates intellectual currents, such as an interest in the subjective world of humans, that have brought historians and anthropologists into a dialogue that has promoted cross-fertilization. Notes the impact of literary theory on that…

  14. History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Koichi M. T.; Winnewisser, Gisbert

    Claudius Ptolemaeus who lived in the second century (83-161 AD) was an ancient mathematician, geographer, astronomer, and astrologer in Roman Egypt. Ptolemy, as he is known in English, was the last great and dominating figure before the dawn of the renaissance of science during the years 1500-1700. During the lifespan of Ptolemy, arithmetical techniques were developed for calculating astronomical phenomena. Greek astronomers, e.g., Hipparchus, had produced geometric models for calculating celestial motions. Ptolemy himself contributed to the fitting of the astronomical data. He had developed elaborate arithmetical techniques for calculating celestial motions. Ptolemy, however, claimed to have derived his geometrical models from selected astronomical observations by his predecessors spanning more than 800 years, though astronomers have for centuries suspected that his models' parameters were adopted independently of observations. Ptolemy presented his astronomical observations in a convenient form of tables, which could be used directly to compute the past or future position of the planets. The Almagest ("The Great Treatise," originally written by Ptolemy) also contains a star catalog, which is an appropriate version of the catalog created by Hipparchus.

  15. [The history of commensalism: a contemporary history of microbiology].

    PubMed

    Poreau, Brice

    2014-01-01

    Commensalism is a biological association between two species, with one species, the commensal, getting an advantage, whereas the other one, the host, gets no advantage neither disadvantage. This concept is theorized in the 1860's by Pierre-Joseph Van Beneden. Van Beneden is a physician in the 1850's, nevertheless, he is well known as a zoologist. The concept of commensalism developed by Van Beneden is employed in many scientific fields, not only in zoology, but also, in microbiology. Although the use of a possible play of the commensal bacterial microflora is exposed at the end of the 19th century, it is only during the second part of the 20th century that this way is studied. Commensalism in animal microbiology is studied first and then it is studied in human. The aim of this article is to present the history of commensalism as a main part of the history of microbiology. PMID:24908786

  16. Using Local History, Primary Source Material, and Comparative History to Teach Reconstruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adomanis, James F.

    1989-01-01

    Suggests using local history, primary source material, and comparative history to alleviate the boredom most students experience when studying the Reconstruction period of U.S. history. Provides an example of comparative history usage through a discussion of ante-bellum Maryland and the history of Liberia. (KO)

  17. My History Is America's History: 15 Things You Can Do To Save America's Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Humanities (NFAH), Washington, DC.

    The theme of this guidebook is "Follow your family's history and you will discover America's history." The guidebook offers a way for everyone to explore family history to discover how family stories connect to the history of the nation. It suggests that a family history can be started with a single old photo, letter, or family tale that can be…

  18. A history of erotic philosophy.

    PubMed

    Soble, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This essay historically explores philosophical views about the nature and significance of human sexuality, starting with the Ancient Greeks and ending with late 20th-century Western philosophy. Important figures from the history of philosophy (and theology) discussed include Sappho, Plato, Aristotle, St. Augustine, St. Jerome, the Pelagians, St. Thomas Aquinas, Michel de Montaigne, Rene Descartes, Thomas Hobbes, David Hume, Immanuel Kant, Søren Kierkegaard, Arthur Schopenhauer, Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Sigmund Freud, Jean-Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, Wilhelm Reich, and Herbert Marcuse. Contemporary philosophers whose recent work is discussed include Michel Foucault, Thomas Nagel, Roger Scruton, Karol Wojtyla (Pope John Paul II), Catharine MacKinnon, Richard Posner, and John Finnis. To show the unity of the humanities, the writings of various literary figures are incorporated into this history, including Mark Twain, Arthur Miller, James Thurber, E. B. White, Iris Murdoch, and Philip Roth. PMID:19308838

  19. History of the eugenic movement.

    PubMed

    Gejman, Pablo V; Weilbaecher, Ann

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this review is to introduce the reader to the ideas behind the eugenic movement, its implementation, and its consequences. First, we address the work of prominent 19th century forerunners of eugenics. Second, we discuss the eugenic movement during the first half of the 20th century, and its common and differential characteristics in countries where its expression was more marked, including the US and Nazi Germany. We also discuss the eugenic movement in Sweden, whose history has remained unknown until recently. We analyze the reasoning behind forced sterilization and involuntary euthanasia. Finally, we consider the impact that past eugenics has had on the profession of psychiatry and psychiatric research, particularly genetics. We argue that the history of the 20th century eugenics movement and its leaders still require attention. PMID:12756854

  20. Early history of the earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnik, V. A.; Sobotovich, E. V.

    Current concepts concerning the formation of the solar system and the earth, as well as the structure and evolution of the earth, are analyzed. A cosmogeological model for the formation of the earth and its main shells is proposed which does not contradict existing cosmochemical, geophysical, and geological data, but which has a number of important geological implications. The early history of the earth is examined from the viewpoint of polychronous heterogeneous accretion. The features characterizing the early history of the geological evolution of the earth's crust are elucidated on the basis of data on the composition and age of cosmic matter and terrestrial rocks, data of cosmology and planetology, and geological studies of Precambrian complexes.

  1. Stennis observes Women's History Month

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    NASA John C. Stennis Space Center employees observed Women's History Month on March 17 with a panel discussion that featured accomplished women of the facility. The gathering featured (l to r): Pam Covington, manager of the NASA Office of External Affairs at Stennis; Mary Jones, assistant chief of staff with the Navy Meterology & Oceanography Command; and Lauren Underwood, senior research scientist with Science Systems and Applications, Inc. In addition to the panel discussion, the Stennis Diversity Council and Patriot Technologies also hosted a pair of 'lunch-and-learn' sessions focused on women's issues and history. The luncheons featured videos on Sally Hemings, the slave widely recognized as the mistress of President Thomas Jefferson; and several mothers of U.S. presidents.

  2. BRIEF HISTORY OF FFAG ACCELERATORS.

    SciTech Connect

    RUGGIERO, A.

    2006-12-04

    Colleagues of mine have asked me few times why we have today so much interest in Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient (FFAG) accelerators when these were invented a long time ago, and have always been ignored since then. I try here to give a reply with a short history of FFAG accelerators, at least as I know it. I take also the opportunity to clarify few definitions.

  3. [Natural history of ovary cancer].

    PubMed

    Novoa-Vargas, Arturo

    2014-09-01

    Ovary cancer is a disease charged of paradigms and a serious health problem. It's important to know its natural history, because has a multifactor origins, and understanding its behavior since risk factors until patient's death because metastatic disease is a challenger for oncology group. In this work we made a bibliographic, analytic review that brings up concepts related to its origin, evolution, risk factors, preclinical horizon, and clinical symptoms until the death of patient. PMID:25412555

  4. The history of the galaxies.

    PubMed

    Fukugita, M; Hogan, C J; Peebles, P J

    1996-06-01

    Astronomical observations now reach far enough back in time, in enough depth and detail, to reveal the history of galaxies since their formation. The early Universe contained a network of gas clouds that filled much of the space between the young galaxies, where stars were forming at a high rate. Since then, intergalactic space has been swept clean, and galaxies have continued to convert the dwindling supply of gas slow into stars. PMID:8632822

  5. Craniotomy: the first case histories.

    PubMed

    Martin

    1999-07-01

    The oldest existing case histories of craniotomy are from the false Hippocratic writings, about 330 BC, and one is reconstructed about the death of Ptolemy VI in 145 BC. Greek surgeons had rational indications for trepanning, when the difficulties of the times are understood. All compound fractures were infected, so death from an extradural abscess was likely. Trepanning was intended to drain the extra dural space. Copyright 1999 Harcourt Publishers Ltd. PMID:10844769

  6. Bringing Back the Social History

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Mary Clyde; Kaczor, Kim; Thompson, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The social environment of the child is a key determinant of the child’s current and future health. Factors in the child’s family environment, both protective and harmful, have profound impact on the child’s long-term health, brain development, and mortality. Adverse childhood experiences, and specifically, child maltreatment, are directly linked to increased risk for harm, poor outcomes, ill-health as adults, and even death during childhood or early adulthood. Therefore, it is important to obtain a detailed social history from the first medical visit with the dual goals of identifying strengths to reinforce and weaknesses to address. Screening is paramount in order to foster healthy parenting and help identify areas needing intervention. Occasionally, serious problems are uncovered indicating the child is at significant risk for maltreatment. By addressing these risks openly and directly before serious or permanent harm occurs, child maltreatment and its potentially life-altering consequences (for all) may be prevented. The social history may very well be the best all-around tool available for promoting the child’s future health and well-being. It is a key first step in identifying social needs of the child and family so that they may benefit from intervention. This article focuses on key social history elements known to increase a child’s risk of maltreatment and provides case examples. PMID:25242704

  7. [The history of biological warfare].

    PubMed

    Cohen, Amir; Robenshtok, Eyal; Rotman, Eran; Sagi, Rami

    2002-05-01

    Selected events in the history of biological weapons are highlighted to increase the physician's awareness of this crucial threat. The deliberate use of biological substances originated in antiquity and has pervaded the history of human wars throughout time until the 21th century. The history of biological warfare is difficult to assess because of a number of confounding factors. These include the difficulty in verification of allegation, the use of the threat of this weapon for propaganda purposes, the lack of microbiological or epidemiological data, and the incidence of natural occurring endemic or epidemic diseases during hostilities. Although it may be problematic to verify at times, the use of such weapons has not been limited to national armies or militia. Frustrated civilians, terrorists and even physicians have used biological substances to promote their interests. Today, the biological threat has become more serious. It's potency, cost-effectiveness, and the ability to manufacture and deploy it with little sophistication, or under the semblance of legitimate commercial endeavors, will ensure that biological weapons remain a constant threat to human health. PMID:12170558

  8. History of Geophysics Fellowship awarded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Lauren

    2012-04-01

    Inspired by an article in an issue of Eos from April 1970, Gabe Henderson discovered a legacy of correspondence from former AGU president Helmut Landsberg detailing his views in the early days of the climate science debate. Thanks to AGU donors and the creation of a new fellowship by AGU's History of Geophysics Committee, Henderson, a Ph.D. candidate at Michigan State University, is conducting research on Landsberg's papers at the University of Maryland, College Park, continuing his study of the broad history of geophysics and the link between the past and future of climate science. In April 1970, Henderson says, AGU president Helmut Landsberg called for S. Fred Singer to lead a special committee on environmental quality to evaluate the geophysical aspects of environmental problems, dispassionately (H. E. Landsberg,Eos Trans. AGU, 51, 243, doi:10.1029/EO051i004p00243). Because environmental problems were hardly given a second thought at that time, Landsberg's request could have faded from the consciousness of geoscientists and from the pages of history.

  9. Histophysics: The Physics of Human History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Lui

    2004-03-01

    sectionThe system investigated in history is a many-body system consisting of biological material bodies, Homo sapiens, and hence can be studied scientifically. The unique role physicists can play in advancing the science of human history is presented. We will discuss modeling history as a complex dynamical system, and artificial history. Active walk (proposed by Lam in 1992) is found to be widely applicable in modeling history, as illustrated by examples from economic, evolutionary and social histories. Analytic and numerical results of a relevant solvable AW model will be presented.

  10. Life history tradeoffs in cancer evolution

    PubMed Central

    Boddy, Amy M.; Gatenby, Robert A.; Brown, Joel S.; Maley, Carlo C.

    2014-01-01

    Somatic evolution during cancer progression and therapy results in tumor cells that exhibit a wide range of phenotypes including rapid proliferation and quiescence. Evolutionary life history theory may help us understand the diversity of these phenotypes. Fast life history organisms reproduce rapidly while those with slow life histories show less fecundity and invest more resources in survival. Life history theory also provides an evolutionary framework for phenotypic plasticity with potential implications for understanding ‘cancer stem cells’. Life history theory suggests that different therapy dosing schedules could select for fast or slow life history cell phenotypes, with important clinical consequences. PMID:24213474

  11. 100 History-Making Ethnic Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, Sherry

    2004-01-01

    A list of hundred history-making ethnic women who have created history in their respective fields and become successful writers is presented. The list includes Alma Flor Ada, Julia Alvarez and Oprah Winfrey.

  12. Outline for a History of Science Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godin, Benoit

    2002-01-01

    Points out that no history of measurement exists in the literature and outlines such history. Discusses the nature of science and technology statistics and shows that their specificity is due to the sociopolitics that drives measurement. (Contains 114 references.) (DDR)

  13. Surgeon General's Family Health History Initiative

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Tool Other Resources Text Size: A A A Surgeon General's Family Health History Initiative Health care professionals ... attention on the importance of family history, the Surgeon General, in cooperation with other agencies with the ...

  14. Trace Elements Reveal Complex Histories in Diogenites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balta, J. B.; Beck, A. W.; McSween, H. Y.

    2012-03-01

    We report relict trace-element zoning in diogenite meteorites. Trace elements in otherwise homogeneous OPX record histories of both magmatic and impact processes. These patterns suggest previously unrecognized long thermal histories for diogenites.

  15. Types of Examinations in History Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewy, Arieh; Shavit, Shlomo

    1974-01-01

    This study examines the structural characteristics of item classification for examination questions. Two different approaches are suggested to testing outcomes of studying history: that of the cognitive psychology and that of the philosophy of history. (MP)

  16. Making and Measuring the California History Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogo, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    The California history and social science standards-based reform has been touted as the "gold standard" for state history curricula. But the standards, framework, and tests that constitute this reform provide inconsistent and contradictory criteria for teaching and assessing history and social science. An examination of the political process that…

  17. Creating the "History through Deaf Eyes" Documentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hott, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines how a documentary film about the history of deafness in the United States, inspired by the exhibition "History through Deaf Eyes," is going to be created. "History through Deaf Eyes" will have a dual focus. Part of its subject is deafness from the inside: the personal experiences of deaf people (and hearing…

  18. Objects Take Center Stage in History Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarnowski, Myra

    2006-01-01

    Most history books for children focus on people, places, and events. In a different approach, some authors focus on an object--an everyday item that might be ignored when it comes to writing history. They shine a spotlight on the item, and in the process, they add insight and interest to human history. This article looks at four outstanding books…

  19. The Promise of AP World History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldaña, Cristóbal T.

    2013-01-01

    AP World History is the ideal history course. It introduces students to 10,000 years of world history, and demands critical reading, critical writing, and critical thinking skills on the part of both the teacher and the students. It requires students to build their expertise in reading their textbook, and places demands on the teacher to assign…

  20. Curriculum Development in History Using Systems Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acun, Ramazan

    2011-01-01

    This work provides a conceptual framework for developing coherent history curricula at university level. It can also be used for evaluating existing curricula in terms of coherence. For this purpose, two models that are closely inter-connected called History Education System (Tarih Egitim Sistemi or TES) and History Research System (Tarih…

  1. Theoretical and Critical Perspectives on Educational History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickman, William W.

    1978-01-01

    Defines terms, discusses the scope and content of educational history and its relation to history, the social sciences, and the humanities. Related fields such as educational philosophy, educational sociology, and comparative education are discussed. Concludes that the study of educational history is fundamental to an understanding of the…

  2. Global History and Critiques of Western Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachsenmaier, Dominic

    2006-01-01

    The article discusses the parameters of the expanding field of global history and its wider methodological implications. In a first step the author outlines the rising interest in transcultural and global history that can be observed in many parts of the world. In this context different approaches to global history as well as alternative…

  3. World History in Liberal Military Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Donald M., Ed.; McGann, Thomas F., Ed.

    The educational environment of the U.S. Air Force Academy is discussed and the Academy's basic world history program is described. The first part of the report focuses on the Academy's educational environment, discussing the core curriculum, history instruction, the cadet, and the history faculty. The report's second part, which comprises over…

  4. Learning History through Children's Literature. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Lynn R.; Nelson, Trudy A.

    Teaching history using children's literature, both fiction and non-fiction, is an old idea enjoying new vitality in the elementary and middle school curriculum. This digest discusses: (1) the revival of interest in teaching history through children's literature; (2) research-based guidelines for teachers of history and children's literature, and…

  5. Curriculum Formation: A Case Study from History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shay, Suellen

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on the work of Bernstein and Maton and using a case-study approach, this study explores the formation of an undergraduate history curriculum at the University of Cape Town. This article focuses on two periods of curriculum formation referred to as history as canon and history as social science. With respect to these two curriculum periods…

  6. Histories of Developmental Education. CRDEUL Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundell, Dana Britt, Ed.; Higbee, Jeanne L., Ed.

    This collection of papers on the history of developmental education includes: "Historical Perspectives: With Hindsight We Gain Foresight" (Normal Stahl); "Supporting the Research Mission" (David V. Taylor); "A Brief History of the American Council of Developmental Education Associations" (Hunter R. Boylan); "History of Supplemental Instruction…

  7. The Promise of AP World History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldaña, Cristóbal T.

    2013-01-01

    AP World History is the ideal history course. It introduces students to 10,000 years of world history, and demands critical reading, critical writing, and critical thinking skills on the part of both the teacher and the students. It requires students to build their expertise in reading their textbook, and places demands on the teacher to assign…

  8. Putting the World into World History Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paquette, William A.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews whether textbook publishers have put the "world" in world history textbooks by comparing the editions of four different world history textbooks over 25 years. Evaluates 10 current editions of world history textbooks. Offers questions to consider and discusses additional content concerns. Includes charts and references of the reviewed…

  9. The Future and Function of Academic History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickens, Donald K.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses views of various scholars regarding the current difficulties of history as an academic discipline. Particular emphasis is placed on the works of Don Karl Rowney (Bowling Green State University) and Timothy Donnovan (University of Arkansas) who stress that history's form reveals history's function. (DB)

  10. History of Higher Education Annual, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    History of Higher Education Annual, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This annual compilation explores the history of small colleges in five articles that focus on the "uses" of this history in facing current debates concerning institutional directions. A brief introduction by Harold S. Wechsler addresses the role of institutional history for the small college. The first article is "Celebrating Roots:…

  11. Center for History of Chemistry Inaugurated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Richard J.

    1983-01-01

    The Center for the History of Chemistry (CHOC), located at the University of Pennsylvania, was officially inaugurated in March 1983. Highlights inaugural ceremonies; discusses CHOC aims, activities, and exhibits. Includes comments on Center for Physics History, industry role in perserving corporate history, chemists honored on United States…

  12. Jews in American History: A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruderman, Jerome

    This publication contains discussion questions, student activities, and lists of resource materials which a teacher can use to include American Jewish history in secondary United States history courses. The book concentrates on those aspects of Jewish history which offer material with which to illuminate many important general themes and concepts.…

  13. A People's History for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Bill

    2008-01-01

    "A People's History for the Classroom" helps teachers introduce students to a more accurate, complex, and engaging understanding of U.S. history than is found in traditional textbooks and curricula. It includes a new introductory essay by veteran teacher Bill Bigelow on teaching strategies that align with Howard Zinn's "A People's History of the…

  14. 16 CFR 1702.14 - Marketing history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing history. 1702.14 Section 1702.14... REQUIREMENTS § 1702.14 Marketing history. Each petition for an exemption under this part shall include a statement of the marketing history of the substance for which an exemption is requested. The...

  15. Applied Implications of Reinforcement History Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pipkin, Claire St. Peter; Vollmer, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    Although the influence of reinforcement history is a theoretical focus of behavior analysis, the specific behavioral effects of reinforcement history have received relatively little attention in applied research and practice. We examined the potential effects of reinforcement history by reviewing nonhuman, human operant, and applied research and…

  16. Objects Take Center Stage in History Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarnowski, Myra

    2006-01-01

    Most history books for children focus on people, places, and events. In a different approach, some authors focus on an object--an everyday item that might be ignored when it comes to writing history. They shine a spotlight on the item, and in the process, they add insight and interest to human history. This article looks at four outstanding books…

  17. Discovering History at the Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tai, Emily Sohmer

    2013-01-01

    Many of the history courses community college students take are fairly broad and ostensibly generic surveys of world, Western European, or American history. This chapter discusses an array of innovative practices that enable students to better appreciate how studying history can help them master the challenges--and reap the benefits--of a liberal…

  18. 7 CFR 929.13 - Sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sales history. 929.13 Section 929.13 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 929.13 Sales history. Sales history means the number of barrels of cranberries established for a grower by the...

  19. 7 CFR 929.13 - Sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sales history. 929.13 Section 929.13 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 929.13 Sales history. Sales history means the number of barrels of cranberries established for a grower by the...

  20. Heidelberg's Lessons on Literacy, History, and Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Call, Jolayne Sillito

    2000-01-01

    This personal response to German history by a professor attending a major conference at the University of Heidelberg reflects on the country's long history of education and research, the role of language in history, a speech urging tolerance by the Dutch woman who protected Anne Frank's family, and her reactions to a visit to the Dachau…

  1. 16 CFR 1702.14 - Marketing history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Marketing history. 1702.14 Section 1702.14... REQUIREMENTS § 1702.14 Marketing history. Each petition for an exemption under this part shall include a statement of the marketing history of the substance for which an exemption is requested. The...

  2. 16 CFR 1702.14 - Marketing history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Marketing history. 1702.14 Section 1702.14... REQUIREMENTS § 1702.14 Marketing history. Each petition for an exemption under this part shall include a statement of the marketing history of the substance for which an exemption is requested. The...

  3. 16 CFR 1702.14 - Marketing history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Marketing history. 1702.14 Section 1702.14... REQUIREMENTS § 1702.14 Marketing history. Each petition for an exemption under this part shall include a statement of the marketing history of the substance for which an exemption is requested. The...

  4. A New Look at Big History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkey, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The article sets out a "big history" which resonates with the priorities of our own time. A globalizing world calls for new spacial scales to underpin what the history curriculum addresses, "big history" calls for new temporal scales, while concern over climate change calls for a new look at subject boundaries. The article…

  5. Teaching Global History: A Social Studies Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    "Teaching Global History" challenges prospective and beginning social studies teachers to formulate their own views about what is important to know in global history and why. It explains how to organize the curriculum around broad social studies concepts and themes and student questions about humanity, history, and the contemporary world. All…

  6. Environmental History in the American West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Hal K.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that environmental history is an important component of the history of the American west. Discusses the historiography of the American west in relationship to environmental issues. Concludes that environmental history opened the door for scholars to study the way human beings interact with the physical world around them. (CFR)

  7. "Doing" Immigration History. A Tool That Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rick

    1993-01-01

    Describes programs of the History Studio, a hands-on workshop of the Tsongas Industrial History Center (Massachussets), which provides role-playing activities and experiential learning about immigration history. Describes how "luggage" contains primary source material on six different ethnic groups used to teach students about immigrant life in…

  8. The Case for Digitizing Fiction with History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shires, Nancy Patterson

    2002-01-01

    Including relevant fiction along with digitized history helps the reader to deal effectively with the various letters, photos, and census records or the individual pieces of history revealed. For educational, social, psychological, and biological reasons, fiction is important in the study of history. Not only can novels and stories be valuable…

  9. 16 CFR 1702.14 - Marketing history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marketing history. 1702.14 Section 1702.14... REQUIREMENTS § 1702.14 Marketing history. Each petition for an exemption under this part shall include a statement of the marketing history of the substance for which an exemption is requested. The...

  10. How To Celebrate National Women's History Month.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Majorie

    Intended for teachers, this guide is designed as an aid to mark Women's History Month with special thought and activity, and to offer suggestions for further information and resources. Noting that "history doesn't only happen to men," the document stresses that "history is made at home, in the community, in the factories, offices, and fields of…

  11. Lycoming County Women's History Curriculum Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Amy

    2011-01-01

    This project plays upon technology and an innovative way to research history -- the use of online primary source data that highlight the history of women in volunteer and reform organizations, education, the arts, the workplace, and private lives. Using an archival database from the Lycoming County Women's History collection, this curriculum…

  12. 7 CFR 929.13 - Sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sales history. 929.13 Section 929.13 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 929.13 Sales history. Sales history means the number of barrels of cranberries established for a grower by the...

  13. 7 CFR 929.13 - Sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sales history. 929.13 Section 929.13 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 929.13 Sales history. Sales history means the number of barrels of cranberries established for a grower by the...

  14. 7 CFR 929.48 - Sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sales history. 929.48 Section 929.48 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.48 Sales history. (a) A sales history for each grower shall be computed by the committee in the following manner: (1)...

  15. Discovering History at the Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tai, Emily Sohmer

    2013-01-01

    Many of the history courses community college students take are fairly broad and ostensibly generic surveys of world, Western European, or American history. This chapter discusses an array of innovative practices that enable students to better appreciate how studying history can help them master the challenges--and reap the benefits--of a liberal…

  16. 7 CFR 929.48 - Sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sales history. 929.48 Section 929.48 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.48 Sales history. (a) A sales history for each grower shall be computed by the committee in the following manner: (1)...

  17. A New Look at Big History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkey, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The article sets out a "big history" which resonates with the priorities of our own time. A globalizing world calls for new spacial scales to underpin what the history curriculum addresses, "big history" calls for new temporal scales, while concern over climate change calls for a new look at subject boundaries. The article…

  18. 7 CFR 929.13 - Sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sales history. 929.13 Section 929.13 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 929.13 Sales history. Sales history means the number of barrels of cranberries established for a grower by the...

  19. Intrabook Readability: Variations within History Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, John M.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The article discusses a study to measure the readability of eight junior high school American history textbooks including "American History for Today" (Ginn and Company, 1977), "America! America" (Scott, Foresman, 1980), "Quest for Liberty: Investigating United States History" (Addison-Wesley, 1974), and "The American Adventure" (Allyn and Bacon,…

  20. Making and Measuring the California History Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogo, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    The California history and social science standards-based reform has been touted as the "gold standard" for state history curricula. But the standards, framework, and tests that constitute this reform provide inconsistent and contradictory criteria for teaching and assessing history and social science. An examination of the political process that…

  1. Ore metals through geologic history.

    PubMed

    Meyer, C

    1985-03-22

    The ores of chromite, nickel, copper, and zinc show a wide distribution over geologic time, but those of iron, titanium, lead, uranium, gold, silver, molybdenum, tungsten, and tin are more restricted. Many of the limitations to specific time intervals are probably imposed by the evolving tectonic history of Earth interacting with the effects of the biomass on the evolution of the earth's s surface chemistry. Photosynthetic generation of free oxygen and "carbon" contributes significantlly to the diversity of redox potentials in both sedimentary and igneous-related processes of ore formation, influencing the selection of metals at the source, during transport, and at the site of ore deposition. PMID:17777763

  2. Natural history of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Arturo Novoa

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a disease laden with paradigms, and it is a serious health problem. It is important to know its natural history, as it is multifactorial in origin, and also to understand its behaviour given its risk factors which can lead to death from metastasis in patients. It continues to be a challenge for oncologists. An analytical literature review was performed to update the latest concepts of its origin, evolution, risk factors, pre-clinical horizon, and its clinical manifestations; until the death of the patient. PMID:25371706

  3. ADS History in the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, Richard L.; Pitcher, Eric J.

    2010-06-01

    Nearly all risks to future generations arising from long-term disposal of used nuclear fuel are attributable to the transuranic elements and long-lived fission products, about 2% of its content. The transuranic elements of concern are plutonium, neptunium, americium, and curium. Long-lived (>100,000-year half-life) isotopes of iodine and technetium are also created by nuclear fission of uranium. We can reduce the problem transuranics through accelerator-based transmutation. Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) have been proposed for over two decades as one technique to transmute used nuclear fuel. This paper covers the history and some new possible applications of accelerator driven systems.

  4. History of biotechnology in Austria.

    PubMed

    Roehr, M

    2000-01-01

    Austria has contributed significantly to the progress of the biotechnologies in the past and is actively engaged in doing so today. This review describes the early history of biotechnology in Austria, beginning with the Vienna process of baker's yeast manufacture in 1846, up to the achievements of the 20th century, e.g. the submerged vinegar process, penicillin V, immune biotechnology, biomass as a renewable source of fermentation products (power alcohol, biogas, organic acids etc.), biopulping, biopolymers, biocatalysis, mammalian cell technology, nanotechnology of bacterial surface layers, and environmental biotechnology. PMID:11036693

  5. [The early history of "Ecstasy"].

    PubMed

    Benzenhöfer, U; Passie, T

    2006-01-01

    There is no consensus in the literature regarding the early history of MDMA (Methylendioxymethamphetamine, so-called "Ecstasy"). Various authors credit the first synthesis of MDMA to the German chemist Fritz Haber, but it appears neither in his doctoral thesis (Berlin 1891) nor in his accompanying articles. The man who first synthesized MDMA was the chemist Dr. Anton Köllisch, who worked for the German pharmaceutical company Merck. He created MDMA as a by-product while trying to synthesize hydrastinin, a styptic substance. In 1912, Merck filed to patent the applied method of preparation. The patent was issued in 1914, yet no pharmaceutical testing followed at that time. PMID:16397805

  6. The history of parathyroid endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay; Baruah, Manash P; Sahay, Rakesh; Sawhney, Kanishka

    2013-03-01

    The parathyroid glands are now recognized as being essential for life. Their structure and function is well delineated, and their disease and dysfunction, well characterized. Diagnosis and management of parathyroid disease has improved in the past few decades. The path of parathyroid science, however, has been far from smooth. This paper describes the early history of parathyroid endocrinology. In doing so, it focuses on major events and discoveries, which improved the understanding and practice of our specialty. Contribution in anatomy, physiology, pathology, medicine, surgery and biochemistry are reviewed. PMID:23776911

  7. [History of acupuncture in Iran].

    PubMed

    Bai, Xinghua

    2015-10-01

    Iran is the neighbor of western China, and is a key transport junction on ancient Silk Road. The medical communication between China and Iran dates back to the 10th century, however, according to current evidences, it is indicated that acupuncture has not been introduced to Iran until the early 1970s. Unfortunately over the last 40 years, the acupuncture in Iran has not presented great development. The history of acupuncture development in Iran implies that geographical advantage and personnel exchanges are not essential to the international exchange of acupuncture, while language and cultural background may hinder the spread of acupuncture in foreign countries. PMID:26790220

  8. History of psychiatry in India

    PubMed Central

    Nizamie, S. Haque; Goyal, Nishant

    2010-01-01

    History is a screen through which the past lightens the present and the present brightens the future. Psychiatry by virtue of its ability to deal with human thoughts and emotions and provide a pathway for healthy minds provides an important platform towards being a mentally sound human being and largely the society. This review takes a sneak peek into the foundations of modern psychiatry in India. The description is largely based on the time frame, which provides a better understanding of the factual information in each period starting from the Vedic era and culminating in the post independence period. PMID:21836719

  9. Thermal history of the moon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, R. T.; Fricker, P. E.; Summers, A. L.

    1972-01-01

    The thermal history of the lunar interior has been investigated for many sets of parameters and initial conditions by the construction of mathematical models. These models have been extended to include the effects of melting and redistribution of radioactive heat sources with time. The models considered include the possibility of heat transfer by lattice conduction, radiative transfer, removal of radioactive heat sources and, in a molten zone, fluid convection. The energy sources are divided into initial temperature sources that operate during the formation of the moon or shortly thereafter, and long-lived radioactive heat sources.

  10. The history of parathyroid endocrinology

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Baruah, Manash P.; Sahay, Rakesh; Sawhney, Kanishka

    2013-01-01

    The parathyroid glands are now recognized as being essential for life. Their structure and function is well delineated, and their disease and dysfunction, well characterized. Diagnosis and management of parathyroid disease has improved in the past few decades. The path of parathyroid science, however, has been far from smooth. This paper describes the early history of parathyroid endocrinology. In doing so, it focuses on major events and discoveries, which improved the understanding and practice of our specialty. Contribution in anatomy, physiology, pathology, medicine, surgery and biochemistry are reviewed. PMID:23776911

  11. Life history of Coelomomyces psorophorae.

    PubMed Central

    Whisler, H C; Zebold, S L; Shemanchuk, J A

    1975-01-01

    The mosquito parasite, Coelomomyces psorophorae (Blastocladiales, Chytridiomycetes) alternates obligately between the larvae of Culiseta inornata and the copepod Cyclops vernalis. Isogametes, derived from heterothallic, wall-less gametangia which develop in the copepod, fuse to produce a diploid zygote that subsequently infects the mosquito host. Zoospores from the resistant sporangia which are produced in the haemocoel of the mosquito infect the copepod. A tentative life-history is proposed and implications of these discoveries for the biology, taxonomy, and possible role of Coelomomyces in biological control are discussed. Images PMID:235761

  12. The Quaternary History of Scandinavia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donner, Joakim

    1995-02-01

    During the Quaternary Period, Scandinavia's mountains were the source for repeated glaciation that covered much of eastern, central and western Europe. With a particular emphasis on Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland, this text describes how these glaciations, and their intervening warmer stages, affected Scandinavia and the surrounding areas. In particular, this account focuses on the last cold stage, the Weichselian, with its extensive Late Weichselian glaciation and the subsequent deglaciation, and on the last 10,000 years, the Holocene, with its well documented environmental changes. The Quaternary History of Scandinavia provides a cross-frontier synthesis of how the glaciation affected this vast region.

  13. The Quaternary History of Scandinavia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donner, Joakim

    2005-08-01

    During the Quaternary Period, Scandinavia's mountains were the source for repeated glaciation that covered much of eastern, central and western Europe. With a particular emphasis on Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland, this text describes how these glaciations, and their intervening warmer stages, affected Scandinavia and the surrounding areas. In particular, this account focuses on the last cold stage, the Weichselian, with its extensive Late Weichselian glaciation and the subsequent deglaciation, and on the last 10,000 years, the Holocene, with its well documented environmental changes. The Quaternary History of Scandinavia provides a cross-frontier synthesis of how the glaciation affected this vast region.

  14. History of Cardiology in India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Mrinal Kanti; Kumar, Soumitra; Deb, Pradip Kumar; Mishra, Sundeep

    2015-01-01

    History as a science revolves around memories, travellers' tales, fables and chroniclers' stories, gossip and trans-telephonic conversations. Medicine itself as per the puritan's definition is a non-exact science because of the probability-predictability-sensitivity-specificity factors. Howsoever, the chronicles of Cardiology in India is quite interesting and intriguing. Heart and circulation was known to humankind from pre-Vedic era. Various therapeutics measures including the role of Yoga and transcendental meditation in curing cardiovascular diseases were known in India. Only recently there has been resurgence of the same globally. There have been very few innovations in Cardiology in India. The cause of this paucity possibly lie in the limited resources. This has a vicious effect on the research mentality of the population who are busy in meeting their daily requirements. This socio-scientific aspect needs a thorough study and is beyond the scope of the present documentation. Present is the future of past and so one must not forget the history which is essentially past that give the present generation the necessary fulcrum to stand in good stead. The present article essentially aims to pay tribute to all the workers and pioneers in the field of Cardiology in India, who in spite of limited resources ventured in an unchartered arena. PMID:26071301

  15. History of ultrahigh carbon steels

    SciTech Connect

    Wadsworth, J.; Sherby, O.D.

    1997-06-20

    The history and development of ultrahigh carbon steels (i.e., steels containing between 1 and 2.l percent C and now known as UHCS) are described. The early use of steel compositions containing carbon contents above the eutectoid level is found in ancient weapons from around the world. For example, both Damascus and Japanese sword steels are hypereutectoid steels. Their manufacture and processing is of interest in understanding the role of carbon content in the development of modern steels. Although sporadic examples of UHCS compositions are found in steels examined in the early part of this century, it was not until the mid-1970s that the modern study began. This study had its origin in the development of superplastic behavior in steels and the recognition that increasing the carbon content was of importance in developing that property. The compositions that were optimal for superplasticity involved the development of steels that contained higher carbon contents than conventional modern steels. It was discovered, however, that the room temperature properties of these compositions were of interest in their own right. Following this discovery, a period of intense work began on understanding their manufacture, processing, and properties for both superplastic forming and room temperature applications. The development of superplastic cast irons and iron carbides, as well as those of laminated composites containing UHCS, was an important part of this history.

  16. History of Space Shuttle Rendezvous

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, John L.

    2011-01-01

    This technical history is intended to provide a technical audience with an introduction to the rendezvous and proximity operations history of the Space Shuttle Program. It details the programmatic constraints and technical challenges encountered during shuttle development in the 1970s and over thirty years of shuttle missions. An overview of rendezvous and proximity operations on many shuttle missions is provided, as well as how some shuttle rendezvous and proximity operations systems and flight techniques evolved to meet new programmatic objectives. This revised edition provides additional information on Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and Apollo/Soyuz. Some chapters on the Space Shuttle have been updated and expanded. Four special focus chapters have been added to provide more detailed information on shuttle rendezvous. A chapter on the STS-39 mission of April/May 1991 describes the most complex deploy/retrieve mission flown by the shuttle. Another chapter focuses on the Hubble Space Telescope servicing missions. A third chapter gives the reader a detailed look at the February 2010 STS-130 mission to the International Space Station. The fourth chapter answers the question why rendezvous was not completely automated on the Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle vehicles.

  17. The history of AIDS exceptionalism

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In the history of public health, HIV/AIDS is unique; it has widespread and long-lasting demographic, social, economic and political impacts. The global response has been unprecedented. AIDS exceptionalism - the idea that the disease requires a response above and beyond "normal" health interventions - began as a Western response to the originally terrifying and lethal nature of the virus. More recently, AIDS exceptionalism came to refer to the disease-specific global response and the resources dedicated to addressing the epidemic. There has been a backlash against this exceptionalism, with critics claiming that HIV/AIDS receives a disproportionate amount of international aid and health funding. This paper situations this debate in historical perspective. By reviewing histories of the disease, policy developments and funding patterns, it charts how the meaning of AIDS exceptionalism has shifted over three decades. It argues that while the connotation of the term has changed, the epidemic has maintained its course, and therefore some of the justifications for exceptionalism remain. PMID:21129197

  18. Mineral evolution and Earth history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Dwight C.

    2015-01-01

    The field of mineral evolution—a merger of mineralogy and Earth history—coalesced in 2008 with the first of several global syntheses by Robert Hazen and coworkers in the American Mineralogist. They showed that the cumulative abundance of mineral species has a stepwise trend with first appearances tied to various transitions in Earth history such as the end of planetary accretion at ca. 4.55 Ga and the onset of bio-mediated mineralogy at ca. >2.5 Ga. A global age distribution is best established for zircon. Observed abundance of zircon fluctuates through more than an order of magnitude during successive supercontinent cycles. The pulse of the Earth is also recorded, albeit imperfectly, by the 87Sr/86Sr composition of marine biogenic calcite; the Sr-isotopic ratio of this mineral reflects the balance of inputs of primitive strontium at mid-ocean ridges and evolved strontium that drains off the continents. A global mineral evolution database, currently in the works, will greatly facilitate the compilation and analysis of extant data and the expansion of research in mineralogy outside its traditional bounds and into more interdisciplinary realms.

  19. Early history of scapular fractures.

    PubMed

    Bartoníček, Jan; Kozánek, Michal; Jupiter, Jesse B

    2016-01-01

    The first to use the term Scapula was Vesalius (1514-1564) and thus it has remained ever since. Probably the oldest injured scapula, from 250 million years ago, was described by Chinese authors of a skeletal examination of a fossilised remains of a dinosaur Yangchuanosaurus hepingensis. In humans, the oldest known scapular fractures date back to the prehistoric and early historic times. In ancient times, a fracture of acromion was described in the treatises of Hippocrates. Early modern history of the treatment of scapular fractures is closely interlinked with the history of the French surgery. The first to point out the existence of these fractures were Petit, Du Verney and Desault in the 18th century. The first study devoted solely to scapular fractures was published by Traugott Karl August Vogt in 1799. Thomas Callaway published in 1849 an extensive dissertation on injuries to the shoulder girdle, in which he discussed a number of cases known at that time. The first radiograph of a scapular fracture was published by Petty in 1907. Mayo Robson (1884), Lambotte (1913) and Lane (1914) were pioneers in the surgical treatment of these fractures, followed in 1923 by the French surgeons Lenormat, Dujarrier and Basset. The first internal fixation of the glenoid fossa, including a radiograph, was published by Fischer in 1939. PMID:26133287

  20. The Chordate Proteome History Database

    PubMed Central

    Levasseur, Anthony; Paganini, Julien; Dainat, Jacques; Thompson, Julie D.; Poch, Olivier; Pontarotti, Pierre; Gouret, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The chordate proteome history database (http://ioda.univ-provence.fr) comprises some 20,000 evolutionary analyses of proteins from chordate species. Our main objective was to characterize and study the evolutionary histories of the chordate proteome, and in particular to detect genomic events and automatic functional searches. Firstly, phylogenetic analyses based on high quality multiple sequence alignments and a robust phylogenetic pipeline were performed for the whole protein and for each individual domain. Novel approaches were developed to identify orthologs/paralogs, and predict gene duplication/gain/loss events and the occurrence of new protein architectures (domain gains, losses and shuffling). These important genetic events were localized on the phylogenetic trees and on the genomic sequence. Secondly, the phylogenetic trees were enhanced by the creation of phylogroups, whereby groups of orthologous sequences created using OrthoMCL were corrected based on the phylogenetic trees; gene family size and gene gain/loss in a given lineage could be deduced from the phylogroups. For each ortholog group obtained from the phylogenetic or the phylogroup analysis, functional information and expression data can be retrieved. Database searches can be performed easily using biological objects: protein identifier, keyword or domain, but can also be based on events, eg, domain exchange events can be retrieved. To our knowledge, this is the first database that links group clustering, phylogeny and automatic functional searches along with the detection of important events occurring during genome evolution, such as the appearance of a new domain architecture. PMID:22904610

  1. Importance of Engineering History Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakawa, Fumio

    It is needless to cite the importance of education for succeed of engineering. IEEJ called for the establishment of ICEE in 1994, where the education is thought highly of, though its discussion has not been well working. Generally speaking, education has been one of the most important national strategies particularly at a time of its political and economical development. The science and technology education is, of course, not the exemption. But in these days around 2000 it seems that the public pays little attention on the science and technology, as they are quite day to day matters. As the results, for instance, such engineering as power systems and electric heavy machines are referred to as “endangered”. So fur, many engineers have tried not to be involved in social issues. But currently they can not help facing with risks of social issues like patent rights, troubles and accidents due to application of high technology, information security in the use of computers and engineering ethics. One of the most appropriate ways for the risk management is to learn lessons in the past, that is, history, so that the idea suggested in it could be made full use for the risk management. The author cited the global importance of education, particularly of engineering history education for engineering ethics, in the ICEE 2010 held in Bussan, Korea, as the 16th anniversary.

  2. Winnipegosis case history: Tableland Saskatchewan

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, N.E.; Martindale, W.

    1988-02-01

    The geology and history of exploration in the Tableland area of southeast Saskatchewan will be reviewed in relation to a major Middle Devonian Winnipegosis oil discovery made in 1986 by Home Oil. Southern Saskatchewan is underlain by the northern third of the Williston basin. Although rich oil deposits have been found in the Devonian of the basin on the American side, dry holes have been the rule in Saskatchewan except for the Hummingbird Upper Devonian Birdbear discovery in 1966. The long history of failures in the Winnipegosis Formation had led to a general reluctance in the industry to drill deep wells especially with today's lower crude prices. Based on geology, seismic data, and modeling, Home Oil drilled Tableland 08-22-002-09W2M in february 1986 and encountered an oil-bearing Winnipegosis reef. This well has the highest production rate of any well in Saskatchewan and is the first commercially significant Winnipegosis well in a basinal setting within the Williston basin. A state-of-the-art pseudo 3-D processing of all the existing 2-D seismic data was performed to aid in choosing development well locations. As a result of this discovery, deep exploration plays in southeast Saskatchewan are now being pursued aggressively by many companies.

  3. Ancient Admixture in Human History

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Nick; Moorjani, Priya; Luo, Yontao; Mallick, Swapan; Rohland, Nadin; Zhan, Yiping; Genschoreck, Teri; Webster, Teresa; Reich, David

    2012-01-01

    Population mixture is an important process in biology. We present a suite of methods for learning about population mixtures, implemented in a software package called ADMIXTOOLS, that support formal tests for whether mixture occurred and make it possible to infer proportions and dates of mixture. We also describe the development of a new single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array consisting of 629,433 sites with clearly documented ascertainment that was specifically designed for population genetic analyses and that we genotyped in 934 individuals from 53 diverse populations. To illustrate the methods, we give a number of examples that provide new insights about the history of human admixture. The most striking finding is a clear signal of admixture into northern Europe, with one ancestral population related to present-day Basques and Sardinians and the other related to present-day populations of northeast Asia and the Americas. This likely reflects a history of admixture between Neolithic migrants and the indigenous Mesolithic population of Europe, consistent with recent analyses of ancient bones from Sweden and the sequencing of the genome of the Tyrolean “Iceman.” PMID:22960212

  4. History of Cardiology in India.

    PubMed

    Das, Mrinal Kanti; Kumar, Soumitra; Deb, Pradip Kumar; Mishra, Sundeep

    2015-01-01

    History as a science revolves around memories, travellers' tales, fables and chroniclers' stories, gossip and trans-telephonic conversations. Medicine itself as per the puritan's definition is a non-exact science because of the probability-predictability-sensitivity-specificity factors. Howsoever, the chronicles of Cardiology in India is quite interesting and intriguing. Heart and circulation was known to humankind from pre-Vedic era. Various therapeutics measures including the role of Yoga and transcendental meditation in curing cardiovascular diseases were known in India. Only recently there has been resurgence of the same globally. There have been very few innovations in Cardiology in India. The cause of this paucity possibly lie in the limited resources. This has a vicious effect on the research mentality of the population who are busy in meeting their daily requirements. This socio-scientific aspect needs a thorough study and is beyond the scope of the present documentation. Present is the future of past and so one must not forget the history which is essentially past that give the present generation the necessary fulcrum to stand in good stead. The present article essentially aims to pay tribute to all the workers and pioneers in the field of Cardiology in India, who in spite of limited resources ventured in an unchartered arena. PMID:26071301

  5. Intelligent Design and Earth History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, W. A.

    2001-05-01

    Intelligent Design (ID), the idea that the Earth's biota was intelligently designed and created, is not a new species recently evolved by allopatric speciation at the fringes of the creationist gene pool. In spite of its new veneer of sophistication, ID is a variant of an already extant species of religious polemics. In the western world, arguments about causative relationships between the complexity of nature and the supernatural can be traced from the fifth century St. Augustine, to the eighteenth century David Hume and the nineteenth century William Paley. Along this descent tree some argued from the existence of supernatural agencies to the creation of nature with its complexities, while others argued from the complexities of nature to the existence of supernatural agencies. Today, Phillip Johnson promotes ID by attacking evolution rather than by presenting evidence for ID. He argues that the evidence for macroevolution is either absent, misinterpreted or fraudulent. His "Wedge Strategy" attempts to separate his "objective science" from the "philosophical mechanistic naturalism" which he posits is responsible for the survival of Darwinism. To make his appeal as wide as possible he tries not to offend anyone (except evolutionists) by deliberately avoiding discussion of biblical literalism or the age of the Earth. Although in 1859 Darwin admitted that the geological evidence was "the most obvious and gravest objection which can be urged against my theory", subsequently geological evidence has become one of the chief supports of his theory. However, the fossil record is now seen to be not simply one of slow gradual descent with modification. Rates of divergence and disappearance of organisms have varied enormously through time. Repeated mass extinctions indicate a strong element of contingency in evolution. Accepting the postulate of an intelligent designer also requires the postulate of an intelligent destroyer. Darwin hinted at this when he referred to, "The clumsy, wasteful works of nature as seen in the suffering caused by parasites and in the delight in cruelty shown by some predators when catching and playing with their prey". The positions of other contemporary proponents of ID are far from uniform. Some, while rejecting unguided evolution, appear to accept the concepts of common descent and an Earth 4.6 billion years old. However, within the ID movement there has been very little discussion of its implications for Earth history. For example, is it valid to ask, "Were the Himalayas intelligently designed?" Or should the question be, "Is the physics of plate tectonics intelligently designed?" As well as contingency in the history of life, there are strong elements of contingency in the history of the Earth, in the history of the solar system and in the history of the cosmos. Does ID matter? From a purely operational viewpoint, the rock record could equally well be interpreted in pattern-based investigations as being the product of either naturalistic processes, or as a sequence of intelligently designed events. For example, in correlating horizons between adjacent oil wells using micropaleontology, or in doing seismic stratigraphy, it makes little difference whether foraminifera or unconformities formed by natural or supernatural agencies. However, ID is an anathema for process-based research and its cultural implications are enormous. While we must be careful in our work to separate methodological naturalism from culturally bound philosophical naturalism, methodological naturalism has been an enormously successful approach in the advancement of knowledge. We have moved from the "demon-haunted" world to the world of the human genome. We must take ID seriously; it is a retrograde step.

  6. National Museum of American History's OurStory Program: History, Literature, and Civic Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coquillon, Naomi; Wei, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    In 1998, the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center launched OurStory: History through Children's Literature, a history and literacy program series for family visitors to the Museum that was designed to help children and adults enjoy exploring history together. Ten years later, to reach a broader, national…

  7. Simple yet Complicated: U.S. History Represented in South Korean History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Sohyun; Suh, Yonghee

    2013-01-01

    Framing history/social studies textbooks as a social construction designed to create a public memory of a national history and history of the Other, we investigated how U.S. history is represented in South Korea's social studies textbooks and what images and ideas of the United States are encouraged for South Korean students to take. To…

  8. Black History, Inc! Investigating the Production of Black History through Walmart's Corporate Web Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, LaGarrett J.; Brown, Anthony L.

    2012-01-01

    Social and public sites are becoming a popular medium for intellectual consumption of Black history. Given the educational climate in which many students' exposure to Black history may come from outside of schools, the authors examine how Walmart's Black History Month Web site produced simplistic and safe narratives about African American history.

  9. Simple yet Complicated: U.S. History Represented in South Korean History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Sohyun; Suh, Yonghee

    2013-01-01

    Framing history/social studies textbooks as a social construction designed to create a public memory of a national history and history of the Other, we investigated how U.S. history is represented in South Korea's social studies textbooks and what images and ideas of the United States are encouraged for South Korean students to take. To…

  10. Toward World History: American Historians and the Coming of the World History Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allardyce, Gilbert

    1990-01-01

    Seeks to define world history through an analysis of its historical antecedents. Concentrates on the efforts of three historians--Louis Moreau, William H. McNeill, and Leften S. Stavrianos--to establish world history's place in education. Analyzes the relationship between world history, peace, and global education and the state of world history in…

  11. Assessing the Factorial Structure of High School History Teachers' Perceptions on Teaching American History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yuanlong; Shen, Jianping; Warren, Wilson J.; Cowart, Lynne E.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the research reported in this paper was to develop a preliminary factorial structure of high school history teachers' perceptions on the most important elements of successful history teaching. The 54-item Teaching American History Perception and Behavior Questionnaire was developed and administered to high school American history…

  12. Public History and Research in Military History: What Difference Has It Made?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the impact that public history activities of the U.S. armed forces has had on military historiography since World War II. Contends that military history was preempted by official histories commissioned by government agencies or the military. Argues that this led to the legitimization of military history at the college level. (CFR)

  13. The history of Italian parasitology.

    PubMed

    Roncalli Amici, R

    2001-07-12

    The history of Italian parasitology can be subdivided into two periods: pre-Redi and post-Redi. The first period includes the contributions to parasitology by savants who operated during the Roman, medieval and Renaissance eras; the second period started in 1668 when Francesco Redi published his experiments to debunk the theory of spontaneous generation; the work of Redi was subsequently continued by Vallisnieri, Spallanzani and others. The latter period includes classic contributions in the field of parasitology provided by veterinarians such as Ercolani, Perroncito, Piana and Rivolta, and by physicians such as Bassi, Grassi, Golgi, and Celli. Also, two outstanding pages of medical parasitology were written during this period--the unraveling and defeat of St. Gotthard's disease and the conquering of malaria on Italian soil--both accomplished through the generous efforts of dedicated individuals. PMID:11516576

  14. [The history of bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Carlo-Stella, N

    1998-01-01

    The history of bronchial asthma from ancient times is traced. The first accounts of asthma in the ancient Greeks and Romans with clinical descriptions by Aretus of Cappadocia and Aulus Celsus Cornelius are recounted. These are followed by the medieval habits of the Middle East as described by Moises Maimonides. The Renaissance is witness to a new scientific fervor in postulating theories on the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma by van Helmont, Willis and Floyer. The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries will see the discovery of the anatomical foundation of bronchial asthma thanks largely to the technical advances in the diagnostic field by Auerbrugge and Laennec. The allergic nature of bronchial asthma is studied by Salter. S Meltzer's hypothesis of histamine release as the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma leads the way for the twentieth century's leading discoveries. PMID:9987621

  15. [Radioprotectors: History, Trends and Prospects].

    PubMed

    Gudkov, S V; Popova, N R; Bruskov, V I

    2015-01-01

    The search for ideal protective agents for use in a variety of radiation scenarios has continued for more than six decades. This review describes the history of the major discoveries, shows the chronology of the changes in attitudes, trends and paradigms. The readers are invited to meet with various classes of chemical compounds that have the potential to protect against acute and late effects of ionizing radiation when administered either before or after radiation exposure. The work represents characteristics of radioprotective agents such as a dose reduction factor, time of administration, tissue specificity, toxicity; the mechanisms of their action and practical applications are also described. A separate chapter considers the further development prospects and directions in this field of research. PMID:26394481

  16. History of hadron therapy accelerators.

    PubMed

    Degiovanni, Alberto; Amaldi, Ugo

    2015-06-01

    In the last 60 years, hadron therapy has made great advances passing from a stage of pure research to a well-established treatment modality for solid tumours. In this paper the history of hadron therapy accelerators is reviewed, starting from the first cyclotrons used in the thirties for neutron therapy and passing to more modern and flexible machines used nowadays. The technical developments have been accompanied by clinical studies that allowed the selection of the tumours which are more sensitive to this type of radiotherapy. This paper aims at giving a review of the origin and the present status of hadron therapy accelerators, describing the technological basis and the continuous development of this application to medicine of instruments developed for fundamental science. At the end the present challenges are reviewed. PMID:25812487

  17. [History of traumatology in Hungary].

    PubMed

    Hönig, V

    1975-01-01

    The history of the Hungarian Traumatology since the 16th century up to the present days is outlined by the author. The most important works--dealing with the treatment of the fractures and with the activity of other areas of the traumatology--are enumerated. Moreover, the factors promoting the development of the Hungarian traumatology are specified and the important surgeons active in the field of traumatology and the war operative surgery are named, who too have contributed to the development of the Hungarian traumatology. The importance of the Hungarian Institute of Traumatology--founded in 1956--is emphasized,--thus, the traumatology became an independent section of the Hungarian public health; and centrally directed and organized function of the traumatology was assured. PMID:237152

  18. The history of Chagas disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The ancestor of Trypanosome cruzi was probably introduced to South American via bats approximately 7-10 million years ago. When the first humans arrived in the New World, a sylvatic cycle of Chagas disease was then already well established. Paleoparasitological data suggests that human American trypanosomiasis originated in the Andean area when people founded the first settlements in the coastal region of the Atacama Desert. Identification of T. cruzi as the etiological agent and triatome bugs as the transmission vector of Chagas disease occurred within a few years at the beginning of the 20th century. History also teaches us that human activity leading to environmental changes, in particular deforestation, is the main cause for the spread of Chagas disease. Recently, migration of T. cruzi-infected patients has led to a distribution of Chagas disease from Latin America to non-endemic countries in Europe, North America and western Pacific region. PMID:25011546

  19. Natural History of Christianson Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Schroer, Richard J.; Holden, Kenton R.; Tarpey, Patrick S.; Matheus, Maria Giselle; Griesemer, David A.; Friez, Michael J.; Fan, Jane Zheng; Simensen, Richard J.; Strømme, Petter; Stevenson, Roger E.; Stratton, Michael R.; Schwartz, Charles E.

    2013-01-01

    Christianson syndrome is an X-linked mental retardation syndrome characterized by microcephaly, impaired ocular movement, severe global developmental delay, hypotonia which progresses to spasticity, and early onset seizures of variable types. Gilfillan et al. [2008] reported mutations in SLC9A6, the gene encoding the sodium/hydrogen exchanger NHE6, in the family first reported and in three others. They also noted the clinical similarities to Angelman syndrome and found cerebellar atrophy on MRI and elevated glutamate/glutamine in the basal ganglia on MRS. Here we report on nonsense mutations in two additional families. The natural history is detailed in childhood and adult life, the similarities to Angelman syndrome confirmed, and the MRI/MRS findings documented in three affected boys. PMID:20949524

  20. The fluvial history of Mars.

    PubMed

    Carr, Michael H

    2012-05-13

    River channels and valleys have been observed on several planetary bodies in addition to the Earth. Long sinuous valleys on Venus, our Moon and Jupiter's moon Io are clearly formed by lava, and branching valleys on Saturn's moon Titan may be forming today by rivers of methane. But by far the most dissected body in our Solar System apart from the Earth is Mars. Branching valleys that in plan resemble terrestrial river valleys are common throughout the most ancient landscapes preserved on the planet. Accompanying the valleys are the remains of other indicators of erosion and deposition, such as deltas, alluvial fans and lake beds. There is little reason to doubt that water was the erosive agent and that early in Mars' history, climatic conditions were very different from the present cold conditions and such that, at least episodically, water could flow across the surface. In addition to the branching valley networks, there are large flood features, termed outflow channels. These are similar to, but dwarf, the largest terrestrial flood channels. The consensus is that these channels were also cut by water although there are other possibilities. The outflow channels mostly postdate the valley networks, although most are still very ancient. They appear to have formed at a time when surface conditions were similar to those that prevail today. There is evidence that glacial activity has modified some of the water-worn valleys, particularly in the 30-50° latitude belts, and ice may also be implicated in the formation of geologically recent, seemingly water-worn gullies on steep slopes. Mars also has had a long volcanic history, and long, sinuous lava channels similar to those on the Moon and Venus are common on and around the large volcanoes. These will not, however, be discussed further; the emphasis here is on the effects of running water on the evolution of the surface. PMID:22474681

  1. [The cultural history of disease].

    PubMed

    Viniegra-Velázquez, Leonardo

    2008-01-01

    In this essay the concept of Cultural History of Disease (CHD) is proposed as an alternative to Natural History of Disease (NHD). A brief historic recapitulation of the concept of disease is made, and the present idea is given a detailed account which is the basis of the nosological theory of the health/disease paradigm. The main aspects of the NHD are specified, its limitations and restrictive consequences in health care are highlighted. It is proposed the idea of disease as particular and differential ways of being from human beings. It is showed how culture (everything that make us human) "takes the reins of evolution" in our species and determines, in every period, our ways of being, of living, and getting sick. Some distinctive qualities of life are showed to take a distance from the idea of machine and the dominant mechanism of health care in our time. The concept of CHD is developed as a proposal that "lightens" aspects ignored by NHD. An account is made of how, by cultural effect, a number of diseases no longer exist; others have appeared or increased their presence, have changed their features or varied their distribution. The every time more and more unsupported congenital/acquired dichotomy is discussed. It is showed how the epigenetic inheritance is a strong evidence against the separation between genetic and environmental. The mechanist causality, in its different characteristics, proper of the health/disease paradigm and of NHD, is contrasted to contextual causality proper of CHD. The implications of CHD in the way of approaching to diseases, in restating the patients', physicians' and health care institutions' role are discussed. As well as in recognizing that health care has no sense without life care in its different manifestations, from which derives the need to fight for more proper conditions and circumstances for a dignified, satisfactory, serene, fraternal life in including societies. PMID:19378839

  2. Family History in Primary Care Pediatrics

    PubMed Central

    McInerney, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    The family history has been called the first genetic test; it was a core element of primary care long before the current wave of genetics technologies and services became clinically relevant. Risk assessment based on family history allows providers to personalize and prioritize health messages, shifts the focus of health care from treatment to prevention, and can empower individuals and families to be stewards of their own health. In a world of rising health care costs, the family history is an important tool, with its primary cost being the clinician’s time. However, a recent National Institutes of Health conference highlighted the lack of substantive evidence to support the clinical utility of family histories. Annual collection of a comprehensive 3-generation family history has been held up as the gold standard for practice. However, interval family histories targeted to symptoms and family histories tailored to a child’s life stage (ie, age-based health) may be important and underappreciated methods of collecting family history that yield clinically actionable data and supplement existing family history information. In this article, we review the various applications, as well as capabilities and limitations, of the family history for primary care providers. PMID:24298128

  3. Lunar Polar Subsurface Temperature History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegler, M.; Bills, B.; Paige, D.

    2008-12-01

    We present thermal calculations for lunar polar subsurface locations to depths of 1 km in order to examine relative stability of water ice over lunar orbital history. The lunar orbit plane precesses in response to torques from the Earth and Sun. Cassini states are configurations in which the obliquity is adjusted so that the spin pole precesses about the orbit pole in the same period as the orbit pole precesses about the invariable pole. Such a state is the expected outcome of tidal dissipation within the Moon. Tidal dissipation within the Earth drives the lunar orbit outward, which in turn influences the rate of orbit plane precession. The Moon's original low obliquity Cassini state ceased to exist at a semimajor axis of about 34 Earth radii. Thereafter, the lunar spin pole reoriented into a new, higher obliquity Cassini state which slowly evolved into the Moon's current low obliquity [Ward, 1975; Siegler et al, 2007]. During the transition, there was a brief period of even higher obliquity values (~70 degrees). The duration of this transition is not well constrained, as it depends on the dissipation rate within the Moon at that time, but was likely of order 104-105 years. Though it is clear the lunar surface environment would be thermally unstable for ice during this transition, the same is not necessarily true for the polar subsurface. Furthermore, the period before this transition may have been thermally suitable for collecting volatiles in the near surface. It is therefore a worthwhile study to explore where early near surface ice might have relocated in response to orbital forcing. Here we relate a modeled subsurface thermal response to surface temperature forcing for a calculated lunar spin pole history. We examine the cases within and surrounding an idealized, currently shadowed, near polar crater that received direct illumination in earlier orbital epochs. We show depths at which temperatures would have provided a safe haven for ice if it were present and comment on its mobility. One of the motivations of this study is to understand the contrast in polar volatile inventories between the Moon and Mercury. Radar observations and thermal models support the conclusion that permanently shadowed polar craters of Mercury contain abundant near surface water ice. Thermal modeling shows that the Moon should also currently have near polar environments capable of preserving surface ice [Vasavada et al, 1999]. However, there is little conclusive evidence for surface lunar ice [Campbell et al, 2006]. A plausible explanation for this is that both bodies once had ice, but differing obliquity histories made lunar surface ice unstable and mobile, while mercurian ice remained unchanged. The present obliquity of Mercury is small, and has likely always been so. In contrast, the Moon experienced this period of very high obliquity, during which presently shadowed polar regions would have been fully illuminated.

  4. Family history and improving health.

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Nadeem; Wilson, Brenda; Santaguida, Pasqualina; Little, Julian; Carroll, June; Allanson, Judith; Raina, Parminder

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This systematic review aimed to evaluate, within unselected populations: Question 1 (Q1) key elements of family history (FH) which usefully predict subsequent disease; Question 2 (Q2) the accuracy of reporting FH; Question 3 (Q3) the impact of FH-based risk information on the uptake of preventive interventions; Question 4 (Q4) the potential for harms associated with collecting cancer FH; Question 5 (Q5) factors that facilitate or hinder the collection of family history; and, Question 6 (Q6) future directions. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Controlled Trial Register (CCTR), and PsycINFO were searched from 1995 to March 2, 2009 inclusive. REVIEW METHODS Standard systematic review methodology was employed. Eligibility criteria varied by question, but overall, specified studies reported in English, excluded qualitative designs, and limited populations to those unselected for pre-existing risk (except for Q2). Study designs and outcomes varied by research question. RESULTS One hundred and thirty-seven publications were eligible in total for this review. Q1: Key elements of FH: Eighty-nine studies were eligible for this question of which 59 reported FH and data on subsequent or current disease in subjects. The varied definitions of positive FH were consistently associated with elevated relative risks, but their value in predicting future risk or detecting current disease was difficult to assess without considering further information on other risk factors or the available preventive interventions. Q2: Accuracy of FH Reporting. Thirty-seven studies evaluated accuracy and showed relatively high specificity and low sensitivity across all disease categories. Q3: Uptake of preventive interventions. Two studies evaluated the impact of FH-based risk and the evidence was insufficient to establish any effect on change in clinical preventive behavior or uptake of interventions. Q4: Harms of FH taking. Three studies evaluated the impact of FH-based risk information on psychological outcomes and indicated no evidence of significant harm.Q5: Factors affecting FH collection: The evidence base for addressing Q5 is heterogeneous and limited to six studies exploring the association between various factors and family history reporting, documentation and discussion. CONCLUSIONS Our review indicates: (Q1) Many FH definitions showed low discriminatory accuracy in predicting disease risk in individuals but further research is warranted; (Q2) accuracy of reporting is higher for relatives without, than those affected by, a given disease; (Q3) there is insufficient evidence to assess the effect of FH-based risk assessment on preventive behaviors; (Q4) there is limited evidence to assess whether the provision of FH-based personalized risk assessment results in adverse outcomes; (Q5) there is little evidence on factors affecting FH reporting and collection in primary care. PMID:19947667

  5. Teaching American History with Science Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollister, Bernard C.

    1975-01-01

    Activities using science fiction literature to teach American History topics such as future shock, economics, urbanization, minority studies, politics, international relations, and contemporary America are suggested. (JR)

  6. Defendants previous history and mock sentencing.

    PubMed

    Wear, D A; Pasewark, R A

    1984-05-01

    Six hundred forty-four undergraduates served as mock judges in sentencing male or female defendants convicted of homicide, child molestation, embezzlement, fraudulent issuance of checks, heroin possession, and consensual homosexuality. Defendants had a reported history of psychiatric hospitalization, imprisonment, or neither hospitalization nor incarceration. Results indicated: (1) those defendants with a mental health history were more likely to be accorded a disposition that involved mandatory health treatment; (2) dispositions of persons with a mental health history tended to be more restrictive than those of defendants with neither a mental health nor criminal history; and (3) sex of defendant of mock judge influenced sentencing disposition only in child molestation cases. PMID:6747006

  7. Planetary volatile history - Principles and practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanale, F. P.

    1986-01-01

    The history and evolution of planetary volatile inventories are considered. Planetary bulk volatile inventories are greatly affected by the distance from the preplanetary nebula center at which material accreted, with volatile contents increasing with increasing distance from the nebula center. Other significant factors include: planetary energetics and internal thermal history, planetary volatile sinks (including space), and operation of external variables such as solar energy on the transient, steady-state array of surface volatiles. The net result of all these processes is a volatile history that is itself a controlling factor in overall planetary history.

  8. 7 CFR 929.48 - Sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... separately for fresh and processed cranberries. The amount of fresh fruit sales history may be...

  9. 7 CFR 929.48 - Sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... separately for fresh and processed cranberries. The amount of fresh fruit sales history may be...

  10. 7 CFR 929.48 - Sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... separately for fresh and processed cranberries. The amount of fresh fruit sales history may be...

  11. Ancient history of flatfish research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berghahn, Rüdiger; Bennema, Floris Pieter

    2013-01-01

    Owing to both their special appearance and behavior flatfish have attracted the special attention of people since ages. The first records of humans having been in touch with flatfish date back to the Stone Age about 15,000 years B.C. Detailed descriptions were already given in the classical antiquity and were taken up 1400 years later in the Renaissance by the first ichthyologists, encyclopédists, and also by practical men. This was more than 200 years before a number of common flatfish species were given their scientific names by Linnaeus in 1758. Besides morphology, remarkable and sometimes amusing naturalistic observations and figures are bequeathed. Ancient history of flatfish research is still a wide and open array. Examples are presented how the yield of information and interpretation from these times increases with interdisciplinary cooperation including archeologists, zoologists, ichthyologists, historians, art historians, fisheries and fishery biologist. The timeline of this contribution ends with the start of modern fishery research at the end of the 19th century in the course of the rapidly increasing exploitation of fish stocks.

  12. The history of nuclear fear

    SciTech Connect

    Weart, S.

    1993-04-01

    The history of military and civilian nuclear energy is not only a matter of hard technology, politics, and economics. Our thinking about bombs and reactors is also affected by images with a curious and sometimes overwhelming power. Weird rays that can transform flesh or create monsters, the atom-powered marvels of a future uptopia, the mad scientist who plots to destroy the world: all have an influence on the way people think. Already decades before scientists had discovered how to exploit nuclear energy, a web of interconnected symbols was fully formed in the public mind. These images can be traced back to primitive imagery and, still deeper, into common human experiences, but they were often connected specifically to nuclear energy by nuclear scientists themselves. After the actual development of nuclear technology, a variety of groups used the old symbolism for their propaganda. Since nuclear energy was the most impressive case of the application of the arcane mysteries of science by modern technological authorities, it came to stand for all that people hoped, and still more what they feared, from such authorities.

  13. History of wireless power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W.C.

    1996-12-31

    The history of wireless power transmission at microwave frequencies is reviewed with emphasis upon the time period starting with the post World War II efforts to use the new microwave technology developed during the war. A nationally televised demonstration of a microwave powered helicopter at the Spencer Laboratory of the Raytheon Co., in 1964 was the result of these early efforts and broadly introduced the concept of wireless power transmission to scientific and engineering communities and to the public. Subsequent development efforts centered on improving the efficiency of the interconversion of d.c. and microwave power at the ends of the system to reach a demonstrated overall d.c. to d.c. system efficiency of 54% in 1974. The response to the requirements of applications such as the Solar Power Satellite and high altitude microwave powered aircraft have changed the direction of technology development and greatly expanded the technology base. Recent and current efforts are centered on examining the use of higher frequencies than the baseline 2.45 GHz, and in reducing the system costs at 2.45 GHz. 26 refs., 14 figs.

  14. Tech Area II: A history

    SciTech Connect

    Ullrich, R.

    1998-07-01

    This report documents the history of the major buildings in Sandia National Laboratories` Technical Area II. It was prepared in support of the Department of Energy`s compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Technical Area II was designed and constructed in 1948 specifically for the final assembly of the non-nuclear components of nuclear weapons, and was the primary site conducting such assembly until 1952. Both the architecture and location of the oldest buildings in the area reflect their original purpose. Assembly activities continued in Area II from 1952 to 1957, but the major responsibility for this work shifted to other sites in the Atomic Energy Commission`s integrated contractor complex. Gradually, additional buildings were constructed and the original buildings were modified. After 1960, the Area`s primary purpose was the research and testing of high-explosive components for nuclear weapons. In 1994, Sandia constructed new facilities for work on high-explosive components outside of the original Area II diamond-shaped parcel. Most of the buildings in the area are vacant and Sandia has no plans to use them. They are proposed for decontamination and demolition as funding becomes available.

  15. [Ancient history of Indian pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Okuda, Jun; Natsume, Yohko

    2010-01-01

    The study of the ancient history of Indian medicine has recently been revived due to the publication of polyglot translations. However, little is known of ancient Indian pharmacy. Archaeological evidence suggests the Indus people lived a settled life approximately in 2500 B.C. Their cities were enjoying the cleanest and most hygienic daily life with elaborate civic sanitation systems. The whole conception shows a remarkable concern for health. Then, the early Aryans invaded India about 1500 B.C. and the Vedic age started. The Rgveda texts contain the hymns for Soma and those for herbs. The term Ayurveda (i.e., science of life) is found in some old versions of both Ram?yana and Mah?bh?rata and in the Atharvaveda. Su?ruta had the credit of making a breakthrough in the field of surgery. The Ayurveda, a work on internal medicine, gives the following transmission of sages: Brahm?-->Daksa-->Praj?pati-->A?ivinau-->Indra-->Caraka. On the other hand, the Su?ruta-samhit?, which deals mainly with surgical medicine, explains it as follows; Indra-->Dhanvantari-->Su?ruta Both Caraka and Su?ruta were medical doctors as well as pharmacists, so they studied more than 1000 herbs thoroughly. The Ayurveda had been used by his devotees for medical purposes. It eventually spread over Asia with the advanced evolution of Buddhism. PMID:21032887

  16. The history of military cranioplasty.

    PubMed

    Bonfield, Christopher M; Kumar, Anand R; Gerszten, Peter C

    2014-04-01

    There is evidence that the neurosurgical procedure of cranioplasty is as ancient as its better-known counterpart, trephination. With origins in pre-Incan Peru, cranioplasty remains an important reconstructive procedure for modern craniofacial surgery teams to master. Solutions to the often challenging problem of repairing skull defects continue to evolve to improve patient outcomes. Throughout recorded history, advances in cranioplasty have paralleled major military conflicts due to survivorship after trephination or decompressive craniectomy. Primitive skull coverings used in Peru were later replaced during the Middle Ages by grafts obtained in animals and humans. Improved survivorship secondary to advances in anesthesia and battlefield medicine during the Crimean War and the American Civil War allowed the use of tantalum and acrylic cranioplasty to evolve during World Wars I and II. In the modern era of the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts, greater survivorship after cranial injury due to improvements in protective armor, medical evacuation, and early "far-forward" neurosurgical treatment have occurred. Consequently, the last decade has seen great advancement in cranial defect reconstruction, including custom-fabricated alloplast implants and the emergence of regenerative cranial treatments such as distraction osteogenesis, protected bone regeneration, and free tissue transfers. Comprehensive rehabilitation after neurotrauma has emerged as the new standard of care. PMID:24684330

  17. Genetic reconstructions of invasion history.

    PubMed

    Cristescu, Melania E

    2015-05-01

    A diverse array of molecular markers and constantly evolving analytical approaches have been employed to reconstruct the invasion histories of the most notorious invasions. Detailed information on the source(s) of introduction, invasion route, type of vectors, number of independent introductions and pathways of secondary spread has been corroborated for a large number of biological invasions. In this review, I present the promises and limitations of current techniques while discussing future directions. Broad phylogeographic surveys of native and introduced populations have traced back invasion routes with surprising precision. These approaches often further clarify species boundaries and reveal complex patterns of genetic relationships with noninvasive relatives. Moreover, fine-scale analyses of population genetics or genomics allow deep inferences on the colonization dynamics across invaded ranges and can reveal the extent of gene flow among populations across various geographical scales, major demographic events such as genetic bottlenecks as well as other important evolutionary events such as hybridization with native taxa, inbreeding and selective sweeps. Genetic data have been often corroborated successfully with historical, geographical and ecological data to enable a comprehensive reconstruction of the invasion process. The advent of next-generation sequencing, along with the availability of extensive databases of repository sequences generated by barcoding projects opens the opportunity to broadly monitor biodiversity, to identify early invasions and to quantify failed invasions that would otherwise remain inconspicuous to the human eye. PMID:25703061

  18. Pain: history, culture and philosophy.

    PubMed

    Khan, Murad Ahmad; Raza, Fauzia; Khan, Iqbal Akhtar

    2015-01-01

    Pain, one of the universals of existence, has a long and venerable history, its origin initially attributed to godly punishment for disbelievers; and, with improved understanding, to physical and psycho-social factors. "Pain is emotion or sensation?" has been a debatable issue. Razes developed pleasure-pain theory, founded on the theories of Socrates, Plato, Aristotle and Epicurus. Descartes' Dualism shifted the centre of pain from the heart to the brain but negated the psychological contribution to its pathogenesis. Gate Control Theory, fascinated with the idea of "neurological gates", highlighted the important role of the brain in dealing with the messages received. The International Association of the Study of Pain, in 1979, coined a definition of pain which is currently in use and was last updated on 6th October 2014. Its validity has been challenged and a new definition has been suggested. Whereas the experience is personalized, immeasurable and unsharable, different cultural groups react differently to pain from relative tolerance to over-reaction. Gender and ethnic differences in the perception of pain are well proven and the effects of various religious beliefs adequately scored. Despite extensive research over centuries, understanding of pain mechanisms is still far from optimal. Untiring efforts to identify a paincentre in the brain have been futile. Had it been possible, millions of pain sufferers would have been relieved of their physical agony and mental anguish by the prick of needle. PMID:26203543

  19. The natural history of violence.

    PubMed

    Russell, C; Russell, W M

    1979-09-01

    In the past, human violence was associated with food shortage, but recently it has increased even in relatively well-fed societies. The reason appears from studies of monkeys under relaxed, spacious conditions and under crowding stress. Uncrowded monkeys have unaggressive leaders, rarely quarrel, and protect females and young. Crowded monkeys (even well-fed) have brutal bosses, often quarrel, and wound and kill each other, including females and young. Crowding has similar behaviour effects on other mammals, with physiological disturbances including greater susceptibility to infections. All this appears to be a regular response to overpopulation, reducing the population before it has depleted its natural resources. Human beings, like monkeys and other mammals, need ample space, and become more violent when crowded. Human history is marked by population cycles: population outgrows resources, the resulting violence, stress and disease mortality cuts down the population, leading to a relief period of social and cultural progress, till renewed population growth produces the next crisis. The modern population crisis is world-wide, and explains the increase of violence even in well-fed societies. The solution to the problem of violence is to substitute voluntary birth control for involuntary death control, and bring about relaxed conditions for a reduced world population. PMID:114662

  20. Tectonic history of southeastern Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.J.; Lumm, D.K.

    1983-09-01

    Recurrent movements on the northeast-trending Reelfoot rift and west-trending Rough Creek fault zone dominated southeastern Illinois tectonic history. Early Cambrian rifting along both zones created deep trenches that began to fill with sediments. Intermittent movements continued, but faults were quiescent by the Mississippian. Then renewed extension on the Reelfoot rift in the Early Permian produced high-angle normal faults in the Wabash Valley fault system and fluorspar area fault complex, and the right-lateral Cottage Grove fault system. Igneous intrusions accompanied this action: upwelling magma formed Omaha dome; Hicks dome and associated concentric and radial faults appear to have been formed by explosive igneous activity. After the Early Permian, recurrent up-and-down movements of several thousand feet reactivated the fluorspar area fault complex and created the present day Rough Creek and Shawneetown fault zones. Blocks bordering faults returned roughly to their original positions by the Late Cretaceous, leaving narrow slices of rock upthrown and downthrown along faults. Faults in Illinois probably have been inactive since the Cretaceous Period, although the Reelfoot rift south of Cairo has been reactivated. Earthquakes in Illinois today apparently are caused by local east-west horizontal compressional stresses not related to known bedrock faults.

  1. Optical Interferometry Motivation and History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Peter

    2006-01-01

    A history and motivation of stellar interferometry is presented. The topics include: 1) On Tides, Organ Pipes, and Soap Bubbles; 2) Armand Hippolyte Fizeau (1819-1896); 3) Fizeau Suggests Stellar Interferometry 1867; 4) Edouard Stephan (1837-1923); 5) Foucault Refractor; 6) Albert A. Michelson (1852-1931); 7) On the Application of Interference Methods to Astronomy (1890); 8) Moons of Jupiter (1891); 9) Other Applications in 19th Century; 10) Timeline of Interferometry to 1938; 11) 30 years goes by; 12) Mount Wilson Observatory; 13) Michelson's 20 ft Interferometer; 14) Was Michelson Influenced by Fizeau? 15) Work Continues in the 1920s and 30s; 16) 50 ft Interferometer (1931-1938); 17) Light Paths in the 50 ft Interferometer; 18) Ground-level at the 50 ft; 19) F.G. Pease (1881-1938); 20) Timeline of Optical Interferometry to 1970; 21) A New Type of Stellar Interferometer (1956); 22) Intensity Interferometer (1963- 1976; 23) Robert Hanbury Brown; 24) Interest in Optical Interferometry in the 1960s; 25) Interferometry in the Early 1970s; and 26) A New Frontier is Opened up in 1974.

  2. Lunar Receiving Laboratory Project History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangus, Susan; Larsen, William

    2004-01-01

    As early as 1959, the Working Group on Lunar Exploration within NASA advocated that 'one of the prime objectives of the first lunar landing mission should be the collection of samples for return to Earth, where they could be subjected to detailed study and analysis.' Within NASA, neither this group nor any other scientists working with the Agency were concerned about back contamination issues. Outside of NASA, back contamination concerns had been raised as early as 1960. Although NASA did not seem to pay any attention to the concerns at that time, the scientific community continued to be interested in the topic. In 1962 and again in 1963, as the Apollo Program loomed large, further discussions were held. These early discussions of back contamination did not make their way into NASA's administration, however, and when Manned Spacecraft Center personnel began to articulate early concepts for the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL), the back contamination issue was not considered. Once this concern became a major focus, however, the LRL's development became increasingly complex. This is the history of that development.

  3. A brief history of mastoidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Fonseca, Anna Carolina de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Summary Aim: To describe to the new generation of otologists the origins of mastoidectomy as well as the difficulties our predecessors encountered and the solutions they devised to improve otologic surgery. Method: Retrospective literature review-based study. Results: Before the mid-19th century, mastoidectomy was performed only sporadically and in most cases as a desperate attempt to save the lives of people suffering from complications of infectious otitis. The drainage of acute abscesses became a common procedure at the beginning of the 20th century, within the pre-antibiotic era. The first documented surgical incision to drain an infected ear was described by the French physician Ambroise Paré in the 16th century. The credit for performing the first mastoidectomy for the removal of purulent secretions went to Jean-Louis Petit. Mastoidectomies were normally performed to treat infections. However, mastoidectomies were also carried out for other purposes, particularly for the treatment of deafness and tinnitus, during various periods. Sir Charles Ballance credited Johannes Riolanus with recommending mastoidectomy for the treatment of tinnitus. William Wilde began the era of modern mastoidectomy with his introduction of the eponymous retroauricular incision. Conclusion: Mastoidectomy has evolved significantly throughout its history. Improvements in mastoidectomy have relied on the introduction of more elaborate surgical procedures, especially the advances in surgical equipment during the last century. Mastoidectomy continues to be a life-saving surgical procedure. PMID:25992009

  4. History of postviral fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wessely, S

    1991-10-01

    In writing a history of any illness there is always a dilemma whether to attempt the story of the condition 'itself', the medical attempts to define its nature, or to glimpse it via our changing reactions. The easiest is a straightforward account of the attempts of scientists to solve a problem--the classic medical detective story. However, this is often more fiction than fact. Medicine rarely moves smoothly from ignorance to knowledge, but often in a more circular fashion. A historical approach is thus not solely a record of who did what, but also contributes to our understanding of the problems under scrutiny in this issue. Terminology is never easy in this subject, but the following conventions will be used: The terms neurasthenia and ME will be used in their actual context (as authors themselves used them), without defining either. Post-infectious fatigue syndrome (PIFS) will cover similar conditions when related to infective episodes. All will be used in a neutral fashion, to refer to changing realities as understood by doctors and historians. This chapter attempts both chronological description and social analysis. The justification for this approach is clear in the case of neurasthenia, since 'as so little was known of its pathological basis physicians' statements regarding the disease were composed more of social and cultural elements than of scientific knowledge'. Although much has changed, a contemporary account still reveals as much about cultural attitudes as the advance of science. PMID:1794091

  5. Interrupting History: Rethinking History Curriculum after "The End of History". Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. Volume 404

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Robert John

    2011-01-01

    Since the emergence of postmodern social theory, history has been haunted by predictions of its imminent end. Postmodernism has been accused of making historical research and writing untenable, encouraging the proliferation of revisionist histories, providing fertile ground for historical denial, and promoting the adoption of a mournful view of…

  6. Interrupting History: Rethinking History Curriculum after "The End of History". Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. Volume 404

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Robert John

    2011-01-01

    Since the emergence of postmodern social theory, history has been haunted by predictions of its imminent end. Postmodernism has been accused of making historical research and writing untenable, encouraging the proliferation of revisionist histories, providing fertile ground for historical denial, and promoting the adoption of a mournful view of…

  7. Hominin life history: reconstruction and evolution.

    PubMed

    Robson, Shannen L; Wood, Bernard

    2008-04-01

    In this review we attempt to reconstruct the evolutionary history of hominin life history from extant and fossil evidence. We utilize demographic life history theory and distinguish life history variables, traits such as weaning, age at sexual maturity, and life span, from life history-related variables such as body mass, brain growth, and dental development. The latter are either linked with, or can be used to make inferences about, life history, thus providing an opportunity for estimating life history parameters in fossil taxa. We compare the life history variables of modern great apes and identify traits that are likely to be shared by the last common ancestor of Pan-Homo and those likely to be derived in hominins. All great apes exhibit slow life histories and we infer this to be true of the last common ancestor of Pan-Homo and the stem hominin. Modern human life histories are even slower, exhibiting distinctively long post-menopausal life spans and later ages at maturity, pointing to a reduction in adult mortality since the Pan-Homo split. We suggest that lower adult mortality, distinctively short interbirth intervals, and early weaning characteristic of modern humans are derived features resulting from cooperative breeding. We evaluate the fidelity of three life history-related variables, body mass, brain growth and dental development, with the life history parameters of living great apes. We found that body mass is the best predictor of great ape life history events. Brain growth trajectories and dental development and eruption are weakly related proxies and inferences from them should be made with caution. We evaluate the evidence of life history-related variables available for extinct species and find that prior to the transitional hominins there is no evidence of any hominin taxon possessing a body size, brain size or aspects of dental development much different from what we assume to be the primitive life history pattern for the Pan-Homo clade. Data for life history-related variables among the transitional hominin grade are consistent and none agrees with a modern human pattern. Aside from mean body mass, adult brain size, crown and root formation times, and the timing and sequence of dental eruption of Homo erectus are inconsistent with that of modern humans. Homo antecessor fossil material suggests a brain size similar to that of Homo erectus s. s., and crown formation times that are not yet modern, though there is some evidence of modern human-like timing of tooth formation and eruption. The body sizes, brain sizes, and dental development of Homo heidelbergensis and Homo neanderthalensis are consistent with a modern human life history but samples are too small to be certain that they have life histories within the modern human range. As more life history-related variable information for hominin species accumulates we are discovering that they can also have distinctive life histories that do not conform to any living model. At least one extinct hominin subclade, Paranthropus, has a pattern of dental life history-related variables that most likely set it apart from the life histories of both modern humans and chimpanzees. PMID:18380863

  8. Hominin life history: reconstruction and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Shannen L; Wood, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    In this review we attempt to reconstruct the evolutionary history of hominin life history from extant and fossil evidence. We utilize demographic life history theory and distinguish life history variables, traits such as weaning, age at sexual maturity, and life span, from life history-related variables such as body mass, brain growth, and dental development. The latter are either linked with, or can be used to make inferences about, life history, thus providing an opportunity for estimating life history parameters in fossil taxa. We compare the life history variables of modern great apes and identify traits that are likely to be shared by the last common ancestor of Pan-Homo and those likely to be derived in hominins. All great apes exhibit slow life histories and we infer this to be true of the last common ancestor of Pan-Homo and the stem hominin. Modern human life histories are even slower, exhibiting distinctively long post-menopausal life spans and later ages at maturity, pointing to a reduction in adult mortality since the Pan-Homo split. We suggest that lower adult mortality, distinctively short interbirth intervals, and early weaning characteristic of modern humans are derived features resulting from cooperative breeding. We evaluate the fidelity of three life history-related variables, body mass, brain growth and dental development, with the life history parameters of living great apes. We found that body mass is the best predictor of great ape life history events. Brain growth trajectories and dental development and eruption are weakly related proxies and inferences from them should be made with caution. We evaluate the evidence of life history-related variables available for extinct species and find that prior to the transitional hominins there is no evidence of any hominin taxon possessing a body size, brain size or aspects of dental development much different from what we assume to be the primitive life history pattern for the Pan-Homo clade. Data for life history-related variables among the transitional hominin grade are consistent and none agrees with a modern human pattern. Aside from mean body mass, adult brain size, crown and root formation times, and the timing and sequence of dental eruption of Homo erectus are inconsistent with that of modern humans. Homo antecessor fossil material suggests a brain size similar to that of Homo erectus s. s., and crown formation times that are not yet modern, though there is some evidence of modern human-like timing of tooth formation and eruption. The body sizes, brain sizes, and dental development of Homo heidelbergensis and Homo neanderthalensis are consistent with a modern human life history but samples are too small to be certain that they have life histories within the modern human range. As more life history-related variable information for hominin species accumulates we are discovering that they can also have distinctive life histories that do not conform to any living model. At least one extinct hominin subclade, Paranthropus, has a pattern of dental life history-related variables that most likely set it apart from the life histories of both modern humans and chimpanzees. PMID:18380863

  9. History of the earth's obliquity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, George E.

    1993-03-01

    The evolution of the obliquity of the ecliptic (?), the Earth's axial tilt of 23.5°, may have greatly influenced the Earth's dynamical, climatic and biotic development. For ? > 54°, climatic zonation and zonal surface winds would be reversed, low to equatorial latitudes would be glaciated in preference to high latitudes, and the global seasonal cycle would be greatly amplified. Phanerozoic palaeoclimates were essentially uniformitarian in regard to obliquity, with normal climatic zonation and zonal surface winds, circum-polar glaciation and little seasonal change in low latitudes. Milankovitch-band periodicity in early Palaeozoic evaporites implies ?¯? 26.4 ± 2.1°at ˜ 430 Ma, suggesting that the obliquity during most of Phanerozoic time was comparable to the present value. By contrast, the paradoxical Late Proterozoic (˜ 800-600Ma) glacial environment— frigid, strongly seasonal climates, with permafrost and grounded ice-sheets near sea level preferentially in low to equatorial palaeolatitudes—implies glaciation with ? > 54° (assuming a geocentric axial dipolar magnetic field). Palaeotidal data accord with a large obliquity in Late Proterozoic time. Indeed, Proterozoic palaeoclimates in general appear non-uniformitarian with respect to climatic zonation, consistent with ? > 54°. The primordial Earth's obliquity is unconstrained by the widely-accepted single-giant-impact hypothesis for the origin of the Moon; an impact-induced obliquity ? 70° is possible, depending on the impact parameters. Subsequent evolution of ? depends on the relative magnitudes of the rate of obliquity-increase ? caused by tidal friction, and the rate of decrease ? due to dissipative core-mantle torques during precession (? < 90° is required for precessional torques to move ? toward 0°). Proterozoic palaeotidal data indicate ? ? 0.0003-0.0006?/cy (seconds of arc per century) during most of Earth history, only half the rate estimated using the modern, large value for tidal dissipation. The value of resulting from the combined effects of viscous, electromagnetic and topographic core-mantle torques cannot be accurately determined because of uncertainties in estimating, at present and for the geological past, the effective viscosity of the outer core, the nature of magnetic fields at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) and within the lower mantle, and the topography of the CMB. However, several estimates of ? approximate, or exceed by several orders of magnitude, the indicated value of ?. If ? did indeed exceed in the past, then the obliquity would have decreased during Earth history. It is postulated here that the primordial Earth acquired an obliquity of ˜ 70° (54° < ? < 90°) from the Moon-producing single giant impact at ˜ 4500Ma (approach velocity ? 5-20km/s, impactor/Earth mass-ratio ? 0.08-0.14). Secular decrease in ?¯ subsequently occurred under the dominant influence of dissipative core-mantle torques. From 4500-650 Ma, ?¯ slowly decreased to ? 60° (=-0.0009"/cy), ?¯ then decreased relatively rapidly from ˜ 60° to ˜ 26° between 650 and 430 Ma ( (=-0.0556"/cy)); climatic zonation changed from reverse to normal when ?¯ ˜ 610 Ma, and and the rate of amelioration of global seasonality were maxima for ?¯= 45°at˜ 550Ma (the precessional rate ? is maximum when ?= 45°, and ? varies as ? 2). Since 430 Ma, has been ? -0.0025?/cy and ?¯ has remained near its Quaternary range. The postulated relatively rapid decrease in ?¯ between 650 and 430 Ma may partly reflect special conditions at the CMB which caused significant increase in dissipative core-mantle torques at that time. This inflection in the curve of ?¯ versus time centred at = ?¯ 45°also may be partly explained by the function ? ? (? 2/?)(sin2?), where ? is the Earth's rate of rotation, and other dynamical effects on ?. The Proterozoic-Phanerozoic transition may record profound change in global state caused by reduction i

  10. Chorea: A Journey through History.

    PubMed

    Vale, Thiago Cardoso; Cardoso, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The original descriptions of chorea date from the Middle Ages, when an epidemic of "dancing mania" swept throughout Europe. The condition was initially considered a curse sent by a saint, but was named "Saint Vitus's dance" because afflicted individuals were cured if they touched churches storing Saint Vitus's relics. Paracelsus coined the term chorea Sancti Viti and recognized different forms of chorea (imaginativa, lasciva, and naturalis). In the 17th century, Thomas Sydenham provided an accurate description of what he termed chorea minor. He also described rheumatic fever but did not associate it with chorea. It was only in 1850 that See established a relationship between chorea and rheumatic disease. A connection with cardiac involvement was soon recognized and in 1866 Roger postulated that chorea, arthritis, and heart disease had a common cause. The last quarter of the 19th century is marked by the works of Jean-Martin Charcot, Silas Weir Mitchell, William Osler, and William Richard Gowers, all of paramount importance in the refinement of the definition of chorea, its causes, and differential diagnosis. In 1841, Charles Oscar Waters gave a concise account of a syndrome, likely to be Huntington's disease (HD), later described further by George Huntington and named after him. In 1955, the Venezuelan physician Americo Negrette published a book describing communities in the State of Zulia in Venezuela, with unusual numbers of individuals with chorea. Negrette's works culminated in the creation of the Venezuela project and the subsequent discovery of seminal findings in HD. We review the historical facts and outstanding physicians that mark both HD and Sydenham's chorea's history in various sections. PMID:26056609

  11. Accretionary orogens through Earth history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cawood, Peter A.; Kroner, A.; Collins, W.J.; Kusky, T.M.; Mooney, W.D.; Windley, B.F.

    2009-01-01

    Accretionary orogens form at intraoceanic and continental margin convergent plate boundaries. They include the supra-subduction zone forearc, magmatic arc and back-arc components. Accretionary orogens can be grouped into retreating and advancing types, based on their kinematic framework and resulting geological character. Retreating orogens (e.g. modern western Pacific) are undergoing long-term extension in response to the site of subduction of the lower plate retreating with respect to the overriding plate and are characterized by back-arc basins. Advancing orogens (e.g. Andes) develop in an environment in which the overriding plate is advancing towards the downgoing plate, resulting in the development of foreland fold and thrust belts and crustal thickening. Cratonization of accretionary orogens occurs during continuing plate convergence and requires transient coupling across the plate boundary with strain concentrated in zones of mechanical and thermal weakening such as the magmatic arc and back-arc region. Potential driving mechanisms for coupling include accretion of buoyant lithosphere (terrane accretion), flat-slab subduction, and rapid absolute upper plate motion overriding the downgoing plate. Accretionary orogens have been active throughout Earth history, extending back until at least 3.2 Ga, and potentially earlier, and provide an important constraint on the initiation of horizontal motion of lithospheric plates on Earth. They have been responsible for major growth of the continental lithosphere through the addition of juvenile magmatic products but are also major sites of consumption and reworking of continental crust through time, through sediment subduction and subduction erosion. It is probable that the rates of crustal growth and destruction are roughly equal, implying that net growth since the Archaean is effectively zero. ?? The Geological Society of London 2009.

  12. The condom: A turbulent history.

    PubMed

    Amy, Jean-Jacques; Thiery, Michel

    2015-10-01

    Background and objectives The literature concerning the history of condoms is replete with errors. The paper Youssef published in 1993 is in our opinion the best. We update and expand the information. Methods To mention only established facts, we accessed primary sources, which are identified in the article. Findings The origin of the term 'condom' remains an enigma. Plausible hypotheses are that it is derived from either (i) the Latin 'cond?re' (to sheathe) or the corresponding noun 'condus' (receptacle); or (ii) the Venetian variant 'gondon' of the Italian word 'guantone' (glove). The earliest identified mention of a similar barrier method is in the legend of Minos and Pasiphae written (in the 2nd century AD) by Antoninus Liberalis. A penile sheath, made from animal gallbladder, was advocated in the 10th century by the Persian physician Al-Akhawayni. The earliest surviving condoms made of animal membranes date back to between 1642 and 1646. Such 'skin' condoms became increasingly popular for prevention of venereal disease, but as early as the 18th century their value as contraceptives was appreciated. Rubber condoms were available from 1855; since 1930, they are made of latex. We mention, in parallel, the most striking changes over time in sexual mores and behaviours, and illustrate these by referring to colourful figures such as, among others, Boswell, Mrs Philips, Casanova, Marguerite Gourdan, and Richard Carlile. Conclusion Papers related to this topic often contain errors, which we identify. Condoms over time evolved from animal gut receptacles to reliable contraceptives protecting also against certain sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. Chinese Abstract ??Youssef1993??? ??? ?'condom'? (i) 'conde ?re' () 'condus' ()? (ii) 'guantone' () 'gondon'? ?Antoninusliberalis?2??10AlAkhawayni?16421646??"?18?1855?1930???Boswell?Mrs Philips?Casanova?Marguerite GourdanRrichardCarlile? ????HIV? ????. PMID:26065675

  13. Radioactivity and health: A history

    SciTech Connect

    Stannard, J.N.; Baalman, R.W. Jr.

    1988-10-01

    This book is designed to be primarily a history of research facts, measurements, and ideas and the people who developed them. ''Research'' is defined very broadly to include from bench-top laboratory experiments to worldwide environmental investigations. The book is not a monograph or a critical review. The findings and conclusions are presented largely as the investigators saw and reported them. Frequently, the discussion utilizes the terminology and units of the time, unless they are truly antiquated or potentially unclear. It is only when the work being reported is markedly iconoclastic or obviously wrong that I chose to make special note of it or to correct it. Nevertheless, except for direct quotations, the language is mine, and I take full responsibility for it. The working materials for this volume included published papers in scientific journals, books, published conferences and symposia, personal interviews with over 100 individuals, some of them more than once (see Appendix A), and particularly for the 1940--1950 decade and for the large government-supported laboratories to the present day, ''in-house'' reports. These reports frequently represent the only comprehensive archive of what was done and why. Unfortunately, this source is drying up because of storage problems and must be retrieved by ever more complex and inconvenient means. For this reason, special efforts have been taken to review and document these sources, though even now some sections of the field are partially inaccessible. Nevertheless, the volume of all materials available for this review was surprisingly large and the quality much better than might have been expected for so complex and disparate a fields approached under conditions of considerable urgency.

  14. The History of Presolar Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    Below we summarize the results of our investigations into the history of presolar grains that were conducted in the last year. During this time we have expended much of our effort in the development of experimental techniques and sample preparation methods that are needed to laboratory in December, 2000. Specific information on this instrument is contained in the Full Proposal of PI Ernst Zinner and will not be repeated here. Our general strategy in the past year has been in large measure to explore novel sample handling methods for the very small (sub-micron), but more representative, presolar grains that can now be characterized isotopically in the NanoSIMS. We have developed experimental techniques that will permit NanoSIMS analyses of the very same ultramicrotome sections studied in the TEM, and we have developed grain dispersion, handling and mounting techniques that permit NanoSIMS isotopic analysis as well as field emission SEM, high energy TEM, and atomic force microscopy of pristine presolar grains. Although much of this has been slow and very difficult work that has no immediate payoff in terms of publishable results, we considered it absolutely necessary groundwork for future discoveries, especially in the realm of individual presolar grains that have been inaccessible to past studies due to size constraints. As discussed below, we have been largely successful in these endeavors, and expect to reap the benefits of this work in the next year. We also report on our continued morphologic studies of pristine presolar grains, on our investigations of presolar graphite grains from supernovae as well as on rarer types of presotar SIC, on the search for presolar silicates, and on our efforts to obtain direct size-distribution information on presolar SiC through X-ray mapping techniques.

  15. Cosmic Star-Formation History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madau, Piero; Dickinson, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Over the past two decades, an avalanche of new data from multiwavelength imaging and spectroscopic surveys has revolutionized our view of galaxy formation and evolution. Here we review the range of complementary techniques and theoretical tools that allow astronomers to map the cosmic history of star formation, heavy element production, and reionization of the Universe from the cosmic “dark ages” to the present epoch. A consistent picture is emerging, whereby the star-formation rate density peaked approximately 3.5 Gyr after the Big Bang, at z?1.9, and declined exponentially at later times, with an e-folding timescale of 3.9 Gyr. Half of the stellar mass observed today was formed before a redshift z = 1.3. About 25% formed before the peak of the cosmic star-formation rate density, and another 25% formed after z = 0.7. Less than ˜1% of today's stars formed during the epoch of reionization. Under the assumption of a universal initial mass function, the global stellar mass density inferred at any epoch matches reasonably well the time integral of all the preceding star-formation activity. The comoving rates of star formation and central black hole accretion follow a similar rise and fall, offering evidence for coevolution of black holes and their host galaxies. The rise of the mean metallicity of the Universe to about 0.001 solar by z = 6, one Gyr after the Big Bang, appears to have been accompanied by the production of fewer than ten hydrogen Lyman-continuum photons per baryon, a rather tight budget for cosmological reionization.

  16. - History, Technology, and the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampert, C. M.

    2002-12-01

    This paper begins with the history of electrochromism, first discovered in the 1880's. The physics, electrochemistry, device design and materials are covered. The science of electrochromism involves the coloration of a variety of metal oxides, organics and polymers. Dual ion and electron intercalation is used to color and bleach electrochromic materials. Considerable science has been undertaken to make devices that resemble thin film transparent batteries in their structure. A number of materials have been developed to make layers for electrochromic devices. Applications for electrochromics include low information content displays, such as banner displays, smart windows and mirrors for automotive applications. Several companies throughout the world are developing dynamic glazing. Switchable glazing for building and vehicle application is very attractive for energy and light management. From the standpoint of materials much research and development in electrochromics focuses on the development or improvement of materials with ionic and electronic properties. Much of the work on electrochromics draws on the vast knowledge developed for advanced batteries. National Laboratory and university groups are researching new materials and processes to improve electrochromic materials. Also, much industrial work is directed towards deposition and fabrication processes for glass and possibly plastic that can make electrochromics cost effective. Plastic can yield both flexibility and weight savings for many applications. Although plastics are permeable, outgas and require lower processing temperatures, they can be more universally applied. Some developments in plastics may come from OLED sealing technology. Comparisons are made between the properties of electrochromics and other switchable technologies. Technology comparisons are made between suspended particles, polymer dispersed liquid crystals, themotropics and gas-chromics.

  17. Chorea: A Journey through History

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Thiago Cardoso; Cardoso, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The original descriptions of chorea date from the Middle Ages, when an epidemic of “dancing mania” swept throughout Europe. The condition was initially considered a curse sent by a saint, but was named “Saint Vitus’s dance” because afflicted individuals were cured if they touched churches storing Saint Vitus’s relics. Paracelsus coined the term chorea Sancti Viti and recognized different forms of chorea (imaginativa, lasciva, and naturalis). In the 17th century, Thomas Sydenham provided an accurate description of what he termed chorea minor. He also described rheumatic fever but did not associate it with chorea. It was only in 1850 that See established a relationship between chorea and rheumatic disease. A connection with cardiac involvement was soon recognized and in 1866 Roger postulated that chorea, arthritis, and heart disease had a common cause. The last quarter of the 19th century is marked by the works of Jean-Martin Charcot, Silas Weir Mitchell, William Osler, and William Richard Gowers, all of paramount importance in the refinement of the definition of chorea, its causes, and differential diagnosis. In 1841, Charles Oscar Waters gave a concise account of a syndrome, likely to be Huntington’s disease (HD), later described further by George Huntington and named after him. In 1955, the Venezuelan physician Americo Negrette published a book describing communities in the State of Zulia in Venezuela, with unusual numbers of individuals with chorea. Negrette’s works culminated in the creation of the Venezuela project and the subsequent discovery of seminal findings in HD. We review the historical facts and outstanding physicians that mark both HD and Sydenham’s chorea’s history in various sections. PMID:26056609

  18. Living-History Villages as Popular Entertainers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geist, Christopher D.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the furor created when Walt Disney Studios announced plans to develop a "historic amusement park" near the Manassas (Virginia) National Battlefield Park. Maintains that the public debate over the popular understanding of history reflects an ongoing tension between academic historians and the purveyors of popular history. (CFR)

  19. Enlivening Dance History Pedagogy through Archival Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Tresa

    2012-01-01

    Dance archives can bring students into contact with historical subjects through artifacts of the past. This article advocates the use of archival projects in undergraduate dance history courses, arguing that such hands-on learning activities give students dynamic and interactive experiences of history. The author describes a creative project she…

  20. Reconstructing Fire History: An Exercise in Dendrochronology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafon, Charles W.

    2005-01-01

    Dendrochronology is used widely to reconstruct the history of forest disturbances. I created an exercise that introduces the use of dendrochronology to investigate fire history and forest dynamics. The exercise also demonstrates how the dendrochronological technique of crossdating is employed to age dead trees and identify missing rings. I…