Osteitis pubis is a painful condition, usually caused by abnormal muscle forces acting on the symphysis pubis. The symptoms of osteitis pubis mimic many other injuries that affect the athlete's groin. To correctly diagnose this condition, the clinician must maintain a high index of suspicion. Reports suggest this condition is more common in men than women. Confirmatory radiographs, bone scans, and magnetic resonance imaging aid the diagnosis. Once diagnosed, the prognosis for full recovery is good, although lengthy. Typical treatments include physical therapy, involving strengthening the abdominal and hip muscles, and improving range of motion of the hip, particularly the muscles of internal rotation. Corticosteroid injections, wedge resection of the symphysis, curettage, and arthrodesis have all been used with variable success. PMID:12831666
Background The parasitic sucking lice of primates are known to have undergone at least 25 million years of coevolution with their hosts. For example, chimpanzee lice and human head/body lice last shared a common ancestor roughly six million years ago, a divergence that is contemporaneous with their hosts. In an assemblage where lice are often highly host specific, humans host two different genera of lice, one that is shared with chimpanzees and another that is shared with gorillas. In this study, we reconstruct the evolutionary history of primate lice and infer the historical events that explain the current distribution of these lice on their primate hosts. Results Phylogenetic and cophylogenetic analyses suggest that the louse genera Pediculus and Pthirus are each monophyletic, and are sister taxa to one another. The age of the most recent common ancestor of the two Pediculus species studied matches the age predicted by host divergence (ca. 6 million years), whereas the age of the ancestor of Pthirus does not. The two species of Pthirus (Pthirus gorillae and Pthirus pubis) last shared a common ancestor ca. 3–4 million years ago, which is considerably younger than the divergence between their hosts (gorillas and humans, respectively), of approximately 7 million years ago. Conclusion Reconciliation analysis determines that there are two alternative explanations that account for the current distribution of anthropoid primate lice. The more parsimonious of the two solutions suggests that a Pthirus species switched from gorillas to humans. This analysis assumes that the divergence between Pediculus and Pthirus was contemporaneous with the split (i.e., a node of cospeciation) between gorillas and the lineage leading to chimpanzees and humans. Divergence date estimates, however, show that the nodes in the host and parasite trees are not contemporaneous. Rather, the shared coevolutionary history of the anthropoid primates and their lice contains a mixture of evolutionary events including cospeciation, parasite duplication, parasite extinction, and host switching. Based on these data, the coevolutionary history of primates and their lice has been anything but parsimonious.
Reed, David L; Light, Jessica E; Allen, Julie M; Kirchman, Jeremy J
Osteitis pubis is the most common inflammatory condition of the pubic symphysis and may present as acute abdominal, pelvic, or groin pain. Osteomyelitis pubis can occur concurrently and spontaneously with osteitis pubis. Primary care physicians should consider these conditions in patients presenting with abdominal and pelvic pain. A thorough history, including type of physical activity, and a focused physical examination will be useful, and imaging modalities may be helpful. A biopsy and culture of the pubic symphysis will usually confirm the diagnosis. Treatment for osteitis pubis generally involves rest and anti-inflammatory medications. Failure with this conservative treatment should alert the physician to the possibility of osteomyelitis, which needs treatment with antibiotics. Prognosis for recovery is excellent with definitive diagnosis and treatment.
Pham, Diane V; Scott, Kendall G
We treated 7 patients with osteitis pubis by heparinization. Of the 7 patients 2 had a dramatic improvement. Small doses of heparin given routinely preoperatively and postoperatively were not found to prevent the development of osteitis pubis. In view of these results as well as the fact that there presently is no effective method of treatment of this disorder, it is considered justifiable to subject all patients with postoperative osteitis pubis to a therapeutic trial with heparinization.
Nissenkorn, I.; Servadio, C.; Lubin, E.
Medical records of 59 patients (9 females and 50 males), who presented to sports medicine clinics at the Australian Institute of Sport and the University of British Columbia between 1985 and 1990 and who were diagnosed as suffering osteitis pubis, were reviewed and comparison of data obtained was made with the literature. Women average 35.5 years of age (30 to 59 years) and men 30.3 years (13 to 61 years). Sports most frequently involved were running, soccer, ice hockey and tennis. Clinical presentations of osteitis pubis fell into 4 main groups. 'Mechanical' (sport-related) was the largest group (n = 48), followed by 'obstetric' (n = 5), 'inflammatory' (n = 4) and 'other' (n = 2). Period of follow-up averaged 10.3 months (1 to 20 months) in women and 17.5 months (2 to 96 months) in men. Full recovery, when documented, averaged 9.5 months in men and 7.0 months in women. Osteitis pubis recurred in 25% of these men and none of these women at follow-up. The most frequent symptoms were pubic pain and adductor pain. Men also presented with lower abdominal, hip and perineal or scrotal pain; women with hip pain. Most common signs were tenderness of the pubic symphysis and tenderness of adductor longus muscle origin. Men also revealed tenderness of one or both the superior pubic rami and evidence of decreased hip rotation (unilateral or bilateral). Evidence of pelvic malalignment and/or sacroiliac dysfunction was frequently seen in both men and women. There was poor correlation between radiographic and isotope bone scan findings and the site and duration of symptoms and signs. Femoral head ratios were estimated on 30 hips in the series and 2 were judged to be at the upper limit of normal, perhaps indicating a form of epiphysiolysis producing tilt deformity of the head of the femur. It is clear that osteitis pubis in athletes is not uncommon and that factors such as loss of rotation of hips and previous obstetric history are important in the aetiology and management of this condition. Pelvic infection, which was believed to be the primary factor of osteitis pubis in the literature up until the 1970s, plays a very small role in this condition in athletes. PMID:1784877
Fricker, P A; Taunton, J E; Ammann, W
A female, aged 17 years and with a history of anorexia nervosa, presented with a 3 month history of a large, irregular area of hair loss over the pubis. Physical examination revealed scattered short hairs of varying length, follicular hyperkeratosis and hyperpigmentation throughout the area of alopecia (Figure 1a). A magnified view revealed decreased hair density, broken hairs with different shaft lengths, short vellous hairs and signs of recent haemorrhage (Figure 1b). The remainder of the hairs appeared normal, and her nails did not show any pathological changes. The hair-pull test was negative. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) examination and fungal culture were negative. Biochemical studies, abdominal X-ray and ultrasonography were normal. PMID:23826602
Grillo, Emiliano; Vano-Galvan, Sergio; Diaz-Ley, Blanca; Jaén, Pedro
Osteitis pubis is a non-infective inflammation of the symphysis pubis, which is known to be associated with trauma, athletic exertion, urological or gynecological surgery, or with rheumatic conditions such as seronegative spondyloarthropathies. In this report, we describe a case of osteitis pubis whose symptoms were completely ameliorated following tooth extraction attributable to periodontitis. A 57-year-old female patient developed osteitis pubis, presenting with pain in the groin area with an elevated C-reactive protein (CRP; 4.4 mg/dl) and radiological erosive changes in symphysis pubis. Prednisolone (5 mg/day) and etodolac were prescribed, but the patient's symptoms improved only partially and remained persistent. One year from the patient's first visit, three teeth were extracted due to severe chronic periodontitis, which she had been suffering from for years. Soon after the above tooth extraction, her symptoms appeared completely resolved, and the patient's CRP was decreased to nearly normal levels in 4 weeks. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-typing analysis revealed a positive result for HLA-A11, A24, and B54. Because HLA-B54 cross-reacts with HLA-B27, the patient's osteitis pubis was considered to be a form of reactive arthritis associated with periodontitis. PMID:20393866
Fukushi, Jun-Ichi; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Iwamoto, Yukihide
Osteitis pubis is a non-infective inflammation of the symphysis pubis, which is known to be associated with trauma, athletic exertion, urological or gynecological surgery, or with rheumatic conditions such as seronegative spondyloarthropathies. In this report, we describe a case of osteitis pubis whose symptoms were completely ameliorated following tooth extraction attributable to periodontitis. A 57-year-old female patient developed osteitis pubis, presenting with pain in the groin area with an elevated Creactive protein (CRP; 4.4 mg/dl) and radiological erosive changes in symphysis pubis. Prednisolone (5 mg/day) and etodolac were prescribed, but the patient's symptoms improved only partially and remained persistent. One year from the patient's first visit, three teeth were extracted due to severe chronic periodontitis, which she had been suffering from for years. Soon after the above tooth extraction, her symptoms appeared completely resolved, and the patient's CRP was decreased to nearly normal levels in 4 weeks. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-typing analysis revealed a positive result for HLA-A11, A24, and B54. Because HLA-B54 cross-reacts with HLA-B27, the patient's osteitis pubis was considered to be a form of reactive arthritis associated with periodontitis. PMID:23599946
Fukushi, Jun-ichi; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Iwamoto, Yukihide
This case report describes a 10-year-old boy who presented with radiating pain (Visual Analog Scale score of 7.2 cm) down his left groin and was eventually diagnosed to have osteitis pubis. History revealed that he was exceeding the workload guidelines of bowling for a fast bowler. Examination findings were left sacro-iliac joint dysfunction, reduced left internal rotation of the hip, tightness of bilateral hip flexors and poor motor control of the lumbo-pelvic muscles. Physical therapy was aimed at correcting the sacro-iliac joint dysfunction, increasing the hip range of motion and muscle length along with exercises aimed at improving the lumbopelvic stability. The patient had complete resolution of pain by the ninth week and returned to fast bowling without any discomfort. PMID:23270404
An aneurysmal bone cyst is considered as a locally aggressive benign tumour. Intra-lesional extended curettage and bone-grafting is the mainstay of the treatment for aneurysmal bone cysts. Grafting is used usually in cases where the lesion compromises the mechanical strength of the bone. However, the massive size of the highly vascular tumour and the relative inaccessibility of its deeper extensions into the femoral vessels and the intra-abdominal structures, especially the urinary bladder, make it a relatively challenging case to perform excision and curettage.Presenting a case of a 15 years old male patient with the complaint of a right inguinal swelling since the past eight months. The swelling had started growing since the past two months and it was associated with pain. X-ray showed a lytic blowout legion of the entire right pubic ramus. An intra-lesional curettage was done. Complete tumour excision which was done by intra-lesional curettage and biopsy yielded satisfactory results with low complications and low recurrence of aneurysmal bone cyst of the superior ramus of the pubis.
Nayak, Ashok; Kulkarni, Shreepad; Kulkarni, Avinash; Natesh, K.; Bami, Monish
Minor musculoskeletal injuries usually heal within few weeks with conservative treatment, but in pelvic injuries, symptoms may persist for long duration and patient need medical attention to get relief from disturbing pain symptoms. We present a case of post-trauma osteitis pubis in a 58-year-old female, who reported with lower abdominal and left side hip joint pain since 2 months, after an episode of trivial trauma to her pelvis. Technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy was performed, which confirmed the site of injury in symphysis pubis and left hip joint, by increased radiotracer localization at both of these symptomatic sites.
Kalawat, Tek Chand; Narayan, Ravishwar; Ravi, Parthasarathi; Lakshmi, Amancharla Yadagiri
Objectives The authors examined the most current evidence for treatment options in athletes with osteitis pubis and osteomyelitis pubis, attempting to determine which options provide optimal pain relief with rapid return to sport and prevention of symptom reoccurrence. Methods Three databases—MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and CINAHL—were searched using the OVID interface for all years between 1985 and May 2008. References were analysed from included studies, and additional relevant articles were obtained for inclusion. Inclusion criteria included (1) humans only, (2) subjects had no apparent risk factors for development of osteitis pubis or osteomyelitis of the pubic symphysis other than athletic involvement, (3) both physical exam findings and diagnostic imaging were used to confirm either diagnosis, and (4) a definitive treatment strategy was identifiable for management of osteitis pubis or osteomyelitis of the pubic symphysis. In total, 25 articles were included in the review. Results There were no randomised controlled trials identified with this study’s search strategy. A total of 195 athletes were diagnosed as having osteitis pubis (186 males, nine females) and treated with either conservative measures/physical therapy, local injection with corticosteroids and/or local anaesthetic, dextrose prolotherapy, surgery or antibiotic therapy. Six case reports/series described conservative treatment measures (physical therapy, rest, non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs). Four case series explored the use of corticosteroid injections in treatment. One case series described the use of dextrose prolotherapy as a treatment modality. Six case series described various surgical techniques (pubic symphysis curettage, polypropylene mesh placement and pubic bone stabilisation) in treatment. Ten case reports/ series (10 subjects) outlined antibiotic treatment of osteomyelitis of the pubic symphysis. Conclusions The current medical literature shows only level 4 evidence of the treatment for osteitis pubis in 24 case reports/series in athletes. Without any direct comparison of treatment modalities, it is difficult to determine which individual treatment option is the most efficacious. Further study comparing the different treatment options is necessary to determine which modality provides the fastest return to sport.
Choi, Haemi; McCartney, Michael; Best, Thomas M
Objective Two case reports review the chiropractic treatment and rehabilitation management of Symphysis Pubis Dysfunction (SPD). Clinical features Patient 1: a 35-year-old female presented at 30 weeks pregnant with severe left sided Symphysis Pubis Dysfunction and low back pain. Patient 2: a 33-year-old female also 30 weeks pregnant, presented with right sided Symphysis Pubis Dysfunction and sacroiliac pain. Intervention and Outcome Treatment included soft tissue therapy, pregnancy support belt, side-lying mobilizations, pelvic blocks and instrument-assisted pubic symphysis adjustments. Home advice included: ice, staying active, moving as a unit, stretching, use of a pillow between the knees while sleeping, regular breaks from sitting and pelvic floor (Kegel) exercises. Both patients reported some relief with treatment and home care. Post-partum, rehabilitation exercises were prescribed to restore muscular endurance, control and pelvic stability. On long-term follow-up patient 1 reported no pubic symphysis pain, but some low back pain secondary to a subsequent knee injury. Patient 2 reported being mostly pain free with a rare re-exacerbation of pubic symphysis pain. Summary Conservative chiropractic management appears to reduce pain and improve mobility and function for SPD. Post partum rehabilitation of the associated lumbo-pelvic musculature with specific stabilization exercises is recommended to reduce pain, improve long term outcomes and prevent chronicity.
Howell, Emily R.
Soft tissues other than muscles are supposed to be of mechanical importance, yet they are rarely integrated into finite element models. Here, we investigate the functional role of the ischiopubic membrane for the loading of the pubis of the domestic fowl using 2D finite element analysis. For this purpose, a specimen of the domestic fowl was dissected and soft tissues attaching to the pubis were studied in great detail. Muscles were removed and measurements taken. For the 2D finite element model, the outline was taken from the dissected specimen. Two 2D finite element models were generated: one without and one with ischiopubic membrane. The same muscular loading based on own measurements and electromyographic data was applied to both models. The model without ischiopubic membrane shows anteroventral bending deformation of the scapus pubis, resulting in high compressive and tensile principal stresses at the level of ultimate bone stress values. The model with ischiopubic membrane shows low compressive principal stresses in the pubis consistent with the levels of steady state remodelling of bone. Based on these results, the ischiopubic membrane of the domestic fowl potentially establishes a physiological loading of the pubis and therefore might be of great mechanical significance for the loading of the bone. PMID:23171269
Fechner, Regina; Stratmann, Matthias; Gössling, Rainer; Sverdlova, Nina
Urinary bladder sonography is a sensitive diagnostic technique used for visualizing urinary bladder tumours. The aim of our communication is to present a case of a pseudotumour of the urinary bladder originating from the symphysis pubis syndesmosis. A 58-year-old woman was seen by a urologist with symptoms of lower urinary tract infection. Urinary bladder sonography was performed, followed by magnetic resonance imaging. Sonographic images of the bladder showed an exophytic mass on the urinary bladder's anterior wall. A transurethral resection of the tumour was performed. A histopathological examination revealed a necrotic extramural mass, without traits of malignancy. The mass reappeared in the follow-up vesical sonography. Subsequently, its transurethral resection was repeated with the same histopathological findings. The next urinary bladder sonography revealed the presence of the mass again. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging was performed, which showed advanced degenerative changes in the pubic symphysis syndesmosis that protruded into the bladder, imitating a urinary bladder tumour. To avoid unnecessary surgery, both radiologists and urologists should be made aware that there is a possibility of similar cases in patients. Magnetic resonance imaging enabled correct determination of the primary site of the growth, which, together with the histopathological examination results, influenced the choice of the implemented therapeutic procedures.
Szopinski, Tomasz R.; Sudol-Szopinska, Iwona; Furmanek, Mariusz I.; Dzik, Tomasz; Borowka, Andrzej
Background: Osteitis pubis is characterized by diffuse pain, inflammation, and bony changes in the pubic symphysis. Bone marrow edema in magnetic resonance imaging is associated with stress injury and osteitis of the pubic bone.Hypothesis: Laparoscopic mesh repair decreases inflammation and pain in the pubic periosteum. The presence of extensive bone marrow edema may correlate with the severity of symptoms and
Hannu Paajanen; Heikki Hermunen; Jari Karonen
This preliminary study examines correlations between age-at-death and changes in the trabecular architecture of the human os pubis, utilizing continuous, quantitative data from plain film radiography, computed tomography (CT), and micro-CT scans of 65 male innominates. Radiography provides nondestructive options for assessment, digital preservation, and presentation of human skeletal remains; important for forensic and culturally sensitive archaeological materials, which must remain unmodified for opposing experts, future researchers, or repatriation and reburial. Radiographic techniques permit analysis of remains that cannot be disarticulated (e.g., religious proscription, mummies), and trabecular measures provide data where traditional surface indicators are obscured or damaged. Potentially, robust predictive models derived herein achieve R-values of 0.522, 0.447, and 0.731, respectively. Further testing of these methods may validate these techniques as further lines of evidence in age estimation, with the potential to improve on the accuracy of traditional qualitative techniques by providing quantitative, continuous variables in predicting skeletal age-at-death. PMID:21198627
Wade, Andrew; Nelson, Andrew; Garvin, Greg; Holdsworth, David W
The similarities of the larval and nymph stages of the tick and louse (Pthirus pubis) may lead to misdiagnosis in rare cases of infestation of the eyelashes. The most frequent manifestations of tick in the eye are conjunctivitis, uveitis, keratitis, and vasculitis. Tick inoculation of the skin can locally lead to formation of granuloma and abscess. More concerning is the potential systemic sequelae that can result from transmission of zoonoses such as Lyme disease. P. pubis can cause pruritic eyelid margins or unusual blepharoconjunctivitis. We present a case of phthiriasis palpebrarum in a 4-year-old boy. PMID:23993722
Da?delen, Serkan; Aykan, Umit; Cetinkaya, Kubilay
The primary endosymbiotic bacteria from three species of parasitic primate lice were characterized molecularly. We have confirmed the characterization of the primary endosymbiont (P-endosymbiont) of the human head/body louse Pediculus humanus and provide new characterizations of the P-endosymbionts from Pediculus schaeffi from chimpanzees and Pthirus pubis, the pubic louse of humans. The endosymbionts show an average percent sequence divergence of 11 to 15% from the most closely related known bacterium "Candidatus Arsenophonus insecticola." We propose that two additional species be added to the genus "Candidatus Riesia." The new species proposed within "Candidatus Riesia" have sequence divergences of 3.4% and 10 to 12% based on uncorrected pairwise differences. Our Bayesian analysis shows that the branching pattern for the primary endosymbionts was the same as that for their louse hosts, suggesting a long coevolutionary history between primate lice and their primary endosymbionts. We used a calibration of 5.6 million years to date the divergence between endosymbionts from human and chimpanzee lice and estimated an evolutionary rate of nucleotide substitution of 0.67% per million years, which is 15 to 30 times faster than previous estimates calculated for Buchnera, the primary endosymbiont in aphids. Given the evidence for cospeciation with primate lice and the evidence for fast evolutionary rates, this lineage of endosymbiotic bacteria can be evaluated as a fast-evolving marker of both louse and primate evolutionary histories. PMID:17220259
Allen, Julie M; Reed, David L; Perotti, M Alejandra; Braig, Henk R
The primary endosymbiotic bacteria from three species of parasitic primate lice were characterized molecularly. We have confirmed the characterization of the primary endosymbiont (P-endosymbiont) of the human head/body louse Pediculus humanus and provide new characterizations of the P-endosymbionts from Pediculus schaeffi from chimpanzees and Pthirus pubis, the pubic louse of humans. The endosymbionts show an average percent sequence divergence of 11 to 15% from the most closely related known bacterium “Candidatus Arsenophonus insecticola.” We propose that two additional species be added to the genus “Candidatus Riesia.” The new species proposed within “Candidatus Riesia” have sequence divergences of 3.4% and 10 to 12% based on uncorrected pairwise differences. Our Bayesian analysis shows that the branching pattern for the primary endosymbionts was the same as that for their louse hosts, suggesting a long coevolutionary history between primate lice and their primary endosymbionts. We used a calibration of 5.6 million years to date the divergence between endosymbionts from human and chimpanzee lice and estimated an evolutionary rate of nucleotide substitution of 0.67% per million years, which is 15 to 30 times faster than previous estimates calculated for Buchnera, the primary endosymbiont in aphids. Given the evidence for cospeciation with primate lice and the evidence for fast evolutionary rates, this lineage of endosymbiotic bacteria can be evaluated as a fast-evolving marker of both louse and primate evolutionary histories.
Allen, Julie M.; Reed, David L.; Perotti, M. Alejandra; Braig, Henk R.
|Reviews the development of urban history since the 1870s and describes the present variety of urban history studies. Current studies seem to focus on either macromodels and urban systems or on internal networks and densities. (Author/AV)|
Sharpless, John B.; Warner, Sam Bass, Jr.
Includes 22 articles that address Canadian history and the importance of having students honor Canada's past by providing articles relating to the areas of History and Social Studies covering: historical fiction as instructional material; Canadian scientists; agricultural fairs; the Historical Foundation; social science books on Canada; student…
School Libraries in Canada, 2003
There are many ways to explore the various facets of history, and some of the world's leading museums have come up with a host of online multimedia tools to bring people into this subject that is sometimes erroneously perceived to be dry and uninteresting. The inventive people at the National Museum of American History have recently developed the History Explorer which allows those surfing the Web to browse through an interactive timeline of American history. The interface is composed of items from the Museum's various online collections, exhibitions and programs, such as Plymouth Rock and a world map from 1511. Visitors can zoom in and out through the timeline and its objects and also elect to toggle on or off various themes, such as "Arts and Culture", "Peopling America", and "Politics and Reform". Overall, this is a very well-thought-out tool for learning about American history and one that will engage a wide range of persons.
PBS has a "neighborhood" for history, to go along with its other subject and news based areas. PBS History is basically PBS web content related to broadcast series like Frontline, The American Experience, NOVA, and POV. There are also sections devoted to independent series such as The West, (discussed in the September 20, 1996 Scout Report), Thomas Jefferson, and The Great War and the Shaping of the 20th Century, among others. PBS History is divided into geographical, biographical, and teaching aids sections. It has a section on the Presidents series, and sections on Ken Burns' Lewis and Clark documentary and an American Revolution documentary.
This climate history website of the PALEOMAP project provides information on climates during past geological eras using maps and animations. Also included is a discussion of the methods used to evaluate historical climate conditions.
Scotese, Christopher R.
Some might wonder about the connection between history and contemporary policymaking. Well, the passionate and dedicated individuals at the History & Policy organization are committed to looking at the intersection of these two areas of inquiry and research. History & Policy is a collaboration between the University of Cambridge, The Institute of Historical Research, and The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. It is managed by its four founding historians, and visitors to the site can browse their papers by theme, author, or keyword. The papers offer a wide range of perspectives on history and policy-related matters, and recent works have included papers on social housing and tenant participation, genocide in the twentieth century, and "The Prime Minister as World Statesman". Practicing historians can also sign up to join their network, and anyone is welcome browse through their events calendar and register for email updates.
The Digital History website is a project of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, designed to educate scholars and the public about the new and fast-growing academic discipline that is digital history. The home page features a semi-globe with links to the different sections atop the globe. The goal of the site is to provide access to presentations of scholars, interviews with scholars, relevant current events and news items, as well as a bibliography of digital history resources. In the "Tool Reviews" link, a visitor can read a thorough review of two tools, a timeline, and an exhibit tool from MIT's SIMILE project on open source tools. In the "Public Lectures" link, accessible from the homepage, the visitor can view portions of ten different presentations by digital history scholars, with subject matter ranging from Malcolm X to the Civil War to the Humanities and the Digital Age. Clicking on the presenter's name will lead the visitor to the portions of the presentation available for viewing, as well as a biography of the presenter, and a "live-blogged entry" about the presentation. The "Project Reviews" link, accessible on the homepage, contains reviews written by graduate students about digital history projects. Academics with projects they'd like to see reviewed, are given a contact e-mail at University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
|Provides a brief overview for including labor history in the social studies curriculum. Notes the broad range of subjects (geography, history, economics, music, and art) and approaches (women's history, social history, oral history) that encompass labor history. (MJP)|
Whitmer, John Dale
The Weider History Group publishes a wide range of military history magazines, including "America's Civil War" and "Civil War Times". They've also been generous enough to create this website, which offers a wide range of articles from their different publications. First-time visitors to the homepage may want to start out by taking a shot at the "Daily Quiz", which offers up a range of questions on everything from steamship battles to military operations in the South Pacific. Next, visitors may wish to click on over to the "Features" area, which includes articles culled from the magazines on Marine POWs, the Battle of New Orleans, as well as noted gunfighter Ben Thompson and his brother Billy. Moving on, visitors can also take part in the online forums where they can ask questions about battle tactics, the history of ground warfare, and the USS Ironsides.
Americans have had a long and varied history with beverage alcohol. Literature and images from the Temperance and Prohibition Movements survive today, although organized collections are few. The authors present an overview of web sites, research centers and collections, and printed guides to historical resources on American alcohol use.
Penny Booth Page; Meagan E. Toohey
Recording memories of World War II is an intervention that can humanize geriatric care in addition to the historical significance provided. Participants in this oral history project described memories of World War II and expressed themes of patriotism, loss, tense moments, makeshift living, self-sufficiency, and uncertain journey. Their ethnic roots were primarily Scandinavian, Dutch, German, and English. The nursing home
Lois B. Taft; Mary Ellen Stolder; Alice Briolat Knutson; Karolyn Tamke; Jennifer Platt; Tara Bowlds
It's an old saw that those who forget the past are doomed to repeat it, but the History & Policy group takes this maxim very seriously. The group represents a collaboration between the University of Cambridge, The Institute of Historical Research, and The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. The purpose of the group is to "demonstrate the relevance of history to contemporary policymaking" and to increase the influence of historical research over current policy. Currently, their core output happens to be their papers, which are available from their homepage. Visitors can click on the "H&P papers" area to read through the latest papers, and they can also browse around via subject heading. Some of the recent titles include "North Korea and the nuclear threat", "Why history matters-and why medieval history also matters", and "China, globalization and the west: A British debate, 1890-1914". Additionally, visitors can sign up to join their email list and learn more about their network of historians.
Developed and maintained by Professor James H. Cook at Birmingham - Southern College, this site is an online tutorial that offers an interesting and interactive perspective of that king of all instruments, the organ. The site is divided into three main sections: The Organ and How it Works, Organ History, and Geographical Tour. In the first section, visitors are taken through a basic description of an organ, which then continues into a discussion of the various parts of an organ, such as the keyboards, consoles, pipes, chests, cases, and chambers. The history section begins with the invention of what is commonly understood to be the first organ, the ktseibios, built by a Greek engineer working in the third century BCE. The final section takes visitors on a chronological tour of the organ and its development throughout a number of countries, including England, France, Germany, Italy, and the United States.
Cook, James H.
Under the headline "Art. History. Conversation.", Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker started the Smarthistory site in 2005 as a weblog that featured free audio guides. Since that time, the site as grown into a multimedia web-book "designed as a dynamic enhancement (or even substitute) for the traditional and static art history textbook." Visitors to the site will find several hundred artworks (along with videos and podcasts) organized thematically and by time period. Additionally, visitors can also use the drop down menus on the homepage to look for certain styles, artists, and themes that include "Image and Power", "The Artist as Professional", and "Bronze Casting". The videos are a real treat, and they include offerings like "Magritte's treacherous pipe" and "Mies's corporate classicism". Finally, visitors can also learn about making a donation to their group.
Paul Graham, who identifies himself as "an essayist, programmer, and programming language designer" has posted on his website a collection of articles on the history of Lisp, a programming language designed by John McCarthy in the late 1950s. The articles discuss the Roots of Lisp, What Made Lisp Different (in particular, different from Fortran) and the Evolution of Lisp, along with related articles on other aspects of Lisp's history. Other sections of his website include articles on spam filters and essays on a variety of issues written from the perspective of a programmer, including one entitled "What You'll Wish You'd Known," which he wrote for a high school talk that never happened.
The world of naval history is quite vast, especially considering that it is linked to the earliest days of warfare and stretches back thousands of years. Designed by Gordon Smith, this particular site details the history of various national navies during the twentieth century, with a particular focus on the World Wars and other military actions. Not surprisingly, visitors to the site will want to take a look at the areas dedicated to the World Wars, as the coverage of the role of various navies is quite good here. In these sections, visitors can learn about the various ships used during each period and also look at the campaigns and battles by year and by month. There is also a rather touching section dedicated to Gordon Smith's father, George Smith, who was lost in the sinking of the HMS Charybdis off the Brittany coast on October 23rd, 1943.
\\u000a The history of a region or people encompasses a multitude of aspects of social life: culture, religion, political institutions,\\u000a social movements, environmental change, technology, population—and the circumstances and processes of economic change that\\u000a the region undergoes. One does not need to be a reductionist in order to observe that the economic circumstances a society\\u000a experiences, and the processes of change
During the last half century, advances in geomorphology-abetted by conceptual and technical developments in geophysics, geochemistry, remote sensing, geodesy, computing and ecology-have enhanced the potential value of fluvial history for reconstructing erosional and depositional sequences on the Earth and on Mars and for evaluating climatic and tectonic changes, the impact of fluvial processes on human settlement and health, and the problems faced in managing unstable fluvial systems. PMID:22474674
While it took many decades for some skeptics to realize the importance of maintaining archives devoted to preserving film and television programs, the movement has certainly gained a critical mass of interested organizations in recent years. One particularly nice online resource for such matters is the Moving History website, which serves as a research guide to the United KingdomÂs twelve public sector film archives. With support from BritainÂs Arts and Humanities Research Council, the site includes sections that describe each of the collections, along with a lovely selection of 100 film clips. The clips can be browsed by theme and host archive, and they include depictions of British Âholiday-makingÂ trips and segments from the popular British television series, ÂSteptoe and SonÂ. The site is rounded out by the inclusion of a set of links to related organizations, such as the Association of Moving Image Archivists and the British PathÃ© Film Archive.
A project of the American Historical Association (AHA), the Organization of American Historians (OAH), the University of Illinois Press, and the National Academy Press, this site currently offers index and abstract access to issues of the American Historical Review and the Journal of American History. Full text access is restricted to members of the AHA and OAH, and to institutions that subscribe to the print versions. The site also hosts special features that will remain free to all. One example of this material is the multimedia essay, "Los Angeles and the Problem of Urban Historical Knowledge," which employs animated maps, photos, and other visual materials. Another example of this content is a searchable online version of the fourteen-volume Booker T. Washington Papers originally published by the University of Illinois Press. The volumes are presented in an adapted version of the National Academy Press's Open Book framework and may be easily browsed, printed, and searched down to the page level.
Although the roots of Ras sprouted from the rich history of retrovirus research, it was the discovery of mutationally activated RAS genes in human cancer in 1982 that stimulated an intensive research effort to understand Ras protein structure, biochemistry and biology. While the ultimate goal has been developing anti-Ras drugs for cancer treatment, discoveries from Ras have laid the foundation for three broad areas of science. First, they focused studies on the origins of cancer to the molecular level, with the subsequent discovery of genes mutated in cancer that now number in the thousands. Second, elucidation of the biochemical mechanisms by which Ras facilitates signal transduction established many of our fundamental concepts of how a normal cell orchestrates responses to extracellular cues. Third, Ras proteins are also founding members of a large superfamily of small GTPases that regulate all key cellular processes and established the versatile role of small GTP-binding proteins in biology. We highlight some of the key findings of the last 28 years.
For those looking to find out about a variety of important historical events on a particular day, this site provided by the History Channel will be both entertaining and informative. This Day in History collects information about historical events organized around a number of topical sections, such as Cold War History, Literary History, Old West History, Technology History, Wall Street History, and Civil War History. Along with brief essays describing the events of a particular day, some of the more recent events also have short video clips that users can watch. On one recent day (January 28th), events covered included the tragic explosion of the Challenger space shuttle in 1986 and the United States' failure to capture Pancho Villa, the Mexican revolutionary. Visitors can also type in their birthdays to find out about events that occurred on that day, as well as for a list of well-known persons who share their birthday.
|Discusses: (1) geologists and the history of geology; (2) American historians and the history of geology; (3) history of geology in the 1980s; (4) sources for the history of geology (bibliographies, dictionaries, encyclopedias, handbooks, periodicals, public/official histories, compilations, and books); (5) research opportunities; and (6) other…
Greene, Mott T.
Drawing on the power and abilities of the Internet, the eHistory website from Ohio State University offers multimedia portraits on topics that include immigration in the United States and the Louisiana Purchase. On the homepage, visitors can take a look at the "What is a 'Multimedia History'?" area to learn more about these features, and then move on over to the "Featured Multimedia History". The histories include interactive maps and images, along with narrative essays. Visitors can scan over the complete histories and also view one of their three video presentations. If they are interested, visitors can also sign up to receive Twitter updates or their RSS feed. Additionally, the site also contains links to the other areas of the eHistory site, such as their online books, timelines, and primary sources.
Canada's History Education Network "is a collaborative network across the diverse fields of history, history education and school history teaching in Canada...to bring together people from across Canada and internationally to inform, carry out, critique, and implement research into history education." This website is loaded with resources for Canadian history teachers, but also for history teachers from any country, as there are valuable tools on the site that aid in the teaching of history in general, and at all grade levels. The "Practice" link, near the top of any page, has assessment tools to evaluate the most effective ways to teach history. Visitors should take a look at the "Best Practices in History Education", which includes "Instructional Plans", "Instructional Resources", and "Database of Articles of Practice Awards". The "Assessment Tools" includes "Critical Challenges from the Critical Thinking Consortium (TC2)". The "Make Your Voice Heard" section links to such features as "Forums", "Videos and Podcasts" and "Polls".
An anthology of online history resources, this site was crafted and designed for history students, teachers, and enthusiasts. Established by Thomas Daccord, history teacher and instructional technology consultant at the Noble and Greenough School in Dedham, Massachusetts, this site not only provides links to online resources, but also rates them on a one to five star scale. The site features ten different historical categories -- Prehistory, Ancient/ Biblical, Medieval, US History, Early Modern European, 20th Century, World War II, Art History, General Resources, and Maps -- and contains links to over 700 history-related Web sites that have been reviewed for "quality, accuracy, and usefulness."
|Children who take avid pleasure in history told as a good story more often than not forsake it as adults. History has too often ceased to be a good story and become simply analytical, arid, tedious. (Author)|
In preparation for a LRO (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter) related study of possible lunar polar volatiles, we re- examined the lunar orbital and rotational history, with primary focus on the obliquity history of the Moon. Though broad models have been made of lunar obliquity, a cohesive obliquity history was not found. We report on a new model of lunar obliquity including
M. Siegler; B. Bills; D. Paige
|Discusses the history of American physics, indicating that much effort has been on the atomic bond and high-energy physics, to the detriment of other topics and areas. To offset this tendency, significant research is going on in the history of solid-state physics, with glimmerings in the history of physics education. (JN)|
Moyer, Albert E.
One of the problems of contemporary history teaching is ethnocentrism. Most researchers in the field of history education believe that style and utterance of history curriculum, textbooks and of teachers should be changed in the modern world. There are a lot of interests in the world about the meanings attached to the concepts of 'us' and 'the other' and how
|A key portion of the medical evaluation of child sexual abuse is the medical history. This differs from interviews or histories obtained by other professionals in that it is focuses more on the health and well-being of the child. Careful questions should be asked about all aspects of the child's medical history by a skilled, compassionate,…
Finkel, Martin A.; Alexander, Randell A.
This issue of Sport in History is the product of a symposium entitled ‘Boxing, History and Culture: New Themes and Perspectives’ held in June 2010 at De Montfort University and organized by the International Centre for Sports History and Culture. The symposium was an attempt to highlight and reflect upon a notable increase in recent years in scholarly research on
Martin Johnes; Matthew Taylor
The history, psychology and sociology programs enhance the writing, speaking, critical thinking and problem solving skills that are adaptable to a wide range of occupational pursuits. We teach a Christian philosophy of history, taking a lineal approach that history has a definite beginning with creation and ends when Christ returns to establish His kingdom upon earth. We teach that God
The Manhattan Project transformed the course of American and world history, science, politics and society. If we can read about this in books and watch History Channel documentaries, why do we need to preserve some of the properties of this enormous undertaking? The presentation, ``A History Worth Preserving,'' will address why some of the physical properties need to be preserved
Affiliated with Duke University, the Forest History Society (FHS) "links the past to the future by identifying, collecting, preserving, interpreting, and disseminating information on the history of interactions between people, forests, and their related resources..." Founded in 1946, FHS offers extensive resources for anyone interested in the history of forests. This website contains links to FHS archives, research and publications, U.S. Forest Service history, searchable databases, and more. The searchable databases include a sizeable bibliography "containing annotated descriptions of over 34,000 books, articles, and dissertations on topics in the fields of forest, conservation, and environmental history."
This site, devoted to the history of newspapers in the United States and to US history in general, offers several notable American history resources. Essays by members of the Newspaper Collectors Society of America, with which this site is affiliated, cover a range of topics relating to the history of newspaper journalism. The essay archive is searchable. Resources of interest to collectors include a primer on collecting historic newspapers, a price guide for old and historic newspapers, and a list of newspapers most often reprinted. For those with other interests in history, there is an index of history-related web sites, organized by category. About half of the entries in the index include a brief statement of what kind of information the user is likely to find on a particular site. As a meta-index of historical resources this should prove useful to historians interested in many eras and issues.
Family history assessment can be used to combine population-wide health promotion and risk-reduction efforts with a high-risk, targeted approach to help reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Family history is an independent predictor of CVD, and the upper portion of the family history distribution explains a larger fraction of CVD in the population than can be explained by extreme
Steven C Hunt; Marta Gwinn; Ted D Adams
More than 1 million photographs dating back to the Edison era (1872-1892) plus the entire instruction book and technical reprint files of the former General Electric Company's (GE) Advertising and Sales Promotion (A&SP) operation form the core of the Schenectady Museum, Hall of Electrical History (HOEH). In addition, the Schenectady Museum HOEH collection includes the papers of many prominent electrical
C. G. Hunter; R. L. Smith
Ken Osborne looks back on his career as a history teacher and teacher of history teachers, exploring what first drew him to the study of history, why he thinks history matters, why he decided to teach it, and how he became involved in issues surrounding the teaching of history. Along the way he also comments on the emergence of history
This glossary arises out of research interests in the 19th and 20th century in the history of drugs, including the contemporary history of drug policy. It is necessarily brief, and British and American focused; it is also concentrated on narcotic drugs rather than alcohol and tobacco. However, the comments take on board the recent discussions of convergence across the substances,
Virginia Berridge; Sarah Mars
The APS is pleased to announce the launch of the Living History of Physiology Project. The Society encourages the membership to consider interviewing senior physiologists at their institutions to provide a living history of physiology. The videos provided to date focus on the physiologistÃÂs training and career and their professional interactions.
|This volume of twenty essary by nineteen authors attempts to describe the message, issues, and impact of American preaching as it has interacted with history and shaped American churches and society. The twenty topics, treated by individuals with advanced degrees in theology or speech, are: the role of preaching in American history; Puritan…
Holland, DeWitte, Ed.
In 2001 we conducted the Family History Validation Study, a telephone survey of 1,380 Connecticut residents, which assessed self-reported information about family history of cancer. The study also explored demographic, psychosocial, and medical factors associated with such reports.
Contends that world history should be taught as "Big History," a view that includes all space and time beginning with the Big Bang. Discusses five "Cardinal Questions" that serve as a course structure and address the following concepts: perspectives, diversity, change and continuity, interdependence, and causes. (CMK)
|Examines the personal views, research methods, and writing strategies of an author who specializes in books on labor history aimed at the young adult market. Discusses some of the work that went into biographies of Mother Jones, Rosie the Riveter, and Frances Perkins. Recommends an increased focus on labor history. (MJP)|
The medical history of salt begins in ancient times and is closely related to different aspects of human history. Salt may be extracted from sea water, mineral deposits, surface encrustations, saline lakes and brine springs. In many inland areas, wood was used as a fuel source for evaporation of brine and this practice led to major deafforestation in central Europe.
Massimo Círillo; Giovambattista Capasso; Vito Andrea Di Leo; Natale Gaspare De Santo
This paper reviews recent contributions to the economics and economic history of famine. It provides a context for the history of famine in the twentieth century, which is unique. During the century, war and totalitarianism produced more famine deaths than did overpopulation and economic backwardness; yet by its end, economic growth and medical technology had almost eliminated the threat of
Cormac Ó Gráda
|This issue of "The Goldfinch," an Iowa history magazine for children, focuses on issues relating to housing. Articles address such subjects as homelessness, neighborhood history, architecture, and local folklore. One student activity is the "Building Blocks" game that calls upon students to fill in blanks to complete words from the issue relating…
Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.
The essay shows the manner in which Literary History, normally conceived as being an aid to literary studies becomes, in fact, a judgement of what is commonly known as Literature (art). It proceeds with giving an overview of existing literary?historical theories and practices which are located in six categories before outlining Foucault's archaeological and genealogical procedures. Although Literary History after
Part of a great site on the land use history of the Colorado Plateau from Northern Arizona University, this site offers a brief overview of wildfire history and ecology on the Plateau with links to information about ponderosa pine fire ecology, reintroduction of fire to forest ecosystems, and fire ecology research studies.
Although sometimes regarded as a self-contained specialism, adventitious to the interests of intellectual history, medicine has played an integral role in the formation of Western culture. Subjects falling within the traditional scope of medical education are a substantial slice of intellectual history, and those trained as doctors have played an important role in intellectual affairs, extending well beyond the confines
|Contends that world history should be taught as "Big History," a view that includes all space and time beginning with the Big Bang. Discusses five "Cardinal Questions" that serve as a course structure and address the following concepts: perspectives, diversity, change and continuity, interdependence, and causes. (CMK)|
A short history of the use and production of shellac as processed from Lac insects in India. It includes a brief timeline history, as well as a discussion of the insects that produce it. Other links include lac production process, and properties of shellac. The site is devoted to the promotion of shellac production and use.
|This curriculum guide is designed to facilitate teachers' first efforts to introduce information about women in U.S. history. The guide promotes a multicultural awareness of women's history beginning with the Native Americans and proceeding to current issues of diversity. Activities are divided for grades 1-6 and 7-12 but may be adapted as…
Ruthsdotter, Mary, Ed.; Eisenberg, Bonnie, Ed.
This curriculum guide is designed to facilitate teachers' first efforts to introduce information about women in U.S. history. The guide promotes a multicultural awareness of women's history beginning with the Native Americans and proceeding to current issues of diversity. Activities are divided for grades 1-6 and 7-12 but may be adapted as…
Ruthsdotter, Mary, Ed.; Eisenberg, Bonnie, Ed.
Suggests activities that school library media specialists can use to encourage students to think of history as fun and relevant and to want to read history books. Discusses heroism in poems and songs; writing poems based on historical figures; biographies; limericks; and publishing student writings on parchment paper. (LRW)
Karwoski, Gail Langer
|Presents results of a survey of the teaching about nuclear history at U.S. colleges and universities. Reports the existence of a well-established and extensive literature, a focus on nuclear weapons or warfare, and a concentration on nuclear citizenship, therapy, or eschatology for courses outside of history departments. Discusses individual…
Holl, Jack M.; Convis, Sheila C.
This is an interactive tour along the historical timeline of Utah. Welcome to the tour of the History of Utah lesson! The area we now call Utah has a very rich and interesting history. Over the years Utah has been the home of many different people. This exercise is an interactive ...
History may be seen as a tapestry of interwoven events. The discourse structure of that tapestry may be identified and used to support visualization for examining and interacting with the tapestry of history. Specifically, we propose temporally constrained causal relationships as a key for organizing that tapestry. Because Events occur at different levels of granularity and similar ones may occur
Robert B. Allen
|The publication contains a brief description of three revised programs for teaching senior history. A major aim is to help students understand themselves in relation to the world. Comparison studies relate past to present and an overall interdisciplinary method strengthens the study of history. The focus is on the principle that the course…
Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto.
A HISTORY OF BONES is a collection of lyrical and narrative poems which examines the interconnectedness of humanity through recurrent physical images—bones, blood, hair, etc. These images reflect the commonalities of the human race at the most basic level by pointing to the unavoidable fate all living things share. The poems build on popular culture, politics, world history, and mythology
Amanda C Hosey
Professor Jan Oosthoek at the University of Edinburgh has maintained a web presence since 1999, and his most recent website was relaunched in March 2008. The purpose of the site is to provide a range of resources and information on environmental history for the general public and scholars. Some of these resources include topical bibliographies, essays, annotated guides to other web resources, and a news feed. Visitors who click on the "Bibliography" area will find links to detailed thematic bibliographies that cover El Nino, climate history, Scottish forest history, and other topics. Moving on, the "Essays" area contains twelve different essays, including "The role of wood in world history", "What is environmental history?", and "Dutch river defences in historical perspective". The "Podcast" area is a real treat, and features interviews and discussions about topics such as urban air pollution in historical perspective and the environmental legacy of apartheid in South Africa.
One million words of history can seem a bit daunting, but not when it is divided into 300 narratives and 10,000 events. That's the basic format of the Historyworld site, which was created by Bamber Gascoigne. The narratives are all linked together, and visitors will find that the homepage rotates through different selections, including the history of painting and the history of Andean civilization, just to name a few. Visitors can click on the "Histories" link to view an alphabetical list of the subjects covered. Each narrative history contains a brief outline and a link to an interactive timeline, complete with additional links. Moving on, the site also offers a set of quizzes, which include a timer for a bit of extra drama.
This server, operated by Eh.Net as part of a grant received from the National Science Foundation, is an outstanding central source of information for anyone interested in economic history. Highlights of the site include a collection of economic history abstracts, book reviews, data sets, approximately 100 syllabi from courses in Economic History and the History of Economics, and a comprehensive calendar of events of interest to economic historians. Users will also find a list of Eh.Net discussion lists and their archives, a directory of combined memberships of several organizations, and direct links to servers for a number of economic history organizations. Finally, students or scholars who are new to the field can make use of the Ask the Professor service, which answers users questions and includes an archive of past questions.
Although some might fear that limited land resources and the usual development pressures are working to reduce Britain's natural history to footnote status, this website from the Natural History Museum in London effectively documents the UK's impressive biological and geological diversity. The site consists of interactive database features as well as videos (in both Windows Media and Quicktime formats). Exploring Biodiversity, an interactive introduction for students to UK biodiversity, allows users to compare the flora of different UK postal districts and also to download a version of WORLDMAP, the Museum's innovative distribution analysis software. The Earth Lab Datasite is a searchable database of fossils, rocks and minerals organized in part by geographic distribution. The Postcode Plants Database allows users to generate local lists of UK plants and/or animals. The British Natural History video, produced by the Museum's Darwin Centre, presents an online tour of the UK's wildlife scene, while Ornithology of the Orkney Islands looks at the work of bird researcher on these Scottish isles and also includes a discussion of migration studies with Museum ornithologist Douglas Russell. The site is best viewed with Netscape Communicator versions 4.5 to 4.8 and Microsoft Internet Explorer version 5 and later.
This page from the Southwest Center for Microsystems Education features a learning module which provides an overview of the history of microelectromechanical systems, or MEMS. A participant guide, instructor guide (both in PDF format) and a comprehensive powerpoint presentation are included. A step by step history of the progression of the history of MEMS is included in the materials. A crossword puzzle and research activity are included in the participant guide. Users are encouraged to register and log in in order to access the full content on the site.
Gallaudet University of Washington DC is presenting a travelling exhibition entitled History Through Deaf Eyes. At this Website, readers can learn about the plan, curator, and travel specifics of the exhibition that seeks to place the social history of deaf Americans within the context of better-known aspects of American history and to trace the development of a Deaf identity and language. Contents of the Website are Introduction and Orientation, Formation of Community, An Oral Approach to Education, The War and Post-War Years, Civil Rights Recognition and Access, Information Age, and Choices. Interesting historical photographs accompany the engaging text.
Designed by the student chapter of the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, this site offers a clear, informative timeline of film sound history. Breaking the century down by decades, the site discusses the main sound innovations of each period, and these brief histories link to related film history sites. The site also features a graph showing the specifications and capability of every major film sound format from Fantasound in 1940 to DTS introduced in 1993. An unannotated list of relevant links rounds out the site.
The local history collection should contain: county histories; city and village histories; state and regional histories; anniversary booklets; company histories; local newspapers; local magazines; genealogies; family albums; diaries; journals, and letters; account books; club yearbooks; school annuals; telephone books, city directories and local…
Miller, Marcia Muth
|The contents of this issue of the "Oral History Review" include eight articles, Oral History Council reports, and lists of the sites of future oral history colloquiums, of Oral History Association publications in print and in microform, and of contributors. Titles of articles and authors are as follows: "Oral History Comes of Age" by Samuel…
Hand, Samuel B., Ed.
A labor of love for its author, Stephen Alsford (Special Projects Officer at the Canadian Museum of Civilization), this site promises to be a reliable source for well written and researched articles on Medieval English Urban History. Currently, the site contains concise capsule histories of six English towns: Norwich, King's Lynn, Great Yarmouth, Ipswich, Colchester, and Maldon. Each history covers key topics such as Origins and early growth, Development of local government, Buildings and fortifications, and Economy. Alsford has also generously placed the full text of his Master of Philosophy thesis on the site, an engaging study of office-holding in six East Anglian boroughs between 1272-1460. Additional resources at the site include a glossary and a large collection of related links. Alsford plans to add maps, photos, illustrations, and additional capsule histories in the future.
|Discusses how to use music when teaching U.S. History. Provides examples such as teaching about the Civil War, the Great Depression, and the Vietnam War and showing the contributions of African Americans. Includes a discography. (CMK)|
|What foods simmered in Colonial cooking pots? What flavorful odors filled the dimly lit kitchens of early America? Through cooking children had the opportunity to hold, feel, sample and savor this period in history. (Author/RK)|
|The history of the computer usage in high school laboratories is discussed. Students learned scientific methods by acknowledging measurement errors, using significant digits, questioning their own results, and without doubts, they benefited from applying skill learned in mathematics classes.|
Mason, Diana S.
The Family History Validation Study is a methodologic study to assess the completeness and accuracy of self-reports of family history of cancer. A questionnaire was administered by computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) to a probability sample of 1,380 Connecticut residents, ages 25-64 years. The questionnaire asked about the occurrence of cancer in first- and second-degree relatives, except for grandchildren.
A living history biography is presented of Theodore T. Puck. This history is intimately involved with the progress towards mapping of the human genome through research at the forefront of molecular cytogenetics. A review of historical research aims such as human genetics studies based on somatic cells, isolation of mutants as genetic markers, complementation analysis, gene mapping and the measurement of mutation is presented. 37 refs., 4 figs.
Puck, T.T. [Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States)
This module is intended to help you understand the Historical Legacy of the LDS Church. First, go to the link below and read the speach by Elder M. Russell Ballard. Once you have done this, discuss this speech with someone near you. Tell them your impressions of this talk and then write down why history, especially LDS church history is important to study. Elder M. Russell Ballard - Faith in Every Footstep Good ...
The Computer History Museum offers this outstanding online timeline, which ranges from the first proposal of electronic data storage in 1945 to the birth of the World Wide Web in 1990. "Each year features illustrated descriptions of significant innovations in hardware and software technology, as well as milestones in areas such as commercial applications and artificial intelligence." There is also a focus on the portrayal of computers in pop culture. With nearly 120 entries, the timeline serves as a vivid reminder of how far computer technology has come in such a short period.
|The dynamism of Africa's role in world history, recent work in African economic history, the role of women, and the African colonial period are discussed. Various aspects of this history can be integrated easily into existing social studies courses. (RM)|
Objective. To demonstrate with radiographic imaging the association between pubic stress injury and sacroiliac abnormalities in athletes.\\u000a Design and patients. Eleven athletes (9 men and 2 women), comprising seven male long-distance runners, one male soccer player, one male and two\\u000a female basketball players, were imaged with plain films for complaints of pubic symphysis pain, sciatica, groin pain, or a\\u000a combination
N. M. Major; Clyde A. Helms
The California Historical Society's Website presents accessible, interesting, and well-designed scholarly and educational materials relating to California history. One interesting section, The California History Online Timeline, allows users to click on a timeline of images to access material on key events and time periods in California history. These include European exploration, the Spanish Colonial frontier, Mexican California, the Gold Rush, the impact of the railroad, economic growth at the turn of the century, and the Great Depression. Each section features a sidebar outline where visitors can break the exhibit down into its sub-sections to view text and images. For scholars and amateur historians of the state, the Society also offers the complete tables of contents for all the issues of California History from 1922 to 1998. The Society has begun to post full texts of the issues from 1950 to 1993, though this process seems to be in the earliest stages. Finally, the Website features a quarterly newsletter giving information about archived and upcoming exhibits, events around the state celebrating California history, and news about the Society's programs and acquisitions.
British history to some might be thought of as a dense thicket of county records, complex lineages, and other such foibles that make the story of these modestly-sized islands all the more delectable. Fortunately for those interested in these ÂhistoriesÂ, there is the British History Online website. Created by the Institute of Historical Research and the History of Parliament Trust, the site contains a rather staggering array of material, ranging from the journals of the House of Commons to ordnance survey maps from across the nation. Apart from browsing through these resources, visitors can also utilize a series of tabs running across the top of the homepage that compartmentalize the materials here into such categories as places and subjects. Some of the subject headings include agriculture history, historical geography, and social history. One additional nice feature is the ÂRecent Journal EntriesÂ section, where visitors can learn about recent and upcoming additions to the already impressive selection of primary historical resources offered here.
Launched in September of 2004, the Chip History Center web site was originally developed by VLSI Research Inc. to be the semiconductor industry's History Channel on the internet to help strengthen the industry's infrastructure by providing an archive of videos and reports that document the industry's history and its development. Today its purpose is to serve as a virtual museum on the history of the semiconductor industry, preserve and archive the history of the industry that opened the doors to the information age, provide easy to access and free information to researchers, historians, and educators, provide educational resources for K-12 that show how things work, and provide role models for children of people for whom science and math have enriched their live. This a great website to explore the early days of the Semiconductor Manufacturing equipment and some of its most interesting pioneers from the 60's through the 90's. The site has historical pictures and interactive blogs for you to leave your comments and thoughts.
The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago houses a world-renowned collection of artifacts from ancient Syria, Israel, Persia, Anatolia, Egypt, Nubia, and Mesopotamia. On this website, visitors can explore some of these artifacts up close while also learning more about the history of this important region. Visitors should first visit "Life in Mesopotamia" to learn more about the cultural importance of the area. Then, they can click on the "Learning Collection", here, visitors can zoom-in on artifacts selected by teachers in order to learn what these artifacts can tell us about ancient Mesopotamia. After browsing the learning collection, visitors should not miss the "Interactives." Here they can view additional artifacts as well as view video clips on various topics including a virtual archaeological dig and how these ancient artifacts are cared for and preserved. In addition, teaching materials are also provided and K-12 teachers can earn graduate credit from an online course also offered here.
Sport historians have largely avoided television history even though several series, like Ken Burn's Baseball and the BBC's More Than a Game, have reached large audiences. Only one journal, The Journal of Sport History, regularly reviews mediated forms of sport history, while the other journals only sporadically engage with television history and film. This article evaluates the documentary The Original
Murray G. Phillips
With the growing interest in oral history, this booklet provides guidelines for the development of oral history projects at the secondary level. There are various options for establishing oral history in the school program including an elective semester course, an independent study project, a minicourse, a cocurricular history club project, or an…
Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Curriculum Services.
Purpose of review The present review examines recent contributions to the evolving field of historical writing in psychiatry. Recent findings Interest in the history of psychiatry continues to grow, with an increasing emphasis on topics of current interest such as the history of psychopharmacology, electroconvulsive therapy, and the interplay between psychiatry and society. The scope of historical writing in psychiatry as of 2007 is as broad and varied as the discipline itself. Summary More than in other medical specialties such as cardiology or nephrology, treatment and diagnosis in psychiatry are affected by trends in the surrounding culture and society. Studying the history of the discipline provides insights into possible alternatives to the current crop of patent-protected remedies and trend-driven diagnoses.
The Disability Social History Project preserves, examines, and shares the history and culture of disabled persons. This community project provides opportunities for people with disabilities to conceptualize a group identity, advocate civil rights, and provide resources that educate the public about disabilities. The four major sections include: a timeline--spanning from 3500 BC to the present--that chronicles events in disability history; a people section offering brief biographies of famous disabled people, including, among others, Harriet Tubman, Franklin Roosevelt, and Frida Kahlo; a News & Events area that posts recent news items, a schedule of arts and cultural events, and a list of conferences and calls for papers; and an annotated webliography directing visitors to related sites. In addition, the proceedings of Changing Borders, a recent meeting of women with disabilities, is also available at the site.
How can teachers give their students a thoughtful prospective on world history? It's a challenging task, and educators would do well to take a look at this 26-unit multimedia course produced by Oregon Public Broadcasting. Visitors can watch any of the segments here at their leisure, including Human Migrations, Early Belief Systems, Agricultural and Urban Revolutions, and Order and Early Societies. Also, there is a complete complementary website that provides selected additional readings, bibliographies, and classroom activities. Users shouldn't miss the World History Traveler area of the site, which includes a most efficacious section titled "What is World History?" and an Audio Glossary, which features the pronunciations of over 300 place names and historical figures.
Twenty-eight years ago this month, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established to implement Federal laws protecting the nation and its people from pollution. In 1992, the Agency established a history program to preserve and organize documents related to its institutional memory. To further this mission, the Agency recently created this site, which offers useful information to potential researchers of the 200 cubic feet of EPA historical documents. The heart of the site is the Collection section, which offers abstracts and finding aids for the 90+ collections held at the History Office. Additional resources at the site include the full text of two booklets on EPA history, abstracts and ordering information for other historical publications, a collection of FAQs, and an internal search engine.
The School of Mathematics and Statistics at the University of St Andrews, Scotland has developed an extensive collection of articles on the history of mathematics (See also NSDL Scout Report for Math, Engineering, and Technology, June 4, 2004). This article, written by J J O'Connor and E F Robertson, reviews the history of Prime Numbers. The article includes hyperlinks to topics addressed further in other sections of the website. For example, from this website visitors can also find articles on Pythagoras and Euclid.
The goal of the Earth History segment of the Paleomap Project is to illustrate global plate tectonic development, as well as the changing configuration of landmasses and seas during the past 1100 million years. An array of colorful paleogeographic maps for geologically significant periods of earth's history is provided. Each paleogeographic map displays the reconstructed positions of modern continental coastlines, shelf margins, major tectonic boundaries, active plate boundaries and seafloor spreading isochrones. The maps also include a short discussion indicating important geologic features and events for each period.
Scotese, Christopher; Project, Paleomap
|Expounds on two headline articles from the "Edmonton Journal" (Canada) that prompted the columnist to reflect on the history of the textbook in social studies. The two articles refer to politically motivated editing of history texts in Hong Kong and Japan. Urges history teachers to teach history "the way it happened." (DSK)|
|Eschewing Little Mermaid and Ninja Turtle costumes, students at a Washington Montessori school celebrate Halloween dressed as John Adams, Clara Barton, and other historical figures. U.S. Department of Education recently recognized eight schools for using interdisciplinary approaches, devoting adequate instructional time to history, and addressing…
|This article uses the life history method to chronicle the challenges of a low-income, first-generation student en route to college. The paper addresses three questions: how Manuel navigates college and related topics such as roommates, family, and money; how he creates social networks; and how he works with adults such as teachers and…
Tierney, William G.
|Several case histories of hyperlexic children whose abilities in word recognition are at a level significantly higher than their general level of intellectual functioning are described, and the impact of such a condition on the child is suggested as an object of research. In the sever"l cases presented, the hyperlexia re"ulted in environmental…
Silberberg, Norman E.; Silberberg, Margaret C.
|The ability to judge quality of information published and importance of Internet in departing knowledge to the students is described. The awareness among the students about topics in history and ability to discuss the topics show that they are well-informed readers, writers and thinkers.|
Wineburg, Sam; Martin, Daisy
This paper considers the future of economic history in the context of its relationship with economics. It is argued that there are strong synergies between the two disciplines and that awareness of the economic past is an important resource for today's economists. Examples are given that illustrate these points. It is clear that the past has useful economics but the
The Mississippi Historical Society produces the online publication, "Mississippi History Now", to "encourage interest in the history of Mississippi." On this site, visitors will also find lesson plans for teachers seeking to bring Mississippi's history to younger generations. On the homepage, visitors can check out the current issue's feature, about Senator Pat Harrison, or the previous issue's feature on the Vietnamese in Mississippi. The feature on the Vietnamese explains how a Vietnamese population ended up in Mississippi, how their population is currently faring, and problems they have encountered. Visitors can go to the link for the lesson plan at the end of the feature, and they will be able to choose a plan suitable for grades seven through twelve. The "Archived Features" can be accessed when visitors click on the magnifying glass in the left hand corner of the homepage. The features can be viewed by categories, such as "19th Century Mississippi", "Black History", and "Mississippi Constitutions" or by alphabetical title of the feature, such as "Catfish Farming in Mississippi", "Cotton and the Civil War", and "Flood of 1927".
The following essay represents a further stage in the author's ongoing re - search into the advance of Christianity in Asia. The ample bibliography at the end is of particular help to those wishing to pursue the question through materials available in Western languages. The accompanying map was kindly provided by the author. The history of Christianity in Asia is
John C. ENGLAND
Conclusion This, then, is the history of mammaplasty; no doubt more remains to be said and our presentation is necessarily subjective. The tale is nonetheless a fascinating one as it testifies to the work of plastic surgeons for more than a century. The best way of bringing it to life is to perform a mammaplasty. Let us be aware that
J. P. Lalardrie; R. Mouly
Armed with information obtained from the targeted headache history, clinicians can almost always make an accurate diagnosis or at least determine sick from well. Through using the information obtained, clinicians can craft a safe and cost-effective treatment plan that has a high likelihood of success. PMID:23419620
Waldman, Steven D
|A group of Maine birdwatchers recognizes that the presence or absence of migrating songbirds is related to complex biospheric patterns. For schoolchildren, community groups, and environmental scientists, such local natural history observations can be a pathway to perceiving and understanding global ecological change and then to developing…
REQUIRED TEXTBOOKS The following texts are appropriate materials, in conjunctioin with class lectures, throough which the student can actualize the course goals: Bettenson, Henry. Documents of the Christian Church. (Oxford paperback, second ed.). This is a record of crucial letters and texts of official church proclamations that shaped the direction of church leadership in the history of the church. Gonzalez,
J. Steven OMalley
|In the United States, survey courses in world history have been staples of school programs for almost a century. But no consensus has emerged on the exact goals toward which these courses should be directed. Nor is there agreement on what topics to include or in what order topics should be studied. This article introduces some of the reasons for…
Thornton, Stephen J.
|This paper revisits the value of and justification for histories of geographical education as a field of research endeavour within geographical education. Four potentially fruitful areas of research are identified. These are pressure groups, especially the International Geographical Union's Commission on Geographical Education; the influence of…
In 1405, Christine de Pizan, an Italian humanist who spent most of her life in France, set out to rebut the misogynistic literature of her time. In writing what was to become the first major feminist tract in the Western tradition, de Pizan turned to history. In The Book of the City of Ladies, de Pizan described a city populated
JUDITH M. BENNETT
|While narrative history has been the prevailing mode in historical scholarship, its preeminence has not gone unquestioned. In the 1980s, the role of narrative in historical writing was "the subject of extraordinarily intense debate." The historical backdrop of this debate can be traced to the preceding two decades, when four groups of thinkers…
Tamura, Eileen H.
The Tornado History Project is a searchable, sortable database of tornado statistics based on official Storm Prediction Center (SPC) tornado records since 1950. Results of your search can be viewed in the form of raw data or on a Google Map. Plus, users can leave comments/share memories of any tornado in the database.
A wide variety of religions, cultures and languages have something akin to the conventional English use of the word 'history' in the dual senses of a description of past events or an all encompassing term for the whole collection of these events (Breisach, 1987, pp. 371, 372-383). Stories, epics, genealogies and biographies of important figures from the past are not
James G. Crossley; Christian Karner
York has held a special place in English history, and during the medieval period it was actually the capital of the country for a time. This interactive and well-thought out website explores the history of York, and it was created by the York Museums Trust, with support from the City of York Council. Visitors to the site's homepage will note that they can use the "Pick of the Day" to learn about the culture and history of the area, and it includes profiles of everything from the ponderous Skeldergate Bridge to the finely crafted silver strap ends fashioned by Anglo Saxons in the area. The "Timeline" area features an interactive map of York which allows users to move seamlessly between the Viking domination of the area to the current day. Each historical period includes embedded artifacts and a brief narrative history. Persons visiting York will want to take a close look at the "Trails" area as well. Here they can download different trails (such as "Exploring York's Railway Heritage"), and use the guide to take a walk around the area.
|This paper provides an overview of the beginnings of the newspaper in Brazil with information on the more significant titles and their role in the history of journalism and their impact on social change that occurred between the Imperial and Republican periods. Current collections at the National Library and legal deposit are discussed. It…
Zaher, Celia Ribeiro; Varella, Maria Angelica
|This chapter describes the development of a set of programs called "History Comes Alive," a series of historical simulations and interactive experiences for students at heritage sites in Ontario. The programs allow students from Ontario and New York to relive the past by spending 3 days and 2 nights in a simulated historical setting. In addition…
This paper is concerned with the presentation of a course on Software Engineering core activities that was offered to History students by the Computer Science Department at Birmingham University, UK. Conceptually, this paper can be divided into three main parts. The first part deals with the rationale of the course, its structure and its delivery. In the second, part, some
Rachid Anane; Coventry CV
Seeds of the Blue Book were planted in Cambridge, MA in the early 1960's, and variants thereof in Boulder, Colorado and Tucson, Arizona at a somewhat later date. However, flowering and cross-pollination did not occur until 1984 with the fruit ripening in 1991. We will briefly review this obscure history, search for lessons learned, and ponder what comes next.
Eagleson, P. S.
Thirteen years after he worked with Irving Langmuir on the project that won the Nobel Prize for chemistry, Vincent J. Schaefer filled an ordinary home freezer, supercooled well below freezing, with the moisture from his breath. He then dropped a crystal of dry ice into the freezer and produced snowflakes. This first success in the history of cloudseeding research led
Barbara T. Shore
Interest in military history is as strong as it has ever been--except on American college campuses. Lt. Gen. Josiah Bunting III examines why today's undergraduates need to study the facts of war, and why knowing its causes and consequences remain a vital part of our common knowledge.
Bunting, Josiah, III
While narrative history has been the prevailing mode in historical scholarship, its preeminence has not gone unquestioned. In the 1980s, the role of narrative in historical writing was "the subject of extraordinarily intense debate." The historical backdrop of this debate can be traced to the preceding two decades, when four groups of thinkers…
Tamura, Eileen H.
... for risk assessment based on family history. The Prenatal Genetic Screening Questionnaire may be useful for a physician/health ... heart disease, and a pregnant mother concerned with prenatal care and genetics. The public service annoucements can be found by visiting the NHGRI's ... Tweet
Eschewing Little Mermaid and Ninja Turtle costumes, students at a Washington Montessori school celebrate Halloween dressed as John Adams, Clara Barton, and other historical figures. U.S. Department of Education recently recognized eight schools for using interdisciplinary approaches, devoting adequate instructional time to history, and addressing…
This theme based journal issue consists of articles and teaching ideas focusing on the Holocaust and history. This publication contains the following materials: (1) "Multiple Perspectives on the Holocaust?" (Alan Singer); (2) "Responses to 'Multiple Perspectives on the Holocaust'"; (3) "Escape to Cuba: Story of Laura Kahn, a Holocaust Survivor"…
Singer, Alan, Ed.
The Utah State History website casts a broad net when they note that their mission is "to preserve and share the past for a better present and future." As a division of Utah's Department of Community and Culture, they reach out to the public through the work of this site and other entities, including the Utah State Historical Society. On their homepage, visitors will note that the site is divided into six primary sections, including "Program Areas", "Learning & Research", and "Experience History". The "Experience History" area is a good place to start, and visitors can learn about their preservation efforts and also learn about some of Utah's key historic sites. Moving on, the "Learning and Research" area provides timelines of Utah's history, access to a large online archive of photographs, and information on locating cemetery records in the state. Finally, the "Program Areas" section features information about their research center and the Utah State Historical Society and their featured publication, the Utah Historical Quarterly.
History of Emotions is a research seminar on one of the most profound features of our individual makeup and its development during the last five hundred years. We will explore what are emotions? How were they used and manipulated? Could a middle class man have ambitions? Or a middle class woman? What was love? What were the institutions of love?
The paper presents an innovative approach to the future by examining the concept of time in the 20th century, the development of a sense of chronology, and the role of futures history through the process of "invention." The model is based on the Einsteinian theory of the relativity of time. The author suggests that learning a sense of chronology…
Designed and maintained by Sarah Ward, a former commercial pilot, this site offers essays about almost every major airline, both contemporary and historical. A complete alphabetical list runs from the ABA Swedish Air Lines all the way to ZAS Airline of Egypt. Each profile gives details about the types of planes used by each airline; what type of business they conducted (and where); and numerous photographs of the planes, many taken by Ms. Ward. Along with the airline profiles, another section of the site titled Aircraft by Decade offers basic statistics about different plane models and types introduced during every decade of the 20th century. Special features of the site include a photographic tribute to the planes that travelers might have seen as they traversed through London's airports in the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. Ms. Ward has taken a great deal of care in compiling the material on the site (along with the help of contributors), and the material here will be a joy for aviation fans and visitors interested in knowing a bit more about the history of different airlines.
The story of Provincetown, Massachusetts is part of the earliest European settlement of the United States. Stretching back almost four centuries, the tales of this town include whaling, artists, creative theater, and of course, the Pilgrims. This website was created to preserve the history of this unique place, and it is made possible by a generous donation from the Ken Weiss Schwab Charitable Fund. First-time visitors can get started by using the search engine here or by browsing the items by collection, format, or subject category. The collection includes annual town reports, glass plates, a history of the town department, and so on. The town reports date from 1870 to 1918 and they offer an interesting picture of what occupied the minds and attentions of local residents. Visitors shouldn't miss the "Artworks" area, as they will find beautiful oil canvases of waterfront scenes and watercolors depicting celebrated shipping vessels.
Compiled by Kenneth Robinson and provided by the Center for Korean Studies at the University of Hawaii, this comprehensive bibliography is offered as an update and supplement to the 1980 annotated bibliography Studies on Korea: A Scholar's Guide. Robinson's bibliography includes his earlier Korean War bibliography (see the November 5, 1999 Scout Report), as well as covering early modern Korean history, the nineteenth century, modern history of the North and South into the 1960s, economics, literature, the Korean diaspora, law, women, demography, education, and music, among others. An excellent resource for students and scholars alike, the bibliography is easily navigated via a table of contents or menu buttons on the left-hand side of the browser window.
The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign is responsible for the Illinois Natural History Survey (INHS), whose mission is "to investigate and document the biological resources of Illinois...and to acquire and provide natural history information...to promote the common understanding, conservation, and management of these resources." Along the top of the page visitors can find headings that include "Research", "Data", "Publications", and "Events". The "Research" portion of the website includes seven areas of research from which to choose including "Entomology", "Invasive Species", "Wildlife Ecology", and "Human Interactions". The "Data" section provides ecological monitoring data, GIS data, a clearinghouse of wildlife ecology software, and collection databases which allow visitors to search for specimens of plants and animals. The "Publications" include educational materials, annual reports, manuals, a bulletin, and a circular. For those interested in events at the INHS, the "Events" link provides a nice calendar of upcoming seminars.
From Newburyport all the way to New Bedford, Massachusetts has many places steeped in a rich and interesting maritime past. Recently, the National Park Service's National Register of Historic Places and Maritime Heritage Program created this interactive guide to the maritime history of the Bay State. The site spares no punches, as it opens with a lovely photograph of the Boston Light Station on Little Brewster Island, complete with some very appropriate sound effects. Visitors can explore the sites through a series of interactive maps and then read four essays that deal with maritime commerce, shipbuilding, the U.S. Navy, and lighthouses and lifesaving stations. For each site, visitors can read a brief history and learn more about visiting each destination. It's a great way to learn about this particular part of the United States, and it could serve as the inspiration for a nice vacation as well.
In class we read Katie's Picture Show, a book about a girl who discovers art first-hand one day at an art museum in London. She realizes she can climb into the paintings, explore her surroundings, and even solve problems for the subjects of the paintings. As part of our unit on American history, we are going to use art to further learn about some of the important events we have been discussing. Each of these works of art depicts an important event in American History. When you click on a picture, you will be able to see the name of the event as well as the artist who created it. You will be using all three pictures for this assignment.Use the websites ...
Designed as an online supplement to the text book Gardner's Art Through the Ages, this gateway offers extensive links to Websites, images, and documents relating to art in the Ancient world; the Middle Ages; the Renaissance, the Baroque, and the Rococo; the Modern and Postmodern world; and the world beyond Europe. All forms of the plastic arts are covered including prints and photography. The links are listed in a subject outline form with brief but helpful annotations, and the designer has also gone an extra step by often breaking down sites into their significant subsections or images, allowing users to gain a better idea of what's on a Website and link to its individual sections directly. Gateway to Art History is maintained by Chris Witcombe, Professor of Art History at Sweet Briar College, with funding from Harcourt College Publishers.
Sponsored by Britain's Virtual Teacher Centre (and underwritten by the National Grid For Learning), HistoryWorld contains over 400 separate historical articles and approximately 4000 events within its unique database. Visitors may begin by looking through the World History section, where it is possible to take any number of "tours through time," which essentially display a complete succession of events around a given theme, such as religion, science, or architecture. Students looking for a brief overview regarding any number of subjects may want to take a look at the article section which contains articles on various historical themes organized by region, contributor (in this case, the contributing agency or museum), and category. Definitely the most engaging feature of the site is the Whizz Quizz, an online game where visitors can pit their historical knowledge against other competitors. The fastest contestant is subsequently featured on their homepage as Whizzard of the Hour, and no doubt, numerous accolades may also follow!
This paper covers the history of autostereoscopic cinema, from the beginnings of autostereoscopy in the 1800s, the development of motion capability and it's subsequent evolution to present techniques. Public viewings of autostereoscopic movies have occurred on a semi-ongoing basis since the early 1940s. In Moscow and other cities, theaters were constructed called stereokinos, for showing autostereoscopic films, with specially positioned seating for proper viewing. The Cyclostéréoscope was an autostereoscopic cinema system invented by François Savoye in France. It was based around a drum made of metal bars that revolve around a screen. For several years in the 1940s and 1950s, it was open to the public in Paris. Any film made in a dual film format could be shown. Besides dedicated theaters in Russia and France, exhibits of content have occurred outside devoted theaters. The paper focuses on the history of autostereoscopic technology developed for entertainment, public viewing of content, the individuals involved and the content itself.
This volume deals specifically with recent original research in the history of Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Islamic, and Indian astronomy. It strikes a balance between landmarks of history of Ancient and Medieval Astronomy in the Orient on one hand, and on the other the transmission of the European Astronomy into the countries of the Orient. Most contributions are based on research by the experts in this field. The book also indicates the status of astronomy research in non-European cultural areas of the world. The book is especially of interest to historians of astronomy and science, and students of cultural heritage. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-0657-8
Ansari, S. M. Razaullah
A broad collection of mathematical bibliographies and links to pages explaining important concepts. One highlighted feature is a link to Euclid's 'Elements', which contains all 13 books and illustrated figures. Another interesting attribute is a link to the famous 1900 speech of David Hilbert, a leading twentieth century mathematician, in which he addressed the International Congress of Mathematicians in Paris and described 23 important mathematical problems. A history of mathematics by region gives bibliographies, and sometimes maps and chronologies for Babylonia, Egypt, China, Greece, India, the Arab sphere, Japan, and Europe. Bibliographies and some web links are provided for the subjects of numerals and counting, algebra, geometry, arithmetic and number theory, mathematical analysis, and probability and statistics. Lists of books and other non-internet resources, such as organizations devoted to the history of mathematics, journals, and catalogs are also listed.
It is certainly not uncommon for state historical societies to have publications dedicated to promulgating their stateÂs various historical eras, events, and happenstances. Wisconsin is no exception to this rule, and the Wisconsin Magazine of History (published under the direction of the Wisconsin Historical Society) is quite a joy to examine, both online and in print. First published in 1917, the magazine was significantly redesigned in 2000, and continues to publish a wide variety of articles on the stateÂs history. On this site, visitors can browse all of the issues since 2000, and also take a look at some favorites from the editors. Some of these articles include ÂA Winter in WisconsinÂ by Francis Hackett and an account of early motoring throughout the state by Dorothy V. Walters titled ÂDevil-Wagon DaysÂ.
The goal of the Climate History segment of the Paleomap Project is to illustrate climate change during the past 1100 million years. An array of colorful paleoclimatic maps for important time periods is provided. Each map displays reconstructed positions of modern continental coastlines, dominant regional climates and the datapoints used in map construction. The maps are arranged in order of ascending age and supply a short discussion of important concepts and geologic events.
Christopher, Scotese; Project, Paleomap
The California Solar Center offers this history of Solar Energy. Written by John Perlin, author of "From Space to Earth - The Story of Solar Electricity," the article summarizes three major solar energy subjects -- photovoltaics, solar thermal, and passive solar architecture. Visitors can get a quick overview of "how we have learned to capture sunlight and use it to make electricity, heat water and heat our homes."
Of the thousands of drugs and medicines available for the prevention, treatment, and control of human disease and discomfort, the most widely used is aspirin. This article explores the historical development of aspirin and provides teachers with instructional strategies, ideas, and applications for teaching about aspirin in the science classroom. The topic of aspirin serves not only as an interesting history lesson but also an excellent opportunity for science teachers to apply this knowledge to lessons in science and other curricular subjects.
The Zion Natural History Association (ZNHA) is a non-profit organization established in 1931 to support education, research, publication and other programs for the benefit of Zion National Park, Cedar Breaks National Monument, and Pipe Spring National Monument. Visitors to this site can acess information about the scientific, educational, historical, and interpretive activities of the Association and its sister organization, the Zion Canyon Field Institute.
Recent geological discoveries have shaken the long-standing view of Earth's Cenozoic glacial history, which traditionally calls for the first continental-scale glaciation of East Antarctica in the earliest Oligocene (~33.6 Ma), followed by the onset of major Northern Hemispheric glacial cycles in the late Pliocene about 30 million years later. For example, new evidence from Arctic and North Atlantic oceans suggests
R. Deconto; D. Pollard; P. Wilson; M. Pagani
This paper from George Wand outlines the history of fuel cells and hydrogen use, beginning with historical information on battery powered electric vehicles and moving through the decades and development of a variety of different vehicles. The end of the report takes a brief look into the possible future of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies to power automobiles. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.
The history of urolithiasis dates back to the dawn of civilization. The symptoms, signs, and treatment of kidney and bladder\\u000a stones are chronicled in most extant ancient medical texts, and cutting for stones in the bladder is one of the oldest elective\\u000a surgical procedures recorded. Physicians performed perineal lithotomy until the Middle Ages, when prejudice against surgical\\u000a procedures relegated them
This work covers the history of production statistics for the states of Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Viriginia, West Viriginia, and Wyoming. The following statistics are presented: annual oil production, percentage of US total production, producing oil wells at year-end, oil production, and annual gas production.
Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. How do signaling networks within cells communicate with each other in order to respond to a vast array of external stimuli with the correct responses? In their Perspective, Ingolia and Murray discuss a new approach (Bhalla et al.) that elucidates the regulation of the MAPK signaling cascade in cultured cells and how cellular history contributes to this regulation.
Nicholas T. Ingolia (Harvard University;Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology and Bauer Center for Genomics Research); Andrew W. Murray (Harvard University;Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology and Bauer Center for Genomics Research)
Human behavior towards the sun has changed over the years along with trends. Tan succeeded the white complexion. The sunscreens appeared recently in history. It is lining up with the discovery of bad effects due to prolonged exposure to ultraviolet at the end of the 19th century. Initially, those products had no signs of efficacy on their packaging, then the solar protection factors increased gradually, up to a limit value of 50+ more recently. PMID:21032925
Couteau, Céline; Coiffard, Laurence
Since the rise of interest in social history in the United States, a number of academics and public citizens have remained committed to preserving the voices and perspectives of everyday people. The Southern Oral History Program (SOHP) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is a rather fine example of such a commitment. Founded in 1973, the SOHP has recorded over 2900 interviews with people from all walks of life, and their website contains a generous sampling of this material. First-time visitors may wish to start by watching Ã¯Â¿Â½Spoken MemoriesÃ¯Â¿Â½, which provides a nice introduction to the history and work of SOHP. Afterwards, they can sample some of the online audio archives, or listen to the Ã¯Â¿Â½Interview of the MonthÃ¯Â¿Â½ feature. For those who wish to read as they listen, the interviews are complemented by transcripts in several different file formats. Visitors should also feel welcome to browse through the online finding aid to the SOHPÃ¯Â¿Â½s collection and offer their own feedback or inquiries.
Environmental History Resources is a fantastic website, maintained by Dr. Jan Oosthoek, an environmental historian based at the University of Newcastle, that explores how "environmental changes, often the result of human actions, have caused historical trends." The website features the award-winning podcast and the podcasts are available for visitors to listen to for the years of 2006 to 2010, with the 40th podcast episode on the lost wetlands of England posted in mid-December 2010. Visitors will find that each podcast episode has a good written synopsis that accompanies it, including literature cited, websites mentioned, and music featured, when applicable. Moving along, visitors will find a podcast in the "Podcasts 2008" section which addresses "Disasters, history and the cultures of coping". It uses the example of the Philippines, which has more tsunamis, volcanoes and earthquakes than any other country in the world, to show how "persistent threat and reality of disasters shapes the history, social and cultural development of societies."
Founded by a band of historically-minded Seattleites in 1911, the Seattle Historical Society would later go on to create The Museum of History & Industry (MOHAI) in 1952. Since that time, MOHAI has been intimately involved with preserving and interpreting various aspects of Pacific Northwest history for both the curious public and scholars. Their website offers a few very nice highlights of some of their collections, including a photograph archive that contains approximately 4000 images. Visitors should also take a look at one of the several dozen oral history transcripts here, which feature discussions with men and women who have been involved in the information technology and manufacturing industries in the region. Those who find themselves in or around Seattle will want to look over the information offered here about visiting the actual museum as well. The site is rounded out by a very fun selection of audio clips, including one of the official theme songs of the 1962 Seattle World's Fair and another audio segment that features Bing Crosby waxing philosophic about his love for his native Washington state.
The Bancroft Library at the University of California-Berkeley has recently begun a project to place portions of its oral history collection online in full text. The transcripts will be marked up in SGML using the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI), which will allow complex searches of the entire text. In addition to the transcripts themselves, the remainder (photos, prefaces, contents pages) of the published volumes will also be encoded to provide complete access. At this stage, the Suffragists Oral History Project, which offers the text of interviews with twelve suffragists and women's activists for searching or browsing, is the only project available online in complete form. Projects under construction include the Disabled Persons Independence Movement and the BioTech Project. Among the future planned additions are oral histories of the Free Speech Movement at Berkeley, the Earl Warren gubernatorial era, and African-American Alumni at the University of California. Historians of California and oral historians will want to monitor the site as it develops.
Ever wonder where the word Winnebago came from, before it meant a large, lumbering motor home? What about a curlew, a gorget, or a round forty? All these terms and more can be found in the Dictionary of Wisconsin History, being built at the Wisconsin Historical Society, a spin-off from the Society's Turning Points digital project (http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints), a special collection aimed at making documentation on the most important events in Wisconsin History easily accessible to teachers, students, and lifelong learners. As Society staff worked on materials for Turning Points, they found many words and proper names that were not defined in standard dictionaries, that might confuse readers. These terms were saved in a database, with short explanations, eventually becoming the Dictionary of Wisconsin History, with over 1,000 terms, including over 120 Indian tribes, and more than 300 short entries for prominent people. The Dictionary is still growing, and users are invited to submit terms. And, by the way, Winnebago is an obsolete name for the Ho-Chunk Indians, a curlew is a shore bird, a gorget is a breast plate, and a round forty is a forty-acre lumber allotment, "whose boundaries were not strictly observed by logging companies (who took so many trees outside of it that the parcel resembled a circle rather than a square)."
Currently operating as an interdisciplinary study center within the College of Arts and Sciences of Case Western Reserve University, the Dittrick Medical History Center was established as part of the Cleveland Medical Library Association in 1894. First-time visitors will definitely want to begin by looking through the museum's history, and then examine the museum artifacts and galleries, which represent a small sample of their holdings. The artifacts are divided into time periods and include such fascinating medical equipment as bloodletting devices, a phrenology bust, and a defribrillator from 1950. The galleries section allows visitors to take a virtual tour of the rooms within the museum, such as a doctor's office from the 1930s and a replica of a pharmacy from the 1880s. Several online exhibits are also available for perusal, such as one dedicated to Cleveland's brush with a smallpox epidemic in 1902. Utterly fascinating, though not for the squeamish, is the exhibit that details medical school photographs, many of them class photographs around dissection tables, and postcards featuring medical students and cadavers. The site is rounded out with a host of online guides and finding aids that help in using the Center's extensive collections dealing with the history of medicine.
|"History of Education" has published a steady stream of papers on the history of secondary education over the first 40 years of its existence. This corpus of research has been generated in the context of renewed interest in the history of secondary education that has been stimulated by developments in social and historical inquiry as well as by…
The History of Education Site categorizes and annotates international resources concerning education history, childhood history, and the history of education research. This frequently updated, easily navigated metasite--initiated and maintained by Henk van Setten, Associate Professor of the Philosophy and History of Education at the University of Nijmegen, Netherlands--indexes online bibliographies, pedagogical texts, specialized archives, discussion lists, educational statistics, and research organizations, in addition to numerous sites devoted to the history of education, the history of childhood, and the lives and works of important educators from the past. Each brief annotation in the index is accompanied by an icon that visually represents the site's content type, quantity, quality, relevance, and usability. The entire metasite is searchable; furthermore, helpful tips are provided on how to locate additional history of education resources on the Web.
Text VersionPage 1. This document is one component of the donor history questionnaire documents (Version No. ... Full-Length Donor History Questionnaire ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts
These resources, designed for recognizing Women's History Week in Vermont elementary and secondary classrooms, are suitable for use nationwide. Oral history materials include recommended strategies for conducting oral history projects, a list of general interview questions, sample questionnaires for interviews concerning women's work and immigrant…
Vermont State Dept. of Education, Montpelier.
Clearly, the Ohio Bicentennial is an important event for celebration. This article seeks to promote the Ohio Bicentennial by reviewing a project devoted to the local or public aspect of history. The focus of the project was the study of the history of Dayton, Ohio. Wright State University developed the Nearby History Institute, which brought public historians, social studies professors
Marjorie L McLellan
|While social studies content about communities, neighborhood jobs, and maybe even some state history is taught in the early elementary grades, often the upper elementary grades are the first time students learn about the larger progression of history. How do teachers begin to teach the progression of U.S. history and the themes and questions that…
Kirchner, Jana; Helm, Allison; Pierce, Kristin; Galloway, Michele
|Contends that the field of economic history is no longer a separate subfield of economics but an integral part of the entire discipline. Explains the concepts of monetary policy, labor force development, and economic growth in U.S. economic history. Concludes that the end of economic history is the beginning of better and richer economics. (CFR)|
Romer, Christina D.
|No Child Left Behind has profoundly limited the teaching of history over the past 10 years. Now, the Common Core State Standards offers an opportunity to reverse this decline by giving history a more prominent place in the school curriculum alongside literacy goals. Learning history and argumentative writing is key to developing analytical ways…
This volume was proposed after Peter Tandy and Joe McCall organized a 1-day meeting of the History of Geology Group, which is affiliated to the Geological Society, at the Natural History Museum in December 2003. This meeting covered the History of Meteori- tics up to 1920 and nine presentations were included, the keynote talk being given by Ursula Marvin. There
G. J. H. McCall; A. J. Bowden; R. J. Howarth
|IBHA, the International Big History Association, was organized in 2010 and "promotes the unified, interdisciplinary study and teaching of history of the Cosmos, Earth, Life, and Humanity." This is the vision that Montessori embraced long before the discoveries of modern science fleshed out the story of the evolving universe. "Big History" is a…
Duffy, Michael; Duffy, D'Neil
The IHRC, located at the University of Minnesota, is an "international resource on American immigration and ethnic history" that offers a number of resources of interest to migration and ethnic specialists. The IHRC searchable archival and library collections include personal papers, organizational records, pamphlets and newspapers, and information on responses to immigration. The Center's collections are strongest on eastern, central, and southern European and Near Eastern ethnic groups. The site also features information on genealogical resources, recent acquisitions, and current events at the center.
This lesson plan is about American public lands including parks, monuments, refuges, wilderness areas, underground mineral reserves, marine sanctuaries, historic and scenic trails, forests, and seashores. Throughout this lesson, students will explore and share with others the hidden histories and stories of these lands about wildlife, cultures, governments, and people who have lived on, enjoyed, protected, or influenced them. Students will identify the economic, scientific, recreational, and spiritual values of public lands; interpret Native American quotes that demonstrate the unique relationship between Native Americans and the land; identify important historic facts about select public lands; and develop a creative way to share information with others about a select public land.
Users can choose from an extensive selection of links to resources for use in the study of the history of space exploration. The links provide access to historic information and publications, chronologies, and mission summaries for American, Russian, European, and other space missions. For educators, there are links to guides to robotic spacecraft and to observing the space shuttle in orbit. Links are also provided to a variety of spacecraft homepages and to other topics such as a primer on the basics of space flight, the Apollo lunar surface journals, and the NASA historic archives.
History of the endaural mastoid surgery and the development of this approach to the temporal bone begins with the first paracentesis, which is the oldest endaural operation of the middle ear. Prior to the invention of the ear mirror paracentesis was a difficult operation. In 1885 Kessel reported endaural radical ear surgery. A great inconvenience is the narrow operative field within the external auditory meatus. It influenced the surgeon to extend the incision posteriorly into the auricle. In 1930 Heermann H. described antero-superior extracartilaginous endaural incision. PMID:18652164
Wielgosz, Romuald; Mroczkowski, Edward
The Canadian Museum of Nature (CMN) offers an online version of its Natural History Notebook series originally published in 1977-81. Interesting facts and attractive black-and-white sketches are provided for each of the nearly 250 animal species (mostly vertebrates) featured in the Web site. All illustrations are by Charles Douglas, former chief illustrator at CMN. The notebook collection includes one each for mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, amphibians, invertebrates, endangered or extinct species, prehistoric life, and another that allows users to search for animals by geographical region.
We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of uniform density up to a sharp upper transition to the ether, at which the refraction occurred. Alhazen and Witelo transmitted his knowledge to medieval Europe. The first accurate measurements were made by Tycho Brahe in the 16th century. Finally, Kepler, who was aware of unusually strong refractions, used the Ptolemaic model to explain the first documented and recognized mirage (the Novaya Zemlya effect).
Lehn, Waldemar H.; van der Werf, Siebren
This report describes the history of seismic activity at Parkfield, California, which is situated on the San Andreas Fault. It points out that moderate-size earthquakes have occurred on the Parkfield section of the San Andreas fault at fairly regular intervals, and that the earthquakes may have been 'characteristic' in the sense that they occurred with some regularity (mean repetition time of about 22 years). This indicates that they may have repeatedly ruptured the same area on the fault. A diagram shows the timing of the earthquakes, and illustrations of the seismic waveforms show the similarities between earthquakes occurring in 1922, 1934, and 1966.
This article provides evidence about the quality of retrospective childhood health histories given to respondents in the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS) and the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). Even though information on early life health events is critical, there is legitimate skepticism about the ability of older respondents to remember specific health problems that they had during childhood. The evidence presented in this article suggests that this view is too negative. Respondents appear to remember salient childhood events about themselves, such as the illnesses they had during childhood, quite well. Moreover, these physical and psychological childhood health events are important correlates of adult health during middle age.
SMITH, JAMES P.
The concept of female beauty has changed throughout time, but the form and size of the breasts and gluteal region have remained constant as symbols of maximum femininity. Sculptures and prints show us feminine figures that are voluminous and reflect human history's interest in fertility. The early years of gluteal augmentation saw few published reports that described the procedure technique, follow-up, or possible complications. But developments continued as surgeons began experimenting with different anatomical planes for implant placement. The most important goal in plastic surgery is meeting a patient's expectations. It is important for the surgeon to thoroughly explain to patients what can realistically be achieved with a procedure. PMID:16818090
de la Peña, J Abel; Rubio, Omar V; Cano, Jacobo P; Cedillo, Mariana C; Garcés, Miriam T
Tomotherapy is the delivery of intensity modulated radiation therapy using rotational delivery of a fan beam in the manner of a CT scanner. In helical tomotherapy the couch and gantry are in continuous motion akin to a helical CT scanner. Helical tomotherapy is inherently capable of acquiring CT images of the patient in treatment position and using this information for image guidance. This review documents technological advancements of the field concentrating on the conceptual beginnings through to its first clinical implementation. The history of helical tomotherapy is also a story of technology migration from academic research to a university-industrial partnership, and finally to commercialization and widespread clinical use.
Mackie, T. R.
The Manhattan Project transformed the course of American and world history, science, politics and society. If we can read about this in books and watch History Channel documentaries, why do we need to preserve some of the properties of this enormous undertaking? The presentation, ``A History Worth Preserving,'' will address why some of the physical properties need to be preserved and which ones we are struggling to maintain for future generations. The story of this effort begins in 1997 as the Department of Energy was posed to demolish the last remaining Manhattan Project properties at the Los Alamos laboratory. Located deep behind security fences, the ``V Site's'' asbestos-shingled wooden buildings looked like humble garages with over-sized wooden doors. The ``V Site'' properties were almost lost twice, first to bulldozers and then the Cerro Grande fire of 2000. Now, visitors can stand inside the building where J. Robert Oppenheimer and his crew once worked and imagine the Trinity ``gadget'' hanging from its hoist shortly before it ushered in the Atomic Age on July 16, 1945. As Richard Rhodes has commented, we preserve what we value of the physical past because it specifically embodies our social past. But many challenge whether the Manhattan Project properties ought to be preserved. Rather than recognize the Manhattan Project as a great achievement worthy of commemoration, some see it as a regrettable event, producing an instrument to take man's inhumanity to man to extremes. While these divergent views will no doubt persist, the significance of the Manhattan Project in producing the world's first atomic bombs is irrefutable. Preserving some of its tangible remains is essential so that future generations can understand what the undertaking entailed from its humble wooden sheds to enormous first-of-a-kind industrial plants with 125,000 people working in secret and living in frontier-like communities. With continuing pressure for their demolition, what progress has been made in preserving some properties of the Manhattan Project? The presentation will share the handful of remaining properties that we believe are needed to tell the story of the Manhattan Project. It will share our successes, what is still at risk, and the on-going struggle to preserve this history.
Humans are hosts to nearly 300 species of parasitic worms and over 70 species of protozoa, some derived from our primate ancestors and some acquired from the animals we have domesticated or come in contact with during our relatively short history on Earth. Our knowledge of parasitic infections extends into antiquity, and descriptions of parasites and parasitic infections are found in the earliest writings and have been confirmed by the finding of parasites in archaeological material. The systematic study of parasites began with the rejection of the theory of spontaneous generation and the promulgation of the germ theory. Thereafter, the history of human parasitology proceeded along two lines, the discovery of a parasite and its subsequent association with disease and the recognition of a disease and the subsequent discovery that it was caused by a parasite. This review is concerned with the major helminth and protozoan infections of humans: ascariasis, trichinosis, strongyloidiasis, dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, loasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, cestodiasis, paragonimiasis, clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, amoebiasis, giardiasis, African trypanosomiasis, South American trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, cyclosporiasis, and microsporidiosis.
Cox, F. E. G.
Created by amateur cultural historian Deanna DeMatteo, this site offers "the most detailed history of the Las Vegas Strip on the Internet today," showing in words and graphics the evolution of the properties on the Strip from its beginning to the present. Drawing on materials provided by publications, professional Las Vegas historians, and the Nevada State Museum and Historical Society, DeMatteo offers a detailed, noncommercial history with plenty of photographs (many archival) of the strip from the first night club in 1930 named Pair O Dice to the first true casino hotel, El Rancho with 63 rooms in 1941, to Hilton's giant Paris Las Vegas opening earlier this Fall with 2,914 rooms. There is also a special topics section, covering people significant in the strip's development, such as Warren "Doc" Bayley and Howard Hughes. Launched in August, the Website is continually updated with new material. Note: to reach table of contents, click on the photograph at end of the homepage.
Las Vegas (or "The Meadows" in Spanish) is a curious place, and it is not much of a stretch to say that it was transformed from a sleepy railroad town into a ring-a-ding swinging town in just a few decades during the 20th century. The Las Vegas Sun has gone above and beyond the call of duty by crafting a site that presents a multimedia-rich experience that narrates the history of this rather unique American city. Visitors should start their journey here by watching one or all eleven parts of their "Boomtown" video on the history of the town. Then visitors may want to take a look at the interactive map of the "Strip", which tells the fortunes of casinos and other buildings, past, present, and future, which have graced this notable region of mega-structures amidst the desert. After that, visitors should look at the "12 Voices from the Past" area. Voices like casino owner Benny Binion and former Nevada governor Mike O'Callaghan are featured here, and it's a great trip back through the city's varied past.
Like so many others, perhaps some of our Scout Report readers have wondered: "Where can I find out more about the history of physician assistants?" Those persons need wonder no longer, as this very thorough website provides a cornucopia of material that addresses all aspects of that very query. The site was created by a group of responsible organizations, including Duke University Medical Center and the American Academy of Physicians Assistants. The site's "Timeline" section is a good place to start as it offers a chronology of the different phases of the history of this profession, which dates back to 1650 when German military medical assistants were introduced into Russian armies by no less a personage than Peter the Great. Other sections include biographical essays of pioneering physician assistants such as Richard Smith and Marvin L. Gliedman. The site is rounded out by a collection of photographs of important artifacts (such as a stethoscope used by Dr. Eugene Stead, Jr., who founded the profession) and a bibliography.
Posted by the Powys County Archives, this Website (in Welsh and English) "aims to tell the local history of communities in the heart of Wales using sources which include archive documents, photographs, and early maps." The mid-Wales county of Powys is comprised of the three ancient counties of Montgomeryshire, Radnorshire, and Brecknock, and this Website offers archive documents, old photographs, school log books, trade directories, gazetteers, and supplemental historical narratives concerning six longstanding communities from this area. Visitors can access the material either by community or by social and historical themes, which include Crime and punishment, Education and schools, Religion in Wales, and Care of the poor. The archival material posted here is not inconsiderable and may be of supplemental use to researchers dealing with a variety of issues, including the structures of nineteenth-century, Welsh, rural society and the various skirmishes with the English before Wales's eventual incorporation (politically, if not entirely culturally) into Great Britain. In addition, the supplemental historical narratives are written in a professional manner and can serve as fine learning resources for students of local UK history.
Founded in 1908 by Attorney General Charles Bonaparte, the Federal Bureau of Investigation has served the people and government of the United States for close to a century. Interestingly enough, many of the first FBI agents were in fact former Secret Service Employees appointed by Bonaparte. Provided and maintained by staff members at the FBI, this site provides brief essays about the different periods of the organization's history, ranging from the so-called "Lawless" years from 1921 to 1933 to the rise of international crime in the 1980s. The essays address a wide array of topics ranging from the long career of J. Edgar Hoover as the head of the FBI, the creation of the "Ten Most Wanted Fugitives" list, and combating domestic Communist activity in post-World War II America. The site is rounded out by transcriptions of relevant historic documents dealing with the organization's early history, such as Attorney General Bonaparte's request for a detective force within the Department of Justice.
The Smithsonian's National Museum of American History, along with the Verizon Foundation, has developed a website that offers standards-based online resources for teaching and learning American history. This lively looking red, white and blue-themed website has an eye-catching feature on the homepage which highlights an item from the Museum's Artifacts. Visitors should click on the "Learn More" link, which is right below the description of the artifact, which will take the visitor to the full detail of the artifact, as well as any related artifacts. Clicking on the "Museum Artifacts" tab at the top of the page will take the visitor to the search engine for the 65 museum artifacts on the site. The "Lessons & Activities" tab at the top of the homepage takes the visitor to a list of lessons and activities that can be filtered by Grade Level or Historical Eras/National Standards. Additionally, the list provides the lesson/activity description, the grade band it's suitable for, as well as the duration of the lesson. Finally, the "Interactives & Media" tab, located at the top of the homepage, links to a slew of audio, video, and interactive resources that are meant to be used by students on their own, without the aid of a parent or teacher. "Building a Sod House", "Artificial Anatomy: Body Parts", "Children Write to the President", and "Whatever Happened to Polio?" are just a few of the 36 fascinating interactive lessons.
Nursing history, similar to women's history, has followed the progression of feminist movements, garnering approach and direction from emerging feminist thought. In this article, in a chronological format, women's and nursing history are juxtaposed with feminist movements. Brief representations of scholarship in women's history are used to set the context for nursing history, which forms the bulk of the analysis. Although the purpose of this article is to delineate the evolution/direction of Canadian nursing history, past and current historiography is framed within important international scholarship; hence, discussion of works by Celia Davies, Barbara Melosh, and Susan Reverby, for example, is included. New directions in Canadian nursing history should include attention to everyday work experiences from which nurses and nursing students construct their identity. In addition, comparisons to other workers will be helpful. PMID:15068556
University of Muenster's Palaeobotanical Research Group provides this site with links to Web sources dealing with Paleozoic forests. One educational highlight of the site is the regularly updated introductory text, "History of Palaeozoic Forests," by Hans Kerp, Head of the Palaeobotanical Research Group at Muenster. Available in both English and German, this text features information on the earliest land plants, Carboniferous swamps, and the first flowering plants, among other things. Here, readers will find overviews of biostratigraphic issues such as the existence of the Palaeophytic-Mesophytic boundary. The figures are comprised of Stratigraphic columns, illustrated landscape reconstructions, and paleogeographic maps. Other sections of the site include research, publications, news, and links to palaeobotany-related museums, societies, and courses.
This Website gives users the chance to explore the landmark and industrial history of the city of Buffalo and its role in America's industrial expansion. The site features sections on the historic lighthouses and railroading industry of Buffalo, the Erie Canal, the broadcasting industry of Buffalo, and the Pan-American Exposition held in the city in 1901. The site is built around its use of appealing Shockwave and audio plug-ins to give users the sights and sounds of Buffalo's industrial past, but substantial historical background is also provided. The site is maintained by Aaron T. Heverin and supported by the Western New York Heritage Industry and the Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society.
Lovers of the dramaturgical arts will want to take a look at Theatrehistory.com, which offers a host of resources on the long and storied past of this performing art. The homepage for the site features links to a script archive, a Today in Theatre History section, a featured topic area, and a listing of the other areas covered within the site. The script archive is worth a look by aspiring thespians, as it includes a number of monologues, 10-minute plays, and full-length plays, most of which are in the public domain. The general theatre section is divided by country or region, and includes full-length articles about the tradition of the theatrical arts in Britain, Ireland, Russia, and Spain, among other countries.
Part social history, part public documentary, Peter Higginbotham has created a Web site devoted to the workhouse, a feature of the English landscape for over two hundred years that provided employment for the destitute in return for board and lodging. Through a series of primary documents, including the Poor Laws of the 19th century, Mr. Higginbotham offers a descriptive and nuanced perspective on the treatment of England's impoverished and destitute. Interactive maps of Britain and Ireland provide users with the ability to look for the locations of different workhouses and to find out additional information, such as their dates of operation and their exact street address. Finally, an audio archive provides reminiscence from Laurie Liddiard, who served as a workhouse clerk in the late 1920s.
We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of uniform density up to a sharp upper transition to the ether, at which the refraction occurred. Alhazen and Witelo transmitted his knowledge to medieval Europe. The first accurate measurements were made by Tycho Brahe in the 16th century. Finally, Kepler, who was aware of unusually strong refractions, used the Ptolemaic model to explain the first documented and recognized mirage (the Novaya Zemlya effect). PMID:16201423
Lehn, Waldemar H; van der Werf, Siebren
Online digital collaborations have reaped great dividends in the past few years, and this latest project involving the Connecticut State Library, Mystic Seaport, the Connecticut Historical Society, and the New Haven Colony Historical Society is no exception. Currently, the Connecticut History Online website contains over 14,000 images of photographs, drawings, and prints that may be searched in a number of ways, including by keyword, creator, title, and date. For those who may be overwhelmed by these numerous options, there are also a number of thematic "Journeys", which are intended to introduce visitors to highlights of this diverse collection. Some of these sections include such themes such as "Maritime Trades", Connecticut goes to the Beach", and "Rural Life in Connecticut". Educators will appreciate the classroom section of the site, which contains numerous lesson plans, puzzles, and a citation guide that will be of great assistance.
As described on this website, Silicon Valley is "a bellwether beast, pursuing the newest technologies on the drawing board and in the hand". This compelling online digital archive was created by a consortium of organizations and institutions located in the Silicon Valley, including the History San Jose Research Library and the Santa Clara University Archives. Appropriately enough, visitors entering through the site's homepage will be greeted by a number of context-specific images, including a couple of peaches, a microchip processor, and a historical photograph of two scientists at work. From there, visitors can delve into the documents collected here by clicking on one of the general headings, such as education, people, technology, agriculture, and urban life. Currently, the archive contains close to 1000 images, and users are free to browse through them at their leisure. Visitors can also create customized searches and save their favorite images to a "My Favorites" area.
There is a congruence of hermeneutic method between cultural history and psychoanalysis which includes a recognition of the subjectivity and self-reflexivity of interpretation and of the centrality of emotions in the structuring of historical motivation and action. Psychoanalysis is a humanistic discipline that offers tentative multi-causal conclusions, combining in its method both self-reflection and empiricism, but basing itself on a unique process of inquiry different from either the natural or the cultural sciences. Distinguished shapers of the historian's craft, including Dilthey, Collingwood, and Bloch, used the self as an instrument of research and insight. Freud was a cultural pessimist, as was Burckhardt whom he admired. Leading contemporary American historians, such as Williamson, foreground self-reflection as an acknowledged tool of historical discovery and cognition. The "Bauhaus," 1919-1939, is presented as a case study of creative group process utilizing Winnicott's concepts of transitional space. PMID:19780235
African Americans have lived in Wisconsin since the mid-19th century, and their story is an important part of Wisconsin's history. This online collection from the Wisconsin Historical Society brings together documents that tell the story of the state's African American community. The materials here are divided into six sections, including "The Fur Trade Era," "The Later 19th Century," and "The Civil Rights Era." Each one of these sections contains a brief narrative essay that provides a bit of historical background. There are over 40 documents embedded within these sections, including items such as a poster advertising an abolitionist rally in Milwaukee and several articles about the 1923 tour of the Peters Chicago Union Giants, an African American baseball team that toured the state playing local teams.
Designed as a partnership between five major institutions of Jewish scholarship, history and art (including the American Jewish Historical Society, the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research, and the American Sephardi Federation), the Center has combined holdings of approximately 100-million archival documents, artifacts, paintings, and textiles. From the organization's homepage, visitors can learn about the mission of the center, how to conduct genealogical research using their holdings, and browse a calendar of the many events and conferences held at the Center's headquarters in Manhattan. One of the online highlights is the fine archive of audio and video clips and interviews available in the Events at the Center area. Here visitors can listen to the proceedings of an international conference on anti-Semitism in the West held in May 2003, and view interviews with Dr. Ruth Westheimer and Shimon Peres. Also, visitors may elect to sign up to receive the Center's email newsletter.
Son: "What happened today back in 1980 Dad?" Dad: "I don't know son, why don't you look online at the "Today in History" site?" That conversation is perhaps not so far-fetched when readers learn about this very fine and edifying website. Developed as part of The Library of Congress's American Memory project, the site contains informative information about what happened on, say, October 21. Visitors who visit the site on any given date will find archival documents and brief commentaries on the Kennedy-Nixon Debates (one of which took place on October 21), the premiere of "Hello, Dolly!" (January 16), as well as the 363 other days of the year. The site is quite a treat, and each "Today" contains links to various archival documents that have been offered up online as part of the American Memory project and other Library of Congress digitization initiatives.
In 2004, the Australian Liberal–National Party Coalition Government promised that, if re-elected, they would commission Film Australia to produce ten documentaries on Australia's history. The fruit of this promise was the Making History initiative, and the Australian Broadcasting Corporation broadcast the resulting ten documentaries during 2007–9. The Making History initiative represented a significant funding boost to the documentary sector, and
|Considers Stephen Jay Gould's writings on the nature of history, specifically on the relationship between science and history. Addresses the scientific method, the foundations and procedures of historical explanation in science, history as contingency, and evolution as history. (CMK)|
Considers Stephen Jay Gould's writings on the nature of history, specifically on the relationship between science and history. Addresses the scientific method, the foundations and procedures of historical explanation in science, history as contingency, and evolution as history. (CMK)
Many academic disciplines have been actively seeking to expand their scholarly publishing activities onto the Internet, and history is certainly no exception. In the spring of 2000, The History Cooperative was launched as part of a collaborative effort on the part of four organizations (including the American Historical Association and the National Academy Press). Rather recently, The History Cooperative brought two new publications into the fold: Oral History Review and World History Connected. Visitors to the first site can read the first electronic edition of the Oral History Review (from September 2004), and peruse such articles as "Kissing Cousins: Journalism and Oral History" and a number of book reviews from that edition. Visitors can also view submission guidelines and learn about the journals' editorial board. The second link leads to the World History Connected e-journal, which is the new journal of "learning and teaching for world history educators". Currently there are three issues of this journal available here for the public's consideration. Visitors will want to make sure and read a commentary titled "An Emerging Consensus in World History" by that eminent historian from the University of Chicago, Professor Emeritus William McNeill.
Oral histories are an important way of telling a community's history, and this intriguing project from the University of Washington Libraries sheds new light on a very interesting aspect of history in the Pacific Northwest. The goal of the South Asian Oral History Project (SAOHP) is "to record pan-South Asian immigrant experiences in the Pacific Northwest using the medium of oral history." The project began in 2005, and the interviews here include immigrants who moved to the area from Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka from the 1950s to the present. Visitors can view transcripts of the interviews at their leisure, and good background material can be found in the section titled "A librarian's gift: Oral history project preserves memories of South Asian immigrants". The interviews are quite fascinating, and they include memories of studying at the University of Washington, attending the1962 Seattle World's Fair, and the challenges immigrants faced when they arrived.
The International Institute of Social History (IISH) is one of the world's largest documentary and research institutions for social history in general and for the history of the labor movement in particular. Its homepage contains a formidable online catalog of the IISH's 2,000 archival collections which hold over one million printed volumes and about as many audio-visual items. Also included are a listing of current books put out by the Institute's publishing house, a digital social history archive of "relevant parts of the Internet," and the online newsletter of the Institute for the International Association of Labour History Institutions. Two other items of interest are a collection of useful social and labor history links, and digital editions of recent exhibitions at the IISH. (One of the latter, "The Chairman Smiles," was discussed in the June 13, 1997 Scout Report.)
A meaningful discussion about the history of posthumanism first requires distinguishing the concept from a range of related\\u000a concepts with which its history is intertwined. Thus, one must first recognise that a historical analysis of posthuman-ism\\u000a is not synonymous with the history of medical enhancements. Indeed, discussions about posthumanism are not necessarily about\\u000a enhancements and, even when they are, they
Founded by securities dealer John Herzog in 1988, the Museum of American Financial History aims to collect and preserve US historical financial artifacts that bring "the nation's financial history alive." Students, policy makers, media professionals, and the general public will enjoy selected articles from the quarterly publication Financial History in addition to online exhibits like Financing the Civil War, a historical narrative complete with images of obsolete banknote and securities issued by the North and South.
... FDA's “Guidance for Industry: Implementation of an Acceptable Full-Length and Abbreviated Donor History Questionnaires and Accompanying ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts
This newsletter issue brings to students' attention some of the topics they could explore in working toward an award that the Arab World and Islamic Resources and School Services (AWAIR) organization presented to students participating in History Day 1991. The special category of the awards is Arab or Islamic history. The topics presented were not…
History is an eminently human quest to recover human experiences and stories. Far from theoretical, the history of education can be seen as vital to the study and practice of teaching if anchored in the cultures and contexts of stories. In university Faculties of Education, the reading of stories and memoirs can lead to open-ended discussion in…
|History is an eminently human quest to recover human experiences and stories. Far from theoretical, the history of education can be seen as vital to the study and practice of teaching if anchored in the cultures and contexts of stories. In university Faculties of Education, the reading of stories and memoirs can lead to open-ended discussion in…
The work Terror of History History of Terror (TOHHOT) is made of discs of bread, words, a cello bow and a wire coat-hanger. It is a visual unit that was part of a larger work in progress throughout 2006–2007. In the larger work I set out, amongst other things, to investigate and experiment with the visual properties of apparently everyday
Written by teachers from the United States and Canada, these lesson plans focus on integrating the teaching of history and art history. Seventeen lesson plans cover the topics of (1) Slavery, Henry Ossawa Tanner, and His Family--Grades: Elementary; (2) Chinese Landscape Painting--Grades: Elementary; (3) Regionalism: American Art of the Great…
Erickson, Mary, Ed.; Clark, Gilbert, Ed.
The earliest studies on animal bioacoustics dealt largely with descriptions of sounds. Only later did they address issues of detection, discrimination, and categorization of complex communication sounds. This literature grew substantially over the last century. Using the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America as an example, the number of papers that fall broadly within the realm of animal sound production, communication, and hearing rose from two in the partial first decade of the journal in the 1930's, to 20 in the 1970's, to 92 in the first 2 years of this millennium. During this time there has been a great increase in the diversity of species studied, the sophistication of the methods used, and the complexity of the questions addressed. As an example, the first papers in JASA focused on a guinea pig and a bird. In contrast, since the year 2000 studies are often highly comparative and include fish, birds, dolphins, dogs, ants, crickets, and snapping shrimp. This paper on the history of animal bioacoustics will consider trends in work over the decades and discuss the formative work of a number of investigators who have spurred the field by making critical theoretical and experimental observations.
Popper, Arthur N.; Dooling, Robert J.
The history of breast augmentation started effectively after World War II. Until then, this surgery was almost irrelevant because the indications were considered very rare and technical possibilities limited. During about two decades after 1945, two types of procedures were proposed. The first ones used autologous tissue especially fat in the form of dermofatty grafts taken from the buttocks. The results were very bad and sometimes disastrous for both techniques. At the beginning of the sixties, under the impulse of the Dow Corning Company, two surgeons: Frank Gerow and Thomas Cronin from Houston (Texas, USA) proposed an implant with a sheath filled with silicone gel. This new prosthesis had an immediate success and the number of breast augmentations growed very quickly. After an optimistic period, it had to be admitted that the results were sometimes deceiving or frankly bad. The breasts were often too firm, sometimes hard and even deformed. Capsular contracture occurred around the implants. During the 70's and 80's both consistency and envelops of the implants were regularly modified. The incision and the positioning were changed. At the end of the 80's, the problem of capsular contracture seemed to be resolved with the implants used, meanwhile a controversy took place about silicone in USA. Some cases of autoimmune diseases were attributed to silicone. In spite of scientific studies that proved the contrary, silicone implants were prohibited in the United States, Canada and temporarily in France. PMID:16185804
Somewhere between Los Angeles and New York is a metropolis affectionately referred to by some as the "Second City". Also known as Chicago, this fair city has recently received its due with the publication of this outstanding reference volume. The online version offered on this site is even more authoritative than the print volume, as it contains a number of interactive maps and special features. Produced by the Chicago Historical Society, the Newberry Library and Northwestern University, this online edition allows users to search the entire contents of the Encyclopedia, and even browse digitized versions of the primary historical documents that serve as the research materials for the print articles. From the homepage, visitors can peruse a user's guide to the Encyclopedia. Each entry includes hypertext links, and in some cases, illustrative materials. For additional information, each entry also features some additional readings. Visitors will also want to take a look at the lovely maps produced for the volume, including a rather compelling map of Chicago's blues clubs. Finally, the special features area includes several interpretive digital essays on the Plan of Chicago of 1909 and galleries on such important topics as "How Chicagoans Remember Their History".
The primary objective of the NIF Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostics is to provide bang time and burn width information based upon measurement of fusion gamma-rays. This is accomplished with energy-thresholded Gas Cherenkov detectors that convert MeV gamma-rays into UV/visible photons for high-bandwidth optical detection. In addition, the GRH detectors can perform ?-ray spectroscopy to explore other nuclear processes from which additional significant implosion parameters may be inferred (e.g., plastic ablator areal density). Implementation is occurring in 2 phases: 1) four PMT-based channels mounted to the outside of the NIF target chamber at ˜6 m from TCC (GRH-6m) for the 3e13-3e16 DT neutron yield range expected during the early ignition-tuning campaigns; and 2) several channels located just inside the target bay shield wall at ˜15 m from TCC (GRH-15m) with optical paths leading through the wall into well-shielded streak cameras and PMTs for the 1e16-1e20 yield range expected during the DT ignition campaign. This suite of diagnostics will allow exploration of interesting ?-ray physics well beyond the ignition campaign. Recent data from OMEGA and NIF will be shown.
Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y.; Young, C. S.; Mack, J. M.; McEvoy, A. M.; Hoffman, N. M.; Wilson, D. C.; Langenbrunner, J. R.; Evans, S.; Batha, S. H.; Stoeffl, W.; Lee, A.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M.; Miller, E. K.; Malone, R. M.; Kaufman, M. I.
For four days last week, the daily temperatures outside the Internet Scout Project office here in Wisconsin soared above 60 F (and on one day, above 75 F), and the lakes that surround Madison melted in one fell swoop, bringing winter to a lurching halt and restless thoughts of summer to the forefront. While such local temperature anomalies are not surprising (nor did other cities experience the same highs), in this case, they fit in with a global trend that continues to raise -- in some cases, anxious -- eyebrows. On Friday, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) announced that this winter is the warmest on record. Surpassing recent warm winter records of 1997-1998, the winter of 1999-2000 has now clinched the somewhat dubious title of warmest winter in history. This news release comes on the coat tails of a January report from the National Academy of Sciences confirming what is already accepted among most scientists -- that global warming is real (see the January 14, 2000 Scout Report). For news and information on this warmest of winters, this week's In The News features seven sites, listed above.
Payne, Laura X.
This paper was prepared for a Special Session in the 34th Annual Review of Quantitative NDE devoted to ``Applications of EMATs''. As such, it reviews the past history of electromagnetic induction of vibrations in metals with special attention to the application to nondestructive testing. The first patent describing the use of Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMATs) to replace the commonly used piezoelectric transducer was in 1969 but their first appearance in the scientific literature was in 1939 when the principles were applied to exciting and detecting the longitudinal resonance modes of bars of brass. The first true application to nondestructive testing was an R&D program sponsored by the American Gas Association to develop a device for inspecting buried gas pipelines for stress corrosion cracks in the early 1970's. During this same time period, theoretical models to describe the transduction mechanism appeared and led to the engineering of solutions to NDT and NDE problems that could not be accomplished with piezoelectric devices. The papers in the session to follow this historical summary show how the field has developed over the past 30 years and expose an impressive array of applications to quantitative nondestructive evaluation (QNDE) practices.
In courts case histories play a central part when a crime may have resulted from an effect of a prescribed drug; in civil cases where a person may have suffered damage from a drug; and in coroners' enquiries into the cause of unexplained deaths. The court must decide two important questions: 1. Can the suspected medication(s) cause this kind of effect? 2. Did it (or they) do so in this particular case? Many judges and coroners have not addressed these questions clearly and have not used expert witnesses consistently, on occasion disregarding scientific evidence. Courts need to appoint experts to explain and interpret the scientific evidence. Few judges are equipped to resolve contradictions between different experts. Brief accounts of five cases from four countries illustrate these points. The reluctance of legal processes to implicate drugs as a possible cause of violent behaviour leads to injustice. Courts must be required to obtain appropriate expert evidence, and be given independent data on which drugs can cause such behaviour. PMID:22436256
Herxheimer, Andrew; Healy, David; Menkes, David B
We revisit models for the early history of Titan. Our models start a few My after the production of calcium- aluminum inclusions (CAIs), consistent with the dates required by our thermophysical-dynamical modeling of Saturn's medium-sized satellites. Depending on the time of formation with respect to CAIs, the accretion time scale, and the available accretional energy, models of Titan's interior after accretion are partially to fully differentiated. At one extreme of the models, Titan accretes incorporating a minimal amount of heat. This results in a relatively cold core that, over the long term, heats up and overturns, consistent with previous models of Titan. At the other extreme, accretional heat and heat fom the decay of short-lived radiogenic isotopes results in quick and complete differentiation. In this model there is no core overturn, and conditions soon develop for silicate serpentinization, and hydrothermal activity starts. We identify the periods during which conditions are suitable for hydrothermal geochemistry leading to the production of molecular nitrogen from ammonia decomposition and methane from the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Key questions include the availability of suitable metal catalysts and/or clay minerals, storage of the reactants and products in the interior of Titan, and mechanisms by which they are released to the atmosphere. Acknowledgements: This work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory-California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA.
Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Matson, D. L.; Johnson, T. V.; Atreya, S.; Lunine, J. I.
We revisit models for the early history of Titan. Our models are formed a few My after the production of calcium-aluminum inclusions (CAIs), consistent with the dates required by our thermophysical-dynamical modeling of Saturn's medium-sized satellites. Depending on the time of formation with respect to CAIs, the accretion timescale, and the available accretional energy, models of Titan's interior after accretion are partially to fully differentiated. At one extreme, the model Titan accretes incorporating a minimal amount of heat. This results in a relatively cold core that, over the long term, heats up and overturns, consistent with previous models of Titan. At the other extreme, a lot of heat is accreted. For this model of Titan complete differentiation quickly occurs, there is no core overturn, and conditions soon develop for silicate serpentinization and hydrothermal activity to occur. We identify the periods during which conditions are suitable for hydrothermal geochemistry leading to the production of molecular nitrogen from ammonia decomposition and methane from the Fischer-Tropfsch reaction. Key issues involve the storage of the reactants and products inside Titan, and mechanisms by which they are released to the surface. Acknowledgements: This work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory- California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA.
Matson, D.; Castillo, J.; Atreya, S.; Lunine, J.; Johnson, T.
Despite its reputation as Âthe dismal scienceÂ, economics continues to attract new scholars in great numbers every year, and a number of websites provide high-quality materials for those interested in the subject. The Economic History Services website began life in 1994 as a mere discussion list, and since then has grown to include numerous resources that include book reviews, a collection of course syllabi, a directory of economic historians, along with the ever-popular ÂHow Much is That?Â service. The ÂHow Much is That?Â area is quite useful, as visitors can use it to determine historical prices for goods and services, interest rates, wage rates, and inflation rates. Budding economic historians will want to check out the ÂAsk The ProfessorÂ feature, which allows users to submit queries related to the subject. The section also contains an archive of answered questions, which include such enigmas as ÂIs deflation bad for the economy?Â The site also includes a calendar of events for persons interested in learning about upcoming lectures, conferences, workshops, and the like.
The history of astrometry, the branch of astronomy dealing with the positions of celestial objects, is a lengthy and complex chronicle, having its origins in the earliest records of astronomical observations more than two thousand years ago, and extending to the high accuracy observations being made from space today. Improved star positions progressively opened up and advanced fundamental fields of scientific enquiry, including our understanding of the scale of the solar system, the details of the Earth's motion through space, and the comprehension and acceptance of Newtonianism. They also proved crucial to the practical task of maritime navigation. Over the past 400 years, during which positional accuracy has improved roughly logarithmically with time, the distances to the nearest stars were triangulated, making use of the extended measurement baseline given by the Earth's orbit around the Sun. This led to quantifying the extravagantly vast scale of the Universe, to a determination of the physical properties of stars, and to the resulting characterisation of the structure, dynamics and origin of our Galaxy. After a period in the middle years of the twentieth century in which accuracy improvements were greatly hampered by the perturbing effects of the Earth's atmosphere, ultra-high accuracies of star positions from space platforms have led to a renewed advance in this fundamental science over the past few years.
Keratomileusis, brainchild of Jose I. Barraquer Moner, was conceived and developed as the first stromal sculpting method to correct refractive error in 1948. The word "keratomileusis" literally means "sculpting" of the "cornea." Barraquer's first procedures involved freezing a disc of anterior corneal tissue before removing stromal tissue with a lathe. Over the years, the procedure continued to develop, first through the Barraquer-Krumeich-Swinger non-freeze technique where tissue was removed from the underside of the disc by a second pass of the microkeratome. In-situ keratomileusis was later developed by passing the microkeratome a second time directly on the stromal bed. The procedure became known as automated lamellar keratoplasty with the invention of an automated microkeratome and was further refined by replacing the disc without sutures and later by stopping the microkeratome before the end of the pass to create a hinged flap, as first demonstrated in 1989. The history of the excimer laser dates back to 1900 and the quantum theory, eventually leading to the discovery that 193-nm ultraviolet excimer laser pulses could photoablate tissue without thermal damage. Ultrastructural and wound healing studies confirmed that large area ablation could be performed in the central cornea. This was described as photorefractive keratectomy in 1986 and the first sighted eyes were treated in 1988. An excimer laser was first used to sculpt from the stromal bed under a hinged flap created manually using a trephine and scalpel in 1988. The incorporation of a microkeratome in 1990 finally led to laser in situ keratomileusis-LASIK-as we know it today. PMID:22496438
Reinstein, Dan Z; Archer, Timothy J; Gobbe, Marine
The growth rate of the African population has been fluctuating throughout history, affected by political, social, and economic events. 6000 years ago, the majority of the population was based in North Africa, because farming had been developed there. However, between the 11th and the 16th centuries, there was a constant decline in the population of that region, due to invasions from Europe and the black plague. During the same period, the population in the area south of the Sahara grew rapidly, as people there had gone into the iron tool period and farming had been developed. From the 16th to the mid-17th Century, population growth was considerable in Africa; more people had learned the technology of irrigation, corn and potatoes had been introduced from South America, and colonialism was not yet an issue. From the mid-17th to the mid-19th Century, there was no growth, due to the slave trade and wars between tribes. One estimate sets the direct and indirect loss during this period, as a result of the slave trade, at 100 million people. From the 1850s to the end of World War I, population growth started up again, chiefly influenced by the fact that the slave trade had essentially come to a half and modern medical care had become available on the continent. However, in central Africa, the region which suffered the worst blow from the slave trade, growth was very slow, while in East Africa the population was declining because of wars between colonists and natives, as well as natural disasters. Increases in population during this period were a result of immigration from Europe and India. From the end of World War I to the present, growth has been rapid, given improvements in medical services and standards of living, while most of the former colonies became independent after the 1950s. Consequently, almost all African countries are under great pressure now with regard to their populations. PMID:12159345
The field of wildlife toxicology can be traced to the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Initial reports included unintentional poisoning of birds from ingestion of spent lead shot and predator control agents, alkali poisoning of waterbirds, and die-offs from maritime oil spills. With the advent of synthetic pesticides in the 1930s and 1940s, effects of DDT and other pesticides were investigated in free-ranging and captive wildlife. In response to research findings in the US and UK, and the publication of Silent Spring in 1962, public debate on the hazards of pollutants arose and national contaminant monitoring programs were initiated. Shortly thereafter, population-level effects of DDT on raptorial and fish-eating birds were documented, and effects on other species (e.g., bats) were suspected. Realization of the global nature of organochlorine pesticide contamination, and the discovery of PCBs in environmental samples, launched long-range studies in birds and mammals. With the birth of ecotoxicology in 1969 and the establishment of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry in 1979, an international infrastructure began to emerge. In the 1980s, heavy metal pollution related to mining and smelting, agrichemical practices and non-target effects, selenium toxicosis, and disasters such as Chernobyl and the Exxon Valdez dominated the field. Biomarker development, endocrine disruption, population modeling, and studies with amphibians and reptiles were major issues of the 1990s. With the turn of the century, there was interest in new and emerging compounds (pharmaceuticals, flame retardants, surfactants), and potential population-level effects of some compounds. Based upon its history, wildlife toxicology is driven by chemical use and misuse, ecological disasters, and pollution-related events affecting humans. Current challenges include the need to more thoroughly estimate and predict exposure and effects of chemical-related anthropogenic activities on wildlife and their supporting habitat. PMID:19533341
Rattner, Barnett A
|Describes and evaluates a course dealing with Irish history presented through closed-circuit television at the University of Connecticut (Storrs). Explores the use of televised instruction as a means of teaching history to undergraduates. Reports that this approach, supplemented by a live interactive component, was deemed successful by students…
Raymond, Raymond J.
|"History of American Higher Education" documents the fascinating evolution of American colleges and universities, touching on the historical events that shaped them, from the colonial era through the early twenty-first century. Throughout history, higher education has played an important role in the transmission of cultural identity from one…
McCarthy, Margaret Cain
?There has been remarkably little work done on Virginia Woolf’s relationship to literary history. 1 Considering the massive output of Woolf scholarship in the last twenty years, the limited nature of studies on Woolf and history tells us much about the direction and priorities of Woolf scholars. In 1980 Perry Meisel commented that “the increasingly political tone of Woolf studies
Beth Carole Rosenberg
There is substantial evidence that the martian volatile inventory and climate have changed markedly throughout the planet's history. Clues come from areas as disparate as the history and properties of the deep interior, the composition of the crust and regolith, the morphology of the surface, composition of the present-day atmosphere, and the nature of the interactions between the upper atmosphere
Bruce M. Jakosky; Roger J. Phillips
|This world history review examines standard textbooks used between the sixth and twelfth grades in schools across the nation. These established textbooks dominate the field and set the pitch for new and forthcoming volumes. The 2002 Texas history textbook adoption and the California list have influenced what textbooks will dominate the national…
Sewall, Gilbert T.
Nurse practitioners (NPs) rarely undertake gynaecological histories or female genital examinations yet, by doing so, they can broaden their scope of practice. This article discusses what NPs should ask women about their gynaecological histories and how to undertake pelvic examinations, and reviews common gynaecological symptoms. Further articles will cover different aspects of the pelvic examination and potential differential diagnoses. PMID:24024725
|This 2001 annual publication contains 31 articles on topics germane to the history of education. Each year, this journal publishes papers presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest History of Education Society. After the "Introduction" (R. J. Taggart) articles in this year's issue are: "Origins of the American Federation of Teachers: Issues…
Watras, Joseph, Ed.
Responding to questions posed by Mikkel Thorup (University of Aarhus), I recount how I was drawn to intellectual history by its breadth of concern and its relative epistemological modesty. I characterise it is as less a subfield of history than an interdisciplinary field aimed at clarifying problems and calling attention to limits. I reject the view that it ought to
The two volumes of The Natural History of Enewetak Atoll summarize research done at the Mid-Pacific Research Laboratory from 1954 to 1984 under the auspices of the Department of Energy. The history of the laboratory and the reasons for its support by the ...
B. L. Burch D. M. Devaney E. S. Reese P. Helfrich
This monograph is a short history of the U.S. Army Noncommissioned Officer (NCO). The history of the United States Army and of the noncommissioned officer began in 1775, with the birth of the Continental Army. The American noncommissioned officer did not ...
L. R. Arms
Designed to supplement secondary United States history courses, this resource booklet provides materials on four dramatic incidents in American history. The four events under examination include the Boston Massacre, the Denmark Vesey Slave Revolt, the Republic Steel Strike of 1937, and the Berlin Airlift of 1948. Each unit contains social…
Brown, William; And Others
REQUIRED BOOKS ? Dale T. Irvin and Scott W. Sunquist, History of the World Christian Movement, vol. 1: Earliest Christianity to 1453 (Orbis Books, 2001). ? John W. Coakley and Andrea Sterk, Readings in World Christian History, vol. 1: Earliest Christianity to 1453 (Orbis Books, 2004). ? Roger E. Olson, The Story of Christian Theology (InterVarsity Press, 1999). ? St.
Meesaeng Lee Choi
In an attempt to introduce Wirkungsgeschichte, reception history and reception theory, this article begins by considering the different histories each term carries. Although each term signals something slightly different, their collective effect is to raise questions about the historical-critical method that continues to dominate New Testament studies. The main focus of the article is Gadamer’s idea of Wirkungsgeschichte, a term
The history of ceramic filters is surveyed. Included is the history of piezoelectric ceramics. Ceramic filters were developed using technology similar to that of quartz crystal and electro-mechanical filters. However, the key to this development involved the theoretical analysis of vibration modes and material improvements of piezoelectric ceramics. The primary application of ceramic filters has been for consumer-market use. Accordingly,
|This document is a compilation of 33 pieces of writing presenting Ohio adult basic and literacy education (ABLE) students' perspectives of community and personal history. The items included in the compilation were written by ABLE students across Ohio in celebration of Ohio History Day. The compilation is organized in five sections as follows: (1)…
Kent State Univ., OH. Ohio Literacy Resource Center.
|Describes the Southwest Texas State University course "History Practicum: Researching, Writing, and Publishing Local History" that stresses computer proficiency, teamwork, and active learning. Students create and publish a guidebook for a town, city, or historic site in central Texas. Discusses the publication process of "San Marcos: A Guide to a…
Bourgeois, E. J., II
Lead ores were probably the first to be refined to the metallic state, hence the production and use of lead have been intertwined with the history of human culture for a very long time. Although there was never a \\
Created and maintained by Andrew Field, a history teacher from Cambridgeshire, England, this site features links and teaching and learning aids for UK instructors and students. The primary content at the site is organized into five year groups (Years 7-9, GSCE, A-Level), each with related links, well-crafted .pdf worksheets, and quizzes (some off-site). Some links to related education and history sites round out the site. A nice example of a history site for secondary students that can be used by teachers anywhere for its content or as a model of effective Web design.
This lesion is designed to give students a high level overview of the history of the area we now call the state of Utah. Materials needed: Computer with Internet connection Lesson Overview: For the purposes of this lesson, the history of the geographic are we now call Utah has been divided into five chronographic time periods. 1. Utah Prehistory 2. Missionaries, Trappers and Explores 3. Pioneers, Settlers & Statehood 4. World Conflict and Depression 5. Utah Today By using the resources on the history for kids link, which ...
The present notion - tracheotomy, originates from the Latin words trachea - windpipe, which comes from the combination of Latin "tracheia" and Greek "arteria" indicating an uneven road, and "tome" - cut. Procedures of pharyngotomy have a long-lasting history. First similar operations were found on the ancient Egyptian clay tablets dating back to 3600 BC. Mentions of pharyngotomy operations were found in the papyrus called Ebers's Papyrus dating back to about 1550 BC, which can obviously be treated as an encyclopaedia of the medical knowledge that the ancient Egyptians possessed. Guidelines for the person performing pharyngotomy were described in Rig Veda - the holy scriptures of Hindi medicine, about 2000 BC. Asclepiads of Prussia in Bithynia (124-156 BC), a Greek physician practising in Rome, is commonly considered the father of pharyngotomy. In the 1st century BC he documented an operation similar to pharyngotomy. Procedures similar to pharyngotomy were conducted by Claudius Galenus of Pergamon (about 130-200 AD) who was treating gladiators at the beginning of his medical career. A precise description of the technique in pharyngotomy performed by the method adopted from Antilla (3rd century AD) was presented by Paulos Aeginata (625-690 AD), whereas in modern times the first surgical pharyngotomy was performed by Antonio Brasavola (1490-1554) in 1546. In those times pharyngotomy operations were applied as life saving procedures and were associated with a desperate fight for life. The best example is given by Sanctorio Santorius (1561-1636) who pierced the trachea lumen with a trocar. All the experiences connected with the pharyngotomy technique were collected by Lorenz Heister (1683-1758) and published in his work "Surgery" in 1716. Until the end of 18th century the work finally established views about performing pharyngotomy operations. In 1856 Eugeniusz Bonchut conducted the first pharyngotomy in a child with passing an intubation tube into the trachea lumen. The operation was performed according to theoretical assumptions by Armando Trausseau (1801-1867), whose contributions to emergency pharyngotomy methods are enormous. Finally, at the beginning of the 20th century Chevalier Jackson (1865-1958) set principles for surgical techniques in pharyngotomy that still remain in force. The return to Sanctorius's method and also adaptation of Selinger's method (1953) of cannulation of blood vessels turned out to be fundamental for the further development of transdermal pharyngotomy. The first set for multistage, dilatation pharyngotomy was provided by P. Ciaglia et al. in 1985. A one-stage pharyngotomy by special forceps was described by W. M. Griggs et al. in 1990. A technique of transdermal pharyngotomy from inside the trachea was presented in 1995 by A. Fantoni with his group. Modern methods of transdermal pharyngotomy are good complementary techniques for classical methods of pharyngotomy in both emergency and chronic cases. PMID:17847797
Olszewski, Jurek; Mi?o?ski, Jaros?aw
This element of research training in the Texts, Contexts, Cultures pathway provides participating students with an introduction to a rapidly growing and increasingly interdisciplinary field of enquiry. The content of this course draws on methodologies and theories from the disciplines of ancient history, art history, bibliography, classical languages, cultural theory, ecclesiastical history, gender studies, literary criticism, medieval history, modern history,
The history of Delaware is quite interesting. The University of Delaware Library brings together several hundred years of it in this rather intriguing television series from 1963 (now part of that history itself). Originally created by WHYY TV in Wilmington, this 15-part series is narrated by the late John A. Munroe. Professor Munro was a son of Delaware who taught at the university for decades and wrote dozens of books and articles on the Blue Hen State. The series includes the titles "Early Settlers," "Manufacturing," and "Industry." Each segment is about 30 minutes long, and could be used to talk about the history of television programming, historiography, public history, and numerous other related topics. [KMG
This new unmoderated mailing list has been created to "enable exchange of ideas and resources among teachers and researchers of childhood and family history in Britain and Europe." The homepage contains list information and searchable message archives.
Presents a graphic means of eliciting the life history of an adolescent during an initial interview. The grid summarizes chronological facts about the client, and is useful for both the social agency and the adolescent him/herself. (LAB)
Anderson, James E.; Brown, Ralph A.
In this video from Penn State Public Broadcasting’s Geospatial Revolution project, experts trace the history of geography from clay tablets during Babylonian times to mapmaking from horseback in the 1800s to digital maps produced by computers.
Presented by Dinsmore Documentation, Classics of American Colonial History is a research database consisting of scholarly books and articles on American colonial history that, according to the creators, "appear to be of continuing interest." The collection currently offers 22 source materials by 15 different authors. Browseable by author or subject, the collection contains subject categories including Administration, African Americans and Slavery, Economics and Trade, Immigration from Europe, Law, Native Americans, Politics, Religion, and Wars.
Gout is relatively unique among rheumatological diseases in that its effects were common and, at least in history, disproportionately represented in prominent authority figures. Effective treatments have only been available for just over a century and therefore for the most part, the disease has run relatively unchecked. Consequently, it may have had global ramifications. The history of gout, from apocryphal orthodoxy to medical clarity, is reviewed, using a few of the more colourful characters in its considerable pantheon. PMID:20374319
Commission 41 was created at the VIIth IAU General Assembly in Zürich in 1948. From an inauspicious start-Otto Neugebauer was appointed the first President in his absence, but proceeded to express his conviction that ``an international organization in the history of astronomy has no positive function. . .my only activity during my term of service consisted in iterated attempts to resign''-the Commission quickly assumed a key role in the international development of the history of astronomy as an academic discipline.
Ruggles, Clive; Kochhar, Rajesh; Il-Seong, Nha; Belmonte, Juan; Corbin, Brenda; de Jong, Teije; Norris, Ray; Pigatto, Luisa; Soma, Mitsuru; Sterken, Chris; Xiaochun, Sun
For more than two centuries, the U.S. Supreme Court has provided a battleground for nearly every controversial issue in our nation's history. Now a veteran team of talented historians--including the editors of the acclaimed Landmark Law Cases and American Society series--have produced the most readable, astute, and up-to-date single-volume history of this venerated institution, as engaging for general readers as
Peter Charles Hoffer; Williamjames Hoffer; N E H Hull
Presents questions and answers about the history of school guidance to enhance counselors' professional perspective. Offers additional resources about the history of the school guidance movement. (ABB)
Beale, Andrew V.
There is a longstanding and ongoing controversy about whether Buffon is to be regarded as a forerunner of evolutionism in the eighteenth century, or even as one of the founders of transformistic biology. There are good reasons to deny this claim. There are good reasons even to deny that the question which is going to be answered negatively is of particular importance. The present paper addresses the issue from a different angle. It analyzes the concept of time operative in the natural history writings of Buffon, and it delineates the articulation of the concepts of time, change, and history with its organizing impact on Buffon's discourse on earth and organisms. It is argued that although with his species concept Buffon tries to introduce the classical notion of a physical system into biology, in order to do so, he has to subvert it by an element of time. This guides him in considering various aspects of organic change, but by itself does not lead to a general perspective of transformation. On the other hand, in his Epoques de la nature, Buffon introduces a general law of geological change, thus arriving at something which could be called a physically intelligible history. The conquest of natural history by physics, in one and the same movement, leads to a subversion of physical geology by history, and prevents biology from becoming evolutionistic in the sense in which the nineteenth century understands this term. PMID:2092335
Rheinberger, H J
This engaging project was developed by the Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History at the University of Kentucky Libraries. It was designed to preserve the story of the Buffalo Trace Distillery in Frankfort, Kentucky which has a truly remarkable history intertwined with that of the Bluegrass State. The project features the people and stories of the Buffalo Trace family, such as master distiller emeritus Elmer T. Lee and descendants of figures like Colonel Albert Blanton and Pappy Van Winkle. On the top of the homepage, visitors can make their way through sections such as Brands, People, Roles, Documentary, and Image Gallery. The Documentary contains a complete film about the history of this unique business and the People section features interesting interviews with those who have made the business known around the world.
The 46th state, Oklahoma, presents its unusual history with the online version of The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture. The Encyclopedia was prepared by over 500 "university-based scholars and independent historians and scholars," and was a joint effort by The Oklahoma Historical Society and Oklahoma State University Library Electronic Publishing Center. Visitors can click on the "Table of Contents" link near the bottom of the homepage to "Browse Entries Alphabetically", "Browse Entries Chronologically", or "Browse Entries by Subject". Browsing via chronology introduces visitors to Oklahoma starting with the "Precontact Era", through the "Westward Expansion" and on to "Twentieth Century to Present". Subject categories include "African Americans", "Farming", "Military", and "Petroleum". When searching, visitors will be taken to the Electronic Publishing Center Search Page, so they will need to choose the specific collection, Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, from the drop down box, to confine the search to the Encyclopedia.
Background While most gamma proteobacteria have a single circular chromosome, Vibrionales have two circular chromosomes. Horizontal gene transfer is common among Vibrios, and in light of this genetic mobility, it is an open question to what extent the two chromosomes themselves share a common history since their formation. Results Single copy genes from each chromosome (142 genes from chromosome I and 42 genes from chromosome II) were identified from 19 sequenced Vibrionales genomes and their phylogenetic comparison suggests consistent phylogenies for each chromosome. Additionally, study of the gene organization and phylogeny of the respective origins of replication confirmed the shared history. Conclusions Thus, while elements within the chromosomes may have experienced significant genetic mobility, the backbones share a common history. This allows conclusions based on multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) for one chromosome to be applied equally to both chromosomes.
Scientists often say that only a practicing scientist can understand certain things vital to the workings of science, things that often escape historians. Scientists, more often than not, believe that the sense required to understand how science is done can be gained only by doing it. They suggest that history written by historians, especially internal history, which is based on critical examination of the scientific ideas themselves, will be wanting.The historian, on the other hand, through the methods and techniques of history, social studies and philosophy— tools not often possessed by scientists—can show scientists how their discipline has come to be, how it is bedded in society, and how it derives its esteem and support for being.
Oral histories can be quite fascinating, and a number of significant collections have been placed online as of late. One of the best-known projects might be Harvard University's own Iranian Oral History Project (IOHP). The collection consists of the personal accounts of over 150 individuals who were eyewitnesses (or active participants) to a range of crucial political events in Iran from the 1920s to the 1980s. Visitors can start their journey through this site by going to the "About" section, where they can learn about the history of the IHOP and the interviewing process. After that, visitors can go the actual "Transcripts" area, where they can view an index of interviews, and in certain cases, they can listen to audio recordings of these conversations.
Edited by Paul Halsall, PhD, Assistant Professor of History at the University of North Florida, this Fordham University metasite contains links to documents and Web resources pertaining to the history of science. Although this site has a historical focus, it includes interesting science-related links and original texts from great scientific thinkers. Contents are organized by geographic locations and epistemologies. Topics range from the relevant history of Greco-Roman Culture to sites on the Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution. The links are classified to indicate the type of resources, and Halsall claims to have taken care to choose sites of educational value. This is an unusual collection of links for those interested in reading about the development of scientific thought.
Hoping to facilitate more new research in its extensive holdings on American naval history, the Naval Historical Center has digitized its material, making more than two centuries of archival material readily available to interested parties. The Web site presents an alphabetic listing of every state in the nation, each of which link directly to primary source material on parties and organizations involved in American naval history in any way, whether it be in the form of production, administration, or active military service. Many of the states' listings link to historical societies and other archival resources, each of which call attention to notable maritime holdings in their collections. Beyond the above, Sources on US Naval History also links back to its creator, the Naval Historical Center, which is the historical branch of the Department of the Navy.
Sponsored jointly by Case Western Reserve University and the Western Reserve Historical Society, this excellent online text offers hundreds of articles on the history of Cleveland. There are two categories of articles in the Encyclopedia, general entries -- short articles of 200 to 500 words -- and interpretive essays -- "longer articles of 500 to 4000 words that explore major topics in local history." Both feature numerous hypertext links to related entries as well as photographic images that can be expanded to full screen. (These images may also be examined in a separate gallery on-site.) The encyclopedia features an alphabetical as well as a subject index and can be searched by title, text, and subject. A Reader's Guide and a bicentennial timeline of Cleveland history are also offered as supplementary text. New articles are added on a regular basis.
eHistory has been around in one form or another since 1995, when it was created by the budding historian Scott Laidig. These days, eHistory is operated and maintained by The Ohio State University's history department. Dedicated to all things historical, the site contains primary sources and documents, original book reviews, digitized books, maps, and multimedia features. These multimedia features are uniformly quite good, and they cover topics such as the internment of Japanese-Americans in the United States during World War II and responses to immigration over the past 125 years. Historians will want to look through the "Primary Sources" area at length, as it contains letters and diaries from the Civil War, along with the oft-cited "The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies" in all of its 128-volume glory.
No sensible historian would argue that using images in history lectures is a pedagogical waste of time. All people seem to accept the idea that visual elements (paintings, photographs, films, maps, charts, etc.) enhance the retention of historical information and add greatly to student enjoyment of the subject. However, there seems to be very…
|This document is a compilation of 25 pieces of writing presenting Ohio adult basic and literacy education (ABLE) students' perspectives of community and personal history. The items included in the compilation were written by ABLE students across Ohio. The compilation is organized in three sections as follows: (1) people (9 items, including a…
Kent State Univ., OH. Ohio Literacy Resource Center.
While the history of religions (HR) has a long ‘prehistory’ in Romania, its formal introduction dates only from 1925–26, with the early writings of Mircea Eliade. Eliade's career in Romania was cut short by political events and the Second World War, while the imposition of Soviet control after the war resulted in his becoming an exile. His influence led a
Mac Linscott Ricketts
|This paper surveys recent studies in the history of reading that historians of education will find useful, given that all education involves some form of reading. It describes the sources that historians of reading use, the models they employ (such as the "Reading Revolution" of the eighteenth century), and the questions they address (such as the…
|The essay focuses on curriculum history as the study of systems of reason. The first section considers curriculum as "converting ordinances", inscribing Puritan notions of education as evangelizing and calculating designs in American Progressive education. The second section examines the Social Question, a cross-Atlantic Protestant reformist…
Popkewitz, Thomas S.
|National History Day, a year-long educational program, fosters academic achievement and intellectual growth. In addition to acquiring historical knowledge and perspective while developing entries and competing in a series of district, state, and national contests, students develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills that help them manage…
Hardy, Beatriz, Ed.; Gorn, Cathy, Ed.
|Examines how quasi-history, by eliminating the social dimension, distorts its description of major scientific advances in one of two distinct ways; either almost trivial or almost mystical. Uses two examples, Einstein's theory of the photoelectric effect and Planck's discovery of his law. (GA)|
Whitaker, M. A. B.
Presented are winning essays written by junior and senior high school students for the historical paper category of the 1982 National History Day program contest. This unique program encourages young people to explore a historical subject related to a specific theme. The winning papers, responding to the 1982 theme of trade and industry in…
Womack, Miriam L.; And Others
Examines how quasi-history, by eliminating the social dimension, distorts its description of major scientific advances in one of two distinct ways; either almost trivial or almost mystical. Uses two examples, Einstein's theory of the photoelectric effect and Planck's discovery of his law. (GA)
Whitaker, M. A. B.
Describes a study that measured the subject area and call number correspondence for the discipline of history at the Texas A&M University libraries. Considers the rise in interdisciplinary scholarship that challenges the frequent assumption that a correlation exists between topicality and call number range for collection management decisions.…
Kitchens, Joel D.; Mosley, Pixey Anne; Marner, Jonathan C.; Highsmith, Anne L.
I begin this paper by looking at the importance of narrative for the coming into being of a ‘new’ nation like South Africa, which can no longer be underwritten by the customary markers of nationhood. I suggest that narrative becomes especially important in such circumstances, and move on to a consideration of narrative in relation to the discourses of history
While "natural history" is practically synonymous with the name of Buffon, the term itself has been otherwise overlooked by historians of science. This essay attempts to address this omission by investigating the meanings of "physique," "natural philosophy," and "history," among other terms, with the purpose of understanding Buffon's actual objectives. It also shows that Buffon never claimed to be a Newtonian and should not be considered as such; the goal is to provide a historical analysis that resituates Buffon's thought within his own era. This is done, primarily, by eschewing the often-studied question of time in Buffon. Instead, this study examines the nontemporal meanings of the word "history" within the naturalist's theory and method. The title of his Natural History is examined both as an indicator of the kind of science that Buffon was hoping to achieve and as a source of great misinterpretation among his peers. Unlike Buffon, many of his contemporaries actually envisioned the study of nature from a Baconian perspective where history was restricted to the mere collection of facts and where philosophy, which was the implicit and ultimate goal of studying nature, was seen, at least for the present, as unrealizable. Buffon confronts this tendency insofar as his Histoire naturelle claims to be the real physique that, along with describing nature, also sought to identify general laws and provide clear insight into what true knowledge of nature is or should be. According to Buffon, history (both natural and civil) is not analogous to mathematics; it is a nonmathematical method whose scope encompasses both nature and society. This methodological stance gives rise to the "physicization" of certain moral concepts--a gesture that was interpreted by his contemporaries as Epicurean and atheist. In addition, Buffon reduces a number of metaphysically tainted historical concepts (e.g., antediluvian monuments) to objects of physical analysis, thereby confronting the very foundation of natural theology. In Buffon, as this essay makes clear, natural history is paving the way for a new physique (science of natural beings), independent from mathematics and from God, that treats naturalia in a philosophical and "historical" manner that is not necessarily "temporal." PMID:20575489
The International Dunhuang Project (IDP), an initiative of the Chinese section of the British Library's Oriental and India Office Collections (first mentioned in the October 16, 1998 Scout Report), has recently introduced a new site on the history of Chinese bookbinding. The site combines articles written by Colin Chinnery of the IDP with illustrations and photographs, to provide visitors with a general overview of six types of bookbinding methods used on the materials in the Dunhuang Collection. Despite its unwieldy framed format, the site presents an excellent scholarly introduction to a fascinating facet of print history.
This book is the history of all the great moments of failure, tension, drama, euphoria, and success that characterized the beginning of man's adventure in space. It covers the technology and scientific knowledge, the vision, the politics, and the dedication of all those involved in the space program. One chapter is devoted to the experiments and observations of the astronauts as they explored the moon. An integral part of the history of space exploration is the race between Russia and the US to establish man in space. This is included. The book vividly portrays the experiences of the astronauts from Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and the Apollo-Soyuz missions. (SC)
The interaction between the mind and diseases of the skin has been the study focus for many researchers worldwide. The field of Psychodermatology, or Psychocutaneous Medicine, is the result of the merging of two major medical specialties, psychiatry and dermatology. Although the history of Psychodermatology is rather old and interesting, the field has only recently gained popularity. Since ancient times, philosophers, surgeons, dermatologists and psychiatrists have reported the presence of psychocutaneous diseases in various scenarios. In this article, the authors describe curious and remarkable facts in the history of Psychodermatology.
Franca, Katlein; Chacon, Anna; Ledon, Jennifer; Savas, Jessica; Nouri, Keyvan
The history of the earth's crust since its formation 4.6 Gyr ago is traced in an introductory textbook, with consideration of the global climate and the general outline of biological evolution. The methodology of paleogeology is introduced, and the origin of the solar system, the accumulation and differentiation of the earth, the beginnings of life, and the history of the moon are examined. Separate chapters are then devoted to the Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic earth. Photographs, maps, diagrams, and drawings are provided. 49 references.
Eicher, D.L.; Mcalester, A.L.; Rottman, M.L.
Land histories originate in multiple disciplines. The corpus of this research, however, does not link well to the science of global environmental change, despite explicit recognition by that science to incorporate land history. History and global change science would both benefit by such linkages, which necessitates the development of “integrated land history.” This interdisciplinary research subject is identified here, illustrated
Peter Klepeis; B. L Turner II
This paper discusses how to teach art history in college level interdisciplinary courses. Today, art historians find themselves involved in teaching art history not only in art history curricula, but also in interdisciplinary studies, such as Ancient Greek Culture, Renaissance in France, and Women in Art. When teaching art history in…
The active participation of women in the field of American history dates back to the earliest writings on the subject. The rich and long history of women writing, teaching and researching in the field of American History, however, is obscured by narrow disciplinary definitions of what actually counts as history and who is qualified to represent…
|The active participation of women in the field of American history dates back to the earliest writings on the subject. The rich and long history of women writing, teaching and researching in the field of American History, however, is obscured by narrow disciplinary definitions of what actually counts as history and who is qualified to represent…
The prevalence of mammography screening is unacceptably low. A history of trauma has been associated with poor health status, decreased health prevention behaviors, and increased mortality. We predicted that women who had a history of trauma were less likely to obtain mammography screening than women who did not report such a history. The relation between history of trauma and breast
Melissa Farley; Jerome R. Minkoff; Howard Barkan
|In 2005, the American Physiological Society (APS) initiated the Living History of Physiology Archival Program to recognize senior members who have made significant contributions during their career to the advancement of the discipline and the profession of physiology. Subsequently, the leadership of the APS Section of Environmental and Exercise…
Tipton, Charles M.
|How may historians best express history through computer games? This article suggests that the answer lies in correctly correlating historians' goals for teaching with the capabilities of different kinds of computer games. During the development of a game prototype for high school students, the author followed best practices as expressed in the…
Devoted to the Winnipeg General Strike in 1919, this document provides social science teachers with details of the strike as well as general information on teaching about unions, labor, and working-class history. The first article, "The Winnipeg General Strike" (Doug Smith), presents the events during and prior to the Winnipeg General Strike that…
Manitoba Social Science Teacher, 1994
How may historians best express history through computer games? This article suggests that the answer lies in correctly correlating historians' goals for teaching with the capabilities of different kinds of computer games. During the development of a game prototype for high school students, the author followed best practices as expressed in the…
|The "Goldfinch" is a magazine that introduces young children to different aspects of Iowa history. Each issue contains articles to provide in-depth knowledge about Iowa. The theme of this issue is searching through historical sources, such as letters, diaries, manuscripts, newspapers, clothing, old buildings, time capsules, statistics, and…
Frese, Millie K., Ed.
Program analysis long has been understood as the analysis of source code alone. A modern software product, though, is more than just program code; it contains documentation, interface descriptions, resource dataóall of which must be maintained and organized. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to maintain such non-program entities: By learning from the development history of the product,
Thomas Zimmermann; Andreas Zeller
We illustrate the crucial role played by decoherence (consistency of quantum histories) in extracting consistent quantum probabilities for alternative histories in quantum cosmology. Specifically, within a Wheeler-DeWitt quantization of a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological model sourced with a free massless scalar field, we calculate the probability that the universe is singular in the sense that it assumes zero volume. Classical solutions of this model are a disjoint set of expanding and contracting singular branches. A naive assessment of the behavior of quantum states which are superpositions of expanding and contracting universes suggests that a "quantum bounce" is possible i.e. that the wave function of the universe may remain peaked on a non-singular classical solution throughout its history. However, a more careful consistent histories analysis shows that for arbitrary states in the physical Hilbert space the probability of this Wheeler-DeWitt quantum universe encountering the big bang/crunch singularity is equal to unity. A quantum Wheeler-DeWitt universe is inevitably singular, and a "quantum bounce" is thus not possible in these models.
Craig, David; Singh, Parampreet
The cosmic ray exposure histories of ordinary chondrites were recently rreviewed (Marti and Graf, 1992). Here, we discuss in detail currently available cosmic ray exposure records and the adopted exposure ages of individual H chondrites. We further present analyses of the distinct histograms of petrographic subgroups and the implications for orbital evolution and collisional records. In addition to the stochastic
Thomas Graf; Kurt Marti
We present a novel approach to incremental re- covery from lexical and syntactic errors in an interactive soft- ware development environment. Unlike existing techniques, we utilize the history of changes to the program to discover the natural correlation between user modifications and er- rors detected during incremental lexical and syntactic analy- sis. Our technique is non-correcting—the analysis refuses to in-
Tim A. Wagner; Susan L. Graham
This article summarizes seven currently available microcomputer simulations for history. The seven included are: Government Simulations (Prentice-Hall, 1984), Nomination (Brady Company, 1984), Tigers in the Snow (Strategic Simulations, 1981), Lincoln's Decisions (Educational Activities, 1982), Watergate Simulation (Social Science Research and…
Sargent, James E.
|This book depicts the evolution of American educational history from 1630 to the present. The book highlights how ideological managers have shaped society and, because schools mirror society, have thus had a profound impact on education and schooling. Five common areas of study - philosophy, politics, economics, social sciences, and religion -…
Paper presented at the conference 'Literary Histories and the Development of Identities' sponsored by the Social Sciences\\u000a and Humanities Research Council of Canada involving members of the I.C.L.A. Coordinating Committee at Queen's University,\\u000a Canada, in the Fall of 2001.
Eduardo de Faria Coutinho
Summary Although apparently observed before, the history of listeriosis dates back approximately 60 years. First known as a cause of epidemics and sporadic cases in some 50 species of animals, the disease appears now with increased frequency among human populations at risk. The causative agentListeria monocytogenes is primarily a psychrophilic soil-borne bacterium with a wide pathogenic potential thus provoking primarily
H. P. R. Seeliger
If we were to simplify the story of Waterville to the lightest exploration possible, a good strategy might be to look at the city’s names. True, a good number of important events might be overlooked, but examining the names and name changes in the city’s history offers a unique view into the essence of its identity. Waterville has a rich
This book opens with an exploration of the first economic revolution, which set the stage for the dramatic unfolding of the role economics has played in world history. The lessons focus on two topics: (1) why some economies grew and prospered while others remained stagnant or declined; and (2) what causes people to make choices that help or hinder…
Caldwell, Jean; Clark, James; Herscher, Walter
It all began with a discussion about storage. Rows of dusty boxes were sitting in the cellar of Vaughan College, home to the University of Leicester's Institute for Lifelong Learning. They contained papers, booklets and publicity leaflets, the outpourings of the Leicester Workers' Educational Association (WEA) branch's 100-year history. When the…
Heinrich, Cherry; Brown, Cynthia
Introduces "The Concord Review," a journal that prints the works of students, usually from high school advanced-placement classes, and specializes in scholarly articles. Essays are submitted by public and private school students, with American history the most popular subject. As a showcase for student achievement the "Review" deserves support.…
Created by Edward P. Byerly and James F. Dewey of the U.S. Geological Survey, this is a textual reference that describes the history of seismographs, including how they work, as well as seismic waves, travel-time curves, and phase nomenclature.
Byerly, P. Edward (Perry Edward), 1926-; Dewey, James F.
The critical role of early incestuous abuse in the development of high levelsof dissociative symptoms has been suggested. The present study examines the reliability and validity of the Dissociative Experiences Scale for use with an outpatient population and compares the fre- quency of dissociative experiences in adult female outpatients with and without histories of early incestuous abuse. The Dissociative Experienc
Frances L. Strick
In this article, the history of linking is summarized, and current linking frameworks that have been proposed are considered. Key publications discussed include Flanagan (1951), Angoff (1971), Linn (1993), Mislevy (1992), and Feuer, Holland, Green, Bertenthal, and Hemphill (1999). The article further focuses on the concordance situation for…
Kolen, Michael J.
The history of military and civilian nuclear energy is not only a matter of hard technology, politics, and economics. Our thinking about bombs and reactors is also affected by images with a curious and sometimes overwhelming power. Weird rays that can transform flesh or create monsters, the atom-powered marvels of a future uptopia, the mad scientist who plots to destroy
Policy makers in education have long embraced reform. Unfortunately, education reforms have consistently been plagued by the reformers' lack of knowledge and appreciation of the history of education. Accordingly, the latest reform, touted as a panacea, meets with failure, and the search for the magic elixir begins anew. The ahistorical nature of…
Hunt, Thomas C.
Until the late 1980s the study of modern Italy in Australia was confined to a few isolated scholars whose interest in the area grew out of personal experience of Italy and who worked for the most part within British traditions. The focus was on political history. The last decade has witnessed a number of new developments: the shift to social
This dissertation is an action research study examining the use of technology to encourage critical thinking and digital literacy in a community college history class. The students are responsible for researching course material and teaching the class. They then use a wiki to contribute to and edit an interactive, online textbook that has been…
Martin, Vance Scott
In the history of public health, HIV\\/AIDS is unique; it has widespread and long-lasting demographic, social, economic and political impacts. The global response has been unprecedented. AIDS exceptionalism - the idea that the disease requires a response above and beyond \\
Julia H Smith; Alan Whiteside
This BBC News article lists the long line of earthquake history in Italy from the year 1693 to 1997. The article describes the intensity and also the damages caused by each earthquake. Images and links for further information are included as well.
Abstract: From the civil engineering, to the manufacturing of the various magnet types, each building block of this extraordinary machine required ambitious leaps in innovation. This lecture will review the history of the LHC project, focusing on the many challenges -- scientific, technological, managerial -- that had to be met during the various phases of R&D;, industrialization, construction, installation and commissioning.
|In 2005, the American Physiological Society (APS) initiated the Living History of Physiology Archival Program to recognize senior members who have made significant contributions during their career to the advancement of the discipline and the profession of physiology. During 2008, the APS Cardiovascular Section selected Francis Eugene Yates to…
Discusses activities that allow students to explore epochs in time by studying real artifacts, museum replicas, student-created reproductions and dramatizations, and video and computer software. Presents two model lessons of how artifacts can be used to enliven a history lesson. (DB)
Purpose – This paper seeks to identify and define the genre of corporate history within the pervasive historical discourse produced by and about organizations which tells the past of an organization across a multiplicity of texts: published works – commissioned and critical accounts, academic tomes and glossy coffee-table books – as well as web pages, annual reports and promotional pamphlets.
Agnès Delahaye; Charles Booth; Peter Clark; Stephen Procter; Michael Rowlinson
|The Montana Indian Education For All Act may be setting an audacious national precedent for America's primary and secondary schools. The law requires all Montana schools to include curricula about the history, culture and contemporary status of the state's American Indian population. The new constitutional mandate has eyes throughout Native…
Pember, Mary Annette
|Addresses the issue of teaching students in the U.S. history survey course to read historical works by shifting the focus from the lecture method to collaborative learning techniques. Describes various techniques that can be used in the classroom such as expert groups, Particulars into Generalizations (PIG), and making lists and evaluative…
Marcus, Robert D.
Stigmergy is a class of mechanisms that mediate animal-animal interactions. Its introduction in 1959 by Pierre-Paul Grasse made it possible to explain what had been until then considered paradoxical observations: In an insect society individuals work as if they were alone while their collective activities appear to be coordinated. In this article we describe the history of stigmergy in the
Guy Theraulaz; Eric Bonabeau
From time to time new scientific breakthroughs and technologies arise that forever change scientific practice. During the last 50 years, several advances stand out in our minds that - coupled with advances in the computational and computer sciences - have made genomic studies possible. In the brief history of genomics presented here we review the circumstances and conse- quences of
Pierre Baldi; G. Wesley Hatfield Excerpt
Ten years after the discovery of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and its association with NANB hepatitis as a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide, our knowledge of the natural history of hepatitis C is still limited. The asymptomatic course of the disease in most patients, its slow and silent progression and heterogeneous outcome and the widespread use of
Alfredo Alberti; Liliana Chemello; Luisa Benvegnù
|The contribution of past experiences to concurrent resurgence was investigated in three experiments. In Experiment 1, resurgence was related to the length of reinforcement history as well as the reinforcement schedule that previously maintained responding. Specifically, more resurgence occurred when key pecks had been reinforced on a…
da Silva, Stephanie P.; Maxwell, Megan E.; Lattal, Kennon A.
This online exhibit explores the ancestor/descendant relationships of the three domains of organisms, bacteria, archaea, and eukaryota. Topics include the fossil record, life history and ecology, systematics, and morphology of each domain. There is also a link to a list of available taxa for the Eukaryotic kingdoms (chromista, fungi, metazoa, plantae, and protista) and to reference material on phylogeny, cladistics and evolution.
This paper is a study of various electric signals, which have been employed throughout the history of communication engineering in its two main landmarks: the telegraph and the telephone. The signals are presented in their time and frequency domain representations. The historical order has been followed in the presentation: wired systems, spark…
Consonni, Denise; Silva, Magno T. M.
In unpacking the Pandora's box of hygiene, the author looks into its ancient evolutionary history and its more recent human history. Within the box, she finds animal behaviour, dirt, disgust and many diseases, as well as illumination concerning how hygiene can be improved. It is suggested that hygiene is the set of behaviours that animals, including humans, use to avoid harmful agents. The author argues that hygiene has an ancient evolutionary history, and that most animals exhibit such behaviours because they are adaptive. In humans, responses to most infectious threats are accompanied by sensations of disgust. In historical times, religions, social codes and the sciences have all provided rationales for hygiene behaviour. However, the author argues that disgust and hygiene behaviour came first, and that the rationales came later. The implications for the modern-day practice of hygiene are profound. The natural history of hygiene needs to be better understood if we are to promote safe hygiene and, hence, win our evolutionary war against the agents of infectious disease.
Curtis, Valerie A
The article aims at reviewing the historical production on the Cold War in Italy (both research and teaching activities). Some preliminary remarks deal with the Italian university system and the role some historical disciplines, especially the history of international relations, play in such a context. In Italy, historical studies on the Cold War had their origins in the 1970s mainly
Operations management is a key function in the modern organisation and an important area of study in the business school. Like many subjects it remains separated from the business history community. The practice of operations management can gain meaningful and significant lessons from proper consideration of the historical antecedents of current practices. Unfortunately, more than any other business area, operations
Objectives: To provide a chronologic review of growing knowledge in occupational medicine relating work and work hazards to health, and to provide a perspective on the lessions learned from the frequent inattention or misrepresentation of hazards. Methods: Many books on the social and medical history of work including epidemiology and toxicology were reviewed, as well as published papers and interviews.
This book provides a review of the techniques of event history analysis in demography. During the 1970s, the amount of reliable data made available as a result of surveys increased enormously. At the same time, statistical and computational techniques developed to allow the new data to be handled. This first expositive treatment of the subject gives a detailed presentation of
Daniel Courgeau; Eva Lelievre
Coeliac disease may have an ancient history dating back to the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. The first clear description was given by Samuel Gee in 1888. He suggested that dietary treatment might be of benefit. In the early 20th century various diets were tried, with some success, but without clear recognition of the toxic components. The doctoral thesis of
M. S. Losowsky
The history of earthquake disasters in Colombia, South America is discussed in detail to promote scientific investigations, and to call attention to engineers, architects, contractors, insurance companies and building owners as to the conditions that must be included in the construction of earthquake resistant structures for the protection of city dwellers.
J. E. Ramirez
|In this article, the history of linking is summarized, and current linking frameworks that have been proposed are considered. Key publications discussed include Flanagan (1951), Angoff (1971), Linn (1993), Mislevy (1992), and Feuer, Holland, Green, Bertenthal, and Hemphill (1999). The article further focuses on the concordance situation for…
Kolen, Michael J.
This article elaborates the impact that crises of authority provoked by animal magnetism, mesmerism, and hypnosis in the 19th century had for field formation in American education. Four layers of analysis elucidate how curriculum history's repetitive focus on public school policy and classroom practice became possible. First, the article surveys…
Piezoelectricity was discovered by the brothers Curie in 1880. What started out as a scientific curiosity has grown to have very significant commercial importance. We sketch here some of the milestones of its history, a hit of its phenomenology, and conclude with some present applications and prospects for the future
This brief history of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) begins with the agency's origins during the Cold War and recounts the early manned and unmanned missions (Mercury, Gemini, Pioneer, Voyager, and others), the landmark Apollo Moon missions, and NASA's later projects, such as the Space Shuttle, the Hubble telecope, and the International Space Station.
This book is the history of all the great moments of failure, tension, drama, euphoria, and success that characterized the beginning of man's adventure in space. It covers the technology and scientific knowledge, the vision, the politics, and the dedication of all those involved in the space program. One chapter is devoted to the experiments and observations of the astronauts
We analyze the version history of 7 software sys- tems to predict the most fault prone entities and files. The basic assumption is that faults do not occur in isolation, but rather in bursts of several related faults. Therefore, we cache locations that are likely to have faults: starting from the location of a known (fixed) fault, we cache the
Sunghun Kim; Thomas Zimmermann; E. James Whitehead Jr.; Andreas Zeller
In his treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, James Clark Maxwell begins the preface by citing facts ldquoknown to the ancientsrdquo. He then continues, by mentioning his study of Faraday, before getting to explain his theory. Russian history sources on Alexander Stepanovitch Popov mention, that ldquoexploring the works of Maxwell and Hertz lead to the development of Popov's transmitting and receiving
The mission of the New York Correction History Society is "to pursue, preserve and promote the history of correction services in New York." The Society helps fulfill their mission via this site which has an ample offering of institutional history, inmate art, philosophical musings, and perspectives of the role of such facilities in the history of the Empire State. The homepage is a bit busy, visually speaking, and there isn't a formal index of subjects covered within, but a bit of careful investigation will yield some rich material. Visitors will note that one of the finds here is a virtual tour of Rikers Island from 1948, and it is nestled right next to a historical essay on the jail system in Westchester County. Further down near the bottom of the homepage, visitors can learn about a 1987 coloring book titled "Getting to Know Your New York City Department of Correction". There's much more to see here, and the site does a nice job of covering the various aspects of the correctional experience.
Summary. The case is made for forms of medical history that focus explicitly on sickness, health and life chances; ones that explore the effects of health interventions by examining their impact on mor- tality risks. Using a series of examples drawn from environmental health, midwifery and obstetric care, the paper illustrates various ways in which long-term trends in health and
The last two decades have seen great advancements in our understanding of the prostate anatomy and approach including laparoscopic and robotic techniques. One should not however, forget that the techniques evolved with time. The history of developments in prostate cancer surgery, radiotherapy and hormonal therapy is fascinating and urologists through the ages had the quest to find an ideal treatment
Seshadri Sriprasad; Mark R. Feneley; Peter M. Thompson
We describe here an interdisciplinary lab science course for non-majors using the history of science as a curricular guide. Our experience with diverse instructors underscores the importance of the teachers and classroom dynamics, beyond the curriculum. Moreover, the institutional political context is central: are courses for non-majors valued and is support given to instructors to innovate? Two sample projects are
Douglas Allchin; Elizabeth Anthony; Jack Bristol; Alan Dean; David Hall; Carl Lieb
The Center for History and New Media, a collaboration between George Mason University, the American Social History Project, and the Center for Media and Learning at the City College of New York, is an attempt to respond to the way new media are changing the teaching and studying of history. The Center aspires "to produce innovative historical works in the new media" such as CD-ROM disks on U.S. history, and present seminars and conferences on history and new media. Their web site, newly opened, presents information about the Center and hypertext essays on new media and history including a hyptertext guide to history sites, which first appeared in the American Historical Association's December 1995 "Perspectives." Also provided are reviews of history CD-ROM's and software, connections to teaching projects, and links to other history sites, including a long list of university and college history departments.
Claudius Ptolemaeus who lived in the second century (83-161 AD) was an ancient mathematician, geographer, astronomer, and astrologer in Roman Egypt. Ptolemy, as he is known in English, was the last great and dominating figure before the dawn of the renaissance of science during the years 1500-1700. During the lifespan of Ptolemy, arithmetical techniques were developed for calculating astronomical phenomena. Greek astronomers, e.g., Hipparchus, had produced geometric models for calculating celestial motions. Ptolemy himself contributed to the fitting of the astronomical data. He had developed elaborate arithmetical techniques for calculating celestial motions. Ptolemy, however, claimed to have derived his geometrical models from selected astronomical observations by his predecessors spanning more than 800 years, though astronomers have for centuries suspected that his models' parameters were adopted independently of observations. Ptolemy presented his astronomical observations in a convenient form of tables, which could be used directly to compute the past or future position of the planets. The Almagest ("The Great Treatise," originally written by Ptolemy) also contains a star catalog, which is an appropriate version of the catalog created by Hipparchus.
Yamada, Koichi M. T.; Winnewisser, Gisbert
\\u000a Claudius Ptolemaeus who lived in the second century (83–161 AD) was an ancient mathematician, geographer, astronomer, and\\u000a astrologer in Roman Egypt.\\u000a Ptolemy, as he is known in English, was the last great and dominating figure before the dawn of the renaissance of science\\u000a during the years 1500–1700. During the lifespan of Ptolemy, arithmetical techniques were developed for calculating astronomical\\u000a phenomena.
Koichi M. T. Yamada; Gisbert Winnewisser
Earth's space environment often offers surprises upon the introduction of new technologies. The history of some space weather impacts on communications demonstrates this vividly. Such history was on my mind during a recent trip to Newfoundland, Canada. Nestled in an eastern inlet, the small fishing village of Heart's Content marks the landing site of the first transatlantic telegraph cable, in 1866, laid by the famous ship Great Eastern with the financial backing of Cyrus Field. The building and laying of this cable is an engineering saga in its own right; subsequent Europe-to-North America telegraph cables in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries also had Newfoundland coastal ports as their termini. Geomagnetic storm-produced ground currents that flowed through this and other telegraph cables seriously affected transmission and reception of signals.
Lanzerotti, Louis J.
The Asia for Educators Project at Columbia University has produced a number of important resources for educators and the general public, and this latest resource serves as a great addition to the project's archive. This particular resource deals with the role of Mongols in World History, and covers the period from 1000 to 1500 A.D. With the assistance of faculty consultant Professor Morris Rossabi, the site is divided into four primary sections which contain detailed perspectives on major figures in Mongol history, the pastoral nomadic life of the Mongols, and their substantial influence on China's Yuan dynasty. Complemented by a selection of historical images, the short essays offer some important new insights into the world of the Mongols, including an exploration of the popular misconception that the Mongols were merely barbaric plunderers. Finally, there are some nice online readings that may be viewed on the site or downloaded for reading at a later date.
This article from the MiniTexts section of the Math Academy/Platonic Realms website discusses the history of the concept of infinity. The author begins with a reminder of some of the common questions people ask, such as "How could you get bigger than infinity?" and proceeds to explain why this mysterious concept was once taboo among mathematicians. He begins the history of infinity with a discussion of how Aristotle taught about the possibility of infinity and highlights other key figures, such as the English mathematician John Wallis who introduced the "love knot" or "lazy eight" symbol for infinity that we use today. The article includes a nice explanation of Cantor's Set Theory and Cardinal Numbers.
RaceSci functions as a centralized collection of information resources relevant to the study of the history of race in science. The site provides comprehensive bibliographies on current scholarship; university syllabi on race and science in regard to medicine, eugenics, rhetoric, and social studies; recent journal articles and news items on affiliated topics; briefly annotated links to associated sites; and a list of requests for comment, calls for papers, and announcements for lectures and conferences. Maintained at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, RaceSci is edited by Evelynn Hammonds, associate professor of history of science, Michelle Murphy, postdoctoral fellow in women's studies, and Stephanie Higgs, a graduate student in the Program in Science, Technology, and Society.
How does one tell the story of a county? It's a tough task, but the staff members at the University of Michigan's Library system worked with a range of partners (including the Michigan Council of Library Directors) to make these county histories widely accessible. On this site, visitors can look over 428 digitized titles that tell the history of the Wolverine State. Interested parties can perform keyword searches across all of these volumes or just browse around at their leisure. First-time visitors might do well to look at the "Account of Kalamazoo County" from 1928 and the 1900 tome "An account of Southwest Michigan and Calhoun County." Additionally, the site contains business directories for a number of communities across the state. These documents are a great way to learn about the retail and other commercial activities going on from the 19th to the early 20th centuries. [KMG
When most people think about the history of printing they might think of a typeface or two they enjoy and perhaps the work of Gutenberg. There's much more to this field of human endeavor, and the Museum of Printing History in Houston provides a wealth of material at their institution and right here on their site. On the homepage, visitors can learn about current exhibitions and events, classes, and upcoming talks. In the Exhibitions area, visitors can learn about exhibits currently on display (such as the recent The Art of the Book) and those that will be coming to the museum in the future. Moving on, Our Collection features selected materials, including colonial documents and eyewitness accounts of the struggle for Texas independence. Finally, visitors can also learn about opportunities for visiting artists.
The London Borough of Tower Hamlets is considered by some to be the heart of the East End, the sometimes infamous section of London that fascinated journalists, novelists, and social scientists through the nineteenth century and well into the twentieth. This site offers an excellent collection of both contemporary writings and historical essays, all taken from the Tower Hamlets' Local History Library and Archives, that provide a fascinating look at life in the East End in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Especially useful to scholars and students in British or urban history or literature, the texts can be browsed by title, author, or subject. Separate listings of eyewitness accounts and images are also available, as is a keyword search engine.
The history of healthcare is complex, confusing and contested. In Walking London's medical history the story of how health services developed from medieval times to the present day is told through seven walks. The book also aims to help preserve our legacy, as increasingly former healthcare buildings are converted to other uses, and to enhance understanding of the current challenges we face in trying to improve healthcare in the 21st century. Each walk has a theme, ranging from the way hospitals merge or move and the development of primary care to how key healthcare trades became professions and the competition between the church, Crown and City for control of healthcare. While recognising the contributions of the 'great men of medicine', the book takes as much interest in the six ambulance stations built by the London County Council (1915) as the grandest teaching hospitals. PMID:18193703
This article introduces a new model of the relationship between growth and learning and tests a set of hypotheses related\\u000a to the development of adult competency using time allocation, anthropometric, and experimental task performance data collected\\u000a between 1992 and 1997 in a multiethnic community in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Building on seminal work in life history\\u000a theory by Hawkes, Blurton
This recent addition to the Teaching Politics site (reviewed in the September 8, 1998 Scout Report for Social Sciences) offers some 500 public domain images related to American political history from the colonial era to the present. Users can search the collection by keyword or browse by era or one of four special topics. Images are offered as large thumbnails with brief captions. As they are not copyrighted, teachers and other users are free to download the images for classroom or other use.
We describe here an interdisciplinary lab science course for non-majors using the history of science as a curricular guide. Our experience with diverse instructors underscores the importance of the teachers and classroom dynamics, beyond the curriculum. Moreover, the institutional political context is central: are courses for non-majors valued and is support given to instructors to innovate? Two sample projects are profiled.
Allchin, Douglas; Anthony, Elizabeth; Bristol, Jack; et al.
Abstract: In 2005, the American Physiological Society (APS) initiated the Living History of Physiology Archival Program to recognize senior members who have made significant contributions during their career to the advancement of the discipline and the profession of physiology. Subsequently, the leadership of the APS Section of Environmental and Exercise Physiology selected Prof. Elsworth R. Buskirk of Pennsylvania State University to be profiled in Advances in Physiology Education.
PhD Charles M. Tipton (Univ Arizona Dept Physiol)
This new site explores some of the most notable events and characters in Chicago's history: infamous (Al Capone, The Black Sox scandal), tragic (the Chicago Fire), and enterprising (The World's Columbian Exposition, A Century of Progress). Each story is told through photos and narrative, with an additional photo gallery, bibliography, and artifacts collection also available. Future exhibits are planned on Parades, Protests and Politics; The Pullman Era; The Stockyards; and The Haymarket Affair.
We introduce a multi-coin discrete quantum walk where the amplitude for a coin flip depends upon previous tosses. Although the corresponding classical random walk is unbiased, a bias can be introduced into the quantum walk by varying the history dependence. By mixing the biased walk with an unbiased one, the direction of the bias can be reversed leading to a new quantum version of Parrondo's paradox.
Flitney, A. P.; Abbott, D.; Johnson, N. F.
\\u000a Stories, myths, and religious beliefs reveal the powerful role that anger has played in human affairs since the beginning\\u000a of recorded history. The projections of anger into the supernatural by ancient and pre-literate societies trying to account\\u000a for the terrifying vagaries of nature testify to their experience with, and appreciation of, the baleful influence of anger\\u000a in the human sphere.
Michael Potegal; Raymond W. Novaco
In this contribution, the author wishes to express his profound friendship and intellectual admiration towards Mario Castagnino. The playful tone of this contribution serves to underline some key elements of the longstanding scientific collaboration between the author and MC. These are used to construct a bootstrap-like cosmological history. The Universe appears to be its own cause, resulting from a prior stage which is nothing but itself. This leads to a self-consistent multiverse devoid of past or future singularities.
In this study, we describe the types and amounts of psychiatric treatment received by a well-defined sample of borderline personality disorder (BPD) inpatients, and compare these parameters with those of a group of carefully diagnosed personality-disordered controls. Finally, we assess the risk factors associated with a history of intensive, high-cost treatment, which we defined as having had two or more
Mary C. Zanarini; Frances R. Frankenburg; Gagan S. Khera; Julieta Bleichmar
Colleagues of mine have asked me few times why we have today so much interest in Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient (FFAG) accelerators when these were invented a long time ago, and have always been ignored since then. I try here to give a reply with a short history of FFAG accelerators, at least as I know it. I take also the opportunity to clarify few definitions.
Fracture surfaces have, no doubt, been studied throughout the history of mankind, probably starting with observations on stone-age\\u000a tools. In the 16th to 18th centuries, the macroscopic appearance of fracture surfaces was used to assess the quality of metallic\\u000a materials, with studies by Réaumur in 1722 being the most notable. However, it was not until 1943 that fracture surfaces were
S. P. Lynch; S. Moutsos
The oldest existing case histories of craniotomy are from the false Hippocratic writings, about 330 BC, and one is reconstructed about the death of Ptolemy VI in 145 BC. Greek surgeons had rational indications for trepanning, when the difficulties of the times are understood. All compound fractures were infected, so death from an extradural abscess was likely. Trepanning was intended to drain the extra dural space. Copyright 1999 Harcourt Publishers Ltd. PMID:10844769
Although there are certainly some good historical treatments of acoustics in the literature, it still seems appropriate to begin a handbook of acoustics with a brief history of the subject. We begin by mentioning some important experiments that took place before the 19th century. Acoustics in the 19th century is characterized by describing the work of seven outstanding acousticians: Tyndall, von Helmholtz, Rayleigh, Stokes, Bell, Edison, and Koenig. Of course this sampling omits the mention of many other outstanding investigators.
: The aim of the study was to analyse the gynaecologic history of 150 Brazilian patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) by comparing\\u000a the outcome of the pregnancies before and after disease onset and in the two clinical variants of SSc, as well as to assess\\u000a the effects of the pregnancy on the progress of the disease. A retrospective analysis was
P. D. Sampaio-Barros; A. M. Samara; J. F. Marques Neto
The good people at Bartleby.com have long prided themselves on providing a host of important works online for the benefit of those seeking online edification. One of the more recent volumes they have placed on their site is The Encyclopedia of World History, edited by Peter N. Stearns and 30 fellow historians. As the preface to this, the sixth edition, announces: "Simply put, this is a volume that has always intended to convey the key features of world history". This is no small order, and this edition represents a substantial revision from previous editions, as it also reflects the growing body of knowledge about the histories of regions outside of Western Europe and North America. The encyclopedia is complemented by a number of illustrative and informative maps, including ones that visualize India before the Muslim conquest and Italy in the 15th century. Users of the volume are welcome to use the search engine to find the information they so desire, or they may browse at their leisure.
Inspired by an article in an issue of Eos from April 1970, Gabe Henderson discovered a legacy of correspondence from former AGU president Helmut Landsberg detailing his views in the early days of the climate science debate. Thanks to AGU donors and the creation of a new fellowship by AGU's History of Geophysics Committee, Henderson, a Ph.D. candidate at Michigan State University, is conducting research on Landsberg's papers at the University of Maryland, College Park, continuing his study of the broad history of geophysics and the link between the past and future of climate science. In April 1970, Henderson says, AGU president Helmut Landsberg called for S. Fred Singer to lead a special committee on environmental quality to evaluate the geophysical aspects of environmental problems, dispassionately (H. E. Landsberg, Eos Trans. AGU, 51, 243, doi:10.1029/EO051i004p00243). Because environmental problems were hardly given a second thought at that time, Landsberg's request could have faded from the consciousness of geoscientists and from the pages of history.
Released on February 9 by the Federal Judicial Center (FJC), this site constitutes "a major, previously-unpublished reference source for the history of the federal courts." It is composed of five major sections. The first, Judges of the United States Courts, contains the Federal Judges Biographical Database, a browseable or keyword-searchable database of the service records and professional resumes of presidentially-appointed judges since 1789. Users can also construct their own queries about groups of federal judges, including the justices of the Supreme Court. The second section, Courts of the Federal Judiciary, offers legislative histories of courts and circuits within the federal judiciary, in addition to lists of chief judges and information on the location of the official records of each court. The Landmark Judicial Legislation section presents the full text of 21 statutes related to the organization and administration of the judiciary, presented in a timeline with notes on their historical significance. The final two sections explore selected topics in judicial history and exhibit annotated photos of historical federal courthouses, browsed via a pull-down menu. Additional resources include a collection of FJC publications and (annotated) related links.
First, history of PACS (picture archiving and communication system for medical use) in Japan is described in two parts: in part 1, the early stage of PACS development from 1984 to 2002, and in part 2 the matured stage from 2002 to 2010. PACS in Japan has been developed and installed by local manufacturers by their own technology and demand from domestic hospitals. Part 1 mainly focuses on quantitative growth and part 2 on qualitative change. In part 2, integration of PACS into RIS (radiology information system), HIS (hospital information system), EPR (electronic patient record), teleradiology and IHE (integrating healthcare enterprise) is reported. Interaction with other elements of technology such as moving picture network system and three dimensional display is also discussed. Present situation of main 4 large size hospitals is presented. Second, history of PACS in Korea is reported. Very acute climbing up of filmless PACS diffusion was observed from 1997 to 2000. The reasons for such evolution are described and discussed. Also changes of PACS installation and system integration with other systems such as HIS and role of them in radiological diagnoses in Korea since 2002 are described. Third, history in China is investigated by checking international academic journals in English and described as far as events are logically linked and consistently meaningful. PMID:21600401
Inamura, Kiyonari; Kim, Jong Hyo
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this paper is to review the role of the family history in predictive genetic testing, describe how family history taking is practiced in adult primary care, identify the current barriers to appropriate application of the family history, and outline the requirements for a new family history tool for primary care. DESIGN We reviewed current perspectives on the family history, identifying key references in the medical literature and web-based family history tools through discussions with multiple content experts in clinical genetics, family medicine, and internal medicine. We conducted a Medline query using the search terms family history and primary care to identify references from the past 10 years. To illustrate the usefulness of family history information, we calculated the predictive value of family history and genetic information for familial adenomatous polyposis using current references and standard formulas. We identified paper and web-based family history tools through discussions with content experts. We also conducted a search on the World Wide Web to identify resources for electronic medical record and family history. RESULTS The family history is the most important tool for diagnosis and risk assessment in medical genetics, and promises to serve as a critical element in the use of predictive genetic testing in primary care. Traditional medical education about family history has often been unsophisticated and use of family history in adult primary care has been limited, compounded by multiple substantive barriers. Although there are numerous paper and computer-based aides for taking the family history, none currently meets all the needs of adult primary care. CONCLUSIONS The patient's family history remains a critical element in risk assessment for many conditions, but substantive barriers impede application in primary care practice, and evidence for its contribution to improved health outcomes is limited in this setting. Short of radical changes in reimbursement, new tools will be required to aid primary care physicians in the efficient collection and application of patient family history in the era of genetic testing.
Rich, Eugene C; Burke, Wylie; Heaton, Caryl J; Haga, Susanne; Pinsky, Linda; Short, M Priscilla; Acheson, Louise
James H. Johnson, Listening in Paris: A Cultural History Studies in the History of Society and Culture, 21. Berkeley, Los Angeles and London: University of California Press, 1995. xvi + 384 pp. ISBN 0 520 08564 7. Reviewed by Mark Everist
|A list of hundred history-making ethnic women who have created history in their respective fields and become successful writers is presented. The list includes Alma Flor Ada, Julia Alvarez and Oprah Winfrey.|
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this paper is to review the role of the family history in predictive genetic testing, describe how family\\u000a history taking is practiced in adult primary care, identify the current barriers to appropriate application of the family\\u000a history, and outline the requirements for a new family history tool for primary care.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: We reviewed current perspectives on
Eugene C. Rich; Wylie Burke; Caryl J. Heaton; Susanne Haga; Linda Pinsky; M. Priscilla Short; Louise Acheson
|Turning towards history--to be contrasted with turning away from history--captures the Marxian sense of education. Marx worked out the elements of a theory of political education in relation to history by equating education with the coincidence of the changing of circumstances and people. This theory received its most comprehensive yet succinct…
|This personal response to German history by a professor attending a major conference at the University of Heidelberg reflects on the country's long history of education and research, the role of language in history, a speech urging tolerance by the Dutch woman who protected Anne Frank's family, and her reactions to a visit to the Dachau…
Call, Jolayne Sillito
Families affect the health of their members by transmitting genetic predisposition to wellness and illness. Families also model and teach health beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Eliciting an individual's family history can identify potential genetic vulnerabilities to disease and lifestyle influences. This review explores the implications of family history for patient education about lifestyle. Family history is particularly useful for helping
Michael A. Crouch
The opportunities offered by a natural history museum to enhance and expand classroom instruction in health are discussed. A basic constellation of typical natural history museum exhibit concepts and an array of health-related opportunities that are easily developed around these displays is outlined. The natural history concept provides an…
Newman, Ian M.
Concepts relating to the natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) arise most importantly from the classic study of Fletcher and colleagues (The Natural History of Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema, Oxford University Press, New York, 1976). This study, which evaluated working English men over 8 years, was used to construct a proposed life-long natural history. Although this is a
Stephen I. Rennard; Jørgen Vestbo
The current tension in the writing of histories has been between the defense of "textbook" histories--i.e., the conventional approach which focuses on great events, great individuals, and great collectivities--and progressive--i.e., populist or alternative histories which focus on ordinary people. A new form has been engineered by television,…
Terrorism has a history that is at least 2000 years old. Although targets, victims, perpetrators, causes and justifications for the use of terror have changed, the methods of terrorism have remained the same throughout history. This article will review the developmental stages of terrorism to demonstrate that history defines terrorism as the use of violence to cause fear in order
ARTHUR H. GARRISON
Terrorism has a history that is at least 2000 years old. Although targets, victims, perpetrators, causes and justifications for the use of terror have changed, the methods of terrorism have remained the same throughout history. This article will review the developmental stages of terrorism to demonstrate that history defines terrorism as the use of violence to cause fear in order
|This publication contains discussion questions, student activities, and lists of resource materials which a teacher can use to include American Jewish history in secondary United States history courses. The book concentrates on those aspects of Jewish history which offer material with which to illuminate many important general themes and…
The Black Power Salute protest by athletes John Carlos and Tommie Smith on the medal dais during the 1968 Mexico City Olympic Games, supported by silver-medallist Peter Norman, has been recognised as a seminal moment in sports history, Olympic history and race relations. This article examines the filmic history of this event as represented in Salute, a 2008 film documentary.
Gary Osmond; Murray G. Phillips
In the past decade a tremendous increase in family history research in Italy, Spain and Portugal provides new insight into family processes and has many implications for generalizations regarding the course of European family history. In this article many of these new findings are detailed and their historical and theoretical implications assessed. Previous generalizations regarding Mediterranean family history are examined
David I. Kertzer; Caroline Brettell
History of science is, we are told, an important subject for study. Its rise in recent years to become a ‘stand alone’ discipline has been mirrored by an expansion of popular history of science texts available in bookstores. Given this, it is perhaps surprising that little attention has been given to how history of science is written. This article attempts
|The California history and social science standards-based reform has been touted as the "gold standard" for state history curricula. But the standards, framework, and tests that constitute this reform provide inconsistent and contradictory criteria for teaching and assessing history and social science. An examination of the political process that…
This book seeks to place the Negro in appropriate places in the American history curriculum, unit by unit of study. Its main categories are those of typical American history courses bought in secondary schools, and not those of "Negro history"; its purpose is to offer a framework for the full-scale integration of Negro contributions into the…
Katz, William Loren
Computing technology has been used extensively in the classroom to aid students in learning about math, science, and writing. Comparatively little work has focused on the sorts of history learning computing technology facilitates, if any. Can computing technology be used to facilitate history learning? What does it mean to support history learning? How do we evaluate such learning? In this
Jason B. Ellis; Amy S. Bruckman
...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Marketing history. 1702.14 Section 1702.14 Commercial...REQUIREMENTS Â§ 1702.14 Marketing history. Each petition for an exemption under...shall include a statement of the marketing history of the substance for which an...
Research into the history of physics is undergoing a difficult period of transition. It began life as a part of the history of science and the history of culture, and owes a great deal to epistemology and sociology, but would now appear to be acquiring its own methodology and developing outside the grey area traditionally separating natural and human sciences.
E. Bellone; G. Bruzzaniti
Drawing on the work of Bernstein and Maton and using a case-study approach, this study explores the formation of an undergraduate history curriculum at the University of Cape Town. This article focuses on two periods of curriculum formation referred to as history as canon and history as social science. With respect to these two curriculum periods…
History has long played a role in the education of American physicians, but the uses of medicine's past have changed over time. In the late nineteenth century, some physicians taught medical history to their students to supply a sense of continuity with professional traditions in times of rapid and bewildering change. Other physicians believed that instruction in medical history would
Susan E. Lederer; Ellen S. More; Joel D. Howell
The resource guide is designed to help seventh grade history teachers in Ohio meet the requirements for a mandated course on state history, geography, and civics. Although history is the central discipline, the guide presents an interdisciplinary approach. It contains questions for discussion, readings from primary sources, and class activities…
Walker, Byron H.
|Describes possible applications of political cartoons to historical analysis and history teaching on the college level, and presents a history of political cartoons since 1800. A brief guide to sources of political cartoons for American, English, and European history courses is included. (Author/DB)|
McCarthy, Michael P.
Although life histories were collected by anthropologists in the first decade of the twentieth century, the most celebrated founding fathers of the life history were the sociologists Thomas and Znaniecki. Their work-- The Polish Peasant in Europe andAmerica -- began the promotion of the life history perspective as a cental research device in the emerging work of the University of
|"Teaching Global History" challenges prospective and beginning social studies teachers to formulate their own views about what is important to know in global history and why. It explains how to organize the curriculum around broad social studies concepts and themes and student questions about humanity, history, and the contemporary world. All…
Singer, Alan J.
This paper critically evaluates the current decline of the relationship between economics and the history of economics, and proposes a framework called the panorama-cum-scenario model for the practice of the history of economics. Starting with the Hegelian thesis that the history of economics is economics itself, the paper argues that such a relationship is necessary but not sufficient because the
|Discusses the need for a global approach to world history to help students at all levels understand social, economic, and ecological change. The author evaluates one example of a secondary global world history textbook--"People and Civilization: A World History" (Lexington, MA: Ginn and Company, 1977). (AM)|
An attempt is made to explore those aspects of the history of esophageal surgery relevant to pediatric practice. In some areas, the history is entirely focused on conditions of particular pediatric significance; esophageal atresia is a classic example of this group. In other areas there is considerable overlap, which varies in extent, with the history of esophageal surgery in adult.
N. A. Myers
By accepting psychology’s borders of concern, some histories of psychology tend to mute significant interfaces between research and society. The alternative approach of critical theory provides histories more sensitive to these relations. Critical theory’s conceptual problems with regress of explanation and with determining adequate criteria for evaluating differing historical narratives are considered. By using this approach, the study of history
David L. Krantz
Purpose – This paper aims to make an assessment of the contribution made by accounting histories of women produced since 1992 and the current state of knowledge production in this subject area. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study is based on a review of published sources on accounting history and women's, gender and feminist history. Findings – Whereas feminist historians and historians
Stephen P. Walker
Discusses the role of sports in U.S. history. Describes primary sources and scholarly articles available for use in integrating sports history into history courses. Addresses questions about sport and society in the United States from the Puritans through the present day. Suggests that sports have been used to limit upward mobility and maintain…
Borish, Linda J.
|Although the influence of reinforcement history is a theoretical focus of behavior analysis, the specific behavioral effects of reinforcement history have received relatively little attention in applied research and practice. We examined the potential effects of reinforcement history by reviewing nonhuman, human operant, and applied research and…
Pipkin, Claire St. Peter; Vollmer, Timothy R.
The mosquito parasite, Coelomomyces psorophorae (Blastocladiales, Chytridiomycetes) alternates obligately between the larvae of Culiseta inornata and the copepod Cyclops vernalis. Isogametes, derived from heterothallic, wall-less gametangia which develop in the copepod, fuse to produce a diploid zygote that subsequently infects the mosquito host. Zoospores from the resistant sporangia which are produced in the haemocoel of the mosquito infect the copepod. A tentative life-history is proposed and implications of these discoveries for the biology, taxonomy, and possible role of Coelomomyces in biological control are discussed. Images
Whisler, H C; Zebold, S L; Shemanchuk, J A
This article traces the development of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) from 1974, the inception of its precursor, an office within the Federal Energy Administration, to its current form as an independent agency within the US Department of Energy (DOE). EIA amalgamated the energy-related activities of over 50 separate agencies, when it was chartered in DOE in 1977, [open quotes]to collect, evaluate, assemble, and analyze energy information...[close quotes] Six tensions have characterized the agency during its history: data quality, the role of modeling, confidentiality of data, resources and requirements, the independence of EIA, and timeliness vs. accuracy. 95 refs.
Kent, C.A. (Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC (United States))
The author has lived in the plant tissue culture history since its beginning and had the opportunity to discuss with all the\\u000a pioneers.\\u000a \\u000a Then in the present contribution he expresses personal memories, some of them being almost unknown.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The tissue culture problem was suggested as soon as 1838 by Schleiden and Schwann's cell theory. The first experimental approach\\u000a was vainly
ROGER J. GAUTItERET
Nearly all risks to future generations arising from long-term disposal of used nuclear fuel are attributable to the transuranic elements and long-lived fission products, about 2% of its content. The transuranic elements of concern are plutonium, neptunium, americium, and curium. Long-lived (>100,000-year half-life) isotopes of iodine and technetium are also created by nuclear fission of uranium. We can reduce the problem transuranics through accelerator-based transmutation. Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) have been proposed for over two decades as one technique to transmute used nuclear fuel. This paper covers the history and some new possible applications of accelerator driven systems.
Sheffield, Richard L.; Pitcher, Eric J.
This page, by historians Tracy Lai and Ileana Leavans and mathematician Lawrence Morales at Seattle Central Community College, presents a course which incorporates anthropology, history, and art into math education. This course "provides a transcultural approach towards the understanding of the existing relationships between visual images, mathematics, and the written/spoken word." Here, visitors will find a course description, outcomes, activities and assignments, as well as some sample projects and reflections from instructors. It is an excellent starting point for educators looking to design a course which incorporates math across the curriculum.
Lai, Tracy; Leavans, Ileana; Morales, Lawrence
The Hebrew writings in early history are dedicated primarily to the explanations and elucidations of Jewish law. In the context of such laws, several medical and anatomical references are made that provide some clues to the medical practices of the day. In particular, this article serves to compile references made to surgical interventions within these texts. Particular attention is paid to the possible use of anesthetics, the environment and equipment utilized in surgery, as well as the indication of knowledge of infection and hygienic practices. An understanding of human morphology was necessary for many of these surgical practices. PMID:21322037
Loukas, Marios; Bilinsky, Ester; Bilinsky, Samuel; Abrahams, Peter; Diamond, Mark; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane
History is a screen through which the past lightens the present and the present brightens the future. Psychiatry by virtue of its ability to deal with human thoughts and emotions and provide a pathway for healthy minds provides an important platform towards being a mentally sound human being and largely the society. This review takes a sneak peek into the foundations of modern psychiatry in India. The description is largely based on the time frame, which provides a better understanding of the factual information in each period starting from the Vedic era and culminating in the post independence period.
Nizamie, S. Haque; Goyal, Nishant
Cerebellar zones were there, of course, before anyone noticed them. Their history is that of young people, unhindered by preconceived ideas, who followed up their observations with available or new techniques. In the 1960s of the last century, the circumstances were fortunate because three groups, in Leiden, Lund, and Bristol, using different approaches, stumbled on the same zonal pattern in the cerebellum of the cat. In Leiden, the Häggqvist myelin stain divulged the compartments in the cerebellar white matter that channel the afferent and efferent connections of the zones. In Lund, the spino-olivocerebellar pathways activated from individual spinal funiculi revealed the zonal pattern. In Bristol, charting the axon reflex of olivocerebellar climbing fibers on the surface of the cerebellum resulted in a very similar zonal map. The history of the zones is one of accidents and purposeful pursuit. The technicians, librarians, animal caretakers, students, secretaries, and medical illustrators who made it possible remain unnamed, but their contributions certainly should be acknowledged. PMID:20967577
It is needless to cite the importance of education for succeed of engineering. IEEJ called for the establishment of ICEE in 1994, where the education is thought highly of, though its discussion has not been well working. Generally speaking, education has been one of the most important national strategies particularly at a time of its political and economical development. The science and technology education is, of course, not the exemption. But in these days around 2000 it seems that the public pays little attention on the science and technology, as they are quite day to day matters. As the results, for instance, such engineering as power systems and electric heavy machines are referred to as “endangered”. So fur, many engineers have tried not to be involved in social issues. But currently they can not help facing with risks of social issues like patent rights, troubles and accidents due to application of high technology, information security in the use of computers and engineering ethics. One of the most appropriate ways for the risk management is to learn lessons in the past, that is, history, so that the idea suggested in it could be made full use for the risk management. The author cited the global importance of education, particularly of engineering history education for engineering ethics, in the ICEE 2010 held in Bussan, Korea, as the 16th anniversary.
Though they may be most closely associated with the dramatic appearance of large creatures (such as alligators or raccoons), sanitary sewers are one of the most important pieces of infrastructure across the built-up areas of the world. For the past decade, Jon Schladweiler has collected copious amounts of material related to the history of sewage conveyance systems. Along with his various traveling exhibits and lectures, he has seen fit to create this rather intriguing website which contains articles, timelines, and visual materials that relate the history of the development of sewage systems over the past few millennia. The articles section is a good place to start, as it has dozens of historical articles that address the design of sewers, their various components (such as pipes and manholes), their construction, and even divides the articles up by locale and historical era. The photograph section is also well-developed, and contains a good section with photographs of public baths and latrines from antiquity. Finally, the site has a Miscellaneous area that pays homage to prose and poetry that have seen fit to describe sewers and their related pieces of infrastructure. Here visitors may read pieces by Robert Frost, Ben Johnson, and the Song of the Sewer from The Honeymooners.
The history and development of ultrahigh carbon steels (i.e., steels containing between 1 and 2.l percent C and now known as UHCS) are described. The early use of steel compositions containing carbon contents above the eutectoid level is found in ancient weapons from around the world. For example, both Damascus and Japanese sword steels are hypereutectoid steels. Their manufacture and processing is of interest in understanding the role of carbon content in the development of modern steels. Although sporadic examples of UHCS compositions are found in steels examined in the early part of this century, it was not until the mid-1970s that the modern study began. This study had its origin in the development of superplastic behavior in steels and the recognition that increasing the carbon content was of importance in developing that property. The compositions that were optimal for superplasticity involved the development of steels that contained higher carbon contents than conventional modern steels. It was discovered, however, that the room temperature properties of these compositions were of interest in their own right. Following this discovery, a period of intense work began on understanding their manufacture, processing, and properties for both superplastic forming and room temperature applications. The development of superplastic cast irons and iron carbides, as well as those of laminated composites containing UHCS, was an important part of this history.
Wadsworth, J.; Sherby, O.D.
In the history of public health, HIV/AIDS is unique; it has widespread and long-lasting demographic, social, economic and political impacts. The global response has been unprecedented. AIDS exceptionalism--the idea that the disease requires a response above and beyond "normal" health interventions--began as a Western response to the originally terrifying and lethal nature of the virus. More recently, AIDS exceptionalism came to refer to the disease-specific global response and the resources dedicated to addressing the epidemic. There has been a backlash against this exceptionalism, with critics claiming that HIV/AIDS receives a disproportionate amount of international aid and health funding.This paper situations this debate in historical perspective. By reviewing histories of the disease, policy developments and funding patterns, it charts how the meaning of AIDS exceptionalism has shifted over three decades. It argues that while the connotation of the term has changed, the epidemic has maintained its course, and therefore some of the justifications for exceptionalism remain. PMID:21129197
Smith, Julia H; Whiteside, Alan
The decoherent histories formalism, developed by Griffiths, Gell-Mann, and Hartle (in Phys. Rev. A 76:022104, 2007;
Schroeren, David P. B.
Intelligent Design (ID), the idea that the Earth's biota was intelligently designed and created, is not a new species recently evolved by allopatric speciation at the fringes of the creationist gene pool. In spite of its new veneer of sophistication, ID is a variant of an already extant species of religious polemics. In the western world, arguments about causative relationships between the complexity of nature and the supernatural can be traced from the fifth century St. Augustine, to the eighteenth century David Hume and the nineteenth century William Paley. Along this descent tree some argued from the existence of supernatural agencies to the creation of nature with its complexities, while others argued from the complexities of nature to the existence of supernatural agencies. Today, Phillip Johnson promotes ID by attacking evolution rather than by presenting evidence for ID. He argues that the evidence for macroevolution is either absent, misinterpreted or fraudulent. His "Wedge Strategy" attempts to separate his "objective science" from the "philosophical mechanistic naturalism" which he posits is responsible for the survival of Darwinism. To make his appeal as wide as possible he tries not to offend anyone (except evolutionists) by deliberately avoiding discussion of biblical literalism or the age of the Earth. Although in 1859 Darwin admitted that the geological evidence was "the most obvious and gravest objection which can be urged against my theory", subsequently geological evidence has become one of the chief supports of his theory. However, the fossil record is now seen to be not simply one of slow gradual descent with modification. Rates of divergence and disappearance of organisms have varied enormously through time. Repeated mass extinctions indicate a strong element of contingency in evolution. Accepting the postulate of an intelligent designer also requires the postulate of an intelligent destroyer. Darwin hinted at this when he referred to, "The clumsy, wasteful works of nature as seen in the suffering caused by parasites and in the delight in cruelty shown by some predators when catching and playing with their prey". The positions of other contemporary proponents of ID are far from uniform. Some, while rejecting unguided evolution, appear to accept the concepts of common descent and an Earth 4.6 billion years old. However, within the ID movement there has been very little discussion of its implications for Earth history. For example, is it valid to ask, "Were the Himalayas intelligently designed?" Or should the question be, "Is the physics of plate tectonics intelligently designed?" As well as contingency in the history of life, there are strong elements of contingency in the history of the Earth, in the history of the solar system and in the history of the cosmos. Does ID matter? From a purely operational viewpoint, the rock record could equally well be interpreted in pattern-based investigations as being the product of either naturalistic processes, or as a sequence of intelligently designed events. For example, in correlating horizons between adjacent oil wells using micropaleontology, or in doing seismic stratigraphy, it makes little difference whether foraminifera or unconformities formed by natural or supernatural agencies. However, ID is an anathema for process-based research and its cultural implications are enormous. While we must be careful in our work to separate methodological naturalism from culturally bound philosophical naturalism, methodological naturalism has been an enormously successful approach in the advancement of knowledge. We have moved from the "demon-haunted" world to the world of the human genome. We must take ID seriously; it is a retrograde step.
Elders, W. A.
Funded by a grant from the Kentucky Community and Technical College System, this arresting collection of oral histories traces the creation and development of the community college system throughout Kentucky. The collection is part of the Kentuckiana Digital Library and there are over 30 interviews here for each college in the state. Conducted between 2006 and 2008, the interviewees include administrators, faculty, staff, and students. Visitors can browse at their leisure, search the interviews by community college, or perform a keyword search. Each interview comes complete with background information on each subject, along with a complete transcript and audio recording of the interview. Overall, anyone with an interest in higher education or Kentucky will find this collection quite valuable.
This article explores the promise of, as well as the methodological and pedagogical problems inherent in, the use of oral history in research on Palestinian women, focusing on the author's personal experiences in her field research.The author critiques the field of history – specifically, Middle East history – for its neglect in utilizing oral history and training historians in it,
Ellen L. Fleischmann
Current teaching methods for architectural history seldom embrace building technology as an essential component of study. Accepting the premise that architectural history is a fundamental component to the overall architectural learning environment, it is argued that the study of construction history will further enhance student knowledge. This hypothesis created an opportunity to investigate how the study of construction history could
David L. Batie
Originating in Stanford Law School Professor Barbara Babcock's course on Women's legal history, this site features a large collection of biographical papers by students on early woman lawyers. These papers, which discuss both living and past women lawyers, are found in the Biographical Chapters section, listed alphabetically. Each includes a timeline and bibliography, and some are in .pdf format. For even more information on these lawyers, users should consult the Pioneer Profile Index, in which each lawyer's entry lists all of the related material on the site, including the student paper, a citation or the text of contemporary articles, a bibliography, and research leads (when available). The latter three are also listed separately in their own sections, accessed from the main page. Additional resources include photos, obituaries, and related links. Submissions, proposed links, and suggestions for articles and sources for the bibliography are welcome.
The Yale Peabody Museum houses more than 11 million specimens and objects in anthropology, botany, zoology, paleontology, entomology, ornithology, and historical scientific instruments in its collections. It is also home to Rudolph F. ZallingerÃ¢ÂÂs murals The Age of Reptiles and The Age of Mammals. Permanent exhibitions include the Hall of Minerals, Earth and Space, the Peabody Dioramas, and the Great Hall of Dinosaurs featuring skeletons from the MuseumÃ¢ÂÂs paleontology collections. A number of online exhibits are available, including ChinaÃ¢ÂÂs Feathered Dinosaurs, and In Search of Giant Squid. Professional development is available through the Museum, as well as PDF versions of some curricula. Web pages for the various exhibits have information pages on individual species, collection artifacts, and history of the Museum, and there is a searchable online database for the Peabody collections.
On Tuesday 22 August 2006 approximately 40 people attended the Commission 41 History of Astronomy Business Meeting at the IAU XXVI General Assembly in Prague. Commission president Alex Gurshtein opened the meeting, welcoming the commission members and calling for a moment of silence for those members who passed away in the last triennium. David DeVorkin was appointed recording secretary for the meeting, with Steven Dick as the scruitineer of the ballot. A moment of silence was then observed in the memory of members departed over the last triennium, including: Jerzy Dobrzycki (Poland), Robert Duncan (Australia), Mohammad Edalati (Iran), Philip Morrison (USA), John Perdix (Australia), Neil Porter (Ireland), Gibson Reaves (USA), Brian Robinson (Australia), and Raymond E. White (USA).
Gurshtein, Alexander A.; Nha, Il-Seong; Ruggles, Clive L. N.; DeVorkin, David H.; Dick, Wolfgang R.; Kochhar, Rajesh; Nakamura, Tsuko; Pigatto, Luisa; Stephenson, F. Richard; Warner, Brian
From Beloit to Rhinelander, the Wisconsin Magazine of History has the Badger State well covered. The Wisconsin Historical Society has done historians and the general public a great service by digitizing all of the magazine's issues back to 1917, and this site contains access to over 2000 feature articles. Visitors can begin by performing a basic search, or they can just type in some basic terms like "Green Bay", "farm implements", or "urban renewal". Of course, the chronologically-minded may wish to just browse the contents of this archive by volume number. The 1932-1933 volume is a fine place to start, as it contains the articles "The influence of Wisconsin on federal politics: 1880-1907" and "Fond du Lac, its sawmills and freedman'a sketch".
A number of institutions have begun to expand their digital collections in order to include lesser-known subjects, and the University of Maine's Raymond H. Fogler Library continues to expand their online offerings with this intriguing collection. Drawing on the holdings of institutions like the Machias Historical Society, the Maine Maritime Museum, and the Maine State Archives, their digital collections team has created this History of Maine Fisheries database. There aren't any subject headings or sample searches on the site, but it is still quite easy to use. Visitors can use the keyword search to locate materials of interest, and they can also set date parameters to look for materials from a given time period. To get started, visitors might try typing in words like "lobster", "fleet", and "Bangor".
From the artistic statements of Louis Sullivan to the brutally Modern statements of Walter Netsch, architecture in Chicago is nothing if not eclectic. Given the important legacy of those architects practicing in and around Chicago, it is refreshing to note that the Art Institute of Chicago has been collecting the oral histories of these men and women since 1983. With substantial financial support from the Graham Foundation for Advanced Studies in the Fine Arts and the Illinois Humanities Council, the Art Institute of Chicago has placed complete transcripts for over fifty of these interviews online here for access by architectural historians and the general public. Here visitors will find the recollections of Stanley Tigerman, Harry Weese, Bertrand Goldberg, and Carter Manny. Visitors will also be glad to find that female architects are well-represented here, and include such individuals as Gertrude Lempp Kerbis and Natalie De Blois.
This Ichthyology Collection is part of the Texas Natural History Collections (TNHC) at the University of Texas at Austin's Texas Memorial Museum. It is estimated that the Ichthyology Collection currently holds 676,384 specimens contained in approximately 30,000 jars. The Collection represents 180 countries, and over half of the specimens are from Texas. Loans are available to "researchers at recognized institutions with the facilities to properly house and care for the specimens." The site links to extensive indices for North America Freshwater Fishes and Texas Freshwater Fishes which include maps and images. The site also links to a searchable and browseable TNHC Fish Specimen Database containing 26,511 records. Note: The Fish Database is under construction, and may be unavailable on occasion.
The Herpetology Collection of reptiles and amphibians is part of the Texas Natural History Collections (TNHC) in the University of Texas at Austin's Texas Memorial Museum. The Collection "holdings consist of about 63,000 catalogued specimens, which are used for research by faculty, staff and students at the University, as well as by qualified researchers throughout the world." Frogs make up more than half of the catalogued specimens, and the United States is the primary source of specimens. Collection materials are also from Central and South America, Mexico, Africa, and Southeast Asia. Loans are available to "established researchers at recognized institutions with the facilities to properly house and care for the specimens." The website offers information about the Loan Policy to interested researchers. The site also links to the searchable and browseable TNHC Herp Database. Please note that the Database is under construction, and may be unavailable on occasion.
The classification of insects has attempted to most effectively communicate information about this hyperdiverse lineage of life and, not surprisingly, has had a considerably rich historical development. This history can be coarsely segregated into four periods: the Pre-Linnean era, the first century spanning Linnaeus's Systema Naturae to Darwin's On the Origin of Species, the Darwinian era up to the Cladistic Revolution, and the Hennigian era leading to today. The major events of each of these episodes are briefly summarized and some of the more notable researchers highlighted, along with their influence on our current understanding of insect relationships and how this is reflected in the current classification of the Hexapoda. PMID:23317047
Engel, Michael S; Kristensen, Niels P
Over the past 3 decades, fetal surgery for congenital disease has evolved from merely a fanciful concept to a medical field in its own right. Techniques for open hysterotomy, minimal-access hysteroscopy, and image-guided percutaneous fetal access have become well established, first in animal models and subsequently in humans. At the same time, major advances in fetal imaging and diagnosis, anesthesia, and tocolysis have allowed fetal intervention to become a vital tool for subsets of patients who would otherwise endure significant morbidity and mortality. This article offers a concise overview of the history of fetal surgery, from its tumultuous early days to its current status as an important means for the early treatment of potentially devastating congenital anomalies. PMID:19559317
Jancelewicz, Tim; Harrison, Michael R
Two issues of this Journal are devoted to the history of andrology and male sexuality, from Hippocratic medicine to contemporary ethical problems due to the increasing role of technology in human reproduction. Studies have been devoted to: the Hippocratic Corpus, to authors of the Roman Empire, to Byzantine medicine; the transmission of ancient texts through Arabic and other languages of the Middle East; the influence of Constantinus Africanus' translations from Arabic to Latin; early modern theories about semen, male sexuality, impotence. Recent developments of biochemistry and epistemology are analyzed to show how these and other topics have influenced sexual ideas and behaviours until the discovery - around 1840 - of the chemical nature of male sexual hormones. In more recent years, technologies and cellular and molecular biology have opened new perspectives in the fields of fertilization and male sexuality, giving way at the same to new ethical, social and legal problems. PMID:12365435
Angeletti, L R
Christianson syndrome is an X-linked mental retardation syndrome characterized by microcephaly, impaired ocular movement, severe global developmental delay, hypotonia which progresses to spasticity, and early onset seizures of variable types. Gilfillan et al.2008] reported mutations in SLC9A6, the gene encoding the sodium/hydrogen exchanger NHE6, in the family first reported and in three others. They also noted the clinical similarities to Angelman syndrome and found cerebellar atrophy on MRI and elevated glutamate/glutamine in the basal ganglia on MRS. Here we report on nonsense mutations in two additional families. The natural history is detailed in childhood and adult life, the similarities to Angelman syndrome confirmed, and the MRI/MRS findings documented in three affected boys. PMID:20949524
Schroer, Richard J; Holden, Kenton R; Tarpey, Patrick S; Matheus, Maria Giselle; Griesemer, David A; Friez, Michael J; Fan, Jane Zheng; Simensen, Richard J; Strømme, Petter; Stevenson, Roger E; Stratton, Michael R; Schwartz, Charles E
Christianson syndrome is an X-linked mental retardation syndrome characterized by microcephaly, impaired ocular movement, severe global developmental delay, hypotonia which progresses to spasticity, and early onset seizures of variable types. Gilfillan et al.  reported mutations in SLC9A6, the gene encoding the sodium/hydrogen exchanger NHE6, in the family first reported and in three others. They also noted the clinical similarities to Angelman syndrome and found cerebellar atrophy on MRI and elevated glutamate/glutamine in the basal ganglia on MRS. Here we report on nonsense mutations in two additional families. The natural history is detailed in childhood and adult life, the similarities to Angelman syndrome confirmed, and the MRI/MRS findings documented in three affected boys.
Schroer, Richard J.; Holden, Kenton R.; Tarpey, Patrick S.; Matheus, Maria Giselle; Griesemer, David A.; Friez, Michael J.; Fan, Jane Zheng; Simensen, Richard J.; Str?mme, Petter; Stevenson, Roger E.; Stratton, Michael R.; Schwartz, Charles E.
Drawing on the fine collections of several local and regional institutions (including the Wisconsin State Historical Society and the Milwaukee Public Library), this online archive of historical photographs serves as a visual record of Wisconsin maritime history, set on the waters of Lake Michigan and Lake Superior. Maritime commerce began during the days of the French and Native American trappers, but gained significant momentum after the conclusion of the War of 1812. Over the past two hundred years, the two lakes have seen a number of passenger vessels and large bulk freighters ply their waters. The site contains hundreds of photographs, and visitors may elect to search the entire collection of keywords, or browse through a list of predefined image collections such as barges, cargo ships, and shipwrecks. Each photograph is returned along with an image record that gives a brief description of the subject, the holding institution, and the place and time the photograph or image was generated or taken.
This module is provided by Nano4Me.org, a product of the National Center for Nanotechnology Applications and Career Knowledge (NACK Center) which is based at the Penn State College of Engineering and is funded through the National Science Foundation's Advanced Technological Education (ATE) program. The module, which is available for download in PDF format, includes a brief history of nanotechnology. The module was designed to be used by instructors in post secondary education and would be useful in workshops, courses or lectures; it provides a brief background for students beginning to study nanotechnology. This resource, along with all resources from the NACK Center, require a fast, easy, free log-in to access their materials.
This talk will focus on the history of Jefferson Laboratory from its inception as the NEAL proposal by the Southeastern Universities Research Association (SURA) in 1980, to about 1986 -- two years after the arrival of Hermann Grunder and his Berkeley team. Major themes are (i) a national decision to build a high energy, high duty factor electron accelerator for basic nuclear physics research, (ii) open competition established by the DOE, (iii) formation of SURA, and (iv) interest of SURA physicists (particularly at UVA and W&M) in this research. I will discuss the scientific, technical, and political issues that eventually lead to the selection of the SURA proposal, the choice of Newport News as the site, and the decision to adopt a recirculating superconducting ring for the final design.
The history of Italian parasitology can be subdivided into two periods: pre-Redi and post-Redi. The first period includes the contributions to parasitology by savants who operated during the Roman, medieval and Renaissance eras; the second period started in 1668 when Francesco Redi published his experiments to debunk the theory of spontaneous generation; the work of Redi was subsequently continued by Vallisnieri, Spallanzani and others. The latter period includes classic contributions in the field of parasitology provided by veterinarians such as Ercolani, Perroncito, Piana and Rivolta, and by physicians such as Bassi, Grassi, Golgi, and Celli. Also, two outstanding pages of medical parasitology were written during this period--the unraveling and defeat of St. Gotthard's disease and the conquering of malaria on Italian soil--both accomplished through the generous efforts of dedicated individuals. PMID:11516576
Roncalli Amici, R
During the 19th century, one of the most consistently popular American periodicals was Harper's Weekly, an illustrated paper whose circulation was well in excess of over 100,000 on a regular basis. This fine site highlights some of the many creative and inventive advertisements that were prominently displayed in the periodical during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The project was the brainchild of John Adler, a longtime history buff, who came across a complete set of the periodical for the period from 1857 to 1916. On the site visitors can browse through advertisements for appliances, insurance, foreign travel, farm land, and various medicinal potions. The selection of ads includes one for "pain paint," which begins with a brief doggerel that includes a mention of the impeachment of President Andrew Johnson in 1868.
The natural history of Barrett's esophagus (BE) is difficult to quantify because, by definition, it should describe the course of the condition if left untreated. Pragmatically, we assume that patients with BE will receive symptomatic treatment with acid suppression, usually a proton pump inhibitor, to treat their heartburn. This paper describes the development of complications of stricture, ulcer, dysplasia and adenocarcinoma from this standpoint. Controversies over the definition of BE and its implications in clinical practice are presented. The presence of intestinal metaplasia and its relevance to cancer risk is discussed, and the need to measure the extent of the Barrett's epithelium (long and short segments) using the Prague guidelines is emphasized. Guidelines and international consensus over the diagnosis and management of BE are being regularly updated. The need for expert consensus is important due to the lack of randomized trials in this area. After searching the literature, we have tried to collate the important studies regarding progression of Barrett's to dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. No therapeutic studies yet reported show a clear reduction in the development of cancer in BE. The effect of pharmacological and surgical intervention on the natural history of Barrett's is a subject of ongoing research, including the Barrett's Oesophagus Surveillance Study and the aspirin and esomeprazole cancer chemoprevention trial with interesting results. The geographical variation and the wide range of outcomes highlight the difficulty of providing an individualized risk profile to patients with BE. Future studies on the interaction of genome wide abnormalities in Barrett's and their interaction with environmental factors may allow individualization of the risk of cancer developing in BE. PMID:22826612
Milind, Rao; Attwood, Stephen E
In this essay the concept of Cultural History of Disease (CHD) is proposed as an alternative to Natural History of Disease (NHD). A brief historic recapitulation of the concept of disease is made, and the present idea is given a detailed account which is the basis of the nosological theory of the health/disease paradigm. The main aspects of the NHD are specified, its limitations and restrictive consequences in health care are highlighted. It is proposed the idea of disease as particular and differential ways of being from human beings. It is showed how culture (everything that make us human) "takes the reins of evolution" in our species and determines, in every period, our ways of being, of living, and getting sick. Some distinctive qualities of life are showed to take a distance from the idea of machine and the dominant mechanism of health care in our time. The concept of CHD is developed as a proposal that "lightens" aspects ignored by NHD. An account is made of how, by cultural effect, a number of diseases no longer exist; others have appeared or increased their presence, have changed their features or varied their distribution. The every time more and more unsupported congenital/acquired dichotomy is discussed. It is showed how the epigenetic inheritance is a strong evidence against the separation between genetic and environmental. The mechanist causality, in its different characteristics, proper of the health/disease paradigm and of NHD, is contrasted to contextual causality proper of CHD. The implications of CHD in the way of approaching to diseases, in restating the patients', physicians' and health care institutions' role are discussed. As well as in recognizing that health care has no sense without life care in its different manifestations, from which derives the need to fight for more proper conditions and circumstances for a dignified, satisfactory, serene, fraternal life in including societies. PMID:19378839
The natural history of Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is difficult to quantify because, by definition, it should describe the course of the condition if left untreated. Pragmatically, we assume that patients with BE will receive symptomatic treatment with acid suppression, usually a proton pump inhibitor, to treat their heartburn. This paper describes the development of complications of stricture, ulcer, dysplasia and adenocarcinoma from this standpoint. Controversies over the definition of BE and its implications in clinical practice are presented. The presence of intestinal metaplasia and its relevance to cancer risk is discussed, and the need to measure the extent of the Barrett’s epithelium (long and short segments) using the Prague guidelines is emphasized. Guidelines and international consensus over the diagnosis and management of BE are being regularly updated. The need for expert consensus is important due to the lack of randomized trials in this area. After searching the literature, we have tried to collate the important studies regarding progression of Barrett’s to dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. No therapeutic studies yet reported show a clear reduction in the development of cancer in BE. The effect of pharmacological and surgical intervention on the natural history of Barrett’s is a subject of ongoing research, including the Barrett’s Oesophagus Surveillance Study and the aspirin and esomeprazole cancer chemoprevention trial with interesting results. The geographical variation and the wide range of outcomes highlight the difficulty of providing an individualized risk profile to patients with BE. Future studies on the interaction of genome wide abnormalities in Barrett’s and their interaction with environmental factors may allow individualization of the risk of cancer developing in BE.
Milind, Rao; Attwood, Stephen E
... 2013-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101 Agriculture...Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History Â§ 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history...
From the rock-n-rollin' 60's and disco 70's into the closing moments of the twentieth century, A History of My Tattoo unflinchingly traces one man's experiences with the two greatest tragedies of recent U.S. history: the defeat of U.S. forces in Vietnam and the plague of HIV\\/AIDS.\\u000aA History of My Tattoo is a book-length poem in ten parts that investigates
\\u000a Abstract Case histories form a substantial element of the medical literature. However, due to their inherent anecdotal and observational\\u000a nature, the description of an individual patient report is hardly considered to contribute to evidence-based medicine. For\\u000a these reasons, some journals even exclude case histories from publication. Is this a good policy? In my opinion, on the contrary!\\u000a Case histories can be
E. E. van der Wall
|Activities using science fiction literature to teach American History topics such as future shock, economics, urbanization, minority studies, politics, international relations, and contemporary America are suggested. (JR)|
Hollister, Bernard C.
|Several areas of sport history and their relationships to the process of society are outlined including transportation and sports participation, mass media, migrant movements, and minority participation. (JMF)|
Clark, Mark W.
Although the influence of reinforcement history is a theoretical focus of behavior analysis, the specific behavioral effects of reinforcement history have received relatively little attention in applied research and practice. We examined the potential effects of reinforcement history by reviewing nonhuman, human operant, and applied research and interpreted the findings in relation to possible applied significance. The focus is on reinforcement history effects in the context of reinforcement schedules commonly used either to strengthen behavior (e.g., interval schedules) or commonly used to decrease behavior (e.g., extinction).
Pipkin, Claire St. Peter; Vollmer, Timothy R
... Resources for You. Autologous Fibroblasts. -. Approval History, Letters, Reviews, and Related Documents - Laviv. STN: BL ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/cellulargenetherapyproducts/approvedproducts
The use of history in science courses can humanize science, help students refine their critical thinking skills, promote a deeper understanding of scientific concepts, and address common student misconceptions that often resemble those of past scientists (Matthews 1994). The challenge for teachers is how to effectively incorporate history into the science classroom while at the same time being mindful of the multiple constraints that govern classroom practice. This article describes the various steps of using the history of science approach and includes two examples--one from a classic story of evolution, and another from the history of sickle cell anemia research.
Rudge, David W.; Howe, Eric M.
... Approval History, Letters, Review, and Related Documents - EVARREST. . -. ... Report of Telephone Conversation, September 7, 2012 - EVARREST; ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts
Several areas of sport history and their relationships to the process of society are outlined including transportation and sports participation, mass media, migrant movements, and minority participation. (JMF)
Clark, Mark W.
The Natural History Museum in London has a great section on their website called "Nature Online" designed for those visitors who can't visit personally, or for those who happen to be the armchair museum-going type. The section on "Other Invertebrates" enlightens visitors about the world of the backbone-deficient, which comprise the majority of animals on earth. Visitors will find over a dozen topics to learn about, ranging from Chinese mitten crab control, to a directory of Echinoids (sea urchins), to the "secret life of barnacles" and how they are being used as biomonitors to discover the presence of heavy metals in waterways in Asia. Visitors who have never used the word beautiful and plankton in the same sentence, will find the glass model of radiolarian (plankton), created in the 19th century by artisans Leopold and Rudolf Blaschka, to be amazing and beautiful. Visitors can click on the picture to make it stop rotating, and they can also click on "About the Blaschka Glass Models", which allows visitors to get a closer look at the stunning plankton. Finally, they can see other examples of their glass work here, and the area will warrant several return visits.
The history of carotid artery stenting (CAS) was made by brave men and women who believed in a less invasive treatment modality than carotid endarterectomy (CEA) to treat carotid stenosis despite the risk--which was obviously present also with surgery--to cause a stroke, the very event that the procedure aimed to prevent. The bulky equipment, the lack of knowledge about the appropriate antithrombotic regimen, and the impossibility at early stage to influence distal embolization added to the pressure on the investigators. At times, the confrontation with the surgical community has been hard. The technique evolved with the inputs of multiple disciplines on both sides of the Atlantic including radiology, cardiology, neuroradiology and vascular surgery. Major breakthrough included the use of dual antiplatelet therapy, of self-expanding stents and of emboli protection devices. Unfortunately, randomized investigations against surgery started too early, in a phase in which the cas technique was not yet mature and the investigators lacked the necessary experience in terms of catheter skills and appropriate patient selection. PMID:23296410
Roffi, M; Mathias, K
Zinc was established as essential for green plants in 1926 and for mammals in 1934. However, >20 y would pass before the first descriptions of zinc deficiencies in farm animals appeared. In 1955, it was reported that zinc supplementation would cure parakeratosis in swine. In 1958, it was reported that zinc deficiency induced poor growth, leg abnormalities, poor feathering, and parakeratosis in chicks. In the 1960s, zinc supplementation was found to alleviate parakeratosis in grazing cattle and sheep. Within 35 y, it was established that nearly one half of the soils in the world may be zinc deficient, causing decreased plant zinc content and production that can be prevented by zinc fertilization. In many of these areas, zinc deficiency is prevented in grazing livestock by zinc fertilization of pastures or by providing salt licks. For livestock under more defined conditions, such as poultry, swine, and dairy and finishing cattle, feeds are easily supplemented with zinc salts to prevent deficiency. Today, the causes and consequences of zinc deficiency and methods and effects of overcoming the deficiency are well established for agriculture. The history of zinc in agriculture is an outstanding demonstration of the translation of research into practical application. PMID:23153732
Nielsen, Forrest H
Ancient humans, lacking devices to store large amounts of information, invented and developed a system of mnemonics which evolved and passed to modern times. The mnemonics, collectively known as the Ancient Art of Memory, were discovered in 447 BC by a Greek poet, Simonides, and were adequately described by Cicero, Quintilian, and Pliny. These arts fell into neglect after Alaric sacked Rome in 410 AD, but were subsequently revived in 1323 by Saint Thomas Aquinas, who transferred them from a division of rhetoric to ethics and used them to recall Catholic doctrine and versions of biblical history. In 1540 Saint Ignatius Loyola used mnemonic images to affirm the faith with his newly formed Society of Jesus and tried to convert the Ming dynasty in China by teaching these memory skills to Chinese nobles. Today, the ancient memory arts have applications in pilot training, gambling, mentalism and telepathy demonstrations, and may have a role in the rehabilitation of brain-damaged patients. Objective testing confirms that with the use of these memory skills, recall is increased, at least 10-fold, and the memory deficits of proactive and retroactive inhibition do not exist. PMID:2405298
Patten, B M
The history of local and regional anesthesia began with the discovery of the local anesthetic properties of cocaine in 1884. Shortly afterwards nerve blocks were being attempted for surgical anesthesia. Bier introduced spinal anesthesia in 1898, two of his first six patients being children. Spinal anesthesia became more widely used with the advent of better local anesthetics, stovaine and procaine in 1904-1905. Caudals and epidurals came into use in children much later. In the early years these blocks were performed by surgeons but as other doctors began to give anaesthetics the specialty of anesthesia evolved and these practitioners gradually took over this role. Specific reports of their use in children have increased as pediatric anesthesia has developed. Spinals and other local techniques had periods of greater and lesser use and have not been universally employed. Initial loss of popularity seemed to relate to improvements in general anaesthesia. The advent of lignocaine (1943) and longer acting bupivacaine (1963) and increasing concern about postoperative analgesia in the 1970-1980s, contributed to the increased use of blocks. PMID:21676069
Brown, T C K
The nuclear reactions occurring in the cores of stars which are believed to produce the element oxygen are first described. Evidence for the absence of free oxygen in the early atmosphere of the earth is reviewed. Mechanisms of creation of atmospheric oxygen by photochemical processes are then discussed in detail. Uncertainty regarding the rate of diffusion of water vapor through the cold trap at 70 km altitude in calculating the rate of the photochemical production of oxygen is avoided by using data for the concentration of hydrogen atoms at 90 km obtained from the Meinel OH absorption bands. It is estimated that the present atmospheric oxygen content could have been produced five to ten times during the earth's history. It is shown that the isotopic composition of atmospheric oxygen is not that of photosynthetic oxygen. The fractionation of oxygen isotopes by organic respiration and oxidation occurs in a direction to enhance the O18 content of the atmosphere and compensates for the O18 dilution resulting from photosynthetic oxygen. Thus, an oxygen isotope cycle exists in nature.
Britain has at times been referred to as "a nation of gardeners," so the Web browsing public should not be taken unawares to read that the Natural History Museum's Wildlife Garden in London has developed a Web site that is both pleasing to the eye and rather informative as well. For those planning a visit to London, there is information about the hours and operation of the garden itself, along with details about the various scientific work conducted there on a regular basis. The Habitats section offers a brief overview (along with some nice photos) of each of the major regions represented in the Garden's grounds. Those covered here include the chalk downland, lowland heath, oak woodland, and that most British of environments, the hedgerow. Perhaps the most entertaining section of the site is the interactive area, where visitors can listen to bats flying over the garden, peruse a gallery of lovely images, and examine a pictorial record of the garden during the year 2000.
Owing to both their special appearance and behavior flatfish have attracted the special attention of people since ages. The first records of humans having been in touch with flatfish date back to the Stone Age about 15,000 years B.C. Detailed descriptions were already given in the classical antiquity and were taken up 1400 years later in the Renaissance by the first ichthyologists, encyclopédists, and also by practical men. This was more than 200 years before a number of common flatfish species were given their scientific names by Linnaeus in 1758. Besides morphology, remarkable and sometimes amusing naturalistic observations and figures are bequeathed. Ancient history of flatfish research is still a wide and open array. Examples are presented how the yield of information and interpretation from these times increases with interdisciplinary cooperation including archeologists, zoologists, ichthyologists, historians, art historians, fisheries and fishery biologist. The timeline of this contribution ends with the start of modern fishery research at the end of the 19th century in the course of the rapidly increasing exploitation of fish stocks.
Berghahn, Rüdiger; Bennema, Floris Pieter
Enter the lobby of the Florida Museum of Natural History, and you are greeted by the skeletons of a Mastodon and Mammoth, both found in a North Florida river. Permanent exhibits in the Museum also include Butterfly Rainforest, Florida Fossils-Evolution of Life and Land, Waterways and Wildlife, and People and Environments which is based extensively on the Museum's archaeological and ecological research. There are a number of online exhibits including South Florida Aquatic Environments, and Fossil Horses in Cyberspace where one can learn about paleontology and evolution by exploring stratigraphy, geological time scales and the rich fossil record of horses. Traveling Inquiry Boxes are available at low cost, and include a collection of objects with participatory lessons and activities that are designed to be flexible. Many of the research collections are searchable online, and step by step outlines of several exhibit designs are viewable online as well. The Museum, in conjunction with the University of Florida, has established the Katharine Ordway Chair of Ecosystem Conservation, and the Center for Lepidoptera and Biodiversity which fosters research on insects. The Museum produces and rents several traveling exhibits. Full information is available online.
Collaborating with WNET New York, PBS has created this Web site as the online analogue to the 16-part television series. Based on the books by Joy Hakim, the series (and the Web site) are dedicated to exploring the theme of freedom throughout the history of the United States, noting that "Freedom is what has drawn to America countless human beings from around the world; it is what generations of men and women have lived and died for; it is, in a profound sense, our nation's highest calling." While anyone with an inkling to learn more about the notion of "freedom" will benefit by perusing the site, it is especially well-honed to serve the needs of educators and students. The site contains 16 "Webisodes," which are both visually and textually rich repositories of information, chronologically ordered, beginning with the American Revolution and concluding with the presidency of Richard Nixon. Additionally, each Webisode contains essays that contain hyperlinks to word definitions, photographs, and brief biographical profiles. Also, each Webisode contains standards-based teacher guides and lesson plans prepared by the Talent Development Middle Schools Programs at Johns Hopkins University. Overall, this site is a fine example of utilizing the Web for educational purposes, both for young students and those looking for general edification.
The history of wireless power transmission at microwave frequencies is reviewed with emphasis upon the time period starting with the post World War II efforts to use the new microwave technology developed during the war. A nationally televised demonstration of a microwave powered helicopter at the Spencer Laboratory of the Raytheon Co., in 1964 was the result of these early efforts and broadly introduced the concept of wireless power transmission to scientific and engineering communities and to the public. Subsequent development efforts centered on improving the efficiency of the interconversion of d.c. and microwave power at the ends of the system to reach a demonstrated overall d.c. to d.c. system efficiency of 54% in 1974. The response to the requirements of applications such as the Solar Power Satellite and high altitude microwave powered aircraft have changed the direction of technology development and greatly expanded the technology base. Recent and current efforts are centered on examining the use of higher frequencies than the baseline 2.45 GHz, and in reducing the system costs at 2.45 GHz. 26 refs., 14 figs.
Brown, W.C. [Microwave Power Transmission Systems, Weston, MA (United States)
The study of the ancient history of Indian medicine has recently been revived due to the publication of polyglot translations. However, little is known of ancient Indian pharmacy. Archaeological evidence suggests the Indus people lived a settled life approximately in 2500 B.C. Their cities were enjoying the cleanest and most hygienic daily life with elaborate civic sanitation systems. The whole conception shows a remarkable concern for health. Then, the early Aryans invaded India about 1500 B.C. and the Vedic age started. The Rgveda texts contain the hymns for Soma and those for herbs. The term Ayurveda (i.e., science of life) is found in some old versions of both Ram?yana and Mah?bh?rata and in the Atharvaveda. Su?ruta had the credit of making a breakthrough in the field of surgery. The Ayurveda, a work on internal medicine, gives the following transmission of sages: Brahm?-->Daksa-->Praj?pati-->A?ivinau-->Indra-->Caraka. On the other hand, the Su?ruta-samhit?, which deals mainly with surgical medicine, explains it as follows; Indra-->Dhanvantari-->Su?ruta Both Caraka and Su?ruta were medical doctors as well as pharmacists, so they studied more than 1000 herbs thoroughly. The Ayurveda had been used by his devotees for medical purposes. It eventually spread over Asia with the advanced evolution of Buddhism. PMID:21032887
Okuda, Jun; Natsume, Yohko
In the past, human violence was associated with food shortage, but recently it has increased even in relatively well-fed societies. The reason appears from studies of monkeys under relaxed, spacious conditions and under crowding stress. Uncrowded monkeys have unaggressive leaders, rarely quarrel, and protect females and young. Crowded monkeys (even well-fed) have brutal bosses, often quarrel, and wound and kill each other, including females and young. Crowding has similar behaviour effects on other mammals, with physiological disturbances including greater susceptibility to infections. All this appears to be a regular response to overpopulation, reducing the population before it has depleted its natural resources. Human beings, like monkeys and other mammals, need ample space, and become more violent when crowded. Human history is marked by population cycles: population outgrows resources, the resulting violence, stress and disease mortality cuts down the population, leading to a relief period of social and cultural progress, till renewed population growth produces the next crisis. The modern population crisis is world-wide, and explains the increase of violence even in well-fed societies. The solution to the problem of violence is to substitute voluntary birth control for involuntary death control, and bring about relaxed conditions for a reduced world population.
Russell, C; Russell, W M
Taking a managerial perspective, this article presents some models of history with a view to draw lessons for leadership and management of organizations and institutions. The suggested models include: evolution of human thought in terms of religions, science and spirituality and their convergence; transitions in society from kingdom–state to nation–state to corporates as state and beyond; creativity view of history;
The history of ancient Greek geometrical astronomy often is written as a mathematical tour de force rather than history, with technical details of quantitative geometrical constructions the centre of attention, studied as if they were independent of the culture within which they flourished. Much of science is eliminated as well in focusing only on observations and the mathematical consequences of
Norriss S. Hetherington
|Since the emergence of postmodern social theory, history has been haunted by predictions of its imminent end. Postmodernism has been accused of making historical research and writing untenable, encouraging the proliferation of revisionist histories, providing fertile ground for historical denial, and promoting the adoption of a mournful view of…
Parkes, Robert John
Variously termed the new film history, film exhibition history, moviegoing history, local film history, historical reception studies, audience history, or the cultural and social context of moviegoing, innovative approaches to cinema history are some of the most vibrant and exciting aspects of media studies done in the past twenty years. These new research initiatives move outward from a primary focus
KATHRYN H. FULLER-SEELEY; GEORGE POTAMIANOS
In this review we attempt to reconstruct the evolutionary history of hominin life history from extant and fossil evidence. We utilize demographic life history theory and distinguish life history variables, traits such as weaning, age at sexual maturity, and life span, from life history-related variables such as body mass, brain growth, and dental development. The latter are either linked with, or can be used to make inferences about, life history, thus providing an opportunity for estimating life history parameters in fossil taxa. We compare the life history variables of modern great apes and identify traits that are likely to be shared by the last common ancestor of Pan-Homo and those likely to be derived in hominins. All great apes exhibit slow life histories and we infer this to be true of the last common ancestor of Pan-Homo and the stem hominin. Modern human life histories are even slower, exhibiting distinctively long post-menopausal life spans and later ages at maturity, pointing to a reduction in adult mortality since the Pan-Homo split. We suggest that lower adult mortality, distinctively short interbirth intervals, and early weaning characteristic of modern humans are derived features resulting from cooperative breeding. We evaluate the fidelity of three life history-related variables, body mass, brain growth and dental development, with the life history parameters of living great apes. We found that body mass is the best predictor of great ape life history events. Brain growth trajectories and dental development and eruption are weakly related proxies and inferences from them should be made with caution. We evaluate the evidence of life history-related variables available for extinct species and find that prior to the transitional hominins there is no evidence of any hominin taxon possessing a body size, brain size or aspects of dental development much different from what we assume to be the primitive life history pattern for the Pan-Homo clade. Data for life history-related variables among the transitional hominin grade are consistent and none agrees with a modern human pattern. Aside from mean body mass, adult brain size, crown and root formation times, and the timing and sequence of dental eruption of Homo erectus are inconsistent with that of modern humans. Homo antecessor fossil material suggests a brain size similar to that of Homo erectus s. s., and crown formation times that are not yet modern, though there is some evidence of modern human-like timing of tooth formation and eruption. The body sizes, brain sizes, and dental development of Homo heidelbergensis and Homo neanderthalensis are consistent with a modern human life history but samples are too small to be certain that they have life histories within the modern human range. As more life history-related variable information for hominin species accumulates we are discovering that they can also have distinctive life histories that do not conform to any living model. At least one extinct hominin subclade, Paranthropus, has a pattern of dental life history-related variables that most likely set it apart from the life histories of both modern humans and chimpanzees.
Robson, Shannen L; Wood, Bernard
In this review we attempt to reconstruct the evolutionary history of hominin life history from extant and fossil evidence. We utilize demographic life history theory and distinguish life history variables, traits such as weaning, age at sexual maturity, and life span, from life history-related variables such as body mass, brain growth, and dental development. The latter are either linked with, or can be used to make inferences about, life history, thus providing an opportunity for estimating life history parameters in fossil taxa. We compare the life history variables of modern great apes and identify traits that are likely to be shared by the last common ancestor of Pan-Homo and those likely to be derived in hominins. All great apes exhibit slow life histories and we infer this to be true of the last common ancestor of Pan-Homo and the stem hominin. Modern human life histories are even slower, exhibiting distinctively long post-menopausal life spans and later ages at maturity, pointing to a reduction in adult mortality since the Pan-Homo split. We suggest that lower adult mortality, distinctively short interbirth intervals, and early weaning characteristic of modern humans are derived features resulting from cooperative breeding. We evaluate the fidelity of three life history-related variables, body mass, brain growth and dental development, with the life history parameters of living great apes. We found that body mass is the best predictor of great ape life history events. Brain growth trajectories and dental development and eruption are weakly related proxies and inferences from them should be made with caution. We evaluate the evidence of life history-related variables available for extinct species and find that prior to the transitional hominins there is no evidence of any hominin taxon possessing a body size, brain size or aspects of dental development much different from what we assume to be the primitive life history pattern for the Pan-Homo clade. Data for life history-related variables among the transitional hominin grade are consistent and none agrees with a modern human pattern. Aside from mean body mass, adult brain size, crown and root formation times, and the timing and sequence of dental eruption of Homo erectus are inconsistent with that of modern humans. Homo antecessor fossil material suggests a brain size similar to that of Homo erectus s. s., and crown formation times that are not yet modern, though there is some evidence of modern human-like timing of tooth formation and eruption. The body sizes, brain sizes, and dental development of Homo heidelbergensis and Homo neanderthalensis are consistent with a modern human life history but samples are too small to be certain that they have life histories within the modern human range. As more life history-related variable information for hominin species accumulates we are discovering that they can also have distinctive life histories that do not conform to any living model. At least one extinct hominin subclade, Paranthropus, has a pattern of dental life history-related variables that most likely set it apart from the life histories of both modern humans and chimpanzees. PMID:18380863
Robson, Shannen L; Wood, Bernard
The aim of this article is to describe the circumcision procedure during history, its therapeutic and preventive goals, with focus on bioethical, economic and law issues. The origins of this practice are lost in antiquity. It was performed since 3000 BC by the Egyptians for hygienic and religious reasons. Moreover, male circumcision is a religious commandment in Judaism and Islam, and it is customary in some Oriental Orthodox and other Christian churches of Africa. Nowadays, circumcision is performed as a routine procedure by the Jews and the Muslims for religious reasons. The world prevalence of men with circumcision is 12.5-33%, especially in USA, Canada, Islamic people and Africa; in Europe the prevalence rate is low (in Great Britain it is 1.5%). Currently, male circumcision is being highly debated because of ethical, law and scientific issues and the different roles of this procedure: therapeutic, prophylactic (but there is no universal consensus) and ritualistic role. Nowadays, in Italy there is a strong debate about the consensus for this practice and its indications. The Italian law does not allow performing ritualistic circumcision, as a free of charge procedure in public hospitals, at the government's expenses, because the Italian law must protect different religious cultures, in name of the laity of the State. Thus, national bioethical committee (CNB) has established that ritualistic circumcision may only be performed on a paying basis in public hospitals. As a protective practice, circumcision has decreased in the entire world because of the improvement of hygienical conditions and, above all, the lack of unanimous consent on the real usefulness of protective circumcision, even if several studies have recently demonstrated the protecting role of male circumcision against HIV infection. PMID:21452153
Totaro, Angelo; Volpe, Andrea; Racioppi, Marco; Pinto, Francesco; Sacco, Emilio; Bassi, Pier Francesco
The gene family of human kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs) encodes proteins with diverse and pleiotropic functions in normal physiology as well as in disease states. Currently, the most widely known KLK is KLK3 or prostate-specific antigen (PSA) that has applications in clinical diagnosis and monitoring of prostate cancer. The KLK gene family encompasses the largest contiguous cluster of serine proteases in humans which is not interrupted by non-KLK genes. This exceptional and unique characteristic of KLKs makes them ideal for evolutionary studies aiming to infer the direction and timing of gene duplication events. Previous studies on the evolution of KLKs were restricted to mammals and the emergence of KLKs was suggested about 150 million years ago (mya). In order to elucidate the evolutionary history of KLKs, we performed comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of KLK homologous proteins in multiple genomes including those that have been completed recently. Interestingly, we were able to identify novel reptilian, avian and amphibian KLK members which allowed us to trace the emergence of KLKs 330 mya. We suggest that a series of duplication and mutation events gave rise to the KLK gene family. The prominent feature of the KLK family is that it consists of tandemly and uninterruptedly arrayed genes in all species under investigation. The chromosomal co-localization in a single cluster distinguishes KLKs from trypsin and other trypsin-like proteases which are spread in different genetic loci. All the defining features of the KLKs were further found to be conserved in the novel KLK protein sequences. The study of this unique family will further assist in selecting new model organisms for functional studies of proteolytic pathways involving KLKs.
Pavlopoulou, Athanasia; Pampalakis, Georgios; Michalopoulos, Ioannis; Sotiropoulou, Georgia
INTRODUCTION Euthanasia represents an ethical, social, legal and medical issue, which is being disputed more and more frequently worldwide. In Serbia, it is illegal and punishable by law and subject to a prison sentence. Euthanasia verbatim, meaning "good death", refers to the practice of ending a life in order to relieve pain and suffering. It can be voluntary, when a person knowingly declares the wish to end life, and involuntary, when relatives and family make decisions on behalf of patients in coma. It can be active, when a person applies a medical procedure to end life and passive, when medical procedures which can extend a patient's life are not applied. EUTHANASIA THROUGH HISTORY: The term was known in old Greece, and Hippocrates mentioned it in his oath, which is now taken by all doctors in the world, by which they pledge not to apply a medicine which can lead to death of the patients, nor to give such counsel. Euthanasia had its most vigorous impetus in the mid-20th century when it was being carried out deliberately in Nazi Germany. All leading religions from Christianity, over Buddhism, to Islam, are directly or indirectly against any kind of euthanasia. EUTHANASIA TODAY: At the beginning of the 21st century, euthanasia was legalized in several most developed countries in the world, among them the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, Japan, India and some American and Mexican federal states. The World Medical Association from 82 countries has condemned euthanasia, and called all medical workers who practice euthanasia to reconsider their attitudes and to stop this practice. PMID:22788070
In the century since its inception, the field of tumor virology has provided groundbreaking insights into the causes of human cancer. Peyton Rous founded this scientific field in 1911 by discovering an avian virus that induced tumors in chickens; however, it took 40 years for the scientific community to comprehend the effect of this seminal finding. Later identification of mammalian tumor viruses in the 1930s by Richard Shope and John Bittner, and in the 1950s by Ludwik Gross, sparked the first intense interest in tumor virology by suggesting the possibility of a similar causal role for viruses in human cancers. This change in attitude opened the door in the 1960s and 1970s for the discovery of the first human tumor viruses—EBV, hepatitis B virus, and the papillomaviruses. Such knowledge proved instrumental to the development of the first cancer vaccines against cancers having an infectious etiology. Tumor virologists additionally recognized that viruses could serve as powerful discovery tools, leading to revolutionary breakthroughs in the 1970s and 1980s that included the concept of the oncogene, the identification of the p53 tumor suppressor, and the function of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor. The subsequent availability of more advanced molecular technologies paved the way in the 1980s and 1990s for the identification of additional human tumor viruses—human T-cell leukemia virus type 1, hepatitis C virus, and Kaposi’s sarcoma virus. In fact, current estimates suggest that viruses are involved in 15% to 20% of human cancers worldwide. Thus, viruses not only have been shown to represent etiologic agents for many human cancers but have also served as tools to reveal mechanisms that are involved in all human malignancies. This rich history promises that tumor virology will continue to contribute to our understanding of cancer and to the development of new therapeutic and preventive measures for this disease in the 21st century.
Javier, Ronald T.; Butel, Janet S.
This book is designed to be primarily a history of research facts, measurements, and ideas and the people who developed them. ''Research'' is defined very broadly to include from bench-top laboratory experiments to worldwide environmental investigations. The book is not a monograph or a critical review. The findings and conclusions are presented largely as the investigators saw and reported them. Frequently, the discussion utilizes the terminology and units of the time, unless they are truly antiquated or potentially unclear. It is only when the work being reported is markedly iconoclastic or obviously wrong that I chose to make special note of it or to correct it. Nevertheless, except for direct quotations, the language is mine, and I take full responsibility for it. The working materials for this volume included published papers in scientific journals, books, published conferences and symposia, personal interviews with over 100 individuals, some of them more than once (see Appendix A), and particularly for the 1940--1950 decade and for the large government-supported laboratories to the present day, ''in-house'' reports. These reports frequently represent the only comprehensive archive of what was done and why. Unfortunately, this source is drying up because of storage problems and must be retrieved by ever more complex and inconvenient means. For this reason, special efforts have been taken to review and document these sources, though even now some sections of the field are partially inaccessible. Nevertheless, the volume of all materials available for this review was surprisingly large and the quality much better than might have been expected for so complex and disparate a fields approached under conditions of considerable urgency.
Stannard, J.N.; Baalman, R.W. Jr. (ed.)
Reviews oral history works that examine various aspects of the Vietnam War. Incorporates diplomatic history and includes recollections of soldiers from a single county in Tennessee, veterans' families, and conscientious objectors. Covers the years of U.S. involvement, 1945-75. (MJP)
Brinker, William J.
A variety of occupational circumstances are capable of inducing asthma by specific exposure to airborne dusts, gases, vapors and fumes. The authors review the clinical history of the disease, including detection of exposures and diagnostic tests. The natural history of occupational asthma, its management and finally its prevention are then discussed.
Lam, S.; Chan-Yeung, M.
|Presents research and public values of natural history museum collections. Research values include documenting biotas no longer available and serving as inspiration for scientific discovery. Public values include servings as resources for identification of unknown specimens, hands-on education, and depositories for evidence of the history and…
Allmon, Warren D.