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1

Athletic osteitis pubis.  

PubMed

Athletic osteitis pubis is a painful and chronic condition affecting the pubic symphysis and/or parasymphyseal bone that develops after athletic activity. Athletes with osteitis pubis commonly present with anterior and medial groin pain and, in some cases, may have pain centred directly over the pubic symphysis. Pain may also be felt in the adductor region, lower abdominal muscles, perineal region, inguinal region or scrotum. The pain is usually aggravated by running, cutting, hip adduction and flexion against resistance, and loading of the rectus abdominis. The pain can progress such that athletes are unable to sustain athletic activity at high levels. It is postulated that osteitis pubis is an overuse injury caused by biomechanical overloading of the pubic symphysis and adjacent parasymphyseal bone with subsequent bony stress reaction. The differential diagnosis for osteitis pubis is extensive and includes many other syndromes resulting in groin pain. Imaging, particularly in the form of MRI, may be helpful in making the diagnosis. Treatment is variable, but typically begins with conservative measures and may include injections and/or surgical procedures. Prolotherapy injections of dextrose, anti-inflammatory corticosteroids and a variety of surgical procedures have been reported in the literature with varying efficacies. Future studies of athletic osteitis pubis should attempt to define specific and reliable criteria to make the diagnosis of athletic osteitis pubis, empirically define standards of care and reduce the variability of proposed treatment regimens. PMID:21510714

Hiti, Corey J; Stevens, Kathryn J; Jamati, Moira K; Garza, Daniel; Matheson, Gordon O

2011-05-01

2

Patchy hair loss on the pubis--a case study.  

PubMed

A female, aged 17 years and with a history of anorexia nervosa, presented with a 3 month history of a large, irregular area of hair loss over the pubis. Physical examination revealed scattered short hairs of varying length, follicular hyperkeratosis and hyperpigmentation throughout the area of alopecia (Figure 1a). A magnified view revealed decreased hair density, broken hairs with different shaft lengths, short vellous hairs and signs of recent haemorrhage (Figure 1b). The remainder of the hairs appeared normal, and her nails did not show any pathological changes. The hair-pull test was negative. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) examination and fungal culture were negative. Biochemical studies, abdominal X-ray and ultrasonography were normal. PMID:23826602

Grillo, Emiliano; Vano-Galvan, Sergio; Diaz-Ley, Blanca; Jaén, Pedro

2013-07-01

3

Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans of the mons pubis.  

PubMed

Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare fibrous tumor with intermediate malignant potential and in rare cases the vulva is involved. The most common clinical presentation is a firm plaque with surrounding red to blue discoloration, or less often with multiple small subcutaneous nodules. The authors present a case of a 66-year-old woman who came to the hospital complaining of longstanding painless nodules in the area of the mons pubis. On physical examination, a diffuse area of erythematous induration involving the mons pubis was recognized and within this area there were smaller nodules. The histological diagnosis was dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Microscopically DFSP has a storiform pattern of uniform cytologically bland spindle cells, with a characteristic honeycomb pattern of infiltration into the subcutaneous fat. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrates strong positivity for vimentin and CD34. The treatment has been through a wide local excision (WLE), although microscopic tumor projections beyond the central tumor nodule explain the tumors propensity for local recurrence. PMID:23185807

Zizi-Sermpetzoglou, A; Savvaidou, V; Fournogerakis, S; Moustou, E; Konstantidelli, M; Vlachakos, N

2012-01-01

4

Nutrition pathways to the symphysis pubis  

PubMed Central

The blood supply of the symphysis pubis is still the subject of some debate. Classic anatomy books state that this joint is avascular, whereas some published works have shown blood vessels in young specimens. As several articular discs such as the knee menisci are known to have blood vessels in their peripheries, we decided to investigate the possible nutrition pathways to the interpubic disc and ligaments. We used 60 Wistar rats, male and female, aged between 28 and 32 days, or between 90 and 100 days. Samples were processed using a variety of techniques: regular histology, immunohistochemestry, India ink injection and corrosion casting. The interpubic disc consisted of an inner bearing portion and an outer fibrous rim. The interpubic ligaments and the fibrous rim were well vascularized in all groups. Marrow contacts between the interpubic disc and the subchondral bone were also observed. Blood vessels formed an authentic arterial circle embracing the joint, from which blood vessels branched into capillary loops facing the avascular inner bearing portion of the disc. These results confirm the need for future studies on the human symphysis pubis, to provide more details on its structure, which would enable clinicians such as physiotherapists to improve prognosis and treatment design. Future studies may also explain the pathways down which the hormone relaxin reaches its targets within this joint.

Goncalves da Rocha, Rodrigo Carvalho; Chopard, Renato Paulo

2004-01-01

5

Individualized multi-modal management of osteitis pubis in an Australian Rules footballer  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe and discuss the successful management of osteitis pubis in a semi-elite Australian Rules football player through the utilization of an individualized multi-modal treatment approach provided by a chiropractor. Clinical Features A 20-year-old male semi-elite Australian Rules football player presented to a chiropractic clinic with groin pain of eight months duration. A clinical diagnosis of osteitis pubis was made through synthesis of the patient history and physical examination. Intervention and Outcome Treatment consisted of high velocity low amplitude spinal manipulative therapy, mechanically assisted adjusting techniques utilizing a hand-held mechanical thrusting instrument and drop piece table, myofascial release and active release soft tissue techniques, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching, and an individually designed rehabilitation program. Resolution of signs and symptoms occurred over four weeks. No recurrence of injury was reported over a six-month period. Conclusions This case suggests that the implementation of an individualized multi-modal management approach directed specifically toward an athlete's deficiencies and requirements, may lead to a more rapid recovery from osteitis pubis.

Jarosz, Brett S.

2011-01-01

6

Osteitis pubis ameliorated after tooth extraction: a case report.  

PubMed

Osteitis pubis is a non-infective inflammation of the symphysis pubis, which is known to be associated with trauma, athletic exertion, urological or gynecological surgery, or with rheumatic conditions such as seronegative spondyloarthropathies. In this report, we describe a case of osteitis pubis whose symptoms were completely ameliorated following tooth extraction attributable to periodontitis. A 57-year-old female patient developed osteitis pubis, presenting with pain in the groin area with an elevated Creactive protein (CRP; 4.4 mg/dl) and radiological erosive changes in symphysis pubis. Prednisolone (5 mg/day) and etodolac were prescribed, but the patient's symptoms improved only partially and remained persistent. One year from the patient's first visit, three teeth were extracted due to severe chronic periodontitis, which she had been suffering from for years. Soon after the above tooth extraction, her symptoms appeared completely resolved, and the patient's CRP was decreased to nearly normal levels in 4 weeks. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-typing analysis revealed a positive result for HLA-A11, A24, and B54. Because HLA-B54 cross-reacts with HLA-B27, the patient's osteitis pubis was considered to be a form of reactive arthritis associated with periodontitis. PMID:23599946

Fukushi, Jun-ichi; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Iwamoto, Yukihide

2013-03-01

7

Pubis growth study: applicability in sexual and age diagnostic.  

PubMed

The growth of five variables of the ischiopubic area was analyzed from bone material from birth to old age. The main purpose was to evaluate its significance and capacity for age and sex determination during and after growth. The material used consisted of 327 specimens from four documented Western European collections. Growth curves were calculated by polynomial regression for two classical variables of the ischiopubic area (pubis length and ischiopubic index) and three new variables of the pubic acetabular area (horizontal and vertical diameter of the pubic acetabular area and the pubic acetabular index). None of the curves showed lineal growth, with the exception of the ischiopubic index and the masculine vertical diameter of the pubis acetabular area. Pubis length has the most complicated growth, expressed by a five-degree polynomial. All the variables are useful for adult sex determination, except the pubic acetabular index. The ischopubic index, vertical diameter of the pubic acetabular area and the pubic acetabular index seem to be good variables for sub-adult sex determination. For age estimation the best variables, in both archaeological and forensic remains, are the absolute measurements (pubic length, vertical and horizontal diameter of the pubis). However, pubis length is the best variable for age estimation because it can be applied until 25 years of age. PMID:17418513

Rissech, Carme; Malgosa, Assumpció

2007-12-20

8

Treatment of Osteitis Pubis in Non-Athlete Female Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Osteitis pubis represents a non-infectious inflammation of the pubic symphysis causing varying degrees of lower abdominal and pelvic pain. Although, the disease is believed to affect mainly young athletic patients, it is also encountered in other specific patient groups. Both conservative and surgical treatment options are available. While for elite athletes surgical treatment is indicated, leading to fast pain relief and mobilization, for non-athletic patients no clear indication can be established. Methods: Eight non-athletic women with osteitis pubis, referred to our Department for treatment, were evaluated. All were initially treated conservatively with bed rest, per os non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and physical therapy. Results: Seven patients improved significantly with conservative treatment while one displayed no improvement and was treated surgically with arthrodesis. Conclusion: We conclude that, for non-athletic female patients suffering from osteitis pubis, surgery is rarely required and that conservative treatment by means of non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs and physical modalities represents a fair option regarding pain and limitation of everyday activity.

Kavroudakis, E; Karampinas, P.K; Evangelopoulos, D.S; Vlamis, J

2011-01-01

9

Osteomyelitis pubis caused by Kingella kingae in an adult patient: Report of the first case  

PubMed Central

Background Kingella kingae is the second most common pathogen causing paediatric arthritis and is described to be the causative bacteria in some paediatric osteomyelitis. Its microbiological detection is particularly difficult due to its slow growing. To our best knowledge this is the first case description of osteomyelitis pubis caused by this microorganism. Case presentation We report the unusual case of pubic osteomyelitis with soft tissue abcess caused by Kingella kingae in an adult patient of 66 years with a history of end-stage renal disease and breast carcinoma. Diagnosis was based on imaging and the microorganism was isolated from Computed Tomography-guided aspiration of synovial fluid. The infection resolved completely after twelve weeks of treatment with oral amoxicillin. Conclusion This case description highlights the importance in osteoarticular infections of systematic inoculation of synovial liquid in BACTEC vials to optimise the detection of causative organisms, which can necessitate specific treatments.

2012-01-01

10

Aneurysmal Bone Cyst of the Pubis: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

An aneurysmal bone cyst is considered as a locally aggressive benign tumour. Intra-lesional extended curettage and bone-grafting is the mainstay of the treatment for aneurysmal bone cysts. Grafting is used usually in cases where the lesion compromises the mechanical strength of the bone. However, the massive size of the highly vascular tumour and the relative inaccessibility of its deeper extensions into the femoral vessels and the intra-abdominal structures, especially the urinary bladder, make it a relatively challenging case to perform excision and curettage.Presenting a case of a 15 years old male patient with the complaint of a right inguinal swelling since the past eight months. The swelling had started growing since the past two months and it was associated with pain. X-ray showed a lytic blowout legion of the entire right pubic ramus. An intra-lesional curettage was done. Complete tumour excision which was done by intra-lesional curettage and biopsy yielded satisfactory results with low complications and low recurrence of aneurysmal bone cyst of the superior ramus of the pubis.

Nayak, Ashok; Kulkarni, Shreepad; Kulkarni, Avinash; Natesh, K.; Bami, Monish

2013-01-01

11

Endobutton technique for dynamic fixation of traumatic symphysis pubis disruption.  

PubMed

Plate fixation, the conventional treatment for traumatic symphysis pubis disruption, carries the risk of implant failure and demands extensive exposure. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the outcome of dynamic fixation with the Endobutton CL, which has a long successful record in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. Twenty-one APC-II injuries were treated from January 2006 to December 2009. The mean duration of follow-up was 23 months (18 to 26). All patients received Endobutton fixation. The incision length was 6.8 +/- 13 cm. The external blood loss was 106 +/- 15 mL. The average surgical time was 63 +/- 12 min. The symphysis distance after reduction was 4.1 +/- 1.2 mm. The symphysis distance at final visit was 4.2 +/- 1.2 mm. Loss of reduction was not significant during bone healing (p = 0.09). The Majeed scoring was excellent in 15 patients, good in 5 patients and fair in 1 patient. One malreduction was seen; there was no implant failure. Our results indicate that Endobutton fixation of the pubic symphysis might be used in the treatment of APC-II injuries. PMID:23547516

Chen, Linwei; Ouyang, Yuanming; Huang, Gao; Lu, Xiaolang; Ye, Xue-Shi; Hong, Jianjun

2013-02-01

12

Aneurysmal bone cyst of the pubis: a case report.  

PubMed

An aneurysmal bone cyst is considered as a locally aggressive benign tumour. Intra-lesional extended curettage and bone-grafting is the mainstay of the treatment for aneurysmal bone cysts. Grafting is used usually in cases where the lesion compromises the mechanical strength of the bone. However, the massive size of the highly vascular tumour and the relative inaccessibility of its deeper extensions into the femoral vessels and the intra-abdominal structures, especially the urinary bladder, make it a relatively challenging case to perform excision and curettage.Presenting a case of a 15 years old male patient with the complaint of a right inguinal swelling since the past eight months. The swelling had started growing since the past two months and it was associated with pain. X-ray showed a lytic blowout legion of the entire right pubic ramus. An intra-lesional curettage was done. Complete tumour excision which was done by intra-lesional curettage and biopsy yielded satisfactory results with low complications and low recurrence of aneurysmal bone cyst of the superior ramus of the pubis. PMID:24086898

Nayak, Ashok; Kulkarni, Shreepad; Kulkarni, Avinash; Natesh, K; Bami, Monish

2013-08-01

13

Treatment of osteitis pubis and osteomyelitis of the pubic symphysis in athletes: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objectives The authors examined the most current evidence for treatment options in athletes with osteitis pubis and osteomyelitis pubis, attempting to determine which options provide optimal pain relief with rapid return to sport and prevention of symptom reoccurrence. Methods Three databases—MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and CINAHL—were searched using the OVID interface for all years between 1985 and May 2008. References were analysed from included studies, and additional relevant articles were obtained for inclusion. Inclusion criteria included (1) humans only, (2) subjects had no apparent risk factors for development of osteitis pubis or osteomyelitis of the pubic symphysis other than athletic involvement, (3) both physical exam findings and diagnostic imaging were used to confirm either diagnosis, and (4) a definitive treatment strategy was identifiable for management of osteitis pubis or osteomyelitis of the pubic symphysis. In total, 25 articles were included in the review. Results There were no randomised controlled trials identified with this study’s search strategy. A total of 195 athletes were diagnosed as having osteitis pubis (186 males, nine females) and treated with either conservative measures/physical therapy, local injection with corticosteroids and/or local anaesthetic, dextrose prolotherapy, surgery or antibiotic therapy. Six case reports/series described conservative treatment measures (physical therapy, rest, non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs). Four case series explored the use of corticosteroid injections in treatment. One case series described the use of dextrose prolotherapy as a treatment modality. Six case series described various surgical techniques (pubic symphysis curettage, polypropylene mesh placement and pubic bone stabilisation) in treatment. Ten case reports/ series (10 subjects) outlined antibiotic treatment of osteomyelitis of the pubic symphysis. Conclusions The current medical literature shows only level 4 evidence of the treatment for osteitis pubis in 24 case reports/series in athletes. Without any direct comparison of treatment modalities, it is difficult to determine which individual treatment option is the most efficacious. Further study comparing the different treatment options is necessary to determine which modality provides the fastest return to sport.

Choi, Haemi; McCartney, Michael; Best, Thomas M

2013-01-01

14

Diagnosing adductor muscle avulsion at the symphysis pubis with ultrasound.  

PubMed

A 58-yr-old woman presented after experiencing left hip and groin pain for 1 mo. She denies any history of trauma, falls or any bruising, or history of sports injury or extreme physical exertion before her symptoms. On ultrasonography, she was found to have an avulsion tear at the origin of the adductor muscles, predominantly involving the adductor longus and brevis muscles. The treatment course was conservative: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for pain control and physical therapy for muscle strengthening and balance improvement. Upon follow-up, she demonstrated significant improvement and resolution of her pain. PMID:24196970

Chen, David J; Caldera, Franklin E; Kim, Woojin

2014-04-01

15

In vitro control of Phthirus pubis with four pediculocides: Eurax, Elimite, Licid and Benzanil.  

PubMed

Phthirus pubis, Linnaeus 1758 that causes phthiriasis is a common infestation disease. However, it is commonly be acquired in jails, brothels, and other similar places. The efficacy of four insecticides commercially known as Eurax, Elimite, Licid, and Benzanil was evaluated for controlling pubic lice in vitro. The four test insecticides proved to be very effective. However, they differed in time needed for causing 100 percent mortality and they could be arranged descendingly as follows: Licid, Eurax, Elimite, and Benzanil. PMID:8586862

Ragheb, D A; Morsy, T A; Abdalla, H M; Abou Gamra, M M

1995-12-01

16

Pregnancy-related symphysis pubis dysfunction management and postpartum rehabilitation: two case reports  

PubMed Central

Objective Two case reports review the chiropractic treatment and rehabilitation management of Symphysis Pubis Dysfunction (SPD). Clinical features Patient 1: a 35-year-old female presented at 30 weeks pregnant with severe left sided Symphysis Pubis Dysfunction and low back pain. Patient 2: a 33-year-old female also 30 weeks pregnant, presented with right sided Symphysis Pubis Dysfunction and sacroiliac pain. Intervention and Outcome Treatment included soft tissue therapy, pregnancy support belt, side-lying mobilizations, pelvic blocks and instrument-assisted pubic symphysis adjustments. Home advice included: ice, staying active, moving as a unit, stretching, use of a pillow between the knees while sleeping, regular breaks from sitting and pelvic floor (Kegel) exercises. Both patients reported some relief with treatment and home care. Post-partum, rehabilitation exercises were prescribed to restore muscular endurance, control and pelvic stability. On long-term follow-up patient 1 reported no pubic symphysis pain, but some low back pain secondary to a subsequent knee injury. Patient 2 reported being mostly pain free with a rare re-exacerbation of pubic symphysis pain. Summary Conservative chiropractic management appears to reduce pain and improve mobility and function for SPD. Post partum rehabilitation of the associated lumbo-pelvic musculature with specific stabilization exercises is recommended to reduce pain, improve long term outcomes and prevent chronicity.

Howell, Emily R.

2012-01-01

17

Spontaneous cutaneous endometriosis in the mons pubis region: a case report diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy.  

PubMed

Most cutaneous endometriosis develops at the site of an abdominal surgical scar. Spontaneous cutaneous endometriosis is extremely rare. We report a case of spontaneous cutaneous endometriosis in the mons pubis region. A 41-year-old woman presented with a mass in the right mons pubis, causing cyclic pain associated with menses. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy was performed. The smears contained three cellular components: honeycombed sheets of glandular epithelial cells, fragments of ovoid-to-spindle shaped stromal cells, and background inflammatory cells, including hemosiderin-laden macrophages, histiocytes, and neutrophils. Biphasic clusters of glandular epithelial cells and stromal cells were identified. FNA cytology is a safe and useful adjunctive tool for diagnosing cutaneous endometriosis. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2014;42:615-618. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23444127

Zhai, Jing

2014-07-01

18

Degeneration of the symphysis pubis presenting as a submucosal urinary bladder tumour.  

PubMed

Urinary bladder sonography is a sensitive diagnostic technique used for visualizing urinary bladder tumours. The aim of our communication is to present a case of a pseudotumour of the urinary bladder originating from the symphysis pubis syndesmosis. A 58-year-old woman was seen by a urologist with symptoms of lower urinary tract infection. Urinary bladder sonography was performed, followed by magnetic resonance imaging. Sonographic images of the bladder showed an exophytic mass on the urinary bladder's anterior wall. A transurethral resection of the tumour was performed. A histopathological examination revealed a necrotic extramural mass, without traits of malignancy. The mass reappeared in the follow-up vesical sonography. Subsequently, its transurethral resection was repeated with the same histopathological findings. The next urinary bladder sonography revealed the presence of the mass again. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging was performed, which showed advanced degenerative changes in the pubic symphysis syndesmosis that protruded into the bladder, imitating a urinary bladder tumour. To avoid unnecessary surgery, both radiologists and urologists should be made aware that there is a possibility of similar cases in patients. Magnetic resonance imaging enabled correct determination of the primary site of the growth, which, together with the histopathological examination results, influenced the choice of the implemented therapeutic procedures. PMID:23256002

Szopi?ski, Tomasz R; Sudo?-Szopi?ska, Iwona; Furmanek, Mariusz I; Dzik, Tomasz; Ch?osta, Piotr L; Borówka, Andrzej

2012-03-01

19

Degeneration of the symphysis pubis presenting as a submucosal urinary bladder tumour  

PubMed Central

Urinary bladder sonography is a sensitive diagnostic technique used for visualizing urinary bladder tumours. The aim of our communication is to present a case of a pseudotumour of the urinary bladder originating from the symphysis pubis syndesmosis. A 58-year-old woman was seen by a urologist with symptoms of lower urinary tract infection. Urinary bladder sonography was performed, followed by magnetic resonance imaging. Sonographic images of the bladder showed an exophytic mass on the urinary bladder's anterior wall. A transurethral resection of the tumour was performed. A histopathological examination revealed a necrotic extramural mass, without traits of malignancy. The mass reappeared in the follow-up vesical sonography. Subsequently, its transurethral resection was repeated with the same histopathological findings. The next urinary bladder sonography revealed the presence of the mass again. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging was performed, which showed advanced degenerative changes in the pubic symphysis syndesmosis that protruded into the bladder, imitating a urinary bladder tumour. To avoid unnecessary surgery, both radiologists and urologists should be made aware that there is a possibility of similar cases in patients. Magnetic resonance imaging enabled correct determination of the primary site of the growth, which, together with the histopathological examination results, influenced the choice of the implemented therapeutic procedures.

Szopinski, Tomasz R.; Sudol-Szopinska, Iwona; Furmanek, Mariusz I.; Dzik, Tomasz; Borowka, Andrzej

2011-01-01

20

Massive localized lymphedema: review of an emerging problem and report of a complex case in the mons pubis.  

PubMed

Massive localized lymphedema (MLL) is an emerging complication of the obesity epidemic. Caused by the obstruction of lymphatics, MLL presents as a giant swelling, with characteristic skin changes, and often lymphatic weeping. MLL has also been called "pseudosarcoma" because of its morphologic and pathologic similarity to sarcoma. Left untreated, MLL can degenerate into angiosarcoma. We present a case of MLL of the mons pubis in a 40-year-old man with a body mass index of 69. The literature is reviewed and an additional 40 cases of MLL are described. We found a female predominance of 1.6 to 1, an average weight of 421 lbs, and a 58% majority of cases in the thigh. PMID:21629105

Brewer, Michael B; Singh, Devinder P

2012-01-01

21

Phthiriasis palpebrarum misdiagnosed as allergic blepharoconjunctivitis in a 6-year-old girl.  

PubMed

Phthiriasis palpebrarum is an infestation of the eyelashes caused by the louse Pthirus pubis (Linnaeus, 1758). We report a case of phthiriasis palpebrarum in a 6-year-old girl, which was initially misdiagnosed as allergic blepharoconjunctivitis. Parasites and their nits were found adhering to the eyelashes and eyelids of her right eye as well as scalp hairs. No abnormality was found in the left eye. The histopathology exam revealed the presence of adults and eggs of Pthirus pubis. We mechanically removed all the eyelashes of the right eye at their base, with lice and nits. The scalp was shaved and washed with phenothrin shampoo. No recurrence was found during 3 months of follow-up. Removal of the eyelashes, cutting of scalp hairs, and phenothrin shampoo may be effective in treating phthiriasis palpebrarum. In cases of blepharoconjunctivitis, eyelids and eyelashes should be carefully examined by slit lamp to avoid misdiagnosis. PMID:24909484

Yi, Jun Wen; Li, Li; Luo, Da Wei

2014-01-01

22

Infestation of people with lice in Kathmandu and Pokhara, Nepal.  

PubMed

The prevalence of infestation with head lice and body lice, Pediculus spp. (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) and pubic (crab) lice Pthirus pubis (L.) (Phthiraptera: Pthiridae), was recorded from 484 people in Nepal. The prevalence of head lice varied from 16% in a sample of people aged 10-39 years of age, to 59% in street children. Simultaneous infestations with head and body lice (double infestations) varied from 18% in slum children to 59% in street children. PMID:15189249

Poudel, S K S; Barker, S C

2004-06-01

23

Phthriasis palpebrarum can resemble tick larva infestation in an eyelid.  

PubMed

The similarities of the larval and nymph stages of the tick and louse (Pthirus pubis) may lead to misdiagnosis in rare cases of infestation of the eyelashes. The most frequent manifestations of tick in the eye are conjunctivitis, uveitis, keratitis, and vasculitis. Tick inoculation of the skin can locally lead to formation of granuloma and abscess. More concerning is the potential systemic sequelae that can result from transmission of zoonoses such as Lyme disease. P. pubis can cause pruritic eyelid margins or unusual blepharoconjunctivitis. We present a case of phthiriasis palpebrarum in a 4-year-old boy. PMID:23993722

Da?delen, Serkan; Aykan, Umit; Cetinkaya, Kubilay

2013-08-01

24

Computer History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some Websites Exploring the History of the Personal Computer Wow! What a lot of websites about computer history. Here's a few that I found...Check them out and then, when you get back here, go Take the Quiz . The List of Cool Sites Museum of Computer History The History of Computing Project The Computer Comes Home: A History of Personal Computing Computer History Museum ...

Cannon, Mr.

2005-12-10

25

Science history  

Microsoft Academic Search

A science history content in a science course is a humanizing element which makes the science appeal more strongly to imaginative and creative minds. It also provides perspective and prepares the pupil for the ever-changing character of modern science. Examples are given of charts which can key science history to its social and political background and which illustrate the interdependence

A J Woodall

1967-01-01

26

Lunar History.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This section of the workshop describes the history of the moon, and offers explanations for the importance of understanding lunar history for engineers and users of lunar simulants. Included are summaries of the initial impact that is currently in favor a...

J. E. Edmunson

2009-01-01

27

Canadian History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes 22 articles that address Canadian history and the importance of having students honor Canada's past by providing articles relating to the areas of History and Social Studies covering: historical fiction as instructional material; Canadian scientists; agricultural fairs; the Historical Foundation; social science books on Canada; student…

School Libraries in Canada, 2003

2003-01-01

28

Digital History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Utilizing digital and online technologies to teach different disciplines continues to be quite popular, and the Digital History website will be a most welcome find for teachers (and students) of American history. Developed in collaboration with the University of Houston, the Chicago Historical Society, the Museum of Fine Arts in Houston and several other entities the site includes an online American history textbook, an interactive timeline, a multimedia section, and a very rich selection of primary source materials. The multimedia section is a real find, as it contains several well-thought out lectures with titles like "The History of Domestic Violence", "The Cultural Civil War of the 1960s", and "America Today and America Past". Students will also appreciate the writing guide area, as it contains several short essays on how to write in a history class and how to compose a critical book review.

29

History & Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some might wonder about the connection between history and contemporary policymaking. Well, the passionate and dedicated individuals at the History & Policy organization are committed to looking at the intersection of these two areas of inquiry and research. History & Policy is a collaboration between the University of Cambridge, The Institute of Historical Research, and The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. It is managed by its four founding historians, and visitors to the site can browse their papers by theme, author, or keyword. The papers offer a wide range of perspectives on history and policy-related matters, and recent works have included papers on social housing and tenant participation, genocide in the twentieth century, and "The Prime Minister as World Statesman". Practicing historians can also sign up to join their network, and anyone is welcome browse through their events calendar and register for email updates.

2008-01-01

30

Family History  

MedlinePLUS

... Aneurysm Complications Post Treatment and Outcome GTranslate Understanding : Family History Familial intracranial aneurysms are generally defined as the presence of two or more family members among first- and second-degree relatives with ...

31

Map History: History of Cartography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compiled by Tony Campbell, Map Librarian at the British Library, this site is a gateway to the History of Cartography. Users will find information on a variety of map-related resources, including conferences, fellowships, current research guides, journals, lecture series, map collections, and map interest societies. Additional features include a list of related links and a brief introduction to MapHist, the Cartographic history discussion list.

1996-01-01

32

EASE History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The educational environment of the web continues to be transformed by compelling and exciting projects, and EASE History is one fine example of such an endeavor. Started by a team of scholars and researchers at Michigan State University, the EASE History website is an open learning environment that "supports flexibly adaptive thinking, the learning of difficult material, and open-mindedness. The site's primary focus is on assisting people to learn about various aspects of United States history through the creative use of video clips and photographs. To accomplish this, the site uses the prism of US presidential campaign ads and other related historical events. Users may want to start by taking in the "Tour" section of the site, which provides a brief overview of how the site's materials will be best utilized. Overall, this site provides a rich and interactive learning environment that may serve as the template for other such efforts.

33

History Net  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Weider History Group publishes a wide range of military history magazines, including "America's Civil War" and "Civil War Times". They've also been generous enough to create this website, which offers a wide range of articles from their different publications. First-time visitors to the homepage may want to start out by taking a shot at the "Daily Quiz", which offers up a range of questions on everything from steamship battles to military operations in the South Pacific. Next, visitors may wish to click on over to the "Features" area, which includes articles culled from the magazines on Marine POWs, the Battle of New Orleans, as well as noted gunfighter Ben Thompson and his brother Billy. Moving on, visitors can also take part in the online forums where they can ask questions about battle tactics, the history of ground warfare, and the USS Ironsides.

34

Lunar History  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This section of the workshop describes the history of the moon, and offers explanations for the importance of understanding lunar history for engineers and users of lunar simulants. Included are summaries of the initial impact that is currently in favor as explaining the moon's formation, the crust generation, the creation of craters by impactors, the era of the lunar cataclysm, which some believe effected the evolution of life on earth, the nature of lunar impacts, crater morphology, which includes pictures of lunar craters that show the different types of craters, more recent events include effect of micrometeorites, solar wind, radiation and generation of agglutinates. Also included is a glossary of terms.

Edmunson, Jennifer E.

2009-01-01

35

Minting History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a project where fourth-grade students depicted images on coins to reflect important conflicts in Canadian history, such as September 11, 2001. Explains how to create the coins in detail. States that the students each wrote a "proclamation" that described their time period depicted on the coins. (CMK)

Kohl, Gary

2003-01-01

36

Making History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jennifer Dorman was in a fix. Teaching ninth-grade US history at Holicong Middle School in Doylestown, Pennsylvania, Dorman wanted to tap into her students' interest in creating "something of value not just for their teachers, but something they could share with other students and people." But that required something a conventional paper-based…

Shein, Esther

2008-01-01

37

History & Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It's an old saw that those who forget the past are doomed to repeat it, but the History & Policy group takes this maxim very seriously. The group represents a collaboration between the University of Cambridge, The Institute of Historical Research, and The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. The purpose of the group is to "demonstrate the relevance of history to contemporary policymaking" and to increase the influence of historical research over current policy. Currently, their core output happens to be their papers, which are available from their homepage. Visitors can click on the "H&P papers" area to read through the latest papers, and they can also browse around via subject heading. Some of the recent titles include "North Korea and the nuclear threat", "Why history matters-and why medieval history also matters", and "China, globalization and the west: A British debate, 1890-1914". Additionally, visitors can sign up to join their email list and learn more about their network of historians.

38

History of \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Church's thesis claims that any "reasonablecomputer" may be simulated by a Turing machine.The "strong" thesis says that the simulation may beperformed with only polynomial slowdown. This documentis both a history of "Church's thesis" -- and particularlyof the notion that it is a statement about physics-- and an opinionated philosophical statement.Keywords --- Church's thesis, rigorous physics, polynomial time,effective continuous mathematics, computable

Warren D. Smith

39

History Trail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For some, becoming more interested in history may be somewhat of an uphill battle. Sometimes it may be due to preconceived notions about the way the subject was presented when they were young, and others may find the material a bit dry. This website offered by the BBC presents a variety of historical perspectives that are both engaging and informative, and as such, the site is well worth a look. The various sections address such powerful themes as "Church and State", "Victorian Britain", and "Conquest", which affords visitors the opportunity to learn about the nature of the Norman invasion in 1066. The "Local History" section is quite helpful as it teaches visitors how to explore their own communities through historical clues, documents, and visual evidence. Each section contains brief articles, activities, and quizzes that help flesh out the material.

40

Naval History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The world of naval history is quite vast, especially considering that it is linked to the earliest days of warfare and stretches back thousands of years. Designed by Gordon Smith, this particular site details the history of various national navies during the twentieth century, with a particular focus on the World Wars and other military actions. Not surprisingly, visitors to the site will want to take a look at the areas dedicated to the World Wars, as the coverage of the role of various navies is quite good here. In these sections, visitors can learn about the various ships used during each period and also look at the campaigns and battles by year and by month. There is also a rather touching section dedicated to Gordon Smith's father, George Smith, who was lost in the sinking of the HMS Charybdis off the Brittany coast on October 23rd, 1943.

41

Learning Histories  

Microsoft Academic Search

{Excerpt} How can we gauge the successes and failures of collective learning? How can the rest of the organization benefit from the experience? Learning histories surface the thinking, experiments, and arguments of actors who engaged in organizational change.\\u000aIn the corporate world, the precedence ascribed to individual learning can run counter to organizational learning, the process by which an organization

Olivier Serrat

2011-01-01

42

River history.  

PubMed

During the last half century, advances in geomorphology-abetted by conceptual and technical developments in geophysics, geochemistry, remote sensing, geodesy, computing and ecology-have enhanced the potential value of fluvial history for reconstructing erosional and depositional sequences on the Earth and on Mars and for evaluating climatic and tectonic changes, the impact of fluvial processes on human settlement and health, and the problems faced in managing unstable fluvial systems. PMID:22474674

Vita-Finzi, Claudio

2012-05-13

43

History Detectives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thinking about detectives in general makes most people's minds wander to thoughts of those rugged personages of television dramas or to the world of literature, with a lot of mucking about in dark alleyways or the sordid world of upper-crust intrigue and deception. PBS has elected to turn that perception on its head with its new program, History Detectives. This 10-part series is devoted to "solving historical mysteries, searching out the true facts (and falsehoods) behind local folklore, family legends and interesting objects." On this site, visitors can learn about the team of detectives (which includes an auctioneer, an architecture history professor, and a sociology professor), view clips from the program, and most importantly, about their various techniques for sleuthing. What is even better is that the site also offers overviews into various techniques (such as investigating the history of a building and examining personal papers) that allow users to get out there and do their own sleuthing in their own communities.

44

Volcanic Histories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To prepare for this in-class problem, students should have read about volcanism in their introductory text. Specifically they will need to know the types of volcanoes, the characteristics of volcanic products, such as lava flows of different silica compositions, tephra, lahars, and pyroclastic flows. Students should be able to connect the types of activity of a volcano to its type, such as composite volcanoes having abundant tephra, with some lava flows, while a shield volcano may have less tephra and more low viscosity lava flows. This activity is similar to the process used by geoscientists to evaluate the history and hazards of a volcano.

Filson, Robert H.

45

Geologic History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit introduces younger students to the concept of relative versus absolute time and how geologists determine the age of geologic events and features. Topics include the laws that determine relative age (superposition, cross-cutting relationships, included fragments, and others), and how to re-construct the geologic history of an area using these relationships. There is also information on geologic correlation and the use of index fossils to determine relative age. The section on absolute time discusses some ways of measurement (tree rings, radioactive dating) and introduces the concepts of natural selection and mass extinctions. A vocabulary and downloadable, printable student worksheets are provided.

Medina, Philip

2010-09-03

46

History Fun  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Games and other fun information about history. The Battle of the Atlantic Game Defeat the U-boats and guide your convoy to safety The Battle of Hastings Game Discover the tactics and try putting them into practice Gladiator: Dressed to Kill Prepare a gladiator for battle in the arena of death Viking Quest Build a ship, loot a monastery and claim your prize Pyramid Challenge Complete the construction of the pharaoh\\'s tomb Mummy Maker Prepare the body of Ramose, officer to the king, for ...

Thatcher, Ms.

2006-10-17

47

Thanksgiving History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located at the Plimoth Plantation Web site, this collection of material related to the First Thanksgiving will be of great interest to those seeking to learn more about the facts and myths surrounding this famous event in American history. While most of the factual information about this meal comes from first-hand accounts written by William Bradford and Edward Winslow, these accounts are best understood by also studying household traditions, cooking techniques, and religious practices. The site consists primarily of brief essays that elucidate these various nuances of this legendary meal, including pieces on who exactly was in attendance at the 1621 First Thanksgiving, first-hand accounts about the meal, the bill of fare at the meal, and a piece that dispels the popular myth that popcorn was served at this meal. Perhaps the best part of the site are the modern recipe equivalents for the dishes served at the First Thanksgiving, including roast fowl, seethed cod, and hominy pudding.

48

Mapping History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Queen's tantrums? Children's puzzles? Those might not be the first things to come to mind when thinking about maps, but when one is considering the British LibraryâÂÂs online Mapping History exhibit, both those curious subjects and others are definitely present. Given that the Library has thousands of maps spanning the known world, this collection helps remind users "there is often more to a map than meets the eye." The collection is divided into four areas, including "Worlds at war" and "Wealth and poverty". Each section contains four to seven maps along with a brief essay that explains the importance of each document. Perhaps the most delightful section is titled "Deception, lies, and made-up lands". Here visitors can wander across a Chinese map of the world from 1644 and a map of Wellington in New Zealand from 1840 that gives the city an orderly appearance that bore only a partial resemblance to actual conditions on the ground.

2006-01-01

49

History Cooperative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A project of the American Historical Association (AHA), the Organization of American Historians (OAH), the University of Illinois Press, and the National Academy Press, this site currently offers index and abstract access to issues of the American Historical Review and the Journal of American History. Full text access is restricted to members of the AHA and OAH, and to institutions that subscribe to the print versions. The site also hosts special features that will remain free to all. One example of this material is the multimedia essay, "Los Angeles and the Problem of Urban Historical Knowledge," which employs animated maps, photos, and other visual materials. Another example of this content is a searchable online version of the fourteen-volume Booker T. Washington Papers originally published by the University of Illinois Press. The volumes are presented in an adapted version of the National Academy Press's Open Book framework and may be easily browsed, printed, and searched down to the page level.

50

eHistory at OSU: Multimedia Histories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Drawing on the power and abilities of the Internet, the eHistory website from Ohio State University offers multimedia portraits on topics that include immigration in the United States and the Louisiana Purchase. On the homepage, visitors can take a look at the "What is a 'Multimedia History'?" area to learn more about these features, and then move on over to the "Featured Multimedia History". The histories include interactive maps and images, along with narrative essays. Visitors can scan over the complete histories and also view one of their three video presentations. If they are interested, visitors can also sign up to receive Twitter updates or their RSS feed. Additionally, the site also contains links to the other areas of the eHistory site, such as their online books, timelines, and primary sources.

51

Microforms and Sport History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the importance of sport history as it reflects the social and cultural history of the United States. Discussion covers the various sport history materials that are available in microform, including the Spalding Collection, twentieth-century microfilm sources, and sports and social history (Sports Periodicals microfilm series). (EJS)

Levine, Peter

1986-01-01

52

Let History Reign  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spanish River High School is one of 40 U.S. History Schools and 21 affiliates around the country that get resources and academic support from the Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. The schools require participating students to take a U.S. history course each year, in addition to any requisites in world history and other subjects. The…

Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

2008-01-01

53

Teaching History Today.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 14 articles included in this collection touch on several aspects of the teaching of history. The articles are: (1) "Observations on University Teaching and Research" (N. Graebner); (2) "Teaching History: A Changing Clientele and an Affirmation of Goals" (E. Burns); (3) "History for Citizens" (W. McNeill); (4) "Reflections on the History of…

Bausum, Henry S., Ed.

54

Committing History in Public.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that academic historians are frustrated about their ability to reach different publics. Describes the National Park Service's public history activities. Concludes that exciting opportunities exist for academic historians in research and presentation of U.S. history. (CFR)

Linenthal, Edward T.

1994-01-01

55

Occupational and Environmental History.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Essential Elements of the Occupational and Environmental History--Whether used for screening or for diagnosis, the occupational and environmental history is essentially made up of three important elements: Present Job, Past Work, and Other Nonoccupational...

K. M. Rest, J. C. Hake, D. H. Cordes

1983-01-01

56

History of Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the history of American physics, indicating that much effort has been on the atomic bond and high-energy physics, to the detriment of other topics and areas. To offset this tendency, significant research is going on in the history of solid-state physics, with glimmerings in the history of physics education. (JN)

Moyer, Albert E.

1985-01-01

57

Teaching Women's History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that women's history should stress the broad sociological view of women's roles not only in politics but in mundane, day-to-day life throughout all of history, rather that reducing women's history to a few token figures. Notes that many college and secondary texts and testing materials have recognized the trend toward the inclusion of…

Fain, George

1995-01-01

58

A History Worth Preserving  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Manhattan Project transformed the course of American and world history, science, politics and society. If we can read about this in books and watch History Channel documentaries, why do we need to preserve some of the properties of this enormous undertaking? The presentation, ``A History Worth Preserving,'' will address why some of the physical properties need to be preserved

Cynthia Kelly

2008-01-01

59

Who Owns History?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an interview with historian Cary Carson of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation and author William Styron on the role of history in society. Outlines the once-proposed Disney history theme park near Mannassas, Virginia. Discusses historical interpretation, museums, historical sites, and popular history. (CFR)

Hackney, Sheldon

1995-01-01

60

Film and History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an annotated bibliography of Web sites that focus on using film to teach history. Includes Web sites in five areas: (1) film and education; (2) history of cinema; (3) film and history resources; (4) film and women; and (5) film organizations. (CMK)

Schaber, Robin L.

2002-01-01

61

Documents in Military History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Edited by Dave Stewart, assistant professor of history at Hillsdale College (Hillsdale, Michigan), Documents in Military History is an online collection of primary sources for military history. The collection emphasizes pre-twentieth-century European military history but also includes some documents that address American and non-Western histories. Currently, the collection contains 325 items in six major historical sections: Ancient, Medieval, Early Modern, French Revolution, Nineteenth Century, and Naval Warfare. Each major section is further divided into more specific subsections. The organized layout of the site promotes chronological browsing. The site also provides a keyword search facility (inoperable at the time of review).

62

Forest History Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Affiliated with Duke University, the Forest History Society (FHS) "links the past to the future by identifying, collecting, preserving, interpreting, and disseminating information on the history of interactions between people, forests, and their related resources..." Founded in 1946, FHS offers extensive resources for anyone interested in the history of forests. This website contains links to FHS archives, research and publications, U.S. Forest Service history, searchable databases, and more. The searchable databases include a sizeable bibliography "containing annotated descriptions of over 34,000 books, articles, and dissertations on topics in the fields of forest, conservation, and environmental history."

2007-06-19

63

KSC History Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 2002 NASA/ASEE KSC History Project focused on a series of seven history initiatives designed to acquire, preserve, and interpret the history of Kennedy Space Center. These seven projects included the co-authoring of Voices From the Cape, historical work with NASA historian Roger Launius, the completion of a series of oral histories with key KSC personnel, a monograph on Public Affairs, the development of a Historical Concept Map (CMap) for history knowledge preservation, advice on KSC history database and web interface capabilities, the development of a KSC oral history program and guidelines of training and collection, and the development of collaborative relationships between Kennedy Space Center, the University of West Florida, and the University of Central Florida.

Moore, Patrick K.

2002-01-01

64

Oral History Project in Labor History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Labor history is a field that has enjoyed a resurgence of interest, including significant attention from journalists, scholars, and curious members of the general public. This particular set of labor history documents is primarily concerned with oral histories compiled by Elizabeth Balanoff in the early 1970s. Three decades later, several librarians at Roosevelt University received a $10,000 grant from the Illinois State Library to digitize these interview transcripts. Interviews include Irving Abrams, who was a member of the Industrial Workers of the World, and Joseph Keenan, who served as the secretary of the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers. This fascinating collection is rounded out by a number of interview transcripts from conversations with faculty members at Roosevelt University on the subject of faculty participation in university government.

65

HistoryLink  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The brainchild of Walt Crowley, HistoryLink is an online, highly engaging, encyclopedia of essays, visual material, and maps relating the history of Seattle and King County. With oversight from a number of local and professional historians, the site contains over 3000 short essays on many different aspects of local history. Along with providing several search engines for navigating the material on the site, an interactive map of Seattle allows users to browse around the city for different historical information on different neighborhoods and communities. Other sections on the site include Magic Lantern slide shows dealing with subjects like the history of the Seattle Public Library and Seattle University and an evolving section containing transcriptions of oral histories. All in all, a fascinating way to get acquainted with Seattle history.

2002-01-01

66

Counting coalescent histories.  

PubMed

Given a species tree and a gene tree, a valid coalescent history is a list of the branches of the species tree on which coalescences in the gene tree take place. I develop a recursion for the number of valid coalescent histories that exist for an arbitrary gene tree/species tree pair, when one gene lineage is studied per species. The result is obtained by defining a concept of m-extended coalescent histories, enumerating and counting these histories, and taking the special case of m = 1. As a sum over valid coalescent histories appears in a formula for the probability that a random gene tree evolving along the branches of a fixed species tree has a specified labeled topology, the enumeration of valid coalescent histories can considerably reduce the effort required for evaluating this formula. PMID:17563317

Rosenberg, Noah A

2007-04-01

67

Teaching History: The Fax about History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social studies and history have taken a back seat to other subjects in recent years, but the author argues that there is far too much at stake to allow these important fields to become irrelevant. To drive home the point, in this article, he shares a story about the 9/11 Commission, that made headlines in 2004.

Bryant, James A., Jr.

2005-01-01

68

Make History Come Alive.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests activities that school library media specialists can use to encourage students to think of history as fun and relevant and to want to read history books. Discusses heroism in poems and songs; writing poems based on historical figures; biographies; limericks; and publishing student writings on parchment paper. (LRW)

Karwoski, Gail Langer

2003-01-01

69

Iowa History Month, 1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains activity ideas to help elementary and secondary students celebrate Iowa History Month, October, 1985. There are four major sections. The first section contains an historic calendar for the month of October. Each day focuses on a significant occurrence in Iowa history and provides specific suggestions for discussing the events.…

Nielsen, Lynn E.

70

Arkansas History Frameworks. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Arkansas history curriculum framework sets out the state content standards for grades K-4, grades 5-8, and grades 9-12. The framework lists the different history strands: Strand 1: "Time, Continuity, and Change"; Strand 2: "People, Places, and Environments"; Strand 3: "Production, Distribution, and Consumption"; Strand 4: "Power, Authority,…

Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

71

Homes in History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "The Goldfinch," an Iowa history magazine for children, focuses on issues relating to housing. Articles address such subjects as homelessness, neighborhood history, architecture, and local folklore. One student activity is the "Building Blocks" game that calls upon students to fill in blanks to complete words from the issue relating…

Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

1993-01-01

72

Teaching and Writing History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses new approaches to teaching history through publishers' series devoted to case studies on social problems, balanced presentation of the contributions of minorities including women, documentary sources, or different viewpoints, all instead of the traditional predigested, summarized history texts. Address delivered at American Association…

Meltzer, Milton

1970-01-01

73

Women's History Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is designed to facilitate teachers' first efforts to introduce information about women in U.S. history. The guide promotes a multicultural awareness of women's history beginning with the Native Americans and proceeding to current issues of diversity. Activities are divided for grades 1-6 and 7-12 but may be adapted as…

Ruthsdotter, Mary, Ed.; Eisenberg, Bonnie, Ed.

74

A History of Salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medical history of salt begins in ancient times and is closely related to different aspects of human history. Salt may be extracted from sea water, mineral deposits, surface encrustations, saline lakes and brine springs. In many inland areas, wood was used as a fuel source for evaporation of brine and this practice led to major deafforestation in central Europe.

Massimo Círillo; Giovambattista Capasso; Vito Andrea Di Leo; Natale Gaspare De Santo

1994-01-01

75

Teacher Conceptions of History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores teachers' conceptions of the meaning of history. Contends that teachers' conceptions of history tend to place them in one of five typologies: storyteller, scientific historian, relativist/reformer, cosmic philosopher, or eclectic. Finds that these conceptions are related to teacher background, teacher belief, and teacher knowledge.…

Evans, Ronald W.

1989-01-01

76

Framework for Living History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description of Project Preserve, a Colorado high school living history course which provides students with tools to find their roots and understand themselves and their futures, presents a history of the project; details the formation of goals, objectives, and philosophy; and notes the advantages to both students and community. (SB)

Hodges, L. R.

1980-01-01

77

Family History Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 12 articles in this issue focus on the theme of family history resources: (1) "Introduction: Family History Resources" (Joseph F. Shubert); (2) "Work, Credentials, and Expectations of a Professional Genealogist" (Coreen P. Hallenbeck and Lewis W. Hallenbeck); (3) "Computers and Genealogy" (Theresa C. Strasser); (4) "Finding Historical Records…

Bookmark, 1991

1991-01-01

78

The History of Rocketry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is about the role of rockets in history. Learners will create a multiple tiered timeline on the history of rocketry. Includes a teacher's guide and students handouts. Video and audio clips are provided. This lesson 3 of 8 from the Dynamic Design: Launch and Propulsion module.

79

Microscale acceleration history discriminators  

DOEpatents

A new class of micromechanical acceleration history discriminators is claimed. These discriminators allow the precise differentiation of a wide range of acceleration-time histories, thereby allowing adaptive events to be triggered in response to the severity (or lack thereof) of an external environment. Such devices have applications in airbag activation, and other safety and surety applications.

Polosky, Marc A. (Albuquerque, NM); Plummer, David W. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01

80

Doing Local History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue contains articles about the importance of learning local history. The lead article includes historical information about three Iowa cities: Council Bluffs, Waterloo, and Jefferson. Other features in this issue are entitled: "Iowa Kids Talk,""Digging Into Local History,""Goldie's Top Ten News Stories"; "Boosters in Iowa"; "Take the…

Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

1992-01-01

81

Six American Histories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Histories of Blacks, Czechs, Germans, Jews, Mexicans, and Poles are provided in this resource guide. The histories are intended as a major background resource to help instructional staff members of the 45 school systems in Education Service Center, Region II, Corpus Christi, Texas, integrate ethnic heritage studies materials into classroom…

Wead, Margaret

82

History of Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses why the history of science should be included in the science curriculum in schools. He also presents some opportunities that can come out of using historical contexts, and findings from a study assessing the place of history of science in readily available textbooks.

Oversby, John

2010-01-01

83

Environmental History Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Jan Oosthoek at the University of Edinburgh has maintained a web presence since 1999, and his most recent website was relaunched in March 2008. The purpose of the site is to provide a range of resources and information on environmental history for the general public and scholars. Some of these resources include topical bibliographies, essays, annotated guides to other web resources, and a news feed. Visitors who click on the "Bibliography" area will find links to detailed thematic bibliographies that cover El Nino, climate history, Scottish forest history, and other topics. Moving on, the "Essays" area contains twelve different essays, including "The role of wood in world history", "What is environmental history?", and "Dutch river defences in historical perspective". The "Podcast" area is a real treat, and features interviews and discussions about topics such as urban air pollution in historical perspective and the environmental legacy of apartheid in South Africa.

Oosthoek, Jan

84

History: The Colonial Williamsburg Official History Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Colonial Williamsburg has been a popular destination for American history buffs for eight decades, and they continue to impress with their fine website dedicated to providing biographies, essays, and articles on "the everyday life of extraordinary Americans." Visitors can read biographies of people who inhabited colonial-era Williamsburg, listen to their fife and drums corps, and tour the town. One area that is definitely worth a look is the "Gardens" section of the site. Here visitors can learn about the landscape restoration work on the site, the history of the gardens, and read the gardener's blog. Further along, the "Clothing" area includes narrative descriptions of men's clothing, women's clothing, and African American clothing during colonial times. Also, visitors can dress a colonial person from head to toe in the interactive adventure, "Dressing the Part". The site is rounded out by a "Conferences, Forums, and Workshops" area that includes information about their scholarly activities and upcoming forums.

85

History of Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This latest Topic in Depth delves in the Web's offerings on the history of energy. The first site is maintained by the US Department of Energy, which is called Milestones in the History of Energy and Its Uses (1). From fire to the discovery of nuclear energy, the site gives short descriptions on significant events in the history of energy for each century, events by particular fuel type, events by energy uses, how energy uses have changed, energy consumption changes, and more. The next site entitled Botticelli's Famous History of Energy Timeline (2) is provided by the Association for the Promotion and Advancement of Science Education. Visitors, especially kids, should enjoy the simple and brief explanations on energy discoveries and uses from ancient times until the 1900s, along with the additional links on coal and petroleum. One specific segment of the energy industry is offshore oil and gas exploration. The National Ocean Industries Association's Web site explores this topic on its History of Offshore (3) page. The site describes how this technique started, how it has evolved, and how it's been regulated. The fourth page, Hydropower (4), is part of a Massachusetts Institute of Technology course Web site. Water power is explored from the origin of the waterwheel around 100 BC to large hydroelectric dams of today. Although graphics are not used extensively, the easily read narrative and provided links give a good introduction to the topic. The next site, from TelosNet, is called the Illustrated History of Wind Power Development (5). The contents include a case for wind power use, its early history, 20th century developments, the future of wind power, and more. From Energy Quest of the California Energy Commission, the Energy Time Machine (6) Web site gives an extensive look at the history of energy. Users choose from dozens of specific eras to locate and discover educational tidbits such as, in 1814, when the first American steam-powered warship was launched. The seventh site, brought to the Web by Dias-Analytic, is called the History, Theory and Operation Of Fuel Cells (7). Described is the background and history of how fuels (hydrogen and oxygen) produce electrical energy by means of a chemical reaction. The last site explains the history of solar energy. As part of the High Altitude Observatory Web site, the Solar Physics Information (8) page tells visitors the history of solar physics, including great moments in its history, how the sun works, what a sunspot is, and other interesting topics worth exploring.

Brieske, Joel A.

2003-01-01

86

Oral History as an Approach to State History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of oral history within a North Dakota state history course at the University of North Dakota (Grand Forks). Addresses how the students are prepared to conduct oral history interviews. Relates the information students found within their oral history interviews and the benefits of oral history. (CMK)

Porter, Kimberly K.

2000-01-01

87

History of MEMS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from the Southwest Center for Microsystems Education features a learning module which provides an overview of the history of microelectromechanical systems, or MEMS. A participant guide, instructor guide (both in PDF format) and a comprehensive powerpoint presentation are included. A step by step history of the progression of the history of MEMS is included in the materials. A crossword puzzle and research activity are included in the participant guide. Users are encouraged to register and log in in order to access the full content on the site.

2011-10-11

88

Naval History Bibliography Series  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Department of the Navy Naval Historical Center provides six bibliographies at this time covering both general and specific aspects of US Naval history. Included are two general bibliographies, and several specific bibliographies on the Navy's role in World War II, Desert Shield/Storm, and the Korean War. Central to this collection is the seventh edition (1993) of United States Naval History: A Bibliography, which covers the Navy chronologically, by special subject, and includes pictorial histories. The bibliographies complete the NHC site, an informative resource that profiles the Center, its mission, and its services.

1997-01-01

89

Collecting and Using Local History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The local history collection should contain: county histories; city and village histories; state and regional histories; anniversary booklets; company histories; local newspapers; local magazines; genealogies; family albums; diaries; journals, and letters; account books; club yearbooks; school annuals; telephone books, city directories and local…

Miller, Marcia Muth

90

Singing American History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how to use music when teaching U.S. History. Provides examples such as teaching about the Civil War, the Great Depression, and the Vietnam War and showing the contributions of African Americans. Includes a discography. (CMK)

Nielsen, Fred

2001-01-01

91

Minnesota Immigrant Oral Histories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can the Hmong history of Minnnesota be best understood? One good place to start is with oral histories of their own experiences. Various Hmong experiences, along with other ethnic groups, are told with a flourish on the Minnesota Immigrant Oral Histories site. Created by the Minnesota Historical Society, this site contains over 360 oral history interviews conducted between 1967 and 2012. Visitors can click on any of the groups listed to get started, then find detailed transcripts, streaming audio, and thumbnail sketches of participants. The Tibetan collection is quite a gem as visitors can learn about the U.S. Tibetan Resettlement Project from 1990. Overall, it's a wonderful way to learn about the diversity of the people who have come to call Minnesota home.

92

History of Stellar Interferometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the history of stellar interferometry from the suggestion of Fizeau that stellar interferometry was possible,to the use of the Mark I, II and III for astrometry. Photographs, and parts of original articles are presented.

Lawson, Peter R.

2004-01-01

93

Depression in Indian history.  

PubMed

This write up on some aspects of Indian history of depression touches briefly on references to some aspects of depression in Ayurveda, in philosophical texts and in the epics Ramayana and Mahabharata. PMID:11002619

Rao, A V

2000-05-01

94

History and Legacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history of the computer usage in high school laboratories is discussed. Students learned scientific methods by acknowledging measurement errors, using significant digits, questioning their own results, and without doubts, they benefited from applying skill learned in mathematics classes.

Mason, Diana S.

2004-01-01

95

Environmental History Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Jan Oosthoek at the University of Edinburgh has maintained a web presence since 1999, and his most recent website was relaunched in March 2008. The purpose of the site is to provide a range of resources and information on environmental history for the general public and scholars. Some of these resources include topical bibliographies, essays, annotatedguides to other web resources, and a news feed. Visitors who click on the"Bibliography" area will find links to detailed thematic bibliographiesthat cover El Nino, climate history, Scottish forest history, and othertopics. Moving on, the "Essays" area contains twelve different essays,including "The role of wood in world history", "What is environmentalhistory?", and "Dutch river defences in historical perspective". The"Podcast" area is a real treat, and features interviews and discussionsabout topics such as urban air pollution in historical perspective and the environmental legacy of apartheid in South Africa.

Oosthoek, Jan

2009-04-30

96

Bracero History Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 1942, the Bracero Program brought millions of Mexican guest workers to the United States, and over the next two decades, more than 4 million Mexicans came to work in the country. This fine public history resource from the Center for History and New Media at Georgetown University brings together oral histories and artifacts pertaining to the program. Visitors can read the "About" section to learn more about the program and its legacy and then move on to browse the documents. The document archive can be searched in its entirety, or users can also move through areas that include "Images", "Documents", and "Oral Histories". Educators will want to look over the "Teaching" area, as it features three different learning activities which draw on the archive's documents. Also, the "Resources" area includes a video tutorial on how to use the archive effectively and several interview questions for those who might know some former Bracero workers.

97

History of Measurement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief article describes some methods of indirect measurement that have been applied throughout history to the problem of estimating the height of tall trees. Several methods involving scaling, angles, ratios, and tools are discussed.

Team, Nrich

2013-01-01

98

Poweshiek History Preservation Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Poweshiek History Preservation Project is a joint effort between the Grinnell College Libraries and the Drake Community Library to preserve the history of the people and places of Poweshiek County. Over the years, dozens of community members have brought in letters, photographs, scrapbooks, ledgers, and other documents that tell the area's history. This site contains over 120 items, including photos of roadwork construction, local churches, museums, and portraits of prominent community members. Most of the items here date from the late 19th and early 20th century and they provide a remarkable look into the changes throughout the community during this period. Additionally, the site contains several oral histories from locals who have lived here for decades. Visitors can search through the offering by date, type, or geographic coverage.

99

Church History Discovery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is intended to help you understand the Historical Legacy of the LDS Church. First, go to the link below and read the speach by Elder M. Russell Ballard. Once you have done this, discuss this speech with someone near you. Tell them your impressions of this talk and then write down why history, especially LDS church history is important to study. Elder M. Russell Ballard - Faith in Every Footstep Good ...

Burbidge, Brother

2006-10-14

100

Sheafifying Consistent Histories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isham's topos-theoretic perspective on the logic of the consistent-histories theory is extended in two ways. First, the presheaves of consistent sets of history propositions in the topos proposed by Isham are endowed with a Vietoris-type of topology and subsequently they are sheafified with respect to it. The category resulting from this sheafification procedure is the topos of sheaves of sets

Ioannis Raptis

2001-01-01

101

History of Saturn Discoveries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, learners will use History of Discovery cards and interpretive skits to examine how scientists throughout history have explored Saturn. The lesson enables students to discern the multicultural nature of scientific inquiry and to see how technology improvements increase our ability to solve scientific mysteries. The lesson also prepares students to create and interpret their own timelines spanning the years 1610 to 2010. The timelines depict scientists, technologies, and discoveries. This is lesson 4 of 6 in the Saturn Educators Guide.

102

British History Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

British history to some might be thought of as a dense thicket of county records, complex lineages, and other such foibles that make the story of these modestly-sized islands all the more delectable. Fortunately for those interested in these âÂÂhistoriesâÂÂ, there is the British History Online website. Created by the Institute of Historical Research and the History of Parliament Trust, the site contains a rather staggering array of material, ranging from the journals of the House of Commons to ordnance survey maps from across the nation. Apart from browsing through these resources, visitors can also utilize a series of tabs running across the top of the homepage that compartmentalize the materials here into such categories as places and subjects. Some of the subject headings include agriculture history, historical geography, and social history. One additional nice feature is the âÂÂRecent Journal Entriesâ section, where visitors can learn about recent and upcoming additions to the already impressive selection of primary historical resources offered here.

103

California History Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The California Historical Society's Website presents accessible, interesting, and well-designed scholarly and educational materials relating to California history. One interesting section, The California History Online Timeline, allows users to click on a timeline of images to access material on key events and time periods in California history. These include European exploration, the Spanish Colonial frontier, Mexican California, the Gold Rush, the impact of the railroad, economic growth at the turn of the century, and the Great Depression. Each section features a sidebar outline where visitors can break the exhibit down into its sub-sections to view text and images. For scholars and amateur historians of the state, the Society also offers the complete tables of contents for all the issues of California History from 1922 to 1998. The Society has begun to post full texts of the issues from 1950 to 1993, though this process seems to be in the earliest stages. Finally, the Website features a quarterly newsletter giving information about archived and upcoming exhibits, events around the state celebrating California history, and news about the Society's programs and acquisitions.

2001-01-01

104

[History of chlorosis].  

PubMed

The once-prevalent disease known as chlorosis, that for centuries has been considered as typical of young unmarried women, is--in the history of Medicine--one of the few for which the abundant medical literature allow to assign the exact date of beginning in the sixteenth century--and its disappearance in early twentieth century. Origin and history of chlorosis--along four centuries--are an intriguing example of how sickness is not only related to the history of medical science, but it is also deeply rooted to the history of the imaginary, mentalities, culture and social trends. But that's not all. In general, through the history of chlorosis it is possible to focus some important issues: the transformation of puberty and adolescence in medical problems; the growing medicalization of the society that is reflected in the gradual inclusion into the scientific medical discourse of social and cultural issues (the status, the emancipation of women, etc...). Using a range of medical writings and treatises, supplemented with statistical data, this article focuses on the spread of the chlorosis--the incidence of which apparently increased at that time--and explores the interpretations of the disease in Nineteenth Century Italy. A "golden age" of medical debate and speculations about the disease, that even after the developments of haematology and its diagnostic identification as hypochromic anaemia, will continue for a long time to carry the weight of the nervous and emotional factors that had accompanied the chlorosis for centuries. PMID:21563494

Tognotti, Eugenia

2010-01-01

105

Life History Influence on Teaching United States History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative study explored the influences of life and family histories on high school teachers' beliefs about U.S. history. Drawing on data gathered through surveys and in-depth interviews, this paper argues that personal knowledge acts as a lens through which teachers see and project subject matter in U.S. history. Inquiring into life history

Coughlin, Mimi

106

Wisconsin Women's History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Wisconsin has created a vast array of wonderful bibliographies related to women's studies, and this is one of the best. This particular bibliography is an expansion of one created in 1981 by Linda Parker, a women's studies librarian at the school. This iteration was updated and enhanced by Phyllis Holman Weisbard, and is divided into three sections: General Works, Works on Individual Women, and Archival Resources. In the General Works area, visitors can access the Women's History in Wisconsin web page from the Wisconsin Historical Society. Also, they can learn about the "Dictionary of Wisconsin History" which contains brief biographies of prominent Wisconsin women. Moving on, the Works on Individual Women area contains citations of works on women who spent a significant portion of their lives in Wisconsin, such as Golda Meir and Harriet Bell Merrill. Finally, Archival Resources contains links to online and offline resources such as the Wisconsin Women During World War II Oral History Project.

Weisbard, Phyllis H.

2011-01-01

107

History of psychiatry  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review The present review examines recent contributions to the evolving field of historical writing in psychiatry. Recent findings Interest in the history of psychiatry continues to grow, with an increasing emphasis on topics of current interest such as the history of psychopharmacology, electroconvulsive therapy, and the interplay between psychiatry and society. The scope of historical writing in psychiatry as of 2007 is as broad and varied as the discipline itself. Summary More than in other medical specialties such as cardiology or nephrology, treatment and diagnosis in psychiatry are affected by trends in the surrounding culture and society. Studying the history of the discipline provides insights into possible alternatives to the current crop of patent-protected remedies and trend-driven diagnoses.

Shorter, Edward

2013-01-01

108

Investigating human evolutionary history  

PubMed Central

We rely on fossils for the interpretation of more than 95% of our evolutionary history. Fieldwork resulting in the recovery of fresh fossil evidence is an important component of reconstructing human evolutionary history, but advances can also be made by extracting additional evidence for the existing fossil record, and by improving the methods used to interpret the fossil evidence. This review shows how information from imaging and dental microstructure has contributed to improving our understanding of the hominin fossil record. It also surveys recent advances in the use of the fossil record for phylogenetic inference.

WOOD, BERNARD

2000-01-01

109

Paleomap Project Earth History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of the Earth History segment of the Paleomap Project is to illustrate global plate tectonic development, as well as the changing configuration of landmasses and seas during the past 1100 million years. An array of colorful paleogeographic maps for geologically significant periods of earth's history is provided. Each paleogeographic map displays the reconstructed positions of modern continental coastlines, shelf margins, major tectonic boundaries, active plate boundaries and seafloor spreading isochrones. The maps also include a short discussion indicating important geologic features and events for each period.

Scotese, Christopher; Project, Paleomap

110

Seacoast, NH Black History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

African Americans have been part of the New Hampshire scene since 1645. This site, provided by SeacostNH.com, tells their story in that state, and specifically, in Portsmouth. Included is information about the making of an obscure though controversial film, Lost Boundaries, in 1949, an interview with University of New Hampshire Professor Jeff Bolster about African American mariners, a short history titled "First Blacks of Portsmouth," a brief oral history of five long-time Portsmouth residents, and the story of Prince Whipple, who appears in Emanuel Leutze's famous painting Washington Crossing the Delaware.

1998-01-01

111

forced-migration-history  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new, UK-based, moderated mailing list serves as a forum for discussions on population displacements in 20th-century European history, "and to explore the inter-relationship of forced migration/resettlement/repatriation with nationalism, state formation and the construction of social identities." While the moderators believe that most of the subscribers will be involved in migration studies, history, geography, demography, and anthropology or sociology, scholars from other fields and different geographical and historical time periods are most welcome. Users will find archived messages and subscription information at the site.

112

IEEE History Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) History Center functions "to preserve, research and promote the history of information and electrical technologies." There are many resources on the center's Web site that provide an excellent perspective into some of the original breakthroughs in electrical design and the more recent advancements in computer technology. Historical articles and list of frequently asked questions are given on the site, as well as many transcripts of interviews with influential people of the industry. A Milestones section highlights 45 of the most groundbreaking achievements around the world. Every day, a new electrical engineering-related anniversary is presented on the homepage.

113

Student Papers in Local History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirteen papers on Kansas and Johnson County, Kansas history are presented. The papers were written by students in a course at the Johnson County Center for Local History or for independent study in local history. The papers are: "Conditions and Construction of Gardner Lake"; "The History of St. Joseph's Church, Shawnee, Kansas"; "Patrons of…

Johnson County Community Coll., Overland Park, KS. Johnson County Center for Local History.

114

Vietnam: An Oral History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a writing assignment in which students collected oral histories from Vietnam veterans in their community, edited the transcripts of their interviews, prepared manuscripts for a booklet of ten interviews, and composed cover letters for the final product. Notes positive effects of both the revision work and the primary research. (JG)

Cussler, Elizabeth

1987-01-01

115

Projects in History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses two types of historical projects conducted by O-level pupils at Clifton College: studies of famous chemists and projects on the development of industrial chemicals. Indicates that a project in the history of chemistry is characterized by its practical and philosophical approach to chemistry study. (CC)

Harben, Cedric Y.

1974-01-01

116

History of Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the development of chemistry in the United States by considering: (1) chemistry as an evolving body of ideas/techniques, and as a set of conceptual resources affecting and affected by the development of other sciences; and (2) chemistry related to the history of American social and economic institutions and practices. (JN)

Servos, John W.

1985-01-01

117

Histories of Geographical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper revisits the value of and justification for histories of geographical education as a field of research endeavour within geographical education. Four potentially fruitful areas of research are identified. These are pressure groups, especially the International Geographical Union's Commission on Geographical Education; the influence of…

Kent, Ashley

2006-01-01

118

History Comes Alive.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter describes the development of a set of programs called "History Comes Alive," a series of historical simulations and interactive experiences for students at heritage sites in Ontario. The programs allow students from Ontario and New York to relive the past by spending 3 days and 2 nights in a simulated historical setting. In addition…

Shultz, Gary

119

Zebra Mussel Life History  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of introduced zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) and Dreissena bugensis Andrusova) can be related in large part to a life history that is unlike that of the indigenous freshwater fauna and yet is conserved with marine bivalves. Following external fertilization and embryological development, there is a brief trochophore stage. With the development of a velum and the secretion

Josef Daniel Ackerman

120

History at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The efforts of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to capture and record the events of the past are described, particularly the research accomplishments of NASA's agency-wide history program. A concise guide to the historical research resources available at NASA Headquarters in Washington, D.C., at NASA facilities around the country, and through the federal records systems is given.

1986-01-01

121

Diet History Questionnaire  

Cancer.gov

NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH Diet History Questionnaire Today's date: MONTH DAY YEAR |___|___| 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 6 7 8 01 Jan 02 Feb 03 Mar 04 Apr 05 May 06 Jun 07 Jul 08 Aug 09 Sep 10 Oct 11 Nov 12

122

Features of Korean History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the history of Korea from ancient times to the present, discussing the Koryo and Choson Kingdoms, the development of the Republic of Korea, and efforts to unite the country. Examines Korean cultural creativity, the development of new schools of thought, and reforms under Chong Yag-yong, a prominent eighteenth- and nineteenth-century…

Lee, John-hee

1988-01-01

123

Understanding World Economic History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One joy of studying history is discovering people living meaningful lives and behaving in unusual ways that are startling to the modern reader--young or old. Why did pre-modern people living hundreds or even thousands of years ago do things so differently than we do? Robert Whaples states that Economic historians conclude that the key difference…

Whaples, Robert

2013-01-01

124

History, Science and Dreams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contrasts a set of genres from Indigenous Australian and European cultures, with comparable functions. The focus is on genres in which change is construed, firstly changes in social processes, from Indigenous and European perspectives on histories of colonisation, and secondly changes in natural processes, from the perspectives of European science and the Indigenous Australian cosmology known as the

David Rose

125

Sioux City History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Sioux City History website is billed as "your link to the past", and it does not fail to deliver on this promise. The site offers up snippets of the town's past, drawing on historic photographs, oral histories, and other documents. On the homepage, visitors will note eight primary sections, such as "Notable People", "Transportation", and "Arts & Leisure". First-time visitors should click on the "Arts & Leisure" area to start their journey. Here they will find essays and images that tell the stories of Riverside Park, community theatre, and the local legends who performed in the Monahan Post Band after World War I. To gain a better understanding of the role played by corn in local history and culture, visitors shouldn't miss the "Corn Palace" area. It's a tribute to the five grand corn palaces that graced the city from 1887 to 1891 as a symbol of agricultural prominence and boosterism. Finally, visitors can also look over a selection of oral histories and make use of the search engine here.

126

Teaching Local History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Social Science Docket theme issue focuses on teaching local history and included theme and non-themed articles, lesson plans, learning activities, and book, movie, and museum reviews designed for K-12 social studies teachers. Articles and materials in this issue are: "Editing Is Not Censorship" (Alan Singer); "Teachers Respond to 'Editing Is…

Singer, Alan, Ed.

2003-01-01

127

Lithuanian Library History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the history of libraries in Lithuania from 1940 to 1992. Highlights include early book collections, and attitudes toward books and reading; changes after the Soviet invasion, including censorship, lack of timeliness, and information barriers; library networks; library education; research trends; library legislation; library literature; and…

Gudauskas, Renaldas

1994-01-01

128

The Holocaust and History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme based journal issue consists of articles and teaching ideas focusing on the Holocaust and history. This publication contains the following materials: (1) "Multiple Perspectives on the Holocaust?" (Alan Singer); (2) "Responses to 'Multiple Perspectives on the Holocaust'"; (3) "Escape to Cuba: Story of Laura Kahn, a Holocaust Survivor"…

Singer, Alan, Ed.

2003-01-01

129

Black History Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author argues in this speech that one cannot expect students in the school system to know and understand the genius of Black history if the curriculum is Eurocentric, which is a residue of racism. He states that his comments are designed for the enlightenment of those who suffer from a school system that "hypocritically manipulates Black…

Noldon, Carl

2007-01-01

130

Narrative History and Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While narrative history has been the prevailing mode in historical scholarship, its preeminence has not gone unquestioned. In the 1980s, the role of narrative in historical writing was "the subject of extraordinarily intense debate." The historical backdrop of this debate can be traced to the preceding two decades, when four groups of thinkers…

Tamura, Eileen H.

2011-01-01

131

Redefining American Literary History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a collection of essays which provide starting points for a redefinition of American literary history based on a multiethnic and multiracial, rather than European, theory of culture. After an introduction by the editors, essays in the book are: "The Literatures of America: A Comparative Discipline" (Paul Lauter); "Defining the Canon"…

Ruoff, A. LaVonne Brown, Ed.; Ward, Jerry W., Jr., Ed.

132

Footsteps through History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using colored construction paper, students trace around their shoes and cut out two forms. Students then pick and research an event from the time period in history under study and write a report on the representations of shoe soles. The reports are taped, in order of occurrence, around the classroom. (RM)

Hawkins, Michael L.

1984-01-01

133

The History Education Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In addition to briefly intoducing the History Education Project (HEP) sponsored by the American Historical Association and Indiana University, and funded by USOE, this report announces the establishment (Spring, 1970) of a regional HEP team at Stony Brook, describes its tentative plan of operation, and solicits assistance from the community. The…

Seifman, Eli

134

Why Military History?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interest in military history is as strong as it has ever been--except on American college campuses. Lt. Gen. Josiah Bunting III examines why today's undergraduates need to study the facts of war, and why knowing its causes and consequences remain a vital part of our common knowledge.

Bunting, Josiah, III

2008-01-01

135

Mathematics and history  

Microsoft Academic Search

I begin with a caricature---indeed, a travesty--of the typical history of mathematics textbook. This caricature will draw attention to some of the philosophical presuppositions which often underlie these books. I shall then discuss alternatives to these presuppositions. Mathematics epitomises Reason. It began in Egypt and Mesopotamia. However, it really began in Greece, because that is where pure mathematics began, and

W. S. Anglin

1992-01-01

136

A history of influenza  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. S UMMARY From the history of influenza epidemics and pandemics, which can be traced back with some accuracy for the past three hundred years, and with less certainty before this time, it is apparent that outbreaks occur somewhere in the world in most years. Annual epidemics are due to antigenic drift; and pandemics, occurring at 10 to 50 years

C. W. Potter

2001-01-01

137

Aesthetics and History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrates the presence of aesthetic experience in written history by comparing textbook presentations of the United States' 1812 offensive against Canada. The aesthetic dimension of human development is universal. Teachers' responsibility is to consider the aesthetic quality of school experiences they bring about and extend students' range of…

Foshay, Arthur W.

1995-01-01

138

In a Word, History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding words like "bionics" will open the mind to the horizons of another time when words like "railroad" evoked wonder and "to fly to the moon" was a metaphor for the impossible dream. Suggests that history teachers and English teachers should join together in using words to teach both subjects. (Editor/RK)

Dohan, Mary Helen

1977-01-01

139

Black History Month.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated subject guide to Web sites and additional resources focuses on Black History month. Specifies age levels for resources that include Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines; includes professional resources; and presents a relevant class activity. (LRW)

Web Feet K-8, 2000

2000-01-01

140

FCC History of Communications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has initiated this history project in an effort to raise public awareness of "the extent to which every area of their life is intertwined with the communications technologies the FCC has responsibility to regulate." Aside from the commonly known FCC regulations regarding television and regulating interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable, the FCC authorization rules also protect individuals when we use a variety of other electrical and electronic equipment. Previous exhibits, available still online, have focused on the technological history of television and the pioneers who developed radio's core technologies, which focus on public safety, business, and personal communication aspects of radio. The current exhibit highlights aspects of the more recent history of the Internet. Through these exhibits, "the FCC hopes to inform and, possibly, inspire with a few reminders of the great achievements that made television, radio and the Internet as we know them today possible." Additional resources available here include a history of Communications Laws; Early Government Documents About Telephone, Telegraph, and Broadcasting; and Radio Service Bulletins.

141

DHQ Database Revision History  

Cancer.gov

The following details all additions and revisions made to the DHQ nutrient and food database. This revision history is provided as a reference for investigators who may have performed analyses with a previous release of the database. The contents of the current database are listed in Nutrient and Dietary Constituents and Pyramid Food Groups.

142

My English History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the author's history as an English teacher. Suggests that English teaching is not hermetic but profoundly influenced by educational trends outside the subject itself. Explains that the author's commitment to English combines a sense of engagement with a sense of liberation. (PM)

Sommer, Paul

2003-01-01

143

Life History and Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article uses the life history method to chronicle the challenges of a low-income, first-generation student en route to college. The paper addresses three questions: how Manuel navigates college and related topics such as roommates, family, and money; how he creates social networks; and how he works with adults such as teachers and…

Tierney, William G.

2013-01-01

144

DoHistory.org  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Launched by the Harvard Film Study Center on February 4, DoHistory.org is an experimental interactive site that invites users to piece together the life and world of an "ordinary" person in the past. The person in question is eighteenth-century midwife and healer Martha Ballard, whose diary was the basis for both a Pulitzer Prize winning book and the PBS film A Midwife's Tale. The site features thousands of pages of original documents -- including diaries, letters, maps, court records, town records, account books, and medical texts -- offered as both page images in their original format and in transcription. Also included is a searchable online version of Ballard's entire 27-year diary. Two interactive and in-depth examples ("Martha Ballard and 'Man-Midwife'" and "One Rape. Two Stories.") demonstrate how to "do history," making sense of original documents, building a tale around them, and answering the questions that they raise. Students and other users motivated by these interesting examples can then consult the On Your Own section for some tools, tips, and other resources for their own historical research. Finally, the site offers behind the scenes looks at the book and movie, A Midwife's Tale. While DoHistory is especially useful for students, anyone with an interest in history and the research process will be both entertained and educated by the site.

145

Airline History: The History of Commercial Aviation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Designed and maintained by Sarah Ward, a former commercial pilot, this site offers essays about almost every major airline, both contemporary and historical. A complete alphabetical list runs from the ABA Swedish Air Lines all the way to ZAS Airline of Egypt. Each profile gives details about the types of planes used by each airline; what type of business they conducted (and where); and numerous photographs of the planes, many taken by Ms. Ward. Along with the airline profiles, another section of the site titled Aircraft by Decade offers basic statistics about different plane models and types introduced during every decade of the 20th century. Special features of the site include a photographic tribute to the planes that travelers might have seen as they traversed through London's airports in the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. Ms. Ward has taken a great deal of care in compiling the material on the site (along with the help of contributors), and the material here will be a joy for aviation fans and visitors interested in knowing a bit more about the history of different airlines.

2000-01-01

146

Illinois Natural History Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign is responsible for the Illinois Natural History Survey (INHS), whose mission is "to investigate and document the biological resources of Illinois...and to acquire and provide natural history information...to promote the common understanding, conservation, and management of these resources." Along the top of the page visitors can find headings that include "Research", "Data", "Publications", and "Events". The "Research" portion of the website includes seven areas of research from which to choose including "Entomology", "Invasive Species", "Wildlife Ecology", and "Human Interactions". The "Data" section provides ecological monitoring data, GIS data, a clearinghouse of wildlife ecology software, and collection databases which allow visitors to search for specimens of plants and animals. The "Publications" include educational materials, annual reports, manuals, a bulletin, and a circular. For those interested in events at the INHS, the "Events" link provides a nice calendar of upcoming seminars.

2009-10-19

147

Stress and life history.  

PubMed

In his book on behavioural endocrinology, Randy Nelson describes 'stress' as a 'notoriously ethereal concept'. Yet, despite this lack of clarity, studies of the consequences of stress across different time scales, life history stages, taxa and levels of biological enquiry form a large part of modern biology and biomedicine. Organisms need to recognise and respond to environmental challenges. Being able to do so appropriately, and with minimal costs, is an important physiological attribute, with great adaptive value. The costs and benefits of different mechanisms that enable organisms to cope with unpredictable environmental changes can be manifest to different degrees at different life stages. Accordingly, the level of stress experienced in the environment can act as a strong selective pressure that drives the evolution of life histories. PMID:24845673

Monaghan, Pat; Spencer, Karen A

2014-05-19

148

Taking a Family History  

PubMed Central

All too frequently, a patient's family history is not taken, or only one or two perfunctory questions are asked. Many data may thereby be omitted which might have been very useful in solving the patient's problems. The lack of a genetic history may delay the formulation of a complete problem list in the medical record. Some conditions may escape notice altogether for a considerable time. On the other hand, a brief but deliberate inquiry employing proven techniques may bring out information which permits early recognition of problems as well as more precise diagnosis. This may result in better service to the patient while achieving savings in both the physician's time and the cost of providing care.

MacDiarmid, W. D.

1977-01-01

149

The History of Lodging  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the American Hotel and Lodging Association�s website, the History of Lodging is among the fun, informative tools provided by the association. The History of Lodging highlights major changes in the hotel industry throughout the 20th century and into the modern years. Another tool, the Lodging Industry Profile, provides hospitality students and the general public alike with factual information about the hospitality and hotel industry. For instance, �travelers in the U.S. spend� $16,000 a second.� To find other great information and statistics, the American Hotel and Lodging Association is a great starting point.

2006-11-14

150

Natural history of cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Significant strides have been made in the last few years in advancing our knowledge of the natural history of cirrhosis. These include (1) a better understanding of prognosis in compensated and decompensated cirrhosis, (2) improved estimates of the natural course of variceal bleeding in patients receiving standard of care therapy, (3) recognition of renal failure and infection as important determinants of mortality in the clinic course, (4) realization of the importance of hepatic venous pressure gradient as a marker of prognosis, progression, and treatment response, and (5) evolution of noninvasive studies of liver stiffness as potential predictors of decompensation. Further studies identifying cirrhotics at highest risk of transitioning from a compensated state to a decompensated state will be important in order to alter the natural history of cirrhosis. PMID:23314828

Asrani, Sumeet K; Kamath, Patrick S

2013-02-01

151

The History of CAD  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever wondered how the world of Computer Aided Drafting evolved? Perhaps you wonder how images and designs were dealt with before using computers? According to this website, �CAD has fundamentally changed the way design is done.� Marian Bozdoc, an Australian CAD and Computer Design consulting firm has compiled information about the history of CAD, tracing the advantages and improvements in CAD from before 1970 to the present. The resources are arranged by date in a timeline format, making it easy to compare the progress of CAD over time. Also included on this site is a computing history timeline which follows the same format as the CAD version.

Bozdoc, Marian

2006-12-28

152

Maritime History of Massachusetts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Newburyport all the way to New Bedford, Massachusetts has many places steeped in a rich and interesting maritime past. Recently, the National Park Service's National Register of Historic Places and Maritime Heritage Program created this interactive guide to the maritime history of the Bay State. The site spares no punches, as it opens with a lovely photograph of the Boston Light Station on Little Brewster Island, complete with some very appropriate sound effects. Visitors can explore the sites through a series of interactive maps and then read four essays that deal with maritime commerce, shipbuilding, the U.S. Navy, and lighthouses and lifesaving stations. For each site, visitors can read a brief history and learn more about visiting each destination. It's a great way to learn about this particular part of the United States, and it could serve as the inspiration for a nice vacation as well.

153

[Arthritis and clinical history].  

PubMed

In front of a patient with arthritis, clinical good-sense tells that the most probable diagnosis are the most prevalent ones. Nevertheless, we have to exclude a multiplicity of other aetiologies, less frequent, but with highest implications in the therapeutic conduct. Infections by Brucella and by Borrelia are rare causes of chronic arthritis, yet are diagnosis to consider, even when the clinical manifestations aren't the most typical, as there still exist endemic areas in Portugal. Here we report two clinical cases about patients with arthritis for more than one year, subject to ineffective exams ant treatments. Only the clinical history could put on evidence clinical-epidemiological data, suggestive of Brucellosis and Lyme Disease, namely the professional contact with infected animals, and the history of probable erythema migrans, that pointed toward the correct diagnosis. So, with directed therapeutic, there was complete resolution of the inflammatory symptoms. PMID:22521022

Silva, Lígia; Sampaio, Luzia; Pinto, José; Ventura, Francisco S

2011-01-01

154

Indiana Magazine of History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you're looking to get "back home again in Indiana" via the state's interesting and compelling history, this is a great way to do it. The Indiana Magazine of History has been published continuously since 1905 and is based at the Indiana University, Bloomington campus. This digital archive of past issues was made possible by a grant from the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS). Visitors can browse all of the issues back to 1905, and the search engine on the homepage makes it easy to look for certain areas of interest, including the Amish, Indianapolis, and highways. The volumes from the 1960s have some great articles. Visitors would do well to look over those articles published in 1964. Their number includes pieces like "Canalling in the Whitewater Valley" and "Emerson's Lectures in Indianapolis."

2012-08-31

155

Canada's History-Magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Looking for a bit of Canadian history? The magazine "Canada's History" is a good place to start, and they have recently launched a new version of their website. First-time visitors will note that the website features sections that include "Trading Post", "Online Extension", and "Album". The "Trading Post" area features pieces on the Hudson's Bay Company culled from its own in-house magazine, "The Beaver". Here visitors will learn about Inuit art, Cree moccasins, and Fort Garry tea. In the "Online Extension" area, visitors can view rich multimedia features on marine archaeology in Nunavut and the prominent artist Aba Bayefsky. Finally, the "Album" area features photos submitted by readers from their own personal collections, complete with annotations and explanations of their importance.

156

The Adoption History Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Drawing on a rich selection of documents, images, and bibliographic resources, Professor Ellen Herman of the University of Oregon has created this remarkable website that âÂÂhighlights the people, organizations, topics, and studies that shaped child adoption in theory and practice during the twentieth century in the United States.â The site is divided into six primary sections, including an index. First-time visitors will want to start by taking a look through the timeline, which offers information about some key moments in the history of adoption, including the 1851 Adoption of Children Act passed in Massachusetts. Moving on, visitors can learn about prominent people and influential organizations in adoption history. These summaries include hyper-text links, and document excerpts of note. The âÂÂFurther Readingâ area is quite thorough, and it offers a list of additional primary and secondary sources on a variety of related topics.

157

History of Oriental Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This volume deals specifically with recent original research in the history of Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Islamic, and Indian astronomy. It strikes a balance between landmarks of history of Ancient and Medieval Astronomy in the Orient on one hand, and on the other the transmission of the European Astronomy into the countries of the Orient. Most contributions are based on research by the experts in this field. The book also indicates the status of astronomy research in non-European cultural areas of the world. The book is especially of interest to historians of astronomy and science, and students of cultural heritage. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-0657-8

Ansari, S. M. Razaullah

2002-12-01

158

Sequence History Update Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sequence History Update Tool performs Web-based sequence statistics archiving for Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Using a single UNIX command, the software takes advantage of sequencing conventions to automatically extract the needed statistics from multiple files. This information is then used to populate a PHP database, which is then seamlessly formatted into a dynamic Web page. This tool replaces a previous tedious and error-prone process of manually editing HTML code to construct a Web-based table. Because the tool manages all of the statistics gathering and file delivery to and from multiple data sources spread across multiple servers, there is also a considerable time and effort savings. With the use of The Sequence History Update Tool what previously took minutes is now done in less than 30 seconds, and now provides a more accurate archival record of the sequence commanding for MRO.

Khanampompan, Teerapat; Gladden, Roy; Fisher, Forest; DelGuercio, Chris

2008-01-01

159

Fort Collins History Connection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This digital collection tells the fabulous story of the Fort Collins area through photographs, artifacts, maps, books, and much more. The project came to fruition via a collaboration between the Fort Collins Museum of Discovery and the Poudre River Public Library District. On the site, visitors can make their way through the Research Collections, which are a great place to start. Here they will find over 100 city business directories from 1902 to 2005, archival photos of historic structures, biographies of prominent citizens, and a timeline of key events in the city's history. The Online Exhibits area contains curious and revealing anecdotes from newspaper articles and oral histories of the city as well as a photographic tour of historic banks scattered throughout town. The site is rounded out by an area designed specifically for students that features quick facts and profiles of the city's ethnic groups.

160

History of Icelandic psychiatry.  

PubMed

The history of Icelandic psychiatry is in many ways comparable with neighboring countries. Mentally ill people were badly treated in the country and received no medical treatment until at the beginning of the 20th century. Kleppur Hospital for the mentally insane was built in 1907; hence the development was approximately 150 years later than in comparable countries. Only two doctors contributed significantly to policy making in Icelandic psychiatry until 1959 and they were very different personalities. Dr Thórdur Sveinsson was famous for his interest in hydrotherapy and Dr Helgi Tómasson for his prohibition of all physical restraints like straitjackets, restraining straps and belts. He was also known for his decision to prohibit his patients undergoing ECT and lobotomy; hence such methods were never practiced at Kleppur Hospital. In other respects, it may be said that the history of Icelandic psychiatry is similar to that in the other Nordic countries. PMID:22283837

Gudmundsson, O

2012-03-01

161

ExploreKY History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ExploreKY History site is a bit of a "twofer" as it contains both a full-fledged interactive site about Kentucky history and an iPhone application. The site notes that it "takes the stories behind our community-driven historical markers, adds related items from the Kentucky Historical Society and combines it into a historical tour of our Commonwealth." The historical markers are crafted by the Society and placed around the state in locations that include the Samuel May House and Abraham Lincoln's boyhood home in Knob Creek. Additionally, the site includes thematic tours of Danville, the University of Kentucky, and the War of 1812. Finally the Stories area allows visitors to browse through an alphabetical list of all the markers from the Zachary Taylor National Cemetery to the Battle of Augusta.

162

Today in History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Steven Berg of Schoolcraft College has been working with his students to create this well-thought-out and interesting website. The purpose of the site is to focus on "only one event each day which is put in a socio-cultural context." Each day, the site features a new brief on a notable historical event such as the feast of Saint Pope Mark or the opening of the celebrated Moulin Rouge cabaret in Paris. While the quality of the student contributions varies (it is, after all, a blog rather than scholarly writing), the mission of the site makes it inspiring for others looking to enlist students in contextualizing and writing about history. In addition, Berg welcomes contributions from outside parties, so those in college settings may wish to inquire further. It's fun to look through the entries and see what students have profiled so far, and it's a nice way to learn about various intriguing events in human history.

2012-10-12

163

History of Mathematics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A broad collection of mathematical bibliographies and links to pages explaining important concepts. One highlighted feature is a link to Euclid's 'Elements', which contains all 13 books and illustrated figures. Another interesting attribute is a link to the famous 1900 speech of David Hilbert, a leading twentieth century mathematician, in which he addressed the International Congress of Mathematicians in Paris and described 23 important mathematical problems. A history of mathematics by region gives bibliographies, and sometimes maps and chronologies for Babylonia, Egypt, China, Greece, India, the Arab sphere, Japan, and Europe. Bibliographies and some web links are provided for the subjects of numerals and counting, algebra, geometry, arithmetic and number theory, mathematical analysis, and probability and statistics. Lists of books and other non-internet resources, such as organizations devoted to the history of mathematics, journals, and catalogs are also listed.

164

History of Solar Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The California Solar Center offers this history of Solar Energy. Written by John Perlin, author of "From Space to Earth - The Story of Solar Electricity," the article summarizes three major solar energy subjects -- photovoltaics, solar thermal, and passive solar architecture. Visitors can get a quick overview of "how we have learned to capture sunlight and use it to make electricity, heat water and heat our homes."

165

Brief history of syphilis.  

PubMed

Before the discovery of Treponema pallidum as the etiologic agent, the origins of syphilis have been the subject of several debates. Diverse therapeutic agents were employed in an attempt to cure the disease. Examining the milestones in the history of syphilis, the present article reviews the existing theories that tried to explain the origins of the disease, the approach in art, the cultural and the evolution of the treatments from the empiric means to the discovery of penicillin. PMID:24653750

Tampa, M; Sarbu, I; Matei, C; Benea, V; Georgescu, S R

2014-03-15

166

History of Bilirubin  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The history of bilirubin actually goes back many hundreds of years, when newborn infants were observed to be jaundiced.More\\u000a recent accounts of jaundice in newborns seems to have begun in the late eighteenth century.One of those was written by Jean\\u000a Baptiste Thimotee Baumes (Baumes, J. 1806).This description was published as a chapter in a book entitled Traite de L’amaigrissemwnt des

David W. McCandless

167

Brief History of Syphilis  

PubMed Central

Abstract Before the discovery of Treponema pallidum as the etiologic agent, the origins of syphilis have been the subject of several debates. Diverse therapeutic agents were employed in an attempt to cure the disease. Examining the milestones in the history of syphilis, the present article reviews the existing theories that tried to explain the origins of the disease, the approach in art, the cultural and the evolution of the treatments from the empiric means to the discovery of penicillin.

Tampa, M; Sarbu, I; Matei, C; Benea, V; Georgescu, SR

2014-01-01

168

Paleomap Project Climate History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of the Climate History segment of the Paleomap Project is to illustrate climate change during the past 1100 million years. An array of colorful paleoclimatic maps for important time periods is provided. Each map displays reconstructed positions of modern continental coastlines, dominant regional climates and the datapoints used in map construction. The maps are arranged in order of ascending age and supply a short discussion of important concepts and geologic events.

Christopher, Scotese; Project, Paleomap

169

Museum of History & Industry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded by a band of historically-minded Seattleites in 1911, the Seattle Historical Society would later go on to create The Museum of History & Industry (MOHAI) in 1952. Since that time, MOHAI has been intimately involved with preserving and interpreting various aspects of Pacific Northwest history for both the curious public and scholars. Their website offers a few very nice highlights of some of their collections, including a photograph archive that contains approximately 4000 images. Visitors should also take a look at one of the several dozen oral history transcripts here, which feature discussions with men and women who have been involved in the information technology and manufacturing industries in the region. Those who find themselves in or around Seattle will want to look over the information offered here about visiting the actual museum as well. The site is rounded out by a very fun selection of audio clips, including one of the official theme songs of the 1962 Seattle World's Fair and another audio segment that features Bing Crosby waxing philosophic about his love for his native Washington state.

170

Dittrick Medical History Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Currently operating as an interdisciplinary study center within the College of Arts and Sciences of Case Western Reserve University, the Dittrick Medical History Center was established as part of the Cleveland Medical Library Association in 1894. First-time visitors will definitely want to begin by looking through the museum's history, and then examine the museum artifacts and galleries, which represent a small sample of their holdings. The artifacts are divided into time periods and include such fascinating medical equipment as bloodletting devices, a phrenology bust, and a defribrillator from 1950. The galleries section allows visitors to take a virtual tour of the rooms within the museum, such as a doctor's office from the 1930s and a replica of a pharmacy from the 1880s. Several online exhibits are also available for perusal, such as one dedicated to Cleveland's brush with a smallpox epidemic in 1902. Utterly fascinating, though not for the squeamish, is the exhibit that details medical school photographs, many of them class photographs around dissection tables, and postcards featuring medical students and cadavers. The site is rounded out with a host of online guides and finding aids that help in using the Center's extensive collections dealing with the history of medicine.

2003-01-01

171

Environmental History Podcast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Environmental History Resources is a fantastic website, maintained by Dr. Jan Oosthoek, an environmental historian based at the University of Newcastle, that explores how "environmental changes, often the result of human actions, have caused historical trends." The website features the award-winning podcast and the podcasts are available for visitors to listen to for the years of 2006 to 2010, with the 40th podcast episode on the lost wetlands of England posted in mid-December 2010. Visitors will find that each podcast episode has a good written synopsis that accompanies it, including literature cited, websites mentioned, and music featured, when applicable. Moving along, visitors will find a podcast in the "Podcasts 2008" section which addresses "Disasters, history and the cultures of coping". It uses the example of the Philippines, which has more tsunamis, volcanoes and earthquakes than any other country in the world, to show how "persistent threat and reality of disasters shapes the history, social and cultural development of societies."

172

IEEE Global History Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is an industry organization, and its Global History Network (GHN) is a wiki that "fosters the creation of narratives that not only document the history engineering practice but also explain when, how and why these myriad of technologies developed as they did." The homepage of the website for GHN has an "innovation map" and an "interactive timeline", as well as eight rotating featured concepts prominently displayed near the top of the homepage. Visitors should definitely check out the "Innovation Map", which shows what events happened, where, and when, such as the industrialization and commercialization of photovoltaic cells in Japan in 1959. The eight rotating featured concepts have included "Ancient Computers", "Cryptography", and "Memristors" which are resistors with memory. The menu across the top of any page contains the guts of the site, including "Oral Histories" of the most prominent people in the profession, "IEEE Stars", peer-reviewed articles, and "Topic Articles" which has "broad articles on a specific topic" which IEEE members and invited guests can create or modify.

173

Oral History Online!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bancroft Library at the University of California-Berkeley has recently begun a project to place portions of its oral history collection online in full text. The transcripts will be marked up in SGML using the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI), which will allow complex searches of the entire text. In addition to the transcripts themselves, the remainder (photos, prefaces, contents pages) of the published volumes will also be encoded to provide complete access. At this stage, the Suffragists Oral History Project, which offers the text of interviews with twelve suffragists and women's activists for searching or browsing, is the only project available online in complete form. Projects under construction include the Disabled Persons Independence Movement and the BioTech Project. Among the future planned additions are oral histories of the Free Speech Movement at Berkeley, the Earl Warren gubernatorial era, and African-American Alumni at the University of California. Historians of California and oral historians will want to monitor the site as it develops.

174

Southern Oral History Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since the rise of interest in social history in the United States, a number of academics and public citizens have remained committed to preserving the voices and perspectives of everyday people. The Southern Oral History Program (SOHP) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is a rather fine example of such a commitment. Founded in 1973, the SOHP has recorded over 2900 interviews with people from all walks of life, and their website contains a generous sampling of this material. First-time visitors may wish to start by watching "Spoken Memories", which provides a nice introduction to the history and work of SOHP. Afterwards, they can sample some of the online audio archives, or listen to the "Interview of the Month" feature. For those who wish to read as they listen, the interviews are complemented by transcripts in several different file formats. Visitors should also feel welcome to browse through the online finding aid to the SOHP's collection and offer their own feedback or inquiries.

175

The History of Education Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The History of Education Site categorizes and annotates international resources concerning education history, childhood history, and the history of education research. This frequently updated, easily navigated metasite--initiated and maintained by Henk van Setten, Associate Professor of the Philosophy and History of Education at the University of Nijmegen, Netherlands--indexes online bibliographies, pedagogical texts, specialized archives, discussion lists, educational statistics, and research organizations, in addition to numerous sites devoted to the history of education, the history of childhood, and the lives and works of important educators from the past. Each brief annotation in the index is accompanied by an icon that visually represents the site's content type, quantity, quality, relevance, and usability. The entire metasite is searchable; furthermore, helpful tips are provided on how to locate additional history of education resources on the Web.

176

The Bibliographic Databases in History.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The examination of abstracting-indexing services for the field of history focuses on Historical Abstracts (HA) and America--History and Life (AHL), and their relationship to the American Bibliographical Center's Subject Profile Index (ABC-SPIndex). The hi...

J. D. Falk

1979-01-01

177

WTO History Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A joint project of the University of Washington's (UW's) Harry Bridges Center for Labor Studies and the University Library, the WTO History Project focuses on the history-making protests of late 1999 in Seattle during the World Trade Organization (WTO) Ministerial meetings. A particularly groovy and educational highlight of this Website is the database of fliers, posters, notes, letters, etc. that the Manuscripts, Special Collections and University Archives Division of the UW Libraries makes Internet-accessible using CONTENTdm, a multimedia database developed at the UW. "CONTENTdm allows users to create customized searches of the collection and for high-quality digital reproductions to be viewed online, enabling some research to be conducted without visiting the collection." Visitors to the WTO History Project Website will also find a timeline of events prior to and during the 1999 protests in Seattle, including locations and sponsors, and a chart of organizations (with contact information) that were vocal in their opposition to the WTO, along with a list of registered WTO meeting attendees (MS Excel). In addition, this site features a page of interview transcripts with words from more than 80 organizers of and participants in the Seattle protests (.pdf). Organizations represented here include the Industrial Workers of the World, People for Fair Trade, the AFL-CIO, and the Sierra Club, to name just a few. This is a fantastic resource for students looking for primary texts dealing with labor and globalization issues or anyone wanting to learn more about the groups and individuals involved in the WTO protests. This site is still being developed, so check back often.

2001-01-01

178

How World History Became Global.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a history of world history instruction as it has evolved since the 1890s in the United States focusing on New York state. Concludes that the latest revisions have restored chronology; eliminated any attempt at universal history; decreased the presence of the social sciences; and retained the option for a topical treatment within a…

Lentini, Anthony

1987-01-01

179

Book History and Ideological Hierarchies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evolving field of Book History has had difficulty in integrating the experiences of immigrant culture. In explaining the origins of print culture in North America, Book History has a tendency to associate lowbrow with immigrants and their struggles to establish a foothold in a new land. Book History therefore symbolically defines immigrant…

Dilevko, Juris; Dali, Keren

2006-01-01

180

NEWE: A Western Shoshone History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One in a series of four histories of native Nevadans, this volume relates the history of the Western Shoshone, or Newe, whose territory included parts of the Great Basin area which extends from southern California to Idaho. Based on the spoken word of tribal elders and research conducted at numerous archives, the history begins with ancient…

Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada, Reno.

181

Studying Russian and Soviet History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These essays were written to assist teachers in the task of making Russian history intelligible to young U.S. students. In "An Approach to Russian History," Edward Keenan proposes that students need to gain a better understanding of how Russians perceive themselves and their history. In "Pre-Petrine Russia," Andrzej S. Kaminski focuses on the…

Ascher, Abraham, Ed.

182

History + Mystery = Inquiring Young Historians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While social studies content about communities, neighborhood jobs, and maybe even some state history is taught in the early elementary grades, often the upper elementary grades are the first time students learn about the larger progression of history. How do teachers begin to teach the progression of U.S. history and the themes and questions that…

Kirchner, Jana; Helm, Allison; Pierce, Kristin; Galloway, Michele

2011-01-01

183

The End of Economic History?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that the field of economic history is no longer a separate subfield of economics but an integral part of the entire discipline. Explains the concepts of monetary policy, labor force development, and economic growth in U.S. economic history. Concludes that the end of economic history is the beginning of better and richer economics. (CFR)

Romer, Christina D.

1994-01-01

184

Save Our History: Our Documents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Fall 2003 Idea Book features: "Save Our History Study Guide: Our Documents"; "History International Study Guide: Pyramids"; "The History Channel Study Guide: Lewis and Clark" (Ideas from Our Teachers Contest Rules; Ideas from Our Teachers Context Winners); "A&E Classroom Study Guide: Post Impressionists"; and "The Biography Channel Study…

O'Connell, Libby Haight; Gordon, Sarah; Suisman, David

2003-01-01

185

Treating Globalization in History Surveys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Globalization provides history teachers with an opportunity to link past to present in new ways and to test historical thinking. This is particularly true in world history surveys, but has relevance to Western civilization or United States history surveys as well. For globalization in turn, the historical perspective offers opportunities for more…

Stearns, Peter N.

2003-01-01

186

The Bibliographic Databases in History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This examination of abstracting-indexing services for the field of history focuses on Historical Abstracts (HA) and America--History and Life (AHL), and their relationship to the American Bibliographical Center's Subject Profile Index (ABC-SPIndex). The history, scope, selection criteria, and classification arrangements of the two databases are…

Falk, Joyce Duncan

187

Route 66 Oral Histories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The folks at Missouri State University have interviewed a range of business owners along the celebrated Route 66 to tell the amazing story of what life was like living along this American landmark. Visitors can read through interviews with a variety of people, including the long-time owner of the Boots Motel in Carthage, Missouri and Sheldon and Julia Chaney, owner of a popular gas station. It's the type of popular oral history that makes for excellent reading and contemplation. They plan on adding more material in the future, so curious visitors would do well to make return visits to see what's added next.

188

History of gluteal augmentation.  

PubMed

The concept of female beauty has changed throughout time, but the form and size of the breasts and gluteal region have remained constant as symbols of maximum femininity. Sculptures and prints show us feminine figures that are voluminous and reflect human history's interest in fertility. The early years of gluteal augmentation saw few published reports that described the procedure technique, follow-up, or possible complications. But developments continued as surgeons began experimenting with different anatomical planes for implant placement. The most important goal in plastic surgery is meeting a patient's expectations. It is important for the surgeon to thoroughly explain to patients what can realistically be achieved with a procedure. PMID:16818090

de la Peña, J Abel; Rubio, Omar V; Cano, Jacobo P; Cedillo, Mariana C; Garcés, Miriam T

2006-07-01

189

Public Lands: Hidden Histories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is about American public lands including parks, monuments, refuges, wilderness areas, underground mineral reserves, marine sanctuaries, historic and scenic trails, forests, and seashores. Throughout this lesson, students will explore and share with others the hidden histories and stories of these lands about wildlife, cultures, governments, and people who have lived on, enjoyed, protected, or influenced them. Students will identify the economic, scientific, recreational, and spiritual values of public lands; interpret Native American quotes that demonstrate the unique relationship between Native Americans and the land; identify important historic facts about select public lands; and develop a creative way to share information with others about a select public land.

190

History of Kawasaki disease.  

PubMed

We describe a short history of Kawasaki disease. In 1967, we published a paper entitled 'Infantile acute febrile mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome with specific desquamation of the fingers and toes. Clinical observation of 50 cases'; this was the first report on what is now called Kawasaki disease. Since then, many reports on cardiology, treatment, epidemiology, pathology and etiology of Kawasaki disease have been published. Furthermore, a recent Chapel Hill Consensus Statement on Kawasaki disease in the classification of vasculitis is given, along with a figure on the relationship and classification of childhood vasculitis by autopsy material. PMID:24595558

Kawasaki, Tomisaku; Naoe, Shiro

2014-04-01

191

Atmospheric refraction: a history  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of uniform density up to a sharp upper transition to the ether, at which the refraction occurred. Alhazen and Witelo transmitted his knowledge to medieval Europe. The first accurate measurements were made by Tycho Brahe in the 16th century. Finally, Kepler, who was aware of unusually strong refractions, used the Ptolemaic model to explain the first documented and recognized mirage (the Novaya Zemlya effect).

Lehn, Waldemar H.; van der Werf, Siebren

2005-09-01

192

History of Space Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can choose from an extensive selection of links to resources for use in the study of the history of space exploration. The links provide access to historic information and publications, chronologies, and mission summaries for American, Russian, European, and other space missions. For educators, there are links to guides to robotic spacecraft and to observing the space shuttle in orbit. Links are also provided to a variety of spacecraft homepages and to other topics such as a primer on the basics of space flight, the Apollo lunar surface journals, and the NASA historic archives.

193

Immigration History Research Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The IHRC, located at the University of Minnesota, is an "international resource on American immigration and ethnic history" that offers a number of resources of interest to migration and ethnic specialists. The IHRC searchable archival and library collections include personal papers, organizational records, pamphlets and newspapers, and information on responses to immigration. The Center's collections are strongest on eastern, central, and southern European and Near Eastern ethnic groups. The site also features information on genealogical resources, recent acquisitions, and current events at the center.

194

Reconstructing Childhood Health Histories  

PubMed Central

This article provides evidence about the quality of retrospective childhood health histories given to respondents in the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS) and the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). Even though information on early life health events is critical, there is legitimate skepticism about the ability of older respondents to remember specific health problems that they had during childhood. The evidence presented in this article suggests that this view is too negative. Respondents appear to remember salient childhood events about themselves, such as the illnesses they had during childhood, quite well. Moreover, these physical and psychological childhood health events are important correlates of adult health during middle age.

SMITH, JAMES P.

2009-01-01

195

"L" System History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, provided by University of Illinois student Graham Garfield, traces the history of Chicago's "L" lines from their inception to the 1980s. The first "L" lines date back to the 19th century and all were privately owned and operated until the Chicago Transit Authority (CTA) was formed and took over all of the city's public transportation in 1945-7. Chronologies for different "L" lines are provided, as well historic route maps. Train buffs will especially enjoy the excellent collection of annotated photos of trains and stations.

Garfield, Graham.

1998-01-01

196

A History Worth Preserving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Manhattan Project transformed the course of American and world history, science, politics and society. If we can read about this in books and watch History Channel documentaries, why do we need to preserve some of the properties of this enormous undertaking? The presentation, ``A History Worth Preserving,'' will address why some of the physical properties need to be preserved and which ones we are struggling to maintain for future generations. The story of this effort begins in 1997 as the Department of Energy was posed to demolish the last remaining Manhattan Project properties at the Los Alamos laboratory. Located deep behind security fences, the ``V Site's'' asbestos-shingled wooden buildings looked like humble garages with over-sized wooden doors. The ``V Site'' properties were almost lost twice, first to bulldozers and then the Cerro Grande fire of 2000. Now, visitors can stand inside the building where J. Robert Oppenheimer and his crew once worked and imagine the Trinity ``gadget'' hanging from its hoist shortly before it ushered in the Atomic Age on July 16, 1945. As Richard Rhodes has commented, we preserve what we value of the physical past because it specifically embodies our social past. But many challenge whether the Manhattan Project properties ought to be preserved. Rather than recognize the Manhattan Project as a great achievement worthy of commemoration, some see it as a regrettable event, producing an instrument to take man's inhumanity to man to extremes. While these divergent views will no doubt persist, the significance of the Manhattan Project in producing the world's first atomic bombs is irrefutable. Preserving some of its tangible remains is essential so that future generations can understand what the undertaking entailed from its humble wooden sheds to enormous first-of-a-kind industrial plants with 125,000 people working in secret and living in frontier-like communities. With continuing pressure for their demolition, what progress has been made in preserving some properties of the Manhattan Project? The presentation will share the handful of remaining properties that we believe are needed to tell the story of the Manhattan Project. It will share our successes, what is still at risk, and the on-going struggle to preserve this history.

Kelly, Cynthia

2008-04-01

197

The History of Mathematics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Trinity College in Ireland hosts this site about the History of Mathematics. Rather than identifying key discoveries and theorems, the site mainly gives accounts of many prominent mathematicians and focuses on their research and contributions. Most material deals with the period between the 17th and 19th centuries, a time that produced many ideas that form the basis of modern mathematics. Some famous people highlighted on the site include Descartes, Fermat, and Sir Isaac Newton. A number of historical papers written by these mathematicians are available to be downloaded.

Wilkins, David R.

198

Climate in Earth history  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Complex atmosphere-ocean-land interactions govern the climate system and its variations. During the course of Earth history, nature has performed a large number of experiments involving climatic change; the geologic record contains much information regarding these experiments. This information should result in an increased understanding of the climate system, including climatic stability and factors that perturb climate. In addition, the paleoclimatic record has been demonstrated to be useful in interpreting the origin of important resources-petroleum, natural gas, coal, phosphate deposits, and many others.

Berger, W. H.; Crowell, J. C.

1982-01-01

199

Parkfield, California: Earthquake History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report describes the history of seismic activity at Parkfield, California, which is situated on the San Andreas Fault. It points out that moderate-size earthquakes have occurred on the Parkfield section of the San Andreas fault at fairly regular intervals, and that the earthquakes may have been 'characteristic' in the sense that they occurred with some regularity (mean repetition time of about 22 years). This indicates that they may have repeatedly ruptured the same area on the fault. A diagram shows the timing of the earthquakes, and illustrations of the seismic waveforms show the similarities between earthquakes occurring in 1922, 1934, and 1966.

200

The history of happiness.  

PubMed

In the 18th century, the Enlightenment ushered in the notion that happiness was the attainment of a worthy life. Since then the pursuit of happiness has spread to every aspect of behavior, from religion and politics to work and parenting. Today the happiness imperative creates pressures that, paradoxically, can make us miserable. Sadness is often mistaken for a pathology. Understanding the cultural commitment to good cheer as an artifact of modern history, not as an inherent feature of the human condition, opens new opportunities for understanding key facets of our social and personal experience. PMID:22299510

Stearns, Peter N

2012-01-01

201

Physician Assistant History Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Like so many others, perhaps some of our Scout Report readers have wondered: "Where can I find out more about the history of physician assistants?" Those persons need wonder no longer, as this very thorough website provides a cornucopia of material that addresses all aspects of that very query. The site was created by a group of responsible organizations, including Duke University Medical Center and the American Academy of Physicians Assistants. The site's "Timeline" section is a good place to start as it offers a chronology of the different phases of the history of this profession, which dates back to 1650 when German military medical assistants were introduced into Russian armies by no less a personage than Peter the Great. Other sections include biographical essays of pioneering physician assistants such as Richard Smith and Marvin L. Gliedman. The site is rounded out by a collection of photographs of important artifacts (such as a stethoscope used by Dr. Eugene Stead, Jr., who founded the profession) and a bibliography.

202

Smithsonian's History Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Smithsonian's National Museum of American History, along with the Verizon Foundation, has developed a website that offers standards-based online resources for teaching and learning American history. This lively looking red, white and blue-themed website has an eye-catching feature on the homepage which highlights an item from the Museum's Artifacts. Visitors should click on the "Learn More" link, which is right below the description of the artifact, which will take the visitor to the full detail of the artifact, as well as any related artifacts. Clicking on the "Museum Artifacts" tab at the top of the page will take the visitor to the search engine for the 65 museum artifacts on the site. The "Lessons & Activities" tab at the top of the homepage takes the visitor to a list of lessons and activities that can be filtered by Grade Level or Historical Eras/National Standards. Additionally, the list provides the lesson/activity description, the grade band it's suitable for, as well as the duration of the lesson. Finally, the "Interactives & Media" tab, located at the top of the homepage, links to a slew of audio, video, and interactive resources that are meant to be used by students on their own, without the aid of a parent or teacher. "Building a Sod House", "Artificial Anatomy: Body Parts", "Children Write to the President", and "Whatever Happened to Polio?" are just a few of the 36 fascinating interactive lessons.

203

[Surgical dogmas throughout history].  

PubMed

This article is a historical analysis of the role of dogmas and dogmatic thinking in surgery from the great pioneers and teachers of surgery of a hundred years ago to the present time. Medical knowledge applied schematically creates security and may benefit many patients, but when simplification and standardization degenerates into rigid dogma, creative thinking will be obstructed and the development of innovative concepts becomes difficult. In the old times of the 19th and early years of the 20th century, dogmas usually originated from the teaching of great and prestigious pioneers of surgery. Nowadays, dogmatic thinking may come as practice guidelines, protocols of consensus conferences and even from the interpretation of the results of prospective randomized studies. The author illustrates these thoughts by a number of examples taken from the history of surgery over the last one hundred years: The controversy between Sauerbruch's (under)pressurized chamber and the concept of intratracheal positive pressure ventilation and its influence on the development of thoracic surgery during the first half of the 20th century, the role of serendipity and undogmatic thinking in the development of damage control surgery towards the end of the 20th century, the fascinating history of two operations which kept their position as gold standard for almost a century, i.e. Halsted's radical mastectomy for breast cancer and the Miles operation for cancer of the rectum. PMID:11234318

Aeberhard, P F

2001-01-01

204

Las Vegas Strip History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by amateur cultural historian Deanna DeMatteo, this site offers "the most detailed history of the Las Vegas Strip on the Internet today," showing in words and graphics the evolution of the properties on the Strip from its beginning to the present. Drawing on materials provided by publications, professional Las Vegas historians, and the Nevada State Museum and Historical Society, DeMatteo offers a detailed, noncommercial history with plenty of photographs (many archival) of the strip from the first night club in 1930 named Pair O Dice to the first true casino hotel, El Rancho with 63 rooms in 1941, to Hilton's giant Paris Las Vegas opening earlier this Fall with 2,914 rooms. There is also a special topics section, covering people significant in the strip's development, such as Warren "Doc" Bayley and Howard Hughes. Launched in August, the Website is continually updated with new material. Note: to reach table of contents, click on the photograph at end of the homepage.

Dematteo, Deanna.

205

Powys Digital History Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Posted by the Powys County Archives, this Website (in Welsh and English) "aims to tell the local history of communities in the heart of Wales using sources which include archive documents, photographs, and early maps." The mid-Wales county of Powys is comprised of the three ancient counties of Montgomeryshire, Radnorshire, and Brecknock, and this Website offers archive documents, old photographs, school log books, trade directories, gazetteers, and supplemental historical narratives concerning six longstanding communities from this area. Visitors can access the material either by community or by social and historical themes, which include Crime and punishment, Education and schools, Religion in Wales, and Care of the poor. The archival material posted here is not inconsiderable and may be of supplemental use to researchers dealing with a variety of issues, including the structures of nineteenth-century, Welsh, rural society and the various skirmishes with the English before Wales's eventual incorporation (politically, if not entirely culturally) into Great Britain. In addition, the supplemental historical narratives are written in a professional manner and can serve as fine learning resources for students of local UK history.

206

History of ball bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The familiar precision rolling-element bearings of the twentieth century are products of exacting technology and sophisticated science. Their very effectiveness and basic simplicity of form may discourage further interest in their history and development. Yet the full story covers a large portion of recorded history and surprising evidence of an early recognition of the advantages of rolling motion over sliding action and progress toward the development of rolling-element bearings. The development of rolling-element bearings is followed from the earliest civilizations to the end of the eighteenth century. The influence of general technological developments, particularly those concerned with the movement of large building blocks, road transportation, instruments, water-raising equipment, and windmills are discussed, together with the emergence of studies of the nature of rolling friction and the impact of economic factors. By 1800 the essential features of ball and rolling-element bearings had emerged and it only remained for precision manufacture and mass production to confirm the value of these fascinating machine elements.

Dowson, D.; Hamrock, B. J.

1981-01-01

207

History of Human Parasitology  

PubMed Central

Humans are hosts to nearly 300 species of parasitic worms and over 70 species of protozoa, some derived from our primate ancestors and some acquired from the animals we have domesticated or come in contact with during our relatively short history on Earth. Our knowledge of parasitic infections extends into antiquity, and descriptions of parasites and parasitic infections are found in the earliest writings and have been confirmed by the finding of parasites in archaeological material. The systematic study of parasites began with the rejection of the theory of spontaneous generation and the promulgation of the germ theory. Thereafter, the history of human parasitology proceeded along two lines, the discovery of a parasite and its subsequent association with disease and the recognition of a disease and the subsequent discovery that it was caused by a parasite. This review is concerned with the major helminth and protozoan infections of humans: ascariasis, trichinosis, strongyloidiasis, dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, loasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, cestodiasis, paragonimiasis, clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, amoebiasis, giardiasis, African trypanosomiasis, South American trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, cyclosporiasis, and microsporidiosis.

Cox, F. E. G.

2002-01-01

208

[Pierre Janet observes history].  

PubMed

Janet, philosopher and physician, Freud's junior by three years, not only described traumatic dissociation and pathogenic subconscious ideas; he outlined a comprehensive system of psychology. Still, he considered his concepts to be mere linguistic tools, designed to grasp mental phenomena as precisely as possible. His prime interest was in observations - his own and those of others, whether his contemporaries at home and abroad or predecessors of all kinds. Janet never regarded himself as a historian, but his works as well as his way of thinking are most interesting from a historiographical point of view. His three-volume Médications psychologiques of 1919 contains a wealth of material about the history of psychotherapy. Furthermore, he dealt with his sources in a critical and historically reflexive manner. The later Janet considered any explanation and theory to be "inventions", more or less useful and basically open to change. By working with the notion of "narration", he described scientific statements as narratives, different from lies, fairy-tales or novels only in their claim to be verifiable. Every narration, however, is placed in a social context: narrators always wish to evoke a particular image of the real in their audience. Thus Janet established the link between scientific edifices and individual motivation, an unsettling link in terms of the history of science and certainly alien, if not positively abhorrent to Freud. PMID:24988805

Fischer-Homberger, Esther

2014-01-01

209

Silicon Valley History Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As described on this website, Silicon Valley is "a bellwether beast, pursuing the newest technologies on the drawing board and in the hand". This compelling online digital archive was created by a consortium of organizations and institutions located in the Silicon Valley, including the History San Jose Research Library and the Santa Clara University Archives. Appropriately enough, visitors entering through the site's homepage will be greeted by a number of context-specific images, including a couple of peaches, a microchip processor, and a historical photograph of two scientists at work. From there, visitors can delve into the documents collected here by clicking on one of the general headings, such as education, people, technology, agriculture, and urban life. Currently, the archive contains close to 1000 images, and users are free to browse through them at their leisure. Visitors can also create customized searches and save their favorite images to a "My Favorites" area.

2004-01-01

210

Women's Legal History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Women's Legal History website is the home of a searchable database of articles and papers on pioneering women lawyers in the United States. The site contains sections that include the WLH Biography Project and the index and bibliographic notes from "Woman Lawyer: The Trial of Clara Foltz" by Barbara Babcock. In the WLH Biography Project, visitors can look over the life stories of women in the legal profession, such as Agnes Sagebiel, Marge Wagner, and Julia Jennings. There are over 1,000 profiles that visitors can browse alphabetically or search by name, year, ethnicity, or law school. Additionally, the site contains detailed information about Babcock's recent work, along with media clips related to the subject of women lawyers

2013-01-01

211

Atmospheric refraction: a history.  

PubMed

We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of uniform density up to a sharp upper transition to the ether, at which the refraction occurred. Alhazen and Witelo transmitted his knowledge to medieval Europe. The first accurate measurements were made by Tycho Brahe in the 16th century. Finally, Kepler, who was aware of unusually strong refractions, used the Ptolemaic model to explain the first documented and recognized mirage (the Novaya Zemlya effect). PMID:16201423

Lehn, Waldemar H; van der Werf, Siebren

2005-09-20

212

History of Palaeozoic Forests  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

University of Muenster's Palaeobotanical Research Group provides this site with links to Web sources dealing with Paleozoic forests. One educational highlight of the site is the regularly updated introductory text, "History of Palaeozoic Forests," by Hans Kerp, Head of the Palaeobotanical Research Group at Muenster. Available in both English and German, this text features information on the earliest land plants, Carboniferous swamps, and the first flowering plants, among other things. Here, readers will find overviews of biostratigraphic issues such as the existence of the Palaeophytic-Mesophytic boundary. The figures are comprised of Stratigraphic columns, illustrated landscape reconstructions, and paleogeographic maps. Other sections of the site include research, publications, news, and links to palaeobotany-related museums, societies, and courses.

213

Connecticut History Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Connecticut Historical Society, Mystic Seaport, and the Thomas J. Dodd Research Center at the University of Connecticut have combined efforts to create this site, the first step in the creation of a major online archive of Connecticut historical images, due to be completed in the summer of 2001. At present, the pilot site offers over 1,200 images, searchable by keyword, advanced search, or by collection. Visitors can also search within five categories (Diversity, Lifestyle, Environment, Livelihood, and Infrastructure) and browse the entire collection by subject, title, or creator. Search returns include a photo title, date, and a small image (annoyingly not a thumbnail). Users must call up the full record and select the view image link to display the images (available in one size only). The site is worth a visit for anyone interested in Connecticut history or digital image archives.

214

Connecticut History Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Online digital collaborations have reaped great dividends in the past few years, and this latest project involving the Connecticut State Library, Mystic Seaport, the Connecticut Historical Society, and the New Haven Colony Historical Society is no exception. Currently, the Connecticut History Online website contains over 14,000 images of photographs, drawings, and prints that may be searched in a number of ways, including by keyword, creator, title, and date. For those who may be overwhelmed by these numerous options, there are also a number of thematic "Journeys", which are intended to introduce visitors to highlights of this diverse collection. Some of these sections include such themes such as "Maritime Trades", Connecticut goes to the Beach", and "Rural Life in Connecticut". Educators will appreciate the classroom section of the site, which contains numerous lesson plans, puzzles, and a citation guide that will be of great assistance.

215

Wisconsin History Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Ashland in the far north all the way south to Beloit, the state of Wisconsin is full of compelling stories that bring in the cultural and social diversity of its people and its development. Offered up by the Wisconsin Historical Society, the Wisconsin History Explorer uses the properties documented through the National Register of Historic Places "to tell stories about Wisconsin people and communities." Through the use of historic photographs and other documents, the Explorer tells thematic stories about Wisconsin's suburbs, early road development, and historic theaters. One particularly delightful collection here is "Are We There Yet? Sweet Dreams: The Evolution of the Motel in Wisconsin". In this collection, visitors will learn about the early days of stage inns in the state and progress all the way up to the emergence of the motor courts in the 1920s.

216

TheatreHistory.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lovers of the dramaturgical arts will want to take a look at Theatrehistory.com, which offers a host of resources on the long and storied past of this performing art. The homepage for the site features links to a script archive, a Today in Theatre History section, a featured topic area, and a listing of the other areas covered within the site. The script archive is worth a look by aspiring thespians, as it includes a number of monologues, 10-minute plays, and full-length plays, most of which are in the public domain. The general theatre section is divided by country or region, and includes full-length articles about the tradition of the theatrical arts in Britain, Ireland, Russia, and Spain, among other countries.

217

Cultural history and psychoanalysis.  

PubMed

There is a congruence of hermeneutic method between cultural history and psychoanalysis which includes a recognition of the subjectivity and self-reflexivity of interpretation and of the centrality of emotions in the structuring of historical motivation and action. Psychoanalysis is a humanistic discipline that offers tentative multi-causal conclusions, combining in its method both self-reflection and empiricism, but basing itself on a unique process of inquiry different from either the natural or the cultural sciences. Distinguished shapers of the historian's craft, including Dilthey, Collingwood, and Bloch, used the self as an instrument of research and insight. Freud was a cultural pessimist, as was Burckhardt whom he admired. Leading contemporary American historians, such as Williamson, foreground self-reflection as an acknowledged tool of historical discovery and cognition. The "Bauhaus," 1919-1939, is presented as a case study of creative group process utilizing Winnicott's concepts of transitional space. PMID:19780235

Loewenberg, Peter

2007-01-01

218

Center for Jewish History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Designed as a partnership between five major institutions of Jewish scholarship, history and art (including the American Jewish Historical Society, the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research, and the American Sephardi Federation), the Center has combined holdings of approximately 100-million archival documents, artifacts, paintings, and textiles. From the organization's homepage, visitors can learn about the mission of the center, how to conduct genealogical research using their holdings, and browse a calendar of the many events and conferences held at the Center's headquarters in Manhattan. One of the online highlights is the fine archive of audio and video clips and interviews available in the Events at the Center area. Here visitors can listen to the proceedings of an international conference on anti-Semitism in the West held in May 2003, and view interviews with Dr. Ruth Westheimer and Shimon Peres. Also, visitors may elect to sign up to receive the Center's email newsletter.

219

History of Entomopathogenic Nematology  

PubMed Central

The history of entomopathogenic nematology is briefly reviewed. Topic selections include early descriptions of members of Steinernema and Heterorhabditis, how only morphology was originally used to distinguish between the species; descriptions of the symbiotic bacteria and elucidating their role in the nematode- insect complex, including antibiotic properties, phase variants, and impeding host defense responses. Other topics include early solutions regarding production, storage, field applications and the first commercial sales of entomopathogenic nematodes in North America. Later studies centered on how the nematodes locate insect hosts, their effects on non-target organisms and susceptibility of the infective juveniles to soil microbes. While the goals of early workers was to increase the efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes for pest control, the increasing use of Heterorhabditis and Photorhabdus as genetic models in molecular biology is noted.

Poinar, G. O.; Grewal, P. S.

2012-01-01

220

Women's History Month  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Library of Congress, National Archives and Records Administration, National Endowment for the Humanities, National Gallery of Art, National Park Service, and several other institutions have joined forces to create this very nice "one-stop" website for materials related to women's history. The site is an intoxicating and arresting blend of educational resources (such as lesson plans), multimedia features, photograph collections, and listings of events sponsored by participating institutions. Visitors can check out profiles that include "Women Breaking Musical Barriers" and "The Women of Four Wars", and then move on to the sections on the left-hand side of the homepage. Here they will find links to additional image collections, audio and video libraries, and a special "For Teachers" area.

221

Family History Assessment  

PubMed Central

Background Family Healthware™, a tool developed by the CDC, is a self-administered web-based family history tool that assesses familial risk for six diseases (coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and colon, breast and ovarian cancers) and provides personalized prevention messages based on risk. The Family Healthware Impact Trial (FHITr) set out to examine the clinical utility of presenting personalized preventive messages tailored to family history risk for improving health behaviors. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of Family Healthware on modifying disease risk perceptions, particularly among those who initially underestimated their risk for certain diseases. Design A total of 3786 patients were enrolled in a cluster-randomized trial to evaluate the clinical utility of Family Healthware. Setting/participants Participants were recruited from 41 primary care practices among 13 states between 2005 and 2007. Main outcome measures Perceived risk for each disease was assessed at baseline and 6-month follow-up using a single-item comparative risk question. Analyses were completed in March 2012. Results Compared to controls, Family Healthware increased risk perceptions among those who underestimated their risk for heart disease (15% vs 9%, p<0.005); stroke (11% vs 8%, p<0.05); diabetes (18% vs 11%, p<0.05); and colon cancer (17% vs 10%, p=0.05); but not breast or ovarian cancers. The majority of underestimators did not shift in their disease risk perceptions. Conclusions Family Healthware was effective at increasing disease risk perceptions, particularly for metabolic conditions, among those who underestimated their risk. Results from this study also demonstrate the relatively resistant nature of risk perceptions. Trial registration This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT00164658.

Wang, Catharine; Sen, Ananda; Ruffin, Mack T.; Nease, Donald E.; Gramling, Robert; Acheson, Louise S.; O'Neill, Suzanne M.; Rubinstein, Wendy S.

2012-01-01

222

The History of Nature and the Nature of History: Stephen Jay Gould on Science, Philosophy, and History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers Stephen Jay Gould's writings on the nature of history, specifically on the relationship between science and history. Addresses the scientific method, the foundations and procedures of historical explanation in science, history as contingency, and evolution as history. (CMK)

Blaser, Kent

1999-01-01

223

South Asian Oral History Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oral histories are an important way of telling a community's history, and this intriguing project from the University of Washington Libraries sheds new light on a very interesting aspect of history in the Pacific Northwest. The goal of the South Asian Oral History Project (SAOHP) is "to record pan-South Asian immigrant experiences in the Pacific Northwest using the medium of oral history." The project began in 2005, and the interviews here include immigrants who moved to the area from Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka from the 1950s to the present. Visitors can view transcripts of the interviews at their leisure, and good background material can be found in the section titled "A librarian's gift: Oral history project preserves memories of South Asian immigrants". The interviews are quite fascinating, and they include memories of studying at the University of Washington, attending the1962 Seattle World's Fair, and the challenges immigrants faced when they arrived.

224

Ohio History Central Online Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From William Howard Taft to Toledo, the Ohio History Central Online Encyclopedia is a veritable cornucopia of material about the places, events, and other elements of the Buckeye state's history and lore. As noted on the site's homepage, this encyclopedia ïÿý"is an evolving, dynamic online encyclopedia that includes information about Ohio's natural history, prehistory and history.ïÿý That is certainly a tall order to fill, and the site does so admirably. Visitors can click on over to the built-in search engine on the homepage, or just browse along through such broad categories as "History", "Natural History", and "State Symbols". Visitors to this last category may be intrigued to learn that the state's beverage is tomato juice, or that the state's official insect is the ladybug, a peaceful creature best known for its voracious appetite for aphids.

2006-01-01

225

Ascertaining Problems with Medication Histories  

PubMed Central

Background: Accurate and complete medication histories are not always obtained in clinical practice. Objective: This qualitative research study was undertaken to explore the barriers to and facilitators of obtaining accurate medication histories. Methods: Individual interviews, based on a structured interview guide, were conducted with 25 patients from both inpatient and ambulatory care clinic settings. Focus groups, based on a semistructured interview guide, were conducted with pharmacists, medical residents, and nurses. Transcribed data were analyzed by forming coded units and assessing these units for emerging themes. Results: Major themes that emerged from the patient interviews included patient ownership of health and medication knowledge (with knowledge of medications and their side effects and how to take medications being seen as important), patient-specific strategies to improve medication histories (e.g., use of regularly updated medication lists), and suggestions for system-level facilitators to improve medication histories (e.g., centralized databases of medication histories, increased patient education regarding the use and purpose of medications). Major themes also emerged from focus groups with health care professionals, including shared responsibility for medication history-taking among all 3 health care professions, perceptions about the barriers to medication history-taking (including patients not knowing their medications and not bringing their medication lists), and suggestions to improve medication histories (e.g., educating patients to bring medication vials to hospital admissions and appointments, using a centralized computer database for medication histories). Conclusions: Key recommendations resulting from this study include using standardized documentation techniques for medication histories, recording of medication history information in centralized electronic databases, educating patients to bring medications to every health care visit, and establishing criteria for pharmacist referral for cases involving complex medication histories.

Halapy, Henry; Kertland, Heather

2012-01-01

226

The history of horizontal glottectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of horizontal glottectomy (HG) for the treatment of bilateral vocal cord lesions is not entirely clear. The present\\u000a investigation analyzes the history of HG on the basis of cross-referenced database searches in general and professional medical\\u000a literature databases. Books, original historical articles and medical history reviews were evaluated. The initial work was\\u000a done by Moser in years from

Benedikt J. Folz; Alessandra Rinaldo; Carl E. Silver; Alfio Ferlito

2010-01-01

227

Center for History of Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for History of Physics works to archive and disseminate the historical record of modern physics and allied sciences. The online collection provides topical exhibits, visual archives, oral history interviews, a listing of books and other publications, and example syllabi for history of science courses. All of these resources are available for use in classes where appropriate. The Center is recognized world-wide for the quality its resources.

2003-11-05

228

Cenozoic Glacial History Revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent geological discoveries have shaken the long-standing view of Earth's Cenozoic glacial history, which traditionally calls for the first continental-scale glaciation of East Antarctica in the earliest Oligocene (~33.6 Ma), followed by the onset of major Northern Hemispheric glacial cycles in the late Pliocene about 30 million years later. For example, new evidence from Arctic and North Atlantic oceans suggests Northern Hemispheric sea ice and glaciers have existed intermittently through much of the Cenozoic, not just the last few million years. In terms of the early glacial history of Antarctica, it has recently been suggested that significant glacial ice might have formed at various times during the overall greenhouse warmth of the Cretaceous and Eocene, and when more permanent, major glaciation began in the earliest Oligocene, a proto-West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) might have grown in concert with the East Antarctic Ice Sheet, rather than forming much later in the Neogene as is usually assumed. These data hint at previously unconsidered ice accommodation during the Oligocene and Miocene that could help to explain the discrepancy between large variations in global ice volume implied by deep-sea-core records, and the much smaller amplitude variations predicted by numerical climate-ice sheet models of East Antarctica alone. In the more recent Pliocene and Pleistocene, recent sedimentary drilling by ANDRILL has shown that the Antarctic ice shelves and WAIS have waxed and waned with far greater frequency than previously suspected. Here, we review these recent geological findings from the polar regions of both hemispheres, while considering them in the context of globally distributed proxy records from the deep sea and new model results using the latest generation of coupled atmosphere-ocean-cryosphere-isotope models. We offer a revised view of Earth's cryospheric evolution through the Cenozoic, and note important discrepancies between traditional interpretations of proxy ice volume records, based mainly on oxygen isotope and Mg/Ca records from the deep sea, and numerical models simulations that consider the long-term evolution of Cenozoic paleogeography and atmospheric carbon dioxide.

Deconto, R.; Pollard, D.; Wilson, P.; Pagani, M.

2009-04-01

229

AFSCME Laborlinks: Women's Labor History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In honor of Women's history month, the American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees (AFSCME) has posted on their Website an annotated directory of Websites devoted to women's labor history. This includes a number of sites on famous women agitators and labor advocates including Mary Kenney O'Sullivan (co-founder of the Women's Trade Union League), Florence Kelley (who agitated for reform of the women's sweatshops of Chicago), Jane Addams, Mother Jones, and others. Historical sites dedicated to key periods in women's labor history are also listed as well as a section of general women's labor history links.

2001-01-01

230

Teaching about Religion in History Classes: Sacred and Secular History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In teaching about religion there is the fundamental distinction between secular history, which is restricted to natural cause and effect relationships, and sacred histories, which assume that a spirit world exists and that human/divine interaction has taken place. In the United States, the academically approved way of dealing with these…

Abrahamson, Brant; Smith, Fred

231

Oral History in Education: Teacher's Memory and Teachers' History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the challenge presented by the exercise of memory, through oral history, as an historical method. Notes the use of historical data generated by memory projects. Concludes that memory recollection, as a historical medium, can be a resource for bearing witness to history's power to shape lives as individuals experience it. (KDR)

Gardner, Philip

2003-01-01

232

Lessons about Art in History and History in Art.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written by teachers from the United States and Canada, these lesson plans focus on integrating the teaching of history and art history. Seventeen lesson plans cover the topics of (1) Slavery, Henry Ossawa Tanner, and His Family--Grades: Elementary; (2) Chinese Landscape Painting--Grades: Elementary; (3) Regionalism: American Art of the Great…

Erickson, Mary, Ed.; Clark, Gilbert, Ed.

233

Simulation Time History and Access Time History Programs (Users Manual).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Simulation Time History Computer Program, STH, has been developed at the Carderock Division of the Naval Surface Warfare Center to provide realistic, random wave time histories of the six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) ship responses, i.e., surge, sway, hea...

W. G. Meyers C. J. Bennett T. R. Applebee

1993-01-01

234

Resources for History Day 1991: "Rights in History."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter issue brings to students' attention some of the topics they could explore in working toward an award that the Arab World and Islamic Resources and School Services (AWAIR) organization presented to students participating in History Day 1991. The special category of the awards is Arab or Islamic history. The topics presented were not…

Shabbas, Audrey

1991-01-01

235

History of magnetorheological finishing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetorheological finishing (MRF) is a deterministic method for producing complex optics with figure accuracy <50 nm and surface roughness <1 nm. MRF was invented at the Luikov Institute of Heat and Mass Transfer in Minsk, Belarus in the late 1980s by a team led by William Kordonski. When the Soviet Union opened up, New York businessman Lowell Mintz was invited to Minsk in 1990 to explore possibilities for technology transfer. Mintz was told of the potential for MRF, but did not understand whether it had value. Mintz was referred to Harvey Pollicove at the Center for Optics Manufacturing of the University of Rochester. As a result of their conversation, they sent Prof. Steve Jacobs to visit Minsk and evaluate MRF. From Jacobs' positive findings, and with support from Lowell Mintz, Kordonski and his colleagues were invited in 1993 to work at the Center for Optics Manufacturing with Jacobs and Don Golini to refine MRF technology. A "preprototype" finishing machine was operating by 1994. Prof. Greg Forbes and doctoral student Paul Dumas developed algorithms for deterministic control of MRF. In 1996, Golini recognized the commercial potential of MRF, secured investment capital from Lowell Mintz, and founded QED Technologies. The first commercial MRF machine was unveiled in 1998. It was followed by more advanced models and by groundbreaking subaperture stitching interferometers for metrology. In 2006, QED was acquired by and became a division of Cabot Microelectronics. This paper recounts the history of the development of MRF and the founding of QED Technologies.

Harris, Daniel C.

2011-05-01

236

Natural History of Hawaii  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first Web site (1) is a ThinkQuest entry designed by students from Kapolei Elementary School. Although it's geared toward kids, it offers a great overview of the natural history of Hawaii that should benefit anyone not already familiar with the islands. The next Web site (2), from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk Project, outlines the alien species situation in Hawaii and presents a 10-point action plan for combating this problem. The National Wildlife Health Center of the US Geological Survey describes the projects of the Hawaii Field Station in this straightforward Web site (3). Visitors can take a virtual tour of Oahu's Lyon Arboretum and learn about some of Hawaii's unique flora along the way (4). The Hawaii Natural Area Reserves System Web site (5) contains general descriptions and photos of nature reserves on Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maui, and the Big Island. Visitors to the next site (6) can browse a gallery of colorful Hawaiian-themed prints created by naturalist painter N. Robert Wagstaff. Terra Galleria Photography offers another collection of beautiful images, this time of Haleakala National Park. Images from this Web site (7) include photos of the highly endangered silversword plant. The final Web site is an article from ScienceDaily Magazine about some of the efforts to save this rare plant, which serves as a symbol of Hawaii's ecological plight (8).

Sohmer, Rachel.

2002-01-01

237

Warmest winter in history  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For four days last week, the daily temperatures outside the Internet Scout Project office here in Wisconsin soared above 60 F (and on one day, above 75 F), and the lakes that surround Madison melted in one fell swoop, bringing winter to a lurching halt and restless thoughts of summer to the forefront. While such local temperature anomalies are not surprising (nor did other cities experience the same highs), in this case, they fit in with a global trend that continues to raise -- in some cases, anxious -- eyebrows. On Friday, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) announced that this winter is the warmest on record. Surpassing recent warm winter records of 1997-1998, the winter of 1999-2000 has now clinched the somewhat dubious title of warmest winter in history. This news release comes on the coat tails of a January report from the National Academy of Sciences confirming what is already accepted among most scientists -- that global warming is real (see the January 14, 2000 Scout Report). For news and information on this warmest of winters, this week's In The News features seven sites, listed above.

Payne, Laura X.

238

Asteroids: A History  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I finished reading Curtis Peebles' book Asteroids: A History with mixed emotions, but overall I was very disappointed. I enjoyed, with some reservations, the first few chapters, which describe the early days of asteroid astronomy. One thing that makes asteroid science enjoyable today is the rich collection of interesting and eccentric characters that share this profession.The 19th and early 20th centuries were no different. The story of these dedicated and sometimes strange individuals makes for lively reading. There was Hermann Goldschmidt, a German-born artist living over the Café Procope in Paris. In 1852, he caught the asteroid bug after attending a public lecture on astronomy, bought a telescope, and over the next 9 years discovered 14 asteroids by observing out of his apartment window with a 2-inch telescope! In those days, before astronomical photography, observers searched for asteroids by hand-drawing the starfield as seen through the telescope and then comparing it with another hand-drawn starfield done hours or nights later. Keen eyesight, steady hands, and the ability to draw accurately in the dark—and cold—were major advantages.

Britt, Dan

239

a History of Emats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper was prepared for a Special Session in the 34th Annual Review of Quantitative NDE devoted to ``Applications of EMATs''. As such, it reviews the past history of electromagnetic induction of vibrations in metals with special attention to the application to nondestructive testing. The first patent describing the use of Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMATs) to replace the commonly used piezoelectric transducer was in 1969 but their first appearance in the scientific literature was in 1939 when the principles were applied to exciting and detecting the longitudinal resonance modes of bars of brass. The first true application to nondestructive testing was an R&D program sponsored by the American Gas Association to develop a device for inspecting buried gas pipelines for stress corrosion cracks in the early 1970's. During this same time period, theoretical models to describe the transduction mechanism appeared and led to the engineering of solutions to NDT and NDE problems that could not be accomplished with piezoelectric devices. The papers in the session to follow this historical summary show how the field has developed over the past 30 years and expose an impressive array of applications to quantitative nondestructive evaluation (QNDE) practices.

Alers, George

2008-02-01

240

Phagocytosis: history's lessons.  

PubMed

The assimilation of lessons from the past is an essential component of education for scientists of tomorrow. These lessons are not easy to find. History books on science are few and usually highly dramatized and biographies of scientists tend to exaggerate the pomp of scientific discovery. Both underplay the hard and laborious work that is integral to any scientific pursuit. Here we illustrate one such example. A century ago, the Nobel Prize in Medicine was awarded to two scientists: Ilya Metchnikoff, a Russian zoologist, for the discovery ofphagocytosis-a cell-mediated ingestion ofmicrobes; and Paul Ehrlich, a distinguished physician-scientist, for discovering a highly antigen-specific serum-derived antibody-based immune defense. These two diametrically opposing views of the host-pathogen interaction set the stage for a strife that led to seminal advancements in immunology. Mirrored in this journey are important lessons for scientists today--ubiquitously as applicable to modern scientific life as they were a century ago. This commentaryhighlights these lessons--a fitting centenary to a well-deserved recognition. PMID:23427369

Garg, Manish; Chandawarkar, Rajiv Y

2013-01-01

241

NIF Gamma Reaction History  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary objective of the NIF Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostics is to provide bang time and burn width information based upon measurement of fusion gamma-rays. This is accomplished with energy-thresholded Gas Cherenkov detectors that convert MeV gamma-rays into UV/visible photons for high-bandwidth optical detection. In addition, the GRH detectors can perform ?-ray spectroscopy to explore other nuclear processes from which additional significant implosion parameters may be inferred (e.g., plastic ablator areal density). Implementation is occurring in 2 phases: 1) four PMT-based channels mounted to the outside of the NIF target chamber at ˜6 m from TCC (GRH-6m) for the 3e13-3e16 DT neutron yield range expected during the early ignition-tuning campaigns; and 2) several channels located just inside the target bay shield wall at ˜15 m from TCC (GRH-15m) with optical paths leading through the wall into well-shielded streak cameras and PMTs for the 1e16-1e20 yield range expected during the DT ignition campaign. This suite of diagnostics will allow exploration of interesting ?-ray physics well beyond the ignition campaign. Recent data from OMEGA and NIF will be shown.

Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y.; Young, C. S.; Mack, J. M.; McEvoy, A. M.; Hoffman, N. M.; Wilson, D. C.; Langenbrunner, J. R.; Evans, S.; Batha, S. H.; Stoeffl, W.; Lee, A.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M.; Miller, E. K.; Malone, R. M.; Kaufman, M. I.

2010-11-01

242

Bethlehem Digital History Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the minds of some, the mere mention of the city of Bethlehem conjures up images of an industrial landscape complete with massive steel mills. These days the city has been greatly transformed, and before the period of heavy industrialization in the late 19th century, the city was quite different. With funds (and active participation) from a host of organizations, the Bethlehem Digital History Project brings together digitized primary source materials, translations, and transcriptions that relate the story of the city during the years 1741 to 1844. After reading a bit about the actual project mission, visitors should read the brief essay, âÂÂBethlehem, Pennsylvania 1741-1844âÂÂ, as it offers information about the Moravians who founded the city and their influence on the cityâÂÂs growth and development. There are some terrific historical materials here, all of which are neatly organized into topical areas such as education, land, community records, art, and music. The personal papers area is rather moving, as it contains first-hand accounts by early settlers that document their religious experiences, encounters with Native Americans, and various tribulations. Finally, the âÂÂScholarâÂÂs Cornerâ provides a few extra items for those who can read German script, as these diaries, death records, and speeches are only available in that form.

243

Encyclopedia of Chicago History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Somewhere between Los Angeles and New York is a metropolis affectionately referred to by some as the "Second City". Also known as Chicago, this fair city has recently received its due with the publication of this outstanding reference volume. The online version offered on this site is even more authoritative than the print volume, as it contains a number of interactive maps and special features. Produced by the Chicago Historical Society, the Newberry Library and Northwestern University, this online edition allows users to search the entire contents of the Encyclopedia, and even browse digitized versions of the primary historical documents that serve as the research materials for the print articles. From the homepage, visitors can peruse a user's guide to the Encyclopedia. Each entry includes hypertext links, and in some cases, illustrative materials. For additional information, each entry also features some additional readings. Visitors will also want to take a look at the lovely maps produced for the volume, including a rather compelling map of Chicago's blues clubs. Finally, the special features area includes several interpretive digital essays on the Plan of Chicago of 1909 and galleries on such important topics as "How Chicagoans Remember Their History".

244

Anthropometric History: What Is It?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the contributions of anthropometric history to the understanding of standards of living in the past. Defines anthropometric history as a methodology that uses body height as a proxy measure for economic variables determining how well the human organism thrives in its socioeconomic environment. Suggests that anthropometric methodology…

Komlos, John

1992-01-01

245

History of Higher Education, 1992.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annual compilation offers six articles on the history of higher education. In the first article, "The Historical Matrix of American Higher Education," Roger L. Geiger provides an overview of the history of American higher education. Following it, E. D. Duryea, Jurgen Herbst, and W. Bruce Leslie comment on his hypothesis which identifies eight…

History of Higher Education, 1992

1992-01-01

246

Convection and lunar thermal history  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of solid interior convection on the thermal history of the moon are examined. Convective models of lunar evolution are calculated to demonstrate the influence of various viscosities, radioactive heat source distributions and initial temperature profiles and tested by means of a thermal history simulation code. Results indicate that solid convection does not necessarily produce a quasi-steady thermal balance

P. Cassen; R. T. Reynolds; F. Graziani; A. L. Summers; J. McNellis; L. Blalock

1979-01-01

247

NUWUVI: A Southern Paiute History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first in a series of four histories of native Nevadans, this volume presents the story of the Southern Paiutes, or Nuwuvi. Based on interviews with tribal members and research conducted at numerous archives and record centers, the history begins with a description of the ancient culture and territory of the many Nuwuvi bands that lived,…

Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada, Reno.

248

What's New in Teaching History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses changing concepts of important topics in teaching history--away from a "political/diplomatic" approach to a "social history" approach that includes broader topics, such as urbanization, shifts in social structures and classes, and crime and resistance. Shows evidence of this shift in content requirements, tests of Advanced-Placement…

Fain, George

1998-01-01

249

The Case for "Big History."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urges an approach to the teaching of history that takes the largest possible perspective, crossing time as well as space. Discusses the problems and advantages of such an approach. Describes a course on "big" history that begins with time, creation myths, and astronomy, and moves on to paleontology and evolution. (DK)

Christian, David

1991-01-01

250

The history of space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented are the acknowledgements and introduction sections of the book 'Space: Discovery and Exploration.' The goal of the book is to address some basic questions of American space history, including how this history compares with previous eras of exploration, why the space program was initiated when it was, and how the U.S. space program developed. In pursuing these questions, the

Martin J. Collins; Sylvia K. Kraemer

1994-01-01

251

History of American Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"History of American Higher Education" documents the fascinating evolution of American colleges and universities, touching on the historical events that shaped them, from the colonial era through the early twenty-first century. Throughout history, higher education has played an important role in the transmission of cultural identity from one…

McCarthy, Margaret Cain

2011-01-01

252

History, Ideology and Social Responsibility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a study of teacher conceptions of the meaning of history. Concludes that history teachers tend fall into five broad categories: (1) storyteller; (2) scientific historian; (3) relativist/reformer; (4) cosmic philosopher; and (5) eclectic. Suggests that teaching should be grounded in an explicit educational philosophy that is developed in…

Evans, Ronald W.

1990-01-01

253

Perspectives: Women in Nebraska History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seventeen essays direct attention to the lives and achievements of outstanding women in Nebraska history. Most of the women described in the essays did their major work in literature, the arts, education, or some other related human service. Only two essays are not focused on specific women--"Union Maids in Omaha Labor History, 1887-1945," which…

Johnson, Paul G., Ed.; Machacek, Rosemary, Ed.

254

School History versus the Historians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is largely the author's reflections on one particular aspect of history and social studies education, reflections that are very much those of an outsider. Nationally, she is not an American, but a Canadian, and professionally has been, until recently, a historian rather than a history educator. And the differences, are profound. This…

Sandwell, Ruth

2005-01-01

255

American Educational History Journal, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 2001 annual publication contains 31 articles on topics germane to the history of education. Each year, this journal publishes papers presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest History of Education Society. After the "Introduction" (R. J. Taggart) articles in this year's issue are: "Origins of the American Federation of Teachers: Issues…

Watras, Joseph, Ed.

2001-01-01

256

Celebration Time: Black History Month  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nowadays, more students, teachers, and librarians are aware of African-American History Month and try to give it greater attention. However, the author questions herself if people do really "celebrate" African-American History Month or is it just something folks feel obligated to do, so they "celebrate" by displaying a collection of books about…

Pinkney, Andrea Davis

2008-01-01

257

History Sources on the Internet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides descriptions of key online history resources useful to teachers, librarians, and other education professionals. Highlights include: primary sources on the Internet; archives; Online Public Access Catalogs (OPACs); the American Historical Association (AHA) Web site; state and federal government resources; business history

Fink, Kenneth D.

258

Kiechel's history of corporate strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – In this paper aims to interview Walter Kiechel III about his book, The Lords of Strategy: The Secret Intellectual History of the New Corporate World, and the lessons it offers for today's managers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In this interview, Strategy & Leadership asked Walter Kiechel III about his book, The Lords of Strategy: The Secret Intellectual History of the

Robert J. Allio; Robert M. Randall

2010-01-01

259

Meeting on Earth System History  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geologic record preserves the integrated response of the Earth system to many perturbations. The study of Earth system history provides unique information on natural variability, the coupling of the components of the Earth system, the biosphere response to global change, and the global and regional response to abrupt changes. Earth system history also has the potential to supply case

Eric J. Barron

1992-01-01

260

History Microcomputer Games: Update 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides full narrative reviews of B-1 Nuclear Bomber (Avalon, 1982); American History Adventure (Social Science Microcomputer Review Software, 1985); Government Simulations (Prentice-Hall, 1985); and The Great War, FDR and the New Deal, and Hitler's War, all from New Worlds Software, 1985. Lists additional information on five other history and…

Sargent, James E.

1985-01-01

261

The Challenge of World History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author started teaching world history during his first year of teaching at Harlingen High School. To be given such an assignment, because of the breadth of the course, in one's first year might be considered a great misfortune. However, looking back, the author would not have preferred it any other way. World history quickly became his…

Saldana, Cristobal T.

2012-01-01

262

Oral History as Intergenerational Dialogue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a rationale for bringing older adults and young people together in art education. Focuses on the author's study of a seven-month after-school community art program in New York City's Harlem that was an intergenerational exchange of history and culture through oral history interviews and art making. (CMK)

La Porte, Angela M.

2000-01-01

263

A Structural History of English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book combines a traditional history-of-the-language approach with modern linguistic analysis to discuss the history of English from Old English through Middle English, Early Modern English, Authoritarian English, Mature Modern English, to American English. The book begins with a discussion of the present status and structure of English. Each…

Nist, John

264

Orphan Trains in Iowa History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Goldfinch" is a magazine that introduces children to different aspects of Iowa history. Each issue contains articles that provide in-depth knowledge of a topic about Iowa. The focus of this issue is orphan trains in Iowa it introduces readers to some of the people heroes of modern history who rode the trains west between 1854 and 1929 in…

Frese, Millie K., Ed.

2000-01-01

265

The history of African trypanosomiasis  

PubMed Central

The prehistory of African trypanosomiasis indicates that the disease may have been an important selective factor in the evolution of hominids. Ancient history and medieval history reveal that African trypanosomiasis affected the lives of people living in sub-Saharan African at all times. Modern history of African trypanosomiasis revolves around the identification of the causative agents and the mode of transmission of the infection, and the development of drugs for treatment and methods for control of the disease. From the recent history of sleeping sickness we can learn that the disease can be controlled but probably not be eradicated. Current history of human African trypanosomiasis has shown that the production of anti-sleeping sickness drugs is not always guaranteed, and therefore, new, better and cheaper drugs are urgently required.

Steverding, Dietmar

2008-01-01

266

Application of oral history to economics: Family Economic History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Application of Oral History to Economics: Family Economic History The assignment will connect an oral history approach to the examination of economic concepts such as opportunity cost of attending school, economic crises (inflation and unemployment, etc.), and standard of living over time. Particularly, students will interview parents, grandparents, or family members from older generations regarding the types of work they performed, economic decisions they have made, and the economic conditions while they were growing up. The project develops a student's ability to understand and integrate these concepts from a variety of perspectives and real world situation.

Sabi, Manijeh

267

History Untold: Celebrating Ohio History Through ABLE Students. Ohio History Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a compilation of 33 pieces of writing presenting Ohio adult basic and literacy education (ABLE) students' perspectives of community and personal history. The items included in the compilation were written by ABLE students across Ohio in celebration of Ohio History Day. The compilation is organized in five sections as follows: (1)…

Kent State Univ., OH. Ohio Literacy Resource Center.

268

History, Medicine, and Culture: History for Science Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes college level history course entitled "Healers and Persons" for undergraduate medicine students. Topics include Greek medicine and Hippocrates, Galen of Pergamum, Islamic and Roman culture, medieval medicine, the Renaissance, Harvey, Pasteur, Lister, and Mendel. (KC)

Balog, C. Edward

1980-01-01

269

Department of History Map Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the History Department of the United States Military Academy (West Point), this site offers an extensive collection (over 400) of color maps originally produced for a course entitled History of the Military Art. The atlases cover international and civil conflicts from American colonial campaigns to Somalia in 1992-93. The maps are browsed by war/ conflict and are presented as large thumbnails which link to a full-sized image. Please note that these may take a while to load even with faster connections. In all, an excellent and well-organized resource for those interested in military history and cartography.

270

Lesson on History of Utah  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesion is designed to give students a high level overview of the history of the area we now call the state of Utah. Materials needed: Computer with Internet connection Lesson Overview: For the purposes of this lesson, the history of the geographic are we now call Utah has been divided into five chronographic time periods. 1. Utah Prehistory 2. Missionaries, Trappers and Explores 3. Pioneers, Settlers & Statehood 4. World Conflict and Depression 5. Utah Today By using the resources on the history for kids link, which ...

Thackeray, Lynn

2007-10-17

271

Hominin life history: reconstruction and evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review we attempt to reconstruct the evolutionary history of hominin life history from extant and fossil evidence. We utilize demographic life history theory and distinguish life history variables, traits such as weaning, age at sexual maturity, and life span, from life history-related variables such as body mass, brain growth, and dental development. The latter are either linked with,

Shannen L. Robson; Bernard Wood

2008-01-01

272

Humanizing Chemistry Through its History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides methods by which one may include historical aspects of the growth and development of chemistry into a secondary school curriculum. Includes a selected bibliography of materials related to the history of chemistry. (CP)

Steiner, Robert L.

1976-01-01

273

Bringing Science History to Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Can science history be interesting for students? You bet! Science, after all, is creative, and scientists go about their work in a variety of creative ways. In addition to understanding how scientists perform their work, Benchmarks encourages us

Warrick, Jill

2000-05-01

274

Geospatial Revolution: History of Geography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video from Penn State Public Broadcasting’s Geospatial Revolution project, experts trace the history of geography from clay tablets during Babylonian times to mapmaking from horseback in the 1800s to digital maps produced by computers.

Wpsu

2010-08-31

275

Digital Collections: History and Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author reviews the history of early efforts by libraries to build digital collections, the development of CONTENTdm software at the University of Washington, and OCLC's current directions in helping libraries build and manage digital collections.

Greg Zick

2009-01-01

276

Diet History Questionnaire: International Applications  

Cancer.gov

ARP staff adapted the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) for use by Canadian populations in collaboration with the Alberta Cancer Board. This questionnaire takes into account the different food fortification polices of the US and Canada.

277

The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sitting on the banks of Lake Erie, the city of Cleveland has been an industrial powerhouse for over a century, and its history is a fascinating one. This online encyclopedia of Cleveland history was created with the cooperation of the history department at Case Western Reserve University, along with the assistance of other scholars. David D. VanTassel and John J. Grabowski compiled the encyclopedia, and visitors can perform a full-text search across all of the articles here as well as the image gallery. Visitors may wish to start by taking a look at the "Foreword" and the "Readers' Guide", both of which can be found in the "Supplementary Text" area. Visitors who wish to browse around in a thematic fashion will want to consult the "Subjects" area, which organizes the articles from "African American History" to "Zoo".

278

About.com: Automobile History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

About.com provides this review of Automobile History. The article covers the history of cars, famous automobile makers, and identifies the different models and automobile accessories/parts. The timelines section includes a link to a chronological history of the automobile. The feature article begins with the first steam, electrical, and gasoline-engine cars and goes on to tell of "the controversy behind discovering who was really first in car history" and to help visitors understand the importance of the internal combustion engine. Other interesting aspects tell of the lives of famous automotive makers and assembly line workers, as well as the origins of the name automobile. After reading the article, visitors are invited to try their "fun automobile trivia quiz." Related information on Motorcycles, Tractors, Roads, and Engines is also provided.

279

History of early atomic clocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review of the history of early atomic clocks includes early atomic beam magnetic resonance, methods of separated and successive oscillatory fields, microwave absorption, optical pumping and atomic masers.

Norman F. Ramsey

2005-01-01

280

Irish History on the Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This useful metasite provides hundreds of links to sites and documents on the Web concerning Irish history. Billing itself as not just "another links page," the site asserts that "most of the links found here will lead to primary documents, original essays, bibliographies or specific informational sites, all of which are visited prior to inclusion on this site." Categories include historical documents, Orangeism and Loyalism, Immigration and Genealogy, Timelines, Reading and Resources, The North and the 'Troubles,' the Irish Famine, Radical/ Left History, Celtic History, Irish Literature and several more. The site is frequently updated and searchable with an engine that provides annotated listings of matches. Irish History on the Web is designed and maintained by Jacqueline Dana at the University of Texas.

Dana, Jaqueline.

281

South Florida Ecosystem History Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ecosystem History Project is designed to integrate studies of terrestrial, marine, and freshwater ecosystems in South Florida. Projects cover Biscayne Bay, Florida Bay, and terrestrial ecosystems. Each project gives an introduction, investigation methods, evidence of past ecosystem changes, and modern distribution of flora and fauna. Recent ecosystem history is based on paleontology, palynology, geochemistry, hydrology, and sedimentology as seen in core samples. There are links to open-file reports, salinity maps, a database, poster presentations, and a Kid's Corner.

282

Surgeon General's Family Health History Initiative  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources Text Size: A A A Surgeon General's Family Health History Initiative Health care professionals have known ... learn more about their family health history. My Family Health Portrait Tool Americans know that family history ...

283

Sources on US Naval History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hoping to facilitate more new research in its extensive holdings on American naval history, the Naval Historical Center has digitized its material, making more than two centuries of archival material readily available to interested parties. The Web site presents an alphabetic listing of every state in the nation, each of which link directly to primary source material on parties and organizations involved in American naval history in any way, whether it be in the form of production, administration, or active military service. Many of the states' listings link to historical societies and other archival resources, each of which call attention to notable maritime holdings in their collections. Beyond the above, Sources on US Naval History also links back to its creator, the Naval Historical Center, which is the historical branch of the Department of the Navy.

2002-01-01

284

The history of neuromyelitis optica.  

PubMed

The discovery of a novel serum autoantibody (termed NMO-IgG or AQP4-Ab) in a subset of patients in 2004 has revived interest in neuromyelitis optica (NMO). While the history of classical multiple sclerosis has been extensively studied, only little is known about the history of NMO. In the present article, we provide a comprehensive review of the early history of this rare but intriguing syndrome. We trace the origins of the concept of NMO in the 19th century medical literature and follow its evolution throughout the 20th and into the 21st century. Finally, we discuss recent proposals to revise the concept of NMO and explain why there is indeed a need for a more systematic and descriptive nomenclature. PMID:23320783

Jarius, Sven; Wildemann, Brigitte

2013-01-01

285

Harvard Iranian Oral History Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oral histories can be quite fascinating, and a number of significant collections have been placed online as of late. One of the best-known projects might be Harvard University's own Iranian Oral History Project (IOHP). The collection consists of the personal accounts of over 150 individuals who were eyewitnesses (or active participants) to a range of crucial political events in Iran from the 1920s to the 1980s. Visitors can start their journey through this site by going to the "About" section, where they can learn about the history of the IHOP and the interviewing process. After that, visitors can go the actual "Transcripts" area, where they can view an index of interviews, and in certain cases, they can listen to audio recordings of these conversations.

286

Alaska Museum of Natural History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ever wanted to have your own volcano laboratory, but didn't want to clean up all that lava? Be a super-scientist and create your own volcano online. The Alaska Museum of Natural History is dedicated to the study and exhibition of Alaskaâs natural history and to promoting and developing educational programs which benefit students and enrich the curricula of schools and universities. The Museum focuses on Alaska's unique geological, cultural, and ecological history. In addition to Make Your Own Volcano, the website offers extensive links, resources and educational modules including Kids Activity Sheets, Dinosaurs of Alaska, the Broken Mammoth Archeological Site, and Dinosaur Tracks, which explores the information that can be gleaned from the study of footprints.

287

West Virginia Archives and History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The state government of West Virginia has crafted this site to help residents of the state and others learn more about the history and culture of this unique place. The site contains over seventeen areas chronicling state history, quizzes, and resources for teachers. The Highway Historical Markers area is quite a bit of fun, as it can be used to plan a scholarly road trip based around these markers that chronicle the "Lost Colony," the Huntington State Hospital, and historic Brickyard Bend. The Teachers Resources area includes website activities and in-class lesson plans, such as those related to John Brown, racial integration in the public schools, and the Civil War. Finally, the Audio/Video section of the site contains over 70 clips of events like the 1971 Buffalo Creek Disaster, John F. Kennedy's campaign through the state in 1960, and excerpts from the Archives and History Library's evening program.

2013-01-01

288

Vibrio chromosomes share common history  

PubMed Central

Background While most gamma proteobacteria have a single circular chromosome, Vibrionales have two circular chromosomes. Horizontal gene transfer is common among Vibrios, and in light of this genetic mobility, it is an open question to what extent the two chromosomes themselves share a common history since their formation. Results Single copy genes from each chromosome (142 genes from chromosome I and 42 genes from chromosome II) were identified from 19 sequenced Vibrionales genomes and their phylogenetic comparison suggests consistent phylogenies for each chromosome. Additionally, study of the gene organization and phylogeny of the respective origins of replication confirmed the shared history. Conclusions Thus, while elements within the chromosomes may have experienced significant genetic mobility, the backbones share a common history. This allows conclusions based on multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) for one chromosome to be applied equally to both chromosomes.

2010-01-01

289

Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History & Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 46th state, Oklahoma, presents its unusual history with the online version of The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture. The Encyclopedia was prepared by over 500 "university-based scholars and independent historians and scholars," and was a joint effort by The Oklahoma Historical Society and Oklahoma State University Library Electronic Publishing Center. Visitors can click on the "Table of Contents" link near the bottom of the homepage to "Browse Entries Alphabetically", "Browse Entries Chronologically", or "Browse Entries by Subject". Browsing via chronology introduces visitors to Oklahoma starting with the "Precontact Era", through the "Westward Expansion" and on to "Twentieth Century to Present". Subject categories include "African Americans", "Farming", "Military", and "Petroleum". When searching, visitors will be taken to the Electronic Publishing Center Search Page, so they will need to choose the specific collection, Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, from the drop down box, to confine the search to the Encyclopedia.

290

The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored jointly by Case Western Reserve University and the Western Reserve Historical Society, this excellent online text offers hundreds of articles on the history of Cleveland. There are two categories of articles in the Encyclopedia, general entries -- short articles of 200 to 500 words -- and interpretive essays -- "longer articles of 500 to 4000 words that explore major topics in local history." Both feature numerous hypertext links to related entries as well as photographic images that can be expanded to full screen. (These images may also be examined in a separate gallery on-site.) The encyclopedia features an alphabetical as well as a subject index and can be searched by title, text, and subject. A Reader's Guide and a bicentennial timeline of Cleveland history are also offered as supplementary text. New articles are added on a regular basis.

1998-01-01

291

History and Quasi-History in Physics Education - Part 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how quasi-history, by eliminating the social dimension, distorts its description of major scientific advances in one of two distinct ways; either almost trivial or almost mystical. Uses two examples, Einstein's theory of the photoelectric effect and Planck's discovery of his law. (GA)

Whitaker, M. A. B.

1979-01-01

292

Study of History of Culture by Teaching History of Astronomy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is shown how the history of astronomy may help the study of human culture. Archaeoastronomy; the calendar; the step-by-step achievements of the notions of the structure of the Universe; harmony; and the other ideas appearing in astronomy are discussed.

N. S. Nikolov

1986-01-01

293

The history of space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented are the acknowledgements and introduction sections of the book 'Space: Discovery and Exploration.' The goal of the book is to address some basic questions of American space history, including how this history compares with previous eras of exploration, why the space program was initiated when it was, and how the U.S. space program developed. In pursuing these questions, the intention is not to provide exhaustive answers, but to point the reader toward a more varied picture of how our venture in space has intersected with American government, politics, business, and science.

Collins, Martin J.; Kraemer, Sylvia K.

1994-01-01

294

Pyschodermatology: a trip through history*  

PubMed Central

The interaction between the mind and diseases of the skin has been the study focus for many researchers worldwide. The field of Psychodermatology, or Psychocutaneous Medicine, is the result of the merging of two major medical specialties, psychiatry and dermatology. Although the history of Psychodermatology is rather old and interesting, the field has only recently gained popularity. Since ancient times, philosophers, surgeons, dermatologists and psychiatrists have reported the presence of psychocutaneous diseases in various scenarios. In this article, the authors describe curious and remarkable facts in the history of Psychodermatology.

Franca, Katlein; Chacon, Anna; Ledon, Jennifer; Savas, Jessica; Nouri, Keyvan

2013-01-01

295

History of manned space flight  

SciTech Connect

This book is the history of all the great moments of failure, tension, drama, euphoria, and success that characterized the beginning of man's adventure in space. It covers the technology and scientific knowledge, the vision, the politics, and the dedication of all those involved in the space program. One chapter is devoted to the experiments and observations of the astronauts as they explored the moon. An integral part of the history of space exploration is the race between Russia and the US to establish man in space. This is included. The book vividly portrays the experiences of the astronauts from Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and the Apollo-Soyuz missions. (SC)

Baker, D.

1981-01-01

296

The history of space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presented are the acknowledgements and introduction sections of the book 'Space: Discovery and Exploration.' The goal of the book is to address some basic questions of American space history, including how this history compares with previous eras of exploration, why the space program was initiated when it was, and how the U.S. space program developed. In pursuing these questions, the intention is not to provide exhaustive answers, but to point the reader toward a more varied picture of how our venture in space has intersected with American government, politics, business, and science.

Collins, Martin J.; Kraemer, Sylvia K.

297

Evolutionary history of Ebola virus.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Since Ebola virus was discovered in 1970s, the virus has persisted in Africa and sporadic fatal outbreaks in humans and non-human primates have been reported. However, the evolutionary history of Ebola virus remains unclear. In this study, 27 Ebola virus strains with complete glycoprotein genes, including five species (Zaire, Sudan, Reston, Tai Forest, Bundibugyo), were analysed. Here, we propose a hypothesis of the evolutionary history of Ebola virus which will be helpful to investigate the molecular evolution of these viruses. PMID:24040779

Li, Y H; Chen, S P

2014-06-01

298

Commission 41: History of Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commission 41 of the International Astronomical Union deals with all aspects of astronomical history and heritage from ancient sky knowledge to developments in modern astronomy that have occurred within living memory. It encourages and supports research in the history of astronomy and related fields such as archaeoastronomy and is also concerned with the identification, documentation and preservation of vital aspects of our astronomical heritage such as sites, artifacts, instruments and archives. Commission 41 is one of the largest Commissions in the Union, and is a member of Division XII on Union-Wide Activities.

Il-Seong, Nha; Ruggles, Clive L. N.; Gurshtein, Alexander A.; Kochhar, Rajesh K.; DeVorkin, David H.; de Jong, Teije; Nakamura, Tsuko; Orchiston, Wayne; Videira, Antonio A. P.; Warner, Brian

299

[Diagnosis. History and physical examination].  

PubMed

Family physicians play a key role in the diagnosis and management of patients with osteoarthritis. Diagnosis is mainly clinical and radiological. A complete history should be taken with meticulous physical examination of the joints. The history-taking should aim to detect risk factors and compatible clinical symptoms. Pain characteristics should be identified, distinguishing between mechanical and inflammatory pain, and an exhaustive examination of the joints should be performed, with evaluation of the presence of pain, deformity, mobility restrictions (both active and passive), crepitus, joint effusion, and inflammation. A differential diagnosis should be made with all diseases that affect the joints and/or produce joint stiffness. PMID:24467956

Pérez Martín, Álvaro

2014-01-01

300

Teaching History in the Elementary School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book explores the issue of what is feasible in teaching history to young children. It advocates more and better teaching of history in the belief that improving history instruction in the elementary school is a fundamental first step toward improving all elementary social studies. Chapter 1 explores the nature of history and reviews important…

Hoge, John D.; Crump, Claudia

301

Resources for Teaching with Computers in History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights seven resources for teaching history with computers. Titles include "Technology and the Social Studies: A Vision"; "Using Databases in History Teaching"; "Computers and Database Management in the History Curriculum"; "Social Studies. Microsoft Courseware Evaluations"; "Teaching Comparative Local History: Upper Mississippi River Towns";…

Seiter, David M.

1988-01-01

302

Ropewalk: A Cordage Engineer's Journey Through History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a documentary film about the history of the cordage industry from ancient technologies through the industrial revolution, trustbusting, globalization. The one-hour DVD, Ropewalk: A Cordage Engineer's Journey Through History, is free for schools, libraries, museums. Produced by the Engineers Club of Dayton in cooperation with the Cordage Institute. Possible curriculum includes history of technology, textile engineering, economics, Ohio history.

2010-01-05

303

War, Journalism, and Oral History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a project where students conducted oral history with either a war correspondent or a U.S. combat veteran for the course "War and the News Media: From Vietnam through Desert Storm and Beyond." Discusses how the students prepared for the interviews and the evaluation of their projects. (CMK)

Rice, Gary

2000-01-01

304

A History of Chemistry Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes information on the need for a Center for the History of Science, originally presented within a symposium on this topic at a meeting of the American Chemical Society in March, 1980. Lists titles of papers presented, objectives of such a center, and general proceedings. (CS)

Wotiz, John H.

1981-01-01

305

History of Higher Education, 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The four papers in this annual volume on the history of higher education cover some of the changes that evolved over the years in various U.S. institutions. The first paper is: "The Harvard Tutors: The Beginning of an Academic Profession, 1690-1825" (John D. Burton), which discusses the shift from Harvard's original tutorship model to its modern…

Geiger, Robert L., Ed.

1996-01-01

306

History of Higher Education, 1995.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annual compilation presents four papers on different aspects of the history of higher education in Europe and the United States. The first paper is "The Rights of Man and the Rites of Youth: Fraternity and Riot at Eighteenth Century Harvard" by Leon Jackson. This paper argues that the lines of division in the student body at…

Geiger, Robert L., Ed.

1995-01-01

307

Electron Spin and Its History  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of electron spin is summarized. Topics include the discovery of electron spin, the birth of quantum electrodynamics, the invention of magnetic resonance, the invention of renormalization, the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron in experiment and theory, and searches for the electron electric dipole moment.

Commins, Eugene D.

2012-11-01

308

The History of Jim Crow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new educator's site takes users on a journey through American history by highlighting the era of Jim Crowism, lynching, and the disenfranchisement of African Americans from the 1870s through the 1950s. Designed and created by educators from all across the country, this site is equipped with historical essays, lesson plans, and other resources designed to assist history and literature teachers with the development of an educational curriculum concerning Jim Crowism. Beyond the above, the site also contains an image gallery consisting of historical photographs from archives across America that offer visual perspectives of the Jim Crow years; an American literature book list for middle school, high school, and college-level students; and an interactive encyclopedia that offers users access to terms, people, and events relating to the history of Jim Crow. Additionally, the site has a geography section featuring maps that give "a multi-layered look at the impact of Jim Crow on the social and political landscape of the nation," and contains first hand narratives from people who actually lived and experienced life under Jim Crow. Although designed by and for teachers, this site is valuable for anyone interested in African American history and literature.

309

Quantum walks with history dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a multi-coin discrete quantum walk where the amplitude for a coin flip depends upon previous tosses. Although the corresponding classical random walk is unbiased, a bias can be introduced into the quantum walk by varying the history dependence. By mixing the biased walk with an unbiased one, the direction of the bias can be reversed leading to a

A P Flitney; D Abbott; N F Johnson

2004-01-01

310

The early history of COBOL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the early history of COBOL, starting with the May 1959 meeting in the Pentagon which established the Short Range Committee which defined the initial version of COBOL, and continuing through the creation of COBOL 61. The paper gives a detailed description of the committee activities leading to the publication of the first official version, namely COBOL 60.

Jean E. Sammet

1978-01-01

311

PHYLOGENETIC APPROACHES TOWARD CROCODYLIAN HISTORY  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract A review of crocodylian phylogeny reveals a more complex history than might have been anticipated from a direct reading of the fossil record with- out consideration of phylogenetic relationships. The three main extant crocodylian lineages—Gavialoidea, Alligatoroidea, Crocodyloidea—are known from fossils in the Late Cretaceous, and the group is found nearly worldwide during the Cenozoic. Some groups have distributions

Christopher A. Brochu

2003-01-01

312

Phylogenetic Approaches Toward Crocodylian History  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of crocodylian phylogeny reveals a more complex history than might have been anticipated from a direct reading of the fossil record without consideration of phylogenetic relationships. The three main extant crocodylian lineagesGavialoidea, Alligatoroidea, Crocodyloideaare known from fossils in the Late Cretaceous, and the group is found nearly worldwide during the Cenozoic. Some groups have distributions that are best

Christopher A. Brochu

2003-01-01

313

The history of the LHC  

ScienceCinema

Abstract: From the civil engineering, to the manufacturing of the various magnet types, each building block of this extraordinary machine required ambitious leaps in innovation. This lecture will review the history of the LHC project, focusing on the many challenges -- scientific, technological, managerial -- that had to be met during the various phases of R&D;, industrialization, construction, installation and commissioning.

None

2011-10-06

314

Animal Magnetism and Curriculum History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article elaborates the impact that crises of authority provoked by animal magnetism, mesmerism, and hypnosis in the 19th century had for field formation in American education. Four layers of analysis elucidate how curriculum history's repetitive focus on public school policy and classroom practice became possible. First, the article surveys…

Baker, Bernadette

2007-01-01

315

History of manned space flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is the history of all the great moments of failure, tension, drama, euphoria, and success that characterized the beginning of man's adventure in space. It covers the technology and scientific knowledge, the vision, the politics, and the dedication of all those involved in the space program. One chapter is devoted to the experiments and observations of the astronauts

1981-01-01

316

A History of College Football.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history of football is traced as it evolved from the English game of rugby. The game as it is known today was conceived only after a long series of changes. Three prominent reasons for the change were: to make football more interesting to the spectator; to balance the competition between offense and defense; and to modify the dangerous…

Rokosz, Francis M.

317

Using Genealogy to Teach History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that teachers use genealogy as a way of increasing student interest in history. Recommends an A, E, I, O, U approach to genealogy that calls upon students to ask questions, examine documents, interview family members, organize information, and utilize local resources. Proposes parent-child genealogical study sessions, field trips, and…

Aaron, Larry

1992-01-01

318

Getting Our Hands on History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It all began with a discussion about storage. Rows of dusty boxes were sitting in the cellar of Vaughan College, home to the University of Leicester's Institute for Lifelong Learning. They contained papers, booklets and publicity leaflets, the outpourings of the Leicester Workers' Educational Association (WEA) branch's 100-year history. When the…

Heinrich, Cherry; Brown, Cynthia

2009-01-01

319

Family history of ovarian cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

More and more women are presenting to gynaecology and clinical genetics clinics concerned about a family history of ovarian cancer. Although most ovarian cancer is sporadic, about 5–10% is due to the inheritance of an ovarian cancer susceptibility gene. The genes that have been identified up to now are the BRCA genes involved in hereditary breast\\/ovarian cancer and the mismatch

Jackie Cook

2002-01-01

320

Teaching American History. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Best practice in teaching American History is a two-pronged approach: a high quality curriculum with highly engaging instruction. Muir (2001) showed that good learning experiences: create strong relationships; involve hands-on, active work; adjust for differences in learning styles; make learning interesting; allow students choices; make…

Muir, Mike

2004-01-01

321

A Brief History of NASA  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief history of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) begins with the agency's origins during the Cold War and recounts the early manned and unmanned missions (Mercury, Gemini, Pioneer, Voyager, and others), the landmark Apollo Moon missions, and NASA's later projects, such as the Space Shuttle, the Hubble telecope, and the International Space Station.

322

Natural history museums and cyberspace  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Natural history museums are entering the electronic age as they increasingly use computers to build accessible and shareable databases that support research and education on a world-wide basis. Museums are exploring the Internet and other shared uses of electronic media to enhance their traditional roles in education, training, identifications, technical assistance, and collections management.

Wemmer, C.; Erixon-Stanford, M.; Gardner, A.L.

1996-01-01

323

Living History: Elsworth R. Buskirk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2005, the American Physiological Society (APS) initiated the Living History of Physiology Archival Program to recognize senior members who have made significant contributions during their career to the advancement of the discipline and the profession of physiology. Subsequently, the leadership of the APS Section of Environmental and Exercise…

Tipton, Charles M.

2009-01-01

324

Living History: Clark M. Blatteis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2005, the American Physiological Society (APS) initiated the Living History Project to recognize senior members who have made extraordinary contributions during their career to the advancement of the discipline and profession of physiology. During 2007, the APS Section of Environmental and Exercise Physiology selected Clark M. Blatteis to be…

Quan, Ning

2009-01-01

325

History of Life Through Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online exhibit explores the ancestor/descendant relationships of the three domains of organisms, bacteria, archaea, and eukaryota. Topics include the fossil record, life history and ecology, systematics, and morphology of each domain. There is also a link to a list of available taxa for the Eukaryotic kingdoms (chromista, fungi, metazoa, plantae, and protista) and to reference material on phylogeny, cladistics and evolution.

326

Computerized History Games: Narrative Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How may historians best express history through computer games? This article suggests that the answer lies in correctly correlating historians' goals for teaching with the capabilities of different kinds of computer games. During the development of a game prototype for high school students, the author followed best practices as expressed in the…

Kee, Kevin

2011-01-01

327

Mathematical History, Philosophy and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

History of mathematics occupies itself describing processes of growth and development, whereas philosophy of mathematics is concerned with questions of justification. Both play an essential role within the educational context. But there is a problem because genuine historical studies necessitate ever greater particularity whereas mathematics and…

Otte, Michael

2007-01-01

328

NUMA: A Northern Paiute History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One in a series of four histories of native Nevadans, this volume presents the story of the Northern Paiute people, or Numa, who lived, hunted, and travelled in the Great Basin area which occupies one-third of present day Nevada and parts of Oregon, Idaho, and California. Based on interviews with tribal elders and research conducted at numerous…

Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada, Reno.

329

Password security: a case history  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the history of the design of the password security scheme on a remotely accessed time-sharing system. The present design was the result of countering observed attempts to penetrate the system. The result is a compromise between extreme security and ease of use.

Robert Morris; Ken Thompson

1979-01-01

330

Fighting To Preserve Black History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the urgent need for yet lack of federal funding for restoration of historic properties on historically black college campuses, including many on the National Register of Historic Places. Reviews legislative history of federal funding, notes other funding sources, summarizes costs of restoration, and gives examples from Talladega College…

Conciatore, Jacqueline

2000-01-01

331

History of ultrahigh carbon steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history and development of ultrahigh carbon steels (i.e., steels containing between 1 and 2.l percent C and now known as UHCS) are described. The early use of steel compositions containing carbon contents above the eutectoid level is found in ancient weapons from around the world. For example, both Damascus and Japanese sword steels are hypereutectoid steels. Their manufacture and

J. Wadsworth; O. D. Sherby

1997-01-01

332

Signals in Communication Engineering History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a study of various electric signals, which have been employed throughout the history of communication engineering in its two main landmarks: the telegraph and the telephone. The signals are presented in their time and frequency domain representations. The historical order has been followed in the presentation: wired systems, spark…

Consonni, Denise; Silva, Magno T. M.

2010-01-01

333

Islamic Education: History and Tendency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the history and tendency of Islamic education, discussing how, after 1,000 years of intellectual leadership, the Islamic world has not retained its dominance, and examining the educational institutions that both spawned and doomed the Eastern intellectual revolution. The article addresses: the role of knowledge in Islam; emphasis on…

Hilgendorf, Eric

2003-01-01

334

The history of the LHC  

SciTech Connect

Abstract: From the civil engineering, to the manufacturing of the various magnet types, each building block of this extraordinary machine required ambitious leaps in innovation. This lecture will review the history of the LHC project, focusing on the many challenges -- scientific, technological, managerial -- that had to be met during the various phases of R&D;, industrialization, construction, installation and commissioning.

None

2010-05-11

335

Genocide in World History Textbooks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes the treatment of genocide in secondary world history textbooks. Acknowledges that textbook space is limited, but argues that all should contain some reference to the subject. Concludes that the Armenian genocide, as well as the genocidal acts of Hitler, Stalin, and Mao Tse-tung should be presented in all survey texts. (GEA)

Fleming, Dan

1987-01-01

336

HISTORY MATCHING WITH UNCERTAINTY QUANTIFICATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY We present three methods for history matching and uncertainty quantification tested on a syn- thetic test case. The test case contains active grid blocks. There are six production wells in the reservoir. A Bayesian approach is used. Based on production data and well observations of permeability and porosity, samples from the posterior distribution for permeability and porosity are generated.

Lars Holden; Harald H. Soleng; Anne Randi

337

For Sale: Iceland's Genetic History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article examines the history and implications of a national medical database of Iceland's citizens. Opposition claims that this may lead to: violations of medical and personal privacy, medical stereotyping of individuals, families, or the entire population, discrimination based on medical or genetic data, and a monopoly on medical research and drugs by big business.

Oksana Hlodan (American Institute of Biological Sciences;)

2000-06-01

338

Why Teach Physical Education History?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The physical education discipline has had a long development, incorporating concepts learned and appreciated from ancient and modern Olympics, exercise and training, physical activity and sport, and the history of physical education itself. Nevertheless, it continues to evolve as educators improve their instructional methods, medical experts…

Patterson, Jan

2004-01-01

339

Dinetah: Navajo History. Volume II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using archaeological data, written chronicles of Spanish explorers and missionaries, and oral narratives and legends, the book traces the history of the Navajo people to their original homeland, Dinetah, located primarily off the present reservation in an area south and east of Farmington, New Mexico. The book discusses various theories on Navajo…

Roessel, Robert A., Jr.

340

Used planet: A global history  

PubMed Central

Human use of land has transformed ecosystem pattern and process across most of the terrestrial biosphere, a global change often described as historically recent and potentially catastrophic for both humanity and the biosphere. Interdisciplinary paleoecological, archaeological, and historical studies challenge this view, indicating that land use has been extensive and sustained for millennia in some regions and that recent trends may represent as much a recovery as an acceleration. Here we synthesize recent scientific evidence and theory on the emergence, history, and future of land use as a process transforming the Earth System and use this to explain why relatively small human populations likely caused widespread and profound ecological changes more than 3,000 y ago, whereas the largest and wealthiest human populations in history are using less arable land per person every decade. Contrasting two spatially explicit global reconstructions of land-use history shows that reconstructions incorporating adaptive changes in land-use systems over time, including land-use intensification, offer a more spatially detailed and plausible assessment of our planet's history, with a biosphere and perhaps even climate long ago affected by humans. Although land-use processes are now shifting rapidly from historical patterns in both type and scale, integrative global land-use models that incorporate dynamic adaptations in human–environment relationships help to advance our understanding of both past and future land-use changes, including their sustainability and potential global effects.

Ellis, Erle C.; Kaplan, Jed O.; Fuller, Dorian Q.; Vavrus, Steve; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Verburg, Peter H.

2013-01-01

341

The Early History of Seismometry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Edward P. Byerly and James F. Dewey of the U.S. Geological Survey, this is a textual reference that describes the history of seismographs, including how they work, as well as seismic waves, travel-time curves, and phase nomenclature.

Byerly, P. Edward (Perry Edward), 1926-; Dewey, James F.

2010-12-17

342

History Microcomputer Simulations: An Update.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article summarizes seven currently available microcomputer simulations for history. The seven included are: Government Simulations (Prentice-Hall, 1984), Nomination (Brady Company, 1984), Tigers in the Snow (Strategic Simulations, 1981), Lincoln's Decisions (Educational Activities, 1982), Watergate Simulation (Social Science Research and…

Sargent, James E.

1985-01-01

343

Great Basin Aquatic Systems History.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 14 papers collected herein treat diverse aspects of the aquatic history of the Great Basin of the western United States and collectively attempt to summarize and integrate portions of the vast body of new information on this subject that has been acqu...

D. B. Madsen D. R. Currey R. Hershler

2002-01-01

344

Linking Assessments: Concept and History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the history of linking is summarized, and current linking frameworks that have been proposed are considered. Key publications discussed include Flanagan (1951), Angoff (1971), Linn (1993), Mislevy (1992), and Feuer, Holland, Green, Bertenthal, and Hemphill (1999). The article further focuses on the concordance situation for…

Kolen, Michael J.

2004-01-01

345

Center for History and New Media  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for History and New Media, a collaboration between George Mason University, the American Social History Project, and the Center for Media and Learning at the City College of New York, is an attempt to respond to the way new media are changing the teaching and studying of history. The Center aspires "to produce innovative historical works in the new media" such as CD-ROM disks on U.S. history, and present seminars and conferences on history and new media. Their web site, newly opened, presents information about the Center and hypertext essays on new media and history including a hyptertext guide to history sites, which first appeared in the American Historical Association's December 1995 "Perspectives." Also provided are reviews of history CD-ROM's and software, connections to teaching projects, and links to other history sites, including a long list of university and college history departments.

346

American Association for the History of Nursing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Association for the History of Nursing (AAHN) website provides a wealth of resources -- such as online exhibits and subject bibliographies -- for persons interested in the history of nursing. The site also offers an annotated Internet link index to resources on nursing history. Overall, the AAHN website is a good resource for persons interested in medical history, as well as for nursing students taking courses on their professionâÂÂs history.

2007-02-22

347

My History Is America's History: 15 Things You Can Do To Save America's Stories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The theme of this guidebook is "Follow your family's history and you will discover America's history." The guidebook offers a way for everyone to explore family history to discover how family stories connect to the history of the nation. It suggests that a family history can be started with a single old photo, letter, or family tale that can be…

National Endowment for the Humanities (NFAH), Washington, DC.

348

African American Alumni Oral Histories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Digital Collections has tackled everything from Golda Meir to historic street maps in its quest to offer a diverse and wonderful view of the city's rich history. This particular collection brings together a clutch of oral histories that celebrate the African American experience at the institution. Visitors can look over a panel discussion with a range of recent alums titled, "African American Alumni and Students: Stories of Education and Success." Moving on, visitors can hear Clayborn Benson talk about his long career as a photojournalist or watch and listen to G. Spencer Coggs, who has been a prominent member of the Democratic Political Party in Wisconsin for many years. This is quite a trove of first-hand memories and a great tribute to the cityâÂÂs oral traditions.

349

The History of Eating Utensils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presented by the California Academy of Sciences, this online history of eating utensils is both stimulating and educational, with brief presentations on individual utensils and their evolution, as well as images of specimens from various cultures and periods. Learn, among other things, what Louis the XIV had to fear from the knife and what he did about it, and how it changed the shape of that instrument forever. Equally worth considering, chopsticks have also evolved over the course of five millennia. Called "kuai-zi" in Chinese, for quick little fellows, chopsticks were first joined together and only gradually came to be separated and made of less and less precious materials. Learn all about them and the rest of the instruments used by humans to eat gracefully in this brief online history. Better yet, if you are fortunate enough to be in the Bay area, visit the exhibit in person at the California Academy of Sciences.

350

The Museum of Printing History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When most people think about the history of printing they might think of a typeface or two they enjoy and perhaps the work of Gutenberg. There's much more to this field of human endeavor, and the Museum of Printing History in Houston provides a wealth of material at their institution and right here on their site. On the homepage, visitors can learn about current exhibitions and events, classes, and upcoming talks. In the Exhibitions area, visitors can learn about exhibits currently on display (such as the recent The Art of the Book) and those that will be coming to the museum in the future. Moving on, Our Collection features selected materials, including colonial documents and eyewitness accounts of the struggle for Texas independence. Finally, visitors can also learn about opportunities for visiting artists.

2012-04-27

351

Convection and lunar thermal history  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of solid interior convection on the thermal history of the moon are examined. Convective models of lunar evolution are calculated to demonstrate the influence of various viscosities, radioactive heat source distributions and initial temperature profiles and tested by means of a thermal history simulation code. Results indicate that solid convection does not necessarily produce a quasi-steady thermal balance between heat sources and surface losses. The state of the lithosphere is found to be sensitive to the efficiency of heat source redistribution, while that of the convecting interior depends primarily on rheology. Interior viscosities of 10 to the 21st to 10 to the 22nd cm/sec are obtained, along with a central temperature above 1100 C. It is suggested that mare flooding could have been the result of magma production by pressure release melting in the upwelling region of convection cells.

Cassen, P.; Reynolds, R. T.; Graziani, F.; Summers, A.; Mcnellis, J.; Blalock, L.

1979-01-01

352

University District Oral History Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Seattle Public Library has been embarking on some ambitious projects as of late and this oral history initiative is one of the best. Working with students in the University of Washington Museology Graduate Program, a number of oral history interviews were conducted with residents, businesspeople, and others in the city's University District. All of the interviews were conducted in 2011 and each interviewee provided a unique viewpoint of life on "The Ave,â which is shorthand for the main street that runs north and south through the neighborhood. There are twelve interviews here, including one with a University of Washington student, a Seattle Police Department officer, and the director of a teen outreach group.

2011-01-01

353

The evolutionary history of childbirth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consideration of the evolutionary and cross-cultural history of childbirth reveals many differences between the ways in which\\u000a most human females have experienced childbirth and the ways in which most women in contemporary industrialized obstetric settings\\u000a experience the event. In this paper I review two of these differences: the pain and anxiety of labor and delivery and the\\u000a discontinuity of care

Wenda R. Trevathan

1993-01-01

354

A distinct dinosaur life history?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five factors, mobile terrestrial lifestyle, oviparity, parental care, multi-year maturation and juvenile sociality, contribute to a distinct life history for Mesozoic dinosaurs in comparison to extant archosaurs and mammals. Upright, para-sagittal gait reflects several synapomorphies of Dinosauria, and wide histological sampling suggests that multi-year maturation typified dinosaurs across a range of body sizes. Fossil support for juvenile sociality exceeds that

David J. Varricchio

2011-01-01

355

Chicago Historical Society's History Files  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new site explores some of the most notable events and characters in Chicago's history: infamous (Al Capone, The Black Sox scandal), tragic (the Chicago Fire), and enterprising (The World's Columbian Exposition, A Century of Progress). Each story is told through photos and narrative, with an additional photo gallery, bibliography, and artifacts collection also available. Future exhibits are planned on Parades, Protests and Politics; The Pullman Era; The Stockyards; and The Haymarket Affair.

356

Marathon Maternity Oral History Project  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To explore how birthing and maternity care are understood and valued in a rural community. Design Oral history research. Setting The rural community of Marathon, Ont, with a population of approximately 3500. Participants A purposive selection of mothers, grandmothers, nurses, physicians, and community leaders in the Marathon medical catchment area. Methods Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample, employing an oral history research methodology. Interviews were conducted non-anonymously in order to preserve the identity and personhood of participants. Interview transcripts were edited into short narratives. Oral histories offer perspectives and information not revealed in other quantitative or qualitative research methodologies. Narratives re-personalize and humanize medical research by offering researchers and practitioners the opportunity to bear witness to the personal stories affected through medical decision making. Main findings Eleven stand-alone narratives, published in this issue of Canadian Family Physician, form the project’s findings. Similar to a literary text or short story, they are intended for personal reflection and interpretation by the reader. Presenting the results of these interviews as narratives requires the reader to participate in the research exercise and take part in listening to these women’s voices. The project’s narratives will be accessible to readers from academic and non-academic backgrounds and will interest readers in medicine and allied health professions, medical humanities, community development, gender studies, social anthropology and history, and literature. Conclusion Sharing personal birthing experiences might inspire others to reevaluate and reconsider birthing practices and services in other communities. Where local maternity services are under threat, Marathon’s stories might contribute to understanding the meaning and challenges of local birthing, and the implications of losing maternity services in rural Canada.

Orkin, Aaron; Newbery, Sarah

2014-01-01

357

Living History: Elsworth R. Buskirk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Abstract: In 2005, the American Physiological Society (APS) initiated the Living History of Physiology Archival Program to recognize senior members who have made significant contributions during their career to the advancement of the discipline and the profession of physiology. Subsequently, the leadership of the APS Section of Environmental and Exercise Physiology selected Prof. Elsworth R. Buskirk of Pennsylvania State University to be profiled in Advances in Physiology Education.

PhD Charles M. Tipton (Univ Arizona Dept Physiol)

2009-12-01

358

Learning, life history, and productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces a new model of the relationship between growth and learning and tests a set of hypotheses related\\u000a to the development of adult competency using time allocation, anthropometric, and experimental task performance data collected\\u000a between 1992 and 1997 in a multiethnic community in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Building on seminal work in life history\\u000a theory by Hawkes, Blurton

John Bock

2002-01-01

359

A Brief History of Anger  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Stories, myths, and religious beliefs reveal the powerful role that anger has played in human affairs since the beginning\\u000a of recorded history. The projections of anger into the supernatural by ancient and pre-literate societies trying to account\\u000a for the terrifying vagaries of nature testify to their experience with, and appreciation of, the baleful influence of anger\\u000a in the human sphere.

Michael Potegal; Raymond W. Novaco

360

Social Security Online History Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The creation of the Social Security program during the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt is widely understood to be one of the most important pieces of social welfare legislation in United States history. Drawing on their vast repositories of oral histories, audio recordings, and primary documents, the Social Security Administration (SSA) has established this Web site that will be of great help and assistance to researchers looking for a holistic appraisal of the Administration's historical development and contributions to the welfare of the American public. Visitors will want to check out the detailed explanation of how Social Security numbers are assigned (and who received the first number back in 1936). One fascinating feature is the sound and video clip section, which features radio debates on the merits of the Social Security program taped during 1935 and Lyndon B. Johnson's remarks on the passage of the Medicare bill in 1965. The Web site also includes transcriptions of oral histories done with administrators of the SSA over the past 65 years. All in all, this site serves as a well-thought out archive that deals with the transformation of the federal government's role in increasing its influence in the arena of social welfare.

361

[The history of biological warfare].  

PubMed

Selected events in the history of biological weapons are highlighted to increase the physician's awareness of this crucial threat. The deliberate use of biological substances originated in antiquity and has pervaded the history of human wars throughout time until the 21th century. The history of biological warfare is difficult to assess because of a number of confounding factors. These include the difficulty in verification of allegation, the use of the threat of this weapon for propaganda purposes, the lack of microbiological or epidemiological data, and the incidence of natural occurring endemic or epidemic diseases during hostilities. Although it may be problematic to verify at times, the use of such weapons has not been limited to national armies or militia. Frustrated civilians, terrorists and even physicians have used biological substances to promote their interests. Today, the biological threat has become more serious. It's potency, cost-effectiveness, and the ability to manufacture and deploy it with little sophistication, or under the semblance of legitimate commercial endeavors, will ensure that biological weapons remain a constant threat to human health. PMID:12170558

Cohen, Amir; Robenshtok, Eyal; Rotman, Eran; Sagi, Rami

2002-05-01

362

Field Museum of Natural History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago was founded to house the biological and anthropological collections assembled for the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893. These objects form the core of the Museum's collections which have grown to more than twenty million specimens. The collections form the foundation of the Museum's exhibition, research and education programs, which are further informed by a world-class natural history library of more than 250,000 volumes. The Museum features a number of earth science exhibits, including the Hall of Gems, Moving Earth about plate Tectonics, a fossil Preparation Laboratory, Evolving Planet a permanent exhibit showcasing 4 billion years of life history, from single celled organisms through human ancestors. The Harris Loan Program provides educational outreach to children, bringing artifacts, specimens, audiovisual materials, and activity kits to area schools, as well as resources for educators, including select Field Museum programs available for listening or download as a part of Chicago Amplified. There are a number of online exhibits, interactives, curricula, and information on conservation projects. Also offered are classes, lectures, field trips, museum overnights and special events for families, adults and children. The Museum's curatorial and scientific staff has been an international leader in evolutionary biology and paleontology, and archaeology and ethnography, and has long maintained close links - including joint teaching, students, seminars - with local universities.

363

History of Geophysics Fellowship awarded  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inspired by an article in an issue of Eos from April 1970, Gabe Henderson discovered a legacy of correspondence from former AGU president Helmut Landsberg detailing his views in the early days of the climate science debate. Thanks to AGU donors and the creation of a new fellowship by AGU's History of Geophysics Committee, Henderson, a Ph.D. candidate at Michigan State University, is conducting research on Landsberg's papers at the University of Maryland, College Park, continuing his study of the broad history of geophysics and the link between the past and future of climate science. In April 1970, Henderson says, AGU president Helmut Landsberg called for S. Fred Singer to lead a special committee on environmental quality to evaluate the geophysical aspects of environmental problems, dispassionately (H. E. Landsberg, Eos Trans. AGU, 51, 243, doi:10.1029/EO051i004p00243). Because environmental problems were hardly given a second thought at that time, Landsberg's request could have faded from the consciousness of geoscientists and from the pages of history.

Lee, Lauren

2012-04-01

364

The Encyclopedia of World History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The good people at Bartleby.com have long prided themselves on providing a host of important works online for the benefit of those seeking online edification. One of the more recent volumes they have placed on their site is The Encyclopedia of World History, edited by Peter N. Stearns and 30 fellow historians. As the preface to this, the sixth edition, announces: "Simply put, this is a volume that has always intended to convey the key features of world history". This is no small order, and this edition represents a substantial revision from previous editions, as it also reflects the growing body of knowledge about the histories of regions outside of Western Europe and North America. The encyclopedia is complemented by a number of illustrative and informative maps, including ones that visualize India before the Muslim conquest and Italy in the 15th century. Users of the volume are welcome to use the search engine to find the information they so desire, or they may browse at their leisure.

365

Outline for a History of Science Measurement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Points out that no history of measurement exists in the literature and outlines such history. Discusses the nature of science and technology statistics and shows that their specificity is due to the sociopolitics that drives measurement. (Contains 114 references.) (DDR)

Godin, Benoit

2002-01-01

366

Women's History and the Western Civilization Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares basic themes in women's history and the Western civilization survey course and concludes that women's studies do not assimilate comfortably because women are not a part of the heroic epics upon which European history is based. (CK)

Kleinbaum, Abby Wettan

1979-01-01

367

Newmark-Hall synthetic history development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The methodology used to develop synthetic acceleration time histories with spectral content that envelopes the Newmark-Hall spectra is described. Six acceleration time histories are developed for two conditions of foundation and 3 critical damping factors...

G. A. Aramayo

1990-01-01

368

Biology Educators and the History of Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both teachers and learners can benefit from looking at the history of scientific discovery and science teaching. Discusses the history of curriculum change in biology education and the thought processes of historically prominent biologists. (Author/WRM)

Bicak, Laddie J.; Bicak, Charles J.

1999-01-01

369

Center for History of Chemistry Inaugurated.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Center for the History of Chemistry (CHOC), located at the University of Pennsylvania, was officially inaugurated in March 1983. Highlights inaugural ceremonies; discusses CHOC aims, activities, and exhibits. Includes comments on Center for Physics History, industry role in perserving corporate history, chemists honored on United States…

Seltzer, Richard J.

1983-01-01

370

Children's Literature and History: A Different Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews 10 children's books for history instruction in elementary social studies. Topics range from the history of chimney sweeps, to Vietnam War stories, to writers' autobiographies. Lists bibliographical resources for locating other books that teach history through literature. Suggests student autobiographical and research projects. (CH)

Gallagher, Arlene R.

1989-01-01

371

Creating the "History through Deaf Eyes" Documentary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author outlines how a documentary film about the history of deafness in the United States, inspired by the exhibition "History through Deaf Eyes," is going to be created. "History through Deaf Eyes" will have a dual focus. Part of its subject is deafness from the inside: the personal experiences of deaf people (and hearing…

Hott, Lawrence

2007-01-01

372

National Museum of American History Branch Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Subject concentration in the National Museum of American History Branch Library, a part of Smithsonian Institution Libraries system, is in the history of science and technology and American history, with emphasis on material culture and on documenting and servicing the museum's collections. Special collections include trade literature and…

Ratner, Rhoda S.

1986-01-01

373

Discovering History at the Community College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many of the history courses community college students take are fairly broad and ostensibly generic surveys of world, Western European, or American history. This chapter discusses an array of innovative practices that enable students to better appreciate how studying history can help them master the challenges--and reap the benefits--of a liberal…

Tai, Emily Sohmer

2013-01-01

374

77 FR 17321 - Women's History Month, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proclamation 8780 of March 1, 2012 Women's History Month, 2012 By the President of the United...and enduring equality. During Women's History Month, we commemorate their struggles...at home and abroad. During Women's History Month, we recall that the...

2012-03-26

375

History of Astronomy Then and Now  

Microsoft Academic Search

As one of the three founders of the Historical Astronomy Division, I shall reflect on the progress of the history of astronomy over the past three decades. This includes the success of the Journal for the History of Astronomy and the proliferation of other venues for the history of our discipline, the usefulness of Steve McCluskey's HASTRO e-mail list, and

O. Gingerich

2004-01-01

376

Curriculum Formation: A Case Study from History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on the work of Bernstein and Maton and using a case-study approach, this study explores the formation of an undergraduate history curriculum at the University of Cape Town. This article focuses on two periods of curriculum formation referred to as history as canon and history as social science. With respect to these two curriculum periods…

Shay, Suellen

2011-01-01

377

Making and Measuring the California History Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The California history and social science standards-based reform has been touted as the "gold standard" for state history curricula. But the standards, framework, and tests that constitute this reform provide inconsistent and contradictory criteria for teaching and assessing history and social science. An examination of the political process that…

Fogo, Bradley

2011-01-01

378

Eric Voegelin's order in history: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

ORDER IN HISTORY, Vol. I, ISREAL AND REVELATION. By Eric Voegelin. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1956; pp. xxvi + 534. $19.95.ORDER IN HISTORY, Vol. II, THE WORLD OF THE POLIS. By Eric Voegelin. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1957; pp. xvii + 390. $19.95.ORDER IN HISTORY, Vol. III, PLATO AND ARISTOTLE. By Eric Voegelin. Baton Rouge: Louisiana

John Angus Campbell

1982-01-01

379

Histories of Developmental Education. CRDEUL Monograph.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers on the history of developmental education includes: "Historical Perspectives: With Hindsight We Gain Foresight" (Normal Stahl); "Supporting the Research Mission" (David V. Taylor); "A Brief History of the American Council of Developmental Education Associations" (Hunter R. Boylan); "History of Supplemental Instruction…

Lundell, Dana Britt, Ed.; Higbee, Jeanne L., Ed.

380

Senior Officer Oral History Program Project Handlist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains a project list of taped interviews and transcribed work covering approximately 900 personalities and special topics in military history. The historical material was given by various associations and individuals who donated oral histories to the U.S. Army Military History Institute for use by researchers. Each project…

Army War Coll., Carlisle Barracks, PA.

381

History of Higher Education Annual, 1991.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annual compilation explores the history of small colleges in five articles that focus on the "uses" of this history in facing current debates concerning institutional directions. A brief introduction by Harold S. Wechsler addresses the role of institutional history for the small college. The first article is "Celebrating Roots:…

History of Higher Education Annual, 1991

1991-01-01

382

Is There a European Language History?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The thoughts on a language history within a European context sketched out here represent an attempt to extend the concepts of regional and particularly national language history by adding a third dimension: transnational language history in Europe. After a few general thoughts on the extended area of research, in which so-called external language…

Mattheier, Klaus J.

2010-01-01

383

Encouraging Attitudinal Change through Online Oral History  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computing technology has been used extensively in the classroom to aid students in learning about math, science, and writing. Comparatively little work has focused on the sorts of history learning computing technology facilitates, if any. Can computing technology be used to facilitate history learning? What does it mean to support history learning? How do we evaluate such learning? In this

Jason B. Ellis; Amy S. Bruckman

2002-01-01

384

Global History as Part of Global Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the need for a global approach to world history to help students at all levels understand social, economic, and ecological change. The author evaluates one example of a secondary global world history textbook--"People and Civilization: A World History" (Lexington, MA: Ginn and Company, 1977). (AM)

Schmidt-Sinns, Dieter

1981-01-01

385

History and Evolution of Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth explores the history and evolution of the field of physics. The first website, created by the Institute of Physics, offers an interactive timetable of the development of physics from the ancient philosophers during the Bronze Age to the present research in quantum mechanics and relativity (1). The website illustrates the links between scientists and eras. Second, the US Department of Energy provides a synopsis of the work of the nuclear physics research program and the high-energy physics program since the 1950s (2). Users can also discover current research highlights and papers. The third website features an excerpt from a biography of Josiah Willard Gibbs by a student of his, Lynde Phelps Wheeler (3). Along with a download of a paper discussing the history of thermodynamics, the website supplies a download of a paper Carnot wrote about power in 1824. Fourth, physicist Patricia Schwartz presents a brief timeline of the evolution of mathematics and theoretical physics since the Babylonians established the metric of flat, two-dimensional space (4 ). Students can find an additional timeline of string theory dating back to the Kaluza-Klein Theory in 1921. The fifth website, developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, is a section of an X-ray data book exploring the history of synchrotron radiation (5). The website discusses numerous historical aspects include the development of storage rings and the optimization of these with lower emittance and long straight sections for undulators. Sixth, John Bahcall, at the Institute for Advanced Study, offers popular papers on the history of solar neutrinos (6). Anyone interested in learning about the research of solar neutrinos should visit this website. The seventh website is a pdf file of a paper written by the President of the Italian Physical Society, Renato Angelo Ricci, detailing the work of Enrico Fermi and his contributions to the field of nuclear physics (7). This paper can help users who have some prior knowledge of nuclear physics understand the greatness of Fermi's work. Lastly, the University of Oxford provides images of scientific instruments from the medieval and renaissance periods of Europe held at four museums in Europe (8). Students can learn about the uses of the instruments and their origin.

386

San Diego Natural History Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The San Diego Natural History Museum website promotes understanding of the evolution and biodiversity of southern California and the peninsula of Baja California. Site materials include information on current and past museum exhibits, summer camps, classes, and field trips, news articles, and event announcements. The field guides page inlcudes guides to animals, minerals and fossils; checklists of plants, animals, and insects; a frequently-asked-questions feature; and guides to outdoor explorations of local wildlife and ecological preserves. There is also information on the museums' research programs, on paleontological mitigation of fossil sites that may be destroyed by development, and information for members and visitors.

387

Connecticut Museum of Natural History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Museum of Natural History and Connecticut Archaeology Center are home to the University of Connecticut's Anthropological Collections and represents the largest repository of Connecticut Native American, colonial and industrial artifacts in existence. The Museum features an Archeology Museum with many Earth science activities and programming including Mining walk, Ponds by Night walk, Archeological Digs and Whale Watch. Educational programming also includes a kids' summer camp and other seasonal educational and cultural programs. Associated with the Museum, The Connecticut Archaeology Center, located at University of Connecticut in Storrs, serves a number of audiences with a variety of tools and services, and online pictures and descriptions of each of the major collections.

388

The history of parathyroid endocrinology  

PubMed Central

The parathyroid glands are now recognized as being essential for life. Their structure and function is well delineated, and their disease and dysfunction, well characterized. Diagnosis and management of parathyroid disease has improved in the past few decades. The path of parathyroid science, however, has been far from smooth. This paper describes the early history of parathyroid endocrinology. In doing so, it focuses on major events and discoveries, which improved the understanding and practice of our specialty. Contribution in anatomy, physiology, pathology, medicine, surgery and biochemistry are reviewed.

Kalra, Sanjay; Baruah, Manash P.; Sahay, Rakesh; Sawhney, Kanishka

2013-01-01

389

Ore metals through geologic history.  

PubMed

The ores of chromite, nickel, copper, and zinc show a wide distribution over geologic time, but those of iron, titanium, lead, uranium, gold, silver, molybdenum, tungsten, and tin are more restricted. Many of the limitations to specific time intervals are probably imposed by the evolving tectonic history of Earth interacting with the effects of the biomass on the evolution of the earth's s surface chemistry. Photosynthetic generation of free oxygen and "carbon" contributes significantlly to the diversity of redox potentials in both sedimentary and igneous-related processes of ore formation, influencing the selection of metals at the source, during transport, and at the site of ore deposition. PMID:17777763

Meyer, C

1985-03-22

390

Ancient Admixture in Human History  

PubMed Central

Population mixture is an important process in biology. We present a suite of methods for learning about population mixtures, implemented in a software package called ADMIXTOOLS, that support formal tests for whether mixture occurred and make it possible to infer proportions and dates of mixture. We also describe the development of a new single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array consisting of 629,433 sites with clearly documented ascertainment that was specifically designed for population genetic analyses and that we genotyped in 934 individuals from 53 diverse populations. To illustrate the methods, we give a number of examples that provide new insights about the history of human admixture. The most striking finding is a clear signal of admixture into northern Europe, with one ancestral population related to present-day Basques and Sardinians and the other related to present-day populations of northeast Asia and the Americas. This likely reflects a history of admixture between Neolithic migrants and the indigenous Mesolithic population of Europe, consistent with recent analyses of ancient bones from Sweden and the sequencing of the genome of the Tyrolean “Iceman.”

Patterson, Nick; Moorjani, Priya; Luo, Yontao; Mallick, Swapan; Rohland, Nadin; Zhan, Yiping; Genschoreck, Teri; Webster, Teresa; Reich, David

2012-01-01

391

The History of Sanitary Sewers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Though they may be most closely associated with the dramatic appearance of large creatures (such as alligators or raccoons), sanitary sewers are one of the most important pieces of infrastructure across the built-up areas of the world. For the past decade, Jon Schladweiler has collected copious amounts of material related to the history of sewage conveyance systems. Along with his various traveling exhibits and lectures, he has seen fit to create this rather intriguing website which contains articles, timelines, and visual materials that relate the history of the development of sewage systems over the past few millennia. The articles section is a good place to start, as it has dozens of historical articles that address the design of sewers, their various components (such as pipes and manholes), their construction, and even divides the articles up by locale and historical era. The photograph section is also well-developed, and contains a good section with photographs of public baths and latrines from antiquity. Finally, the site has a Miscellaneous area that pays homage to prose and poetry that have seen fit to describe sewers and their related pieces of infrastructure. Here visitors may read pieces by Robert Frost, Ben Johnson, and the Song of the Sewer from The Honeymooners.

392

San Diego Natural History Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The San Diego Natural History Museum traces its roots to a group of amateur naturalists, who formed the San Diego Society of Natural History in 1874. Today the Museum strives to help visitors interpret the natural world through research, education and exhibits. Active research in scientific field work and systematics has been ongoing since the Societies inception, and current fields of interest include Entomology, Botany, Geology, Mineralogy, Paleontology, and Birds and Mammals. The Museum offers an online specimen database, as well as information on publications, collections care and conservation, symposia and workshops and bi-national expeditions. There are a number of changing exhibits at the facility, and one can bring nature into your classroom, art studio, and home by becoming a member of the Museum's Loan Program. The program has over 1100 specimens that represent biologic and geologic diversity throughout the world. The Museums program Proyecto Bio-regional de Educación Ambiental, or PROBEA, designs innovative environmental education curricula to train educators, and engage teachers, students and others in projects to benefit their local environment.

393

Natural history of multiple meningiomas  

PubMed Central

Background: Asymptomatic solitary meningiomas are typically managed with clinical and radiographic follow-up. Multiple meningiomas represents a clinical entity distinct from solitary meningiomas and can be sporadic, radiation-induced, associated with neurofibromatosis, or exhibit other familial inheritance. The growth rate for multiple meningiomas is not known and therefore management of these complicated patients can be difficult. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on 12 patients with a total of 55 meningiomas. Patients with neurofibromatosis were not included. Serial enhanced magnetic resonance imaging was used to determine tumor growth rates. Treatment history was also reviewed and included for analysis. Results: Analysis of all 55 tumors demonstrated an average rate of growth of 0.46 cm3/year (range: ?0.57-2.94 cm3/year). In the 23 tumors that received no treatment, the average rate of growth was 0.34 cm3/year (range: ?0.03-1.8 cm3/year). Ten of the 23 tumors that received no treatment had no history of cranial irradiation. This group demonstrated a growth rate of 0.44 cm3/year (range: ?0.01-1.8 cm3/year). Linear regression analysis did not yield any significant relationship between tumor burden and rates of growth. Conclusion: Tumor growth rates in patients with multiple meningiomas did not appear to be higher than reported rates for incidentally found solitary meningiomas. As such, asymptomatic multiple meningioma patients should be managed with clinical and radiographic follow-up.

Wong, Ricky H.; Wong, Andrew K.; Vick, Nicholas; Farhat, Hamad I.

2013-01-01

394

History of Space Shuttle Rendezvous  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This technical history is intended to provide a technical audience with an introduction to the rendezvous and proximity operations history of the Space Shuttle Program. It details the programmatic constraints and technical challenges encountered during shuttle development in the 1970s and over thirty years of shuttle missions. An overview of rendezvous and proximity operations on many shuttle missions is provided, as well as how some shuttle rendezvous and proximity operations systems and flight techniques evolved to meet new programmatic objectives. This revised edition provides additional information on Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and Apollo/Soyuz. Some chapters on the Space Shuttle have been updated and expanded. Four special focus chapters have been added to provide more detailed information on shuttle rendezvous. A chapter on the STS-39 mission of April/May 1991 describes the most complex deploy/retrieve mission flown by the shuttle. Another chapter focuses on the Hubble Space Telescope servicing missions. A third chapter gives the reader a detailed look at the February 2010 STS-130 mission to the International Space Station. The fourth chapter answers the question why rendezvous was not completely automated on the Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle vehicles.

Goodman, John L.

2011-01-01

395

Intelligent Design and Earth History  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intelligent Design (ID), the idea that the Earth's biota was intelligently designed and created, is not a new species recently evolved by allopatric speciation at the fringes of the creationist gene pool. In spite of its new veneer of sophistication, ID is a variant of an already extant species of religious polemics. In the western world, arguments about causative relationships between the complexity of nature and the supernatural can be traced from the fifth century St. Augustine, to the eighteenth century David Hume and the nineteenth century William Paley. Along this descent tree some argued from the existence of supernatural agencies to the creation of nature with its complexities, while others argued from the complexities of nature to the existence of supernatural agencies. Today, Phillip Johnson promotes ID by attacking evolution rather than by presenting evidence for ID. He argues that the evidence for macroevolution is either absent, misinterpreted or fraudulent. His "Wedge Strategy" attempts to separate his "objective science" from the "philosophical mechanistic naturalism" which he posits is responsible for the survival of Darwinism. To make his appeal as wide as possible he tries not to offend anyone (except evolutionists) by deliberately avoiding discussion of biblical literalism or the age of the Earth. Although in 1859 Darwin admitted that the geological evidence was "the most obvious and gravest objection which can be urged against my theory", subsequently geological evidence has become one of the chief supports of his theory. However, the fossil record is now seen to be not simply one of slow gradual descent with modification. Rates of divergence and disappearance of organisms have varied enormously through time. Repeated mass extinctions indicate a strong element of contingency in evolution. Accepting the postulate of an intelligent designer also requires the postulate of an intelligent destroyer. Darwin hinted at this when he referred to, "The clumsy, wasteful works of nature as seen in the suffering caused by parasites and in the delight in cruelty shown by some predators when catching and playing with their prey". The positions of other contemporary proponents of ID are far from uniform. Some, while rejecting unguided evolution, appear to accept the concepts of common descent and an Earth 4.6 billion years old. However, within the ID movement there has been very little discussion of its implications for Earth history. For example, is it valid to ask, "Were the Himalayas intelligently designed?" Or should the question be, "Is the physics of plate tectonics intelligently designed?" As well as contingency in the history of life, there are strong elements of contingency in the history of the Earth, in the history of the solar system and in the history of the cosmos. Does ID matter? From a purely operational viewpoint, the rock record could equally well be interpreted in pattern-based investigations as being the product of either naturalistic processes, or as a sequence of intelligently designed events. For example, in correlating horizons between adjacent oil wells using micropaleontology, or in doing seismic stratigraphy, it makes little difference whether foraminifera or unconformities formed by natural or supernatural agencies. However, ID is an anathema for process-based research and its cultural implications are enormous. While we must be careful in our work to separate methodological naturalism from culturally bound philosophical naturalism, methodological naturalism has been an enormously successful approach in the advancement of knowledge. We have moved from the "demon-haunted" world to the world of the human genome. We must take ID seriously; it is a retrograde step.

Elders, W. A.

2001-05-01

396

Black History, Inc! Investigating the Production of Black History through Walmart's Corporate Web Site  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social and public sites are becoming a popular medium for intellectual consumption of Black history. Given the educational climate in which many students' exposure to Black history may come from outside of schools, the authors examine how Walmart's Black History Month Web site produced simplistic and safe narratives about African American history.

King, LaGarrett J.; Brown, Anthony L.

2012-01-01

397

National Museum of American History's OurStory Program: History, Literature, and Civic Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1998, the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center launched OurStory: History through Children's Literature, a history and literacy program series for family visitors to the Museum that was designed to help children and adults enjoy exploring history together. Ten years later, to reach a broader, national…

Coquillon, Naomi; Wei, Jenny

2011-01-01

398

Assessing the Factorial Structure of High School History Teachers' Perceptions on Teaching American History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the research reported in this paper was to develop a preliminary factorial structure of high school history teachers' perceptions on the most important elements of successful history teaching. The 54-item Teaching American History Perception and Behavior Questionnaire was developed and administered to high school American history

Liu, Yuanlong; Shen, Jianping; Warren, Wilson J.; Cowart, Lynne E.

2006-01-01

399

Texas Natural History Collections: Herpetology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Herpetology Collection of reptiles and amphibians is part of the Texas Natural History Collections (TNHC) in the University of Texas at Austin's Texas Memorial Museum. The Collection "holdings consist of about 63,000 catalogued specimens, which are used for research by faculty, staff and students at the University, as well as by qualified researchers throughout the world." Frogs make up more than half of the catalogued specimens, and the United States is the primary source of specimens. Collection materials are also from Central and South America, Mexico, Africa, and Southeast Asia. Loans are available to "established researchers at recognized institutions with the facilities to properly house and care for the specimens." The website offers information about the Loan Policy to interested researchers. The site also links to the searchable and browseable TNHC Herp Database. Please note that the Database is under construction, and may be unavailable on occasion.

400

Knox County Black History Archives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Knox County, Ohio has had a significant black population for several hundred years, and historians and others have documented their activities in journal articles, books, and other printed materials. This remarkable digital collection from the Digital Resource Commons at Kenyon College provides access to photographs, documents, and other items that tell the story of this unique community. This collection was made possible, in part, by funding from the Ohio Humanities Council, along with support from the Rural Life Center. Currently the collection includes 200 items, which visitors can browse alphabetically or by performing a keyword search. Each item has a preview feature and visitors can click through to zoom in on each item. The handwritten history of Mt. Cavalry Baptist Church is particularly fascinating.

2012-06-01

401

The long history of hematoxylin.  

PubMed

Hematoxylin is a naturally occurring chemical used as the basis of a dye in laboratories throughout the world to stain nuclei in microscope slide preparations. This chemical is extracted from the logwood tree Hematoxylon campechianum and was discovered by Spanish explorers to the Yucatan in 1502. A vigorous trade soon developed related to growing and preparing hematoxylin for use in dyeing fabrics in Europe. In the mid 1800s, amateur microscopists first used hematoxylin to stain cellular components. Later scientists developed a wide range of techniques to demonstrate different cellular components. Hematoxylin remains the most popular nuclear stain in histology. This paper briefly describes the history of hematoxylin production and use in histology. PMID:16195172

Titford, M

2005-01-01

402

Phylogenetic Approaches Toward Crocodylian History  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of crocodylian phylogeny reveals a more complex history than might have been anticipated from a direct reading of the fossil record without consideration of phylogenetic relationships. The three main extant crocodylian lineagesGavialoidea, Alligatoroidea, Crocodyloideaare known from fossils in the Late Cretaceous, and the group is found nearly worldwide during the Cenozoic. Some groups have distributions that are best explained by the crossing of marine barriers during the Tertiary. Early Tertiary crocodylian faunas are phylogenetically composite, and clades tend to be morphologically uniform and geographically widespread. Later in the Tertiary, Old World crocodylian faunas are more endemic. Crocodylian phylogeneticists face numerous challenges, the most important being the phylogenetic relationships and time of divergence of the two living gharials (Gavialis gangeticus and Tomistoma schlegelii), the relationships among living true crocodiles (Crocodylus), and the relationships among caimans.

Brochu, Christopher A.

403

Union Pacific: History and Photos  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in 1862 to construct half of the first transcontinental railroad, Union Pacific (UP) became one of America's leading railroads, hauling passengers and freight through some of the most rugged and scenic regions of America. Anyone with an interest in American railroads, from hardcore trainspotters to the mildly curious will enjoy this site, which celebrates UP's long history with short texts and a plethora of photos and images. Users can read about the caboose and passenger trains, learn about historic UP yards and shops, and review several chronologies. The heart of the site, however, is the photo gallery, which features images of historic advertisements, structures and yards, nineteenth-century stereo views, scenic locations, and a large number of trains (steam and diesel) in action. Take a ride on the rails.

404

History of Maine Fisheries Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of institutions have begun to expand their digital collections in order to include lesser-known subjects, and the University of Maine's Raymond H. Fogler Library continues to expand their online offerings with this intriguing collection. Drawing on the holdings of institutions like the Machias Historical Society, the Maine Maritime Museum, and the Maine State Archives, their digital collections team has created this History of Maine Fisheries database. There aren't any subject headings or sample searches on the site, but it is still quite easy to use. Visitors can use the keyword search to locate materials of interest, and they can also set date parameters to look for materials from a given time period. To get started, visitors might try typing in words like "lobster", "fleet", and "Bangor".

405

Florida Citrus Industry Oral Histories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What's so special about oranges? They are a major cash crop for Florida and other warm weather places, and this fascinating oral history project from the University of South Florida (USF) explores the very nature of this industry. Working together with the USF's Patel Center for Global Studies, oral historian William Mansfield conducted 20 interviews regarding the impact of globalization on the Florida citrus industry. Visitors can listen to or read the interviews, as well as look over the online exhibition, "Selling Sunshine: Florida's Citrus Industry." The exhibition details Florida's unique relationship with the citrus industry, incorporating documents, promotional material, and post cards with its information. The website hosts a remarkable collection that will be of interest to oral historians, folks with an interest in Florida, and many others.

406

Early History of Jefferson Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This talk will focus on the history of Jefferson Laboratory from its inception as the NEAL proposal by the Southeastern Universities Research Association (SURA) in 1980, to about 1986 -- two years after the arrival of Hermann Grunder and his Berkeley team. Major themes are (i) a national decision to build a high energy, high duty factor electron accelerator for basic nuclear physics research, (ii) open competition established by the DOE, (iii) formation of SURA, and (iv) interest of SURA physicists (particularly at UVA and W&M) in this research. I will discuss the scientific, technical, and political issues that eventually lead to the selection of the SURA proposal, the choice of Newport News as the site, and the decision to adopt a recirculating superconducting ring for the final design.

Gross, Franz

2011-10-01

407

Early History of Jefferson Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This talk will focus on the history of Jefferson Laboratory from its inception as the NEAL proposal by the Southeastern Universities Research Association (SURA) in 1980, to about 1986 -- two years after the arrival of Hermann Grunder and his Berkeley team. Major themes are (i) a national decision to build a high energy, high duty factor electron accelerator for basic nuclear physics research, (ii) open competition established by the DOE, (iii) formation of SURA, and (iv) interest of SURA physicists (particularly at UVA and W&M) in this research. I will discuss the scientific, technical, and political issues that eventually lead to the choice of Newport News as the site and the choice of a recirculating superconducting ring as the final design.

Gross, Franz

2006-11-01

408

Las Vegas: An Unconventional History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of the PBS series American Experience, this well-designed siteexplores the history and idiosyncrasies of Las Vegas. The film, andaccompanying book, which the web site is based on will both be availablethis fall (the film airs in November on PBS), and the site certainlywhets viewers appetites for both. A nice range of information iscovered on the site which includes everything from information aboutNevada's nuclear testing in the fifties, to Rat Pack reminiscences and ofcourse, wedding photos. If you'd like to share your own Vegas weddingtale there is an interactive portion of the site dedicated to the topic.Packed with time lines, a teacher's guide, maps and much more this site(and film and book by the same name) are worthy of attention.

2005-01-01

409

[Day Hospital: history and conceptualization].  

PubMed

The appearance of Day Hospitals operated as a model to inspire the different ways of partial time psychiatric care (night hospitals, weekend hospitals, long hour activities in hospitalization services or general hospitals, etc.) and came to complement or replace complete hospitalization in classic psychiatric hospitals. This article presents the history and origins of Day Hospitals and their initial propagation in different countries, and especially in Argentina. Social and political conditions that set their emergence as a therapeutic resource in psychiatry, their models of functioning and variants of application according to the diagnoses of patients admitted, age groups, etc., the theories put into play to report their effects, several studies and technical results, and ideological views related to mental disorders and their treatment in the society are also being studied. PMID:23139920

Stagnaro, Juan C

2012-01-01

410

Complex Geologic History of Triton  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Part of the complex geologic history of icy Triton, Neptune's largest satellite, is shown in this Voyager 2 photo, which has a resolution of 900 meters (2,700 feet) per picture element. The photo was received as part of a Triton-mapping sequence between 3:30 and 5:30 a.m. (PDT). This view is about 500 kilometers (300 miles) across. It encompasses two depressions, possibly old impact basins, that have been extensively modified by flooding, melting, faulting, and collapse. Several episodes of filling and partial removal of material appear to have occurred. The rough area in the middle of the bottom depression probably marks the most recent eruption of material. Only a few impact craters dot the area, which shows the dominance of internally driven geologic processes on Triton.

JPL manages the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

1989-01-01

411

Texas Natural History Collections: Ichthyology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Ichthyology Collection is part of the Texas Natural History Collections (TNHC) at the University of Texas at Austin's Texas Memorial Museum. It is estimated that the Ichthyology Collection currently holds 676,384 specimens contained in approximately 30,000 jars. The Collection represents 180 countries, and over half of the specimens are from Texas. Loans are available to "researchers at recognized institutions with the facilities to properly house and care for the specimens." The site links to extensive indices for North America Freshwater Fishes and Texas Freshwater Fishes which include maps and images. The site also links to a searchable and browseable TNHC Fish Specimen Database containing 26,511 records. Note: The Fish Database is under construction, and may be unavailable on occasion.

412

Ordnance Survey: History of Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ordnance Survey started life in Britain in the late eighteenth century, and its original purpose was military in nature. It traces its origins to 1746 when King George II commissioned a military survey of the Scottish highlands. Almost fifty years later, the Board of Ordnance (the defense ministry at the time) began a survey of England's southern coasts, which were vulnerable to attack from nations on the Continent. The real gems here are the two full-length books that visitors can read at their leisure. They are "A History of the Ordnance Survey" by W.A. Seymour and "Ordnance Survey: Map Makers to Britain since 1791". Both works deal with the political and military implications of the Survey, along with providing information on the more technical aspects of surveying work.

413

The Natural History Museum, London  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although it contains information useful to both amateur and professional researchers, this site is primarily geared for instructional use at all levels. The Natural History Museum contains five groupings of topics: the museum, science, information services, education, and a list of hosted sites. Users can select from numerous choices within the five groupings, often divided into fields of scientific study such as botany and paleontology. Examples of items available at this site include: an image gallery from gems to botanical illustrations, a photographic tour of Darwin's home, a collection of virtual reality trilobites, and a discussion of the feasibility of extracting dinosaur DNA from insects trapped in ancient amber. This site provides links to an exceptionally good collection of related sites. (Several applications require Shockwave plug-in, QTVR plug-in, or VRML 2.0 plug-in.)

1997-01-01

414

Discovering American Women's History Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at Middle Tennessee State University, this valuable database gives interested parties access to digital collections of primary sources (photos, letters, diaries, and so on) that document the history of women in the United States. Visitors can browse the database by subject, place, time period, or primary source type. There are many fascinating resources and links here, including letters from Abigail Franks to her son from the 1730s and 1740s and Katrina Thomas' wonderfully evocative photographs of various ethnic weddings. Even a close appraisal of items listed by primary source is delightful, as the headings here include everything from broadsides to buttons to trade cards. One particularly noteworthy collection contains the papers of the late Irene Kuhn, who was a global traveler, journalist, and social commentator.

Middleton, Ken, 1964-

415

19th Century Advertising History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the 19th century, one of the most consistently popular American periodicals was Harper's Weekly, an illustrated paper whose circulation was well in excess of over 100,000 on a regular basis. This fine site highlights some of the many creative and inventive advertisements that were prominently displayed in the periodical during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The project was the brainchild of John Adler, a longtime history buff, who came across a complete set of the periodical for the period from 1857 to 1916. On the site visitors can browse through advertisements for appliances, insurance, foreign travel, farm land, and various medicinal potions. The selection of ads includes one for "pain paint," which begins with a brief doggerel that includes a mention of the impeachment of President Andrew Johnson in 1868.

416

The history of Chagas disease  

PubMed Central

The ancestor of Trypanosome cruzi was probably introduced to South American via bats approximately 7-10 million years ago. When the first humans arrived in the New World, a sylvatic cycle of Chagas disease was then already well established. Paleoparasitological data suggests that human American trypanosomiasis originated in the Andean area when people founded the first settlements in the coastal region of the Atacama Desert. Identification of T. cruzi as the etiological agent and triatome bugs as the transmission vector of Chagas disease occurred within a few years at the beginning of the 20th century. History also teaches us that human activity leading to environmental changes, in particular deforestation, is the main cause for the spread of Chagas disease. Recently, migration of T. cruzi-infected patients has led to a distribution of Chagas disease from Latin America to non-endemic countries in Europe, North America and western Pacific region.

2014-01-01

417

Women's Legal History Biography Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Originating in Stanford Law School Professor Barbara Babcock's course on Women's legal history, this site features a large collection of biographical papers by students on early woman lawyers. These papers, which discuss both living and past women lawyers, are found in the Biographical Chapters section, listed alphabetically. Each includes a timeline and bibliography, and some are in .pdf format. For even more information on these lawyers, users should consult the Pioneer Profile Index, in which each lawyer's entry lists all of the related material on the site, including the student paper, a citation or the text of contemporary articles, a bibliography, and research leads (when available). The latter three are also listed separately in their own sections, accessed from the main page. Additional resources include photos, obituaries, and related links. Submissions, proposed links, and suggestions for articles and sources for the bibliography are welcome.

418

The History of Artificial Intelligence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Despite what some might think, artificial intelligence is a concept that is hundreds of years old and a variety of individuals have worked on a number of curious projects in an attempt to plumb the depths of this idea. This collection from the Stanford University Libraries brings together a dozen or so audio and video files that document the history of these explorations. The project was supported by the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, via a grant awarded by the National Science Foundation. The films, which can be found under the tab "Browse by Title", include lectures of motion and vision and a very early film on a remote-controlled lunar vehicle. Some of the files are not publicly accessible to those not affiliated with Stanford University, but there is enough here to warrant several visits.

419

A Brief History of Nanotechnology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is provided by Nano4Me.org, a product of the National Center for Nanotechnology Applications and Career Knowledge (NACK Center) which is based at the Penn State College of Engineering and is funded through the National Science Foundation's Advanced Technological Education (ATE) program. The module, which is available for download in PDF format, includes a brief history of nanotechnology. The module was designed to be used by instructors in post secondary education and would be useful in workshops, courses or lectures; it provides a brief background for students beginning to study nanotechnology. This resource, along with all resources from the NACK Center, require a fast, easy, free log-in to access their materials.

2011-07-22

420

Great Lakes Maritime History Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Drawing on the fine collections of several local and regional institutions (including the Wisconsin State Historical Society and the Milwaukee Public Library), this online archive of historical photographs serves as a visual record of Wisconsin maritime history, set on the waters of Lake Michigan and Lake Superior. Maritime commerce began during the days of the French and Native American trappers, but gained significant momentum after the conclusion of the War of 1812. Over the past two hundred years, the two lakes have seen a number of passenger vessels and large bulk freighters ply their waters. The site contains hundreds of photographs, and visitors may elect to search the entire collection of keywords, or browse through a list of predefined image collections such as barges, cargo ships, and shipwrecks. Each photograph is returned along with an image record that gives a brief description of the subject, the holding institution, and the place and time the photograph or image was generated or taken.

421

The fluvial history of Mars.  

PubMed

River channels and valleys have been observed on several planetary bodies in addition to the Earth. Long sinuous valleys on Venus, our Moon and Jupiter's moon Io are clearly formed by lava, and branching valleys on Saturn's moon Titan may be forming today by rivers of methane. But by far the most dissected body in our Solar System apart from the Earth is Mars. Branching valleys that in plan resemble terrestrial river valleys are common throughout the most ancient landscapes preserved on the planet. Accompanying the valleys are the remains of other indicators of erosion and deposition, such as deltas, alluvial fans and lake beds. There is little reason to doubt that water was the erosive agent and that early in Mars' history, climatic conditions were very different from the present cold conditions and such that, at least episodically, water could flow across the surface. In addition to the branching valley networks, there are large flood features, termed outflow channels. These are similar to, but dwarf, the largest terrestrial flood channels. The consensus is that these channels were also cut by water although there are other possibilities. The outflow channels mostly postdate the valley networks, although most are still very ancient. They appear to have formed at a time when surface conditions were similar to those that prevail today. There is evidence that glacial activity has modified some of the water-worn valleys, particularly in the 30-50° latitude belts, and ice may also be implicated in the formation of geologically recent, seemingly water-worn gullies on steep slopes. Mars also has had a long volcanic history, and long, sinuous lava channels similar to those on the Moon and Venus are common on and around the large volcanoes. These will not, however, be discussed further; the emphasis here is on the effects of running water on the evolution of the surface. PMID:22474681

Carr, Michael H

2012-05-13

422

Natural history of Barrett's esophagus.  

PubMed

The natural history of Barrett's esophagus (BE) is difficult to quantify because, by definition, it should describe the course of the condition if left untreated. Pragmatically, we assume that patients with BE will receive symptomatic treatment with acid suppression, usually a proton pump inhibitor, to treat their heartburn. This paper describes the development of complications of stricture, ulcer, dysplasia and adenocarcinoma from this standpoint. Controversies over the definition of BE and its implications in clinical practice are presented. The presence of intestinal metaplasia and its relevance to cancer risk is discussed, and the need to measure the extent of the Barrett's epithelium (long and short segments) using the Prague guidelines is emphasized. Guidelines and international consensus over the diagnosis and management of BE are being regularly updated. The need for expert consensus is important due to the lack of randomized trials in this area. After searching the literature, we have tried to collate the important studies regarding progression of Barrett's to dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. No therapeutic studies yet reported show a clear reduction in the development of cancer in BE. The effect of pharmacological and surgical intervention on the natural history of Barrett's is a subject of ongoing research, including the Barrett's Oesophagus Surveillance Study and the aspirin and esomeprazole cancer chemoprevention trial with interesting results. The geographical variation and the wide range of outcomes highlight the difficulty of providing an individualized risk profile to patients with BE. Future studies on the interaction of genome wide abnormalities in Barrett's and their interaction with environmental factors may allow individualization of the risk of cancer developing in BE. PMID:22826612

Milind, Rao; Attwood, Stephen E

2012-07-21

423

[The cultural history of disease].  

PubMed

In this essay the concept of Cultural History of Disease (CHD) is proposed as an alternative to Natural History of Disease (NHD). A brief historic recapitulation of the concept of disease is made, and the present idea is given a detailed account which is the basis of the nosological theory of the health/disease paradigm. The main aspects of the NHD are specified, its limitations and restrictive consequences in health care are highlighted. It is proposed the idea of disease as particular and differential ways of being from human beings. It is showed how culture (everything that make us human) "takes the reins of evolution" in our species and determines, in every period, our ways of being, of living, and getting sick. Some distinctive qualities of life are showed to take a distance from the idea of machine and the dominant mechanism of health care in our time. The concept of CHD is developed as a proposal that "lightens" aspects ignored by NHD. An account is made of how, by cultural effect, a number of diseases no longer exist; others have appeared or increased their presence, have changed their features or varied their distribution. The every time more and more unsupported congenital/acquired dichotomy is discussed. It is showed how the epigenetic inheritance is a strong evidence against the separation between genetic and environmental. The mechanist causality, in its different characteristics, proper of the health/disease paradigm and of NHD, is contrasted to contextual causality proper of CHD. The implications of CHD in the way of approaching to diseases, in restating the patients', physicians' and health care institutions' role are discussed. As well as in recognizing that health care has no sense without life care in its different manifestations, from which derives the need to fight for more proper conditions and circumstances for a dignified, satisfactory, serene, fraternal life in including societies. PMID:19378839

Viniegra-Velázquez, Leonardo

2008-01-01

424

Family history in primary care pediatrics.  

PubMed

The family history has been called the first genetic test; it was a core element of primary care long before the current wave of genetics technologies and services became clinically relevant. Risk assessment based on family history allows providers to personalize and prioritize health messages, shifts the focus of health care from treatment to prevention, and can empower individuals and families to be stewards of their own health. In a world of rising health care costs, the family history is an important tool, with its primary cost being the clinician's time. However, a recent National Institutes of Health conference highlighted the lack of substantive evidence to support the clinical utility of family histories. Annual collection of a comprehensive 3-generation family history has been held up as the gold standard for practice. However, interval family histories targeted to symptoms and family histories tailored to a child's life stage (ie, age-based health) may be important and underappreciated methods of collecting family history that yield clinically actionable data and supplement existing family history information. In this article, we review the various applications, as well as capabilities and limitations, of the family history for primary care providers. PMID:24298128

Tarini, Beth A; McInerney, Joseph D

2013-12-01

425

Oral History in the Digital Age  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Oral History in the Digital Age website connects interested persons and organizations to a range of resources related to crafting a meaningful and dynamic oral history project. Crafted by people at Michigan State University with funds from the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), the site contains critical essays, How-To guides, and an elaborate wiki. The Getting Started area is a good place to begin, as it features helpful playlists about oral history projects. The Essays tab leads to another highly informative section of the site. The short pieces in this section are divided into three topics: Collecting, Curating, and Disseminating. The individual essays include "Enhancing Discovery: Connecting Users to Your Oral History Collections Online" and "Oral History and Social Networks: From Promotion to Relationship Building." Finally, the Ask Doug option features expert responses to key questions on oral history projects from noted oral historian Doug Boyd.

2013-01-01

426

Mount Meager landslide flow history  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravitational instabilities, such as landslides, avalanches, or debris flows, play a key role in erosional processes and represent one of the major natural hazards in mountainous, coastal, and volcanic regions. Despite the great amount of field, experimental and numerical work devoted to this problem, the understanding of the physical processes at work in gravitational flows is still an open issue, in particular due to the lack of observations relevant to their dynamics. In this context, the seismic signal generated by gravitational flows is a unique opportunity to obtain information on their dynamics. Indeed, as shown recently by Favreau et al., (2010), simulation of the seismic signal generated by landslides makes it possible to discriminate different flow scenarios and estimate rheological parameters. Global and regional seismic networks continuously record gravitational instabilities, so this new method will help gather new data on landslide behavior, particularly when combined with a landslide numerical modeling. Using this approach, we focus on the 6 August 2010 Mount Meager landslide: a 48.5 Mm3 rockslide-debris flow occurring in the Mount Meager Volcanic complex in the Southwest British Columbia. This landslide traveled over 12.7 km in just a few minutes time and was recorded by 25 broadband seismic stations. The time history of the forces exerted by the landslide on the ground surface was inverted from the seismic waveforms. The forcing history revealed the occurrence of a complicated initiation and showed features attributable to flow over a complicated path that included two sharp turns and runup at a valley wall barrier. To reliably interpret this signal and thus obtain detailed information about the dynamics of the landslide, we ran simulations for a range of scenarios by varying the coefficient of friction and the number, mass, and timings of subevents and compute the forces generated in each case. By comparing the results of these simulations to the forces obtained from the seismic data, we are able to reconstruct the event and better understand its dynamics in unprecedented detail.

Moretti, L.; Allstadt, K.; Mangeney, A.; Capdeville, Y.; Stutzmann, E.; Bouchut, F.

2013-12-01

427

Crossroads: A K-16 American History Curriculum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC), this site is the product of a grant from the Fund for the Improvement and Reform of Schools and Teaching (FIRST) of the US Department of Education, with the goal of developing a seamless K-16 curriculum in American history. The curriculum, called Crossroads, is composed of 36 units (chronologically organized into twelve historical periods), equally distributed between elementary, middle, and high school grade levels. The site also features course syllabii for pre-service social studies educators on the subjects of American history and history education and a twelve-part bibliographic essay on textual sources for American history.

428

Natural History of the Swainson's Warbler.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Introduction; History; Distribution; Migration; Ecological Relations; Description; Breeding Biology; Voice; Feeding Behavior and Food; Miscellaneous Notes and Behavior; Factors Affecting the Population; Summary; Literature Cited.

B. Meanley

1971-01-01

429

Optical Interferometry Motivation and History  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A history and motivation of stellar interferometry is presented. The topics include: 1) On Tides, Organ Pipes, and Soap Bubbles; 2) Armand Hippolyte Fizeau (1819-1896); 3) Fizeau Suggests Stellar Interferometry 1867; 4) Edouard Stephan (1837-1923); 5) Foucault Refractor; 6) Albert A. Michelson (1852-1931); 7) On the Application of Interference Methods to Astronomy (1890); 8) Moons of Jupiter (1891); 9) Other Applications in 19th Century; 10) Timeline of Interferometry to 1938; 11) 30 years goes by; 12) Mount Wilson Observatory; 13) Michelson's 20 ft Interferometer; 14) Was Michelson Influenced by Fizeau? 15) Work Continues in the 1920s and 30s; 16) 50 ft Interferometer (1931-1938); 17) Light Paths in the 50 ft Interferometer; 18) Ground-level at the 50 ft; 19) F.G. Pease (1881-1938); 20) Timeline of Optical Interferometry to 1970; 21) A New Type of Stellar Interferometer (1956); 22) Intensity Interferometer (1963- 1976; 23) Robert Hanbury Brown; 24) Interest in Optical Interferometry in the 1960s; 25) Interferometry in the Early 1970s; and 26) A New Frontier is Opened up in 1974.

Lawson, Peter

2006-01-01

430

History of wireless power transmission  

SciTech Connect

The history of wireless power transmission at microwave frequencies is reviewed with emphasis upon the time period starting with the post World War II efforts to use the new microwave technology developed during the war. A nationally televised demonstration of a microwave powered helicopter at the Spencer Laboratory of the Raytheon Co., in 1964 was the result of these early efforts and broadly introduced the concept of wireless power transmission to scientific and engineering communities and to the public. Subsequent development efforts centered on improving the efficiency of the interconversion of d.c. and microwave power at the ends of the system to reach a demonstrated overall d.c. to d.c. system efficiency of 54% in 1974. The response to the requirements of applications such as the Solar Power Satellite and high altitude microwave powered aircraft have changed the direction of technology development and greatly expanded the technology base. Recent and current efforts are centered on examining the use of higher frequencies than the baseline 2.45 GHz, and in reducing the system costs at 2.45 GHz. 26 refs., 14 figs.

Brown, W.C. [Microwave Power Transmission Systems, Weston, MA (United States)] [Microwave Power Transmission Systems, Weston, MA (United States)

1996-12-31

431

[Ancient history of Indian pharmacy].  

PubMed

The study of the ancient history of Indian medicine has recently been revived due to the publication of polyglot translations. However, little is known of ancient Indian pharmacy. Archaeological evidence suggests the Indus people lived a settled life approximately in 2500 B.C. Their cities were enjoying the cleanest and most hygienic daily life with elaborate civic sanitation systems. The whole conception shows a remarkable concern for health. Then, the early Aryans invaded India about 1500 B.C. and the Vedic age started. The Rgveda texts contain the hymns for Soma and those for herbs. The term Ayurveda (i.e., science of life) is found in some old versions of both Ram?yana and Mah?bh?rata and in the Atharvaveda. Su?ruta had the credit of making a breakthrough in the field of surgery. The Ayurveda, a work on internal medicine, gives the following transmission of sages: Brahm?-->Daksa-->Praj?pati-->A?ivinau-->Indra-->Caraka. On the other hand, the Su?ruta-samhit?, which deals mainly with surgical medicine, explains it as follows; Indra-->Dhanvantari-->Su?ruta Both Caraka and Su?ruta were medical doctors as well as pharmacists, so they studied more than 1000 herbs thoroughly. The Ayurveda had been used by his devotees for medical purposes. It eventually spread over Asia with the advanced evolution of Buddhism. PMID:21032887

Okuda, Jun; Natsume, Yohko

2010-01-01

432

Florida Museum of Natural History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Enter the lobby of the Florida Museum of Natural History, and you are greeted by the skeletons of a Mastodon and Mammoth, both found in a North Florida river. Permanent exhibits in the Museum also include Butterfly Rainforest, Florida Fossils-Evolution of Life and Land, Waterways and Wildlife, and People and Environments which is based extensively on the Museum's archaeological and ecological research. There are a number of online exhibits including South Florida Aquatic Environments, and Fossil Horses in Cyberspace where one can learn about paleontology and evolution by exploring stratigraphy, geological time scales and the rich fossil record of horses. Traveling Inquiry Boxes are available at low cost, and include a collection of objects with participatory lessons and activities that are designed to be flexible. Many of the research collections are searchable online, and step by step outlines of several exhibit designs are viewable online as well. The Museum, in conjunction with the University of Florida, has established the Katharine Ordway Chair of Ecosystem Conservation, and the Center for Lepidoptera and Biodiversity which fosters research on insects. The Museum produces and rents several traveling exhibits. Full information is available online.

433

History of zinc in agriculture.  

PubMed

Zinc was established as essential for green plants in 1926 and for mammals in 1934. However, >20 y would pass before the first descriptions of zinc deficiencies in farm animals appeared. In 1955, it was reported that zinc supplementation would cure parakeratosis in swine. In 1958, it was reported that zinc deficiency induced poor growth, leg abnormalities, poor feathering, and parakeratosis in chicks. In the 1960s, zinc supplementation was found to alleviate parakeratosis in grazing cattle and sheep. Within 35 y, it was established that nearly one half of the soils in the world may be zinc deficient, causing decreased plant zinc content and production that can be prevented by zinc fertilization. In many of these areas, zinc deficiency is prevented in grazing livestock by zinc fertilization of pastures or by providing salt licks. For livestock under more defined conditions, such as poultry, swine, and dairy and finishing cattle, feeds are easily supplemented with zinc salts to prevent deficiency. Today, the causes and consequences of zinc deficiency and methods and effects of overcoming the deficiency are well established for agriculture. The history of zinc in agriculture is an outstanding demonstration of the translation of research into practical application. PMID:23153732

Nielsen, Forrest H

2012-11-01

434

Freedom: A History of US  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Collaborating with WNET New York, PBS has created this Web site as the online analogue to the 16-part television series. Based on the books by Joy Hakim, the series (and the Web site) are dedicated to exploring the theme of freedom throughout the history of the United States, noting that "Freedom is what has drawn to America countless human beings from around the world; it is what generations of men and women have lived and died for; it is, in a profound sense, our nation's highest calling." While anyone with an inkling to learn more about the notion of "freedom" will benefit by perusing the site, it is especially well-honed to serve the needs of educators and students. The site contains 16 "Webisodes," which are both visually and textually rich repositories of information, chronologically ordered, beginning with the American Revolution and concluding with the presidency of Richard Nixon. Additionally, each Webisode contains essays that contain hyperlinks to word definitions, photographs, and brief biographical profiles. Also, each Webisode contains standards-based teacher guides and lesson plans prepared by the Talent Development Middle Schools Programs at Johns Hopkins University. Overall, this site is a fine example of utilizing the Web for educational purposes, both for young students and those looking for general edification.

2002-01-01

435

Lunar Receiving Laboratory Project History  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As early as 1959, the Working Group on Lunar Exploration within NASA advocated that 'one of the prime objectives of the first lunar landing mission should be the collection of samples for return to Earth, where they could be subjected to detailed study and analysis.' Within NASA, neither this group nor any other scientists working with the Agency were concerned about back contamination issues. Outside of NASA, back contamination concerns had been raised as early as 1960. Although NASA did not seem to pay any attention to the concerns at that time, the scientific community continued to be interested in the topic. In 1962 and again in 1963, as the Apollo Program loomed large, further discussions were held. These early discussions of back contamination did not make their way into NASA's administration, however, and when Manned Spacecraft Center personnel began to articulate early concepts for the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL), the back contamination issue was not considered. Once this concern became a major focus, however, the LRL's development became increasingly complex. This is the history of that development.

Mangus, Susan; Larsen, William

2004-01-01

436

Tech Area II: A history  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the history of the major buildings in Sandia National Laboratories` Technical Area II. It was prepared in support of the Department of Energy`s compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Technical Area II was designed and constructed in 1948 specifically for the final assembly of the non-nuclear components of nuclear weapons, and was the primary site conducting such assembly until 1952. Both the architecture and location of the oldest buildings in the area reflect their original purpose. Assembly activities continued in Area II from 1952 to 1957, but the major responsibility for this work shifted to other sites in the Atomic Energy Commission`s integrated contractor complex. Gradually, additional buildings were constructed and the original buildings were modified. After 1960, the Area`s primary purpose was the research and testing of high-explosive components for nuclear weapons. In 1994, Sandia constructed new facilities for work on high-explosive components outside of the original Area II diamond-shaped parcel. Most of the buildings in the area are vacant and Sandia has no plans to use them. They are proposed for decontamination and demolition as funding becomes available.

Ullrich, R. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-07-01

437

The natural history of violence.  

PubMed Central

In the past, human violence was associated with food shortage, but recently it has increased even in relatively well-fed societies. The reason appears from studies of monkeys under relaxed, spacious conditions and under crowding stress. Uncrowded monkeys have unaggressive leaders, rarely quarrel, and protect females and young. Crowded monkeys (even well-fed) have brutal bosses, often quarrel, and wound and kill each other, including females and young. Crowding has similar behaviour effects on other mammals, with physiological disturbances including greater susceptibility to infections. All this appears to be a regular response to overpopulation, reducing the population before it has depleted its natural resources. Human beings, like monkeys and other mammals, need ample space, and become more violent when crowded. Human history is marked by population cycles: population outgrows resources, the resulting violence, stress and disease mortality cuts down the population, leading to a relief period of social and cultural progress, till renewed population growth produces the next crisis. The modern population crisis is world-wide, and explains the increase of violence even in well-fed societies. The solution to the problem of violence is to substitute voluntary birth control for involuntary death control, and bring about relaxed conditions for a reduced world population.

Russell, C; Russell, W M

1979-01-01

438

Interrupting History: Rethinking History Curriculum after "The End of History". Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. Volume 404  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the emergence of postmodern social theory, history has been haunted by predictions of its imminent end. Postmodernism has been accused of making historical research and writing untenable, encouraging the proliferation of revisionist histories, providing fertile ground for historical denial, and promoting the adoption of a mournful view of…

Parkes, Robert John

2011-01-01

439

Hominin life history: reconstruction and evolution  

PubMed Central

In this review we attempt to reconstruct the evolutionary history of hominin life history from extant and fossil evidence. We utilize demographic life history theory and distinguish life history variables, traits such as weaning, age at sexual maturity, and life span, from life history-related variables such as body mass, brain growth, and dental development. The latter are either linked with, or can be used to make inferences about, life history, thus providing an opportunity for estimating life history parameters in fossil taxa. We compare the life history variables of modern great apes and identify traits that are likely to be shared by the last common ancestor of Pan-Homo and those likely to be derived in hominins. All great apes exhibit slow life histories and we infer this to be true of the last common ancestor of Pan-Homo and the stem hominin. Modern human life histories are even slower, exhibiting distinctively long post-menopausal life spans and later ages at maturity, pointing to a reduction in adult mortality since the Pan-Homo split. We suggest that lower adult mortality, distinctively short interbirth intervals, and early weaning characteristic of modern humans are derived features resulting from cooperative breeding. We evaluate the fidelity of three life history-related variables, body mass, brain growth and dental development, with the life history parameters of living great apes. We found that body mass is the best predictor of great ape life history events. Brain growth trajectories and dental development and eruption are weakly related proxies and inferences from them should be made with caution. We evaluate the evidence of life history-related variables available for extinct species and find that prior to the transitional hominins there is no evidence of any hominin taxon possessing a body size, brain size or aspects of dental development much different from what we assume to be the primitive life history pattern for the Pan-Homo clade. Data for life history-related variables among the transitional hominin grade are consistent and none agrees with a modern human pattern. Aside from mean body mass, adult brain size, crown and root formation times, and the timing and sequence of dental eruption of Homo erectus are inconsistent with that of modern humans. Homo antecessor fossil material suggests a brain size similar to that of Homo erectus s. s., and crown formation times that are not yet modern, though there is some evidence of modern human-like timing of tooth formation and eruption. The body sizes, brain sizes, and dental development of Homo heidelbergensis and Homo neanderthalensis are consistent with a modern human life history but samples are too small to be certain that they have life histories within the modern human range. As more life history-related variable information for hominin species accumulates we are discovering that they can also have distinctive life histories that do not conform to any living model. At least one extinct hominin subclade, Paranthropus, has a pattern of dental life history-related variables that most likely set it apart from the life histories of both modern humans and chimpanzees.

Robson, Shannen L; Wood, Bernard

2008-01-01

440

History at the Cinema: A Guide for the Movie-Going History Student  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Methods that one junior high teacher uses in his history classes to encourage students to view more critically the history-based commercial films they encounter at the movies and on television away from school are discussed. (SM)

Peterson, Arthur

1973-01-01

441

Food and History: Teaching Social History Through the Study of Cuisine Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some interesting relationships between food and history -- working women and convenience food, exploration and the importation of new vegetables, reliance on potatoes and Irish emigration -- are suggested to indicate the usefulness of exploring history through eating habits. (JH)

Gordon, Bertram M.

1974-01-01

442

Background reionization history from omniscopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurements of the 21-cm brightness temperature fluctuations from the neutral hydrogen at the Epoch of Reionization should inaugurate the next generation of cosmological observables. In this respect, many works have concentrated on the disambiguation of the cosmological signals from the dominant reionization foregrounds. However, even after perfect foregrounds removal, our ignorance on the background reionization history can significantly affect the cosmological parameter estimation. In particular, the interdependence between the hydrogen ionized fraction, the baryon density and the optical depth to the redshift of observation induce nontrivial degeneracies between the cosmological parameters that have not been considered so far. Using a simple but consistent reionization model, we revisit their expected constraints for a futuristic giant 21-cm omniscope by using for the first time Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods on multiredshift full sky simulated data. Our results agree well with the usual Fisher matrix analysis on the three-dimensional flat sky power spectrum but only when the above-mentioned degeneracies are kept under control. In the opposite situation, Fisher results can be inaccurate. We show that these conditions can be fulfilled by combining cosmic microwave background measurements with multiple observation redshifts probing the beginning of the Epoch of Reionization. This allows a precise reconstruction of the total optical depth, reionization duration and maximal spin temperature. Finally, we discuss the robustness of these results in presence of unresolved ionizing sources. Although most of the standard cosmological parameters remain weakly affected, we find a significant degradation of the background reionization parameter estimation in presence of nuisance ionizing sources.

Clesse, Sébastien; Lopez-Honorez, Laura; Ringeval, Christophe; Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Tytgat, Michel H. G.

2012-12-01

443

A history of psychiatric ethics.  

PubMed

In the not-far-distant past, ethics for all doctors was, at best, an ill-attended lecture or two on how to keep out of trouble; it was assumed the rest was absorbed by a form of social and professional osmosis. Although ethics has entered the undergraduate curriculum, continuing medical education programs, journals, and books, it still is in a state of flux. Although immense progress has been made in the last 30 to 40 years, much remains to be done. Trainees are often naïve, and the older generation is on a steep learning curve. An encouraging feature is the current lively debate on matters ethical and how they can best be incorporated into everyday clinical practice. The long-held notion of ethics resting complacently in the paternal arms of Hippocrates has, with almost brutal haste, been projected into a rapidly evolving modern world of technologic, moral, and societal change. Yet, at its core, ethics has to retain its humanism and guard against influences from every quarter that tries to make it a set of rules, thereby negating the diversity and uniqueness of our patients. Even as you read, there will be new influences and pressures on clinical practice that have an ethical dimension. For instance, we are adjusting to new privacy laws in Australia that allow patients, whether public or private, access to their psychiatric records. Globalization is not restricted to world trade; it also operates in the framework of societal change and the wider dissemination and implementation of libertarian views. If such "freedoms" are not currently available to patients, they soon will be. This brief historical foray in identifying some of these forces can assist in their early recognition so that as a profession, we are forewarned and forearmed and, in that respect, be ahead of both Henry Ford ("History is more or less bunk...") [42] and the Bourbons ("They learn nothing and they forget nothing") [43]. PMID:12232967

Bloch, Sidney; Pargiter, Russell

2002-09-01

444

Radioactivity and health: A history  

SciTech Connect

This book is designed to be primarily a history of research facts, measurements, and ideas and the people who developed them. ''Research'' is defined very broadly to include from bench-top laboratory experiments to worldwide environmental investigations. The book is not a monograph or a critical review. The findings and conclusions are presented largely as the investigators saw and reported them. Frequently, the discussion utilizes the terminology and units of the time, unless they are truly antiquated or potentially unclear. It is only when the work being reported is markedly iconoclastic or obviously wrong that I chose to make special note of it or to correct it. Nevertheless, except for direct quotations, the language is mine, and I take full responsibility for it. The working materials for this volume included published papers in scientific journals, books, published conferences and symposia, personal interviews with over 100 individuals, some of them more than once (see Appendix A), and particularly for the 1940--1950 decade and for the large government-supported laboratories to the present day, ''in-house'' reports. These reports frequently represent the only comprehensive archive of what was done and why. Unfortunately, this source is drying up because of storage problems and must be retrieved by ever more complex and inconvenient means. For this reason, special efforts have been taken to review and document these sources, though even now some sections of the field are partially inaccessible. Nevertheless, the volume of all materials available for this review was surprisingly large and the quality much better than might have been expected for so complex and disparate a fields approached under conditions of considerable urgency.

Stannard, J.N.; Baalman, R.W. Jr. (ed.)

1988-10-01

445

The History of Presolar Grains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Below we summarize the results of our investigations into the history of presolar grains that were conducted in the last year. During this time we have expended much of our effort in the development of experimental techniques and sample preparation methods that are needed to laboratory in December, 2000. Specific information on this instrument is contained in the Full Proposal of PI Ernst Zinner and will not be repeated here. Our general strategy in the past year has been in large measure to explore novel sample handling methods for the very small (sub-micron), but more representative, presolar grains that can now be characterized isotopically in the NanoSIMS. We have developed experimental techniques that will permit NanoSIMS analyses of the very same ultramicrotome sections studied in the TEM, and we have developed grain dispersion, handling and mounting techniques that permit NanoSIMS isotopic analysis as well as field emission SEM, high energy TEM, and atomic force microscopy of pristine presolar grains. Although much of this has been slow and very difficult work that has no immediate payoff in terms of publishable results, we considered it absolutely necessary groundwork for future discoveries, especially in the realm of individual presolar grains that have been inaccessible to past studies due to size constraints. As discussed below, we have been largely successful in these endeavors, and expect to reap the benefits of this work in the next year. We also report on our continued morphologic studies of pristine presolar grains, on our investigations of presolar graphite grains from supernovae as well as on rarer types of presotar SIC, on the search for presolar silicates, and on our efforts to obtain direct size-distribution information on presolar SiC through X-ray mapping techniques.

Bernatowicz, Thomas J.

2004-01-01

446

The History of Tumor Virology  

PubMed Central

In the century since its inception, the field of tumor virology has provided groundbreaking insights into the causes of human cancer. Peyton Rous founded this scientific field in 1911 by discovering an avian virus that induced tumors in chickens; however, it took 40 years for the scientific community to comprehend the effect of this seminal finding. Later identification of mammalian tumor viruses in the 1930s by Richard Shope and John Bittner, and in the 1950s by Ludwik Gross, sparked the first intense interest in tumor virology by suggesting the possibility of a similar causal role for viruses in human cancers. This change in attitude opened the door in the 1960s and 1970s for the discovery of the first human tumor viruses—EBV, hepatitis B virus, and the papillomaviruses. Such knowledge proved instrumental to the development of the first cancer vaccines against cancers having an infectious etiology. Tumor virologists additionally recognized that viruses could serve as powerful discovery tools, leading to revolutionary breakthroughs in the 1970s and 1980s that included the concept of the oncogene, the identification of the p53 tumor suppressor, and the function of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor. The subsequent availability of more advanced molecular technologies paved the way in the 1980s and 1990s for the identification of additional human tumor viruses—human T-cell leukemia virus type 1, hepatitis C virus, and Kaposi’s sarcoma virus. In fact, current estimates suggest that viruses are involved in 15% to 20% of human cancers worldwide. Thus, viruses not only have been shown to represent etiologic agents for many human cancers but have also served as tools to reveal mechanisms that are involved in all human malignancies. This rich history promises that tumor virology will continue to contribute to our understanding of cancer and to the development of new therapeutic and preventive measures for this disease in the 21st century.

Javier, Ronald T.; Butel, Janet S.

2012-01-01

447

The history of tumor virology.  

PubMed

In the century since its inception, the field of tumor virology has provided groundbreaking insights into the causes of human cancer. Peyton Rous founded this scientific field in 1911 by discovering an avian virus that induced tumors in chickens; however, it took 40 years for the scientific community to comprehend the effect of this seminal finding. Later identification of mammalian tumor viruses in the 1930s by Richard Shope and John Bittner, and in the 1950s by Ludwik Gross, sparked the first intense interest in tumor virology by suggesting the possibility of a similar causal role for viruses in human cancers. This change in attitude opened the door in the 1960s and 1970s for the discovery of the first human tumor viruses--EBV, hepatitis B virus, and the papillomaviruses. Such knowledge proved instrumental to the development of the first cancer vaccines against cancers having an infectious etiology. Tumor virologists additionally recognized that viruses could serve as powerful discovery tools, leading to revolutionary breakthroughs in the 1970s and 1980s that included the concept of the oncogene, the identification of the p53 tumor suppressor, and the function of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor. The subsequent availability of more advanced molecular technologies paved the way in the 1980s and 1990s for the identification of additional human tumor viruses--human T-cell leukemia virus type 1, hepatitis C virus, and Kaposi's sarcoma virus. In fact, current estimates suggest that viruses are involved in 15% to 20% of human cancers worldwide. Thus, viruses not only have been shown to represent etiologic agents for many human cancers but have also served as tools to reveal mechanisms that are involved in all human malignancies. This rich history promises that tumor virology will continue to contribute to our understanding of cancer and to the development of new therapeutic and preventive measures for this disease in the 21st century. PMID:18829521

Javier, Ronald T; Butel, Janet S

2008-10-01

448

Accretionary orogens through Earth history  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Accretionary orogens form at intraoceanic and continental margin convergent plate boundaries. They include the supra-subduction zone forearc, magmatic arc and back-arc components. Accretionary orogens can be grouped into retreating and advancing types, based on their kinematic framework and resulting geological character. Retreating orogens (e.g. modern western Pacific) are undergoing long-term extension in response to the site of subduction of the lower plate retreating with respect to the overriding plate and are characterized by back-arc basins. Advancing orogens (e.g. Andes) develop in an environment in which the overriding plate is advancing towards the downgoing plate, resulting in the development of foreland fold and thrust belts and crustal thickening. Cratonization of accretionary orogens occurs during continuing plate convergence and requires transient coupling across the plate boundary with strain concentrated in zones of mechanical and thermal weakening such as the magmatic arc and back-arc region. Potential driving mechanisms for coupling include accretion of buoyant lithosphere (terrane accretion), flat-slab subduction, and rapid absolute upper plate motion overriding the downgoing plate. Accretionary orogens have been active throughout Earth history, extending back until at least 3.2 Ga, and potentially earlier, and provide an important constraint on the initiation of horizontal motion of lithospheric plates on Earth. They have been responsible for major growth of the continental lithosphere through the addition of juvenile magmatic products but are also major sites of consumption and reworking of continental crust through time, through sediment subduction and subduction erosion. It is probable that the rates of crustal growth and destruction are roughly equal, implying that net growth since the Archaean is effectively zero. ?? The Geological Society of London 2009.

Cawood, P. A.; Kroner, A.; Collins, W. J.; Kusky, T. M.; Mooney, W. D.; Windley, B. F.

2009-01-01

449

Critical Issues in the History of Spaceflight.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At a May 1981 'Proseminar in Space History'held at the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum (NASM) in Washington, DC, historians came together to consider the state of the discipline of space history. It was an historic occasion. The co...

2006-01-01

450

The Vietnam War: History, Learning, and Leadership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the curriculum entitled "Echoes from the Wall: History, Learning and Leadership through the Lens of the Vietnam War Era." Discusses the purpose of the materials. States that the curriculum incorporates primary resources into the classroom while making history more immediate to students. (CMK)

Edwards, Tricia

2002-01-01

451

Oral History and the Vietnam War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews oral history works that examine various aspects of the Vietnam War. Incorporates diplomatic history and includes recollections of soldiers from a single county in Tennessee, veterans' families, and conscientious objectors. Covers the years of U.S. involvement, 1945-75. (MJP)

Brinker, William J.

1997-01-01

452

Syllabus for Use in Modern Chinese History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This syllabus, for use in a one semester course on the history of modern China, covers the period from the Manchu domination in 1644 to the present. The course is designed to create an interest in China, emphasizing the social and cultural aspects of history, as well as the political and economic dimensions. A narrative summary of course content…

Husum, Carol

453

The New Economic History after Twenty Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews contributions of economic history to an understanding of the economic past. A discipline which has developed since 1957, economic history deals with causes of economic growth or decline in a society over time, and the well-being of different groups in the society over time. It makes systematic use of theory and quantitative methods.…

North, Douglass C.

1977-01-01

454

Who is Teaching the History of Chemistry?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a study into how the history of chemistry is being taught in colleges and universities. Results indicate that courses on the history of chemistry are hardly ever required of chemistry majors, and they are offered in only 10 percent of American Chemical Society approved chemistry departments. (TW)

Everett, Kenneth G.; DeLoach, Will S.

1987-01-01

455

Living-History Villages as Popular Entertainers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the furor created when Walt Disney Studios announced plans to develop a "historic amusement park" near the Manassas (Virginia) National Battlefield Park. Maintains that the public debate over the popular understanding of history reflects an ongoing tension between academic historians and the purveyors of popular history. (CFR)

Geist, Christopher D.

1994-01-01

456

Teaching American History Evaluation: Final Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2001, Congress established the Teaching American History (TAH) program, which seeks to improve student achievement by improving teachers' knowledge, understanding, and appreciation of traditional American history as a separate subject within the core curriculum. Under this program, grants are awarded to local education agencies (LEAs), which…

Weinstock, Phyllis; Tseng, Fannie; Humphrey, Daniel; Gillespie, Marilyn; Yee, Kaily

2011-01-01

457

Whitepaper: History of Community College Programs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a white paper on the history of geospatial education at two-year colleges in the United States. The paper addresses the history of the field from the 1980s to present. The document also looks at how GIS education fits into the larger community college landscape and discusses particulars of some established programs.

Johnson, Ann B.

2011-08-05

458

Improving Critical Thinking Skills in History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this action research project was to investigate approaches and techniques that would improve critical thinking skills in history classes at the secondary level. Students demonstrated apathy and boredom in history classes where the emphasis was on rote memorization and the regurgitation of accepted facts and conclusions. The problem…

Savich, Carl

2008-01-01

459

A New Earth History for Undergraduates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that advances in Earth science call for their inclusion in Earth history. States that the focus should be on the planet and the process by which it reached its present state. Explains pre-solar and pre-lithospheric history, interacting spheres of influence, characteristics of eons and eras, and their transitions. (RT)

Cloud, Preston

1988-01-01

460

WA SHE SHU: A Washo Tribal History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Washo tribal history, including ancient Washo culture and the impact of white civilization on that way of life, is related in this book, which is one in a series of four histories of native Nevadans who once occupied the Great Basin area, and is based on interviews with knowledgeable tribal members and research in numerous archives. The first two…

Nevers, Jo Ann

461

Inquiry and Living History, Part I  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article, the first of a two-part series, introduces the living history program. This yearly, weeklong program features living portrayals of famous people, which becomes a catalyst for teaching curricular standards, as well as providing the spark for inquiry. Here, the authors describe how the yearly living history program was implemented and…

Coatney, Sharon; Smalley, Rachel

2005-01-01

462

LifeLines: visualizing personal histories  

Microsoft Academic Search

LifeLines provide a general visualization environment for personal histories that can be applied to medical and court records, professional histories and other types of biographical data. A one screen overview shows multiple facets of the records. Aspects, for example medical conditions or legal cases, are displayed as individual time lines, while icons indicate discrete events, such as physician consultations or

Catherine Plaisant; Brett Milash; Anne Rose; Seth Widoff; Ben Shneiderman

1996-01-01

463

Visual history mechanism on mobile internet browser  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deprived screen display of mobile devices made it difficult to present a large amount of data. Keeping track of the text-based history list is even more challenging as users need to spend a lot of effort to locate a previously visited page. This paper proposed Visual History mechanism with a user-marking mechanism to assist users in navigating through the

Tan Yoong-en; Daniel Su Kuen Seong

2007-01-01

464

WATER AND THE HISTORY OF MAN  

EPA Science Inventory

The importance of water is presented from a myriad of aspects including its creation in cosmic history; its importance in the texts of ancient history; references within various religious writings; and significance with respect to modern science, art, music, transportation, archi...

465

Atomic power in space: A history  

SciTech Connect

''Atomic Power in Space,'' a history of the Space Isotope Power Program of the United States, covers the period from the program's inception in the mid-1950s through 1982. Written in non-technical language, the history is addressed to both the general public and those more specialized in nuclear and space technologies. 19 figs., 3 tabs.

Not Available

1987-03-01

466

Nursing 450: The History and Physical.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description is provided of a third-year registered nursing course entitled "The History and Physical," designed to help the student acquire knowledge and skills in the areas of taking the history of an individual and physical assessment. The opening sections present information on course prerequisites, grading procedures, and meeting times;…

Whalley, Lynn

467

Personal Narratives in Life History Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article I discuss how to create personal narratives in life history research methodology. People tell stories of their lives, and the researchers make these stories into life histories. Based on theoretical perspectives on "discourse" inspired by Michel Foucault, narratives are seen as ways of positioning oneself as a…

Germeten, Sidsel

2013-01-01

468

God in American Literary History: Changing Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

American literary history was transformed in the 1980s by the application of critical theory, which called into question the terms American, literary, and history from a secular, historicist perspective. What are the implications if this secular perspective for students with religious beliefs? In order for students to fully understand and appreciate American literature and be prepared to confront a world

Stephen L. Tanner; Ralph A. Britsch

469

Missing Chapters: West Virginia Women in History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nine women whose lives have contributed to West Virginia history are profiled in these collected essays. These women have made significant contributions to history as: midwife, physician, journalist, photographer, educator, musician, civic activist, and social reformer. The stereotypical image of a powerless, barefooted, uneducated girl is proven…

West Virginia Women's Commission, Charleston.

470

"A Heuristic for Visual Thinking in History"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article details a heuristic history teachers can use in assigning and evaluating multimedia projects in history. To use this heuristic successfully, requires more than simply following the steps in the list or stages in a recipe: in many ways, it requires a reorientation in what it means to think like an historian. This article, as much as…

Staley, David J.

2007-01-01

471

Global Perspectives on Fast-Food History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This social studies curriculum unit teaches students in grades ten through twelve about the history and current impact of the fast food industry. The unit uses a topic familiar to students to foster critical thinking about history, geography, government, and economics. Lessons cover the origins of food, highlighting the Colombian Exchange; the…

Smith, Andrew F.

472

Meaning in History: Philosophy and Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review of philosophy of history examines questions of the meaning and purpose of historical study and draws implications for teaching. The discussion of philosophers of history is organized into six general categories within two broad groups. The two broad groups are analytic philosophers, who generally write about the historian's craft, and…

Evans, Ronald W.

473

The Revival of History: A Response.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responds to a critique by Ronald Evans of Ravitch's position on the teaching of history. States that the goals of history are to put students in command of knowledge which will allow them to reach their own conclusions. Urges that teachers take the risk of allowing students to think for themselves. (KO)

Ravitch, Diane

1989-01-01

474

The History of Childhood: An Annotated Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Books and articles about the history of childhood are presented in this brief bibliography. Areas covered are: 1) general histories of childhood and youth; 2) childhood in medieval and early modern Europe; 3) childhood in 17th and 18th century Europe and America; and 4) childhood and adolescence in the United States during the 19th century. (JDH)

Downey, Matthew T.

1986-01-01

475

Medical History and Primary Liver Cancer1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between selected aspects of medical history and the risk of primary liver cancer was analyzed in a hospital-based case-control study conducted in Northern Italy on 242 patients with histologically or serologically confirmed hepatocellular carcinoma and 1169 controls in hospital for acute, nonneoplastic, or digestive diseases. Significant asso ciations were observed for clinical history of hepatitis (odds ratio (OR),

Carlo La Vecchia; Eva Negri; Barbara D'Avanzo; Peter Boyle; Silvia Franceschi

1990-01-01

476

Colorado Oral History Projects: A Directory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than 100 oral history projects in the state of Colorado are described. Information was collected from public libraries, historical societies, public schools, colleges, and universities in order to develop a statewide "locator file" of oral history tapes. This directory lists only those projects which have interview tapes and related oral…

Whistler, Nancy, Comp.

477

33 CFR 276.5 - Legislative history.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Legislative history. 276.5 Section 276.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters...SECTION 134a OF PUBLIC LAW 94-587 § 276.5 Legislative history. Discussion of this legislation is...

2013-07-01

478

Temperature, activity, and lizard life histories  

SciTech Connect

Lizard life-history characteristics vary widely among species and populations. Most authors seek adaptive or phylogenetic explanations for life-history patterns, which are usually presumed to reflect genetic differences. However, lizard life histories are often phenotypically plastic, varying in response to temperature, food availability, and other environmental factors. Despite the importance of temperature to lizard ecology and physiology, its effects on life histories have received relatively little attention. The authors present a theoretical model predicting the proximate consequences of the thermal environment for lizard life histories. Temperature, by affecting activity times, can cause variation in annual survival rate and fecundity, leading to a negative correlation between survival rate and fecundity among populations in different thermal environments. Thus, physiological and evolutionary models predict the same qualitative pattern of life-history variation in lizards. They tested their model with published life-history data from field studies of the lizard Sceloporus undulatus, using climate and geographical data to reconstruct estimated annual activity seasons. Among populations, annual activity times were negatively correlated with annual survival rate and positively correlated with annual fecundity. Proximate effects of temperature may confound comparative analyses of lizard life-history variation and should be included in future evolutionary models. 125 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Adolph, S.C.; Porter, W.P. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States))

1993-08-01

479

Columbus in History and High School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Criticizes accounts of Christopher Columbus and the Age of Exploration in 12 high school textbooks of U.S. history, citing their Eurocentrism, presentation of textbook history as absolute truth, lack of unpleasant details, and presentation of Columbus's voyage as origin myth. Lists 14 possible earlier expeditions to America. (SV)

Loewen, James W.

1992-01-01

480

Biographical History: Microcosm of Meaning and Mankind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A conceptual framework and teaching guidelines for biographical history, i.e., centering the study of history in individual lives, are presented. Both the framework and guidelines were derived from a group of philosopher-historians representing a full monistic-pluralistic spectrum of theories: Marx, Weber, Toynbee, Ortega y Gasset, and Dilthey.…

Johns, Robert W.

1984-01-01

481

Newmark-Hall synthetic history development  

SciTech Connect

The methodology used to develop synthetic acceleration time histories with spectral content that envelopes the Newmark-Hall spectra is described. Six acceleration time histories are developed for two conditions of foundation and 3 critical damping factors. The target spectra corresponds to the mediam centered probability level.

Aramayo, G.A.

1990-11-01

482

Historical Empathy and "Canada: A People's History"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we examine the CBC/Radio-Canada series, "Canada: A People's History," for its use of empathy, specifically with regard to its portrayal of Aboriginal people. We call the empathy promoted in the series, emotive empathy, and compare it to the concept of historical empathy constructed by researchers in history education. The emotive…

Bryant, Darren; Clark, Penney

2006-01-01

483

A Chronological History of Puerto Rico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents a chronological history of Puerto Rico from prehistory and discovery through December of 1972. It includes information on the persons and events that influenced the course of Puerto Rican history. A table of contents and a selective index are included. (Author/AM)

Tovar, Federico Ribes

484

Women's History Landmark Project: Policy and Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Women's History Landmark Project was undertaken in order to increase the number of National Historic Landmarks (NHL) that focus on women. Despite the fact that the NHL Program is over 25 years old, only about 3 percent of the approximately 2,000 National Historic Landmarks focus on women. When the Women's History Landmark Project ends, the…

Miller, Page Putnam

485

Chemical history with a nuclear microprobe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nuclear microprobe cannot give direct information on the chemical state of an element, but the spatial distribution of elements in a specimen is often determined by the chemical history of the sample. Fuel cells and minerals are examples of complex systems whose elemental distributions are determined by past chemical history. The distribution of catalyst in used fuel cell electrodes

C. J. Maggiore; T. M. Benjamin; D. S. Burnett; P. J. Hyde; P. S. Z. Rogers; S. Srinivasan; T. Tesmer; D. S. Woolum

1983-01-01

486

Photovoltaic materials, history, status and outlook  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the history, the present status and possible future developments of photovoltaic (PV) materials for terrestrial applications. After a brief history and introduction of the photovoltaic effect theoretical requirements for the optimal performance of materials for pn-junction solar cells are discussed. Most important are efficiency, long-term stability and, not to be neglected, lowest possible cost. Today the market

Adolf Goetzberger; Christopher Hebling; Hans-Werner Schock

2003-01-01

487

Financial Bubbles and Business Scandals in History  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a survey of corporate scandals and some of the leading figures associated with them throughout the history of the joint-stock company. We find that great waves of exploration and innovation have been seen to propel speculative ventures that often prove worthless (hence the name “bubble”) and give rise to financial scandal. A look at some of history's

Kenneth R. Gray; Larry A. Frieder; George W. Clark Jr

2007-01-01

488

Difficult Histories in an Urban Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academic standards for history in all states require students to learn about deeply troubling events, such as war, genocide, and slavery. Drawing on research and theories related to trauma studies and history education, this ethnographic study aims to better understand what happens when teachers and students examine the pain and suffering of…

Sheppard, Maia G.

2010-01-01

489

Digging into History: Authentic Learning through Archeology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Facts, or skills? Content, or process? Teachers of history and social studies teachers often lock horns over these questions, trying to define the nature of their field and its role in secondary education. Teachers of history often focus on content, presenting the past as a series of important people and events, an accumulated cultural lore that…

Glendinning, Matt

2005-01-01

490

Innovations in Life History Calendar Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing sociological interest in the timing and sequencing of important life events continues to fuel the development of sophisticated analytic methods. The life history calendar (LHC) was designed as a method of collecting detailed individual-level event timing and sequencing data. This paper describes new innovations which make gathering retrospective event history data with an LHC more feasible in a wider

William G. Axinn; Lisa D. Pearce; Dirgha Ghimire

1999-01-01

491

Enlivening Dance History Pedagogy through Archival Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dance archives can bring students into contact with historical subjects through artifacts of the past. This article advocates the use of archival projects in undergraduate dance history courses, arguing that such hands-on learning activities give students dynamic and interactive experiences of history. The author describes a creative project she…

Randall, Tresa

2012-01-01

492

Boundaries, Bridges, and the History of Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the necessity of setting boundaries for a research topic while bridging gaps with information from other disciplines and history of education in other nations. Illustrates the point with the history of women's education in the United States. Includes discussion of the influence of British boys' schools, French boarding schools, and the…

Seller, Maxine Schwartz

1991-01-01

493

Educational and Economic History: The Good Neighbours  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The disciplines of economic history and the history of education have drawn closer since the 1960s. This engagement has led to fresh thematic contributions--the role of literacy and education in the Industrial Revolution and industrialization generally, how far its neglect underlay the "decline" of Britain since 1870, the relation of education to…

Sanderson, Michael

2007-01-01

494

Researching, Writing, and Publishing Local History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The book provides practical guidelines for the layman who is interested in researching, writing, and publishing local history. Two standards considered to be essential to the writing of local history are ethics and competence. The three aspects of competence which are discussed focus on researching, writing, and publishing. Chapter I identifies…

Felt, Thomas E.

495

The Value of Natural History Collections.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents research and public values of natural history museum collections. Research values include documenting biotas no longer available and serving as inspiration for scientific discovery. Public values include servings as resources for identification of unknown specimens, hands-on education, and depositories for evidence of the history and…

Allmon, Warren D.

1994-01-01

496

Exploring the Expansion History of the Universe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploring the recent expansion history of the universe promises insights into the cosmological model, the nature of dark energy, and potentially clues to high energy physics theories and gravitation. We examine the extent to which precision distance-redshift observations can map out the history, including the acceleration-deceleration transition, and the components and equations of state of the energy density. We consider

Eric V. Linder

2003-01-01

497

Teaching about Women in World History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the subject of teaching about women in world history in K-12 schools and in programs of social studies teacher education. It includes a review of the place of gender in teaching about world history to current and future teachers at Teachers College, Columbia University. This informal research serves as the platform for a set…

Crocco, Margaret Smith

2011-01-01

498

Reconstructing Fire History: An Exercise in Dendrochronology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dendrochronology is used widely to reconstruct the history of forest disturbances. I created an exercise that introduces the use of dendrochronology to investigate fire history and forest dynamics. The exercise also demonstrates how the dendrochronological technique of crossdating is employed to age dead trees and identify missing rings. I…

Lafon, Charles W.

2005-01-01

499

National Museum of Women's History (NMWH)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Museum of Women's History (NMWH) traces the history of the woman suffrage movement and its political imagery with topical paragraphs and selected images. Additional resources include a timeline, quiz, and collection of related resources. Originally reviewed in conjunction with other resources. To read the full review, link to the archived Scout Report via the Date of Review above

500

National History Day: Developing Digital Native Historians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Unfortunately, many students, are failing to learn history. Fifty-seven percent of high school students scored "below basic understanding" on their knowledge of United States history. Interestingly, less than half of the students were familiar with Patrick Henry, the War of 1812, the Marshall Plan, or the Great Society. Perhaps the time has come…

Scheuerell, Scott

2007-01-01