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Sample records for ptt constitutive equation

  1. Biaxial constitutive equation development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, E. H.; Walker, K. P.

    1984-01-01

    In developing the constitutive equations an interdisciplinary approach is being pursued. Specifically, both metallurgical and continuum mechanics considerations are recognized in the formulation. Experiments will be utilized to both explore general qualitative features of the material behavior that needs to be modeled and to provide a means of assessing the validity of the equations being developed. The model under development explicitly recognizes crystallographic slip on the individual slip systems. This makes possible direct representation of specific slip system phenomena. The present constitutive formulation takes the anisotropic creep theory and incorporates two state variables into the model to account for the effect of prior inelastic deformation history on the current rate-dependent response of the material.

  2. PTT Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat blood clots ( embolism and thromboembolism ). It prolongs PTT. When heparin is administered for therapeutic purposes, ... lupus anticoagulant may be present but may not prolong the PTT result. If the lupus anticoagulant (LA) ...

  3. Thermoelastic constitutive equations for chemically hardening materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, B. W.; Levitsky, M.

    1974-01-01

    Thermoelastic constitutive equations are derived for a material undergoing solidification or hardening as the result of a chemical reaction. The derivation is based upon a two component model whose composition is determined by the degree of hardening, and makes use of strain-energy considerations. Constitutive equations take the form of stress rate-strain rate relations, in which the coefficients are time-dependent functions of the composition. Specific results are developed for the case of a material of constant bulk modulus which undergoes a transition from an initial liquidlike state into an isotropic elastic solid. Potential applications are discussed.

  4. Constitutive equations of ageing polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, S. T. J.

    1985-01-01

    The constitutive equation for the relaxation behavior of time-dependent, chemically unstable materials developed by Valanis and Peng (1983), which used the irreversible thermodynamics of internal variables in Eyring's absolute reaction theory and yielded a theoretical expression for the effect of chemical crosslink density on the relaxation rate, is presently applied to the creep behavior of a network polymer which is undergoing a scission process. In particular, two equations are derived which may for the first time show the relations between mechanical models and internal variables in the creep expressions, using a three-element model with a Maxwell element.

  5. Unified viscoplastic constitutive equations and their applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, U. S.

    1987-01-01

    Unified constitutive equations for time- and temperature-dependent metallic plastic deformation have been applied in FEM simulations of forming processes; increasingly powerful computational tools and physical models are being used to numerically model complex engineering problems. Once confidence has been gained through adequate verification, these numerical models will increasingly replace experimental models. Attention is presently given to the contributions made by physical metallurgy, continuum mechanics, and computational mechanics.

  6. Constitutive equations for an electroactive polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tixier, Mireille; Pouget, Joël

    2016-07-01

    Ionic electroactive polymers can be used as sensors or actuators. For this purpose, a thin film of polyelectrolyte is saturated with a solvent and sandwiched between two platinum electrodes. The solvent causes a complete dissociation of the polymer and the release of small cations. The application of an electric field across the thickness results in the bending of the strip and vice versa. The material is modeled by a two-phase continuous medium. The solid phase, constituted by the polymer backbone inlaid with anions, is depicted as a deformable porous media. The liquid phase is composed of the free cations and the solvent (usually water). We used a coarse grain model. The conservation laws of this system have been established in a previous work. The entropy balance law and the thermodynamic relations are first written for each phase and then for the complete material using a statistical average technique and the material derivative concept. One deduces the entropy production. Identifying generalized forces and fluxes provides the constitutive equations of the whole system: the stress-strain relations which satisfy a Kelvin-Voigt model, generalized Fourier's and Darcy's laws and the Nernst-Planck equation.

  7. Constitutive equations for an electroactive polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tixier, Mireille; Pouget, Joël

    2015-07-01

    Ionic electroactive polymers can be used as sensors or actuators. For this purpose, a thin film of polyelectrolyte is saturated with a solvent and sandwiched between two platinum electrodes. The solvent causes a complete dissociation of the polymer and the release of small cations. The application of an electric field across the thickness results in the bending of the strip and vice versa. The material is modeled by a two-phase continuous medium. The solid phase, constituted by the polymer backbone inlaid with anions, is depicted as a deformable porous media. The liquid phase is composed of the free cations and the solvent (usually water). We used a coarse grain model. The conservation laws of this system have been established in a previous work. The entropy balance law and the thermodynamic relations are first written for each phase and then for the complete material using a statistical average technique and the material derivative concept. One deduces the entropy production. Identifying generalized forces and fluxes provides the constitutive equations of the whole system: the stress-strain relations which satisfy a Kelvin-Voigt model, generalized Fourier's and Darcy's laws and the Nernst-Planck equation.

  8. Application of the PTT model to axisymmetric free surface flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merejolli, R.; Paulo, G. S.; Tomé, M. F.

    2013-10-01

    This work is concerned with numerical simulation of axisymmetric viscoelastic free surface flows using the Phan-Thien-Tanner (PTT) constitutive equation. A finite difference technique for solving the governing equations for unsteady incompressible flows written in Cylindrical coordinates on a staggered grid is described. The fluid is modelled by a Marker-and-Cell type method and an accurate representation of the fluid surface is employed. The full free surface stress conditions are applied. The numerical method is verified by comparing numerical predictions of fully developed flow in a pipe with the corresponding analytic solutions. To demonstrate that the numerical method can simulate axisymmetric free surface flows governed by the PTT model, numerical results of the flow evolution of a drop impacting on a rigid dry plate are presented. In these simulations, the rheological effects of the parameters ɛ and ξ are investigated.

  9. Partial thromboplastin time (PTT)

    MedlinePlus

    ... help the blood clot. This is called the coagulation cascade. The PTT test looks at some of ... control blood clotting become over active ( disseminated intravascular coagulation ) Liver disease Difficulty absorbing nutrients from food ( malabsorption ) ...

  10. A Constitutive Equation for Stratospheric Balloon Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rand, J. L.; Sterling, W. J.

    2004-01-01

    The selection of a suitable material for use as a reliable stratospheric balloon gas barrier and structural component is based on a variety of properties. Due to a more desirable combination of properties, the low density polyethylene that has been used for the last half century has been replaced during the last decade by linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE). This paper describes the effort to characterize the time dependent properties of a 38 micron coextrusion of LLDPE. The nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive equation presented may be used to accurately describe the creep and/or relaxation of this film when subjected to a biaxial state of stress, such as might be required for an extended balloon flight. Recent laboratory data have been used to mod@ an existing model of LLDPE to account for differences caused by the coextrusion process. The new model will facilitate structural design optimization and reliability assessment, and may be further utilized as a predictive tool to benefit in-flight operations. Current structural analysis tech&ques based on linear elastic properties have predicted stresses in excess of those which would actually exist.

  11. A constitutive equation for stratospheric balloon materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, J.; Sterling, J.

    The selection of a suitable material for use as a reliable stratospheric balloon gas barrier and structural component is based on a variety of desired properties. In order to achieve the required combination of weight per unit area, helium permeation, strength, flexibility and toughness at low temperatures, low density polyethylene has been used for the last half century. During the last decade, linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) has been found to have even better properties for this application. Thin films extruded from this type resin have been found to have time dependent properties which should be understood in order to make an intelligent analysis of the balloon. This paper describes the current effort to characterize a 38 micron coextrusion of LLDPE as a nonlinearly viscoelastic material. The resulting constitutive equation may be used to accurately describe the time dependent creep and/or relaxation of this film when subjected to a biaxial state of stress. Recent laboratory data have been used to modify an existing model of LLDPE to account for differences caused by the coextrusion process. The new model will facilitate structure design optimization and reliability assessment, and may further be utilized as a predictive tool to benefit in-flight operations. Unfortunately, current structural analysis techniques based on linear elastic properties will predict stresses in excess of those which actually exist. An example will be presented which demonstrates the magnitude of this error when nonlinear behavior is ignored.

  12. Thermodynamic restrictions on the constitutive equations of electromagnetic theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, B. D.; Dill, E. H.

    1971-01-01

    Thermodynamics second law restrictions on constitutive equations of electromagnetic theory for nonlinear materials with long-range gradually fading memory, considering dissipation principle consequences

  13. A new constitutive equation for elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Larry

    1993-01-01

    A new mathematical approach for quantifying the mechanical properties of elastomeric materials under biaxial loads is presented. Specific equations relating principal strains and principal true stresses for a homogeneous, isotropic, and elastic material are proposed that resemble the conventional Hooke's law of linear elasticity. The predicted stresses are compared to those from three different sets of experimental data and to stresses from three different theories based on Rivlin's work-of-deformation approach. The proposed approach is considered to be of benefit to design engineers involved in a broad range of rubber products.

  14. Constitutive Equation with Varying Parameters for Superplastic Flow Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Zhiping; Ren, Mingwen; Jia, Hongjie; Zhao, Po; Ma, Pinkui

    2014-03-01

    In this study, constitutive equations for superplastic materials with an extra large elongation were investigated through mechanical analysis. From the view of phenomenology, firstly, some traditional empirical constitutive relations were standardized by restricting some strain paths and parameter conditions, and the coefficients in these relations were strictly given new mechanical definitions. Subsequently, a new, general constitutive equation with varying parameters was theoretically deduced based on the general mechanical equation of state. The superplastic tension test data of Zn-5%Al alloy at 340 °C under strain rates, velocities, and loads were employed for building a new constitutive equation and examining its validity. Analysis results indicated that the constitutive equation with varying parameters could characterize superplastic flow behavior in practical superplastic forming with high prediction accuracy and without any restriction of strain path or deformation condition, showing good industrial or scientific interest. On the contrary, those empirical equations have low prediction capabilities due to constant parameters and poor applicability because of the limit of special strain path or parameter conditions based on strict phenomenology.

  15. Constitutive equations for meeting elevated-temperature-design needs

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, C.E.; Robinson, D.N.

    1981-01-01

    Constitutive equations for representing the inelastic behavior of structural alloys at temperatures in the creep regime are discussed from the viewpoint of advances made over the past decade. An emphasis is placed on the progress that has been made in meeting the needs of the program whose design process is based in part on a design-by-inelastic-analysis approach. In particular, the constitutive equations that have been put into place for current use in design analyses are discussed along with some material behavior background information. Equations representing short-term plastic and long-term creep behaviors are considered. Trends towards establishing improved equations for use in the future are also described. Progress relating to fundamentals of continuum mechanics, physical modeling, phenomenological modeling, and implementation is addressed.

  16. A Constitutive Equation for Grain Boundary Sliding: An Experimental Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korla, Rajesh; Chokshi, Atul H.

    2014-02-01

    Although grain boundary sliding (GBS) has been recognized as an important process during high-temperature deformation in crystalline materials, there is paucity in experimental data for characterizing a constitutive equation for GBS. High-temperature tensile creep experiments were conducted, together with measurements of GBS at different strains, stresses, grain sizes, and temperatures. Experimental data obtained on a Mg AZ31 alloy demonstrate that, for the first time, dynamic recrystallization during creep does not alter the contribution of GBS to creep during high-temperature deformation. The experimentally observed invariance of the sliding contribution with strain was used together with the creep data for developing a constitutive equation for GBS in a manner similar to the standard creep equation. Using this new approach, it is demonstrated that the stress, grain size, and temperature dependence for creep and GBS are identical. This is rationalized by a model based on GBS controlled by dislocations, within grains or near-grain boundaries.

  17. Structure and Calibration of Constitutive Equations for Granular Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawicki, Andrzej; Sławińska, Justyna; Mierczyński, Jacek

    2015-02-01

    The form of incremental constitutive equations for granular soils is discussed for the triaxial configuration. The classical elasto-plastic approach and the semi-empirical model are discussed on the basis of constitutive relations determined directly from experimental data. First, the general structure of elasto-plastic constitutive equations is presented. Then, the structure of semiempirical constitutive equations is described, and a method of calibrating the model is presented. This calibration method is based on a single experiment, performed in the triaxial apparatus, which also involves a partial verification of the model, on an atypical stress path. The model is shown to give reasonable predictions. An important feature of the semi-empirical incremental model is the definition of loading and unloading, which is different from that assumed in elasto-plasticity. This definition distinguishes between spherical and deviatoric loading/unloading. The definition of deviatoric loading/unloading has been subject to some criticism. It was therefore discussed and clarified in this paper on the basis of the experiment presented.

  18. Generalized constitutive equations for piezo-actuated compliant mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Junyi; Ling, Mingxiang; Inman, Daniel J.; Lin, Jin

    2016-09-01

    This paper formulates analytical models to describe the static displacement and force interactions between generic serial-parallel compliant mechanisms and their loads by employing the matrix method. In keeping with the familiar piezoelectric constitutive equations, the generalized constitutive equations of compliant mechanism represent the input–output displacement and force relations in the form of a generalized Hooke’s law and as analytical functions of physical parameters. Also significantly, a new model of output displacement for compliant mechanism interacting with piezo-stacks and elastic loads is deduced based on the generalized constitutive equations. Some original findings differing from the well-known constitutive performance of piezo-stacks are also given. The feasibility of the proposed models is confirmed by finite element analysis and by experiments under various elastic loads. The analytical models can be an insightful tool for predicting and optimizing the performance of a wide class of compliant mechanisms that simultaneously consider the influence of loads and piezo-stacks.

  19. An unsymmetric constitutive equation for anisotropic viscoelastic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Shifang

    2007-04-01

    A continuum constitutive theory of corotational derivative type is developed for the anisotropic viscoelastic fluid-liquid crystalline (LC) polymers. A concept of anisotropic viscoelastic simple fluid is introduced. The stress tensor instead of the velocity gradient tensor D in the classic Leslie-Ericksen theory is described by the first Rivlin-Ericksen tensor A and a spin tensor W measured with respect to a co-rotational coordinate system. A model LCP-H on this theory is proposed and the characteristic unsymmetric behaviour of the shear stress is predicted for LC polymer liquids. Two shear stresses thereby in shear flow of LC polymer liquids lead to internal vortex flow and rotational flow. The conclusion could be of theoretical meaning for the modern liquid crystalline display technology. By using the equation, extrusion-extensional flows of the fluid are studied for fiber spinning of LC polymer melts, the elongational viscosity vs. extension rate with variation of shear rate is given in figures. A considerable increase of elongational viscosity and bifurcation behaviour are observed when the orientational motion of the director vector is considered. The contraction of extrudate of LC polymer melts is caused by the high elongational viscosity. For anisotropic viscoelastic fluids, an important advance has been made in the investigation on the constitutive equation on the basis of which a series of new anisotropic non-Newtonian fluid problems can be addressed.

  20. The structure of constitutive equations for semiconductor devices

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, G.R.; Girrens, S.P.; Bennett, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    The fundamental equations that describe carrier transport in semiconductor materials are developed using the methods of continuum mixture theory and Maxwell's equations for electrodynamics. There are five basic equations that govern the behavior of current flux, electrostatic potential, electrons, and holes. The bahavior of the electrical chemical potentials are introduced and their relation to the current flux is discussed.

  1. Basic Equations and Constitutive Equations of Micropolar Magnetic Fluids with E-BAnalogy and the Abraham Expression of Electromagnetic Momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ido, Yasushi

    A complete set of basic equations for magnetic fluids with internal rotation is proposed in this paper. The basic equations are derived from the conservation laws of mass, linear momentum, angular momentum and energy, while the constitutive equations are obtained by the thermodynamical method that is based on the free energy and the dissipation function. The concrete expression of constitutive equations are determined by the principle of material frame indifference and the principle of maximal dissipation rate. The Abraham expression of the electromagnetic momentum and E-Banalogy are adopted in this theory. It is shown that the difference in the basic equations in case of adopting the Abraham expression and the Minkowski expression, respectively. The constitutive equation of magnetization which includes the Shliomis relaxation equation (1972) is proposed.

  2. Enzymatic hydrolysis of PTT polymers and oligomers.

    PubMed

    Eberl, A; Heumann, S; Kotek, R; Kaufmann, F; Mitsche, S; Cavaco-Paulo, A; Gübitz, G M

    2008-05-20

    Oligomers and polymers (film, fabrics) of the linear aromatic polyester poly(trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT) were treated with polyesterases from Thermomyces lanuginosus, Penicillium citrinum, Thermobifida fusca and Fusarium solani pisi. The cutinase from T. fusca was found to release the highest amounts of hydrolysis products from PTT materials and was able to open and hydrolyse a cyclic PTT dimer according to RP-HPLC-UV detection. In contrast, the lipase from T. lanuginosus also showed activity on the PTT fibres and on bis(3-hydroxypropyl) terephthalate (BHPT) but was not able to hydrolyse the polymer film, mono(3-hydroxypropyl) terephthalate (MHPT) nor the cyclic dimer of PTT. As control enzymes inhibited with mercury chloride were used. Surface hydrophilicity changes were investigated with contact angle measurements and the degree of crystallinity changes were determined with DSC. PMID:18405994

  3. Modeling of rock friction 1. Experimental results and constitutive equations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieterich, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Direct shear experiments on ground surfaces of a granodiorite from Raymond, California, at normal stresses of ??6 MPa demonstrate that competing time, displacement, and velocity effects control rock friction. It is proposed that the strength of the population of points of contacts between sliding surfaces determines frictional strength and that the population of contacts changes continuously with displacements. Previous experiments demonstrate that the strength of the contacts increases with the age of the contacts. The present experiments establish that a characteristic displacement, proportional to surface roughness, is required to change the population of contacts. Hence during slip the average age of the points of contact and therefore frictional strength decrease as slip velocity increases. Displacement weakening and consequently the potential for unstable slip occur whenever displacement reduces the average age of the contacts. In addition to this velocity dependency, which arises from displacement dependency and time dependency, the experiments also show a competing but transient increase in friction whenever slip velocity increases. Creep of the sliding surface at stresses below that for steady state slip is also observed. Constitutive relationships are developed that permit quantitative simulation of the friction versus displacement data as a function of surface roughness and for different time and velocity histories. Unstable slip in experiments is controlled by these constitutive effects and by the stiffness of the experimental system. It is argued that analogous properties control earthquake instability. Copyright ?? 1979 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. A comparative study of different ferrofluid constitutive equations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaloni, Purna

    2011-11-01

    Ferrofluids are stable colloidal suspensions of fine ferromagnetic monodomain nanoparticles in a non-conducting carrier fluid. The particles are coated with a surfacant to avoid agglomeration and coagulation.Brownian motion keeps the nanoparticles from settling under gravity. In recent years these fluids have found several applications including in liquid seals in rotary shafts for vacuum system and in hard disk drives of personal computers, in cooling and damping of loud speakers, in shock absorbers and in biomedical applications. A continuum description of ferrofluids was initiated by Neuringer and Rosensweig but the theory had some limitations. In subsequent years,several authors have proposed generalization of the above theory.Some of these are based upon the internal particle rotation concept, some are phemonological, some are based upon a thermodynamic framework, some employ statistical approach and some have used the dynamic mean field approach. The results based upon these theories ane in early stages and inconclusive. Our purpose is, first, to critically examine the basic foundations of these equations and then study the pedictions obtained in all the theories related to an experimental as well as a theoretical study.

  5. Finite element analysis of notch behavior using a state variable constitutive equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dame, L. T.; Stouffer, D. C.; Abuelfoutouh, N.

    1985-01-01

    The state variable constitutive equation of Bodner and Partom was used to calculate the load-strain response of Inconel 718 at 649 C in the root of a notch. The constitutive equation was used with the Bodner-Partom evolution equation and with a second evolution equation that was derived from a potential function of the stress and state variable. Data used in determining constants for the constitutive models was from one-dimensional smooth bar tests. The response was calculated for a plane stress condition at the root of the notch with a finite element code using constant strain triangular elements. Results from both evolution equations compared favorably with the observed experimental response. The accuracy and efficiency of the finite element calculations also compared favorably to existing methods.

  6. Elastic-Plastic Constitutive Equation of WC-Co Cemented Carbides with Anisotropic Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Hayakawa, Kunio; Nakamura, Tamotsu; Tanaka, Shigekazu

    2007-05-17

    Elastic-plastic constitutive equation of WC-Co cemented carbides with anisotropic damage is proposed to predict a precise service life of cold forging tools. A 2nd rank symmetric tensor damage tensor is introduced in order to express the stress unilaterality; a salient difference in uniaxial behavior between tension and compression. The conventional framework of irreversible thermodynamics is used to derive the constitutive equation. The Gibbs potential is formulated as a function of stress, damage tensor, isotropic hardening variable and kinematic hardening variable. The elastic-damage constitutive equation, conjugate forces of damage, isotropic hardening and kinematic hardening variable is derived from the potential. For the kinematic hardening variable, the superposition of three kinematic hardening laws is employed in order to improve the cyclic behavior of the material. For the evolution equation of the damage tensor, the damage is assumed to progress by fracture of the Co matrix - WC particle interface and by the mechanism of fatigue, i.e. the accumulation of microscopic plastic strain in matrix and particles. By using the constitutive equations, calculation of uniaxial tensile and compressive test is performed and the results are compared with the experimental ones in the literature. Furthermore, finite element analysis on cold forward extrusion was carried out, in which the proposed constitutive equation was employed as die insert material.

  7. Elastic-Plastic Constitutive Equation of WC-Co Cemented Carbides with Anisotropic Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Kunio; Nakamura, Tamotsu; Tanaka, Shigekazu

    2007-05-01

    Elastic-plastic constitutive equation of WC-Co cemented carbides with anisotropic damage is proposed to predict a precise service life of cold forging tools. A 2nd rank symmetric tensor damage tensor is introduced in order to express the stress unilaterality; a salient difference in uniaxial behavior between tension and compression. The conventional framework of irreversible thermodynamics is used to derive the constitutive equation. The Gibbs potential is formulated as a function of stress, damage tensor, isotropic hardening variable and kinematic hardening variable. The elastic-damage constitutive equation, conjugate forces of damage, isotropic hardening and kinematic hardening variable is derived from the potential. For the kinematic hardening variable, the superposition of three kinematic hardening laws is employed in order to improve the cyclic behavior of the material. For the evolution equation of the damage tensor, the damage is assumed to progress by fracture of the Co matrix — WC particle interface and by the mechanism of fatigue, i.e. the accumulation of microscopic plastic strain in matrix and particles. By using the constitutive equations, calculation of uniaxial tensile and compressive test is performed and the results are compared with the experimental ones in the literature. Furthermore, finite element analysis on cold forward extrusion was carried out, in which the proposed constitutive equation was employed as die insert material.

  8. Invisible cloak design with controlled constitutive parameters and arbitrary shaped boundaries through Helmholtz's equation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Fu, Yunqi; Yuan, Naichang

    2009-03-01

    An approach to design an invisible cloak with controlled constitutive parameters and arbitrary shaped boundaries is presented. Helmholtz's equation is adopted to establish a mapping between original and transformed coordinates inside the cloak. Then the constitutive parameters are obtained by the established mapping. The analytical solution of a regular cloak and the numerical solution of an irregular cloak both verify that that our method will guide electromagnetic wave efficiently and control the constitutive parameters of the cloak conveniently. It has great significance in realizing a cloak practically. PMID:19259197

  9. Direct test of a nonlinear constitutive equation for simple turbulent shear flows using DNS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, François G.

    2007-10-01

    Several nonlinear constitutive equations have been proposed to overcome the limitations of the linear eddy-viscosity models to describe complex turbulent flows. These nonlinear equations have often been compared to experimental data through the outputs of numerical models. Here we perform a priori analysis of nonlinear eddy-viscosity models using direct numerical simulation (DNS) of simple shear flows. In this paper, the constitutive equation is directly checked using a tensor projection which involves several invariants of the flow. This provides a 3 terms development which is exact for 2D flows, and a best approximation for 3D flows. We provide the quadratic nonlinear constitutive equation for the near-wall region of simple shear flows using DNS data, and estimate their coefficients. We show that these coefficients have several common properties for the different simple shear flow databases considered. We also show that in the central region of pipe flows, where the shear rate is very small, the coefficients of the constitutive equation diverge, indicating the failure of this representation for vanishing shears.

  10. An In-Depth Tutorial on Constitutive Equations for Elastic Anisotropic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    An in-depth tutorial on the constitutive equations for elastic, anisotropic materials is presented. Basic concepts are introduced that are used to characterize materials, and notions about how anisotropic material deform are presented. Hooke s law and the Duhamel-Neuman law for isotropic materials are presented and discussed. Then, the most general form of Hooke s law for elastic anisotropic materials is presented and symmetry requirements are given. A similar presentation is also given for the generalized Duhamel-Neuman law for elastic, anisotropic materials that includes thermal effects. Transformation equations for stress and strains are presented and the most general form of the transformation equations for the constitutive matrices are given. Then, specialized transformation equations are presented for dextral rotations about the coordinate axes. Next, concepts of material symmetry are introduced and criteria for material symmetries are presented. Additionally, engineering constants of fully anisotropic, elastic materials are derived from first principles and the specialized to several cases of practical importance.

  11. On the structure of nonlinear constitutive equations for fiber reinforced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansson, Stefan

    1992-01-01

    The structure of constitutive equations for nonlinear multiaxial behavior of transversely isotropic fiber reinforced metal matrix composites subject to proportional loading was investigated. Results from an experimental program were combined with numerical simulations of the composite behavior for complex stress to reveal the full structure of the equations. It was found that the nonlinear response can be described by a quadratic flow-potential, based on the polynomial stress invariants, together with a hardening rule that is dominated by two different hardening mechanisms.

  12. Constitutive Equations: Plastic and Viscoelastic Properties. (Latest citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning analytical techniques using constitutive equations, applied to materials under stress. The properties explored with these techniques include viscoelasticity, thermoelasticity, and plasticity. While many of the references are general as to material type, most refer to specific metals or composites, or to specific shapes, such as flat plate or spherical vessels.

  13. Analysis of a microcrack model and constitutive equations for time-dependent dilatancy of rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zuan

    2003-11-01

    Based on experimental observations and theoretical analyses, the author introduces an ideal microcrack model in which an array of cracks with the same shape and initial size is distributed evenly in rocks. The mechanism of creep dilatancy for rocks is analysed theoretically. Initiation, propagation and linkage of pre-existing microcracks during creep are well described. Also, the relationship between the velocity of microcrack growth and the duration of the creep process is derived numerically. The relationship agrees well with the character of typical experimental creep curves, and includes three stages of creep. Then the damage constitutive equations and damage evolution equations, which describe the dilatant behaviour of rocks, are presented. Because the dilatant estimated value is taken as the damage variable, the relationship between the microscopic model and the macroscopic constitutive equations is established. In this way the mechanical behaviour of rocks can be predicted.

  14. Molecular representation of molar domain (volume), evolution equations, and linear constitutive relations for volume transport.

    PubMed

    Eu, Byung Chan

    2008-09-01

    In the traditional theories of irreversible thermodynamics and fluid mechanics, the specific volume and molar volume have been interchangeably used for pure fluids, but in this work we show that they should be distinguished from each other and given distinctive statistical mechanical representations. In this paper, we present a general formula for the statistical mechanical representation of molecular domain (volume or space) by using the Voronoi volume and its mean value that may be regarded as molar domain (volume) and also the statistical mechanical representation of volume flux. By using their statistical mechanical formulas, the evolution equations of volume transport are derived from the generalized Boltzmann equation of fluids. Approximate solutions of the evolution equations of volume transport provides kinetic theory formulas for the molecular domain, the constitutive equations for molar domain (volume) and volume flux, and the dissipation of energy associated with volume transport. Together with the constitutive equation for the mean velocity of the fluid obtained in a previous paper, the evolution equations for volume transport not only shed a fresh light on, and insight into, irreversible phenomena in fluids but also can be applied to study fluid flow problems in a manner hitherto unavailable in fluid dynamics and irreversible thermodynamics. Their roles in the generalized hydrodynamics will be considered in the sequel. PMID:19044872

  15. On thermomechanical testing in support of constitutive equation development for high temperature alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, D. N.

    1985-01-01

    Three major categories of testing are identified that are necessary to provide support for the development of constitutive equations for high temperature alloys. These are exploratory, charactrization and verification tests. Each category is addressed and specific examples of each are given. An extensive, but not exhaustive, set of references is provided concerning pertinent experimental results and their relationships to theoretical development. This guide to formulating a meaningful testing effort in support of consitutive equation development can also aid in defining the necessary testing equipment and instrumentation for the establishment of a deformation and structures testing laboratory.

  16. Constitutive Equation for 3104 Alloy at High Temperatures in Consideration of Strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, Fuqiang; Sun, Jianlin; Li, Jian

    2016-06-01

    The flow behavior of 3104 aluminum alloy was investigated at temperatures ranging from 250°C to 500°C, and strain rates from 0.01 to 10 s-1 by isothermal compression tests. The true stress-strain curves were obtained from the measured load-stroke data and then modified by friction and temperature correction. The effects of temperature and strain rate on hot deformation behavior were represented by Zener-Hollomon parameter including Arrhenius term. Additionally, the influence of strain was incorporated considering the effect of strain on material constants. The derived constitution equation was applied to the finite element analysis of hot compression. The results show that the simulated force is consistent with the measured one. Consequently, the developed constitution equation is valid and feasible for numerical simulation in hot deformation process of 3104 alloy.

  17. Invisible cloak design with controlled constitutive parameters and arbitrary shaped boundaries through Helmholtz's equation: comment.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zheng; Zhou, Xiaoming; Hu, Jin; Hu, Gengkai

    2010-02-15

    In a recent paper, Chen et al. [Opt. Express 17, 3581 (2009)] develop an approach to design invisible cloaks with controllable constitutive parameters by adjusting the constant k in the Helmholtz's equation. In this comment, we discuss the limitation of the free parameter k in designing cloaks. It is found that the real constant k can be chosen only as limited values in order to avoid the singular material parameters. PMID:20389403

  18. Constitutive Equations: Plastic and Viscoelastic Properties. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning analytical techniques using constitutive equations, applied to materials under stress. The properties explored with these techniques include viscoelasticity, thermoelasticity, and plasticity. While many of the references are general as to material type, most refer to specific metals or composites, or to specific shapes, such as flat plate or spherical vessels. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. High Strain Rate Deformation Modeling of a Polymer Matrix Composite. Part 1; Matrix Constitutive Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Stouffer, Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    Recently applications have exposed polymer matrix composite materials to very high strain rate loading conditions, requiring an ability to understand and predict the material behavior under these extreme conditions. In this first paper of a two part report, background information is presented, along with the constitutive equations which will be used to model the rate dependent nonlinear deformation response of the polymer matrix. Strain rate dependent inelastic constitutive models which were originally developed to model the viscoplastic deformation of metals have been adapted to model the nonlinear viscoelastic deformation of polymers. The modified equations were correlated by analyzing the tensile/ compressive response of both 977-2 toughened epoxy matrix and PEEK thermoplastic matrix over a variety of strain rates. For the cases examined, the modified constitutive equations appear to do an adequate job of modeling the polymer deformation response. A second follow-up paper will describe the implementation of the polymer deformation model into a composite micromechanical model, to allow for the modeling of the nonlinear, rate dependent deformation response of polymer matrix composites.

  20. On constitutive equations for thermoelastic analysis of fiber-reinforced composites with isotropic matrix material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usal, Melek; Usal, Mustafa Reşit; Esendemir, Ümran

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with developing constitutive equations for the thermoelastic analysis of composites consisting of an isotropic matrix reinforced by independent and inextensible two families of fibers having an arbitrary distribution. The composite medium is assumed to be incompressible, dependent on temperature gradient, and showing linear elastic behavior. The reaction of the composite material subject to external loads is expressed in stress tensor and heat flux vector. The matrix material made of elastic material involving an artificial anisotropy due to fibers reinforcing by arbitrary distributions has been assumed as an isotropic medium. The theory is formulated within the scope of continuum mechanics. As a result of thermodynamic constraints, it has been determined that the stress potential function is dependent on the deformation tensor, the fiber fields vectors and the temperature, while the heat flux vector function is dependent on the deformation tensor, the fiber fields vectors, the temperature and temperature gradient. To determine arguments of the constitutive functionals, findings relating to the theory of invariants have been used as a method because of that isotropy constraint is imposed on the material. The constitutive equations of stress and heat flux vector have been written in terms of different coordinate descriptions.

  1. A Modified Johnson-Cook Constitutive Equation to Predict Hot Deformation Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jun; Wang, Kuaishe; Zhai, Peng; Li, Fuguo; Yang, Jie

    2014-09-01

    A modified Johnson-Cook constitutive equation of Ti-6Al-4V alloy is proposed based on hot compression tests performed in the temperature range of 1073-1323 K and strain rate 0.001-1 s-1. The experimental stress-strain data were employed to develop the modified Johnson-Cook constitutive equation of different phase regimes (α + β and β phase). The predicted flow stresses using the developed equation were compared with experimental data. Correlation coefficient (R) and average absolute relative error (AARE) were introduced to verify the validity of the constitutive equation. The values of R and AARE for α + β phase were 0.990 and 7.81%, respectively. And in β phase region, the values of R and AARE were 0.985 and 10.36%, respectively. Meanwhile, the accuracy, the number of material constants involved, and the computational time required of the constitutive equation were evaluated by comparing with a strain-compensated Arrhenius-type constitutive equation. The results indicate that accuracy of modified Johnson-Cook constitutive equation is higher than that of compensated Arrhenius-type model at α + β phase, while lower at single β phase region. Meanwhile, the time required for evaluating the material constants of modified Johnson-Cook constitutive equation is much shorter than that of the strain-compensated Arrhenius type ones.

  2. A Modified Johnson-Cook Constitutive Equation to Predict Hot Deformation Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jun; Wang, Kuaishe; Zhai, Peng; Li, Fuguo; Yang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    A modified Johnson-Cook constitutive equation of Ti-6Al-4V alloy is proposed based on hot compression tests performed in the temperature range of 1073-1323 K and strain rate 0.001-1 s-1. The experimental stress-strain data were employed to develop the modified Johnson-Cook constitutive equation of different phase regimes (α + β and β phase). The predicted flow stresses using the developed equation were compared with experimental data. Correlation coefficient ( R) and average absolute relative error (AARE) were introduced to verify the validity of the constitutive equation. The values of R and AARE for α + β phase were 0.990 and 7.81%, respectively. And in β phase region, the values of R and AARE were 0.985 and 10.36%, respectively. Meanwhile, the accuracy, the number of material constants involved, and the computational time required of the constitutive equation were evaluated by comparing with a strain-compensated Arrhenius-type constitutive equation. The results indicate that accuracy of modified Johnson-Cook constitutive equation is higher than that of compensated Arrhenius-type model at α + β phase, while lower at single β phase region. Meanwhile, the time required for evaluating the material constants of modified Johnson-Cook constitutive equation is much shorter than that of the strain-compensated Arrhenius type ones.

  3. On the use of internal state variables in thermoviscoplastic constitutive equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, D. H.; Beek, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The general theory of internal state variables are reviewed to apply it to inelastic metals in use in high temperature environments. In this process, certain constraints and clarifications will be made regarding internal state variables. It is shown that the Helmholtz free energy can be utilized to construct constitutive equations which are appropriate for metallic superalloys. Internal state variables are shown to represent locally averaged measures of dislocation arrangement, dislocation density, and intergranular fracture. The internal state variable model is demonstrated to be a suitable framework for comparison of several currently proposed models for metals and can therefore be used to exhibit history dependence, nonlinearity, and rate as well as temperature sensitivity.

  4. Constitutive Equations for Use in Design Analyses of Long-life Elevated Temperature Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pugh, C. E.; Robinson, D. N.

    1983-01-01

    Design analysis needs and procedures relative to elevated temperature components in liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) system were examined. The effects of the thermal transients on the pressure boundary components are enhanced by the excellent heat transfer properties of the liquid sodium coolant. Design criteria for high temperature nuclear reactor components recognize the potential occurrence of inelastic structural response. Specifically, criteria and limits were developed which reflect a recognition of this potential and employ design by analysis concepts that requires that inelastic (elastic-plastic and creep) analyses be performed. Constitutive equations to represent multiaxial time-dependent responses of LMFBR alloys are established. The development of equations applicable under cyclic loading conditions are outlined.

  5. Computer simulation of the mathematical modeling involved in constitutive equation development: Via symbolic computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, S. M.; Tan, H. Q.; Dong, X.

    1989-01-01

    Development of new material models for describing the high temperature constitutive behavior of real materials represents an important area of research in engineering disciplines. Derivation of mathematical expressions (constitutive equations) which describe this high temperature material behavior can be quite time consuming, involved and error prone; thus intelligent application of symbolic systems to facilitate this tedious process can be of significant benefit. A computerized procedure (SDICE) capable of efficiently deriving potential based constitutive models, in analytical form is presented. This package, running under MACSYMA, has the following features: partial differentiation, tensor computations, automatic grouping and labeling of common factors, expression substitution and simplification, back substitution of invariant and tensorial relations and a relational data base. Also limited aspects of invariant theory were incorporated into SDICE due to the utilization of potentials as a starting point and the desire for these potentials to be frame invariant (objective). Finally not only calculation of flow and/or evolutionary laws were accomplished but also the determination of history independent nonphysical coefficients in terms of physically measurable parameters, e.g., Young's modulus, was achieved. The uniqueness of SDICE resides in its ability to manipulate expressions in a general yet predefined order and simplify expressions so as to limit expression growth. Results are displayed when applicable utilizing index notation.

  6. A Modified Constitutive Equation for Aluminum Alloy Reinforced by Silicon Carbide Particles at Elevated Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yajing; Li, Fuguo; Yuan, Zhanwei; Qiao, Huijuan

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, the constitutive relationship of an aluminum alloy reinforced by silicon carbide particles is investigated using a new method of double multivariate nonlinear regression (DMNR) in which the strain, strain rate, deformation temperature, and the interaction effect among the strain, strain rate, and deformation temperature are considered. The experimental true stress-strain data were obtained by isothermal hot compression tests on a Gleeble-3500 thermo-mechanical simulator in the temperature range of 623-773 K and the strain rate range of 0.001-10 s-1. The experiments showed that the material-softening behavior changed with the strain rate, and it changed from dynamic recovery to dynamic recrystallization with an increase in the strain rate. A new constitutive equation has been established by the DMNR; the correlation coefficient ( R) and average absolute relative error (AARE) of this model are 0.98 and 7.8%, respectively. To improve the accuracy of the model, separate constitutive relationships were obtained according to the softening behavior. At strain rates of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, and 1 s-1, the R and AARE are 0.9865 and 6.0%, respectively; at strain rates of 5 and 10 s-1, the R and AARE are 0.9860 and 3.0%, respectively. The DMNR gives an accurate and precise evaluation of the flow stress for the aluminum alloy reinforced by silicon carbide particles.

  7. Superplastic Constitutive Equation Including Percentage of High-Angle Grain Boundaries as a Microstructural Parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Liu, F. C.; Xue, P.; Wang, D.; Xiao, B. L.; Ma, Z. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Fifteen Al-Mg-Sc samples with subgrain/grain sizes in the range of 1.8 to 4.9 μm were prepared through the processing methods of friction stir processing (FSP), equal-channel-angular pressing (ECAP), rolling, annealing, and combinations of the above. The percentages of high-angle grain boundaries (HAGBs) of these fine-grained alloys were distributed from 39 to 97 pct. The samples processed through FSP had a higher percentage of HAGBs compared to other samples. Superplasticity was achieved in all fifteen samples, but the FSP samples exhibited better superplasticity than other samples because their fine equiaxed grains, which were mostly surrounded by HAGBs, were conducive to the occurrence of grain boundary sliding (GBS) during superplastic deformation. The dominant deformation mechanism was the same for all fifteen samples, i.e., GBS controlled by grain boundary diffusion. However, the subgrains were the GBS units for the rolled or ECAP samples, which contained high percentages of unrecrystallized grains, whereas the fine grains were the GBS units for the FSP samples. Superplastic data analysis revealed that the dimensionless A in the classical constitutive equation for superplasticity of fine-grained Al alloys was not a constant, but increased with an increase in the percentage of HAGBs, demonstrating that the enhanced superplastic deformation kinetics can be ascribed to the high percentage of HAGBs. A modified superplastic constitutive equation with the percentage of HAGBs as a new microstructural parameter was established.

  8. Parameter correlation of high-temperature creep constitutive equation for RPV metallic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Lin-Jun; Ren, Xin; Shen, Ming-Xue; Tu, Li-Qun

    2015-10-01

    Constant-temperature and constant-load creep tests of SA-508 stainless steel were performed at six temperatures, and the creep behavior and properties of this material were determined. Constitutive models were established based on an isothermal creep method to describe the high-temperature creep behavior of SA-508. Material parameter k, stress exponent nσ, and temperature exponent nt of the established constitutive models were determined through experimental data via numerical optimization techniques. The relationship of k, nσ, and nt was evaluated, and a new coefficient model of k-T, nσ-T, nt-T, and nt-nσ was formulated through the parameters of the isothermal creep equation. Moreover, the isothermal creep equation for this material at every temperature point from 450 °C to 1000 °C was obtained from the models. This method can serve as a reference for isothermal creep analysis and provide a way for the safety assessment of components of reactor pressure vessels.

  9. Constitutive Equations and Flow Behavior of an As-Extruded AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Under Large Strain Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Cunsheng; Lu, Xing; Wang, Cuixue; Zhao, Guoqun

    2016-06-01

    A reasonable constitutive model is the key to achieving the accurate numerical simulation of magnesium alloy extrusion process. Based on the hot compression tests of the as-extruded AZ31 magnesium alloy, the strain-compensated Arrhenius equation, the constitutive equation taking into account dynamic recovery (DRV) and dynamic recrystallization (DRX), and the modified Fields-Backofen equation (FB) are established to describe the deformation behavior of this alloy under large strain condition (strain level greater than 1.0) and wide strain rate range (0.01 to 10 s-1), respectively. Then material parameters in each constitutive model are determined by linear fitting method. The comparison of these three kinds of equations shows that the strain-compensated Arrhenius model provides the best prediction of flow stress, and the calculated value of correlation coefficient ( R) is the highest as 0.9945 and the average absolute relative error (AARE) is the lowest as 3.11%. The constitutive equation with DRV + DRX can also predict flow stress accurately, and its values of R and AARE are 0.9920 and 4.41%, respectively. However, compared to the other two constitutive equations, the modified FB equation does not give good description of hot deformation behavior for this magnesium alloy. Finally, the advantages and drawbacks of these three kinds of constitutive models are discussed and compared. Therefore, this work could provide theoretical guidelines for investigating hot deformation behavior of wrought magnesium alloys and determining the appropriate extrusion process parameters under large strain condition.

  10. Constitutive Equations and Flow Behavior of an As-Extruded AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Under Large Strain Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Cunsheng; Lu, Xing; Wang, Cuixue; Zhao, Guoqun

    2016-05-01

    A reasonable constitutive model is the key to achieving the accurate numerical simulation of magnesium alloy extrusion process. Based on the hot compression tests of the as-extruded AZ31 magnesium alloy, the strain-compensated Arrhenius equation, the constitutive equation taking into account dynamic recovery (DRV) and dynamic recrystallization (DRX), and the modified Fields-Backofen equation (FB) are established to describe the deformation behavior of this alloy under large strain condition (strain level greater than 1.0) and wide strain rate range (0.01 to 10 s-1), respectively. Then material parameters in each constitutive model are determined by linear fitting method. The comparison of these three kinds of equations shows that the strain-compensated Arrhenius model provides the best prediction of flow stress, and the calculated value of correlation coefficient (R) is the highest as 0.9945 and the average absolute relative error (AARE) is the lowest as 3.11%. The constitutive equation with DRV + DRX can also predict flow stress accurately, and its values of R and AARE are 0.9920 and 4.41%, respectively. However, compared to the other two constitutive equations, the modified FB equation does not give good description of hot deformation behavior for this magnesium alloy. Finally, the advantages and drawbacks of these three kinds of constitutive models are discussed and compared. Therefore, this work could provide theoretical guidelines for investigating hot deformation behavior of wrought magnesium alloys and determining the appropriate extrusion process parameters under large strain condition.

  11. Numerical simulation of fine blanking process using fully coupled advanced constitutive equations with ductile damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labergere, C.; Saanouni, K.; Benafia, S.; Galmiche, J.; Sulaiman, H.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents the modelling and adaptive numerical simulation of the fine blanking process. Thermodynamically-consistent constitutive equations, strongly coupled with ductile damage, together with specific boundary conditions (particular command of forces on blank holder and counterpunch) are presented. This model is implemented into ABAQUS/EXPLICIT using the Vumat user subroutine and connected with an adaptive 2D remeshing procedure. The different material parameters are identified for the steel S600MC using experimental tensile tests conducted until the final fracture. A parametric study aiming to examine the sensitivity of the process parameters (die radius, clearance die/punch) to the punch force and fracture surfaces topology (convex zone, sheared zone, fracture zone and the burr).

  12. Constitutive equations for orthotropic nonlinear viscoelastic behaviour using a generalized Maxwell model Application to wood material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal-Sallé, Emmanuelle; Chassagne, Pierre

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear viscoelastic orthotropic constitutive equation applied to wood material. The proposed model takes into account mechanical and mechanosorptive creep via a 3D stress ratio and moisture change rate for a cylindrical orthotropic material. Orthotropic frame is based on the grain direction (L), radial (R) and hoop (T) directions, which are natural wood directions. Particular attention is taken to ensure the model to fulfill the necessary dissipation conditions. It is based on a rheological generalized Maxwell model with two elements in parallel in addition with a single linear spring taking into account the long term response. The proposed model is implemented in the finite element code ABAQUS/Standard® via a user subroutine UMAT and simple example is shown to demonstrate the capability of the proposed model. Future works would deal with damage and fracture prediction for wooden structures submitted to climate variations and mechanical loading.

  13. Hot Compression of TC8M-1: Constitutive Equations, Processing Map, and Microstructure Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Ke; Chen, Zhiyong; Liu, Jianrong; Wang, Qingjiang; Fang, Bo; Dou, Lijun

    2016-06-01

    Hot compression of TC8M-1 was carried out under isothermal working conditions with temperature from 1173 K to 1323 K (900 °C to 1050 °C), strain rate from 0.001 to 10/s, and height reduction from 20 to 80 pct (corresponding true strain from 0.22 to 1.61). Constitutive equations were constructed and apparent activation energies of 149.5 and 617.4 kJ/mol were obtained for deformation in the β and upper α/ β phase regions, respectively. Microstructure examination confirmed the dominant role of dynamic recrystallization in the α/ β phase region and that of dynamic recovery in the β phase region, with the occurrence of grain boundary sliding at very low strain rate (0.001/s) in both regions. Based on the dynamic materials model, processing maps were constructed, providing optimal domains for hot working at the temperature of 1253 K (980 °C) and the strain rate of 0.01 to 0.1/s, or at 1193 K to 1213 K (920 °C to 940 °C) and 0.001/s. Moreover, our results indicated that the initial temperature non-uniformity along the specimen axis before compression existed and influenced the strain distribution, which contributed to the abnormal oscillations and/or abrupt rise-up of true stress and inhomogeneous deformation.

  14. Hot Deformation Characteristics of 13Cr-4Ni Stainless Steel Using Constitutive Equation and Processing Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishor, Brij; Chaudhari, G. P.; Nath, S. K.

    2016-06-01

    Hot compression tests were performed to study the hot deformation characteristics of 13Cr-4Ni stainless steel. The tests were performed in the strain rate range of 0.001-10 s-1 and temperature range of 900-1100 °C using Gleeble® 3800 simulator. A constitutive equation of Arrhenius type was established based on the experimental data to calculate the different material constants, and average value of apparent activation energy was found to be 444 kJ/mol. Zener-Hollomon parameter, Z, was estimated in order to characterize the flow stress behavior. Power dissipation and instability maps developed on the basis of dynamic materials model for true strain of 0.5 show optimum hot working conditions corresponding to peak efficiency range of about 28-32%. These lie in the temperature range of 950-1025 °C and corresponding strain rate range of 0.001-0.01 s-1 and in the temperature range of 1050-1100 °C and corresponding strain rate range of 0.01-0.1 s-1. The flow characteristics in these conditions show dynamic recrystallization behavior. The microstructures are correlated to the different stability domains indicated in the processing map.

  15. Hot Compression of TC8M-1: Constitutive Equations, Processing Map, and Microstructure Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Ke; Chen, Zhiyong; Liu, Jianrong; Wang, Qingjiang; Fang, Bo; Dou, Lijun

    2016-04-01

    Hot compression of TC8M-1 was carried out under isothermal working conditions with temperature from 1173 K to 1323 K (900 °C to 1050 °C), strain rate from 0.001 to 10/s, and height reduction from 20 to 80 pct (corresponding true strain from 0.22 to 1.61). Constitutive equations were constructed and apparent activation energies of 149.5 and 617.4 kJ/mol were obtained for deformation in the β and upper α/β phase regions, respectively. Microstructure examination confirmed the dominant role of dynamic recrystallization in the α/β phase region and that of dynamic recovery in the β phase region, with the occurrence of grain boundary sliding at very low strain rate (0.001/s) in both regions. Based on the dynamic materials model, processing maps were constructed, providing optimal domains for hot working at the temperature of 1253 K (980 °C) and the strain rate of 0.01 to 0.1/s, or at 1193 K to 1213 K (920 °C to 940 °C) and 0.001/s. Moreover, our results indicated that the initial temperature non-uniformity along the specimen axis before compression existed and influenced the strain distribution, which contributed to the abnormal oscillations and/or abrupt rise-up of true stress and inhomogeneous deformation.

  16. Characterization of Hot Deformation Behavior of Hastelloy C-276 Using Constitutive Equation and Processing Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Liwen; Shen, Wenfei; Li, Mengfei; Gu, Sendong

    2015-01-01

    In order to clarify the microstructural evolution and workability of Hastelloy C-276 during hot forming to get excellent mechanical properties, the hot deformation behavior of this superalloy is characterized. The cylindrical specimens were isothermal compressed in the temperature range of 1000-1200 °C and strain rate range of 0.001-5 s-1 on a Gleeble 1500 thermal-mechanical simulator. The flow curves and microstructural investigation indicates that dynamic recrystallization is the prime softening mechanism at the evaluated deformation conditions. The constitutive equation was presented as a function of the deformation temperature, strain rate, and strain, and the deformation activation energy was about 450 kJ/mol. The processing maps based on dynamic materials model at the strains of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 were established, and the processing map at 1.0 strain shows good correspondence to the microstructural observation. The domains in processing map in which the efficiency of power dissipation (η) is higher than 0.25 are corresponding to sufficient dynamic recyrstallization phenomenon, which are suggested to be the optimum working areas for Hastelloy C-276.

  17. Hot Deformation Characteristics of 13Cr-4Ni Stainless Steel Using Constitutive Equation and Processing Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishor, Brij; Chaudhari, G. P.; Nath, S. K.

    2016-07-01

    Hot compression tests were performed to study the hot deformation characteristics of 13Cr-4Ni stainless steel. The tests were performed in the strain rate range of 0.001-10 s-1 and temperature range of 900-1100 °C using Gleeble® 3800 simulator. A constitutive equation of Arrhenius type was established based on the experimental data to calculate the different material constants, and average value of apparent activation energy was found to be 444 kJ/mol. Zener-Hollomon parameter, Z, was estimated in order to characterize the flow stress behavior. Power dissipation and instability maps developed on the basis of dynamic materials model for true strain of 0.5 show optimum hot working conditions corresponding to peak efficiency range of about 28-32%. These lie in the temperature range of 950-1025 °C and corresponding strain rate range of 0.001-0.01 s-1 and in the temperature range of 1050-1100 °C and corresponding strain rate range of 0.01-0.1 s-1. The flow characteristics in these conditions show dynamic recrystallization behavior. The microstructures are correlated to the different stability domains indicated in the processing map.

  18. Plastic Instability in Complex Strain Paths Predicted by Advanced Constitutive Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butuc, Marilena C.; Barlat, Frédéric; Gracio, José J.; Vincze, Gabriela

    2011-08-01

    The present paper aims at predicting plastic instabilities under complex loading histories using an advanced sheet metal forming limit model. The onset of localized necking is computed using the Marciniak-Kuczinsky (MK) analysis [1] with a physically-based hardening model and the phenomenological anisotropic yield criterion Yld2000-2d [2]. The hardening model accounts for anisotropic work-hardening induced by the microstructural evolution at large strains, which was proposed by Teodosiu and Hu [3]. Simulations are carried out for linear and complex strain paths. Experimentally, two deep-drawing quality sheet metals are selected: a bake-hardening steel (BH) and a DC06 steel sheet. The validity of the model is assessed by comparing the predicted and experimental forming limits. The remarkable accuracy of the developed software to predict the forming limits under linear and non-linear strain path is obviously due to the performance of the advanced constitutive equations to describe with great detail the material behavior. The effect of strain-induced anisotropy on formability evolution under strain path changes, as predicted by the microstructural hardening model, is particularly well captured by the model.

  19. The compressive behaviour and constitutive equation of polyimide foam in wide strain rate and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, Akifumi; Kobayashi, Hidetoshi; Horikawa, Keitaro; Tanigaki, Kenichi

    2015-09-01

    These days, polymer foams, such as polyurethane foam and polystyrene foam, are used in various situations as a thermal insulator or shock absorber. In general, however, their strength is insufficient in high temperature environments because of their low glass transition temperature. Polyimide is a polymer which has a higher glass transition temperature and high strength. Its mechanical properties do not vary greatly, even in low temperature environments. Therefore, polyimide foam is expected to be used in the aerospace industry. Thus, the constitutive equation of polyimide foam that can be applied across a wide range of strain rates and ambient temperature is very useful. In this study, a series of compression tests at various strain rates, from 10-3 to 103 s-1 were carried out in order to examine the effect of strain rate on the compressive properties of polyimide foam. The flow stress of polyimide foam increased rapidly at dynamic strain rates. The effect of ambient temperature on the properties of polyimide foam was also investigated at temperature from - 190 °C to 270°∘C. The flow stress decreased with increasing temperature.

  20. Determination of Constitutive Equation for Thermo-mechanical Processing of INCONEL 718 Through Double Multivariate Nonlinear Regression Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Mirza Zahid; Li, Fuguo; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Zhanwei; Li, Pan; Wu, Tao

    2015-07-01

    The present study comprises the determination of constitutive relationship for thermo-mechanical processing of INCONEL 718 through double multivariate nonlinear regression, a newly developed approach which not only considers the effect of strain, strain rate, and temperature on flow stress but also explains the interaction effect of these thermo-mechanical parameters on flow behavior of the alloy. Hot isothermal compression experiments were performed on Gleeble-3500 thermo-mechanical testing machine in the temperature range of 1153 to 1333 K within the strain rate range of 0.001 to 10 s-1. The deformation behavior of INCONEL 718 is analyzed and summarized by establishing the high temperature deformation constitutive equation. The calculated correlation coefficient ( R) and average absolute relative error ( AARE) underline the precision of proposed constitutive model.

  1. An Hybrid Approach Based on Machining and Dynamic Tests Data for the Identification of Material Constitutive Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jomaa, Walid; Songmene, Victor; Bocher, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, there has been growing interest for the identification of material constitutive equations using machining tests (inverse method). However, the inverse method has shown some drawbacks that could affect the accuracy of the identified material constants. On one hand, this approach requires the use of analytical model to estimate the cutting temperature. Nevertheless, the used temperature models lead to large discrepancies for the calculated temperatures even for the same work material and cutting conditions. On the other hand, some computation issues were observed when all material constants were determined, in the same time, using machining tests data. Therefore, this study attempts to provide a methodology for identifying the coefficients of the Marusich's constitutive equation (MCE) which demonstrated a good capability for the simulation of the material behavior in high speed machining. The proposed approach, which is based on an analytical inverse method together with dynamic tests, was applied to aluminum alloys AA6061-T6 and AA7075-T651, and induction hardened AISI 4340 steel (60 HRC). The response surface methodology was used in this approach. Two sets of material coefficients, for each tested work material, were determined using two different temperature models (Oxley and Loewen-Shaw). The obtained constitutive equations were validated using dynamic tests and finite element simulation of high speed machining. The predictions obtained are also compared to those performed with the corresponding Johnson and Cook constitutive equations (JCE) from the literature. The sensitivity analysis revealed that the selected temperature models used in the analytical inverse method can affect significantly the identified material constants and thereafter predicted dynamic response and machining data. Moreover, the MCE obtained using the hybrid method performed better than the JCE obtained by only dynamic tests.

  2. Photoplethysmogram intensity ratio: A potential indicator for improving the accuracy of PTT-based cuffless blood pressure estimation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiao-Rong; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The most commonly used method for cuffless blood pressure (BP) measurement is using pulse transit time (PTT), which is based on Moens-Korteweg (M-K) equation underlying the assumption that arterial geometries such as the arterial diameter keep unchanged. However, the arterial diameter is dynamic which varies over the cardiac cycle, and it is regulated through the contraction or relaxation of the vascular smooth muscle innervated primarily by the sympathetic nervous system. This may be one of the main reasons that impair the BP estimation accuracy. In this paper, we propose a novel indicator, the photoplethysmogram (PPG) intensity ratio (PIR), to evaluate the arterial diameter change. The deep breathing (DB) maneuver and Valsalva maneuver (VM) were performed on five healthy subjects for assessing parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous activities, respectively. Heart rate (HR), PTT, PIR and BP were measured from the simultaneously recorded electrocardiogram (ECG), PPG, and continuous BP. It was found that PIR increased significantly from inspiration to expiration during DB, whilst BP dipped correspondingly. Nevertheless, PIR changed positively with BP during VM. In addition, the spectral analysis revealed that the dominant frequency component of PIR, HR and SBP, shifted significantly from high frequency (HF) to low frequency (LF), but not obvious in that of PTT. These results demonstrated that PIR can be potentially used to evaluate the smooth muscle tone which modulates arterial BP in the LF range. The PTT-based BP measurement that take into account the PIR could therefore improve its estimation accuracy. PMID:26736283

  3. Constitutive equation for hardened SKD11 steel at high temperature and high strain rate using the SHPB technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, D. W.; Wang, C. Y.; Hu, Y. N.; Song, Y. X.

    2010-03-01

    In this present work, dynamic tests have been performed on hardened SKD11 steel (62 Rockwell C hardness) specimens by means of a high temperature split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) test system. Effects of temperature as well as those of strain and strain rate for the hardened steel are taken into account by using two ellipsoidal radiant heating reflectors with two halogen lamps and magnetic valve. The result obtained at high stain rates were compared with those at low strain rates under the different temperature. It was seen that the flow stress curves are found to include a work hardening region and a work softening region and the mechanical behavior of the hardened steel is highly sensitive to both the strain rate and the temperature. To determine the true flow stress- true strain, temperature relationship, specimens are tested from room temperature to 1073K at a strain rate form 0.01 s-1 to 104 s-1: The parameters for a Johnson-Cook constitutive equation and a modified Johnson-Cook constitutive equation are determined from the test results by fitting the data from both quasi-static compression and high temperature-dynamic compression tests. The modified Johnson-Cook constitutive equation is more suitable for expressing the dynamic behavior of the hardened SKD11 steel above the vicinity of the recrystallization temperature.

  4. Constitutive equation for hardened SKD11 steel at high temperature and high strain rate using the SHPB technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, D. W.; Wang, C. Y.; Hu, Y. N.; Song, Y. X.

    2009-12-01

    In this present work, dynamic tests have been performed on hardened SKD11 steel (62 Rockwell C hardness) specimens by means of a high temperature split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) test system. Effects of temperature as well as those of strain and strain rate for the hardened steel are taken into account by using two ellipsoidal radiant heating reflectors with two halogen lamps and magnetic valve. The result obtained at high stain rates were compared with those at low strain rates under the different temperature. It was seen that the flow stress curves are found to include a work hardening region and a work softening region and the mechanical behavior of the hardened steel is highly sensitive to both the strain rate and the temperature. To determine the true flow stress- true strain, temperature relationship, specimens are tested from room temperature to 1073K at a strain rate form 0.01 s-1 to 104 s-1: The parameters for a Johnson-Cook constitutive equation and a modified Johnson-Cook constitutive equation are determined from the test results by fitting the data from both quasi-static compression and high temperature-dynamic compression tests. The modified Johnson-Cook constitutive equation is more suitable for expressing the dynamic behavior of the hardened SKD11 steel above the vicinity of the recrystallization temperature.

  5. A Model-inspired Phenomenology Constitutive Equation for the Temperature-dependence of Flow Stress at Confined Dimension II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saptono Duryat, Rahmat; Kim, Choong-Un

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents further development of the constitutive equations based on model-inspired phenomenological approach. In our previous approach, three figures of merit functions were examined to study the temperature-dependence of yield stress and found two model equations that may work especially well for the small volume materials in the moderate temperature ranges (25). We have investigated the underlying assumptions behind each model to substantiate their physical correctness. We examined the parameters in each models using the frame of flow stress being dislocation-mediated, thermally activated, and obstacle-controlled process. These examinations led us to find refined model equations with parameters that can be related to the characteristics of flow mechanisms.

  6. Comparison of constitutive flow resistance equations based on the Manning and Chezy equations applied to natural rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bjerklie, D.M.; Dingman, S.L.; Bolster, C.H.

    2005-01-01

    [1] A set of conceptually derived in-bank river discharge-estimating equations (models), based on the Manning and Chezy equations, are calibrated and validated using a database of 1037 discharge measurements in 103 rivers in the United States and New Zealand. The models are compared to a multiple regression model derived from the same data. The comparison demonstrates that in natural rivers, using an exponent on the slope variable of 0.33 rather than the traditional value of 0.5 reduces the variance associated with estimating flow resistance. Mean model uncertainty, assuming a constant value for the conductance coefficient, is less than 5% for a large number of estimates, and 67% of the estimates would be accurate within 50%. The models have potential application where site-specific flow resistance information is not available and can be the basis for (1) a general approach to estimating discharge from remotely sensed hydraulic data, (2) comparison to slope-area discharge estimates, and (3) large-scale river modeling. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Constitutive equations of a ballistic steel alloy as a function of temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkovic, L.; Chabotier, A.; Coghe, F.; Rabet, L.

    2012-08-01

    In the present work, dynamic tests have been performed on a new ballistic steel alloy by means of split Hopkinson pressure bars (SHPB). The impact behavior was investigated for strain rates ranging from 1000 to 2500 s-1, and temperatures in the range from - 196 to 300∘C. A robotized sample device was developed for transferring the sample from the heating or cooling device to the position between the bars. Simulations of the temperature evolution and its distribution in the specimen were performed using the finite element method. Measurements with thermocouples added inside the sample were carried out in order to validate the FEM simulations. The results show that a thermal gradient is present inside the sample; the average temperature loss during the manipulation of the sample is evaluated. In a last stage, optimal material constants for different constitutive models (Johnson-Cook, Zerilli-Amstrong, Cowper-Symonds) has been computed by fitting, in a least square sense, the numerical and experimental stress-strain curves. They have been implemented in a hydrocode for validation using a simple impact problem: an adapted projectile geometry with a truncated nose (.50 calibre fragment simulating projectiles) was fired directly against an armor plate. The parameters of the selected strength and failure models were determined. There is a good correspondence between the experimental and computed results. Nevertheless, an improved failure model is necessary to get satisfactory computed residual projectile velocities.

  8. A transversely isotropic viscoelastic constitutive equation for brainstem undergoing finite deformation.

    PubMed

    Ning, Xinguo; Zhu, Qiliang; Lanir, Yoram; Margulies, Susan S

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this study was to define the constitutive response of brainstem undergoing finite shear deformation. Brainstem was characterized as a transversely isotropic viscoelastic material and the material model was formulated for numerical implementation. Model parameters were fit to shear data obtained in porcine brainstem specimens undergoing finite shear deformation in three directions: parallel, perpendicular, and cross sectional to axonal fiber orientation and determined using a combined approach of finite element analysis (FEA) and a genetic algorithm (GA) optimizing method. The average initial shear modulus of brainstem matrix of 4-week old pigs was 12.7 Pa, and therefore the brainstem offers little resistance to large shear deformations in the parallel or perpendicular directions, due to the dominant contribution of the matrix in these directions. The fiber reinforcement stiffness was 121.2 Pa, indicating that brainstem is anisotropic and that axonal fibers have an important role in the cross-sectional direction. The first two leading relative shear relaxation moduli were 0.8973 and 0.0741, respectively, with corresponding characteristic times of 0.0047 and 1.4538 s, respectively, implying rapid relaxation of shear stresses. The developed material model and parameter estimation technique are likely to find broad applications in neural and orthopaedic tissues. PMID:17154695

  9. Inverse material identification in coupled acoustic-structure interaction using a modified error in constitutive equation functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, James E.; Diaz, Manuel I.; Aquino, Wilkins; Bonnet, Marc

    2014-09-01

    This work focuses on the identification of heterogeneous linear elastic moduli in the context of frequency-domain, coupled acoustic-structure interaction (ASI), using either solid displacement or fluid pressure measurement data. The approach postulates the inverse problem as an optimization problem where the solution is obtained by minimizing a modified error in constitutive equation (MECE) functional. The latter measures the discrepancy in the constitutive equations that connect kinematically admissible strains and dynamically admissible stresses, while incorporating the measurement data as additional quadratic error terms. We demonstrate two strategies for selecting the MECE weighting coefficient to produce regularized solutions to the ill-posed identification problem: 1) the discrepancy principle of Morozov, and 2) an error-balance approach that selects the weight parameter as the minimizer of another functional involving the ECE and the data misfit. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed methodology can successfully recover elastic parameters in 2D and 3D ASI systems from response measurements taken in either the solid or fluid subdomains. Furthermore, both regularization strategies are shown to produce accurate reconstructions when the measurement data is polluted with noise. The discrepancy principle is shown to produce nearly optimal solutions, while the error-balance approach, although not optimal, remains effective and does not need a priori information on the noise level.

  10. High-temperature deformation mechanisms and constitutive equations for the oxide dispersion-strengthened superalloy MA 956

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghi, M.; Anand, L.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental study of the constitutive response of the oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) superalloy MA 956, which consists of an Fe-Cr-Al matrix dispersion strengthened with yttria, has been performed. Single-crystal specimens of MA 956 having remarkably simple initial microstructures have been tested in compression in the temperature range of 900 °C to 1200 °C and in the axial strain-rate range of 1.8 x 10-4 s-1 to 10-2 s-1. The deformation response of the material has been examined by performing constant true strain-rate tests, strain-rate jump tests, and stress relaxation tests. The orientation dependence of the stress-strain response of the single crystals has been compensated for by determining the operative slip systems and resolving the stresses and strains accordingly. These experiments, together with electron-microscopic observations of deformed and quenched specimens, allow a number of conclusions to be drawn about the physics of particle strengthening in this simple ODS alloy at high temperatures. Further, drawing on this physical understanding, a set of phenomenological internal variable constitutive equations which model the high-temperature deformation behavior of this alloy is also developed. These equations reasonably well model not only the temperature and strain-rate sensitivity of the flow stress but also the strain-hardening behavior of the material.

  11. Inverse Material Identification in Coupled Acoustic-Structure Interaction using a Modified Error in Constitutive Equation Functional

    PubMed Central

    Warner, James E.; Diaz, Manuel I.; Aquino, Wilkins; Bonnet, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This work focuses on the identification of heterogeneous linear elastic moduli in the context of frequency-domain, coupled acoustic-structure interaction (ASI), using either solid displacement or fluid pressure measurement data. The approach postulates the inverse problem as an optimization problem where the solution is obtained by minimizing a modified error in constitutive equation (MECE) functional. The latter measures the discrepancy in the constitutive equations that connect kinematically admissible strains and dynamically admissible stresses, while incorporating the measurement data as additional quadratic error terms. We demonstrate two strategies for selecting the MECE weighting coefficient to produce regularized solutions to the ill-posed identification problem: 1) the discrepancy principle of Morozov, and 2) an error-balance approach that selects the weight parameter as the minimizer of another functional involving the ECE and the data misfit. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed methodology can successfully recover elastic parameters in 2D and 3D ASI systems from response measurements taken in either the solid or fluid subdomains. Furthermore, both regularization strategies are shown to produce accurate reconstructions when the measurement data is polluted with noise. The discrepancy principle is shown to produce nearly optimal solutions, while the error-balance approach, although not optimal, remains effective and does not need a priori information on the noise level. PMID:25339790

  12. Large Scale Parameter Estimation Problems in Frequency-Domain Elastodynamics Using an Error in Constitutive Equation Functional

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Biswanath; Walsh, Timothy F.; Aquino, Wilkins; Bonnet, Marc

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the formulation and implementation of an Error in Constitutive Equations (ECE) method suitable for large-scale inverse identification of linear elastic material properties in the context of steady-state elastodynamics. In ECE-based methods, the inverse problem is postulated as an optimization problem in which the cost functional measures the discrepancy in the constitutive equations that connect kinematically admissible strains and dynamically admissible stresses. Furthermore, in a more recent modality of this methodology introduced by Feissel and Allix (2007), referred to as the Modified ECE (MECE), the measured data is incorporated into the formulation as a quadratic penalty term. We show that a simple and efficient continuation scheme for the penalty term, suggested by the theory of quadratic penalty methods, can significantly accelerate the convergence of the MECE algorithm. Furthermore, a (block) successive over-relaxation (SOR) technique is introduced, enabling the use of existing parallel finite element codes with minimal modification to solve the coupled system of equations that arises from the optimality conditions in MECE methods. Our numerical results demonstrate that the proposed methodology can successfully reconstruct the spatial distribution of elastic material parameters from partial and noisy measurements in as few as ten iterations in a 2D example and fifty in a 3D example. We show (through numerical experiments) that the proposed continuation scheme can improve the rate of convergence of MECE methods by at least an order of magnitude versus the alternative of using a fixed penalty parameter. Furthermore, the proposed block SOR strategy coupled with existing parallel solvers produces a computationally efficient MECE method that can be used for large scale materials identification problems, as demonstrated on a 3D example involving about 400,000 unknown moduli. Finally, our numerical results suggest that the proposed MECE

  13. A micromechanics-based nonlocal constitutive equation incorporating three-point statistics for random linear elastic composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drugan, W. J.; Willis, J. R.

    2016-06-01

    A variational formulation employing the minimum potential and complementary energy principles is used to derive a micromechanics-based nonlocal constitutive equation for random linear elastic composite materials, relating ensemble averages of stress and strain in the most general situation when mean fields vary spatially. All information contained in the energy principles is retained; we employ stress polarization trial fields utilizing one-point statistics so that the resulting nonlocal constitutive equation incorporates up through three-point statistics. The variational structure is developed first for arbitrary heterogeneous linear elastic materials, then for randomly inhomogeneous materials, then for general n-phase composite materials, and finally for two-phase composite materials, in which case explicit variational upper and lower bounds on the nonlocal effective modulus tensor operator are derived. For statistically uniform infinite-body composites, these bounds are determined even more explicitly in Fourier transform space. We evaluate these in detail in an example case: longitudinal shear of an aligned fiber or void composite. We determine the full permissible ranges of the terms involving two- and three-point statistics in these bounds, and thereby exhibit explicit results that encompass arbitrary isotropic in-plane phase distributions; we also develop a nonlocal "Milton parameter", the variation of whose eigenvalues throughout the interval [0, 1] describes the full permissible range of the three-point term. Example plots of the new bounds show them to provide substantial improvement over the (two-point) Hashin-Shtrikman bounds on the nonlocal operator tensor, for all permissible values of the two- and three-point parameters. We next discuss further applications of the general nonlocal operator bounds: to any three-dimensional scalar transport problem e.g. conductivity, for which explicit results are given encompassing the full permissible ranges of the

  14. The experiments for mechanical properties of 20Cr2Ni4 steel and the coefficient definition of constitutive equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, L.; Liu, G. C.; Lu, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The 20Cr2Ni4 alloy steel has the properties of high strength, toughness and hardness. It is used in large cross-section carburized parts, such as gears, shafts and components which are required high strength and good toughness. In order to study the static mechanical properties and dynamic mechanical properties of 20Cr2Ni4 steel, the static compression experiment and the Hopkinson Pressure Bar test are conducted. The stress-strain relationship within the scope of 25∼400°C is obtained by experiments, and softening effect of strain rate and strengthening effect of temperature is comprehensively analyzed. The paper has a more comprehensive understanding on mechanical response of 20Cr2Ni4 steel within the scope of 25∼400°C. Based on the experiment data the parameters in Johnson-Cook constitutive equation of 20Cr2Ni4 have been gotten. The research results of this paper lay a foundation for the further applications of 20Cr2Ni4 steel.

  15. Flow Behavior and Constitutive Equation of Ti-6.5Al-2Sn-4Zr-4Mo-1W-0.2Si Titanium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xuemei; Guo, Hongzhen; Liang, Houquan; Yao, Zekun; Yuan, Shichong

    2016-04-01

    In order to get a reliable constitutive equation for the finite element simulation, flow behavior of Ti-6.5Al-2Sn-4Zr-4Mo-1W-0.2Si alloy under high temperature was investigated by carrying a series of isothermal compression tests at temperatures of 1153-1293 K and strain rates of 0.01-10.0 s-1 on the Gleeble-1500 simulator. Results showed that the true stress-strain curves exhibited peaks at small strains, after which the flow stress decreased monotonically. Ultimately, the flow curves reached steady state at the strain of 0.6, showing a dynamic flow softening phenomenon. The effects of strain rate, temperature, and strain on the flow behavior were researched by establishing a constitutive equation. The relations among stress exponent, deformation activation energy, and strain were preliminarily discussed by using strain rate sensitivity exponent and dynamic recrystallization kinetics curve. Stress values predicted by the modified constitutive equation showed a good agreement with the experimental ones. The correlation coefficient ( R) and average absolute relative error (AARE) were 98.2% and 4.88%, respectively, which confirmed that the modified constitutive equation could give an accurate estimation of the flow stress for BT25y titanium alloy.

  16. Well-posed two-temperature constitutive equations for stable dense fluid shock waves using molecular dynamics and generalizations of Navier-Stokes-Fourier continuum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Wm. G.; Hoover, Carol G.

    2010-04-01

    Guided by molecular dynamics simulations, we generalize the Navier-Stokes-Fourier constitutive equations and the continuum motion equations to include both transverse and longitudinal temperatures. To do so we partition the contributions of the heat transfer, the work done, and the heat flux vector between the longitudinal and transverse temperatures. With shockwave boundary conditions time-dependent solutions of these equations converge to give stationary shockwave profiles. The profiles include anisotropic temperature and can be fitted to molecular dynamics results, demonstrating the utility and simplicity of a two-temperature description of far-from-equilibrium states.

  17. Dabigatran, electrical cardioversion and measuring the aPTT. A safety measure or an unnecessary assessment?

    PubMed Central

    Rahmat, N; Khan, A

    2013-01-01

    We present two case reports of patients treated with dabigatran for stroke prevention. Both have non-valvular atrial fibrillation and both were scheduled for direct current electrical cardioversion (DCCV). Both had their activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) measured prior to their DCCV to assess the anticoagulant activity of dabigatran. The decision to measure the aPTT resulted in differing levels to otherwise straightforward cases. PMID:23784770

  18. Solid-State Constitutive Modelling of Glassy Polymers: Coupling the Rolie-Poly Equations for Melts with Anisotropic Viscoplastic Flow

    SciTech Connect

    De Focatiis, Davide S. A.; Buckley, C. Paul; Embery, John

    2008-07-07

    This paper investigates the behaviour of a well-characterised monodisperse grade of entangled atactic polystyrene across a very wide temperature and strain rate range through linear and non-linear melt rheology and solid-state deformation. In an effort to construct a constitutive model for large deformations able to describe rheological response right across this wide timescale, two well-established rheological models are combined: the well known RoliePoly (RP) conformational melt model and the Oxford glass-rubber constitutive model for glassy polymers. Comparisons between experimental data and simulations from a numerical implementation of the model illustrate that the model can cope well with the range of deformations in which orientation is limited to length-scales longer than an entanglement length. One approach in which the model can be expanded to incorporate the effects of orientation on shorter length scales using anisotropic viscoplastic flow is briefly discussed.

  19. A finite difference technique for solving a time strain separable K-BKZ constitutive equation for two-dimensional moving free surface flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomé, M. F.; Bertoco, J.; Oishi, C. M.; Araujo, M. S. B.; Cruz, D.; Pinho, F. T.; Vynnycky, M.

    2016-04-01

    This work is concerned with the numerical solution of the K-BKZ integral constitutive equation for two-dimensional time-dependent free surface flows. The numerical method proposed herein is a finite difference technique for simulating flows possessing moving surfaces that can interact with solid walls. The main characteristics of the methodology employed are: the momentum and mass conservation equations are solved by an implicit method; the pressure boundary condition on the free surface is implicitly coupled with the Poisson equation for obtaining the pressure field from mass conservation; a novel scheme for defining the past times t‧ is employed; the Finger tensor is calculated by the deformation fields method and is advanced in time by a second-order Runge-Kutta method. This new technique is verified by solving shear and uniaxial elongational flows. Furthermore, an analytic solution for fully developed channel flow is obtained that is employed in the verification and assessment of convergence with mesh refinement of the numerical solution. For free surface flows, the assessment of convergence with mesh refinement relies on a jet impinging on a rigid surface and a comparison of the simulation of a extrudate swell problem studied by Mitsoulis (2010) [44] was performed. Finally, the new code is used to investigate in detail the jet buckling phenomenon of K-BKZ fluids.

  20. LS-DYNA Simulation of Hemispherical-punch Stamping Process Using an Efficient Algorithm for Continuum Damage Based Elastoplastic Constitutive Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Salajegheh, Nima; Abedrabbo, Nader; Pourboghrat, Farhang

    2005-08-05

    An efficient integration algorithm for continuum damage based elastoplastic constitutive equations is implemented in LS-DYNA. The isotropic damage parameter is defined as the ratio of the damaged surface area over the total cross section area of the representative volume element. This parameter is incorporated into the integration algorithm as an internal variable. The developed damage model is then implemented in the FEM code LS-DYNA as user material subroutine (UMAT). Pure stretch experiments of a hemispherical punch are carried out for copper sheets and the results are compared against the predictions of the implemented damage model. Evaluation of damage parameters is carried out and the optimized values that correctly predicted the failure in the sheet are reported. Prediction of failure in the numerical analysis is performed through element deletion using the critical damage value. The set of failure parameters which accurately predict the failure behavior in copper sheets compared to experimental data is reported as well.

  1. LS-DYNA Simulation of Hemispherical-punch Stamping Process Using an Efficient Algorithm for Continuum Damage Based Elastoplastic Constitutive Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salajegheh, Nima; Abedrabbo, Nader; Pourboghrat, Farhang

    2005-08-01

    An efficient integration algorithm for continuum damage based elastoplastic constitutive equations is implemented in LS-DYNA. The isotropic damage parameter is defined as the ratio of the damaged surface area over the total cross section area of the representative volume element. This parameter is incorporated into the integration algorithm as an internal variable. The developed damage model is then implemented in the FEM code LS-DYNA as user material subroutine (UMAT). Pure stretch experiments of a hemispherical punch are carried out for copper sheets and the results are compared against the predictions of the implemented damage model. Evaluation of damage parameters is carried out and the optimized values that correctly predicted the failure in the sheet are reported. Prediction of failure in the numerical analysis is performed through element deletion using the critical damage value. The set of failure parameters which accurately predict the failure behavior in copper sheets compared to experimental data is reported as well.

  2. Evolution, Three-Dimensional Model and Localization of Truncated Hemoglobin PttTrHb of Hybrid Aspen

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Estelle; Jokipii-Lukkari, Soile; Parkash, Vimal; Vuosku, Jaana; Sundström, Robin; Nymalm, Yvonne; Sutela, Suvi; Taskinen, Katariina; Kallio, Pauli T.; Salminen, Tiina A.; Häggman, Hely

    2014-01-01

    Thus far, research on plant hemoglobins (Hbs) has mainly concentrated on symbiotic and non-symbiotic Hbs, and information on truncated Hbs (TrHbs) is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the origin, structure and localization of the truncated Hb (PttTrHb) of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. × tremuloides Michx.), the model system of tree biology. Additionally, we studied the PttTrHb expression in relation to non-symbiotic class1 Hb gene (PttHb1) using RNAi-silenced hybrid aspen lines. Both the phylogenetic analysis and the three-dimensional (3D) model of PttTrHb supported the view that plant TrHbs evolved vertically from a bacterial TrHb. The 3D model suggested that PttTrHb adopts a 2-on-2 sandwich of α-helices and has a Bacillus subtilis -like ligand-binding pocket in which E11Gln and B10Tyr form hydrogen bonds to a ligand. However, due to differences in tunnel cavity and gate residue (E7Ala), it might not show similar ligand-binding kinetics as in Bs-HbO (E7Thr). The immunolocalization showed that PttTrHb protein was present in roots, stems as well as leaves of in vitro -grown hybrid aspens. In mature organs, PttTrHb was predominantly found in the vascular bundles and specifically at the site of lateral root formation, overlapping consistently with areas of nitric oxide (NO) production in plants. Furthermore, the NO donor sodium nitroprusside treatment increased the amount of PttTrHb in stems. The observed PttTrHb localization suggests that PttTrHb plays a role in the NO metabolism. PMID:24520401

  3. The Development of Multi-axial Creep Damage Constitutive Equations for 0.5Cr0.5Mo0.25V Ferritic Steel at 590°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qiang; Barrans, Simon

    Within the framework of a phenomenological approach a set of multi-axial creep damage constitutive equations for 0.5Cr0.5Mo0.25V ferritic steel at 590°C is developed in which a new formulation is employed. The deficiency of the previous formulation and the need for improvement became apparent after a critical review of the development of creep damage constitutive equations for 316 stainless steel(1). The need for improvement was further underpinned by a call for modification of the constitutive equations(36). Recently, a specific formulation was proposed and validated(2)-(4). This paper reports the latest developments of the multi-axial creep constitutive equations for 0.5Cr0.5Mo0.25V ferritic steel at 590°C including: 1) the fundamental requirement; 2) formulation; 3) validation; and 4) conclusion. It systematically shows the suitability of this new set of constitutive equations and the incapability of the previous ones. Furthermore, it contributes knowledge to the methodology.

  4. PT, aPTT, TT and the hemostatic safety threshold of dabigatran and rivaroxaban.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Firas; Calmette, Leyla; Layka, Ayham; Horellou, Marie-Hélène; Mazoyer, Élisabeth; Gouin-Thibault, Isabelle; Flaujac, Claire

    2016-08-01

    The proposals of the Working group on perioperative hemostasis (Groupe d'intérêt en hémostase péri-opératoire (GIHP)) concerning the perioperative management of patients receiving the direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are based on the measure of their anticoagulant activities (anti-Xa for rivaroxaban and anti-IIa for dabigatran) with a safety threshold ≤ 30 ng/mL. If the dosage of the drug is not available, proposals are based on the combination of a PT ≥80% and an aPTT ≤1.20. The aim of our study was to evaluate the performance of PT, aPTT and thrombin time to predict values above or below the safety threshold. The measurement of DOACs concentration was carried out in 64 samples from patients treated with rivaroxaban and 48 samples from patients treated with dabigatran. The PT and aPTT were measured for all samples, while the TT was measured only for patients receiving dabigatran. The absence of agreement between the global hemostasis tests and the DOACs concentrations was observed for 10% of patients receiving dabigatran and 27% of patients with rivaroxaban treatment. Apart from dabigatran for which the predictive negative value of PT and aPTT or TT allows to exclude a concentration >30 ng/mL in 100% of cases, our results highlight the risk of misinterpretation when using global coagulation tests (PT and aPPT) for determination of the safety threshold for patients receiving the DOACs. PMID:27492699

  5. Dynamics of coupled ice-ocean system in the marginal ice zone: Study of the mesoscale processes and of constitutive equations for sea ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, S.

    1984-01-01

    This study is aimed at the modelling of mesoscale processed such as up/downwelling and ice edge eddies in the marginal ice zones. A 2-dimensional coupled ice-ocean model is used for the study. The ice model is coupled to the reduced gravity ocean model (f-plane) through interfacial stresses. The constitutive equations of the sea ice are formulated on the basis of the Reiner-Rivlin theory. The internal ice stresses are important only at high ice concentrations (90-100%), otherwise the ice motion is essentially free drift, where the air-ice stress is balanced by the ice-water stress. The model was tested by studying the upwelling dynamics. Winds parallel to the ice edge with the ice on the right produce upwilling because the air-ice momentum flux is much greater that air-ocean momentum flux, and thus the Ekman transport is bigger under the ice than in the open water. The upwelling simulation was extended to include temporally varying forcing, which was chosen to vary sinusoidally with a 4 day period. This forcing resembles successive cyclone passings. In the model with a thin oceanic upper layer, ice bands were formed.

  6. Late-orogenic heating during exhumation: Alpine PTt trajectories and thermomechanical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouwer, F. M.; van de Zedde, D. M. A.; Wortel, M. J. R.; Vissers, R. L. M.

    2004-03-01

    During the Alpine orogeny, the Penninic zone of the Alps was affected by Eoalpine high-pressure metamorphism. In the central and western Alps, this was followed by Lepontine medium-pressure, high-temperature metamorphism during exhumation. We compare the pressure-temperature-time (PTt) trajectories established in two key areas in the central and western Alps with 2-D numerical models of two possible causes of Lepontine metamorphism: (1) detachment or breakoff of a subducting slab, and (2) the presence of a wedge of accreted radiogenic material. Numerical models show that both mechanisms are capable of producing significant heating during orogeny. Heating by slab detachment is fast and transient (more than 100°C in up to 10 million years, depending on the location), whereas radiogenic heating requires time spans of the order of tens of millions of years and cessation of the subduction process. The combination of PTt trajectories and synthetic PT paths deduced from our thermomechanical modelling results suggests that the metamorphism observed in the central Alps has not been caused by radiogenic heating alone. Slab breakoff, on the other hand, seems a viable mechanism to account for the documented rise in metamorphic temperatures during exhumation. In view of the time constraints posed by the geological data, and acknowledging the effects of large-scale block rotations and out-of-section transport, slab detachment is also a more likely mechanism to have provided sufficient heat to cause re-heating in the western Alps.

  7. Constitutional Conservatism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Peter

    2009-01-01

    After their dismal performance in election 2008, conservatives are taking stock. As they examine the causes that have driven them into the political wilderness and as they explore paths out, they should also take heart. After all, election 2008 shows that America's constitutional order is working as designed. Indeed, while sorting out their errors…

  8. Behavior of Dermochelys coriacea in captivity (animal carrying dummy PTT in preliminary phase of an ARGOS experiment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duron-Dufrenne, M.

    The degree to which a turtle would accept the Transat-type ARGOS PTT, and the reliability of the harness securing it to the carapace were tested, using an adult kept in a swimming pool for 36 hr. Its pelagic behavior turns out to be comparable to that in the open sea, the animal appearing unperturbed by the equipment.

  9. A Constitutive Equation Relating Composition and Microstructure to Properties in Ti-6Al-4V: As Derived Using a Novel Integrated Computational Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghamarian, Iman; Samimi, Peyman; Dixit, Vikas; Collins, Peter C.

    2015-11-01

    While it is useful to predict properties in metallic materials based upon the composition and microstructure, the complexity of real, multi-component, and multi-phase engineering alloys presents difficulties when attempting to determine constituent-based phenomenological equations. This paper applies an approach based upon the integration of three separate modeling approaches, specifically artificial neural networks, genetic algorithms, and Monte Carlo simulations to determine a mechanism-based equation for the yield strength of α+ β processed Ti-6Al-4V (all compositions in weight percent) which consists of a complex multi-phase microstructure with varying spatial and morphological distributions of the key microstructural features. Notably, this is an industrially important alloy yet an alloy for which such an equation does not exist in the published literature. The equation ultimately derived in this work not only can accurately describe the properties of the current dataset but also is consistent with the limited and dissociated information available in the literature regarding certain parameters such as intrinsic yield strength of pure hexagonal close-packed alpha titanium. In addition, this equation suggests new interesting opportunities for controlling yield strength by controlling the relative intrinsic strengths of the two phases through solid solution strengthening.

  10. Effect of constitutive equations on qualitative behavior of solutions in the vicinity of bi-material interfaces at large plastic strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, Sergei; Goldstein, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The main objective of the present paper is to compare, by means of a problem permitting a closed-form solution, qualitative behavior of solutions based on three models of strain hardening plasticity and two models of viscoplasticity. The elastic portion of the strain tensor is neglected. The study focuses on the solution behavior near frictional interfaces. The solution behavior essentially depends on the model chosen. Such features of the solutions as nonexistence and singularity are emphasized. The key constitutive parameter that divides all the models considered into two groups is the saturation stress. In particular, under certain conditions no solution satisfying the regime of sticking exists for the models that involve the saturation stress. Qualitative comparison with numerous experimental observations is made. It is concluded that models with a saturation stress, including the models considered in the present paper, may be capable of describing the generation of a narrow layer of severe plastic deformation in the vicinity of frictional interfaces.

  11. Technique for selecting the functions of the constitutive equations of creep and long-term strength with one scalar damage parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, E. B.; Leonov, S. S.

    2016-03-01

    The strain-strength characteristics of aerostructures made of hardening materials under uniaxial tension in creep conditions are determined. The problem is reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations of the kinetic theory of creep with one scalar damage parameter. The approximate solutions of the problem are obtained with the help of the implicit Euler method and of the arc length method in combination with the explicit methods of the Runge-Kutta family for cylindrical St.45 steel samples and 3V titanium alloy plates.

  12. Monitoring Low Molecular Weight Heparins at Therapeutic Levels: Dose-Responses of, and Correlations and Differences between aPTT, Anti-Factor Xa and Thrombin Generation Assays

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Owain; Lybeck, Emanuel; Strandberg, Karin; Tynngård, Nahreen; Schött, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Background Low molecular weight heparins (LMWH’s) are used to prevent and treat thrombosis. Tests for monitoring LMWH’s include anti-factor Xa (anti-FXa), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and thrombin generation. Anti-FXa is the current gold standard despite LMWH’s varying affinities for FXa and thrombin. Aim To examine the effects of two different LMWH’s on the results of 4 different aPTT-tests, anti-FXa activity and thrombin generation and to assess the tests’ concordance. Method Enoxaparin and tinzaparin were added ex-vivo in concentrations of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 anti-FXa international units (IU)/mL, to blood from 10 volunteers. aPTT was measured using two whole blood methods (Free oscillation rheometry (FOR) and Hemochron Jr (HCJ)) and an optical plasma method using two different reagents (ActinFSL and PTT-Automat). Anti-FXa activity was quantified using a chromogenic assay. Thrombin generation (Endogenous Thrombin Potential, ETP) was measured on a Ceveron Alpha instrument using the TGA RB and more tissue-factor rich TGA RC reagents. Results Methods’ mean aPTT at 1.0 IU/mL LMWH varied between 54s (SD 11) and 69s (SD 14) for enoxaparin and between 101s (SD 21) and 140s (SD 28) for tinzaparin. ActinFSL gave significantly shorter aPTT results. aPTT and anti-FXa generally correlated well. ETP as measured with the TGA RC reagent but not the TGA RB reagent showed an inverse exponential relationship to the concentration of LMWH. The HCJ-aPTT results had the weakest correlation to anti-FXa and thrombin generation (Rs0.62–0.87), whereas the other aPTT methods had similar correlation coefficients (Rs0.80–0.92). Conclusions aPTT displays a linear dose-respone to LMWH. There is variation between aPTT assays. Tinzaparin increases aPTT and decreases thrombin generation more than enoxaparin at any given level of anti-FXa activity, casting doubt on anti-FXa’s present gold standard status. Thrombin generation with tissue factor-rich activator is

  13. Reaction kinetics, P-T-t paths and rates of tectonic processes

    SciTech Connect

    Bohlen, S.R.; Hankins, W.B.; Eckert, J.O. Jr.; Kirby, S.H.; Liu, J. ); Hacker, B.R.; Mosenfelder, J.L. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    The interpretation of portions of P-T-time (t) paths in metamorphic rocks assumes that continuous and discontinuous reactions record local equilibrium as P-T conditions change, implying that the kinetics of many reactions are rapid relative to dT/dt and dP/dt. Occurrence of eclogite veins in granulites from Bergen, Norway as well as occurrences of coesite and diamond in crustal rocks imply that, under certain conditions, this assumption is wrong. Knowledge of the kinetics of important reactions under appropriate conditions would provide limits on the duration of relatively narrowly defined P-T conditions, allow inference of the rates of exhumation of rocks containing high-pressure phases, and allow the calculation of the time required for the conversion of gabbro to eclogite in the lower crust as a function of P-T-t. The authors are currently assessing the rates of key phase transformations: calcite to aragonite, albite to jadeite + quartz, coesite to quartz, opx[sub Fs[sup 80

  14. Random-matrix theory of amplifying and absorbing resonators with {PT} or {PTT}^{\\prime } symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birchall, Christopher; Schomerus, Henning

    2012-11-01

    We formulate Gaussian and circular random-matrix models representing a coupled system consisting of an absorbing and an amplifying resonator, which are mutually related by a generalized time-reversal symmetry. Motivated by optical realizations of such systems we consider a {PT} or a {PTT}^{\\prime } time-reversal symmetry, which impose different constraints on magneto-optical effects, and then focus on five common settings. For each of these, we determine the eigenvalue distribution in the complex plane in the short-wavelength limit, which reveals that the fraction of real eigenvalues among all eigenvalues in the spectrum vanishes if all classical scales are kept fixed. Numerically, we find that the transition from real to complex eigenvalues in the various ensembles display a different dependence on the coupling strength between the two resonators. These differences can be linked to the level spacing statistics in the Hermitian limit of the considered models. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators’.

  15. P-T-t path for the Archean Pikwitonei Granulite Domain and Cross Lake Subprovince, Manitoba, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mezger, K.; Bohlen, S. R.; Hanson, G. N.

    1988-01-01

    The rationale was outlined for constructing pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) paths by using U-Pb dating of garnet produced in thermobarometrically sensitive reactions. In an example from the Pikwitonei granulites of the Northwestern Superior Province of the Canadian Shield, garnets were formed at 2744-2742 Ma, 2700-2689 Ma, and 2605-2590 Ma, the latter events coinciding with times recorded by U-Pb zircon systems. Garnet grew during metamorphism at 6.5 kbar, 630 to 750 C and later at 7.2 to 7.5 kbar, 800 C; the later metamorphism apparently did not exceed the U-Pb closure temperature. The resultant P-T-t path is counterclockwise, with late isobaric cooling, interpreted to result from magmatic heating at an Andean margin.

  16. Self-assembled IR780-loaded transferrin nanoparticles as an imaging, targeting and PDT/PTT agent for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kaikai; Zhang, Yifan; Wang, Juan; Yuan, Ahu; Sun, Minjie; Wu, Jinhui; Hu, Yiqiao

    2016-01-01

    Combination of photothermal and photodynamic therapy (PTT/PDT) offer unique advantages over PDT alone. However, to achieve synergetic PDT/PTT effect, one generally needs two lasers with different wavelengths. Near-infrared dye IR-780 could be used as photosensitizer both for PTT and PDT, but its lipophilicity limits its practical use and in vivo efficiency. Herein, a simple multifunctional IR780-loaded nanoplatform based on transferrin was developed for targeted imaging and phototherapy of cancer compatible with a single-NIR-laser irradiation. The self-assembled transferrin-IR780 nanoparticles (Tf-IR780 NPs) exhibited narrow size distribution, good photo-stability, and encouraging photothermal performance with enhanced generation of ROS under laser irradiation. Following intravenous injection, Tf-IR780 NPs had a high tumor-to-background ratio in CT26 tumor-bearing mice. Treatment with Tf-IR780 NPs resulted in significant tumor suppression. Overall, the Tf-IR780 NPs show notable targeting and theranostic potential in cancer therapy. PMID:27263444

  17. Self-assembled IR780-loaded transferrin nanoparticles as an imaging, targeting and PDT/PTT agent for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kaikai; Zhang, Yifan; Wang, Juan; Yuan, Ahu; Sun, Minjie; Wu, Jinhui; Hu, Yiqiao

    2016-01-01

    Combination of photothermal and photodynamic therapy (PTT/PDT) offer unique advantages over PDT alone. However, to achieve synergetic PDT/PTT effect, one generally needs two lasers with different wavelengths. Near-infrared dye IR-780 could be used as photosensitizer both for PTT and PDT, but its lipophilicity limits its practical use and in vivo efficiency. Herein, a simple multifunctional IR780-loaded nanoplatform based on transferrin was developed for targeted imaging and phototherapy of cancer compatible with a single-NIR-laser irradiation. The self-assembled transferrin-IR780 nanoparticles (Tf-IR780 NPs) exhibited narrow size distribution, good photo-stability, and encouraging photothermal performance with enhanced generation of ROS under laser irradiation. Following intravenous injection, Tf-IR780 NPs had a high tumor-to-background ratio in CT26 tumor-bearing mice. Treatment with Tf-IR780 NPs resulted in significant tumor suppression. Overall, the Tf-IR780 NPs show notable targeting and theranostic potential in cancer therapy. PMID:27263444

  18. Constitutive modeling of inelastic anisotropic material response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stouffer, D. C.

    1984-01-01

    A constitutive equation was developed to predict the inelastic thermomechanical response of single crystal turbine blades. These equations are essential for developing accurate finite element models of hot section components and contribute significantly to the understanding and prediction of crack initiation and propagation. The method used was limited to unified state variable constitutive equations. Two approaches to developing an anisotropic constitutive equation were reviewed. One approach was to apply the Stouffer-Bodner representation for deformation induced anisotropy to materials with an initial anisotropy such as single crystals. The second approach was to determine the global inelastic strain rate from the contribution of the slip in each of the possible crystallographic slip systems. A three dimensional finite element is being developed with a variable constitutive equation link that can be used for constitutive equation development and to predict the response of an experiment using the actual specimen geometry and loading conditions.

  19. What Is a Constitution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OAH Magazine of History, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Provides a lesson plan designed to help students better understand the concept of a constitution, distinguish constitutional law from statutory law, and recognize examples of constitutional government. (BSR)

  20. Constitutive upscaling of MR fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nika, Grigor; Vernescu, Bogdan

    2015-11-01

    We consider a suspension of solid magnetizable particles in a viscous fluid with an applied external magnetic field. We assume the fluid to be electrically non-conducting. Thus, we use the quasi-static Maxwell equations coupled with the Stokes equations to capture the magnetorheological effect. We upscale using two scale asymptotic expansions to obtain the effective equations consisting of a coupled nonlinear system in a connected phase domain as well as the new constitutive laws. Qualitative properties of the solution of this nonlinear system are studied.

  1. Monitoring Temperature and Heart Rate during Surgical Field Implantation of PTT-100 Satellite Transmitters in Greenland Sea Birds

    PubMed Central

    Sonne, Christian; Andersen, Steen; Mosbech, Anders; Flagstad, Annette; Merkel, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Information on cloacae temperature (CT), heart rate (HR), Isoflurane use, and oxygen flow was collected during field implantation of Platform Terminal Transmitters (PTT-) 100 satellite transmitters in Greenland sea birds. Information was obtained from 14 intracoelomic and 5 subcutaneous implantations in thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) and 9 intracoelomic implantations in common eiders (Somateria mollissima). CT decreased in the order subcutaneous murres > intracoelomic eiders > intracoelomic murres due to the explorative exposure to the surroundings and increased heat loss (murres smaller than eiders) and were preheated to 35°C. During all implantations, heat loss was prevented using electric heat and rescue blankets. Regarding HR, the fluctuations were most pronounced during the intracoelomic murre implantations as a result of lower PTT temperature and lower body size leading to more pronounced digital manipulations and stimulation of the pelvic nerve plexus. Based on these results, we therefore suggest that HR and CT are carefully monitored in order to adjust anaesthesia and recommend the use of an electric heat blanket and preheating of PTTs to body temperature in order to prevent unnecessary heat loss causing physiological stress to the birds. PMID:21822467

  2. Plume-induced dynamic instabilities near cratonic blocks: Implications for P-T-t paths and metallogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillou-Frottier, L.; Burov, E.; Cloetingh, S.; Le Goff, E.; Deschamps, Y.; Huet, B.; Bouchot, V.

    2012-06-01

    Plume head-lithosphere interactions around cratonic blocks result in thermo-mechanical disturbances that lead to heating and burial phases of crustal rocks. We present results from numerical models of plume head-cratonic blocks interactions where a free upper surface condition and realistic rheologies are accounted for. These models include distinct cratonic blocks embedded within a continental lithosphere and separated by several hundreds of kilometers. Surface topography, thermal field and effective viscosity values are tracked for 20 Myr of interactions. The modeled dynamic interaction of a plume head around cratonic blocks results in two main types of instabilities, each of them resulting in a distinct P-T-t path. The "slab-like" instability, focused on cratonic edges when plume head is away from the craton center, shows a near-isothermal burial phase, while the "drip-like" instability occurring above plume head material results in a near-isobaric heating phase. Consequently, both clockwise and counterclockwise P-T-t paths can be expected around cratons, as actually observed around the Tanzanian craton and other cratonic areas. Metallogenic data from gemstone-bearing rocks in south-east Africa and data from ultrahigh temperature and ultrahigh pressure metamorphism are compatible with our model. It appears that vertical mantle dynamics around cratons may also explain thermobarometric signatures that are often attributed to horizontal tectonics.

  3. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, U. S.

    1984-01-01

    A state-of-the-art review of applicable constitutive models with selection of two for detailed comparison with a wide range of experimental tests was conducted. The experimental matrix contained uniaxial and biaxial tensile, creep, stress relaxation, and cyclic fatigue tests at temperatures to 1093 C and strain rates from .0000001 to .001/sec. Some nonisothermal cycles will also be run. The constitutive models will be incorporated into the MARC finite element structural analysis program with a demonstration computation made for advanced turbine blade configuration. In the code development work, particular emphasis is being placed on developing efficient integration algorithms for the highly nonlinear and stiff constitutive equations. Another area of emphasis is the appropriate and efficient methodology for determing constitutive constants from a minimum extent of experimental data.

  4. Comparison of aPTT and CT Parameter of the ROTEM Test to Monitor Heparin Anti-Coagulation Effect in ICU Patients: an Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Atabak; Nikeish, Masoomeh; Etezadi, Farhad; Pourfakhr, Pejman; Imani, Farsad; Khajavi, Mohammad Reza; Shariat Moharari, Reza

    2015-10-01

    Heparin is frequently used in different clinical settings to reduce the coagulating ability of the blood. Because of probable adverse effects owing to heparin therapy and regarding variability of patients' responses to heparin, which make it very unreliable, it seems prudent to monitor meticulously its effects on the human body. There are a lot of laboratory tests to watch its effects on the body for example; aPTT and ROTEM are the most widely used tests that are performed today. We aimed to compare the aPTT test results against changes of CT parameter of the ROTEM test due to heparin administration. This study was conducted on 45 critically ill patients who needed to receive heparin according to their clinical status. All patients received 550 to 1500 unit heparin per hour (on average 17.5 unit heparin per kilogram weight). While the patients were under infusion of heparin, two blood samples (5 ml) were taken from a newly established cubital vein, just five hours after commencement of heparin therapy. One sample was used for aPTT and the other one for ROTEM. The correlation between aPTT and the changes of CT parameter of the ROTEM with heparin dosage and infusion was the primary outcome. The correlation between heparin therapy and the changes of other parameters like MCF, CFT, and a number of platelets were the secondary outcome of the study. The only significant correlation was between changes of CT and aPTT (P=0.000). The other variables were not correlated. Changes of CT parameter of ROTEM test can be used for monitoring of reduced coagulability during heparin infusion instead of aPTT test. PMID:26615378

  5. The Constitutional Amendment Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chism, Kahlil

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the constitutional amendment process. Although the process is not described in great detail, Article V of the United States Constitution allows for and provides instruction on amending the Constitution. While the amendment process currently consists of six steps, the Constitution is nevertheless quite difficult to change.…

  6. A survey of unified constitutive theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, K. S.; Lindholm, U. S.; Bodner, S. R.; Walker, K. P.

    1985-01-01

    The state of the art of time temperature dependent elastic viscoplastic constitutive theories which are based on the unified approach werre assessed. This class of constitutive theories is characterized by the use of kinetic equations and internal variables with appropriate evolutionary equations for treating all aspects of inelastic deformation including plasticity, creep, and stress relaxation. More than 10 such unified theories which are shown to satisfy the uniqueness and stability criteria imposed by Drucker's postulate and Ponter's inequalities are identified. The theories are compared for the types of flow law, kinetic equation, evolutionary equation of the internal variables, and treatment of temperature dependence. The similarities and differences of these theories are outlined in terms of mathematical formulations and illustrated by comparisons of theoretical calculations with experimental results which include monotonic stress-strain curves, cyclic hysteresis loops, creep and stress relaxation rates, and thermomechanical loops. Numerical methods used for integrating these stiff time temperature dependent constitutive equations are reviewed.

  7. PTt path in metamorphic rocks of the Khoy region (northwest Iran) and their tectonic significance for Cretaceous Tertiary continental collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizi, H.; Moinevaziri, H.; Mohajjel, M.; Yagobpoor, A.

    2006-06-01

    Metamorphic rocks in the Khoy region are exposed between obducted ophiolites to the southwest and sedimentary rocks of Precambrian-Paleozoic age to the northeast. The Qom formation (Oligocene-Miocene) with a basal conglomerate transgressively overlies all of these rocks. The metamorphic rocks consist of both metasediments and metabasites. The metasediments are micaschist, garnet-staurolite schist and garnet-staurolite sillimanite schist with some meta-arkose, marble and quartzite. The metabasites are metamorphosed to greenschist and amphibolite facies from a basaltic and gabbroic protolith of tholeiitic and calc-alkaline rocks. Geothermobarometry based on the equivalence of minerals stability and their paragenesis in these rocks and microprobe analyses by several different methods indicate that metamorphism occurred in a temperature range between 450 and 680 °C at 5.5 and 7.5 kb pressure. Rims of minerals reveal a considerable decrease of pressure (<2 kb) and insignificant decrease of temperature. The PTt path of this metamorphism is normal. The MFG line passes above the triple junction of Al 2SiO 5 polymorphs, and the average geothermal gradient during metamorphism was from 27 to 37 °C/km, which is more concordant with the temperature regime of collision zones. We infer that crustal thickening during post-Cretaceous (possibly Eocene) collision of the Arabian plate and the Azerbaijan-Albourz block was the main factor that caused the metamorphism in the studied area.

  8. Development of a novel PTT assay for mutation detection in PALB2 large exons and PALB2 screening in medullary breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Poumpouridou, Nikoleta; Goutas, Nikolaos; Tsionou, Christina; Dimas, Kleanthi; Lianidou, Evi; Kroupis, Christos

    2016-04-01

    Beyond BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, PALB2 (Partner and localizer of BRCA2) emerges as the third breast cancer susceptibility gene due to its role in the same DNA repair pathway: homologous recombination. In most populations studied so far, PALB2 mutations are detected in 1-2% of BRCA negative female patients. PALB2 gene contains 13 exons; exons 4 and 5 consist 65% of the coding area. We developed a protein truncation test (PTT) for quick screening of truncating pathogenic mutations of these two large exons. Specific primers were de novo, in silico designed and the PTT-PCR products were translated in the presence of biotinylated lysine and detected colorimetrically. The assay was initially tested in 30 patients with hereditary breast cancer, negative for BRCA mutations and then, in 17 patients with the rare medullary breast cancer subtype. Small PALB2 exons were screened with high-resolution melting curve analysis (HRMA) and the large DNA rearrangements with multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Any alterations detected were verified by Sanger DNA Sequencing. The developed PTT methodology is highly specific for clinical significant mutations; positive control samples that produce truncated PALB2 peptides were correctly identified and the method was accurate when compared to DNA sequencing. We did not detect any deleterious PALB2 mutation in both groups of patients. HRMA and MLPA were also negative for all tested samples. However, our novel, fast and cost-effective PTT method for pathogenic mutation detection of the two large PALB2 exons can be applied in screening of a large number of breast cancer patients. PMID:26573693

  9. /sup 194/ /sup 196/ /sup 198/Pt(t,. cap alpha. )/sup 193/ /sup 195/ /sup 197/Ir reactions with polarized tritons. [17 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Cizewski, J.A.; Flynn, E.R.; Sunier, J.W.; Brown, R.E.; Burke, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    The /sup 194/ /sup 196/ /sup 198/Pt(t vector, ..cap alpha..)/sup 193/ /sup 195/ /sup 197/Ir reactions were measured. Angular distributions of cross sections and analyzing powers for levels up to approx. 2.5 MeV in each residual nuclide were obtained, and comparisons with DWBA predictions allowed spins, parities, and pickup spectroscopic strengths to be determined. The results are being analyzed with the aim of testing the existence of supersymmmetric structures in nature. 2 figures.

  10. Field-Based High Resolution P-T-t Mapping Shows Recrystallization to BE Highly Localized, Even at HP and Uhp Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassley, W. E.; Korstgård, J.; Sorensen, K.

    2015-12-01

    Reconstructing tectonic histories relies on the ability to establish P-T-t paths from samples and data collected in the field. Efforts to establish detailed P-T-t pathways have benefitted recently from dramatically improved ability to resolve mineral chemical and isotopic properties at the micron scale. We present here a new interpretation of the HP and UHP metamorphic history of a 1.8 Gya terrain in West Greenland (Glassley et al., 2014) that is based on these new analytical capabilities, coupled with sampling at high spatial density. The terrain consists of a tectonic assemblage of metasomatically altered pillow basalts, ultramafic bodies, exhalative and chemical oceanic metasediments, pelites, and quartzo-feldspathic gneisses, that are the preserved remnants of a subduction channel. Using LA-SF-ICP-MS analyses on zircons, we time-correlated recrystallization events that could be well-documented using micro-analytical techniques (EBMA; Raman; LA-ICP-MS). More than 700 207Pb/206Pb dates and more than 1,000 electron microprobe mineral analyses were used in this correlation effort. The results demonstrate that: 1) Recrystallization is highly localized, often restricted to tectonic domains of less than a few 10s of km2. Few tectonic lenses preserve evidence of the most extreme P-T conditions (5 GPa at temperatures of approximately 1,000 C); 2) The extent of area involved in a recrystallization "event" is mainly a reflection of local rock chemistry/mineralogy and fluid activity; 3) Since individual crystals preserve multiple parts of a P-T-t path in compositional zoning, isotopic dates must be very carefully correlated with corresponding mineral compositions in order to establish t at P & T; 4) Preservation of the prograde P-T-t path during subduction is rare.

  11. Interpreting the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, William J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

  12. Teaching the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherman, Donald V.

    1987-01-01

    Courses on the Constitution must focus on the principles of government. Those principles and how the understanding of those principles shaped the document are appropriate subjects for consideration. The best sources for an examination of the Constitution are "The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787" and "The Federalist." (MLW)

  13. Constitution of the AFT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Teachers, Washington, DC.

    This document contains the constitution and the bylaws of the American Federation of Teachers. The constitution is comprised of 12 articles which deal with the name and objectives of the organization, membership, chartering of state and local units, federation officers, the Executive Council, conventions, representation of state and local units at…

  14. The Constitution by Cell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhut, Stephanie; Jones, Megan

    2010-01-01

    On their visit to the National Archives Experience in Washington, D.C., students in Jenni Ashley and Gay Brock's U.S. history classes at the Potomac School in McLean, Virginia, participated in a pilot program called "The Constitution by Cell." Armed with their cell phones, a basic understanding of the Constitution, and a willingness to participate…

  15. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, K. S.; Lindholm, U. S.; Bodner, S. R.

    1988-01-01

    The third and fourth years of a 4-year research program, part of the NASA HOST Program, are described. The program goals were: (1) to develop and validate unified constitutive models for isotropic materials, and (2) to demonstrate their usefulness for structural analysis of hot section components of gas turbine engines. The unified models selected for development and evaluation were those of Bodner-Partom and of Walker. The unified approach for elastic-viscoplastic constitutive equations is a viable method for representing and predicting material response characteristics in the range where strain rate and temperature dependent inelastic deformations are experienced. This conclusion is reached by extensive comparison of model calculations against the experimental results of a test program of two high temperature Ni-base alloys, B1900+Hf and Mar-M247, over a wide temperature range for a variety of deformation and thermal histories including uniaxial, multiaxial, and thermomechanical loading paths. The applicability of the Bodner-Partom and the Walker models for structural applications has been demonstrated by implementing these models into the MARC finite element code and by performing a number of analyses including thermomechanical histories on components of hot sections of gas turbine engines and benchmark notch tensile specimens. The results of the 4-year program have been published in four annual reports. The results of the base program are summarized in this report. The tasks covered include: (1) development of material test procedures, (2) thermal history effects, and (3) verification of the constitutive model for an alternative material.

  16. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, Ulric S.; Chan, Kwai S.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of the program is to evaluate and develop existing constitutive models for use in finite-element structural analysis of turbine engine hot section components. The class of constitutive equation studied is considered unified in that all inelastic deformation including plasticity, creep, and stress relaxation are treated in a single term rather than a classical separation of plasticity (time independent) and creep (time dependent) behavior. The unified theories employed also do not utilize the classical yield surface or plastic potential concept. The models are constructed from an appropriate flow law, a scalar kinetic relation between strain rate, temperature and stress, and evolutionary equations for internal variables describing strain or work hardening, both isotropic and directional (kinematic). This and other studies have shown that the unified approach is particularly suited for determining the cyclic behavior of superalloy type blade and vane materials and is entirely compatible with three-dimensional inelastic finite-element formulations. The behavior was examined of a second nickel-base alloy, MAR-M247, and compared it with the Bodner-Partom model, further examined procedures for determining the material-specific constants in the models, and exercised the MARC code for a turbine blade under simulated flight spectrum loading. Results are summarized.

  17. Partial thromboplastin time (PTT)

    MedlinePlus

    ... which there is a problem with the body's blood clotting process Disorder in which the proteins that control blood clotting become over active ( disseminated intravascular coagulation ) Liver disease ...

  18. Curing the Megaplasmid pTT27 from Thermus thermophilus HB27 and Maintaining Exogenous Plasmids in the Plasmid-Free Strain

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Masaru; Itaya, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Stepwise deletions in the only plasmid in Thermus thermophilus HB27, megaplasmid pTT27, showed that two distantly located loci were important for maintenance of the plasmid. One is a minimum replicon including one gene, repT, coding a replication initiator, and the other encodes subunits of class I ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) for deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) synthesis. Since the initiator protein, RepT, bound to direct repeats downstream from its own gene, it was speculated that a more-downstream A+T-rich region, which was critical for replication ability, could be unwound for replication initiation. On the other hand, the class I RNR is not necessarily essential for cell growth, as evidenced by the generation of the plasmid-free strain by the loss of pTT27. However, the plasmid-free strain culture has fewer viable cells than the wild-type culture, probably due to a dNTP pool imbalance in the cell. This is because of the introduction of the class I RNR genes or the supplementation of 5′-deoxyadenosylcobalamin, which stimulated class II RNR encoded in the chromosome, resolved the decrease in the number of viable cells in the plasmid-free strain. Likewise, these treatments dramatically enhanced the efficiency of transformation by exogenous plasmids and the stability of the plasmids in the strain. Therefore, the class I RNR would enable the stable maintenance of plasmids, including pTT27, as a result of genome replication normalized by reversing the dNTP pool imbalance. The generation of this plasmid-free strain with great natural competence and its analysis in regard to exogenous plasmid maintenance will expand the availability of HB27 for thermophilic cell factories. PMID:26712540

  19. The Constitution in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the experiences middle school students on a field trip to the new Constitution in Action Learning Lab in the Boeing Learning Center at the National Archives can expect. There, middle school students take on the roles of archivists and researchers collecting and analyzing primary sources from the holdings of…

  20. Constituting children's bodily integrity.

    PubMed

    Hill, B Jessie

    2015-04-01

    Children have a constitutional right to bodily integrity. Courts do not hesitate to vindicate that right when children are abused by state actors. Moreover, in at least some cases, a child's right to bodily integrity applies within the family, giving the child the right to avoid unwanted physical intrusions regardless of the parents' wishes. Nonetheless, the scope of this right vis-à-vis the parents is unclear; the extent to which it applies beyond the narrow context of abortion and contraception has been almost entirely unexplored and untheorized. This Article is the first in the legal literature to analyze the constitutional right of minors to bodily integrity within the family by spanning traditionally disparate doctrinal categories such as abortion rights; corporal punishment; medical decisionmaking; and nontherapeutic physical interventions such as tattooing, piercing, and circumcision. However, the constitutional right of minors to bodily integrity raises complex philosophical questions concerning the proper relationship between family and state, as well as difficult doctrinal and theoretical issues concerning the ever-murky idea of state action. This Article canvasses those issues with the ultimate goal of delineating a constitutional right of bodily security and autonomy for children. PMID:26016017

  1. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.

    1999-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well.

  2. President's Report: Constitutional Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Jan L.

    1987-01-01

    States that the proper business of social studies is civic education and contends that civic education must take into account the way in which global connections and uncertainties will affect citizenship in the Constitution's third century. Cites the problems associated with AIDS and the Iran-Contra affair as examples. (JDH)

  3. Sexuality and the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copelon, Rhonda

    1987-01-01

    Argues for abortion rights and protection of intimate decisions and relationships. Describes the role and position of women in eighteenth century American society as a means of exposing the fallacy of the anti-abortion movement's insistence on adherence to constitutional text. Discusses the recent attempts to overturn the Roe v. Wade ruling. (PS)

  4. The Constitutional Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Maurice

    Changing political, social, economic, and intellectual conditions over the past two hundred years have demanded innovation and adjustment of legal doctrine, thus giving the United States Constitution a character which the framers of the document could not have predicted. Historically, one must not only understand developments since 1787 but also…

  5. Disputing the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyle, Christopher H.

    1987-01-01

    Constitutional law is a good way to introduce students to fundamental debates over means and ends, over what means work and at what costs, and over what ends are not merely desirable, but may be legitimately achieved even through the application of collective force. It also offers an exciting way to teach logic. (MLW)

  6. Constitutional Law--Elective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Joan; Wood, Robert J.

    The elective unit on Constitutional Law is intended for 11th and 12th grade students. The unit is designed around major course goals which are to develop those concepts whereby students recognize and understand the following three topic areas: 1) Role of the Federal Judicial Branch of Government, 2) Supreme Court Cases Involving the Three Branches…

  7. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaswamy, V. G.; Vanstone, R. H.; Dame, L. T.; Laflen, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    The first year of progress on a NASA-Lewis contract with the General Electric Co is documented. The purpose of this contract (NAS3-23927) is to develop and evaluate unified constitutive equations for applications to hot-path components of aircraft gas turbine engines such as high pressure turbine blades and vanes. To accomplish this goal, uniaxial, notched, and multiaxial specimens made of conventionally cast Rene 80 are being tested under conditions that simulate engine operating conditions. To reduce the raw data, automated data reduction techniques are being developed that produce computer files containing the information needed to analyze proposed constitutive theories. Described are the analytical methods being developed to determine the parameters for these nonlinear unified theories by using the reduced data files. In another activity, a dedicated finite-element computer code is being developed to use unified theories in the structural analysis of hot-section components. This code was extensively verified for one such theory by successfully predicting the strain histories measured experimentally at the notch root of complex specimens taken from complex laboratory specimens.

  8. A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa Reis, Martina; Wang, Yongqi; Bono Maurizio Sacchi Bassi, Adalberto

    2013-11-01

    A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures is formulated. The intermolecular interactions among the constituents of the mixture are accounted for through additional freedom degrees to each constituent of the mixture. Balance equations for polar reacting continuum mixtures are accordingly formulated and a proper set of constitutive equations is derived with basis in the Müller-Liu formulation of the second law of thermodynamics. Moreover, the non-equilibrium and equilibrium responses of the reacting mixture are investigated in detail by emphasizing the inner and reactive structures of the medium. From the balance laws and constitutive relations, the effects of molecular structure of constituents upon the fluid flow are studied. It is also demonstrated that the local thermodynamic equilibrium state can be reached without imposing that the set of independent constitutive variables is time independent, neither spatially homogeneous nor null. The resulting constitutive relations presented throughout this work are of relevance to many practical applications, such as swelling of clays, developing of bio and polymeric membranes, and use of electrorheological fluids in industrial processes. The first author acknowledges financial support from National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq) and German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD).

  9. [Constitutional requirements of rationing].

    PubMed

    Kluth, Winfried

    2008-01-01

    Rationing is an emotive issue in the field of public health. This complicates the rational discourse, which is indispensable for analyzing the rationing conditions as set out by constitutional law and which requires manifold differentiation and consideration that shall briefly be outlined in the following short contribution. Of central significance is the distinction between indirect and direct rationing as well as the reference to the essential responsibility of legislators for rationing decisions. PMID:19004184

  10. Constitution, 29 March 1987.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    This document contains provisions of Haiti's 1987 Constitution relating to the family; the protection of children, aliens, and refugees; and individual rights. The age of majority in Haiti is 18, and political and civil rights are attained at age 21 regardless of sex or marital status. Haitians are equal before the law but native-born Haitians who have never renounced their nationality have special advantages. Human rights are guaranteed in conformity with the Universal Declaration of the Rights of Man. Every citizen has the right to decent housing, education, food, and social security. The state is obligated to provide citizens with appropriate means to protect, maintain, and restore their health. Primary schooling is compulsory and free. Aliens in Haiti enjoy the protection offered citizens, including a limited right to own real property. Political refugees have a right to asylum. The family is considered the foundation of society and enjoys state protection regardless of whether the family is constituted within the bonds of marriage. Legal protection is afforded mothers, children, and the aged. The Constitution also calls for creation of a Family Code to ensure protection and respect for the rights of the family. PMID:12346668

  11. The Bicentennial and State Constitutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Henry

    1988-01-01

    Illustrates how the Bicentennial of the U.S. Constitution provides an opportunity to teach about the broader concept of constitutionalism through study of the state constitutions. Presents an argument for teaching about state constitutions, their role in the federal system, and the values they convey. (LS)

  12. Thomas Jefferson and the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Merrill D.

    1987-01-01

    Examines Thomas Jefferson's role in the making and interpretation of the United States Constitution. Discusses the dominant features of Jefferson's constitutional theory; the character of Jefferson's presidency; and Jefferson's ongoing concern about constitutional preservation and change. Lists important dates in the history of the constitution.…

  13. Acoustomechanical constitutive theory for soft materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Fengxian; Lu, Tian Jian

    2016-07-01

    Acoustic wave propagation from surrounding medium into a soft material can generate acoustic radiation stress due to acoustic momentum transfer inside the medium and material, as well as at the interface between the two. To analyze acoustic-induced deformation of soft materials, we establish an acoustomechanical constitutive theory by combining the acoustic radiation stress theory and the nonlinear elasticity theory for soft materials. The acoustic radiation stress tensor is formulated by time averaging the momentum equation of particle motion, which is then introduced into the nonlinear elasticity constitutive relation to construct the acoustomechanical constitutive theory for soft materials. Considering a specified case of soft material sheet subjected to two counter-propagating acoustic waves, we demonstrate the nonlinear large deformation of the soft material and analyze the interaction between acoustic waves and material deformation under the conditions of total reflection, acoustic transparency, and acoustic mismatch.

  14. Probabilistic constitutive law for damage in ligaments.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zheying; De Vita, Raffaella

    2009-11-01

    A new constitutive equation is presented to describe the damage evolution process in parallel-fibered collagenous tissues such as ligaments. The model is formulated by accounting for the fibrous structure of the tissues. The tissue's stress is defined as the average of the collagen fiber's stresses. The fibers are assumed to be undulated and straightened out at different stretches that are randomly defined according to a Weibull distribution. After becoming straight, each collagen fiber is assumed to be linear elastic. Damage is defined as a reduction in collagen fiber's stiffness and occurs at different stretches that are also randomly defined by a Weibull distribution. Due to the lack of experimental data, the predictions of the constitutive equation are analyzed by varying the values of its structural parameters. Moreover, the results are compared with the available stress-strain data in the biomechanics literature that evaluate damage produced by subfailure stretches in rat medial collateral ligaments. PMID:19665914

  15. Constitution, 30 September 1987.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    This document reprints provisions of Suriname's 1987 Constitution relating to freedom of movement, equality of the sexes, the right to life, the right to physical integrity, equal opportunity in employment, the family, children, maternity benefits, the right to health care, parental responsibilities, free and compulsory education, illiteracy, and housing. All citizens enjoy freedom of movement within the bounds of the law. All people within the territory may claim protection of their person and property, and discrimination is forbidden on the basis of birth, sex, race, language, religion, education, political beliefs, economic position, or other status. Torture or inhuman treatment and punishment is banned, and the right to life is protected by the law. The state guarantees the right to work, and all employees have the right to equal remuneration for equal work, safe working conditions, and sufficient rest and recreation. The family is protected, and husbands and wives are equal before the law. Children have the right to protection, and working women are entitled to paid maternity leave. The state promotes the right to good health by systematic improvements in living and working conditions and dissemination of health education. The right to education is protected by the provision of free general primary education and efforts of the state to enable all citizens to achieve the highest educational levels possible. The Constitution also calls for the institution of a plan to allow the state to create public housing. PMID:12346681

  16. Ethics and constitutional government.

    PubMed

    Albright, James A

    2007-01-01

    The term ethics refers to a set of principles that govern acceptable, proper conduct. Attacks on the Constitution of the United States pose the most serious breach of ethics today. Our country was founded as a republic, not as a democracy. Our Founding Fathers' main concern was to protect citizens from the power of the federal government, so constitutionally, the central government has little or no authority over individual citizens except on federal property. One of the major problems today is the fact that we now have professional politicians. This is due in large part to the lure of financial gain from countless special interest groups. This would change under constitutional law because the federal budget would decrease drastically. Article 1 states that all legislative power is vested in Congress. Congress has only 18 enumerated powers, and almost half of these pertain to defense of the country. Many of our current problems are due to regulatory agencies that have become independent fiefdoms with unconstitutional legislative, as well as executive and judicial, powers. The regulatory agency most relevant to medicine, both clinical care and research, is the FDA. It is now obvious that its basic structure needs to be changed or abolished because its actions are identical to those inherent in authoritarian systems. Constructive change could come from Congress, but it would be most desirable if the Supreme Court would take the lead and reestablish the authority of the Constitution as the Supreme Law of the Land. The FDA's function could be limited to the determination of safety, but preferably its mission would be altered to that of product certification. Defenders of the current system claim that such a drastic change would be too dangerous and their prime example is thalidomide. But it is now known that the market has already solved that problem prior to the government-imposed sanctions. Realistically, market forces and their ramifications, including our legal

  17. Constitution, 5 May 1989.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    This document contains provisions of Cambodia's Constitution of May 5, 1989. Article 7 gives men and women equal rights in marriage and the family, calls for monogamous marriages, and affords social protection to mothers and children. Article 8 guides parent-child relationships. The 14th article defines state property, and the 15th gives citizens full rights to own, use, and inherit land. The use of agricultural and forested land can only be changed with permission. Article 22 assigns educational responsibilities to the state, including free elementary education and a gradual expansion of higher education. Adult literacy classes are also promoted. Article 26 guarantees free medical consultations, and article 27 gives women a 90-day paid maternity leave. Breast-feeding women are also given special privileges. Article 33 guarantees the right to pay equity and to social security benefits. Article 36 grants the freedom to travel, the inviolability of homes, and privacy in correspondence of all types. PMID:12344287

  18. Constitution, 5 October 1988.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of the constitution adopted by Brazil on 5 October 1988. This constitution seeks to promote the welfare of all citizens without discrimination. The equality of all citizens is guaranteed, and the equal rights of women are specifically mentioned. Property rights are also guaranteed and defined. Female inmates are granted the right to remain with their children while breast feeding. Workers are guaranteed a minimum wage, a family allowance for dependents, maternity/paternity leave, specific incentives to protect the labor market for women, retirement benefits, free day care for preschool-age children, pay equity, and equal rights between tenured and sporadically employed workers. Agrarian reform provisions are given, including the authority to expropriate land. Social and economic policies to promote health are called for, and public health services are to be decentralized, to be integrated, and to foster community participation. Pension plan and social assistance provisions are outlined as are duties of the state in regard to education. The amount of money to be dedicated to education is set out, and a national educational plan is called for to achieve such goals as the eradication of illiteracy, the universalization of school attendance, the improvement of instruction, and the provision of vocational training. Specific measures are set out to protect and preserve the environment. Family policy deals with issues of marriage, the definition of a family, divorce, the right to family planning services, and the deterrence of domestic violence. Social protection provisions cover mothers and children, handicapped persons, and protection of minors. Finally, the customs and rights of Indians are protected, with special provisions given to protect land tenure and to protect the rights of Indians in water resource development and prospecting and mining activities. PMID:12344286

  19. Constitutive models in LAME.

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Scherzinger, William Mark

    2007-09-01

    The Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering (LAME) provides a common repository for constitutive models that can be used in computational solid mechanics codes. A number of models including both hypoelastic (rate) and hyperelastic (total strain) constitutive forms have been implemented in LAME. The structure and testing of LAME is described in Scherzinger and Hammerand ([3] and [4]). The purpose of the present report is to describe the material models which have already been implemented into LAME. The descriptions are designed to give useful information to both analysts and code developers. Thus far, 33 non-ITAR/non-CRADA protected material models have been incorporated. These include everything from the simple isotropic linear elastic models to a number of elastic-plastic models for metals to models for honeycomb, foams, potting epoxies and rubber. A complete description of each model is outside the scope of the current report. Rather, the aim here is to delineate the properties, state variables, functions, and methods for each model. However, a brief description of some of the constitutive details is provided for a number of the material models. Where appropriate, the SAND reports available for each model have been cited. Many models have state variable aliases for some or all of their state variables. These alias names can be used for outputting desired quantities. The state variable aliases available for results output have been listed in this report. However, not all models use these aliases. For those models, no state variable names are listed. Nevertheless, the number of state variables employed by each model is always given. Currently, there are four possible functions for a material model. This report lists which of these four methods are employed in each material model. As far as analysts are concerned, this information is included only for the awareness purposes. The analyst can take confidence in the fact that model has been properly implemented

  20. The Constitution and American Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Nathan

    1987-01-01

    Diversity in American constitutional law refers to differences among the laws of the states. However, key phrases in the Constitution have been used to ensure individual rights. The expansion of those rights has led to conflict between community needs and those of the individual, with each side referring to the Constitution for support. (PS)

  1. How Democratic Is the Constitution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldwin, Robert A., Ed.; Schambra, William A., Ed.

    Designed to help prepare the nation for a thoughtful observance of the Constitutional bicentennial, this publication contains seven essays on the topic of democracy and the Constitution. "Democracy and the Constitution" (Gordon S. Wood) looks at the popular and democratic rhetoric used to justify the federalist system in the late 1700's. "Decent,…

  2. The constitutive representation of high-temperature creep damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, K. S.

    1988-01-01

    The elastic-viscoplastic constitutive equations of Bodner-Partom were applied to modeling creep damage in a high temperature Ni-alloy, B1900 + Hf. Both tertiary creep in bulk materials and creep crack growth in flawed materials were considered. In the latter case, the energy rate line integral was used for characterizing the crack driving force, and the rate of crack extension was computed using a local damage formulation that assumed fracture was controlled by cavitation occurring within the crack-tip process zone. The results of this investigation were used to assess the evolution equation for isotropic damage utilized in the Bodner-Partom constitutive equations.

  3. Rate constitutive theories for ordered thermofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surana, K. S.; Nunez, D.; Reddy, J. N.; Romkes, A.

    2013-09-01

    gradients, that is, strain measures, in the development of the constitutive theories. It is shown that compatible conjugate pairs of convected time derivatives of the deviatoric Cauchy stress and strain measures in co-, contravariant, and Jaumann bases in conjunction with the theory of generators and invariants provide a general mathematical framework for the development of constitutive theories for ordered thermofluids in Eulerian description. This framework has a foundation based on the basic principles and axioms of continuum mechanics but the resulting constitutive theories for the deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor must satisfy the condition of positive work expanded, a requirement resulting from the entropy inequality. The paper presents a general theory of constitutive equations for ordered thermofluids which is then specialized, assuming first-order thermofluids, to obtain the commonly used constitutive theories for compressible and incompressible generalized Newtonian and Newtonian fluids. It is demonstrated that the constitutive theories for ordered thermofluids of all orders are indeed rate constitutive theories. We have intentionally used the term `thermofluids' as opposed to `thermoviscous fluids' due to the fact that the constitutive theories presented here describe a broader group of fluids than Newtonian and generalized Newtonian fluids that are commonly referred as thermoviscous fluids.

  4. Socialist Constitution [1992].

    PubMed

    1992-12-15

    This document contains the text of the Constitution of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Chapter 1 sets out the political principles which govern the existence of the state. Chapter 2 outlines the principles of the socialist economy as they apply to the collective and private ownership of property, to meeting the needs of working people, to the technological revolution, to labor regulations (including a minimum working age of 16 years), to development plans, and to external trade. Chapter 3 covers aspects of culture including education, which involves 11-years of compulsory schooling, scholarships to universities and professional schools, and social education. Children of preschool age are enrolled in nurseries and kindergartens at the state's expense. Other issues dealt with in this chapter are the advancement of science and technology, the work of writers and artists, the provision of cultural facilities, protection of the language, the availability of physical fitness facilities, a universal free medical system, and environmental protection. Chapter 4 outlines national defense measures, and chapter 5 sets out the fundamental rights and duties of citizens. This chapter accords women equal social status and rights as men and protects marriage and the family. State institutions (such as the Supreme People's Assembly, the presidency, the National Defense Committee, the Central People's Committee, the Administrative Council, local assemblies and committees, and the court and procurator's office) are discussed in chapter 6. Chapter 7 describes the national emblem and flag and designates Pyongyang as the capital. PMID:12347140

  5. Using crustal thickness, subsidence and P-T-t history on the Iberia-Newfoundland & Alpine Tethys margins to constrain lithosphere deformation modes during continental breakup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanniot, L.; Kusznir, N. J.; Manatschal, G.; Mohn, G.; Beltrando, M.

    2013-12-01

    Observations at magma-poor rifted margins such as Iberia-Newfoundland show a complex lithosphere deformation history and OCT architecture, resulting in hyper-extended continental crust and lithosphere, exhumed mantle and scattered embryonic oceanic crust before continental breakup and seafloor spreading. Initiation of seafloor spreading requires both the rupture of the continental crust and lithospheric mantle, and the onset of decompressional melting. Their relative timing controls when mantle exhumation may occur; the presence or absence of exhumed mantle provides useful information on the timing of these events and constraints on lithosphere deformation modes. A single kinematic lithosphere deformation mode leading to continental breakup and sea-floor spreading cannot explain observations. We have determined the sequence of lithosphere deformation events, using forward modelling of crustal thickness, subsidence and P-T-t history calibrated against observations on the present-day Iberia-Newfoundland and the fossil analogue Alpine Tethys margins. Lithosphere deformation modes, represented by flow fields, are generated by a 2D finite element viscous flow model (FeMargin), and used to advect lithosphere and asthenosphere temperature and material. FeMargin is kinematically driven by divergent deformation in the topmost upper lithosphere inducing passive upwelling beneath that layer; the upper lithosphere is assumed to deform by extensional faulting and magmatic intrusions, consistent with observations of deformation processes occurring at slow spreading ocean ridges (Cannat, 1996). Buoyancy enhanced upwelling is also included in the kinematic model as predicted by Braun et al (2000). We predict melt generation by decompressional melting using the parameterization and methodology of Katz et al., 2003. We use a series of numerical experiments, tested and calibrated against crustal thicknesses and subsidence observations, to determine the distribution of lithosphere

  6. The analysis of chemical zoning in a garnet population: Determination of the P-T-t path of Grenvillian metamorphism in southeastern Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarron, T.; Gaidies, F.

    2013-12-01

    Growth zoning developed in a population of garnet porphyroblasts of a metapelite from the Grenville Province of southeastern Ontario has been used to infer the metamorphic P-T-t history of the garnet-bearing rock. The sample is a garnet-biotite-staurolite bearing schist of the Flinton Group, a package of metasediments in southeastern Ontario metamorphosed during the Grenville Orogeny between ca. 1080-980 Ma. Characterization of the garnet population with high-resolution X-ray micro-computed tomography revealed a unimodal, slightly positively skewed crystal size distribution (CSD). A representative set of garnet porphyroblasts ranging from 4000 to 200 μm in diameter from the different size classes of the CSD were centrally sectioned. Electron probe micro analyses across the centrally sectioned garnet porphyroblasts revealed decreasing Xsps and Xgrs and increasing Xalm and Xpyp from core to rim consistent with growth zoning. Garnet growth simulations with THERIA_G (Gaidies et al., 2008) successfully reproduced the observed growth zoning in the differently sized grains allowing to derive a significant part of the rock's metamorphic P-T-t history. Large porphyroblasts of the population were used to determine a clockwise P-T path over the interval 3.7 to 5.9 kbar and 512 to 615°C whereas modification of growth zoning via intracrystalline diffusion in relatively small porphyroblasts was used to infer an average heating rate of 2°C Ma-1. This suggests a timescale of ca. 53 Ma for garnet growth and an average growth rate of 30 μm Ma-1. Using LA-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronology, a major age population at 977×4 Ma was identified for metamorphic monazite commonly included in the outer 200 μm of the garnet grains. That age is interpreted to represent monazite growth at the expense of allanite and apatite late in garnet's growth history providing an absolute calibration for the relative timescales predicted through THERIA_G modeling. Gaidies, F., de Capitani, C. & Abart, R

  7. Constitutional Issues--Watergate and the Constitution. Teaching with Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.

    When U.S. President Richard Nixon resigned in 1974 in the wake of the Watergate scandal, it was only the second time that impeachment of a president had been considered. Although the U.S. Constitution has provisions for a person removed from office to be indicted, there are no guidelines in the Constitution about a President who has resigned. The…

  8. Trace element behavior and P-T-t evolution during partial melting of exhumed eclogite in the North Qaidam UHPM belt (NW China): Implications for adakite genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guibin; Niu, Yaoling; Song, Shuguang; Zhang, Lifei; Tian, Zuolin; Christy, Andrew G.; Han, Lei

    2015-06-01

    We have studied trace element behavior and timing of decompression melting of UHP rocks during exhumation recorded in the magmatic products, i.e., the melt phase (leucosomes), cumulate (garnetite) and residue (amphibolitized eclogite) from a single outcrop in the south Dulan area, North Qaidam UHPM belt, NW China. Two distinct episodes of partial melting are recognized. First, Grt-free tonalitic-trondhjemitic leucosome melts with higher silica crystallized at 424.0 ± 2.7 Ma. Garnets grew in the leucosome melt but fractionated out to form garnetite cumulates along with Ti-rich phases (rutile and titanite), strengthening the adakitic signature of the leucosome. Later Grt-bearing leucosome melts with an age of 412.4 ± 2.9 Ma cross-cut boudins and layers of amphibolitized eclogite. Geochemical investigation of bulk-rocks and in situ minerals verifies the genetic relationship between the amphibolitized eclogite and the tonalitic-trondhjemitic melts. Zircons from the amphibolitized eclogite have older (> 700 Ma) protolith ages, with subsequent eclogite-facies metamorphism, retrograde granulite-facies overprinting and partial melting. Phase modeling and Zr-in-rutile thermometry calculations in combination with zircon geochronology reveal the evolution P-T-t path for the exhumation and the partial melting of the deeply subducted continental crust at the North Qaidam subduction zone in the Early Paleozoic.

  9. The Constitution and Citizenship Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Rebecca S.

    The paper takes the position that the study and understanding of the United States Constitution should be a critical part of citizenship education, especially as its Bicentennial approaches. Several factors suggest that the Constitution has become the most durable document of its kind in history, and that its teaching should be centered in both…

  10. The Constitution and American Radicalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobel, Jules

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the history of the following movements' attitudes towards the Constitution: (1) abolition; (2) feminism; (3) trade unions; (4) socialism and communism; and (5) civil rights and anti-war. Maintains that the tensions in these movements' towards the Constitution represent basic contradictions in the document itself. (PS)

  11. How Capitalistic Is the Constitution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldwin, Robert A., Ed.; Schambra, William A., Ed.

    Second in a three-part series designed to help prepare the nation for a thoughtful observance of the Constitutional bicentennial, this publication contains seven essays on the topic of capitalism and the Constitution. "American Democracy and the Acquisitive Spirit" (Marc F. Plattner) supports the argument that the framers of the Constitution…

  12. The Constitution and Its Critics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    In planning a freshman undergraduate curriculum with colleagues recently, the question arose as to what type of understanding educators wanted to impart to their students about the Constitution. The alleged defects of the Constitution that these books point to are wide-ranging and can be classified into various categories. Some problems--such as…

  13. Reordering American Constitutional Law Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Scott D.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that constitutional law is the cornerstone of an undergraduate public law curriculum. Asserts that there is a welcome trend toward teaching the subject over a two-semester sequence, instead of only one. Describes course content and teaching strategies used in a college constitutional law course. (CFR)

  14. Constitutional Law and Liberal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clor, Harry

    1985-01-01

    By studying constitutional law, students learn about the relationship between democratic theory and practice, one of the main concerns of liberal education. The mind is enlarged when it must apply ethical standards and political ideas to real human problems. How a political science professor teaches constitutional law is discussed. (RM)

  15. Constitutive relations in optics in terms of geometric algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dargys, A.

    2015-11-01

    To analyze the electromagnetic wave propagation in a medium the Maxwell equations should be supplemented by constitutive relations. At present the classification of linear constitutive relations is well established in tensorial-matrix and exterior p-form calculus. Here the constitutive relations are found in the context of Clifford geometric algebra. For this purpose Cl1,3 algebra that conforms with relativistic 4D Minkowskian spacetime is used. It is shown that the classification of linear optical phenomena with the help of constitutive relations in this case comes from the structure of Cl1,3 algebra itself. Concrete expressions for constitutive relations which follow from this algebra are presented. They can be applied in calculating the propagation properties of electromagnetic waves in any anisotropic, linear and nondissipative medium.

  16. The anisotropic material constitutive models for the human cornea.

    PubMed

    Li, Long-yuan; Tighe, Brian

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents an anisotropic analysis model for the human cornea. The model is based on the assumption that the fibrils in the cornea are organised into lamellae, which may have preferential orientation along the superior-inferior and nasal-temporal directions, while the alignment of lamellae with different orientations is assumed to be random. Hence, the cornea can be regarded as a laminated composite shell. The constitutive equation describing the relationships between membrane forces, bending moments, and membrane strains, bending curvatures are derived. The influences of lamella orientations and the random alignment of lamellae on the stiffness coefficients of the constitutive equation are discussed. PMID:16426861

  17. Probabilistic constitutive relationships for material strength degradation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, L.; Chamis, C. C.

    1989-01-01

    In the present probabilistic methodology for the strength of aerospace propulsion system structural components subjected to such environmentally-induced primitive variables as loading stresses, high temperature, chemical corrosion, and radiation, time is encompassed as an interacting element, allowing the projection of creep and fatigue effects. A probabilistic constitutive equation is postulated to account for the degradation of strength due to these primitive variables which may be calibrated by an appropriately curve-fitted least-squares multiple regression of experimental data. The resulting probabilistic constitutive equation is embodied in the PROMISS code for aerospace propulsion component random strength determination.

  18. Development of a Pressure-Dependent Constitutive Model with Combined Multilinear Kinematic and Isotropic Hardening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen Phillip A.; Wilson, Christopher D.

    2003-01-01

    The development of a pressure-dependent constitutive model with combined multilinear kinematic and isotropic hardening is presented. The constitutive model is developed using the ABAQUS user material subroutine (UMAT). First the pressure-dependent plasticity model is derived. Following this, the combined bilinear and combined multilinear hardening equations are developed for von Mises plasticity theory. The hardening rule equations are then modified to include pressure dependency. The method for implementing the new constitutive model into ABAQUS is given.

  19. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials (HOST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, Ulric S.; Chan, Kwai S.; Bodner, S. R.; Weber, R. M.; Walker, K. P.; Cassenti, B. N.

    1984-01-01

    The results of the first year of work on a program to validate unified constitutive models for isotropic materials utilized in high temperature regions of gas turbine engines and to demonstrate their usefulness in computing stress-strain-time-temperature histories in complex three-dimensional structural components. The unified theories combine all inelastic strain-rate components in a single term avoiding, for example, treating plasticity and creep as separate response phenomena. An extensive review of existing unified theories is given and numerical methods for integrating these stiff time-temperature-dependent constitutive equations are discussed. Two particular models, those developed by Bodner and Partom and by Walker, were selected for more detailed development and evaluation against experimental tensile, creep and cyclic strain tests on specimens of a cast nickel base alloy, B19000+Hf. Initial results comparing computed and test results for tensile and cyclic straining for temperature from ambient to 982 C and strain rates from 10(exp-7) 10(exp-3) s(exp-1) are given. Some preliminary date correlations are presented also for highly non-proportional biaxial loading which demonstrate an increase in biaxial cyclic hardening rate over uniaxial or proportional loading conditions. Initial work has begun on the implementation of both constitutive models in the MARC finite element computer code.

  20. Remarks on turbulent constitutive relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Lumley, John L.

    1993-01-01

    The paper demonstrates that the concept of turbulent constitutive relations can be used to construct general models for various turbulent correlations. Some of the Generalized Cayley-Hamilton formulas for relating tensor products of higher extension to tensor products of lower extension are introduced. The combination of dimensional analysis and invariant theory can lead to 'turbulent constitutive relations' (or general turbulence models) for, in principle, any turbulent correlations. As examples, the constitutive relations for Reynolds stresses and scalar fluxes are derived. The results are consistent with ones from Renormalization Group (RNG) theory and two-scale Direct-Interaction Approximation (DIA) method, but with a more general form.

  1. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  2. The Constitution's Prescription for Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Lucinda

    1986-01-01

    Examines how the framers of the Constitution came to choose our system of government, how that system was designed to function, and how the separation of powers has served to maintain our democracy despite attempts to violate it. (JDH)

  3. Are Sanctions on Employers Constitutional?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gollobin, Ira

    1988-01-01

    Questions the constitutional validity of employer sanctions used to deter illegal immigration under the Immigration Reform and Control Act. Points out the anomaly of using criminal penalties to deter a civil, administrative violation. (FMW)

  4. Using subsidence and P-T-t history on the Alpine Tethys margin to constrain lithosphere deformation modes during continental breakup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanniot, Ludovic; Kusznir, Nick; Manatschal, Gianreto; Mohn, Geoffroy; Beltrando, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Mantle exhumation and hyper-extended crust, as observed on the Iberia-Newfoundland conjugate margins, are key components of both present-day and fossil analogue magma-poor rifted margins. Conceptual models of the Alpine Tethys paleogeography evolution show a complex subsidence history, determined by the nature and composition of sedimentary, crustal and mantle rocks in the Alpine domains (Mohn et al., 2010). The relative timing of crustal rupture and decompressional melt initiation and inherited mantle composition control whether mantle exhumation may occur; the presence or absence of exhumed mantle therefore provides useful information on the timing of these events and constraints on lithosphere deformation modes and composition. A single mode of lithosphere deformation leading to continental breakup and sea-floor spreading cannot explain observations. We have determined the sequence of lithosphere deformation modes for the fossil Alpine Tethys margin using a numerical model of the temporal and spatial evolution of lithosphere deformation; the model has been calibrated against observations of subsidence and P-T-t history for the Alpine Tethys margin. A 2D finite element viscous flow model (FeMargin) is used to generate flow fields for a sequence of lithosphere deformation modes, which are used to advect lithosphere and asthenosphere temperature and material. FeMargin is kinematically driven by divergent deformation in the topmost 15-20 km of the lithosphere inducing passive upwelling beneath that layer; the upper lithosphere is assumed to deform by extensional faulting and magmatic intrusions, consistent with observations of deformation processes occurring at slow spreading ocean ridges (Cannat, 1996). We also include buoyancy enhanced upwelling in the kinematic model as proposed by Braun et al. (2000). We generate melt by decompressional melting using the parameterization and methodology of Katz et al. (2003). In the modelling of the Alpine Tethys margin

  5. Wealth of P-T-t information in medium-high grade metapelites: Example from the Jubrique Unit of the Betic Cordillera, S Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massonne, Hans-Joachim

    2014-11-01

    It is demonstrated here that medium-high grade metapsammopelites contain a wealth of information to derive a well-constrained P-T-t path relevant for the understanding of the geodynamics resulting in a collisional orogen. The presented example is related to three samples from the Migmatite gneiss zone of the Jubrique Unit, being part of the Alpujárride Complex half way between Malaga and Cadiz. The rocks were studied to determine their pressure (P)-temperature (T) evolution mainly on the basis of the zonation of mm-sized garnet and contoured P-T pseudosections calculated with PERPLE_X. In addition, monazite was dated with the electron microprobe. Ca-poor garnet cores yielded granulite-facies P-T conditions around 0.7 GPa and 800 °C. This metamorphic event occurred in late Hercynian times [287 ± 9 (2σ) Ma] according to monazite enclosed in such garnet cores. The cores are surrounded by a Ca-richer garnet zone, which points to a high-pressure (HP) event close to 1.3 GPa and temperatures above 650 °C. At this stage, melting occurred as indicated by abundant melt inclusions in the Ca-rich garnet zone. Subsequently, the rocks were exhumed and heated to peak temperatures of 740 °C. The final metamorphic stage is characterised by late sillimanite and an outermost garnet rim which is poor in Ca. The melting event is late Alpine confirmed by age dating on monazite in the rock matrix. Similar conditions of a late Alpine HP event were also reported from other areas of the Alpujárride Complex. As the studied rocks never reached P-T conditions of the diamond stability field, it is concluded that the previously reported nanodiamonds in these rocks either grew metastably or were artificially introduced into rock thin-sections.

  6. Constitutive Theory for Velocity Dispersion in Rock with Dual Porosity

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H F; Berryman, J G

    2002-03-28

    The high frequency behavior of the bulk modulus of fluid-saturated rock can be obtained from a double-porosity constitutive model, which is a direct conceptual extension of Biot's (1941) constitutive equations and which provides additional stiffening due to unrelaxed induced pore pressures in the soft porosity phase. Modeling the stiffening of the shear modulus at high frequency requires an effective medium average over the unequal induced pore pressures in cracks of different orientations. The implicit assumptions are that pore fluid equilibration does not occur between cracks of different orientations and between cracks and porous matrix. The correspondence between the constitutive equations of Berryman and Wang (1995) and Mavko and Jizba (1991) is explicitly noted.

  7. Constitutive representation of damage development and healing in WIPP salt

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, K.S.; Bodner, S.R.; Fossum, A.F

    1994-12-31

    There has been considerable interest in characterizing and modeling the constitutive behavior of rock salt with particular reference to long-term creep and creep failure. The interest is motivated by the projected use of excavated rooms in salt rock formations as repositories for nuclear waste. It is presumed that closure of those rooms by creep ultimately would encapsulate the waste material, resulting in its effective isolation. A continuum mechanics approach for treating damage healing is formulated as part of a constitutive model for describing coupled creep, fracture, and healing in rock salt. Formulation of the healing term is, described and the constitutive model is evaluated against experimental data of rock salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. The results indicate that healing anistropy in WIPP salt can be modeled with an appropriate power-conjugate equivalent stress, kinetic equation, and evolution equation for damage healing.

  8. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, Ulric S.

    1985-01-01

    The objective is to develop a unified constitutive model for finite element structural analysis of turbine engine hot-section components. This effort constitutes a different approach for non-linear finite-element computer codes which have heretofore been based on classical inelastic methods. The unified constitutive theory to be developed will avoid the simplifying assumptions of classical theory and should more accurately represent the behavior of superalloy materials under cyclic loading conditions and high temperature environments. During the first two years of the program, extensive experimental correlations were made with two representative unified models. The experiments were both uniaxial and biaxial at temperatures up to 1093 C (2000 F). In addition, the unified models were adopted to the MARC finite element code and used for stress analysis of notched bar and turbine blade geometries.

  9. Activities report of PTT Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In the field of postal infrastructure research, activities were performed on postcode readers, radiolabels, and techniques of operations research and artificial intelligence. In the field of telecommunication, transportation, and information, research was made on multipurpose coding schemes, speech recognition, hypertext, a multimedia information server, security of electronic data interchange, document retrieval, improvement of the quality of user interfaces, domotics living support (techniques), and standardization of telecommunication prototcols. In the field of telecommunication infrastructure and provisions research, activities were performed on universal personal telecommunications, advanced broadband network technologies, coherent techniques, measurement of audio quality, near field facilities, local beam communication, local area networks, network security, coupling of broadband and narrowband integrated services digital networks, digital mapping, and standardization of protocols.

  10. Take Advantage of Constitution Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCune, Bonnie F.

    2008-01-01

    The announcement of the mandate for Constitution and Citizenship Day shortly before September, 2005, probably led to groans of dismay. Not another "must-do" for teachers and schools already stressed by federal and state requirements for standardized tests, increasingly rigid curricula, and scrutiny from the public and officials. But the idea and…

  11. Lazy Elephants and the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, James

    1989-01-01

    Depicts an eighth grade unit utilizing the production of a newspaper to teach U.S. history, 1787 to 1791, in a combined social studies and language arts class at Malcolm Price Laboratory School (Iowa). Two teachers used both large- and small-group instruction to focus on the development of the U.S. Constitution. (LS)

  12. Constitutional Reform of School Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Kern, Ed.; Jordan, K. Forbis, Ed.

    This book contains conference papers by experts in educational administration, law, and economics. Six of the papers are devoted to a legal analysis of fiscal inequality among school attendance units, school districts, and States. These contributions are: (1) K. Forbis Jordan and Kern Alexander, "Constitutional Methods of Financing Public…

  13. A Venture in Constitutional Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, W. Graham; Dillon, Dorothy H.

    1980-01-01

    Senior high girls and boys from two single-sex schools undertook a study of a Supreme Court case that provided insight not only into constitutional law and history but also into how men and women can work together and relate in other ways than dating. (DS)

  14. Multiaxial probabilistic elastic-plastic constitutive simulations of soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadrinezhad, Arezoo

    Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov (FPK) equation approach has recently been developed to simulate elastic-plastic constitutive behaviors of materials with uncertain material properties. The FPK equation approach transforms the stochastic constitutive rate equation, which is a stochastic, nonlinear, ordinary differential equation (ODE) in the stress-pseudo time space into a second-order accurate, deterministic, linear FPK partial differential equation (PDE) in the probability density of stress-pseudo time space. This approach does not suffer from the drawbacks of the traditional approaches such as the Monte Carlo approach and the perturbation approach for solving nonlinear ODEs with random coefficients. In this study, the existing one dimensional FPK framework for probabilistic constitutive modeling of soils is extended to multi--dimension. However, the multivariate FPK PDEs cannot be solved using the traditional mathematical techniques such as finite difference techniques due to their high computational cost. Therefore, computationally efficient algorithms based on the Fourier spectral approach are developed for solving a class of FPK PDEs that arises in probabilistic elasto-plasticity. This class includes linear FPK PDEs in (stress) space and (pseudo) time - having space-independent but time-dependent, and both space- and time-dependent coefficients - with impulse initial conditions and reflecting boundary conditions. The solution algorithms, rely on first mapping the stress space of the governing PDE between 0 and 2pi using the change of coordinates rule, followed by approximating the solution of the PDE in the 2pi-periodic domain by a finite Fourier series in the stress space and unknown time-dependent solution coefficients. Finally, the time-dependent solution coefficients are obtained from the initial condition. The accuracy and efficiency of the developed algorithms are tested. The developed algorithms are used to simulate uniaxial and multiaxial, monotonic and cyclic

  15. Sex Differences in Constitutive Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Oliván, Sara; Calvo, Ana Cristina; Manzano, Raquel; Zaragoza, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Sex bias has been described nowadays in biomedical research on animal models, although sexual dimorphism has been confirmed widely under pathological and physiological conditions. The main objective of our work was to study the sex differences in constitutive autophagy in spinal cord and skeletal muscle tissue from wild type mice. To examine the influence of sex on autophagy, mRNA and proteins were extracted from male and female mice tissues. The expressions of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and sequestosome 1 (p62), markers to monitor autophagy, were analyzed at 40, 60, 90, and 120 days of age. We found significant sex differences in the expression of LC3 and p62 in both tissues at these ages. The results indicated that sex and tissue specific differences exist in constitutive autophagy. These data underlined the need to include both sexes in the experimental groups to minimize any sex bias. PMID:24719882

  16. [Women, gender, and the Constitution].

    PubMed

    1993-12-01

    Although all the constitutions of Latin America directly or indirectly acknowledge the juridical equality of the sexes, these patriarchal societies continue to maintain institutional power in male hands and to neutralize legal actions favoring women. International instruments such as the Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, approved by the UN in 1979, have given a firmer basis to policies and actions to improve the status of women. Obstacles to full equality of Latin American women are rooted in economic and sociopolitical factors, but lack of true political will also plays a significant role. A number of new laws in the past several years as well as the new Constitution have improved the legal position of Colombian women. The new Constitution recognizes fundamental rights that may be claimed directly before a judge, and social, economic, and collective rights requiring legislative development. Article 43 of the new Constitution states that women will not be subjected to any form of discrimination. Another norm states that women will enjoy special assistance and protection before and after childbirth, in recognition of the social functions of maternity. Article 43 also states that women who are heads of households will receive special assistance, but the corresponding regulations have not yet been promulgated. The mechanism of tutelage has become an important recourse that has been used in several cases in which fundamental rights of women have been violated or threatened because of their sex. The order of tutelage has been used in cases of adolescents expelled from school for pregnancy and of abused wives, as well as to force recognition of the social and economic contributions of housework. PMID:12287889

  17. Evaluation for rheological constitutive relations, using the indentation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Lei

    1992-01-01

    A simple experimental method of determining the rheological constitutive relations is proposed. The method relies upon an analysis of the frictionless contact of a rigid spherical indenter and the rheological materials. The proposal addresses problems in two fields: rheological constitutive models and contact mechanics. It attempts to evaluate the rheological constitutive relations using an indentation technique. A systematic, optimization-based material parameter/function indentation model is proposed. The identification algorithm is based on a modified Marquardt-Levenberg method. A new integral constitutive equation for viscoelastic materials is derived. The derivation is carried out so that a damage function is included in the model in a relatively convenient form. Inclusion of damage effects makes this constitutive equation considerably more general than the widely accepted K-BKZ integral model. The single-step and double-step stress relaxation indentation experiments on asphalt materials were performed. The K-BKZ, Wagner, and nonlinear Volterra models were evaluated. It is demonstrated that the new integral constitutive model shows a very good agreement with the experimental data. The idea of damage function is introduced not only to have a better fit of data, but the damage (or irreversibility) is observed experimentally. Also, the creep indentation tests on composites were presented. A multiaxial theory of creep deformation for particle-strengthened metal matrix composites (Zhu-Weng Theory) was evaluated. The goal of the proposed research is to develop the indentation technique for use in basic mechanical studies. From the indentation test, material response is measured. The data are used in conjunction with the material parameter identification model to optimally back calculate the constitutive relations.

  18. The Constitution: Perspectives on Contemporary American Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close Up Foundation, Arlington, VA.

    Four articles expressing the views of nine prominent United States citizens about the Constitution provide a context for reflecting on the meaning of the Constitution in present-day America. In "Why Has the Constitution Endured So Long?" Don Edwards, chairman of the House Civil and Constitutional Rights Subcommittee, discusses why the Constitution…

  19. The Friningen Garnet Peridotite (central Swedish Caledonides). A good example of the characteristic PTt path of a cold mantle wedge garnet peridotite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilio, Mattia; Clos, Frediano; van Roermund, Herman L. M.

    2015-08-01

    -bearing subduction zone fluids. The well-defined PTt-deformation path of the FGP resembles that of a mantle wedge garnet peridotite. The M1 assemblage originates from the base of a cold, old and thick subcontinental lithospheric mantle that is inferred to extend asymmetrically leading to extreme exhumation of FGP down to lithospheric conditions around 1.5 GPa and 850-900 °C. After that the FGP became incorporated into the subducting continental crust of the SNC during "early-Caledonian" subduction (M2) down to UHPM conditions (800 °C/3.0 GPa), subsequently followed by eduction back to sub-crustal levels. As such, FGP is the first locality in the Swedish Caledonides from which two UHP metamorphic events are described, the first event can be related to the formation of an ancient (> 1.0 Ga) lithosphere underneath a craton (Rodinia) and the second is of early-Caledonian age.

  20. A constitutive function for the heat flux in short-fiber-reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Heiko

    2015-12-01

    A constitutive function for heat flux in short-fiber-reinforced composites is developed. The fiber orientation distribution is considered using second-order orientation tensor; therefore, the constitutive function for the heat flux will depend on the orientation tensor. The resulting orthotropic equation is discussed also in the context of energy efficiency of buildings.

  1. Constitutive relations associated with the Mott-Smith distribution function

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nathenson, M.; Baganoff, D.

    1973-01-01

    It is shown that the distribution function assumed by Mott-Smith determines a unique relation between heat flux, stress, and fluid velocity given by q = (3/2)??u, i.e., it provides a constitutive relation for heat flux, and it also determines a simple expression for this ratio of third-order central moments Q = . These expressions allow the equation of transfer for c x2 to be cast in a form that yields a nonlinear constitutive relation for stress. The results obtained from the Mott-Smith ansatz are compared with the theory of Baganoff and Nathenson and results from a numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation for shock-wave structure obtained by Hicks and Yen.

  2. CONSTITUTIVE BEHAVIOR OF AS-QUENCHED Al-Cu-Mn ALLOY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xia-Wei; Zhu, Jing-Chuan; Nong, Zhi-Sheng; Ye, Mao; Lai, Zhong-Hong; Liu, Yong

    2013-07-01

    The hot flow stress of as-quenched Al-Cu-Mn alloy was modeled using the constitutive equations. The as-quenched Al-Cu-Mn alloy were treated with isothermal hot compression tests in the temperature range of 350-500°C, the strain rate range of 0.001-1 s-1. The hyperbolic sine equation was found to be appropriate for flow stress modeling and prediction. Based on the hyperbolic sine equation, a constitutive equation is a relation between 0.2 pct yield stress and deformation conditions (strain rate and deformation temperature) was established. The corresponding hot deformation activation energy (Q) for as-quenched Al-Cu-Mn alloy was determined to be 251.314 kJ/mol. Parameters of constitutive equation of as-quenched Al-Cu-Mn alloy were calculated at different small strains (≤ 0.01). The calculated flow stresses from the constitutive equation are in good agreement with the experimental results. Therefore, this constitutive equation can be used as an accurate temperature-stress model to solve the problems of quench distortion of Al-Cu-Mn alloy parts.

  3. Unborn children as constitutional persons.

    PubMed

    Roden, Gregory J

    2010-01-01

    In Roe v. Wade, the state of Texas argued that "the fetus is a 'person' within the language and meaning of the Fourteenth Amendment." To which Justice Harry Blackmun responded, "If this suggestion of personhood is established, the appellant's case, of course, collapses, for the fetus' right to life would then be guaranteed specifically by the Amendment." However, Justice Blackmun then came to the conclusion "that the word 'person,' as used in the Fourteenth Amendment, does not include the unborn." In this article, it is argued that unborn children are indeed "persons" within the language and meaning of the Fourteenth and Fifth Amendments. As there is no constitutional text explicitly holding unborn children to be, or not to be, "persons," this argument will be based on the "historical understanding and practice, the structure of the Constitution, and thejurisprudence of [the Supreme] Court." Specifically, it is argued that the Constitution does not confer upon the federal government a specifically enumerated power to grant or deny "personhood" under the Fourteenth Amendment. Rather, the power to recognize or deny unborn children as the holders of rights and duties has been historically exercised by the states. The Roe opinion and other Supreme Court cases implicitly recognize this function of state sovereignty. The states did exercise this power and held unborn children to be persons under the property, tort, and criminal law of the several states at the time Roe was decided. As an effect of the unanimity of the states in holding unborn children to be persons under criminal, tort, and property law, the text of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment compels federal protection of unborn persons. Furthermore, to the extent Justice Blackmun examined the substantive law in these disciplines, his findings are clearly erroneous and as a whole amount to judicial error. Moreover, as a matter of procedure, according to the due process standards recognized in

  4. Rate constitutive theories for ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids: polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surana, K. S.; Nunez, D.; Reddy, J. N.; Romkes, A.

    2013-03-01

    of thermodynamics provides no mechanism for deriving the constitutive theories for the deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor. In the development of the constitutive theories in Eulerian description, the covariant and contravariant convected coordinate systems and Jaumann measures are natural choices. Furthermore, the mathematical models for fluids require Eulerian description in which material point displacements are not measurable. This precludes the use of displacement gradients, i.e., strain measures, in the development of the constitutive theories. It is shown that compatible conjugate pairs of convected time derivatives of the deviatoric Cauchy stress and strain measures in co-, contravariant and Jaumann bases in conjunction with the theory of generators and invariants provide a general mathematical framework for the development of constitutive theories for ordered thermofluids in Eulerian description. This framework has a foundation based on the basic principles and axioms of continuum mechanics, but the resulting constitutive theories for the deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor must satisfy the condition of positive work expanded, a requirement resulting from the entropy inequality. The paper presents a general theory of constitutive equations for ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids which is then specialized to obtain commonly used constitutive equations for Maxwell, Giesekus and Oldroyd-B constitutive models in contra- and covariant bases and using Jaumann rates.

  5. Rate constitutive theories for ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids: polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surana, K. S.; Nunez, D.; Reddy, J. N.; Romkes, A.

    2014-03-01

    law of thermodynamics provides no mechanism for deriving the constitutive theories for the deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor. In the development of the constitutive theories in Eulerian description, the covariant and contravariant convected coordinate systems and Jaumann measures are natural choices. Furthermore, the mathematical models for fluids require Eulerian description in which material point displacements are not measurable. This precludes the use of displacement gradients, i.e., strain measures, in the development of the constitutive theories. It is shown that compatible conjugate pairs of convected time derivatives of the deviatoric Cauchy stress and strain measures in co-, contravariant and Jaumann bases in conjunction with the theory of generators and invariants provide a general mathematical framework for the development of constitutive theories for ordered thermofluids in Eulerian description. This framework has a foundation based on the basic principles and axioms of continuum mechanics, but the resulting constitutive theories for the deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor must satisfy the condition of positive work expanded, a requirement resulting from the entropy inequality. The paper presents a general theory of constitutive equations for ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids which is then specialized to obtain commonly used constitutive equations for Maxwell, Giesekus and Oldroyd-B constitutive models in contra- and covariant bases and using Jaumann rates.

  6. Fractional transport equation on random fractals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Qiuhua; Li, Houqiang; Fang, Yaquan

    1998-12-01

    According to the ways of H.E. Roman and M. Giona with the constitutive equation of diffusive particles in isotropic and homogeneous three dimensions and the Laplace transform we derive the multiscaling fractional transport equation in disordered fractal media, whose solution is consistent with literature results.

  7. Teaching Equations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nibbelink, William H.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed is a gradual transition from arithmetic to the idea of an equation with variables in the elementary grades. Vertical and horizontal formats of open sentences, the instructional sequence, vocabulary, and levels of understanding are discussed in this article. (KR)

  8. Written Constitution or None: Which Works Better?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowen, Zelman

    1987-01-01

    Explores the differences between the U.S. Constitution and British constitutional law. Specifically examines the concept of the U.S. Bill of Rights in relation to the United Kingdom common law doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty. (BSR)

  9. Asymptotic-preserving Boltzmann model equations for binary gas mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sha; Liang, Yihua

    2016-02-01

    An improved system of Boltzmann model equations is developed for binary gas mixture. This system of model equations has a complete asymptotic preserving property that can strictly recover the Navier-Stokes equations in the continuum limit with the correct constitutive relations and the correct viscosity, thermal conduction, diffusion, and thermal diffusion coefficients. In this equation system, the self- and cross-collision terms in Boltzmann equations are replaced by single relaxation terms. In monocomponent case, this system of equations can be reduced to the commonly used Shakhov equation. The conservation property and the H theorem which are important for model equations are also satisfied by this system of model equations.

  10. Asymptotic-preserving Boltzmann model equations for binary gas mixture.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sha; Liang, Yihua

    2016-02-01

    An improved system of Boltzmann model equations is developed for binary gas mixture. This system of model equations has a complete asymptotic preserving property that can strictly recover the Navier-Stokes equations in the continuum limit with the correct constitutive relations and the correct viscosity, thermal conduction, diffusion, and thermal diffusion coefficients. In this equation system, the self- and cross-collision terms in Boltzmann equations are replaced by single relaxation terms. In monocomponent case, this system of equations can be reduced to the commonly used Shakhov equation. The conservation property and the H theorem which are important for model equations are also satisfied by this system of model equations. PMID:26986408

  11. Nonlinear creep damage constitutive model for soft rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. Z.; Xie, H. Q.; He, J. D.; Xiao, M. L.; Zhuo, L.

    2016-06-01

    In some existing nonlinear creep damage models, it may be less rigorous to directly introduce a damage variable into the creep equation when the damage variable of the viscous component is a function of time or strain. In this paper, we adopt the Kachanov creep damage rate and introduce a damage variable into a rheological differential constitutive equation to derive an analytical integral solution for the creep damage equation of the Bingham model. We also propose a new nonlinear viscous component which reflects nonlinear properties related to the axial stress of soft rock in the steady-state creep stage. Furthermore, we build an improved Nishihara model by using this new component in series with the correctional Nishihara damage model that describes the accelerating creep, and deduce the rheological constitutive relation of the improved model. Based on superposition principle, we obtain the damage creep equation for conditions of both uniaxial and triaxial compression stress, and study the method for determining the model parameters. Finally, this paper presents the laboratory test results performed on mica-quartz schist in parallel with, or vertical to the schistosity direction, and applies the improved Nishihara model to the parameter identification of mica-quartz schist. Using a comparative analysis with test data, results show that the improved model has a superior ability to reflect the creep properties of soft rock in the decelerating creep stage, the steady-state creep stage, and particularly within the accelerating creep stage, in comparison with the traditional Nishihara model.

  12. 17 CFR 200.54 - Constitutional obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Constitutional obligations... ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.54 Constitutional... against any infringement of the constitutional rights, privileges, or immunities of those who are...

  13. The Constitutional Politics of Charitable Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knippenberg, Joseph M.

    2003-01-01

    Clarifies the constitutional issue raised by government efforts to cooperate with faith-based organizations, noting that while programs can be constitutional without necessarily being good public policy, too frequently political and constitutional controversies mix these two considerations, thus confusing those trying to understand and resolve…

  14. 32 CFR 536.42 - Constitutional torts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Constitutional torts. 536.42 Section 536.42... AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.42 Constitutional torts. A claim... any subpart. A constitutional claim will be scrutinized in order to determine whether it is totally...

  15. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm constitution. 718.201 Section 718.201 Agriculture... Reconstitution of Farms, Allotments, Quotas, and Bases § 718.201 Farm constitution. (a) In order to implement... this section. The constitution and identification of land as a farm for the first time and...

  16. American Focus on World Constitutions. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Stanley T., III

    This curriculum project was designed to familiarize high school students with their own constitutional roots while gaining a better understanding of governmental systems developed by other nations. The project uses the U.S. Constitution as a baseline for analyzing the constitutions of other nations, and is intended to supplement courses in such…

  17. About Our Constitution: 1787-1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for the Social Studies, Washington, DC.

    Designed to assist elementary school teachers, these materials present a series of lessons about the United States Constitution. Ten lesson plans and appropriate work sheets are included for grades K-3. The topics covered include the age of the Constitution, a constitutional convention, elected representatives, majority rule, voting, law making,…

  18. State Constitutional Law: Teaching and Scholarship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    State constitutional law is an emerging area for legal education, partly because of state supreme court decisions relying on state rather than federal constitutional law. Studying state constitutional law highlights similarities and diversity of legal and governmental systems. Interest in establishment of curricula and materials in state law is…

  19. 32 CFR 536.42 - Constitutional torts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.42 Constitutional torts. A claim for violation of the U.S. Constitution does not constitute a state tort and is not cognizable...

  20. 32 CFR 536.42 - Constitutional torts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.42 Constitutional torts. A claim for violation of the U.S. Constitution does not constitute a state tort and is not cognizable...

  1. Antithetical Ethics: Kenneth Burke and the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Virginia

    1995-01-01

    Shows how the textuality of the United States Constitution, the most venerable of classic democratic icons, might be exploited to nurture postmodern ethics. Shows how Kenneth Burke's reading of the Constitution accords with and augments the postmodern theories of J.-F. Lyotard and S. Jarratt. Discusses a postmodern Constitution and the…

  2. 32 CFR 536.42 - Constitutional torts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.42 Constitutional torts. A claim for violation of the U.S. Constitution does not constitute a state tort and is not cognizable...

  3. 32 CFR 536.42 - Constitutional torts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.42 Constitutional torts. A claim for violation of the U.S. Constitution does not constitute a state tort and is not cognizable...

  4. Constitutive behavior of as-cast AA1050, AA3104, and AA5182

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Haaften, W. M.; Magnin, B.; Kool, W. H.; Katgerman, L.

    2002-07-01

    Recent thermomechanical modeling to calculate the stress field in industrially direct-chill (DC) cast-aluminum slabs has been successful, but lack of material data limits the accuracy of these calculations. Therefore, the constitutive behavior of three aluminum alloys (AA1050, AA3104, and AA5182) was determined in the as-cast condition using tensile tests at low strain rates and from room temperature to solidus temperature. The parameters of two constitutive equations, the extended Ludwik equation and a combination of the Sellars-Tegart equation with a hardening law, were determined. In order to study the effect of recovery, the constitutive behavior after prestraining at higher temperatures was also investigated. To evaluate the quantified constitutive equations, tensile tests were performed simulating the deformation and cooling history experienced by the material during casting. It is concluded that both constitutive equations perform well, but the combined hardening-Sellars-Tegart (HST) equation has temperature-independent parameters, which makes it easier to implement in a DC casting model. Further, the deformation history of the ingot should be taken into account for accurate stress calculations.

  5. State Constitutionalism: Completing the Interdisciplinary Study of Constitutional Law and Political Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    Argues that a complete and accurate understanding of constitutional history and constitutional law requires the study of state constitutions. Maintains that state constitutions contain a coherent political theory that is, in important respects, at variance with the concept of federalism. (CFR)

  6. Constitutional and Non-Constitutional Governments...Similarities and Differences throughout History. Resource Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallasch, Brian Thomas

    This civic education resource packet is designed to provide teachers, community leaders, and other civic educators with an understanding of the differences between constitutional and non-constitutional governments. Six papers discussing the topic are included: "The Differences bewteen Constitutional and Non-Constitutional Governments" (John…

  7. 3 CFR 8418 - Proclamation 8418 of September 16, 2009. Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proclamation 8418 of September 16, 2009. Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2009 8418 Proclamation 8418 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8418 of September 16, 2009 Proc. 8418 Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2009By the President of...

  8. Beautiful equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viljamaa, Panu; Jacobs, J. Richard; Chris; JamesHyman; Halma, Matthew; EricNolan; Coxon, Paul

    2014-07-01

    In reply to a Physics World infographic (part of which is given above) about a study showing that Euler's equation was deemed most beautiful by a group of mathematicians who had been hooked up to a functional magnetic-resonance image (fMRI) machine while viewing mathematical expressions (14 May, http://ow.ly/xHUFi).

  9. Unified constitutive model for single crystal deformation behavior with applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, K. P.; Meyer, T. G.; Jordan, E. H.

    1988-01-01

    Single crystal materials are being used in gas turbine airfoils and are candidates for other hot section components because of their increased temperature capabilities and resistance to thermal fatigue. Development of a constitutive model which assesses the inelastic behavior of these materials has been studied in 2 NASA programs: Life Prediction and Constitutive Models for Engine Hot Section Anisotropic Materials and Biaxial Constitutive Equation Development for Single Crystals. The model has been fit to a large body of constitutive data for single crystal PWA 1480 material. The model uses a unified approach for computing total inelastic strains (creep plus plasticity) on crystallographic slip systems reproducing observed directional and strain rate effects as a natural consequence of the summed slip system quantities. The model includes several of the effects that have been reported to influence deformation in single crystal materials, such as shear stress, latent hardening, and cross slip. The model is operational in a commercial Finite Element code and is being installed in a Boundary Element Method code.

  10. Temperature Dependent Constitutive Modeling for Magnesium Alloy Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jong K.; Lee, June K.; Kim, Hyung S.; Kim, Heon Y.

    2010-06-15

    Magnesium alloys have been increasingly used in automotive and electronic industries because of their excellent strength to weight ratio and EMI shielding properties. However, magnesium alloys have low formability at room temperature due to their unique mechanical behavior (twinning and untwining), prompting for forming at an elevated temperature. In this study, a temperature dependent constitutive model for magnesium alloy (AZ31B) sheet is developed. A hardening law based on non linear kinematic hardening model is used to consider Bauschinger effect properly. Material parameters are determined from a series of uni-axial cyclic experiments (T-C-T or C-T-C) with the temperature ranging 150-250 deg. C. The influence of temperature on the constitutive equation is introduced by the material parameters assumed to be functions of temperature. Fitting process of the assumed model to measured data is presented and the results are compared.

  11. Temperature Dependent Constitutive Modeling for Magnesium Alloy Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong K.; Lee, June K.; Kim, Hyung S.; Kim, Heon Y.

    2010-06-01

    Magnesium alloys have been increasingly used in automotive and electronic industries because of their excellent strength to weight ratio and EMI shielding properties. However, magnesium alloys have low formability at room temperature due to their unique mechanical behavior (twinning and untwining), prompting for forming at an elevated temperature. In this study, a temperature dependent constitutive model for magnesium alloy (AZ31B) sheet is developed. A hardening law based on non linear kinematic hardening model is used to consider Bauschinger effect properly. Material parameters are determined from a series of uni-axial cyclic experiments (T-C-T or C-T-C) with the temperature ranging 150-250° C. The influence of temperature on the constitutive equation is introduced by the material parameters assumed to be functions of temperature. Fitting process of the assumed model to measured data is presented and the results are compared.

  12. Incremental constitutive formulation for time dependent materials: creep integral approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chazal, Claude; Moutou Pitti, Rostand

    2011-08-01

    This paper deals with the development of a mathematical approach for the solution of linear, non-ageing viscoelastic materials undergoing mechanical deformation. The formulation is derived from integral approach based on a discrete spectrum representation for the creep tensor. Finite difference integration is used to discretize the integral operators. The resulting constitutive model contains an internal state variable which represents the influence of the whole past history of stress and strain. Thus the difficulty of retaining the strain history in computer solutions is avoided. A complete general formulation of linear viscoelastic stress-strain analysis is developed in terms of increments of stresses and strains. Numerical simulations are included in order to validate the incremental constitutive equations.

  13. Fractional order viscoelasticity and theoretical progress in rheological constitutive law for rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawada, Y.; Yajima, T.; Nagahama, H.

    2010-12-01

    Fractional calculus has recently become an important tool in the analysis of relaxation phenomena, such as stress-strain relationships in composite materials. This is because the memory effect, an essence of viscoelasticity, cannot be entirely described by the empirical constitutive equations with the integer-order time derivative. We derive a generalized viscoelastic constitutive equation from an energy function with fractional-order time derivatives. The constitutive equation reduces the empirical models of viscoelasticity such as Maxwell, Kelvin-Voigt and Zener models and represents the relaxation behavior of any kind of viscoelastic materials such as polymer, metal and rocks, enabling us to investigate the time-dependent property of relaxation and the origin of power-law dynamics. The constitutive equation is a differential equation with fractional order, and taking the Laplace transformations yield solutions with the Mittag-Leffler function having the asymptotic behavior of temporal power-law. The constitutive equation is hence equivalent to the Boltzmann superposition integral (a definition of the viscoelastic behavior) with power-law kernel, i.e., the Green’s function exhibiting temporal power-law relaxation, and in its special case, the kernel becomes an exponential function having a characteristic time. We also analyze experimental data sets on the deformation of rocks such as halite and lherzolite exhibiting the empirical flow-law (the power-law scaling between bulk stress and strain-rate) and show that the behaviors can be described by the viscoelastic constitutive equation with fractional-order derivatives as well. The order of fractional derivative is identical to the reciprocal of stress exponent of flow law reflecting the memory effect in viscoelasticity and the deformation mechanisms of rocks. It is also denoted that the power-law scaling in viscoelastic behavior of rocks is related to aspects of crustal fluid dynamics and change in atmospheric

  14. Marcus equation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1998-09-21

    In the late 1950s to early 1960s Rudolph A. Marcus developed a theory for treating the rates of outer-sphere electron-transfer reactions. Outer-sphere reactions are reactions in which an electron is transferred from a donor to an acceptor without any chemical bonds being made or broken. (Electron-transfer reactions in which bonds are made or broken are referred to as inner-sphere reactions.) Marcus derived several very useful expressions, one of which has come to be known as the Marcus cross-relation or, more simply, as the Marcus equation. It is widely used for correlating and predicting electron-transfer rates. For his contributions to the understanding of electron-transfer reactions, Marcus received the 1992 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. This paper discusses the development and use of the Marcus equation. Topics include self-exchange reactions; net electron-transfer reactions; Marcus cross-relation; and proton, hydride, atom and group transfers.

  15. Marcus equation

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    In the late 1950s to early 1960s Rudolph A. Marcus developed a theory for treating the rates of outer-sphere electron-transfer reactions. Outer-sphere reactions are reactions in which an electron is transferred from a donor to an acceptor without any chemical bonds being made or broken. (Electron-transfer reactions in which bonds are made or broken are referred to as inner-sphere reactions.) Marcus derived several very useful expressions, one of which has come to be known as the Marcus cross-relation or, more simply, as the Marcus equation. It is widely used for correlating and predicting electron-transfer rates. For his contributions to the understanding of electron-transfer reactions, Marcus received the 1992 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. This paper discusses the development and use of the Marcus equation. Topics include self-exchange reactions; net electron-transfer reactions; Marcus cross-relation; and proton, hydride, atom and group transfers.

  16. Defining the criteria for identifying constitutional epimutations.

    PubMed

    Sloane, Mathew A; Ward, Robyn L; Hesson, Luke B

    2016-01-01

    In the January 2016 issue of Clinical Epigenetics, Quiñonez-Silva et al. (Clin Epigenetics 8:1, 2016) described a possible constitutional epimutation of the RB1 gene as a cause of hereditary predisposition to retinoblastoma. The term constitutional epimutation describes an epigenetic aberration in normal tissues that predisposes to disease. The data presented by Quiñonez-Silva et al. are interesting, but further analysis is required to demonstrate a constitutional epimutation in this family. Here, we define the criteria and describe the experimental approach necessary to identify an epigenetic aberration as a constitutional epimutation. PMID:27096027

  17. Testing of constitutive models in LAME.

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Scherzinger, William Mark

    2007-09-01

    Constitutive models for computational solid mechanics codes are in LAME--the Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering. These models describe complex material behavior and are used in our finite deformation solid mechanics codes. To ensure the correct implementation of these models, regression tests have been created for constitutive models in LAME. A selection of these tests is documented here. Constitutive models are an important part of any solid mechanics code. If an analysis code is meant to provide accurate results, the constitutive models that describe the material behavior need to be implemented correctly. Ensuring the correct implementation of constitutive models is the goal of a testing procedure that is used with the Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering (LAME) (see [1] and [2]). A test suite for constitutive models can serve three purposes. First, the test problems provide the constitutive model developer a means to test the model implementation. This is an activity that is always done by any responsible constitutive model developer. Retaining the test problem in a repository where the problem can be run periodically is an excellent means of ensuring that the model continues to behave correctly. A second purpose of a test suite for constitutive models is that it gives application code developers confidence that the constitutive models work correctly. This is extremely important since any analyst that uses an application code for an engineering analysis will associate a constitutive model in LAME with the application code, not LAME. Therefore, ensuring the correct implementation of constitutive models is essential for application code teams. A third purpose of a constitutive model test suite is that it provides analysts with example problems that they can look at to understand the behavior of a specific model. Since the choice of a constitutive model, and the properties that are used in that model, have an enormous effect on the results of an

  18. Constitutive Description of 7075 Aluminum Alloy During Hot Deformation by Apparent and Physically-Based Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzadeh, Hamed

    2015-03-01

    Hot flow stress of 7075 aluminum alloy during compressive hot deformation was correlated to the Zener-Hollomon parameter through constitutive analyses based on the apparent approach and the proposed physically-based approach which accounts for the dependence of the Young's modulus and the self-diffusion coefficient of aluminum on temperature. It was shown that the latter approach not only results in a more reliable constitutive equation, but also significantly simplifies the constitutive analysis, which in turn makes it possible to conduct comparative hot working studies. It was also demonstrated that the theoretical exponent of 5 and the lattice self-diffusion activation energy of aluminum (142 kJ/mol) can be set in the hyperbolic sine law to describe the peak flow stresses and the resulting constitutive equation was found to be consistent with that resulted from the proposed physically-based approach.

  19. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farm constitution. 718.201 Section 718.201 Agriculture... Reconstitution of Farms, Allotments, Quotas, and Bases § 718.201 Farm constitution. (a) In order to implement... operated as a single farming unit as set forth in § 718.202; or (iii) Because of a change in...

  20. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm constitution. 718.201 Section 718.201 Agriculture... Reconstitution of Farms, Allotments, Quotas, and Bases § 718.201 Farm constitution. (a) In order to implement... operated as a single farming unit as set forth in § 718.202; or (iii) Because of a change in...

  1. Studying the Constitution: Capitalizing on Two Bicentennials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Mary Jane; and Others

    1987-01-01

    This report addresses the long-term educational responsibility of helping young people become more knowledgeable about the meaning and values of the U.S. Constitution in their personal and civic life. The Bicentennial of the U.S. Constitution and the upcoming Bicentennial of the U.S. Bill of Rights in 1991 present the opportunity to refocus…

  2. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farm constitution. 718.201 Section 718.201 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FARM... Reconstitution of Farms, Allotments, Quotas, and Bases § 718.201 Farm constitution. (a) In order to...

  3. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farm constitution. 718.201 Section 718.201 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FARM... Reconstitution of Farms, Allotments, Quotas, and Bases § 718.201 Farm constitution. (a) In order to...

  4. From Confederation to Constitution: 1781-1789.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urofsky, Melvin I.; Cox, Nancy

    Students should achieve a higher level of understanding and appreciation of the evolving nature of the U.S. Constitution and its relevance to contemporary societal issues by studying historical documents from the period of time between the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution. This document begins with a history of that period and of the…

  5. Contragate, Covert Action, and the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratner, Michael

    1987-01-01

    The "Iran-Contragate" hearings were indicative of serious constitutional crisis. Analyzes and disputes following three defenses used by President Reagan to justify his actions in affair: he did not know or approve; it was not a violation of law; and his authority over foreign affairs is given in war powers clause of the Constitution--Congress…

  6. The Five Great Ideas of Our Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Isidore

    1987-01-01

    Identifies five great ideas of the U.S. Constitution as power, liberty, justice, equality, and property. The first of two installments, article focuses on how ideas of power and liberty are presented in the Constitution. It also discusses how people may exercise power through voting and public protest and liberty through their First Amendment…

  7. The United States and the Indian Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Jonathan S.

    India, a huge land with the second largest population in the world, socially and economically poor, and culturally and linguistically diverse, became the largest democracy in the world on November 26, 1949 with the adoption of the Indian Constitution. The goals of that constitution are: (1) the achievement of national unity and stability; (2) the…

  8. Constitutional Provisions for Community Junior Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Marshall W.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the role of the federal and state constitutions in community college law. Discusses the lack of state constitutional law pertaining explicitly to these institutions and suggests a probable reason for this void. Gives examples of extant state laws and discusses implications for the community college field. (AYC)

  9. The Constitution in the Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Paul L.

    1987-01-01

    Investigates the development of the United States Constitution in the twentieth century up to and including the Burger Court. Contends that interpreting the Constitution is an important issue of our times. Consequently argues that we should teach students about the development of this document. (RKM)

  10. An Internet Guide to Teaching the Constitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, Congress passed and President Bush signed legislation designating every September 17 as Constitution Day and suggesting that all schools teach about the Constitution on that day. There are innumerable websites, countless lesson plans and a multitude of other teaching resources on the topic. Teachers were inundated with brochures,…

  11. Resources for Teaching about the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Cheryl B.

    1987-01-01

    Describes eight resources for teaching about the United States Constitution available from ERIC. Described are instructional materials for junior and senior high school students on such topics as (1) the role of the U.S. Supreme Court, (2) freedom of the press, (3) the history of the United States Constitution, and (4) problems of the…

  12. Nonequilibrium electromagnetics: Local and macroscopic fields and constitutive relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Baker-Jarvis, James; Kabos, Pavel; Holloway, Christopher L.

    2004-09-01

    We study the electrodynamics of materials using a Liouville-Hamiltonian-based statistical-mechanical theory. Our goal is to develop electrodynamics from an ensemble-average viewpoint that is valid for microscopic and nonequilibrium systems at molecular to submolecular scales. This approach is not based on a Taylor series expansion of the charge density to obtain the multipoles. Instead, expressions of the molecular multipoles are used in an inverse problem to obtain the averaging statistical-density function that is used to obtain the macroscopic fields. The advantages of this method are that the averaging function is constructed in a self-consistent manner and the molecules can either be treated as point multipoles or contain more microstructure. Expressions for the local and macroscopic fields are obtained, and evolution equations for the constitutive parameters are developed. We derive equations for the local field as functions of the applied, polarization, magnetization, strain density, and macroscopic fields.

  13. Viscoplastic constitutive relationships with dependence on thermomechanical history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, D. N.; Bartolotta, P. A.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental evidence of thermomechanical history dependence in the cyclic hardening behavior of some common high-temperature structural alloys is presented with special emphasis on dynamic metallurgical changes. The inadequacy of formulating nonisothermal constitutive equations solely on the basis of isothermal testing is discussed. A representation of thermoviscoplasticity is proposed that qualitatively accounts for the observed hereditary behavior. This is achieved by formulating the scalar evolutionary equation in an established viscoplasticity theory to reflect thermomechanical path dependence. To assess the importance of accounting for thermomechanical history dependence in practical structural analyses, two qualitative models are specified: (1) formulated as if based entirely on isothermal information; (2) to reflect thermomechanical path dependence using the proposed thermoviscoplastic representation. Predictions of the two models are compared and the impact the calculated differences in deformation behavior may have on subsequent lifetime predictions is discussed.

  14. P-T-t conditions, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions and detrital zircon geochronology of the Massabesic Gneiss Complex, New Hampshire: isotopic and metamorphic evidence for the identification of Gander basement, central New England

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorais, Michael J.; Wintsch, Robert P.; Kunk, Michael J.; Aleinikoff, John; Burton, William; Underdown, Christine; Kerwin, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    We present new evidence for the assignment of the Neoproterozoic Massabesic Gneiss Complex of New Hampshire to the Gander terrane rather than the Avalon terrane. The majority of Avalonian (sensu stricto) igneous and meta-igneous rocks as defined in Maritime Canada have positive whole-rock ɛNd compared to more negative values for Gander rocks, although there is a region of overlap in ɛNd between the two terranes. Our samples from areas in Connecticut previously thought to be Avalonian and samples from the Willimantic dome have the same isotopic signatures as Maritime Canada Avalon. In contrast, samples from the Clinton dome of southern Connecticut plots exclusively in the Gander field. The majority of the orthogneiss samples from Lyme dome (coastal Connecticut), Pelham dome (central Massachusetts) and Massabesic Gneiss Complex also plot in the Gander field, with a few samples plotting in the overlap zone between Gander and Avalon. U-Pb age distributions of detrital zircon populations from quartzites from the Massabesic Gneiss Complex more closely approximate the data from the Lyme Dome rather than Avalon. Additionally, the similarity of the P-T-t path for the rocks of the Massabesic Gneiss Complex (established by thermobarometry and 40Ar/39Ar dating of amphibole, muscovite, biotite and K-feldspar) with that established in the Ganderian Lyme dome of southern Connecticut strengthens the assignment of these rocks to a single Gander block that docked to Laurentia during the Salinic Orogeny. The identification of Ganderian isotopic signatures for these rocks all of which show evidence for Alleghanian metamorphism, supports the hypothesis that Neoproterozoic Gander lower crustal rocks underlie southern New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Connecticut, and that all rocks of the overlying Central Maine trough that largely escaped high-grade Alleghanian metamorphism are allochthonous. We suggest that during the Alleghanian, the docking of Gondwana caused Avalon to wedge into

  15. Syn-collapse eclogite metamorphism and exhumation of deep crust in a migmatite dome: The P-T-t record of the youngest Variscan eclogite (Montagne Noire, French Massif Central)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, Donna L.; Roger, Françoise; Teyssier, Christian; Rey, Patrice F.; Respaut, J.-P.

    2015-11-01

    In many orogens, high-pressure (HP) metamorphic rocks such as eclogite occur as lenses in quartzofeldspathic gneiss that equilibrated at much lower pressures. The pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) history of eclogite relative to host gneiss provides information about mechanisms and timescales of exhumation of orogenic crust. The Montagne Noire of the southern Massif Central, France, is an eclogite-bearing gneiss (migmatite) dome located at the orogen-foreland transition of the Variscan belt. Results of our study show that it contains the youngest eclogite in the orogen, similar in age to migmatite and granite that crystallized under low-pressure conditions. P-T conditions for an exceptionally unaltered eclogite from the central Montagne Noire were estimated using a pseudosection supplemented by garnet-clinopyroxene and Zr-in-rutile thermometry. Results indicate peak P ∼ 1.4 GPa and T ∼ 725°C for Mg-rich garnet rim (50 mol% pyrope) + omphacite (36 mol% jadeite) + rutile + quartz. U-Pb geochronology (LA-ICP-MS) of 16 zoned zircon grains yielded ∼360 Ma (4 cores) and ∼315 Ma (12 rims and cores). Rare earth element abundances determined by LA-ICP-MS for dated zircon are consistent with crystallization of ∼315 Ma zircon under garnet-stable, plagioclase-unstable conditions that we interpret to indicate high pressure; in contrast, the ∼360 Ma zircon core corresponds to crystallization under lower pressure plagioclase-stable conditions. Based on garnet zoning and inclusion suites, rutile textures and Zr zoning, P-T results, and zircon petrochronology, we interpret the ∼315 Ma date as the age of eclogite-facies metamorphism that only slightly preceded dome formation and crystallization at 315-300 Ma. This age relation indicates that eclogite formation at high pressure and migmatite dome emplacement at low pressure were closely spaced in time. We propose that collapse-driven material transfer from the hot orogen to the cool foreland resulted in thickening of

  16. 3 CFR 8562 - Proclamation 8562 of September 16, 2010. Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Constitution Week, 2010By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The summer of 1787 was a... charter on September 17, 1787. With their signatures, and subsequent ratification of the Constitution...

  17. A constitutive material model for nonlinear finite element structural analysis using an iterative matrix approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, Herbert A.; Chan, Kwai S.; Cassenti, Brice N.; Weber, Richard

    1988-01-01

    A unified numerical method for the integration of stiff time dependent constitutive equations is presented. The solution process is directly applied to a constitutive model proposed by Bodner. The theory confronts time dependent inelastic behavior coupled with both isotropic hardening and directional hardening behaviors. Predicted stress-strain responses from this model are compared to experimental data from cyclic tests on uniaxial specimens. An algorithm is developed for the efficient integration of the Bodner flow equation. A comparison is made with the Euler integration method. An analysis of computational time is presented for the three algorithms.

  18. Constitutive model for the dynamic response of a NiTi shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaohong; Zeng, Xiangguo; Chen, Huayan

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, based on irreversible thermodynamic theory, the Helmholtz free energy function, was selected to deduce both the master equations and evolution equations of the constitutive model of a NiTi alloy under high strain. The Helmholtz free energy function contains the parameters of the reflecting phase transition and plastic property. The constitutive model for a NiTi alloy was implemented using a semi-implicit stress integration algorithm. Four successive stages can be differentiated and simulated: parent phase elasticity, martensitic phase transition, martensitic elasticity, and dislocation yield. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  19. Division G Commission 35: Stellar Constitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limongi, Marco; Lattanzio, John C.; Charbonnel, Corinne; Dominguez, Inma; Isern, Jordi; Karakas, Amanda; Leitherer, Claus; Marconi, Marcella; Shaviv, Giora; van Loon, Jacco

    2016-04-01

    Commission 35 (C35), ``Stellar Constitution'', consists of members of the International Astronomical Union whose research spans many aspects of theoretical and observational stellar physics and it is mainly focused on the comprehension of the properties of stars, stellar populations and galaxies. The number of members of C35 increased progressively over the last ten years and currently C35 comprises about 400 members. C35 was part of Division IV (Stars) until 2014 and then became part of Division G (Stars and Stellar Physics), after the main IAU reorganisation in 2015. Four Working Groups have been created over the years under Division IV, initially, and Division G later: WG on Active B Stars, WG on Massive Stars, WG on Abundances in Red Giant and WG on Chemically Peculiar and Related Stars. In the last decade the Commission had 4 presidents, Wojciech Dziembowski (2003-2006), Francesca D'Antona (2006-2009), Corinne Charbonnel (2009-2012) and Marco Limongi (2012-2015), who were assisted by an Organizing Committee (OC), usually composed of about 10 members, all of them elected by the C35 members and holding their positions for three years. The C35 webpage (http://iau-c35.stsci.edu) has been designed and continuously maintained by Claus Leitherer from the Space Telescope Institute, who deserves our special thanks. In addition to the various general information on the Commission structure and activities, it contains links to various resources, of interest for the members, such as stellar models, evolutionary tracks and isochrones, synthetic stellar populations, stellar yields and input physics (equation of state, nuclear cross sections, opacity tables), provided by various groups. The main activity of the C35 OC is that of evaluating, ranking and eventually supporting the proposals for IAU sponsored meetings. In the last decade the Commission has supported several meetings focused on topics more or less relevant to C35. Since the primary aim of this document is to

  20. Closing in on the constitution of consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    The science of consciousness is a nascent and thriving field of research that is founded on identifying the minimally sufficient neural correlates of consciousness. However, I have argued that it is the neural constitution of consciousness that science seeks to understand and that there are no evident strategies for distinguishing the correlates and constitution of (phenomenal) consciousness. Here I review this correlation/constitution distinction problem and challenge the existing foundations of consciousness science. I present the main analyses from a longer paper in press on this issue, focusing on recording, inhibition, stimulation, and combined inhibition/stimulation strategies, including proposal of the Jenga analogy to illustrate why identifying the minimally sufficient neural correlates of consciousness should not be considered the ultimate target of consciousness science. Thereafter I suggest that while combined inhibition and stimulation strategies might identify some constitutive neural activities—indeed minimally sufficient constitutive neural activities—such strategies fail to identify the whole neural constitution of consciousness and thus the correlation/constitution distinction problem is not fully solved. Various clarifications, potential objections and related scientific and philosophical issues are also discussed and I conclude by proposing new foundational claims for consciousness science. PMID:25452738

  1. The Constitutive Modeling of Thin Films with Randon Material Wrinkles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphey, Thomas W.; Mikulas, Martin M.

    2001-01-01

    Material wrinkles drastically alter the structural constitutive properties of thin films. Normally linear elastic materials, when wrinkled, become highly nonlinear and initially inelastic. Stiffness' reduced by 99% and negative Poisson's ratios are typically observed. This paper presents an effective continuum constitutive model for the elastic effects of material wrinkles in thin films. The model considers general two-dimensional stress and strain states (simultaneous bi-axial and shear stress/strain) and neglects out of plane bending. The constitutive model is derived from a traditional mechanics analysis of an idealized physical model of random material wrinkles. Model parameters are the directly measurable wrinkle characteristics of amplitude and wavelength. For these reasons, the equations are mechanistic and deterministic. The model is compared with bi-axial tensile test data for wrinkled Kaptong(Registered Trademark) HN and is shown to deterministically predict strain as a function of stress with an average RMS error of 22%. On average, fitting the model to test data yields an RMS error of 1.2%

  2. Constructing constitutive relationships for seismic and aseismic fault slip

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeler, N.M.

    2009-01-01

    For the purpose of modeling natural fault slip, a useful result from an experimental fault mechanics study would be a physically-based constitutive relation that well characterizes all the relevant observations. This report describes an approach for constructing such equations. Where possible the construction intends to identify or, at least, attribute physical processes and contact scale physics to the observations such that the resulting relations can be extrapolated in conditions and scale between the laboratory and the Earth. The approach is developed as an alternative but is based on Ruina (1983) and is illustrated initially by constructing a couple of relations from that study. In addition, two example constitutive relationships are constructed; these describe laboratory observations not well-modeled by Ruina's equations: the unexpected shear-induced weakening of silica-rich rocks at high slip speed (Goldsby and Tullis, 2002) and fault strength in the brittle ductile transition zone (Shimamoto, 1986). The examples, provided as illustration, may also be useful for quantitative modeling.

  3. Large Deformation Constitutive Laws for Isotropic Thermoelastic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Plohr, Bradley J.; Plohr, Jeeyeon N.

    2012-07-25

    We examine the approximations made in using Hooke's law as a constitutive relation for an isotropic thermoelastic material subjected to large deformation by calculating the stress evolution equation from the free energy. For a general thermoelastic material, we employ the volume-preserving part of the deformation gradient to facilitate volumetric/shear strain decompositions of the free energy, its first derivatives (the Cauchy stress and entropy), and its second derivatives (the specific heat, Grueneisen tensor, and elasticity tensor). Specializing to isotropic materials, we calculate these constitutive quantities more explicitly. For deformations with limited shear strain, but possibly large changes in volume, we show that the differential equations for the stress components involve new terms in addition to the traditional Hooke's law terms. These new terms are of the same order in the shear strain as the objective derivative terms needed for frame indifference; unless the latter terms are negligible, the former cannot be neglected. We also demonstrate that accounting for the new terms requires that the deformation gradient be included as a field variable

  4. Constitutive relationships of prestressed steel fiber concrete membrane elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Norman S.

    Steel Fiber Concrete (SFC) displays certain tensile and shear characteristics which are beneficial for concrete that is loaded in a state of shear stress. For example, prestressed bridge beams carry shear load in their web by utilizing shear stirrups. If the properties of SFC can be better understood, then it may be possible to replace the shear stirrups with SFC. The first step in understanding this behavior is to develop a constitutive model for prestressed SFC. Two groups of full-scale prestressed steel fiber concrete (SFC) panels, with a nominal strength of 6 ksi, were tested in the Universal Element Testing machine at Thomas TC Hsu Structural Testing Laboratory to establish the effect of fiber and the level of prestress on the constitutive laws of fiber concrete and prestressing tendon. The specimens contained from 5 to 20 fully tensioned, low-relaxation grade 270 tendons. Fiber content ranged from 0.5% to 1.5% using high performance hooked end fibers. The first group of five panels, designated Group TEF, was used to determine the basic constitutive properties of prestressed SEC for use in the Softened Membrane Model (SMM). The constitutive model consists of smeared tensile and compressive stress strain relationships. An equation for softening with respect of both fiber content and tensile strain is presented. Also presented is a new equation for prestressed SFC in tension. It is notable that the behavior of prestressed SFC in tension displayed significant post-cracking tensile strength for fiber contents ranging from 0.5% to 1.5% by volume. Prior research on SFC using unreinforced dog-bone specimens, or prismatic specimens reinforced with only a single isolated tendon, are not capable of capturing SFC behavior afforded by the stress state, multiple load paths, and confinement situation available in full-scale panel assemblies. The second set of 5 test panels, designated Group TAF, was used to examine the properties of prestressed SFC under the conditions of

  5. The Constitution and the Black Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, E. W.

    1973-01-01

    A review of the constitutional promises to black people, early congressional efforts to fulfill these promises, early court cases construing the Fourteenth Amendment and the impact of these decisions along with their subsequent overruling. (Author/JB)

  6. Capturing the Essence of the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMorrow, Catherine

    1987-01-01

    Offers three sample lesson plans for elementary grades designed to demonstrate the religious values inherent in the United States Constitution. Each lesson plan focuses on one amendment and includes a discussion of class activities. (DMM)

  7. A Micromechanical Constitutive Model of Progressive Crushing in Random Carbon Fiber Polymer Matrix Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.K.; Simunovic, S.

    1999-09-01

    A micromechanical damage constitutive model is presented to predict the overall elastoplastic behavior and damage evolution in random carbon fiber polymer matrix composites (RFPCs).To estimate the overall elastoplastic damage responses,an effective yield criterion is derived based on the ensemble-volume averaging process and first-order effects of eigenstrains due to the existence of spheroidal (prolate) fibers.The proposed effective yield criterion,to ether with the assumed overall associative plastic flow rule and hardening law, constitutes the analytical foundation for the estimation of effective elastoplastic behavior of ductile matrix composites.First,an effective elastoplastic constitutive dama e model for aligned fiber-reinforced composites is proposed.A micromechanical damage constitutive model for RFPCs is then developed.The average process over all orientations upon overning constitutive field equations and overall yield function for aligned fiber-reinforced composites i s performed to obtain the constitutive relations and effective yield function of RFPCs.The discrete numerical integration algorithms and the continuum tan ent operator are also presented to implement the proposed dama e constitutive model.The dama e constitutive model forms the basis for the pro ressive crushing in composite structures under impact loading.

  8. Toward a Turbulence Constitutive Relation for Rotating Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ristorcelli, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    In rapidly rotating turbulent flows the largest scales of the motion are in approximate geostrophic balance. Single-point turbulence closures, in general, cannot attain a geostrophic balance. This article addresses and resolves the possibility of constitutive relation procedures for single-point second order closures for a specific class of rotating or stratified flows. Physical situations in which the geostrophic balance is attained are described. Closely related issues of frame-indifference, horizontal nondivergence, Taylor-Proudman theorem and two-dimensionality are, in the context of both the instantaneous and averaged equations, discussed. It is shown, in the absence of vortex stretching along the axis of rotation, that turbulence is frame-indifferent. A derivation and discussion of a geostrophic constraint which the prognostic equations for second-order statistics must satisfy for turbulence approaching a frame-indifferent limit is given. These flow situations, which include rotating and nonrotating stratified flows, are slowly evolving flows in which the constitutive relation procedures are useful. A nonlinear non-constant coefficient representation for the rapid-pressure strain covariance appearing in the Reynolds stress and heat flux equations consistent with the geostrophic balance is described. The rapid-pressure strain model coefficients are not constants determined by numerical optimization but are functions of the state of the turbulence as parameterized by the Reynolds stresses and the turbulent heat fluxes. The functions are valid for all states of the turbulence attaining their limiting values only when a limit state is achieved. These issues are relevant to strongly vortical flows as well as flows such as the planetary boundary layers, in which there is a transition from a three-dimensional shear driven turbulence to a geostrophic or horizontal turbulence.

  9. Non-linear approach in visco-hyperelastic constitutive modelling of polyurethane nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlikowski, Marek

    2014-02-01

    The constitutive modelling of the polyurethane nanocomposite presented in the paper is done in the context of its possible application as one of the components of the intervertebral disc prosthesis. The constitutive study is a part of the researches aiming at creation of the new prosthetic device. The material is considered as incompressible, isotropic and visco-hyperelastic one. The focus of the work lies on the formulation of a constitutive equation for its further implementation in finite element analyses. The equation is formulated on the basis of uniaxial monotonic compression tests and relaxation tests performed at room temperature. The constants of the constitutive model are determined from the experimental data by means of the curve-fitting approach employing least-squares optimisation method. The constitutive modelling consisted of two steps. In the first one pure hyperelastic model was determined. The Mooney-Rivlin model proved to be the best one to describe hyperelastic behaviour of the material. In the second step non-linear visco-hyperelastic model was derived. Relaxation times, characteristic amplitudes and Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic constants were calibrated on the basis of strain-stress curves (hysteresis loops) obtained experimentally at three strain rates, i.e. and . The constitutive law is validated on the basis of relaxation test. The paper concludes with summary and plans for further investigations in the area.

  10. Fractal ladder models and power law wave equations

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, James F.; McGough, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    The ultrasonic attenuation coefficient in mammalian tissue is approximated by a frequency-dependent power law for frequencies less than 100 MHz. To describe this power law behavior in soft tissue, a hierarchical fractal network model is proposed. The viscoelastic and self-similar properties of tissue are captured by a constitutive equation based on a lumped parameter infinite-ladder topology involving alternating springs and dashpots. In the low-frequency limit, this ladder network yields a stress-strain constitutive equation with a time-fractional derivative. By combining this constitutive equation with linearized conservation principles and an adiabatic equation of state, a fractional partial differential equation that describes power law attenuation is derived. The resulting attenuation coefficient is a power law with exponent ranging between 1 and 2, while the phase velocity is in agreement with the Kramers–Kronig relations. The fractal ladder model is compared to published attenuation coefficient data, thus providing equivalent lumped parameters. PMID:19813816

  11. Systematic coarse graining flowing polymer melts: thermodynamically guided simulations and resulting constitutive model.

    PubMed

    Iig, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Complex fluids, such as polymers, colloids, liquid-crystals etc., show intriguing viscoelastic properties, due to the complicated interplay between flow-induced structure formation and dynamical behavior. Starting from microscopic models of complex fluids, a systematic coarse-graining method is presented that allows us to derive closed-form and thermodynamically consistent constitutive equations for such fluids. Essential ingredients of the proposed approach are thermodynamically guided simulations within a consistent coarse-graining scheme. In addition to this new type of multiscale simulations, we reconstruct the building blocks that constitute the thermodynamically consistent coarse-grained model. We illustrate the method for low-molecular polymer melts, which are subject to different imposed flow fields like planar shear and different elongational flows. The constitutive equation for general flow conditions we obtain shows rheological behavior including shear thinning, normal stress differences, and elongational viscosities in good agreement with reference results. PMID:21678766

  12. Health care law versus constitutional law.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court's ruling on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is a landmark decision - both for constitutional law and for health care law and policy. Others will study its implications for constitutional limits on a range of federal powers beyond health care. This article considers to what extent the decision is also about health care law, properly conceived. Under one view, health care law is the subdiscipline that inquires how courts and government actors take account of the special features of medicine that make legal or policy issues especially problematic - rather than regarding health care delivery and finance more generically, like most any other economic or social enterprise. Viewed this way, the opinions from the Court's conservative justices are mainly about general constitutional law principles. In contrast, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's dissenting opinion for the four more liberal justices is just as much about health care law as it is about constitutional law. Her opinion gives detailed attention to the unique features of health care finance and delivery in order to inform her analysis of constitutional precedents and principles. Thus, the Court's multiple opinions give a vivid depiction of the compelling contrasts between communal versus individualistic conceptions of caring for those in need, and between health care and health insurance as ordinary commodities versus ones that merit special economic, social, and legal status. PMID:23262771

  13. Extended rate equations

    SciTech Connect

    Shore, B.W.

    1981-01-30

    The equations of motion are discussed which describe time dependent population flows in an N-level system, reviewing the relationship between incoherent (rate) equations, coherent (Schrodinger) equations, and more general partially coherent (Bloch) equations. Approximations are discussed which replace the elaborate Bloch equations by simpler rate equations whose coefficients incorporate long-time consequences of coherence.

  14. Constitutive modeling and computational implementation for finite strain plasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, K. W.; Atluri, S. N.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a simple alternate approach to the difficult problem of modeling material behavior. Starting from a general representation for a rate-tpe constitutive equation, it is shown by example how sets of test data may be used to derive restrictions on the scalar functions appearing in the representation. It is not possible to determine these functions from experimental data, but the aforementioned restrictions serve as a guide in their eventual definition. The implications are examined for hypo-elastic, isotropically hardening plastic, and kinematically hardening plastic materials. A simple model for the evolution of the 'back-stress,' in a kinematic-hardening plasticity theory, that is entirely analogous to a hypoelastic stress-strain relation is postulated and examined in detail in modeling finitely plastic tension-torsion test. The implementation of rate-type material models in finite element algorithms is also discussed.

  15. 77 FR 57981 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ..., Constitution Week, 2012 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 181... Citizenship Day, and September 17 through September 23, 2012, as Constitution Week. I encourage Federal, State... of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR...

  16. 75 FR 57835 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-23898 Filed 9-21-10; 11:15 am] Billing... Proclamation 8562--Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2010 Proclamation 8563--National POW/MIA Recognition Day, 2010 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register /...

  17. Crushed-salt constitutive model update

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D.

    1998-01-01

    Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

  18. Constitution 200: A Bicentennial Collection of Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, Mary A., Ed.; And Others

    Constitutional essays which formed the basis of public assemblies throughout three states are compiled in this book. The first three essays consider the U.S. government principles of federalism, judicial review, and the separation of powers. Michael L. Benedict proposes that the question of ultimate sovereignty has been answered differently by…

  19. Great Constitutional Ideas: Justice, Equality, and Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Isidore

    1987-01-01

    Examines the ideas of justice, equality, and property as they are represented in the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Discusses how these ideas affect the way public schools operate and the lessons educators teach or don't teach about our society. Includes ideas for classroom activities. (JDH)

  20. Rapping the 27 Amendments to the Constitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaresborough, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Early in the year, the students of history and government at Mountain View High School in Stafford, Virginia, began to devise hand motions to help memorize the 27 amendments to the Constitution for government class. Three students in the school who are interested in hip hop music then suggested composing a rap song about the topic. Working with…

  1. Student Perspectives on Behaviors That Constitute Cheating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higbee, Jeanne L.; Schultz, Jennifer L.; Sanford, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A previous study conducted a decade ago determined that there can be considerable disagreement--not only between students and faculty, but also among students and among faculty--regarding behaviors that constitute cheating. This article reports the results of a research study that replicated the student survey administered for the previous study,…

  2. Celebrating the Constitution: A Bicentennial Retrospective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walch, Timothy G., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This commemorative document was published to celebrate the Bicentennial of the signing of the U.S. Constitution and to pay tribute to the bicentennial celebration efforts of the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration staff. The included articles are: (1) "Introduction: A Celebration at the National Archives" (F. Burke); (2) "The Odyssey…

  3. School Choice and State Constitutions' Religion Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komer, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    After the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in "Zelman v. Simmons-Harris," only state religion clauses represent a potential constitutional bar to the inclusion of religious options in properly designed school choice programs. The two most significant are compelled support clauses and Blaine Amendments. Both are frequently misinterpreted by state…

  4. Censorship of Obscenity: The Developing Constitutional Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockhart, William B.; McClure, Robert C.

    1960-01-01

    To demonstrate that substantial protection has been given to published material dealing with sex, an analysis of the constitutional criteria governing recent Supreme Court decisions in the area of obscenity censorship is presented. It is found that the Supreme Court uses "hard core pornography" as the foundation of a "constant" concept of…

  5. James Madison and the Constitutional Convention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Thomas M.

    1987-01-01

    Part 1 of this three-part article traces James Madison's life and focuses primarily on those events that prepared him for leadership in the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787. It describes his early love of learning, education, and public service efforts. Part 2 chronicles Madison's devotion to study and preparation prior to the Constitutional…

  6. Children's Constitutional Rights: Interpretations and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sametz, Lynn; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a brief historical overview of constitutional law as it applies to children, delineated in the First, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Eighth, and Fourteenth Amendments. Emphasizes the need for school psychologists and educators to have an understanding of children's developing legal rights. Specific court cases are cited. (Author/JAC)

  7. A New Perspective on Teaching Constitutional Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum, Robert

    1977-01-01

    The author suggests that a major failure of most law schools and traditional undergraduate constitutional law courses is that they omit an adequate analysis of the political nature of the judicial process. Political influences on a variety of court cases are discussed. (LBH)

  8. Globalization of Constitutional Law and Civil Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissbrodt, David

    1993-01-01

    Two issues are discussed: (1) reasons for raising global and international human rights issues in constitutional law, civil rights, and administrative law courses in United States law schools; and (2) barriers to globalization of courses and ways to overcome them. (MSE)

  9. 29 CFR 452.18 - Constitutional officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Constitutional officers. 452.18 Section 452.18 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ELECTION PROVISIONS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Coverage of...

  10. Constitutive behavior of reconsolidating crushed salt

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.; Mellegard, K.D.

    1998-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe deformation of crushed salt is presented in this paper. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Recently completed creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from shear consolidation tests and a combination of shear and hydrostatic tests produces two sets of material parameter values for the model. Changes in material parameter values from test group to test group indicate the empirical nature of the model but show significant improvement over earlier work. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on fitting statistics and ability of the model to predict test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

  11. The Bernoulli Equation in a Moving Reference Frame

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2011-01-01

    Unlike other standard equations in introductory classical mechanics, the Bernoulli equation is not Galilean invariant. The explanation is that, in a reference frame moving with respect to constrictions or obstacles, those surfaces do work on the fluid, constituting an extra term that needs to be included in the work-energy calculation. A…

  12. A new constitutive model for nitrogen austenitic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fréchard, S.; Lichtenberger, A.; Rondot, F.; Faderl, N.; Redjaïmia, A.; Adoum, M.

    2003-09-01

    Quasi-static, quasi-dynamic and dynamic compression tests have been performed on a nitrogen alloyed austenitic stainless steel. For all strain rates, a high strain hardening rate and a good ductility have been achieved. In addition, this steel owns a great strain rate sensitivity. The temperature sensitivity bas been determined between 20°C and 400°C. Microstructural analysis has been performed after different loading conditions in relation to the behaviour of the material. Johnson-Cook and Zerilli-Armstrong models have been selected to fit the experimental data into constitutive equations. These models do not reproduce properly the behaviour of this type of steel over the complete range. A new constitutive model that fits very well all the experimental data at different strain, strain rate and temperature has been determined. The model is based on empirical considerations on the separated influence of the main parameters. Single Taylor tests have been realized to validate the models. Live observations of the specimen during impact have been achieved using a special CCD camera set-up. The overall profile at different times are compared to numerical predictions using LS-DYNA code.

  13. 78 FR 39721 - Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on June 13, 2013, Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC (Constitution), having its principal place...

  14. Spin field equations and Heun's equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Min; Wang, Xuejing; Li, Zhongheng

    2015-06-01

    The Kerr-Newman-(anti) de Sitter metric is the most general stationary black hole solution to the Einstein-Maxwell equation with a cosmological constant. We study the separability of the equations of the massless scalar (spin s=0), neutrino ( s=1/2), electromagnetic ( s=1), Rarita-Schwinger ( s=3/2), and gravitational ( s=2) fields propagating on this background. We obtain the angular and radial master equations, and show that the master equations are transformed to Heun's equation. Meanwhile, we give the condition of existence of event horizons for Kerr-Newman-(anti) de Sitter spacetime by using Sturm theorem.

  15. Numerical tests of constitutive laws for dense granular flows.

    PubMed

    Lois, Gregg; Lemaître, Anaël; Carlson, Jean M

    2005-11-01

    We numerically and theoretically study the macroscopic properties of dense, sheared granular materials. In this process we first consider an invariance in Newton's equations, explain how it leads to Bagnold's scaling, and discuss how it relates to the dynamics of granular temperature. Next we implement numerical simulations of granular materials in two different geometries--simple shear and flow down an incline--and show that measurements can be extrapolated from one geometry to the other. Then we observe nonaffine rearrangements of clusters of grains in response to shear strain and show that fundamental observations, which served as a basis for the shear transformation zone (STZ) theory of amorphous solids [M. L. Falk and J. S. Langer, Phys. Rev. E. 57, 7192 (1998); M.R.S. Bull 25, 40 (2000)], can be reproduced in granular materials. Finally we present constitutive equations for granular materials as proposed by Lemaître [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 064303 (2002)], based on the dynamics of granular temperature and STZ theory, and show that they match remarkably well with our numerical data from both geometries. PMID:16383599

  16. Mechanism of constitution liquid film migration

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    Liquid film migration (LFM) in liquid phase sintering classically involves a large metastable liquid volume adjacent to solid, and migration occurs at an isolated solid-liquid (S-L) interface. Constitutional liquid film migration (CLFM), discovered in alloy 718, has major characteristics similar to those of LFM, except that the metastable liquid is from the constitutional liquation of precipitates on the grain boundary. The similarity between LFM and CLFM has led to the theory that coherency lattice strain responsible for LFM is also responsible for CLFM. The coherency strain hypothesis was tested in this study by evaluating whether the Hillert model of LFM would also apply for CLFM. Experimental results of CLFM in alloy 718 showed that migration velocity followed the trend predicted by the Hillert model. This indicates that the coherency strain hypothesis of LFM also applies for CLFM and that the coherency lattice strain responsible for LFM is also the driving force for CLFM.

  17. In quest of constitutional principles of "neurolaw".

    PubMed

    Pizzetti, Federico Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    The growing use of brain imaging technology and the developing of cognitive neuroscience pose unaccustomed challenges to legal systems. Until now, the fields of Law much affected are the civil and criminal law and procedure, but the constitutional dimension of "neurolaw" cannot be easily underestimated. As the capacity to investigate and to trace brain mechanisms and functional neural activities increases, it becomes urgent the recognition and definition of the unalienable rights and fundamental values in respect of this new techno-scientific power, that must be protected and safeguard at "constitutional level" of norms such as: human dignity, personal identity, authenticity and the pursuit of individual "happiness". As the same as for the law regulating research and experimentation on human genome adopted in the past years, one may also argue if the above mentioned fundamental principles of "neurolaw" must be fixed and disciplined also at European and International level. PMID:23057208

  18. Constitutive Modeling of Crosslinked Nanotube Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, G. M.; Frankland, S. J. V.; Herzog, M. N.; Gates, T. S.; Fay, C. C.

    2004-01-01

    A non-linear, continuum-based constitutive model is developed for carbon nanotube materials in which bundles of aligned carbon nanotubes have varying amounts of crosslinks between the nanotubes. The model accounts for the non-linear elastic constitutive behavior of the material in terms of strain, and is developed using a thermodynamic energy approach. The model is used to examine the effect of the crosslinking on the overall mechanical properties of variations of the crosslinked carbon nanotube material with varying degrees of crosslinking. It is shown that the presence of the crosslinks has significant effects on the mechanical properties of the carbon nanotube materials. An increase in the transverse shear properties is observed when the nanotubes are crosslinked. However, this increase is accompanied by a decrease in axial mechanical properties of the nanotube material upon crosslinking.

  19. Basic lubrication equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1981-01-01

    Lubricants, usually Newtonian fluids, are assumed to experience laminar flow. The basic equations used to describe the flow are the Navier-Stokes equation of motion. The study of hydrodynamic lubrication is, from a mathematical standpoint, the application of a reduced form of these Navier-Stokes equations in association with the continuity equation. The Reynolds equation can also be derived from first principles, provided of course that the same basic assumptions are adopted in each case. Both methods are used in deriving the Reynolds equation, and the assumptions inherent in reducing the Navier-Stokes equations are specified. Because the Reynolds equation contains viscosity and density terms and these properties depend on temperature and pressure, it is often necessary to couple the Reynolds with energy equation. The lubricant properties and the energy equation are presented. Film thickness, a parameter of the Reynolds equation, is a function of the elastic behavior of the bearing surface. The governing elasticity equation is therefore presented.

  20. Turbulence constitutive modeling of the square root of the Reynolds stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariki, Taketo

    2015-11-01

    A methodology for turbulence constitutive modeling is discussed on the basis of the square-root tensor of the Reynolds stress. The present methodology can satisfy the realizability condition for the Reynolds stress proposed by Schumann [Phys. Fluids 20, 721 (1977)], 10.1063/1.861942 in a more general manner than the conventional methodologies. The definition and uniqueness of the square-root tensor have been discussed, and its boundary condition has been properly obtained consistently with that of the Reynolds stress. Examples of possible constitutive models of both tensor-expansion and transport-equation types have been proposed.

  1. Turbulence constitutive modeling of the square root of the Reynolds stress.

    PubMed

    Ariki, Taketo

    2015-11-01

    A methodology for turbulence constitutive modeling is discussed on the basis of the square-root tensor of the Reynolds stress. The present methodology can satisfy the realizability condition for the Reynolds stress proposed by Schumann [Phys. Fluids 20, 721 (1977)] in a more general manner than the conventional methodologies. The definition and uniqueness of the square-root tensor have been discussed, and its boundary condition has been properly obtained consistently with that of the Reynolds stress. Examples of possible constitutive models of both tensor-expansion and transport-equation types have been proposed. PMID:26651782

  2. Freedom and choice in constitutional law.

    PubMed

    Garvey, J H

    1981-06-01

    The constitutional rights of children, the mentally ill, and other legally incompetent persons have been the subject of much litigation in the past twenty years. In this Article, Professor Garvey develops a general theory to explain the different ways in which persons of diminished capacity can be said to enjoy constitutional protections. He first notes that, of the various constitutional provisions, only one kind - freedom, which protect the right to make choices - pose serious difficulties when applied to persons of diminished capacity. He then proposes a hierarchy of ways in which we can attribute freedoms to such persons: the laissez-faire notion that all persons (including incompetents) are to be treated identically, the instrumental idea that granting freedoms to incompetents achieves extrinsic goals such as training, and the surrogate notion that persons who cannot make choices for themselves should be able to have those closest to them choose on their behalf. Professor Garvey concludes that, when these options fail and the state takes an incompetent person under its control, the state owes to the incompetent the full package of duties owed by other guardians to those under their control, including treatment in the case of the mentally ill or education in the case of children. PMID:10251939

  3. Association of Sasang Constitutional Type with Sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Ku; Yoon, Dae Wui; Choi, Kyung-Mee; Lee, Si Woo; Kim, Jong Yeol; Kim, Jin Kwan; Shin, Chol

    2015-01-01

    Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) is a unique Korean traditional medicine that classifies human beings as four distinct types named Sasang constitutional types (SCTs), based on physiologic, physical, and psychological traits. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that specific constitutional types are associated with chronic diseases, but no study has investigated the relationship between SCTs and sarcopenia. The aim of this study was to examine the association in a large population-based study. Data from 1,204 participants who completed questionnaires for life style, anthropometric evaluation, and biochemical analysis were analyzed. Classification of the SCTs was done using an integrated diagnostic method. Sarcopenia was defined as appendicular skeletal muscle mass/height(2) less than one standard deviation below the gender-specific normal mean of a younger group. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess whole body composition. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 8.6% in the Tae-eum (TE) type, 44.7% in the So-eum (SE) type, and 20.7% in the So-yang (SY) type. Multivariate analysis revealed that the SE and SY types had 9.22 (5.06-16.81; P < 0.0001) and 2.90 (1.76-4.76; P < 0.0001) greater odds of sarcopenia compared to the TE type, respectively. Our results show that the SE and SY types are significantly associated with increased prevalence of sarcopenia. PMID:26649062

  4. Association of Sasang Constitutional Type with Sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Ku; Yoon, Dae Wui; Choi, Kyung-Mee; Lee, Si Woo; Kim, Jong Yeol; Kim, Jin Kwan; Shin, Chol

    2015-01-01

    Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) is a unique Korean traditional medicine that classifies human beings as four distinct types named Sasang constitutional types (SCTs), based on physiologic, physical, and psychological traits. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that specific constitutional types are associated with chronic diseases, but no study has investigated the relationship between SCTs and sarcopenia. The aim of this study was to examine the association in a large population-based study. Data from 1,204 participants who completed questionnaires for life style, anthropometric evaluation, and biochemical analysis were analyzed. Classification of the SCTs was done using an integrated diagnostic method. Sarcopenia was defined as appendicular skeletal muscle mass/height2 less than one standard deviation below the gender-specific normal mean of a younger group. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess whole body composition. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 8.6% in the Tae-eum (TE) type, 44.7% in the So-eum (SE) type, and 20.7% in the So-yang (SY) type. Multivariate analysis revealed that the SE and SY types had 9.22 (5.06–16.81; P < 0.0001) and 2.90 (1.76–4.76; P < 0.0001) greater odds of sarcopenia compared to the TE type, respectively. Our results show that the SE and SY types are significantly associated with increased prevalence of sarcopenia. PMID:26649062

  5. A constitutive theory for rigid polyurethane foam

    SciTech Connect

    Neilsen, M.K.; Krieg, R.D.; Schreyer, H.L.

    1992-12-31

    Rigid, closed-cell, polyurethane foam consists of interconnected polyurethane plates which form cells. When this foam is compressed, it exhibits an initial elastic regime which is followed by a plateau regime in which the load required to compress the foam remains nearly constant. In the plateau regime, cell walls are damaged and large permanent volume changes are generated. As additional load is applied, cell walls are compressed against neighboring cell walls, and the stiffness of the foam increases and approaches a value equal to that of solid polyurethane. When the foam is loaded in tension, the cell walls are damaged and the foam fractures. A constitutive theory for rigid polyurethane foam has been developed. This theory is based on a decomposition of the foam into two parts: a skeleton and a nonlinear elastic continuum in parallel. The skeleton accounts for the foam behavior in the elastic and plateau regimes and is described using a coupled plasticity with continuum damage theory. The nonlinear elastic continuum accounts for the lock-up of the foam due to internal gas pressure and cell wall interactions. This new constitutive theory has been implemented in both static and dynamic finite element codes. Numerical simulations performed using the new constitutive theory are presented.

  6. A constitutive mechanical model for energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, M.L.; Baer, M.R.; Gross, R.J.

    1994-06-01

    Cookoff modeling of energetic materials has traditionally addressed reactive heat flow with the goal of defining the onset of runaway combustion behavior. Current modeling efforts are now aimed toward predicting the violence of the event. Combined thermal, chemical, and mechanical response must be modeled, since confinement results in pressure buildup which can breach confinement or enhance gas-phase combustion rates leading to runaway combustion behavior. Thermally induced stresses can also cause gaps which inhibit heat flow. These mechanical effects must also be included in cookoff modeling. A new reactive elastic-plastic constitutive model for micromechanical response has been developed which represents a stress-strain relation for reacting materials such as explosives, propellants, pyrotechnics, or burning foams. This micromechanical model is based on bubble mechanics. A local force balance, with mass continuity constraints, forms the basis of the constitutive model requiring input of temperature and reacted fraction. This constitutive material model has been incorporated into a quasistatic mechanics code, SANTOS. To provide temperature and reacted gas fraction, the thermal-chemical solver, XCHEM, has been coupled to SANTOS. This paper summarizes the development of the micromechanical model with material property estimates for conventional energetic materials. This study shows that large pressures can arise from small reacted fractions which implies that cookoff modeling must consider the strong interaction between thermochemistry and mechanics.

  7. A constitutive law for degrading bioresorbable polymers.

    PubMed

    Samami, Hassan; Pan, Jingzhe

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a constitutive law that predicts the changes in elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio and ultimate tensile strength of bioresorbable polymers due to biodegradation. During biodegradation, long polymer chains are cleaved by hydrolysis reaction. For semi-crystalline polymers, the chain scissions also lead to crystallisation. Treating each scission as a cavity and each new crystal as a solid inclusion, a degrading semi-crystalline polymer can be modelled as a continuum solid containing randomly distributed cavities and crystal inclusions. The effective elastic properties of a degrading polymer are calculated using existing theories for such solid and the tensile strength of the degrading polymer is predicted using scaling relations that were developed for porous materials. The theoretical model for elastic properties and the scaling law for strength form a complete constitutive relation for the degrading polymers. It is shown that the constitutive law can capture the trend of the experimental data in the literature for a range of biodegradable polymers fairly well. PMID:26971070

  8. Implicit constitutive relations for nonlinear magnetoelastic bodies

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, R.; Rajagopal, K. R.

    2015-01-01

    Implicit constitutive relations that characterize the response of elastic bodies have greatly enhanced the arsenal available at the disposal of the analyst working in the field of elasticity. This class of models were recently extended to describe electroelastic bodies by the present authors. In this paper, we extend the development of implicit constitutive relations to describe the behaviour of elastic bodies that respond to magnetic stimuli. The models that are developed provide a rational way to describe phenomena that have hitherto not been adequately described by the classical models that are in place. After developing implicit constitutive relations for magnetoelastic bodies undergoing large deformations, we consider the linearization of the models within the context of small displacement gradients. We then use the linearized model to describe experimentally observed phenomena which the classical linearized magnetoelastic models are incapable of doing. We also solve several boundary value problems within the context of the models that are developed: extension and shear of a slab, and radial inflation and extension of a cylinder. PMID:25792968

  9. Constitutive equations for multiphase TRIP steels at high rates of strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Slycken, J.; Verleysen, P.; Degrieck, J.; Bouquerel, J.

    2006-08-01

    Multiphase TRansformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels show an excellent combination of high strength and high strain values, making them ideally suited for use in vehicle body structures. A complex synergy of three different phases (ferrite, bainite and austenite) on the one hand, and the meta-stable character of the austenite on the other hand, give the material indeed a high energy absorption potential. The knowledge and understanding of the dynamic behaviour of these sheet steels is essential to investigate the impact-dynamic characteristics of the structures. Therefore split Hopkinson tensile tests are performed in a strain rate range of 500 to 2000 s-1. Three TRIP steel grades with a different Al and Si content were studied. The experimental results show that these steels preserve their excellent shock-absorbing properties in dynamic conditions. The typical high strain rate loading conditions and the complex behaviour of TRIP steels offer a unique investigation opportunity. This behaviour can be described with phenomenological material models that can be used for numerical simulations of car crashes. The Johnson-Cook model, a frequently used model in finite element codes, is well-suited to describe the dynamic behaviour of the investigated TRIP steels. This model is compared to the Rusinek-Klepaczko model.

  10. A proposed generalized constitutive equation for nonlinear para-isotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, K. K.; Swartz, S. E.; Huang, C. J.

    1980-01-01

    Finite element models of varying complexities were used to solve problems in solid mechanics. Particular emphasis was given to concrete which is nonisotropic at any level of deformation and is also nonlinear in terms of stress-strain relationships.

  11. A constitutive equation for droplet distribution in unidirectional flows of dilute emulsions for low capillary numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, Arun; Loewenberg, Michael; Leighton, David T.

    2010-08-01

    The concentration distribution of droplets in the unidirectional flow of an emulsion for small capillary numbers (Ca) can be written as a balance between the drift flux arising from droplet deformation and the flux due to shear induced migration. The droplet drift flux is modeled using the O(Ca) theoretical results of Chan and Leal [J. Fluid Mech. 92, 131 (1979)], while the flux due to shear-induced migration is modeled using the suspension balance approach of Nott and Brady [J. Fluid Mech. 275, 157 (1994)], whereby particle migration is ascribed to normal stress gradients in the flowing dilute emulsion. In the limit of vanishingly small capillary numbers, the leading order contribution of the normal stresses in dilute emulsions arises from droplet-droplet interaction and thus scales as ϕ2τ, where ϕ is the droplet volume fraction and τ is the local shear stress. In our model, the normal stress calculations of Zinchenko [Prikl. Mat. Mekh. 47, 56 (1984)] are connected to our gradient diffusivity data computed from droplet trajectories [M. Loewenberg and E. J. Hinch, J. Fluid Mech. 338, 299 (1997)] via a reduced droplet mobility to derive the droplet flux due to shear-induced migration. As an example, the model is applied to the tube Poiseuille flow of a dilute emulsion at small Ca. It is demonstrated that the unsteady concentration distribution of droplets resulting from arbitrary time-dependent average velocity obeys a self-similar solution, provided the thickness of the droplet-depleted region near the walls is always nonzero.

  12. Constitutive equation of friction based on the subloading-surface concept

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Masami; Kuwayama, Takuya; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Yonemura, Shigeru; Yoshikawa, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    The subloading-friction model is capable of describing static friction, the smooth transition from static to kinetic friction and the recovery to static friction after sliding stops or sliding velocity decreases. This causes a negative rate sensitivity (i.e. a decrease in friction resistance with increasing sliding velocity). A generalized subloading-friction model is formulated in this article by incorporating the concept of overstress for viscoplastic sliding velocity into the subloading-friction model to describe not only negative rate sensitivity but also positive rate sensitivity (i.e. an increase in friction resistance with increasing sliding velocity) at a general sliding velocity ranging from quasi-static to impact sliding. The validity of the model is verified by numerical experiments and comparisons with test data obtained from friction tests using a lubricated steel specimen. PMID:27493570

  13. 29 CFR 402.1 - Labor organization constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labor organization constitution and bylaws. 402.1 Section... constitution and bylaws. Every labor organization shall adopt a constitution and bylaws consistent with the... a constitution and bylaws which it has previously adopted and under which it is operating when...

  14. Power: Constitutional Update. Bar/School Partnership Programs Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL. Special Committee on Youth Education for Citizenship.

    The fourth in a special series of handbooks dealing with constitutional themes, this document looks at power in the context of the U.S. Constitution. "The Constitution's Prescription for Freedom" (L. Peach) examines the separation of powers provided for in the Constitution. "The Concept of Power" (C. Roach) is a series of strategies, some using…

  15. The Law of the Constitution: A Bicentennial Lecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meese, Edwin, III

    This paper discusses the distinction between the Constitution and constitutional law. The Constitution is the fundamental law of the United States. It creates the institutions of government, enumerates the powers of these institutions, and delineates areas government may not enter. The Constitution is the instrument by which the consent of the…

  16. Search, Seizure, and Privacy. Exploring the Constitution Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhirter, Darien A., Ed.

    This book, part of the "Exploring the Constitution Series," provides a basic introduction to important areas of constitutional law. Each volume contains a general introduction to a particular constitutional issue combined with excerpts from significant Supreme Court decisions in that area. The text of the Constitution, a chronological listing of…

  17. Constitutional and thermal defects in nickel aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Korzhavyi, P.A.; Abrikosov, I.A.; Johansson, B.

    1999-07-01

    The formation energies of intrinsic point defects and the interaction energies of possible defect pairs in NiAl are calculated from first principles within an order-N, locally self-consistent Green's function method in conjunction with the multipole electrostatic corrections to the atomic sphere approximation. The theory correctly reproduces the ground-state properties of the off-stoichiometric NiAl alloys. The constitutional defects (antisite Ni atoms in Ni-rich and Ni vacancies in Al-rich NiAl) are shown to form ordered structures in the ground state, in which the defects of the same kind tend to avoid each other at the shortest separation distance on their sublattice. A mean-field theory is applied to calculate the equilibrium concentrations of thermal defects. The statistics of thermal defects is interpreted in terms of dominant composition-conserving complex defects which are shown to be triple defects in Ni-rich and nearly stoichiometric NiAl. In the Al-rich region a novel thermal excitation dominates where two constitutional Ni vacancies are replaced by one antisite Al atom. The number of vacancies, as well as the total number of point defects decrease with temperature in Al-rich NiAl. The boundary between the two regions is treated analytically. The vacancy concentration exhibits a minimum in its temperature dependence at the boundary. Similar analysis is applied to study constitutional and thermal defects in Ni{sub 3}Al as a function of concentration is in excellent agreement with recent experimental data.

  18. Chemical Equation Balancing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakley, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews mathematical techniques for solving systems of homogeneous linear equations and demonstrates that the algebraic method of balancing chemical equations is a matter of solving a system of homogeneous linear equations. FORTRAN programs using this matrix method to chemical equation balancing are available from the author. (JN)

  19. Equations and closure methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Basic differential equations governing compressible turbulent boundary layer flow are reviewed, including conservation of mass and energy, momentum equations derived from Navier-Stokes equations, and equations of state. Closure procedures were broken down into: (1) simple or zeroth-order methods, (2) first-order or mean field closure methods, and (3) second-order or mean turbulence field methods.

  20. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials (HOST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Kwai S.; Lindholm, Ulric S.; Bodner, S. R.; Hill, Jeff T.; Weber, R. M.; Meyer, T. G.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the third year of work on a program which is part of the NASA Hot Section Technology program (HOST) are presented. The goals of this program are: (1) the development of unified constitutive models for rate dependent isotropic materials; and (2) the demonstration of the use of unified models in structural analyses of hot section components of gas turbine engines. The unified models selected for development and evaluation are those of Bodner-Partom and of Walker. A test procedure was developed for assisting the generation of a data base for the Bodner-Partom model using a relatively small number of specimens. This test procedure involved performing a tensile test at a temperature of interest that involves a succession of strain-rate changes. The results for B1900+Hf indicate that material constants related to hardening and thermal recovery can be obtained on the basis of such a procedure. Strain aging, thermal recovery, and unexpected material variations, however, preluded an accurate determination of the strain-rate sensitivity parameter is this exercise. The effects of casting grain size on the constitutive behavior of B1900+Hf were studied and no particular grain size effect was observed. A systematic procedure was also developed for determining the material constants in the Bodner-Partom model. Both the new test procedure and the method for determining material constants were applied to the alternate material, Mar-M247 . Test data including tensile, creep, cyclic and nonproportional biaxial (tension/torsion) loading were collected. Good correlations were obtained between the Bodner-Partom model and experiments. A literature survey was conducted to assess the effects of thermal history on the constitutive behavior of metals. Thermal history effects are expected to be present at temperature regimes where strain aging and change of microstructure are important. Possible modifications to the Bodner-Partom model to account for these effects are outlined

  1. Identification of constitutive parameters for fractional viscoelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhao; Haitian, Yang; Yiqian, He

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a numerical model to identify constitutive parameters in the fractional viscoelastic field. An explicit semi-analytical numerical model and a finite difference (FD) method based numerical model are derived for solving the direct homogenous and regionally inhomogeneous fractional viscoelastic problems, respectively. A continuous ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm is employed to solve the inverse problem of identification. The feasibility of the proposed approach is illustrated via the numerical verification of a two-dimensional identification problem formulated by the fractional Kelvin-Voigt model, and the noisy data and regional inhomogeneity etc. are taken into account.

  2. Civil and Constitutional Rights of Adjudicated Youth.

    PubMed

    Landess, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Mental health clinicians serving child and adolescent patients are frequently asked to evaluate youth who have been arrested for various offenses or who are otherwise involved with the juvenile justice system. To help orient clinicians and other stakeholders involved with such cases, this article describes the evolution of the juvenile justice system and summarizes the history and current status of the civil and constitutional rights of youth involved in the adjudicatory process. This article also points out key areas in which due process rights are still evolving, particularly in the case of status offenders. PMID:26593115

  3. Evaluation of constitutive models for crushed salt

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C. [RE Hurtado, L.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1996-05-01

    Three constitutive models are recommended as candidates for describing the deformation of crushed salt. These models are generalized to three-dimensional states of stress to include the effects of mean and deviatoric stress and modified to include effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt is used to determine material parameters for the models. To evaluate the capability of the models, parameter values obtained from fitting the complete database are used to predict the individual tests. Finite element calculations of a WIPP shaft with emplaced crushed salt demonstrate the model predictions.

  4. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Wigner-Lindblad Equations for Quantum Friction.

    PubMed

    Bondar, Denys I; Cabrera, Renan; Campos, Andre; Mukamel, Shaul; Rabitz, Herschel A

    2016-05-01

    Dissipative forces are ubiquitous and thus constitute an essential part of realistic physical theories. However, quantization of dissipation has remained an open challenge for nearly a century. We construct a quantum counterpart of classical friction, a velocity-dependent force acting against the direction of motion. In particular, a translationary invariant Lindblad equation is derived satisfying the appropriate dynamical relations for the coordinate and momentum (i.e., the Ehrenfest equations). Numerical simulations establish that the model approximately equilibrates. These findings significantly advance a long search for a universally valid Lindblad model of quantum friction and open opportunities for exploring novel dissipation phenomena. PMID:27078510

  6. We the People: Indiana and the United States Constitution. Lectures in Observance of the Bicentennial of the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlong, Partick J.; And Others

    These lectures, presented in observance of the U.S. Constitution bicentennial celebration, consider selected constitutionally significant law cases that occurred in Indiana. These cases are representative of U.S. constitutional development and of the relationship of Indiana to the U.S. Constitution. Patrick Furlong, in "The South Bend Fugitive…

  7. Development of a unified constitutive model for an isotropic nickel base superalloy Rene 80

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaswamy, V. G.; Vanstone, R. H.; Laflen, J. H.; Stouffer, D. C.

    1988-01-01

    Accurate analysis of stress-strain behavior is of critical importance in the evaluation of life capabilities of hot section turbine engine components such as turbine blades and vanes. The constitutive equations used in the finite element analysis of such components must be capable of modeling a variety of complex behavior exhibited at high temperatures by cast superalloys. The classical separation of plasticity and creep employed in most of the finite element codes in use today is known to be deficient in modeling elevated temperature time dependent phenomena. Rate dependent, unified constitutive theories can overcome many of these difficulties. A new unified constitutive theory was developed to model the high temperature, time dependent behavior of Rene' 80 which is a cast turbine blade and vane nickel base superalloy. Considerations in model development included the cyclic softening behavior of Rene' 80, rate independence at lower temperatures and the development of a new model for static recovery.

  8. Constitutive Modeling, Microstructure Evolution, and Processing Map for a Nitride-Strengthened Heat-Resistant Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Feng; Sha, Wei; Yan, Wei; Wang, Wei; Shan, Yi-Yin; Yang, Ke

    2014-08-01

    A constitutive equation was established to describe the deformation behavior of a nitride-strengthened (NS) steel through isothermal compression simulation test. All the parameters in the constitutive equation including the constant and the activation energy were precisely calculated for the NS steel. The result also showed that from the stress-strain curves, there existed two different linear relationships between critical stress and critical strain in the NS steel due to the augmentation of auxiliary softening effect of the dynamic strain-induced transformation. In the calculation of processing maps, with the change of Zener-Hollomon value, three domains of different levels of workability were found, namely excellent workability region with equiaxed-grain microstructure, good workability region with "stripe" microstructure, and the poor workability region with martensitic-ferritic blend microstructure. With the increase of strain, the poor workability region first expanded, then shrank to barely existing, but appeared again at the strain of 0.6.

  9. An internal variable constitutive model for the large deformation of metals at high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Stuart; Anand, Lallit

    1988-01-01

    The advent of large deformation finite element methodologies is beginning to permit the numerical simulation of hot working processes whose design until recently has been based on prior industrial experience. Proper application of such finite element techniques requires realistic constitutive equations which more accurately model material behavior during hot working. A simple constitutive model for hot working is the single scalar internal variable model for isotropic thermal elastoplasticity proposed by Anand. The model is recalled and the specific scalar functions, for the equivalent plastic strain rate and the evolution equation for the internal variable, presented are slight modifications of those proposed by Anand. The modified functions are better able to represent high temperature material behavior. The monotonic constant true strain rate and strain rate jump compression experiments on a 2 percent silicon iron is briefly described. The model is implemented in the general purpose finite element program ABAQUS.

  10. Modeling flow stress constitutive behavior of SA508-3 steel for nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mingyue; Hao, Luhan; Li, Shijian; Li, Dianzhong; Li, Yiyi

    2011-11-01

    Based on the measured stress-strain curves under different temperatures and strain rates, a series of flow stress constitutive equations for SA508-3 steel were firstly established through the classical theories on work hardening and softening. The comparison between the experimental and modeling results has confirmed that the established constitutive equations can correctly describe the mechanical responses and microstructural evolutions of the steel under various hot deformation conditions. We further represented a successful industrial application of this model to simulate a forging process for a large conical shell used in a nuclear steam generator, which evidences its practical and promising perspective of our model with an aim of widely promoting the hot plasticity processing for heavy nuclear components of fission reactors.

  11. On finite element implementation and computational techniques for constitutive modeling of high temperature composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saleeb, A. F.; Chang, T. Y. P.; Wilt, T.; Iskovitz, I.

    1989-01-01

    The research work performed during the past year on finite element implementation and computational techniques pertaining to high temperature composites is outlined. In the present research, two main issues are addressed: efficient geometric modeling of composite structures and expedient numerical integration techniques dealing with constitutive rate equations. In the first issue, mixed finite elements for modeling laminated plates and shells were examined in terms of numerical accuracy, locking property and computational efficiency. Element applications include (currently available) linearly elastic analysis and future extension to material nonlinearity for damage predictions and large deformations. On the material level, various integration methods to integrate nonlinear constitutive rate equations for finite element implementation were studied. These include explicit, implicit and automatic subincrementing schemes. In all cases, examples are included to illustrate the numerical characteristics of various methods that were considered.

  12. [Animal protection in constitutional law?--On the necessity of including animal protection in the constitution].

    PubMed

    Caspar, J

    1998-03-01

    The inclusion of animal protection in the constitution poses a lengthy legal-political demand, which is again being vehemently discussed at the present time. Under consideration of juristic aspects, the following treatise attempts to clarify the legal requirements which presently exist for anchoring animal protection in constitutional law. It is therefore necessary in the first instance to explain the present situation regarding animal protection law. The legal situation in this respect is marked by a fundamental collision between special democratic rights guaranteed by the constitution on the one hand, and the norms of animal protection law on the other hand, which tend to restrict these rights. Based on concrete examples taken from court decisions, it is shown that constitutional vacuum surrounding a major part of animal protection law greatly complicates or even renders impossible the application and enforcement of the latter in practice. A prerequisite for a proper legal framework for animal protection is that the different special basic democratic rights governing animal use must be counterpoised by animal protection laws backed up by the constitution. Only by this means it is possible to prevent the ineffectiveness of animal protection legislative norms in the long term. PMID:9581372

  13. Constitutive heterochromatin reorganization during somatic cell reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Fussner, Eden; Djuric, Ugljesa; Strauss, Mike; Hotta, Akitsu; Perez-Iratxeta, Carolina; Lanner, Fredrik; Dilworth, F Jeffrey; Ellis, James; Bazett-Jones, David P

    2011-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell reprogramming is a gradual epigenetic process that reactivates the pluripotent transcriptional network by erasing and establishing repressive epigenetic marks. In contrast to loci-specific epigenetic changes, heterochromatin domains undergo epigenetic resetting during the reprogramming process, but the effect on the heterochromatin ultrastructure is not known. Here, we characterize the physical structure of heterochromatin domains in full and partial mouse iPS cells by correlative electron spectroscopic imaging. In somatic and partial iPS cells, constitutive heterochromatin marked by H3K9me3 is highly compartmentalized into chromocentre structures of densely packed chromatin fibres. In contrast, chromocentre boundaries are poorly defined in pluripotent embryonic stem and full iPS cells, and are characterized by unusually dispersed 10 nm heterochromatin fibres in high Nanog-expressing cells, including pluripotent cells of the mouse blastocyst before differentiation. This heterochromatin reorganization accompanies retroviral silencing during conversion of partial iPS cells by MEK/GSK3 2i inhibitor treatment. Thus, constitutive heterochromatin is compacted in partial iPS cells but reorganizes into dispersed 10 nm chromatin fibres as the fully reprogrammed iPS cell state is acquired. PMID:21468033

  14. Constitutive modelling of composite biopolymer networks.

    PubMed

    Fallqvist, B; Kroon, M

    2016-04-21

    The mechanical behaviour of biopolymer networks is to a large extent determined at a microstructural level where the characteristics of individual filaments and the interactions between them determine the response at a macroscopic level. Phenomena such as viscoelasticity and strain-hardening followed by strain-softening are observed experimentally in these networks, often due to microstructural changes (such as filament sliding, rupture and cross-link debonding). Further, composite structures can also be formed with vastly different mechanical properties as compared to the individual networks. In this present paper, we present a constitutive model presented in a continuum framework aimed at capturing these effects. Special care is taken to formulate thermodynamically consistent evolution laws for dissipative effects. This model, incorporating possible anisotropic network properties, is based on a strain energy function, split into an isochoric and a volumetric part. Generalisation to three dimensions is performed by numerical integration over the unit sphere. Model predictions indicate that the constitutive model is well able to predict the elastic and viscoelastic response of biological networks, and to an extent also composite structures. PMID:26851172

  15. Relationships among certain joint constitutive models.

    SciTech Connect

    Segalman, Daniel Joseph; Starr, Michael James

    2004-09-01

    In a recent paper, Starr and Segalman demonstrated that any Masing model can be represented as a parallel-series Iwan model. A preponderance of the constitutive models that have been suggested for simulating mechanical joints are Masing models, and the purpose of this discussion is to demonstrate how the Iwan representation of those models can yield insight into their character. In particular, this approach can facilitate a critical comparison among numerous plausible constitutive models. It is explicitly shown that three-parameter models such as Smallwood's (Ramberg-Osgood) calculate parameters in such a manner that macro-slip is not an independent parameter, yet the model admits macro-slip. The introduction of a fourth parameter is therefore required. It is shown that when a macro-slip force is specified for the Smallwood model the result is a special case of the Segalman four-parameter model. Both of these models admit a slope discontinuity at the inception of macro-slip. A five-parameter model that has the beneficial features of Segalman's four-parameter model is proposed. This model manifests a force-displacement curve having a continuous first derivative.

  16. Space shuttle propellant constitutive law verification tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, James R.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the Propellants Task (Task 2.0) on the Solid Propulsion Integrity Program (SPIP), a database of material properties was generated for the Space Shuttle Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) PBAN-based propellant. A parallel effort on the Propellants Task was the generation of an improved constitutive theory for the PBAN propellant suitable for use in a finite element analysis (FEA) of the RSRM. The outcome of an analysis with the improved constitutive theory would be more reliable prediction of structural margins of safety. The work described in this report was performed by Materials Laboratory personnel at Thiokol Corporation/Huntsville Division under NASA contract NAS8-39619, Mod. 3. The report documents the test procedures for the refinement and verification tests for the improved Space Shuttle RSRM propellant material model, and summarizes the resulting test data. TP-H1148 propellant obtained from mix E660411 (manufactured February 1989) which had experienced ambient igloo storage in Huntsville, Alabama since January 1990, was used for these tests.

  17. Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials (HOST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, U. S.; Chan, K. S.; Bodner, S. R.; Weber, R. M.; Walker, K. P.; Cassenti, B. N.

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of the second year of work on a problem which is part of the NASA HOST Program. Its goals are: (1) to develop and validate unified constitutive models for isotropic materials, and (2) to demonstrate their usefulness for structural analyses of hot section components of gas turbine engines. The unified models selected for development and evaluation are that of Bodner-Partom and Walker. For model evaluation purposes, a large constitutive data base is generated for a B1900 + Hf alloy by performing uniaxial tensile, creep, cyclic, stress relation, and thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) tests as well as biaxial (tension/torsion) tests under proportional and nonproportional loading over a wide range of strain rates and temperatures. Systematic approaches for evaluating material constants from a small subset of the data base are developed. Correlations of the uniaxial and biaxial tests data with the theories of Bodner-Partom and Walker are performed to establish the accuracy, range of applicability, and integability of the models. Both models are implemented in the MARC finite element computer code and used for TMF analyses. Benchmark notch round experiments are conducted and the results compared with finite-element analyses using the MARC code and the Walker model.

  18. Numerical implementation of inelastic time dependent and time independent, finite strain constitutive equtions in solids

    SciTech Connect

    Key, S.W.; Krieg, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    A number of complex issues are addressed which will allow the incorporation of finite strain, inelastic material behavior into the piecewise numerical construction of solutions in solid mechanics. Without recourse to extensive continuum mechanics preliminaries, an elementary time independent plasticity model, an elementary time dependent creep model, and a viscoelastic model are introduced as examples of constitutive equations which are routinely used in engineering calculations. The constitutive equations are all suitable for problems involving large deformations and finite strains. The plasticity and creep models are in rate form and use the symmetric part of the velocity gradient or the stretching to compute the co-rotational time derivative of the Cauchy stress. The viscoelastic model computes the current value of the Cauchy stress from a hereditary integral of a materially invariant form of the stretching history. The current configuration is selected for evaluation of equilibrium as opposed to either the reference configuration or the last established equilibrium configuration. The process of strain incrementation is examined in some depth and the stretching evaluated at the midinterval multiplied by the time step is identified as the appropriate finite strain increment to use with the selected form of the constitutive equations. Discussed is the conversion of rotation rates based on the spin into incremental orthogonal rotations which are then used to update stresses and state variables due to rigid body rotation during the load increment. Comments and references to the literature are directed at numerical integration of the constitutive equations with an emphasis on doing this accurately, if not exactly, for any time step and stretching. This material taken collectively provides an approach to numerical implementation which is marked by its simplicity.

  19. Constitutive modelling of magnetic shape memory alloys with discrete and continuous symmetries

    PubMed Central

    Haldar, K.; Lagoudas, D. C.

    2014-01-01

    A free energy-based constitutive formulation is considered for magnetic shape memory alloys. Internal state variables are introduced whose evolution describes the transition from reference state to the deformed and transformed one. We impose material symmetry restrictions on the Gibbs free energy and on the evolution equations of the internal state variables. Discrete symmetry is considered for single crystals, whereas continuous symmetry is considered for polycrystalline materials. PMID:25197247

  20. Constitutive modelling of magnetic shape memory alloys with discrete and continuous symmetries.

    PubMed

    Haldar, K; Lagoudas, D C

    2014-09-01

    A free energy-based constitutive formulation is considered for magnetic shape memory alloys. Internal state variables are introduced whose evolution describes the transition from reference state to the deformed and transformed one. We impose material symmetry restrictions on the Gibbs free energy and on the evolution equations of the internal state variables. Discrete symmetry is considered for single crystals, whereas continuous symmetry is considered for polycrystalline materials. PMID:25197247

  1. Anisotropic constitutive model for nickel base single crystal alloys: Development and finite element implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dame, L. T.; Stouffer, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    A tool for the mechanical analysis of nickel base single crystal superalloys, specifically Rene N4, used in gas turbine engine components is developed. This is achieved by a rate dependent anisotropic constitutive model implemented in a nonlinear three dimensional finite element code. The constitutive model is developed from metallurigical concepts utilizing a crystallographic approach. A non Schmid's law formulation is used to model the tension/compression asymmetry and orientation dependence in octahedral slip. Schmid's law is a good approximation to the inelastic response of the material in cube slip. The constitutive equations model the tensile behavior, creep response, and strain rate sensitivity of these alloys. Methods for deriving the material constants from standard tests are presented. The finite element implementation utilizes an initial strain method and twenty noded isoparametric solid elements. The ability to model piecewise linear load histories is included in the finite element code. The constitutive equations are accurately and economically integrated using a second order Adams-Moulton predictor-corrector method with a dynamic time incrementing procedure. Computed results from the finite element code are compared with experimental data for tensile, creep and cyclic tests at 760 deg C. The strain rate sensitivity and stress relaxation capabilities of the model are evaluated.

  2. Application of symbolic computations to the constitutive modeling of structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Tan, H. Q.; Dong, X.

    1990-01-01

    In applications involving elevated temperatures, the derivation of mathematical expressions (constitutive equations) describing the material behavior can be quite time consuming, involved and error-prone. Therefore intelligent application of symbolic systems to faciliate this tedious process can be of significant benefit. Presented here is a problem oriented, self contained symbolic expert system, named SDICE, which is capable of efficiently deriving potential based constitutive models in analytical form. This package, running under DOE MACSYMA, has the following features: (1) potential differentiation (chain rule), (2) tensor computations (utilizing index notation) including both algebraic and calculus; (3) efficient solution of sparse systems of equations; (4) automatic expression substitution and simplification; (5) back substitution of invariant and tensorial relations; (6) the ability to form the Jacobian and Hessian matrix; and (7) a relational data base. Limited aspects of invariant theory were also incorporated into SDICE due to the utilization of potentials as a starting point and the desire for these potentials to be frame invariant (objective). The uniqueness of SDICE resides in its ability to manipulate expressions in a general yet pre-defined order and simplify expressions so as to limit expression growth. Results are displayed, when applicable, utilizing index notation. SDICE was designed to aid and complement the human constitutive model developer. A number of examples are utilized to illustrate the various features contained within SDICE. It is expected that this symbolic package can and will provide a significant incentive to the development of new constitutive theories.

  3. Laboratory constitutive characterization of cellular concrete.

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, Robert Douglas; Lee, Moo Yul; Bronowski, David R.

    2004-03-01

    To establish mechanical material properties of cellular concrete mixes, a series of quasi-static, compression and tension tests have been completed. This report summarizes the test methods, set-up, relevant observations, and results from the constitutive experimental efforts. Results from the uniaxial and triaxial compression tests established failure criteria for the cellular concrete in terms of stress invariants I{sub 1} and J{sub 2}. {radical}J{sub 2} (MPa) = 297.2 - 278.7 exp{sup -0.000455 I}{sub 1}{sup (MPa)} for the 90-pcf concrete {radical}J{sub 2} (MPa) = 211.4 - 204.2 exp {sup -0.000628 I}{sub 1}{sup (MPa)} for the 60-pcf concrete

  4. Rotational and constitutional dynamics of caged supramolecules

    PubMed Central

    Kühne, Dirk; Klappenberger, Florian; Krenner, Wolfgang; Klyatskaya, Svetlana; Ruben, Mario; Barth, Johannes V.

    2010-01-01

    The confinement of molecular species in nanoscale environments leads to intriguing dynamic phenomena. Notably, the organization and rotational motions of individual molecules were controlled by carefully designed, fully supramolecular host architectures. Here we use an open 2D coordination network on a smooth metal surface to steer the self-assembly of discrete trimeric guest units, identified as noncovalently bound dynamers. Each caged chiral supramolecule performs concerted, chirality-preserving rotary motions within the template honeycomb pore, which are visualized and quantitatively analyzed using temperature-controlled scanning tunneling microscopy. Furthermore, with higher thermal energies, a constitutional system dynamics appears, which is revealed by monitoring repetitive switching events of the confined supramolecules’ chirality signature, reflecting decay and reassembly of the caged units. PMID:21098303

  5. Constitutive Models for Shape Memory Alloy Polycrystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, R. J., Jr.; Somerday, M.; Wert, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) exhibiting the superelastic or one-way effects can produce large recoverable strains upon application of a stress. In single crystals this stress and resulting strain are very orientation dependent. We show experimental stress/strain curves for a Ni-Al single crystal for various loading orientations. Also shown are model predictions; the open and closed circles indicate recoverable strains obtained at various stages in the transformation process. Because of the strong orientation dependence of shape memory properties, crystallographic texture can be expected to play an important role in the mechanical behavior of polycrystalline SMA. It is desirable to formulate a constitutive model to better understand and exploit the unique properties of SMA.

  6. Mood-congruent cognitions constitute mood experience.

    PubMed

    Siemer, Matthias

    2005-09-01

    Three studies tested the assumption of a dispositional theory of moods that mood-related cognitions constitute essential parts of the phenomenal mood experience. In Study 1, after a hot- versus a cold-, sad-, or angry-mood induction, participants reported their momentary moods and their momentary mood-related cognitions. Self-reported moods and mood-related cognitions changed in a strictly parallel fashion in all mood induction groups. A mediation analysis showed that the influences of distraction on moods were completely mediated by changes in mood-related cognitions. Study 2 replicated the central findings of Study 1 with a musical mood induction procedure. Study 3 showed that the findings do not depend on the explicit manipulation of moods. The results support the tested assumption. PMID:16187865

  7. Constitutive Modeling for Flow Stress Behavior of Nimonic 80A Superalloy During Hot Deformation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Sendong; Zhang, Liwen; Zhang, Chi; Shen, Wenfei

    2016-03-01

    The hot deformation characteristics of nickel-based alloy Nimonic 80A were investigated by isothermal compression tests conducted in the temperature range of 1,000-1,200°C and the strain rate range of 0.01—5 s-1 on a Gleeble-1500 thermomechanical simulator. In order to establish the constitutive models for dynamic recrystallization (DRX) behavior and flow stress of Nimonic 80A, the material constants α, n and DRX activation energy Q in the constitutive models were calculated by the regression analysis of the experimental data. The dependences of initial stress, saturation stress, steady-state stress, dynamic recovery (DRV) parameter, peak strain, critical strain and DRX grain size on deformation parameters were obtained. Then, the Avrami equation including the critical strain for DRX and the peak strain as a function of strain was established to describe the DRX volume fraction. Finally, the constitutive model for flow stress of Nimonic 80A was developed in DRV region and DRX region, respectively. The flow stress values predicted by the constitutive model are in good agreement with the experimental ones, which indicates that the constitutive model can give an accurate estimate for the flow stress of Nimonic 80A under the deformation conditions.

  8. Single wall penetration equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashida, K. B.; Robinson, J. H.

    1991-01-01

    Five single plate penetration equations are compared for accuracy and effectiveness. These five equations are two well-known equations (Fish-Summers and Schmidt-Holsapple), two equations developed by the Apollo project (Rockwell and Johnson Space Center (JSC), and one recently revised from JSC (Cour-Palais). They were derived from test results, with velocities ranging up to 8 km/s. Microsoft Excel software was used to construct a spreadsheet to calculate the diameters and masses of projectiles for various velocities, varying the material properties of both projectile and target for the five single plate penetration equations. The results were plotted on diameter versus velocity graphs for ballistic and spallation limits using Cricket Graph software, for velocities ranging from 2 to 15 km/s defined for the orbital debris. First, these equations were compared to each other, then each equation was compared with various aluminum projectile densities. Finally, these equations were compared with test results performed at JSC for the Marshall Space Flight Center. These equations predict a wide variety of projectile diameters at a given velocity. Thus, it is very difficult to choose the 'right' prediction equation. The thickness of a single plate could have a large variation by choosing a different penetration equation. Even though all five equations are empirically developed with various materials, especially for aluminum alloys, one cannot be confident in the shield design with the predictions obtained by the penetration equations without verifying by tests.

  9. 3 CFR 8714 - Proclamation 8714 of September 16, 2011. Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Proclamation 8714 of September 16, 2011..., Constitution Week, 2011By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation In the summer of 1787... by joint resolution of August 2, 1956 (36 U.S.C. 108), requested that the President proclaim the...

  10. 78 FR 57777 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-23014 Filed 9-18-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... our Constitution and join us in writing the next chapter of our national story. Throughout our history... Week. I encourage Federal, State, and local officials, as well as leaders of civic, social,...

  11. 76 FR 58705 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ....) [FR Doc. 2011-24438 Filed 9-20-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ... join us in writing the next great chapter of the American story. In signing the Constitution, the... encourage Federal, State, and local officials, as well as leaders of civic, social, and...

  12. Pinning down the Constitution: Interactively Teaching Congress's Power, Federalism, and Constitutional Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emenaker, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    "Pin-the-Tail-on-the-Constitution" is an engaged-learning activity that has been conducted in 26 classes over the past four years. The activity teaches multiple themes commonly included in a variety of courses on American politics such as federalism, congressional powers, the role of the federal courts, and the relevance of the commerce…

  13. Private Higher Education and the Constitutions; Constitutionality of State Aid to Private Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Ann Van Wynen; Thomas, A. J., Jr.

    This report discusses the constitutionality of state aid to church-related institutions of higher education. The introduction deals with the important role that private institutions play in the total system of higher education, the seriousness of their financial plight, and the necessity for increased state aid to these institutions. Sections 2…

  14. What Legally Constitutes an Adequate Public Education? A Review of Constitutional, Legislative, and Judicial Mandates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Martha M.; Deignan, Paul T.

    While the law governing the definition of educational adequacy is still evolving, partial definitions can be gleaned from various state and federal laws and regulations prescribing standards for schools and from judicial interpretations of constitutional and statutory provisions. This document presents the results of such an analysis. After…

  15. Interpretation of Bernoulli's Equation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Robert P.; Schwaneberg, Rolf

    1994-01-01

    Discusses Bernoulli's equation with regards to: horizontal flow of incompressible fluids, change of height of incompressible fluids, gases, liquids and gases, and viscous fluids. Provides an interpretation, properties, terminology, and applications of Bernoulli's equation. (MVL)

  16. Reflections on Chemical Equations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Mel

    1981-01-01

    The issue of how much emphasis balancing chemical equations should have in an introductory chemistry course is discussed. The current heavy emphasis on finishing such equations is viewed as misplaced. (MP)

  17. Perspective view looking along the Constitution Avenue facade, showing the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view looking along the Constitution Avenue facade, showing the twenty-seven bays and the three central arches that mark the entrance to the building - Internal Revenue Service Headquarters Building, 1111 Constitution Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. Implementing the Equal Access Act and State Constitutional Provisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorklun, Eugene C.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the issue of whether implementation of the Equal Access Act would violate the constitutions of some states that require a stricter separation of church and state than the federal Constitution. (MLF)

  19. Close view of the Constitution Avenue elevation to show arched ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close view of the Constitution Avenue elevation to show arched gateways and pedimented pavilion ("Commerce and Communication" sculpted pediment) - Interstate Commerce Commission, Constitution Avenue between Twelfth and Fourteenth streets, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. Close view of the south facade on Constitution Avenue to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close view of the south facade on Constitution Avenue to show main entrance - United States Department of Justice, Constitution Avenue between Ninth & Tenth Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. An uncoupled viscoplastic constitutive model for metals at elevated temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haisler, W. E.; Cronenworth, J.

    1983-01-01

    An uncoupled constitutive model for predicting the transient response of thermal and rate dependent, inelastic material behavior is presented. The uncoupled model assumes that there is a temperature below which the total strain consists essentially of elastic and rate insensitive inelastic strains only. Above this temperature, the rate dependent inelastic strain (creep) dominates. The rate insensitive inelastic strain component is modeled in an incremental form with a yield function, flow rule and hardening law. Revisions to the hardening rule permit the model to predict temperature-dependent kinematic-isotropic hardening behavior, cyclic saturation, asymmetric stress-strain response upon stress reversal, and variable Bauschinger effect. The rate dependent inelastic strain component is modeled using a rate equation in terms of back stress, drag stress and exponent n as functions of temperature and strain. A sequence of hysteresis loops and relaxation tests are utilized to define the rate dependent inelastic strain rate. Evaluation of the model is performed by comparison with experiments involving various thermal and mechanical load histories on 5086 aluminum alloy, 304 stainless steel and Hastelloy-X.

  2. The Pendulum Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the pendulum equation [theta] + [lambda][squared] sin [theta] = 0 and two approximations for it. On the one hand, we suggest that the third and fifth-order Taylor series approximations for sin [theta] do not yield very good differential equations to approximate the solution of the pendulum equation unless the initial conditions are…

  3. Viscoelastic flow modeling in the extrusion of a dough-like fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhanasekharan, M.; Kokini, J. L.; Janes, H. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    This work attempts to investigate the effect of viscoelasticity and three-dimensional geometry in screw channels. The Phan-Thien Tanner (PTT) constitutive equation with simplified model parameters was solved in conjunction with the flow equations. Polyflow, a commercially available finite element code was used to solve the resulting nonlinear partial differential equations. The PTT model predicted one log scale lower pressure buildup compared to the equivalent Newtonian results. However, the velocity profile did not show significant changes for the chosen PTT model parameters. Past Researchers neglected viscoelastic effects and also the three dimensional nature of the flow in extruder channels. The results of this paper provide a starting point for further simulations using more realistic model parameters, which may enable the food engineer to more accurately scale-up and design extrusion processes.

  4. Solving the dynamic rupture problem with different numerical approaches and constitutive laws

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bizzarri, A.; Cocco, M.; Andrews, D.J.; Boschi, Enzo

    2001-01-01

    We study the dynamic initiation, propagation and arrest of a 2-D in-plane shear rupture by solving the elastodynamic equation by using both a boundary integral equation method and a finite difference approach. For both methods we adopt different constitutive laws: a slip-weakening (SW) law, with constant weakening rate, and rate- and state-dependent friction laws (Dieterich-Ruina). Our numerical procedures allow the use of heterogeneous distributions of constitutive parameters along the fault for both formulations. We first compare the two solution methods with an SW law, emphasizing the required stability conditions to achieve a good resolution of the cohesive zone and to avoid artificial complexity in the solutions. Our modelling results show that the two methods provide very similar time histories of dynamic source parameters. We point out that, if a careful control of resolution and stability is performed, the two methods yield identical solutions. We have also compared the rupture evolution resulting from an SW and a rate- and state-dependent friction law. This comparison shows that despite the different constitutive formulations, a similar behaviour is simulated during the rupture propagation and arrest. We also observe a crack tip bifurcation and a jump in rupture velocity (approaching the P-wave speed) with the Dieterich-Ruina (DR) law. The rupture arrest at a barrier (high strength zone) and the barrier-healing mechanism are also reproduced by this law. However, this constitutive formulation allows the simulation of a more general and complex variety of rupture behaviours. By assuming different heterogeneous distributions of the initial constitutive parameters, we are able to model a barrier-healing as well as a self-healing process. This result suggests that if the heterogeneity of the constitutive parameters is taken into account, the different healing mechanisms can be simulated. We also study the nucleation phase duration Tn, defined as the time

  5. Constitution Day: Start the School Year with Civics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesser, Eli J.

    2006-01-01

    The celebration and recognition of Constitution Day on September 17th is now required by federal law. The new law, known colloquially as the Byrd Amendment, requires all schools receiving any federal assistance, from kindergarten to higher education, to teach students about the Constitution on Constitution Day. The concept of a school's civic…

  6. 29 CFR 452.3 - Interpretations of constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. 452.3 Section... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 General Considerations § 452.3 Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. The interpretation consistently placed on a union's constitution by the responsible...

  7. Frederick Douglass Changed My Mind about the Constitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, James

    2008-01-01

    Frederick Douglass dramatically and publicly changed his own mind about the Constitution. Like Frederick Douglass, the author had originally viewed the Constitution as pro-slavery. Yet a close look at Douglass's writings revealed a Constitution that empowered the federal government to abolish slavery.

  8. Reflections on the Establishment of Constitutional Government in Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varat, Jonathan D.

    Establishing constitutional government involves not simply the creation of a written document that purports to create the political structure of a nation and guarantee rights to its people, but "constitutionalism" in the sense of meaningful and effective adherence to constitutional norms of democratic organization and the protection of individual…

  9. The Constitution in the Twentieth Century: Implications for Citizenship Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Paul L.

    A major constitutional issue in the twentieth century is the extent to which the U.S. Constitution should be interpreted to fit changing times and circumstances. In the latter part of the nineteenth century, the Supreme Court dispensed a "mechanical jurisprudence" based on an "objective" interpretation of the Constitution and the "original intent"…

  10. Resolution and Letter to Congress from the Constitutional Convention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the drafting of the United States Constitution. The United States Constitution is the longest-lasting written national constitution in the world. Its four parchment pages serve as the blueprint for a government under which more than 290 million Americans live. It holds great significance for the American people and for others…

  11. The Separation of Church and State. Exploring the Constitution Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhirter, Darien A.

    This textbook on the separation of church and state continues the "Exploring the Constitution Series," which introduces important areas of constitutional law. Intended to serve either as a reference work, a supplement to a standard textbook, or as the textbook for a course, this volume covers the constitutional issues of prayer in public schools,…

  12. 42 CFR 23.28 - What events constitute default?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What events constitute default? 23.28 Section 23.28... SERVICE CORPS Private Practice Special Loans for Former Corps Members § 23.28 What events constitute default? The following events will constitute defaults of the loan agreement: (a) Failure to make...

  13. 42 CFR 23.28 - What events constitute default?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What events constitute default? 23.28 Section 23.28... SERVICE CORPS Private Practice Special Loans for Former Corps Members § 23.28 What events constitute default? The following events will constitute defaults of the loan agreement: (a) Failure to make...

  14. 42 CFR 23.28 - What events constitute default?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What events constitute default? 23.28 Section 23.28... SERVICE CORPS Private Practice Special Loans for Former Corps Members § 23.28 What events constitute default? The following events will constitute defaults of the loan agreement: (a) Failure to make...

  15. 42 CFR 23.28 - What events constitute default?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What events constitute default? 23.28 Section 23.28... SERVICE CORPS Private Practice Special Loans for Former Corps Members § 23.28 What events constitute default? The following events will constitute defaults of the loan agreement: (a) Failure to make...

  16. 42 CFR 23.28 - What events constitute default?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What events constitute default? 23.28 Section 23.28... SERVICE CORPS Private Practice Special Loans for Former Corps Members § 23.28 What events constitute default? The following events will constitute defaults of the loan agreement: (a) Failure to make...

  17. Constitutive Theory Developed for Monolithic Ceramic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janosik, Lesley A.

    1998-01-01

    With the increasing use of advanced ceramic materials in high-temperature structural applications such as advanced heat engine components, the need arises to accurately predict thermomechanical behavior that is inherently time-dependent and that is hereditary in the sense that the current behavior depends not only on current conditions but also on the material's thermomechanical history. Most current analytical life prediction methods for both subcritical crack growth and creep models use elastic stress fields to predict the time-dependent reliability response of components subjected to elevated service temperatures. Inelastic response at high temperatures has been well documented in the materials science literature for these material systems, but this issue has been ignored by the engineering design community. From a design engineer's perspective, it is imperative to emphasize that accurate predictions of time-dependent reliability demand accurate stress field information. Ceramic materials exhibit different time-dependent behavior in tension and compression. Thus, inelastic deformation models for ceramics must be constructed in a fashion that admits both sensitivity to hydrostatic stress and differing behavior in tension and compression. A number of constitutive theories for materials that exhibit sensitivity to the hydrostatic component of stress have been proposed that characterize deformation using time-independent classical plasticity as a foundation. However, none of these theories allow different behavior in tension and compression. In addition, these theories are somewhat lacking in that they are unable to capture the creep, relaxation, and rate-sensitive phenomena exhibited by ceramic materials at high temperatures. The objective of this effort at the NASA Lewis Research Center has been to formulate a macroscopic continuum theory that captures these time-dependent phenomena. Specifically, the effort has focused on inelastic deformation behavior associated

  18. Health Care for Micronesians and Constitutional Rights

    PubMed Central

    Shek, Dina

    2011-01-01

    Under the Compacts of Free Association (COFA), people from the Freely Associated States — the Republic of Palau (ROP), the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), and the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) — have been migrating to the United States in increasing numbers. In 1996, Congress passed broad welfare reform (Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act) which limited certain federal benefits previously available to COFA migrants, including Medicaid benefits. Prior to July 2010, the State of Hawai‘i had continued to include COFA migrants under its state-funded Medicaid program. In the face of budget constraints, the State removed these people from its Medicaid rolls. A challenge on the legal basis of the denial of equal protection of the laws, ie, the Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution, was successful in reinstating health care to the COFA migrants in December 2010. From the health worker's perspective, regardless of various social justice arguments that may have been marshaled in favor of delivering health care to the people, it was an appeal to the judicial system that succeeded. From the attorney's perspective, the legal victories are potentially limited to the four walls of the courtroom without community involvement and related social justice movements. Together, the authors propose that in order to better address the issue of health care access for Micronesian peoples, we must work together, as health and legal advocates, to define a more robust vision of both systems that includes reconciliation and community engagement. PMID:22235150

  19. Mesoscale constitutive modeling of magnetic dispersions.

    PubMed

    Bhandar, Anand S; Wiest, John M

    2003-01-15

    A constitutive model for dispersions of acicular magnetic particles has been developed by modeling the particles as rigid dumbbells dispersed in a solvent. The effects of Brownian motion, anisotropic hydrodynamic drag, a steric force in the form of the Maier-Saupe potential, and, most importantly, a mean-field magnetic potential are included in the model. The development is similar to previous models for liquid-crystalline polymers. The model predicts multiple orientational states for the dispersion, and this phase behavior is described in terms of an orientational order parameter S and an average alignment parameter J; the latter is introduced because the magnetic particles have distinguishable direction due to polarity. A transition from isotropic to nematic phases at equilibrium is predicted. Multiple nematic phases-both prolate and oblate-are predicted in the presence of steady shear flow and external magnetic field parallel to the flow. The effect of increasing magnetic interparticle interactions and particle concentration is also presented. Comparisons with experimental data for the steady shear viscosity show very good agreement. PMID:16256493

  20. Health care for Micronesians and constitutional rights.

    PubMed

    Shek, Dina; Yamada, Seiji

    2011-11-01

    Under the Compacts of Free Association (COFA), people from the Freely Associated States--the Republic of Palau (ROP), the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), and the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM)--have been migrating to the United States in increasing numbers. In 1996, Congress passed broad welfare reform (Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act) which limited certain federal benefits previously available to COFA migrants, including Medicaid benefits. Prior to July 2010, the State of Hawai'i had continued to include COFA migrants under its state-funded Medicaid program. In the face of budget constraints, the State removed these people from its Medicaid rolls. A challenge on the legal basis of the denial of equal protection of the laws, ie, the Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution, was successful in reinstating health care to the COFA migrants in December 2010. From the health worker's perspective, regardless of various social justice arguments that may have been marshaled in favor of delivering health care to the people, it was an appeal to the judicial system that succeeded. From the attorney's perspective, the legal victories are potentially limited to the four walls of the courtroom without community involvement and related social justice movements. Together, the authors propose that in order to better address the issue of health care access for Micronesian peoples, we must work together, as health and legal advocates, to define a more robust vision of both systems that includes reconciliation and community engagement. PMID:22235150

  1. Improvements to constitutive material model for fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morea, Mihai I.

    2011-12-01

    The high strength to weight ratio of woven fabric offers a cost effective solution to be used in a containment system for aircraft propulsion engines. Currently, Kevlar is the only Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) approved fabric for usage in systems intended to mitigate fan blade-out events. This research builds on an earlier constitutive model of Kevlar 49 fabric developed at Arizona State University (ASU) with the addition of new and improved modeling details. Latest stress strain experiments provided new and valuable data used to modify the material model post peak behavior. These changes reveal an overall improvement of the Finite Element (FE) model's ability to predict experimental results. First, the steel projectile is modeled using Johnson-Cook material model and provides a more realistic behavior in the FE ballistic models. This is particularly noticeable when comparing FE models with laboratory tests where large deformations in projectiles are observed. Second, follow-up analysis of the results obtained through the new picture frame tests conducted at ASU provides new values for the shear moduli and corresponding strains. The new approach for analysis of data from picture frame tests combines digital image analysis and a two-level factorial optimization formulation. Finally, an additional improvement in the material model for Kevlar involves checking the convergence at variation of mesh density of fabrics. The study performed and described herein shows the converging trend, therefore validating the FE model.

  2. Constitutive Autophagy and Nucleophagy during Epidermal Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Akinduro, Olufolake; Sully, Katherine; Patel, Ankit; Robinson, Deborah J; Chikh, Anissa; McPhail, Graham; Braun, Kristin M; Philpott, Michael P; Harwood, Catherine A; Byrne, Carolyn; O'Shaughnessy, Ryan F L; Bergamaschi, Daniele

    2016-07-01

    Epidermal keratinocytes migrate through the epidermis up to the granular layer where, on terminal differentiation, they progressively lose organelles and convert into anucleate cells or corneocytes. Our report explores the role of autophagy in ensuring epidermal function providing the first comprehensive profile of autophagy marker expression in developing epidermis. We show that autophagy is constitutively active in the epidermal granular layer where by electron microscopy we identified double-membrane autophagosomes. We demonstrate that differentiating keratinocytes undergo a selective form of nucleophagy characterized by accumulation of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3/lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2/p62 positive autolysosomes. These perinuclear vesicles displayed positivity for histone interacting protein, heterochromatin protein 1α, and localize in proximity with Lamin A and B1 accumulation, whereas in newborn mice and adult human skin, we report LC3 puncta coincident with misshaped nuclei within the granular layer. This process relies on autophagy integrity as confirmed by lack of nucleophagy in differentiating keratinocytes depleted from WD repeat domain phosphoinositide interacting 1 or Unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1. Final validation into a skin disease model showed that impaired autophagy contributes to the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Lack of LC3 expression in psoriatic skin lesions correlates with parakeratosis and deregulated expression or location of most of the autophagic markers. Our findings may have implications and improve treatment options for patients with epidermal barrier defects. PMID:27021405

  3. Constitutive modeling for single crystal superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stouffer, D. C.; Jayaraman, N.; Sheh, M.; Alden, D.

    1986-01-01

    The inelastic response of single crystal gamma/gamma prime superalloys is quite different from the behavior of polycrystalline nickel base superalloys. Upto a critical temperature the yield stress of single crystal alloys is a function of the material orientation relative to the direction of the applied stress and the material exhibits significant tension/compression asymmetry. This behavior is primarily due to slip on the octahedral slip system. Above the critical temperature there is a sharp drop in the yield stress, cube slip becomes more predominant and the tension/compression asymmetry is reduced. Similar orientation and tension/compression asymmetry is observed in creep and secondary creep above the critical temperature is inferred to occur by octahedral slip. There are two exceptions to this behavior. First, loading near the (111) orientation exhibits cube slip at all temperatures, and; second, loading near the (001) orientation produces only octahedral slip at all temperatures. The constitutive model is based on separating the total global strain into elastic and inelastic components. This model is developed and briefly discussed.

  4. Constitutive Activity of the Androgen Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Siu Chiu; Dehm, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in the United States. The androgen receptor (AR) signaling axis is central to all stages of PCa pathophysiology and serves as the main target for endocrine-based therapy. The most advanced stage of the disease, castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), is presently incurable and accounts for most PCa mortality. In this review, we highlight the mechanisms by which the AR signaling axis can bypass endocrine-targeted therapies and drive progression of CRPC. These mechanisms include alterations in growth factor, cytokine, and inflammatory signaling pathways, altered expression or activity of transcriptional co-regulators, AR point mutations, and AR gene amplification leading to AR protein overexpression. Additionally, we will discuss the mechanisms underlying the synthesis of constitutively active AR splice variants (AR-Vs) lacking the COOH-terminal ligand binding domain, as well as the role and regulation of AR-Vs in supporting therapeutic resistance in CRPC. Finally, we summarize the ongoing development of inhibitors targeting discrete AR functional domains as well as the status of new biomarkers for monitoring the AR signaling axis in patients. PMID:24931201

  5. The Jefferson Meeting on the Constitution: The Constitution in the Community. A Guide to Organizing a Community Jefferson Meeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson Foundation, Washington, DC.

    Since its founding in 1983, The Jefferson Foundation has engaged increasing numbers of Americans in study and discussion of the U.S. Constitution. Through participation in Jefferson Meetings on the Constitution citizens will come to a fuller understanding of how the Constitution was made, why it designed the national government the way it did, and…

  6. Compressible Navier-Stokes Equations with Revised Maxwell's Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yuxi; Racke, Reinhard

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the compressible Navier-Stokes equations where the constitutive law for the stress tensor given by Maxwell's law is revised to a system of relaxation equations for two parts of the tensor. The global well-posedness is proved as well as the compatibility with the classical compressible Navier-Stokes system in the sense that, for vanishing relaxation parameters, the solutions to the Maxwell system are shown to converge to solutions of the classical system.

  7. Reconstruction of the modified discrete Langevin equation from persistent time series.

    PubMed

    Czechowski, Zbigniew

    2016-05-01

    The discrete Langevin-type equation, which can describe persistent processes, was introduced. The procedure of reconstruction of the equation from time series was proposed and tested on synthetic data, with short and long-tail distributions, generated by different Langevin equations. Corrections due to the finite sampling rates were derived. For an exemplary meteorological time series, an appropriate Langevin equation, which constitutes a stochastic macroscopic model of the phenomenon, was reconstructed. PMID:27249949

  8. Constitutive modeling of shock response of polytetrafluoroethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resnyansky, A. D.; Bourne, N. K.; Millett, J. C. F.; Brown, E. N.

    2011-08-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a polymer with a simple atomic structure that shows complex behavior under pressure and demonstrates a highly variable metastable phase structure in shock waves with amorphous and crystalline components. In turn, the crystalline component has four known phases with the high-pressure transition of the crystalline domain from crystalline phase IV at ambient through phase II to III. At the same time, as has been recently studied using spectrometry, the crystalline region nucleates from the amorphous one with load. Stress and velocity shock-wave profiles acquired recently with embedded gauges demonstrate features that may be related to the impedance mismatch between the phase domains subjected to such transitions resulting in variations of mechanical and thermophysical characteristics. We consider the inter-phase non-equilibrium and the amorphous-to-crystalline and inter-crystalline transitions that are associated with the high pressure and temperature transformations under shock wave loading as possible candidates for the analysis. The present work utilizes a multi-phase constitutive model that considers strength effects to describe the observed response under shock loading of the PTFE material. Experimental plate impact shock-wave histories are compared with calculated profiles using kinetics describing the transitions. The study demonstrates that the inter-phase pressure non-equilibrium of the state parameters plays the key role in the delay of the shock wave attenuation. At the same time, the forward transition associated with the crystallization might be responsible for the velocity spike in the experimental velocity profiles at high impact velocity and the modulus variation at low impact velocity. On the other hand, an accelerated attenuation of the velocity in the rarefaction wave is associated with another transition resulting in the residual crystallinity change during unloading.

  9. The normative constitution of professional power.

    PubMed

    Frankford, D M

    1997-02-01

    This article concerns the manner in which we think and talk about power in health care policy and regulation, and the political and social practices allied with that discourse. I assert that in health care policy and practice we speak of and live within the era of countervailing power. In this language and practice power is a force exercised by one actor to enforce its will against another actor against whom power is exerted. I contend that this language inculcates an individual and social passivity in which citizens rely upon various types of representatives to constitute health care for them in a manner in which they do not and cannot participate. However, this language of power and the political and social practice with which it is associated is merely a contingent, historical product. I claim that an alternative discourse of power is possible, in which power consists of the social interactions in which all of us mutually participate but no one of us can control. Power in this sense is participatory by nature, and because no one is in control, it makes no sense to relegate tasks to specialized, nonparticipatory domains. This alternative discourse of power, therefore, might call forth participatory practices in health care and a concomitant diminution of specialization and expansion of the public sphere. The result would be to blur the lines separating politics from everyday interaction, politics from economy, professionals from patients, and insurers from insureds. Participation would mean much more than casting a vote or writing a check but would also include the mutual sharing of time and energy in the tasks that need to be done: long-term and short-term care, practices of prevention, caring for the chronically ill, and monitoring bureaucratic and professional activities. PMID:9057126

  10. A three-fluid approach in bipolar semiconductors with generation-recombination: constitutive laws and Onsager symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossani, A.

    2016-04-01

    If electrons (e) and holes (h) in metals or semiconductors are heated to the temperatures Te and Th greater than the lattice temperature Tp , the electron-phonon interaction causes energy relaxation. In the nonuniform case, a momentum relaxation occurs as well. In view of such an application, a new model based on an asymptotic procedure for solving the kinetic equations of carriers and phonons is proposed, with generation-recombination of electrons and holes, which gives naturally the displaced Maxwellian at the leading order. After that, balance equations for the electron number, hole number, energy densities, and momentum densities are constructed, which constitute now a system of eight equations for the chemical potentials (carriers), the temperatures (carriers and phonons), and the drift velocities (carriers and phonons). In the drift-diffusion approximation the constitutive laws are derived and the Onsager relations recovered.

  11. On the Constitutive Model of Nitrogen-Containing Austenitic Stainless Steel 316LN at Elevated Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Feng, Xiao; Wang, Xin; Liu, Changyong

    2014-01-01

    The nitrogen-containing austenitic stainless steel 316LN has been chosen as the material for nuclear main-pipe, which is one of the key parts in 3rd generation nuclear power plants. In this research, a constitutive model of nitrogen-containing austenitic stainless steel is developed. The true stress-true strain curves obtained from isothermal hot compression tests over a wide range of temperatures (900–1250°C) and strain rates (10−3–10 s−1), were employed to study the dynamic deformational behavior of and recrystallization in 316LN steels. The constitutive model is developed through multiple linear regressions performed on the experimental data and based on an Arrhenius-type equation and Zener-Hollomon theory. The influence of strain was incorporated in the developed constitutive equation by considering the effect of strain on the various material constants. The reliability and accuracy of the model is verified through the comparison of predicted flow stress curves and experimental curves. Possible reasons for deviation are also discussed based on the characteristics of modeling process. PMID:25375345

  12. Phase-integral solution of the radial Dirac equation

    SciTech Connect

    Linnaeus, Staffan

    2010-03-15

    A phase-integral (WKB) solution of the radial Dirac equation is constructed, retaining perfect symmetry between the two components of the wave function and introducing no singularities except at the classical transition points. The potential is allowed to be the time component of a four-vector, a Lorentz scalar, a pseudoscalar, or any combination of these. The key point in the construction is the transformation from two coupled first-order equations constituting the radial Dirac equation to a single second-order Schroedinger-type equation. This transformation can be carried out in infinitely many ways, giving rise to different second-order equations but with the same spectrum. A unique transformation is found that produces a particularly simple second-order equation and correspondingly simple and well-behaved phase-integral solutions. The resulting phase-integral formulas are applied to unbound and bound states of the Coulomb potential. For bound states, the exact energy levels are reproduced.

  13. Solving Ordinary Differential Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krogh, F. T.

    1987-01-01

    Initial-value ordinary differential equation solution via variable order Adams method (SIVA/DIVA) package is collection of subroutines for solution of nonstiff ordinary differential equations. There are versions for single-precision and double-precision arithmetic. Requires fewer evaluations of derivatives than other variable-order Adams predictor/ corrector methods. Option for direct integration of second-order equations makes integration of trajectory problems significantly more efficient. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  14. Einstein equation at singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoica, Ovidiu-Cristinel

    2014-02-01

    Einstein's equation is rewritten in an equivalent form, which remains valid at the singularities in some major cases. These cases include the Schwarzschild singularity, the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker Big Bang singularity, isotropic singularities, and a class of warped product singularities. This equation is constructed in terms of the Ricci part of the Riemann curvature (as the Kulkarni-Nomizu product between Einstein's equation and the metric tensor).

  15. What Makes a Chemical Equation an Equation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fensham, Peter J.; Lui, Julia

    2001-01-01

    Explores how well chemistry graduates preparing for teaching can recognize the similarities and differences between the uses of the word "equation" in mathematics and in chemistry. Reports that the conservation similarities were much less frequently recognized than those involved in the creation of new entities. (Author/MM)

  16. What constitutes our understanding of a patient?

    PubMed

    Chessick, R D

    1993-01-01

    aspects of prevailing ideologies in constituting and determining what we call truth and understanding, including the "understanding" of a patient in psychotherapy. An example of the postmodern blend of philosophy and psychoanalysis is presented by Arlow's emphasis on unconscious fantasies and his insightful comments on how these unconscious fantasies organize and determine what we experience from the very beginning of life. This I believe is most consistent with Rescher's philosophical notion of "conceptual idealism," also briefly reviewed in this paper.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8349490

  17. Constitutive modeling of aluminum foam and finite element implementation for crash simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Jing

    In the past decades metallic foams have been increasingly used as filler materials in crashworthiness applications due to their relatively low cost and high capacity of energy absorption. Due to the destructive nature of crashes, studies on the performance of metallic foams using physical testing have been limited to examining the crushing force histories and/or folding patterns that are insufficient for crashworthiness designs. For this reason, numerical simulations, particularly nonlinear finite element (FE) analyses, play an important role in designing crashworthy foam-filled structures. An effective and numerically stable model is needed for modeling metallic foams that are porous and encounter large nonlinear deformations in crashes. In this study a new constitutive model for metallic foams is developed to overcome the deficiency of existing models in commercial FE codes such as LS-DYNA. The new constitutive model accounts for volume changes under hydrostatic compression and combines the hydrostatic pressure and von Mises stress into one yield function. The change of the compressibility of the metallic foam is handled in the constitutive model by allowing for shape changes of the yield surface in the hydrostatic pressure-von Mises stress space. The backward Euler method is adopted to integrate the constitutive equations to achieve numerical accuracy and stability. The new foam model is verified and validated by existing experimental data before used in FE simulations of crushing of foam-filled columns that have square and hexagonal cross-sections.

  18. A Constitutive Model of 6111-T4 Aluminum Alloy Sheet Based on the Warm Tensile Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Lin; Meng, Fanzhi; Song, Yanli; Liu, Jianing; Qin, Xunpeng; Suo, Lianbing

    2014-03-01

    As main light-weight material, aluminum alloy sheets have been widely applied to produce auto body panels. In order to predict the formability and springback of aluminum alloy sheets, a precise constitutive model is a necessity. In this article, a series of warm tensile tests were conducted on Gleeble-1500D thermal mechanical simulator for 6111-T4 aluminum alloy sheets. The corresponding strain rate ranged from 0.015 to 1.5 s-1, and the temperature ranged from 25 to 350 °C. The relationship between the temperature, the strain rate, and the flow stress were discussed. A constitutive model based on the updated Fields-Backofen equation was established to describe the flow behavior of 6111-T4 aluminum alloy during the warm tensile tests. Subsequently, the average absolute relative error (AARE) was introduced to verify the predictability of the constitutive model. The value of AARE at the uniform plastic deformation stage was calculated to be 1.677%, which demonstrates that the predicted flow stress values were in accordance with the experimental ones. The constitutive model was validated by the fact that the simulated results of the warm tensile tests coincided with the experimental ones.

  19. Octonic Gravitational Field Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, Süleyman; Tanişli, Murat; Tolan, Tülay

    2013-08-01

    Generalized field equations of linear gravity are formulated on the basis of octons. When compared to the other eight-component noncommutative hypercomplex number systems, it is demonstrated that associative octons with scalar, pseudoscalar, pseudovector and vector values present a convenient and capable tool to describe the Maxwell-Proca-like field equations of gravitoelectromagnetism in a compact and simple way. Introducing massive graviton and gravitomagnetic monopole terms, the generalized gravitational wave equation and Klein-Gordon equation for linear gravity are also developed.

  20. Octonic massless field equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, Süleyman; Tanişli, Murat; Kansu, Mustafa Emre

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, it is proven that the associative octons including scalar, pseudoscalar, pseudovector and vector values are convenient and capable tools to generalize the Maxwell-Dirac like field equations of electromagnetism and linear gravity in a compact and simple way. Although an attempt to describe the massless field equations of electromagnetism and linear gravity needs the sixteen real component mathematical structures, it is proved that these equations can be formulated in terms of eight components of octons. Furthermore, the generalized wave equation in terms of potentials is derived in the presence of electromagnetic and gravitational charges (masses). Finally, conservation of energy concept has also been investigated for massless fields.

  1. Determination of the effective constitutive parameters of bianisotropic planar metamaterials in the terahertz region.

    PubMed

    Jing, Xufeng; Xia, Rui; Wang, Weimin; Tian, Ying; Hong, Zhi

    2016-05-01

    We propose analytical expressions to determine the effective constitutive parameters of a planar bianisotropic metamaterial from scattering parameters in the terahertz region. In our retrieval method, the transmission and reflection coefficients in only one wave propagation direction are applied. Considering the nonsymmetry of planar metamaterials in the wave propagation direction, the effective refractive index and the impedance should be obtained by a modified S parameters retrieval process. The effective parameters of the permittivity, permeability, and magnetoelectric coupling coefficient of planar bianisotropic metamaterials can be retrieved by derived equations. Specifically, the constitutive parameters for different planar metamaterials, among which two are isotropic and the other two are bianisotropic metamaterials, are determined. The intrinsic differences between the normal planar metamaterials and the bianisotropic metamaterials are evidently illustrated. The phenomenon including electric coupling to magnetic resonance and only electric response in the transmission spectrum is confirmed by retrieval effective permittivity and permeability. PMID:27140893

  2. Rational approximations to solutions of linear differential equations

    PubMed Central

    Chudnovsky, D. V.; Chudnovsky, G. V.

    1983-01-01

    Rational approximations of Padé and Padé type to solutions of differential equations are considered. One of the main results is a theorem stating that a simultaneous approximation to arbitrary solutions of linear differential equations over C(x) cannot be “better” than trivial ones implied by the Dirichlet box principle. This constitutes, in particular, the solution in the linear case of Kolchin's problem that the “Roth's theorem” holds for arbitrary solutions of algebraic differential equations. Complete effective proofs for several valuations are presented based on the Wronskian methods and graded subrings of Picard-Vessiot extensions. PMID:16593357

  3. Octonic Massive Field Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, Süleyman; Kekeç, Seray

    2016-03-01

    In the present paper we propose the octonic form of massive field equations based on the analogy with electromagnetism and linear gravity. Using the advantages of octon algebra the Maxwell-Dirac-Proca equations have been reformulated in compact and elegant way. The energy-momentum relations for massive field are discussed.

  4. On the Diophantine equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahari, N. M.; Sapar, S. H.; Mohd Atan, K. A.

    2013-04-01

    This paper discusses an integral solution (a, b, c) of the Diophantine equations x3n+y3n = 2z2n for n ≥ 2 and it is found that the integral solution of these equation are of the form a = b = t2, c = t3 for any integers t.

  5. The lens equation revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molesini, Giuseppe

    2005-02-01

    Problems in the general validity of the lens equations are reported, requiring an assessment of the conditions for correct use. A discussion is given on critical behaviour of the lens equation, and a sign and meaning scheme is provided so that apparent inconsistencies are avoided.

  6. Octonic Massive Field Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, Süleyman; Kekeç, Seray

    2016-07-01

    In the present paper we propose the octonic form of massive field equations based on the analogy with electromagnetism and linear gravity. Using the advantages of octon algebra the Maxwell-Dirac-Proca equations have been reformulated in compact and elegant way. The energy-momentum relations for massive field are discussed.

  7. Reduced Braginskii equations

    SciTech Connect

    Yagi, M.; Horton, W. )

    1994-07-01

    A set of reduced Braginskii equations is derived without assuming flute ordering and the Boussinesq approximation. These model equations conserve the physical energy. It is crucial at finite [beta] that the perpendicular component of Ohm's law be solved to ensure [del][center dot][bold j]=0 for energy conservation.

  8. Linear Equations: Equivalence = Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baratta, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    The ability to solve linear equations sets students up for success in many areas of mathematics and other disciplines requiring formula manipulations. There are many reasons why solving linear equations is a challenging skill for students to master. One major barrier for students is the inability to interpret the equals sign as anything other than…

  9. Nonlinear Constitutive Relations for High Temperature Application, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Nonlinear constitutive relations for high temperature applications were discussed. The state of the art in nonlinear constitutive modeling of high temperature materials was reviewed and the need for future research and development efforts in this area was identified. Considerable research efforts are urgently needed in the development of nonlinear constitutive relations for high temperature applications prompted by recent advances in high temperature materials technology and new demands on material and component performance. Topics discussed include: constitutive modeling, numerical methods, material testing, and structural applications.

  10. On the discrete and continuous Miura chain associated with the sixth Painlevé equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijhoff, Frank; Joshi, Nalini; Hone, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    A Miura chain is a (closed) sequence of differential (or difference) equations that are related by Miura or Bäcklund transformations. We describe such a chain for the sixth Painlevé equation (P VI), containing, apart from P VI itself, a Schwarzian version as well as a second-order second-degree ordinary differential equation (ODE). As a byproduct we derive an auto-Bäcklund transformation, relating two copies of P VI with different parameters. We also establish the analogous ordinary difference equations in the discrete counterpart of the chain. Such difference equations govern iterations of solutions of P VI under Bäcklund transformations. Both discrete and continuous equations constitute a larger system which include partial difference equations, differential-difference equations and partial differential equations, all associated with the lattice Korteweg-de Vries equation subject to similarity constraints.

  11. A constitutive model for the forces of a magnetic bearing including eddy currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, D. L.; Hebbale, K. V.

    1993-01-01

    A multiple magnet bearing can be developed from N individual electromagnets. The constitutive relationships for a single magnet in such a bearing is presented. Analytical expressions are developed for a magnet with poles arranged circumferencially. Maxwell's field equations are used so the model easily includes the effects of induced eddy currents due to the rotation of the journal. Eddy currents must be included in any dynamic model because they are the only speed dependent parameter and may lead to a critical speed for the bearing. The model is applicable to bearings using attraction or repulsion.

  12. Influence of twinning on the constitutive response of Zr: Experiments and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shuh Rong; Gray, G.T. III

    1997-05-01

    The stress-strain response of Zr due to twinning is distinctly different from that due to slip as a function of temperature and strain rate. When the applied stress is lower than the transition stress, dislocation slip is the dominant deformation mechanism. The traditional MTS model is shown to adequately represent the constitutive behavior of Zr. Above the transition stress twinning becomes the dominant deformation mechanism where the flow stress increases linearly with strain. In this regime the rate-dependent strain hardening can be described by equations based on thermal activation theory that are very similar to the formula used in the MTS model.

  13. Anisotropic constitutive model and FE simulation of the sintering process of slip cast traditional porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarbandi, B.; Besson, J.; Boussuge, M.; Ryckelynck, D.

    2010-06-01

    Slip cast ceramic components undergo both sintering shrinkage and creep deformation caused by gravity during the firing cycle. In addition sintering may be anisotropic due to the development of preferential directions during slip casting. Both phenomena induce complex deformations of parts which make the design of casting molds difficult. To help solving this problem, anisotropic constitutive equations are proposed to represent the behavior of the ceramic compacts during sintering. The model parameters are identified using tests allowing to characterize both sintering and creep. The model was implemented in a finite element software and used to simulate the deformation of a traditional ceramic object during sintering.

  14. Anisotropic constitutive model and FE simulation of the sintering process of slip cast traditional porcelain

    SciTech Connect

    Sarbandi, B.; Besson, J.; Boussuge, M.; Ryckelynck, D.

    2010-06-15

    Slip cast ceramic components undergo both sintering shrinkage and creep deformation caused by gravity during the firing cycle. In addition sintering may be anisotropic due to the development of preferential directions during slip casting. Both phenomena induce complex deformations of parts which make the design of casting molds difficult. To help solving this problem, anisotropic constitutive equations are proposed to represent the behavior of the ceramic compacts during sintering. The model parameters are identified using tests allowing to characterize both sintering and creep. The model was implemented in a finite element software and used to simulate the deformation of a traditional ceramic object during sintering.

  15. Stochastic fuzzy differential equations of a nonincreasing type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, Marek T.

    2016-04-01

    Stochastic fuzzy differential equations constitute an apparatus in modeling dynamic systems operating in fuzzy environment and governed by stochastic noises. In this paper we introduce a new kind of such the equations. Namely, the stochastic fuzzy differential of nonincreasing type are considered. The fuzzy stochastic processes which are solutions to these equations have trajectories with nonincreasing fuzziness in their values. In our previous papers, as a first natural extension of crisp stochastic differential equations, stochastic fuzzy differential equations of nondecreasing type were studied. In this paper we show that under suitable conditions each of the equations has a unique solution which possesses property of continuous dependence on data of the equation. To prove existence of the solutions we use sequences of successive approximate solutions. An estimation of an error of the approximate solution is established as well. Some examples of equations are solved and their solutions are simulated to illustrate the theory of stochastic fuzzy differential equations. All the achieved results apply to stochastic set-valued differential equations.

  16. The Effective Equation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuksin, Sergei; Maiocchi, Alberto

    In this chapter we present a general method of constructing the effective equation which describes the behavior of small-amplitude solutions for a nonlinear PDE in finite volume, provided that the linear part of the equation is a hamiltonian system with a pure imaginary discrete spectrum. The effective equation is obtained by retaining only the resonant terms of the nonlinearity (which may be hamiltonian, or may be not); the assertion that it describes the limiting behavior of small-amplitude solutions is a rigorous mathematical theorem. In particular, the method applies to the three- and four-wave systems. We demonstrate that different possible types of energy transport are covered by this method, depending on whether the set of resonances splits into finite clusters (this happens, e.g. in case of the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima equation), or is connected (this happens, e.g. in the case of the NLS equation if the space-dimension is at least two). For equations of the first type the energy transition to high frequencies does not hold, while for equations of the second type it may take place. Our method applies to various weakly nonlinear wave systems, appearing in plasma, meteorology and oceanography.

  17. Nonlinear gyrokinetic equations

    SciTech Connect

    Dubin, D.H.E.; Krommes, J.A.; Oberman, C.; Lee, W.W.

    1983-03-01

    Nonlinear gyrokinetic equations are derived from a systematic Hamiltonian theory. The derivation employs Lie transforms and a noncanonical perturbation theory first used by Littlejohn for the simpler problem of asymptotically small gyroradius. For definiteness, we emphasize the limit of electrostatic fluctuations in slab geometry; however, there is a straight-forward generalization to arbitrary field geometry and electromagnetic perturbations. An energy invariant for the nonlinear system is derived, and various of its limits are considered. The weak turbulence theory of the equations is examined. In particular, the wave kinetic equation of Galeev and Sagdeev is derived from an asystematic truncation of the equations, implying that this equation fails to consider all gyrokinetic effects. The equations are simplified for the case of small but finite gyroradius and put in a form suitable for efficient computer simulation. Although it is possible to derive the Terry-Horton and Hasegawa-Mima equations as limiting cases of our theory, several new nonlinear terms absent from conventional theories appear and are discussed.

  18. Volterra difference equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultana, Nasrin

    This dissertation consists of five papers in which discrete Volterra equations of different types and orders are studied and results regarding the behavior of their solutions are established. The first paper presents some fundamental results about subexponential sequences. It also illustrates the subexponential solutions of scalar linear Volterra sum-difference equations are asymptotically stable. The exact value of the rate of convergence of asymptotically stable solutions is found by determining the asymptotic behavior of the transient renewal equations. The study of subexponential solutions is also continued in the second and third articles. The second paper investigates the same equation using the same process as considered in the first paper. The discussion focuses on a positive lower bound of the rate of convergence of the asymptotically stable solutions. The third paper addresses the rate of convergence of the solutions of scalar linear Volterra sum-difference equations with delay. The result is proved by developing the rate of convergence of transient renewal delay difference equations. The fourth paper discusses the existence of bounded solutions on an unbounded domain of more general nonlinear Volterra sum-difference equations using the Schaefer fixed point theorem and the Lyapunov direct method. The fifth paper examines the asymptotic behavior of nonoscillatory solutions of higher-order integro-dynamic equations and establishes some new criteria based on so-called time scales, which unifies and extends both discrete and continuous mathematical analysis. Beside these five research papers that focus on discrete Volterra equations, this dissertation also contains an introduction, a section on difference calculus, a section on time scales calculus, and a conclusion.

  19. Constitutional Values and Human Dignity: Its Value in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Elmene

    2004-01-01

    Human dignity is intrinsic to every human being and is universally recognised as a fundamental right. Under a previous oppressive system, most South Africans had been denied basic human rights, including the right to human dignity. The constitutional negotiations of the 1990s abolished the apartheid system and constituted a sovereign democratic…

  20. Curriculum Materials for the Bicentennial of the United States Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, William J.

    1987-01-01

    Emphasizing the educational importance of the bicentennial celebration of the signing of the U.S. Constitution, Miller reviews various curriculum materials related to the topic. Recommends works for all grade levels, citing, among others, LESSONS ON THE CONSTITUTION, LAW AND THE BICENTENNIAL, and computer software entitled THE UNITED STATES…

  1. 27 CFR 71.128 - What constitutes record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What constitutes record. 71.128 Section 71.128 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Miscellaneous Record § 71.128 What constitutes record. The transcript of testimony, pleadings and exhibits,...

  2. 27 CFR 19.512 - Bottles not constituting approved containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bottles not constituting... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle, Label, and Closure Requirements Authorized Liquor Bottles § 19.512 Bottles not constituting...

  3. 27 CFR 26.316 - Bottles not constituting approved containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bottles not constituting... VIRGIN ISLANDS Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 26.316 Bottles not constituting approved containers. The appropriate TTB officer is authorized to disapprove any bottle, including a bottle of less than 200...

  4. 27 CFR 27.206 - Bottles not constituting approved containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottles not constituting... Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 27.206 Bottles not constituting approved containers. The appropriate TTB officer is authorized to disapprove any bottle, including a bottle of less than 200 ml. capacity, for...

  5. 27 CFR 26.316 - Bottles not constituting approved containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottles not constituting... VIRGIN ISLANDS Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 26.316 Bottles not constituting approved containers. The appropriate TTB officer is authorized to disapprove any bottle, including a bottle of less than 200...

  6. 27 CFR 27.206 - Bottles not constituting approved containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bottles not constituting... Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 27.206 Bottles not constituting approved containers. The appropriate TTB officer is authorized to disapprove any bottle, including a bottle of less than 200 ml. capacity, for...

  7. Constitutionality of Compulsory Arbitration Statutes in Public Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staudohar, Paul D.

    1976-01-01

    Reviews state supreme court rulings on constitutionality issues raised by compulsory arbitration for public employees. Cases are reviewed for the states of Wyoming, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Nebraska, Maine, Michigan, New York, South Dakota, Oklahoma, and Washington. Concludes that courts have generally upheld the constitutionality of such…

  8. Oxathiazolones Selectively Inhibit the Human Immunoproteasome over the Constitutive Proteasome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Selective inhibitors for the human immunoproteasome LMP7 (β5i) subunit over the constitutive proteasome hold promise for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases and hematologic malignancies. Here we report that oxathiazolones inhibit the immunoproteasome β5i with up to 4700-fold selectivity over the constitutive proteasome, are cell permeable, and inhibit proteasomes inside cells. PMID:24900849

  9. 43 CFR 1.5 - Signature to constitute certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signature to constitute certificate. 1.5 Section 1.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRACTICES BEFORE THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR § 1.5 Signature to constitute certificate. When an individual who appears in a representative capacity signs a paper in...

  10. Cognition research and constitutional classification in Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji; Li, Yingshuai; Ni, Cheng; Zhang, Huimin; Li, Lingru; Wang, Qi

    2011-01-01

    In the Western medicine system, scholars have explained individual differences in terms of behaviour and thinking, leading to the emergence of various classification theories on individual differences. Traditional Chinese medicine has long observed human constitutions. Modern Chinese medicine studies have also involved study of human constitutions; however, differences exist in the ways traditional and modern Chinese medicine explore individual constitutions. In the late 1970s, the constitutional theory of Chinese medicine was proposed. This theory takes a global and dynamic view of human differences (e.g., the shape of the human body, function, psychology, and other characteristics) based on arguments from traditional Chinese medicine. The establishment of a standard for classifying constitutions into nine modules was critical for clinical application of this theory. In this review, we describe the history and recent research progress of this theory, and compare it with related studies in the western medicine system. Several research methods, including philology, informatics, epidemiology, and molecular biology, in classifying constitutions used in the constitutional theory of Chinese medicine were discussed. In summary, this constitutional theory of Chinese medicine can be used in clinical practice and would contribute to health control of patients. PMID:21721146

  11. What Constitution Day Means and Why It Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Kathleen Hall

    2014-01-01

    For almost three quarters of a century, advocates have worked to give comparable federal stature to September 17, the day on which we celebrate the anniversary of the 1787 signing of the U.S. Constitution by the nation's founders. As President John F. Kennedy noted in his 1961 Constitution Day proclamation, it is a day for…

  12. 29 CFR 452.109 - Constitution of labor organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... insofar as they are not inconsistent with the provisions of title IV. 53 53 Act, sec. 401(e). Under 29 CFR... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Constitution of labor organization. 452.109 Section 452.109... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.109 Constitution of...

  13. Teaching about the Constitutional Rights of Students. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    This ERIC digest presents a rationale for teaching students about their rights and responsibilities as citizens under the U.S. Constitution. Social studies teachers have a special role in shaping the lives of young citizens and influencing whether students become politically involved adults. Specific constitutional rights such as the right of a…

  14. Teaching about the Constitution. NCSS Bulletin No. 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Clair W., Ed.; Schillings, Denny L., Ed.

    This book provides a historical perspective on the changing nature of the United States Constitution and the society it has shaped. Part I focuses on the eighteenth century with chapters on the origins, writing, and ratification of the Constitution. Activities are designed to help students think about the difficulties associated with the creation…

  15. Review of Resources: Teaching Law and the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glade, Mary Elizabeth, Ed.

    This guide provides analyses of curriculum materials that have been designed for teaching about the U.S. Constitution and law-related education. The guide begins with an editor's introduction and two essays, "Constitution Study and Civic Education" (James B. Giese) and "Thinking about Law-Related Education during the Bicentennial" (Barbara…

  16. Constitutionalism and Republicanism in the American Founding: 1776-1787.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dry, Murray

    1986-01-01

    Illustrates the development of constitutionalism and republicanism from 1776 to 1787. Discusses the Declaration of Independence, arguments leading up to the Revolution, framing of the Constitution based on compromise, and opposing views of the ratification debate, all of which reveal disagreements over the precise meaning of republicanism. (TRS)

  17. The American Solution: Origins of the United States Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutland, Robert A.

    Tracing the history of events that led to the U.S. Constitutional Convention (1787) and to the eventual ratification of the U.S. Constitution, this book presents numerous reproductions of leaders' portraits, documents, and paintings from the U.S. Library of Congress and other collections. Chapter 1, "Was the Revolution a Blessing or a Curse?"…

  18. Equality v. Liberty v. Pluralism: Latinos in American Constitutional Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltero, Carlos R.

    This paper examines how U.S. courts, particularly the Supreme Court, have applied constitutional law principles to Latino communities and individuals in three areas: public education, the status of Puerto Rico, and jury selection. Consistent with traditional views of American society as biracial (black and white), constitutional law discussions…

  19. Perspective view of the south elevation; this facade faces Constitution ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of the south elevation; this facade faces Constitution Avenue and is nineteen bays long with twelve single columns and two sets of paired columns - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. [Teaching Materials about the U.S. Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on the Bicentennial of the United States Constitution, Washington, DC.

    Issued by the Commission on the Bicentennial of the United States Constitution, this collection of instructional materials is designed to help teach about the United States Constitution. The documents include: "Plant a Living Legacy"; "Teaching Guide to Accompany United States Presidents, 1789-1989"; "Skills Handbook: 200 Years of the U.S.…

  1. Elevation view of one of the doorways on the Constitution ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation view of one of the doorways on the Constitution Avenue side of the building; the door is flanked by monumental neoclassical urns carved from granite - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. Guidelines for Teaching and Testing the Illinois Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Springfield. Instructional Services Unit.

    This document sets forth guidelines for teaching and testing public school students on the principles of democratic government as expressed in the Constitution of the United States and the Constitution of the State of Illinois. Identification is made of ways of making the examination required by the state of Illinois not only an integral part of…

  3. Helping Children To Understand the United States Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novick, Minna S.

    Targeted for children aged 5 through 12, this handbook contains some ideas for educational activities, a brief overview of the constitutional development period in U.S. history, and a simplified annotated outline of the Constitution. This material should prove helpful in teaching children the following: (1) the intrinsic values embedded in the…

  4. This Constitution: A Bicentennial Chronicle, Nos. 14-18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Shelia, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Each issue in this bicentennial series features articles on selected U.S. Constitution topics, along with a section on primary documents and lesson plans or class activities. Issue 14 features: (1) "The Political Economy of the Constitution" (K. Dolbeare; L. Medcalf); (2) "A 'New Historical Whooper': Creating the Art of the Constitutional…

  5. Educational Research as a Reflexive Science of Constitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packer, Martin

    2010-01-01

    "Constitution" is a relationship of mutual formation between people and their form of life. Neither can exist without the other. In the 1970s, proposals were made in various social sciences, including anthropology, political science, and sociology, for a new kind of inquiry that would focus squarely on constitution. It would be an explicitly…

  6. The Constitutionality of School Choice in New Hampshire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Charles G., III; Komer, Richard D.

    2004-01-01

    Does a "school choice" program, under which state funds are disbursed on a neutral basis to parents in the form of a voucher to defray the cost of sending their children to a school of their choice, run afoul of the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, or of the New Hampshire Constitution? No. A school…

  7. Stochastic Gauss equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierret, Frédéric

    2016-02-01

    We derived the equations of Celestial Mechanics governing the variation of the orbital elements under a stochastic perturbation, thereby generalizing the classical Gauss equations. Explicit formulas are given for the semimajor axis, the eccentricity, the inclination, the longitude of the ascending node, the pericenter angle, and the mean anomaly, which are expressed in term of the angular momentum vector H per unit of mass and the energy E per unit of mass. Together, these formulas are called the stochastic Gauss equations, and they are illustrated numerically on an example from satellite dynamics.

  8. Nonlinear ordinary difference equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caughey, T. K.

    1979-01-01

    Future space vehicles will be relatively large and flexible, and active control will be necessary to maintain geometrical configuration. While the stresses and strains in these space vehicles are not expected to be excessively large, their cumulative effects will cause significant geometrical nonlinearities to appear in the equations of motion, in addition to the nonlinearities caused by material properties. Since the only effective tool for the analysis of such large complex structures is the digital computer, it will be necessary to gain a better understanding of the nonlinear ordinary difference equations which result from the time discretization of the semidiscrete equations of motion for such structures.

  9. A Comparison of IRT Equating and Beta 4 Equating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dong-In; Brennan, Robert; Kolen, Michael

    Four equating methods were compared using four equating criteria: first-order equity (FOE), second-order equity (SOE), conditional mean squared error (CMSE) difference, and the equipercentile equating property. The four methods were: (1) three parameter logistic (3PL) model true score equating; (2) 3PL observed score equating; (3) beta 4 true…

  10. Equation of state of polytetrafluoroethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourne, N. K.; Gray, G. T.

    2003-06-01

    The present drive to make munitions as safe as is feasible and to develop predictive models describing their constitutive response, has led to the development and production of plastic bonded explosives and propellants. There is a range of elastomers used as binder materials with the energetic components. One of these is known as Kel-F-800™ (poly-chloro-trifluroethylene) whose structure is in some ways analogous to that of poly-tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Teflon). Thus, it is of interest to assess the mechanical behavior of Teflon and to compare the response of five different production Teflon materials, two of which were produced in pedigree form, one as-received product, and two from previous in-depth literature studies. The equations of state of these variants were quantified by conducting a series of shock impact experiments in which both pressure-particle velocity and shock velocity-particle velocity dependencies were measured. The compressive behavior of Teflon, based upon the results of this study, appears to be independent of the production route and additives introduced.

  11. Diophantine Equations and Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Martin

    Unless otherwise stated, we’ll work with the natural numbers: N = \\{0,1,2,3, dots\\}. Consider a Diophantine equation F(a1,a2,...,an,x1,x2,...,xm) = 0 with parameters a1,a2,...,an and unknowns x1,x2,...,xm For such a given equation, it is usual to ask: For which values of the parameters does the equation have a solution in the unknowns? In other words, find the set: \\{ mid exists x_1,ldots,x_m [F(a_1,ldots,x_1,ldots)=0] \\} Inverting this, we think of the equation F = 0 furnishing a definition of this set, and we distinguish three classes: a set is called Diophantine if it has such a definition in which F is a polynomial with integer coefficients. We write \\cal D for the class of Diophantine sets.

  12. Regularized Structural Equation Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Jacobucci, Ross; Grimm, Kevin J.; McArdle, John J.

    2016-01-01

    A new method is proposed that extends the use of regularization in both lasso and ridge regression to structural equation models. The method is termed regularized structural equation modeling (RegSEM). RegSEM penalizes specific parameters in structural equation models, with the goal of creating easier to understand and simpler models. Although regularization has gained wide adoption in regression, very little has transferred to models with latent variables. By adding penalties to specific parameters in a structural equation model, researchers have a high level of flexibility in reducing model complexity, overcoming poor fitting models, and the creation of models that are more likely to generalize to new samples. The proposed method was evaluated through a simulation study, two illustrative examples involving a measurement model, and one empirical example involving the structural part of the model to demonstrate RegSEM’s utility. PMID:27398019

  13. Nonlinear differential equations

    SciTech Connect

    Dresner, L.

    1988-01-01

    This report is the text of a graduate course on nonlinear differential equations given by the author at the University of Wisconsin-Madison during the summer of 1987. The topics covered are: direction fields of first-order differential equations; the Lie (group) theory of ordinary differential equations; similarity solutions of second-order partial differential equations; maximum principles and differential inequalities; monotone operators and iteration; complementary variational principles; and stability of numerical methods. The report should be of interest to graduate students, faculty, and practicing scientists and engineers. No prior knowledge is required beyond a good working knowledge of the calculus. The emphasis is on practical results. Most of the illustrative examples are taken from the fields of nonlinear diffusion, heat and mass transfer, applied superconductivity, and helium cryogenics.

  14. Equations For Rotary Transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomon, Phil M.; Wiktor, Peter J.; Marchetto, Carl A.

    1988-01-01

    Equations derived for input impedance, input power, and ratio of secondary current to primary current of rotary transformer. Used for quick analysis of transformer designs. Circuit model commonly used in textbooks on theory of ac circuits.

  15. Equating Training to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lansing J.

    1993-01-01

    Distinguishes between education and employer-sponsored training in terms of process, purpose, and providers. Concludes that work-related training and postsecondary education are cognates within the classification education, and equating their learning outcomes is appropriate. (SK)

  16. Relativistic Guiding Center Equations

    SciTech Connect

    White, R. B.; Gobbin, M.

    2014-10-01

    In toroidal fusion devices it is relatively easy that electrons achieve relativistic velocities, so to simulate runaway electrons and other high energy phenomena a nonrelativistic guiding center formalism is not sufficient. Relativistic guiding center equations including flute mode time dependent field perturbations are derived. The same variables as used in a previous nonrelativistic guiding center code are adopted, so that a straightforward modifications of those equations can produce a relativistic version.

  17. SIMULTANEOUS DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION COMPUTER

    DOEpatents

    Collier, D.M.; Meeks, L.A.; Palmer, J.P.

    1960-05-10

    A description is given for an electronic simulator for a system of simultaneous differential equations, including nonlinear equations. As a specific example, a homogeneous nuclear reactor system including a reactor fluid, heat exchanger, and a steam boiler may be simulated, with the nonlinearity resulting from a consideration of temperature effects taken into account. The simulator includes three operational amplifiers, a multiplier, appropriate potential sources, and interconnecting R-C networks.

  18. Set Equation Transformation System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-03-22

    Version 00 SETS is used for symbolic manipulation of Boolean equations, particularly the reduction of equations by the application of Boolean identities. It is a flexible and efficient tool for performing probabilistic risk analysis (PRA), vital area analysis, and common cause analysis. The equation manipulation capabilities of SETS can also be used to analyze noncoherent fault trees and determine prime implicants of Boolean functions, to verify circuit design implementation, to determine minimum cost fire protectionmore » requirements for nuclear reactor plants, to obtain solutions to combinatorial optimization problems with Boolean constraints, and to determine the susceptibility of a facility to unauthorized access through nullification of sensors in its protection system. Two auxiliary programs, SEP and FTD, are included. SEP performs the quantitative analysis of reduced Boolean equations (minimal cut sets) produced by SETS. The user can manipulate and evaluate the equations to find the probability of occurrence of any desired event and to produce an importance ranking of the terms and events in an equation. FTD is a fault tree drawing program which uses the proprietary ISSCO DISSPLA graphics software to produce an annotated drawing of a fault tree processed by SETS. The DISSPLA routines are not included.« less

  19. Individualized medicine, health medicine, and constitutional theory in Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi

    2012-03-01

    The patterns of modern science and changes in the medical model can result in the transformation of the current state of individualized and health medicines into being the primary trend in medical development. Chinese and Western medical systems are dissimilar in terms of value orientations, thinking style, and research directions because of their different historical and cultural backgrounds. Individualized treatment in modern medicine is mainly established based on individual genome information and the differences in mononucleotide polymorphisms. However, such treatment method is expensive, creates an uncertain genetic marker, and leads to different result interpretations, among other problems. The Chinese constitutional theory developed in the 1970s expresses the principle behind Chinese health medicine and individual treatment and provides the corresponding methods. The Chinese constitutional theory divides the constitution of the Chinese population into nine categories based on established classification criteria. It promotes the study of the relationship of each constitution to diseases and Chinese medicine preparation toward adjusting the constitution and preventing diseases. The theory also provides methods and tools for individualized treatment. Constitution identification shows the direction and provides the core technology for the evaluation of the health status. By combining the developments in modern biotechnology, new diagnostic techniques and treatment models of constitution-differentiation, disease-differentiation, and syndrome-differentiation can be established for the development of individualized Chinese medicine treatment and health medicine for the international medical community. PMID:22460443

  20. Controversial constitutive TSHR activity: patients, physiology, and in vitro characterization.

    PubMed

    Huth, S; Jaeschke, H; Schaarschmidt, J; Paschke, R

    2014-06-01

    G protein-coupled receptors constitute a large family of transmembrane receptors, which activate cellular responses by signal transmission and regulation of second messenger metabolism after ligand binding. For several of these receptors it is known that they also signal ligand-independently. The G protein-coupled thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) is characterized by a high level of constitutive activity in the wild type state. However, little is known yet concerning the physiological relevance of the constitutive wild type TSHR activity. Certainly, knowledge of the physiological relevance of constitutive wild type receptor activity is necessary to better understand thyroid physiology and it is a prerequisite for the development of better therapies for nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. Based on a literature search regarding all published TSHR mutations, this review covers several mutations which are clearly associated with a hyperthyroidism-phenotype, but interestingly show a lack of constitutive activity determined by in vitro characterization. Possible reasons for the observed discrepancies between clinical phenotypes and in vitro characterization results for constitutive TSHR activity are reviewed. All current in vitro characterization methods for constitutive TSHR mutations are "preliminary attempts" and may well be revised by more comprehensive and even better approaches. However, a standardized approach for the determination of constitutive activity can help to identify TSHR mutations for which the investigation of additional signaling mechanisms would be most interesting to find explanations for the current clinical phenotype/in vitro discrepancies and thereby also define suitable methods to explore the physiological relevance of constitutive wild type TSHR activity. PMID:24845969

  1. Ayurvedic genomics, constitutional psychology, and endocrinology: the missing connection.

    PubMed

    Rizzo-Sierra, Carlos V

    2011-05-01

    A recent methodological approach for human classification, diagnosis, and therapeutics through the combination of current Western constitutional psychology somatotypes and traditional Indian medicine (prakriti) body types and mind (manas) is herein presented. The striking similarities between psychologic somatotypes and Indian medicine body types permits proposal of a finite genopsycho-somatotyping of humans. Genopsycho-somatotyping of humans consists of a set of common physiologic, physical, and psychologic attributes related to a common basic birth constitution that remains somewhat permanent during human lifetime, since it is proposed that this birth constitution is programmed in the person's DNA (genes). This mainly provides a tool for classifying the human population based on broad and finite phenotype clusters across different ethnicity, languages, geographical location, or self-reported ancestry. In spite of any social or environmental traumatic event, I propose for males that every basic constitution has an associated identification organ, a measured property or marker, a soma, and some psyche general tendencies suggesting specific behavior or recurrent conduct. Three (3) basic extreme genopsycho-somatotypes or birth constitutions are enunciated: mesomorphic or andrus (Pitta), endomorphic or thymus (Khapa), and ectomorphic or thyrus (Vata). The method further predicts that male andrus constitution across races shares similarities in androgen (An) nuclear receptor behavior, whereas thymus constitutions are mainly regulated by T-cells (Tc) nuclear receptor behavior. Moreover, it suggests that thyrus constitutions share similarities in thyroxine (Th) nuclear receptor behavior. These proposed nuclear receptors are expected to regulate the expression of specific genes, thereby controlling the embryonic development, adult homeostasis, and metabolism of the human organism in a very profound way. The method finally predicts small differences in measured property

  2. A procedure for utilization of a damage-dependent constitutive model for laminated composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, David C.; Allen, David H.; Harris, Charles E.

    1992-01-01

    Described here is the procedure for utilizing a damage constitutive model to predict progressive damage growth in laminated composites. In this model, the effects of the internal damage are represented by strain-like second order tensorial damage variables and enter the analysis through damage dependent ply level and laminate level constitutive equations. The growth of matrix cracks due to fatigue loading is predicted by an experimentally based damage evolutionary relationship. This model is incorporated into a computer code called FLAMSTR. This code is capable of predicting the constitutive response and matrix crack damage accumulation in fatigue loaded laminated composites. The structure and usage of FLAMSTR are presented along with sample input and output files to assist the code user. As an example problem, an analysis of crossply laminates subjected to two stage fatigue loading was conducted and the resulting damage accumulation and stress redistribution were examined to determine the effect of variations in fatigue load amplitude applied during the first stage of the load history. It was found that the model predicts a significant loading history effect on damage evolution.

  3. Biaxial experiments supporting the development of constitutive theories for advanced high-temperature materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    Complex states of stress and strain are introduced into components during service in engineering applications. It follows that analysis of such components requires material descriptions, or constitutive theories, which reflect the tensorial nature of stress and strain. For applications involving stress levels above yield, the situation is more complex in that material response is both nonlinear and history dependent. This has led to the development of viscoplastic constitutive theories which introduce time by expressing the flow and evolutionary equation in the form of time derivatives. Models were developed here which can be used to analyze high temperature components manufactured from advanced composite materials. In parallel with these studies, effort was directed at developing multiaxial testing techniques to verify the various theories. Recent progress in the development of constitutive theories from both the theoretical and experimental viewpoints are outlined. One important aspect is that material descriptions for advanced composite materials which can be implemented in general purpose finite element codes and used for practical design are verified.

  4. Study on the Constitutive Model for Jointed Rock Mass

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qiang; Chen, Jianyun; Li, Jing; Zhao, Chunfeng; Yuan, Chenyang

    2015-01-01

    A new elasto-plastic constitutive model for jointed rock mass, which can consider the persistence ratio in different visual angle and anisotropic increase of plastic strain, is proposed. The proposed the yield strength criterion, which is anisotropic, is not only related to friction angle and cohesion of jointed rock masses at the visual angle but also related to the intersection angle between the visual angle and the directions of the principal stresses. Some numerical examples are given to analyze and verify the proposed constitutive model. The results show the proposed constitutive model has high precision to calculate displacement, stress and plastic strain and can be applied in engineering analysis. PMID:25885695

  5. Constitutive Modeling of Superalloy Single Crystals and Directionally Solidified Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, K. P.; Jordan, E. H.

    1985-01-01

    A unified viscoplastic constitutive relation based on crystallographic slip theory was developed for the deformation analysis of nickel base face centered cubic superalloy single crystals at elevated temperature. The single crystal theory is embedded in a self consistent method to derive a constitutive relation for a directionally solidified material comprised of a polycrystalline aggregate of columnar cylindrical grains. One of the crystallographic axes of the cylindrical crystals points in the columnar direction while the remaining crystallographic axes are oriented at random in the basal plane perpendicular to the columnar direction. These constitutive formulations are coded in FORTRAN for use in nonlinear finite element and boundary element programs.

  6. The Bernoulli-Poiseuille Equation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badeer, Henry S.; Synolakis, Costas E.

    1989-01-01

    Describes Bernoulli's equation and Poiseuille's equation for fluid dynamics. Discusses the application of the combined Bernoulli-Poiseuille equation in real flows, such as viscous flows under gravity and acceleration. (YP)

  7. Introducing Chemical Formulae and Equations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Chris; Rowell, Jack

    1979-01-01

    Discusses when the writing of chemical formula and equations can be introduced in the school science curriculum. Also presents ways in which formulae and equations learning can be aided and some examples for balancing and interpreting equations. (HM)

  8. Your Board Can Help Students Learn from Our Constitution's Bicentennial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chmelynski, Carol C.

    1987-01-01

    The celebration of the bicentennial of the United States Constitution will begin Fall 1987 and last until 1991. Outlines the national programs, exhibitions and festivals, and curriculum materials available for educators on the bicentennial. (MD)

  9. Constitution. Signed and delivered--the rules in writing.

    PubMed

    Walshe, Kieran

    2008-07-24

    The proposal tucked away in the Darzi report for an NHS constitution could be one of the most historic elements of the next stage review, limiting the health secretary's power and guaranteeing patient rights. PMID:18714467

  10. 1. Light brick buildings on left constitute 1885 mill built ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Light brick buildings on left constitute 1885 mill built by George Woodruff; lower section was probably a leading area. - Empire Mills Company, Front Avenue between Eighth & Tenth Streets, Columbus, Muscogee County, GA

  11. NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY ACCREDITATION CONFERENCE (NELAC): CONSTITUTION, BYLAWS, AND STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The principles and operating procedures for the National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Conference (NELAC) are contained in the NELAC Constitution and Bylaws. The major portion of this document (standards) contains detailed requirements for accrediting environmental labo...

  12. Constitutional Law: Right of Privacy--Possession of Marijuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, David E.

    1976-01-01

    The Alaska Supreme Court in Ravin v. State accepted the defendant's contention that the prohibition of possession of marihuana infringed on his constitutional right to privacy. The significance of the case is discussed. (LBH)

  13. Nonlocal electrical diffusion equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Aguilar, J. F.; Escobar-Jiménez, R. F.; Olivares-Peregrino, V. H.; Benavides-Cruz, M.; Calderón-Ramón, C.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present an analysis and modeling of the electrical diffusion equation using the fractional calculus approach. This alternative representation for the current density is expressed in terms of the Caputo derivatives, the order for the space domain is 0<β≤1 and for the time domain is 0<γ≤2. We present solutions for the full fractional equation involving space and time fractional derivatives using numerical methods based on Fourier variable separation. The case with spatial fractional derivatives leads to Levy flight type phenomena, while the time fractional equation is related to sub- or super diffusion. We show that the mathematical concept of fractional derivatives can be useful to understand the behavior of semiconductors, the design of solar panels, electrochemical phenomena and the description of anomalous complex processes.

  14. Parallel tridiagonal equation solvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, H. S.

    1974-01-01

    Three parallel algorithms were compared for the direct solution of tridiagonal linear systems of equations. The algorithms are suitable for computers such as ILLIAC 4 and CDC STAR. For array computers similar to ILLIAC 4, cyclic odd-even reduction has the least operation count for highly structured sets of equations, and recursive doubling has the least count for relatively unstructured sets of equations. Since the difference in operation counts for these two algorithms is not substantial, their relative running times may be more related to overhead operations, which are not measured in this paper. The third algorithm, based on Buneman's Poisson solver, has more arithmetic operations than the others, and appears to be the least favorable. For pipeline computers similar to CDC STAR, cyclic odd-even reduction appears to be the most preferable algorithm for all cases.

  15. Kepler Equation solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis

    1995-01-01

    Kepler's Equation is solved over the entire range of elliptic motion by a fifth-order refinement of the solution of a cubic equation. This method is not iterative, and requires only four transcendental function evaluations: a square root, a cube root, and two trigonometric functions. The maximum relative error of the algorithm is less than one part in 10(exp 18), exceeding the capability of double-precision computer arithmetic. Roundoff errors in double-precision implementation of the algorithm are addressed, and procedures to avoid them are developed.

  16. Difference equation for superradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. T.

    1974-01-01

    The evolution of a completely excited system of N two-level atoms, distributed over a large region and interacting with all modes of radiation field, is studied. The distinction between r-conserving (RC) and r-nonconserving (RNC) processes is emphasized. Considering the number of photons emitted as the discrete independent variable, the evolution is described by a partial difference equation. Numerical solution of this equation shows the transition from RNC dominance at the beginning to RC dominance later. This is also a transition from incoherent to coherent emission of radiation.

  17. Obtaining Maxwell's equations heuristically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diener, Gerhard; Weissbarth, Jürgen; Grossmann, Frank; Schmidt, Rüdiger

    2013-02-01

    Starting from the experimental fact that a moving charge experiences the Lorentz force and applying the fundamental principles of simplicity (first order derivatives only) and linearity (superposition principle), we show that the structure of the microscopic Maxwell equations for the electromagnetic fields can be deduced heuristically by using the transformation properties of the fields under space inversion and time reversal. Using the experimental facts of charge conservation and that electromagnetic waves propagate with the speed of light, together with Galilean invariance of the Lorentz force, allows us to finalize Maxwell's equations and to introduce arbitrary electrodynamics units naturally.

  18. The halo Boltzmann equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagetti, Matteo; Desjacques, Vincent; Kehagias, Alex; Racco, Davide; Riotto, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Dark matter halos are the building blocks of the universe as they host galaxies and clusters. The knowledge of the clustering properties of halos is therefore essential for the understanding of the galaxy statistical properties. We derive an effective halo Boltzmann equation which can be used to describe the halo clustering statistics. In particular, we show how the halo Boltzmann equation encodes a statistically biased gravitational force which generates a bias in the peculiar velocities of virialized halos with respect to the underlying dark matter, as recently observed in N-body simulations.

  19. Sasang constitutional medicine as a holistic tailored medicine.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Yeol; Pham, Duong Duc

    2009-09-01

    Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) is a unique traditional Korean therapeutic alternative form of medicine. Based on the Yin and Yang theory and on Confucianism, humans are classified into four constitutions. These differ in terms of (i) sensitivity to certain groups of herbs and medicines, (ii) equilibrium among internal organic functions, (iii) physical features and (iv) psychological characteristics. We propose that two main axes in the physiopathology of SCM (food intake/waste discharge and consuming/storing Qi and body fluids) are equivalent to the process of internal-external exchange and catabolism/anabolism in modern physiology, respectively. We then used this hypothesis to discuss the physiological and pathological principles of SCM. Constitution-based medicine is based on the theory that some medicinal herbs and remedies are only appropriate for certain constitutions and can cause adverse effects in others. The constitutional approach of SCM share the same vision as tailored medicine; an individualized therapy that can minimize the risk of adverse reaction while increasing the efficacy and an individualized self-regulation that can help prevent specific susceptible chronic disease and live healthily. There is still a long way to this goal for both SCM and tailored medicine, but we may benefit from systems approaches such as systems biology. We suggest that constitutional perspective of SCM and our hypothesis of two main processes may provide a novel insight for further studies. PMID:19745007

  20. A phenomenological constitutive model for low density polyurethane foams

    SciTech Connect

    Neilsen, M.K.; Morgan, H.S.; Krieg, R.D.

    1987-04-01

    Results from a series of hydrostatic and triaxial compression tests which were performed on polyurethane foams are presented in this report. These tests indicate that the volumetric and deviatoric parts of the foam behavior are strongly coupled. This coupling behavior could not be captured with any of several commonly used plasticity models. Thus, a new constitutive model was developed. This new model was based on a decomposition of the foam response into two parts: (1) response of the polymer skeleton, and (2) response of the air inside the cells. The air contribution was completely volumetric. The new constitutive model was implemented in two finite element codes, SANCHO and PRONTO. Results from a series of analyses completed with these codes indicated that the new constitutive model captured all of the foam behaviors that had been observed in the experiments. Finally, a typical dynamic problem was analyzed using the new constitutive model and other constitutive models to demonstrate differences between the models. Results from this series of analyses indicated that the new constitutive model generated displacement and acceleration predictions that were between predictions obtained using the other models. This result was expected. 9 refs., 45 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Coupled Hydro-Mechanical Constitutive Model for Vegetated Soils: Validation and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Switala, Barbara Maria; Veenhof, Rick; Wu, Wei; Askarinejad, Amin

    2016-04-01

    It is well known, that presence of vegetation influences stability of the slope. However, the quantitative assessment of this contribution remains challenging. It is essential to develop a numerical model, which combines mechanical root reinforcement and root water uptake, and allows modelling rainfall induced landslides of vegetated slopes. Therefore a novel constitutive formulation is proposed, which is based on the modified Cam-clay model for unsaturated soils. Mechanical root reinforcement is modelled introducing a new constitutive parameter, which governs the evolution of the Cam-clay failure surface with the degree of root reinforcement. Evapotranspiration is modelled in terms of the root water uptake, defined as a sink term in the water flow continuity equation. The original concept is extended for different shapes of the root architecture in three dimensions, and combined with the mechanical model. The model is implemented in the research finite element code Comes-Geo, and in the commercial software Abaqus. The formulation is tested, performing a series of numerical examples, which allow validation of the concept. The direct shear test and the triaxial test are modelled in order to test the performance of the mechanical part of the model. In order to validate the hydrological part of the constitutive formulation, evapotranspiration from the vegetated box is simulated and compared with the experimental results. Obtained numerical results exhibit a good agreement with the experimental data. The implemented model is capable of reproducing results of basic geotechnical laboratory tests. Moreover, the constitutive formulation can be used to model rainfall induced landslides of vegetated slopes, taking into account the most important factors influencing the slope stability (root reinforcement and evapotranspiration).

  2. Competition is constitutional: Four fallacies in the argument that transmission access constitutes a taking

    SciTech Connect

    Schotland, S.D.

    1996-11-01

    New transmission regulations may cause a change in property value or property access, however, this alone does not constitute a regulatory taking. In an industry with a long history of regulation and some degree of shared transmission access, the utilities are going to be hard pressed to show that recent open access mandates are in violation of the Takings Clause of the Fifth Amendment. In a recent article, John Rowe and Paige Graening of the NEES Companies argued that transmission access is the twentieth century equivalent of {open_quotes}piracy{close_quotes} - forcing utilities to provide transmission access to third parties violates the Taking Clause of the Fifth Amendment. The authors stated that transmission access represents a permanent physical invasion of property - which is unconstitutional without {open_quotes}just compensation.{close_quotes} The same arguments have been raised by Michigan utilities in a pending court challenge to the retail wheeling experiment ordered by the Michigan Public Service Commission. Rowe and Graening complain that {open_quotes}under the Jolly Roger of open competition{close_quotes} regulators will limit utilities to {open_quotes}mere embedded costs,{close_quotes} thereby committing an act of {open_quotes}piracy.{close_quotes} Contrary to Rowe and Graening`s claim, the flag of competition is better represented by the Stars and Stripes, since orders to provide transmission access at the cost of service do not result in a regulatory taking. Four fallacies led NEES down the gangplank: (1) The authors argued that reductions in the value of an investment are necessarily takings. Regulatory impairment of property value is a fact of life. (2) Contrary to NEES, transmission access does not effect a permanent physical invasion of property. (3) NEES claimed that transmission access defeats reasonable investment expectations. (4) NEES relied on case law that affords utilities the opportunity to realize a profit.

  3. The Statistical Drake Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccone, Claudio

    2010-12-01

    We provide the statistical generalization of the Drake equation. From a simple product of seven positive numbers, the Drake equation is now turned into the product of seven positive random variables. We call this "the Statistical Drake Equation". The mathematical consequences of this transformation are then derived. The proof of our results is based on the Central Limit Theorem (CLT) of Statistics. In loose terms, the CLT states that the sum of any number of independent random variables, each of which may be ARBITRARILY distributed, approaches a Gaussian (i.e. normal) random variable. This is called the Lyapunov Form of the CLT, or the Lindeberg Form of the CLT, depending on the mathematical constraints assumed on the third moments of the various probability distributions. In conclusion, we show that: The new random variable N, yielding the number of communicating civilizations in the Galaxy, follows the LOGNORMAL distribution. Then, as a consequence, the mean value of this lognormal distribution is the ordinary N in the Drake equation. The standard deviation, mode, and all the moments of this lognormal N are also found. The seven factors in the ordinary Drake equation now become seven positive random variables. The probability distribution of each random variable may be ARBITRARY. The CLT in the so-called Lyapunov or Lindeberg forms (that both do not assume the factors to be identically distributed) allows for that. In other words, the CLT "translates" into our statistical Drake equation by allowing an arbitrary probability distribution for each factor. This is both physically realistic and practically very useful, of course. An application of our statistical Drake equation then follows. The (average) DISTANCE between any two neighboring and communicating civilizations in the Galaxy may be shown to be inversely proportional to the cubic root of N. Then, in our approach, this distance becomes a new random variable. We derive the relevant probability density

  4. Comparison of Kernel Equating and Item Response Theory Equating Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meng, Yu

    2012-01-01

    The kernel method of test equating is a unified approach to test equating with some advantages over traditional equating methods. Therefore, it is important to evaluate in a comprehensive way the usefulness and appropriateness of the Kernel equating (KE) method, as well as its advantages and disadvantages compared with several popular item…

  5. Constitutional genomic instability, chromosome aberrations in tumor cells and retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Amare Kadam, P S; Ghule, P; Jose, J; Bamne, M; Kurkure, P; Banavali, S; Sarin, R; Advani, S

    2004-04-01

    Although retinoblastoma (Rb) is initiated as a result of biallelic inactivation of the RB1 gene, additional genetic events (M3) in tumor cells are indicative of their role in the full transformation of retinal cells. We investigated the constitutional genetic instability by fragile site (FS) expression studies and checked its relationship with loci of tumor cytogenetics in a series of 36 retinoblastoma patients (34 nonfamilial and 2 familial cases). Tumor cytogenetics revealed -13/+13, del/t(13)(q14) (50%), +1/del/t(1p/q) (65%), +6/i(6p) (60%), and del(16)(q13)/(q22 approximately q23) (60%). Conventional cytogenetics in leukocytes revealed constitutional del(13q14) in five unilateral Rb (URB) and one trilateral Rb (TRB). Constitutional del(16)(q22) and t(6;12) were also identified in two cases. Constitutional FS analysis showed a significant increase in the cellular fragility, with high prevalence at 13q14, 3p14, 6p23, 16q22 approximately q23, and 13q22 loci in retinoblastoma patients (P<0.05). Patients with constitutional del(13)(q14) demonstrated higher fragility than those with normal constitution. A strong correlation between loci of constitutional FSs and loci of recurrent chromosomal abnormalities in tumors strengthen and support the proposal that FS loci present as inherent genomic instability in retinoblastoma. The chromosomal changes and resultant genetic mutations, along with RB1 mutation events, probably contribute synergistically to the development and progression of Rb malignancy. Implementation of fluorescence in situ hybridization to nonfamilial Rb on a large scale (113 cases) could detect constitutional RB1 deletion in 12.3% of cases, with equally higher incidence in URB (14.7%) and bilateral Rb (13.6%), demonstrating that the true prevalence of patients with predisposition to RB1 mutation in sporadic URB is definitely higher in our populations. Also, higher incidence of constitutional RB1 deletion mosaicism in unilateral than in bilateral Rb

  6. Balancing Chemical Equations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savoy, L. G.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a study of students' ability to balance equations. Answers to a test on this topic were analyzed to determine the level of understanding and processes used by the students. Presented is a method to teach this skill to high school chemistry students. (CW)

  7. Structural Equation Model Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-01-01

    In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree…

  8. Parallel Multigrid Equation Solver

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2001-09-07

    Prometheus is a fully parallel multigrid equation solver for matrices that arise in unstructured grid finite element applications. It includes a geometric and an algebraic multigrid method and has solved problems of up to 76 mullion degrees of feedom, problems in linear elasticity on the ASCI blue pacific and ASCI red machines.

  9. A Quadratic Spring Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.

    2010-01-01

    Through numerical investigations, we study examples of the forced quadratic spring equation [image omitted]. By performing trial-and-error numerical experiments, we demonstrate the existence of stability boundaries in the phase plane indicating initial conditions yielding bounded solutions, investigate the resonance boundary in the [omega]…

  10. Generalized reduced magnetohydrodynamic equations

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, S.E.

    1999-02-01

    A new derivation of reduced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations is presented. A multiple-time-scale expansion is employed. It has the advantage of clearly separating the three time scales of the problem associated with (1) MHD equilibrium, (2) fluctuations whose wave vector is aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field, and (3) those aligned parallel to the magnetic field. The derivation is carried out without relying on a large aspect ratio assumption; therefore this model can be applied to any general configuration. By accounting for the MHD equilibrium and constraints to eliminate the fast perpendicular waves, equations are derived to evolve scalar potential quantities on a time scale associated with the parallel wave vector (shear-Alfven wave time scale), which is the time scale of interest for MHD instability studies. Careful attention is given in the derivation to satisfy energy conservation and to have manifestly divergence-free magnetic fields to all orders in the expansion parameter. Additionally, neoclassical closures and equilibrium shear flow effects are easily accounted for in this model. Equations for the inner resistive layer are derived which reproduce the linear ideal and resistive stability criterion of Glasser, Greene, and Johnson. The equations have been programmed into a spectral initial value code and run with shear flow that is consistent with the equilibrium input into the code. Linear results of tearing modes with shear flow are presented which differentiate the effects of shear flow gradients in the layer with the effects of the shear flow decoupling multiple harmonics.

  11. Modelling by Differential Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaachoua, Hamid; Saglam, Ayse

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to show the close relation between physics and mathematics taking into account especially the theory of differential equations. By analysing the problems posed by scientists in the seventeenth century, we note that physics is very important for the emergence of this theory. Taking into account this analysis, we show the…

  12. Do Differential Equations Swing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maruszewski, Richard F., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    One of the units of in a standard differential equations course is a discussion of the oscillatory motion of a spring and the associated material on forcing functions and resonance. During the presentation on practical resonance, the instructor may tell students that it is similar to when they take their siblings to the playground and help them on…

  13. Central role of the observable electric potential in transport equations.

    PubMed

    Garrido, J; Compañ, V; López, M L

    2001-07-01

    Nonequilibrium systems are usually studied in the framework of transport equations that involve the true electric potential (TEP), a nonobservable variable. Nevertheless another electric potential, the observable electric potential (OEP), may be defined to construct a useful set of transport equations. In this paper several basic characteristics of the OEP are deduced and emphasized: (i) the OEP distribution depends on thermodynamic state of the solution, (ii) the observable equations have a reference value for all other transport equations, (iii) the bridge that connects the OEP with a certain TEP is usually defined by the ion activity coefficient, (iv) the electric charge density is a nonobservable variable, and (v) the OEP formulation constitutes a natural model for studying the fluxes in membrane systems. PMID:11461346

  14. Evaluation of potential crushed-salt constitutive models

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Sambeek, L.L. Van; Chen, R.; Pfeifle, T.W.; Nieland, J.D.

    1995-12-01

    Constitutive models describing the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Ten constitutive models with potential to describe the phenomenological and micromechanical processes for crushed salt were selected from a literature search. Three of these ten constitutive models, termed Sjaardema-Krieg, Zeuch, and Spiers models, were adopted as candidate constitutive models. The candidate constitutive models were generalized in a consistent manner to three-dimensional states of stress and modified to include the effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt was used to determine material parameters for the candidate constitutive models. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the hydrostatic consolidation tests, the shear consolidation tests, and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic tests produces three sets of material parameter values for the candidate models. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the models. To evaluate the predictive capability of the candidate models, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the models to predict the test data, the Spiers model appeared to perform slightly better than the other two candidate models. The work reported here is a first-of-its kind evaluation of constitutive models for reconsolidation of crushed salt. Questions remain to be answered. Deficiencies in models and databases are identified and recommendations for future work are made. 85 refs.

  15. Volume transport and generalized hydrodynamic equations for monatomic fluids.

    PubMed

    Eu, Byung Chan

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, the effects of volume transport on the generalized hydrodynamic equations for a pure simple fluid are examined from the standpoint of statistical mechanics and, in particular, kinetic theory of fluids. First, we derive the generalized hydrodynamic equations, namely, the constitutive equations for the stress tensor and heat flux for a single-component monatomic fluid, from the generalized Boltzmann equation in the presence of volume transport. Then their linear steady-state solutions are derived and examined with regard to the effects of volume transport on them. The generalized hydrodynamic equations and linear constitutive relations obtained for nonconserved variables make it possible to assess Brenner's proposition [Physica A 349, 11 (2005); Physica A 349, 60 (2005)] for volume transport and attendant mass and volume velocities as well as the effects of volume transport on the Newtonian law of viscosity, compression/dilatation (bulk viscosity) phenomena, and Fourier's law of heat conduction. On the basis of study made, it is concluded that the notion of volume transport is sufficiently significant to retain in irreversible thermodynamics of fluids and fluid mechanics. PMID:19045107

  16. A Generalization of the Einstein-Maxwell Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotton, Fredrick

    2016-03-01

    The proposed modifications of the Einstein-Maxwell equations include: (1) the addition of a scalar term to the electromagnetic side of the equation rather than to the gravitational side, (2) the introduction of a 4-dimensional, nonlinear electromagnetic constitutive tensor and (3) the addition of curvature terms arising from the non-metric components of a general symmetric connection. The scalar term is defined by the condition that a spherically symmetric particle be force-free and mathematically well-behaved everywhere. The constitutive tensor introduces two auxiliary fields which describe the particle structure. The additional curvature terms couple both to particle solutions and to electromagnetic and gravitational wave solutions. http://sites.google.com/site/fwcotton/em-30.pdf

  17. Identification of an advanced constitutive model of Magnesium alloy AZ31B

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Z. G.; Massoni, E.

    2011-05-04

    The main aim of this paper is to study the flow behavior of the AZ31B magnesium alloy by means of tensile tests performed in extended ranges of temperature and strain rates. The flow stress-strain curves analyzed by power law type constitutive equation can only fit well with experimental curves at the work-hardening stage. A new mathematical model is studied to describe the softening behavior of material based on tensile experiments. The relative parameters are obtained by fitting the equation with the experimental data. The genetic algorithm has been used to obtain the global optimal fitting parameters. The comparison between the fitted and experimental data proves the effectiveness of the model. The results indicate that this model leads to a better simulation of the flow stress during the softening stage than that of the power law equation. Based on this model, the deep drawing process has been simulated with the commercial finite element code FORGE registered. The punch load and thickness distribution of AZ31 sheet have been studied. The study of the results is helpful to the application of the stamping technology for the magnesium alloy sheet.

  18. Detecting constitutive activity and protean agonism at cannabinoid-2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Beltramo, Massimiliano; Brusa, Rossella; Mancini, Isabella; Scandroglio, Paola

    2010-01-01

    Since the cannabinoid system is involved in regulating several physiological functions such as locomotor activity, cognition, nociception, food intake, and inflammatory reaction, it has been the subject of intense study. Research on the pharmacology of this system has enormously progressed in the last 20years. One intriguing aspect that emerged from this research is that cannabinoid receptors (CBs) express a high level of constitutive activity. Investigation on this particular aspect of receptor pharmacology has largely focused on CB1, the CB subtype highly expressed in several brain regions. More recently, research on constitutive activity on the other CB subtype, CB2, was stimulated by the increasing interest on its potential as target for the treatment of various pathologies (e.g., pain and inflammation). There are several possible implications of constitutive activity on the therapeutic action of both agonists and antagonists, and consequently, it is important to have valuable methods to study this aspect of CB2 pharmacology. In the present chapter, we describe three methods to study constitutive activity at CB2: two classical methods relying on the detection of changes in cAMP level and GTPγS binding and a new one based on cell impedance measurement. In addition, we also included a section on detection of protean agonism, which is an interesting pharmacological phenomenon strictly linked to constitutive activity. PMID:21036225

  19. Underground herbivory and the costs of constitutive defense in tobacco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preisser, Evan L.; Gibson, Sarah E.; Adler, Lynn S.; Lewis, Edwin E.

    2007-03-01

    Nicotine is both a constitutive and induced defense in cultivated tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum). Nicotine is thought primarily to defend against above-ground herbivory; however, below-ground herbivores like the nematode Meloidogyne incognita can also damage plants. We evaluated the costs and benefits of constitutive nicotine production in four near-isogenic lines of N. tabacum differing in nicotine content. We exposed the four lines to levels of nematode infection below that found to induce nicotine synthesis, and measured nematode density and each line's response to nematode presence. Nematode density did not differ among lines and was not related to leaf nicotine content in any of the lines, suggesting that constitutive nicotine content did not affect nematode survival or reproduction. Most measures of plant performance were unaffected by nematodes; however, nematode infection decreased flowering in the high nicotine line relative to the other lines. Lines with less constitutive nicotine did not incur similar costs, suggesting a tradeoff between nicotine production and tolerance of low levels of herbivory. A cost of nicotine production is also suggested by the fact that flowering was inversely correlated with leaf nicotine content in all four lines. Although nicotine conferred no resistance to nematodes, high nicotine content reduced the plant's tolerance of low levels of nematode infection and was correlated with reduced flowering. In examining the costs and benefits of a constitutive plant defense, this work complements and extends previous research addressing the relationship between plant tolerance and induced defenses.

  20. Supersymmetric fifth order evolution equations

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, K.; Liu, Q. P.

    2010-03-08

    This paper considers supersymmetric fifth order evolution equations. Within the framework of symmetry approach, we give a list containing six equations, which are (potentially) integrable systems. Among these equations, the most interesting ones include a supersymmetric Sawada-Kotera equation and a novel supersymmetric fifth order KdV equation. For the latter, we supply some properties such as a Hamiltonian structures and a possible recursion operator.

  1. Brownian motion from Boltzmann's equation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, D.

    1971-01-01

    Two apparently disparate lines of inquiry in kinetic theory are shown to be equivalent: (1) Brownian motion as treated by the (stochastic) Langevin equation and Fokker-Planck equation; and (2) Boltzmann's equation. The method is to derive the kinetic equation for Brownian motion from the Boltzmann equation for a two-component neutral gas by a simultaneous expansion in the density and mass ratios.

  2. Role of Constitutive Behavior and Tumor-Host Mechanical Interactions in the State of Stress and Growth of Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Papageorgis, Panagiotis; Odysseos, Andreani D.; Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical forces play a crucial role in tumor patho-physiology. Compression of cancer cells inhibits their proliferation rate, induces apoptosis and enhances their invasive and metastatic potential. Additionally, compression of intratumor blood vessels reduces the supply of oxygen, nutrients and drugs, affecting tumor progression and treatment. Despite the great importance of the mechanical microenvironment to the pathology of cancer, there are limited studies for the constitutive modeling and the mechanical properties of tumors and on how these parameters affect tumor growth. Also, the contribution of the host tissue to the growth and state of stress of the tumor remains unclear. To this end, we performed unconfined compression experiments in two tumor types and found that the experimental stress-strain response is better fitted to an exponential constitutive equation compared to the widely used neo-Hookean and Blatz-Ko models. Subsequently, we incorporated the constitutive equations along with the corresponding values of the mechanical properties - calculated by the fit - to a biomechanical model of tumor growth. Interestingly, we found that the evolution of stress and the growth rate of the tumor are independent from the selection of the constitutive equation, but depend strongly on the mechanical interactions with the surrounding host tissue. Particularly, model predictions - in agreement with experimental studies - suggest that the stiffness of solid tumors should exceed a critical value compared with that of the surrounding tissue in order to be able to displace the tissue and grow in size. With the use of the model, we estimated this critical value to be on the order of 1.5. Our results suggest that the direct effect of solid stress on tumor growth involves not only the inhibitory effect of stress on cancer cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis, but also the resistance of the surrounding tissue to tumor expansion. PMID:25111061

  3. Causal electromagnetic interaction equations

    SciTech Connect

    Zinoviev, Yury M.

    2011-02-15

    For the electromagnetic interaction of two particles the relativistic causal quantum mechanics equations are proposed. These equations are solved for the case when the second particle moves freely. The initial wave functions are supposed to be smooth and rapidly decreasing at the infinity. This condition is important for the convergence of the integrals similar to the integrals of quantum electrodynamics. We also consider the singular initial wave functions in the particular case when the second particle mass is equal to zero. The discrete energy spectrum of the first particle wave function is defined by the initial wave function of the free-moving second particle. Choosing the initial wave functions of the free-moving second particle it is possible to obtain a practically arbitrary discrete energy spectrum.

  4. Nikolaevskiy equation with dispersion.

    PubMed

    Simbawa, Eman; Matthews, Paul C; Cox, Stephen M

    2010-03-01

    The Nikolaevskiy equation was originally proposed as a model for seismic waves and is also a model for a wide variety of systems incorporating a neutral "Goldstone" mode, including electroconvection and reaction-diffusion systems. It is known to exhibit chaotic dynamics at the onset of pattern formation, at least when the dispersive terms in the equation are suppressed, as is commonly the practice in previous analyses. In this paper, the effects of reinstating the dispersive terms are examined. It is shown that such terms can stabilize some of the spatially periodic traveling waves; this allows us to study the loss of stability and transition to chaos of the waves. The secondary stability diagram ("Busse balloon") for the traveling waves can be remarkably complicated. PMID:20365845

  5. Singularities for PRANDTL'S Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Bosco, G.; Sammartino, M.; Sciacca, V.

    2006-03-01

    We use a mixed spectral/finite-difference numerical method to investigate the possibility of a finite time blow-up of the solutions of Prandtl's equations for the case of the impulsively started cylinder. Our tool is the complex singularity tracking method. We show that a cubic root singularity seems to develop, in a time that can be made arbitrarily short, from a class of data uniformly bounded in H1.

  6. Multinomial diffusion equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balter, Ariel; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2011-06-01

    We describe a new, microscopic model for diffusion that captures diffusion induced fluctuations at scales where the concept of concentration gives way to discrete particles. We show that in the limit as the number of particles N→∞, our model is equivalent to the classical stochastic diffusion equation (SDE). We test our new model and the SDE against Langevin dynamics in numerical simulations, and show that our model successfully reproduces the correct ensemble statistics, while the classical model fails.

  7. Multinomial diffusion equation

    SciTech Connect

    Balter, Ariel I.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2011-06-24

    We describe a new, microscopic model for diffusion that captures diffusion induced uctuations at scales where the concept of concentration gives way to discrete par- ticles. We show that in the limit as the number of particles N ! 1, our model is equivalent to the classical stochastic diffusion equation (SDE). We test our new model and the SDE against Langevin dynamics in numerical simulations, and show that our model successfully reproduces the correct ensemble statistics, while the classical model fails.

  8. Student-Generated Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasile, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    We are frequently told that Hong Kong has a model system for learning mathematics. In this article Daniela Vasile notes one short-coming in that the pupils are not taught to problem-solve. She begins with a new class by asking them to write down the craziest equation they can come up with and bases her whole lesson, and the following homework,…

  9. Generalized reduced MHD equations

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, S.E.; Hegna, C.C.; Callen, J.D.

    1998-07-01

    A new derivation of reduced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations is presented. A multiple-time-scale expansion is employed. It has the advantage of clearly separating the three time scales of the problem associated with (1) MHD equilibrium, (2) fluctuations whose wave vector is aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field, and (3) those aligned parallel to the magnetic field. The derivation is carried out without relying on a large aspect ratio assumption; therefore this model can be applied to any general toroidal configuration. By accounting for the MHD equilibrium and constraints to eliminate the fast perpendicular waves, equations are derived to evolve scalar potential quantities on a time scale associated with the parallel wave vector (shear-alfven wave time scale), which is the time scale of interest for MHD instability studies. Careful attention is given in the derivation to satisfy energy conservation and to have manifestly divergence-free magnetic fields to all orders in the expansion parameter. Additionally, neoclassical closures and equilibrium shear flow effects are easily accounted for in this model. Equations for the inner resistive layer are derived which reproduce the linear ideal and resistive stability criterion of Glasser, Greene, and Johnson.

  10. The Drake Equation revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konesky, Gregory

    2009-08-01

    In the almost half century since the Drake Equation was first conceived, a number of profound discoveries have been made that require each of the seven variables of this equation to be reconsidered. The discovery of hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor, for example, as well as the ever-increasing extreme conditions in which life is found on Earth, suggest a much wider range of possible extraterrestrial habitats. The growing consensus that life originated very early in Earth's history also supports this suggestion. The discovery of exoplanets with a wide range of host star types, and attendant habitable zones, suggests that life may be possible in planetary systems with stars quite unlike our Sun. Stellar evolution also plays an important part in that habitable zones are mobile. The increasing brightness of our Sun over the next few billion years, will place the Earth well outside the present habitable zone, but will then encompass Mars, giving rise to the notion that some Drake Equation variables, such as the fraction of planets on which life emerges, may have multiple values.

  11. A Characteristic-Based Constitutive Law for Dispersed Fibers.

    PubMed

    Ge, Liang

    2016-07-01

    Biological tissues are typically constituted of dispersed fibers. Modeling the constitutive laws of such tissues remains a challenge. Direct integration over all fibers is considered to be accurate but requires very expensive numerical integration. A general structure tensor (GST) model was previously developed to bypass this costly numerical integration step, but there are concerns about the model's accuracy. Here we estimate the approximation error of the GST model. We further reveal that the GST model ignores strain energy induced by shearing motions. Subsequently, we propose a new characteristic-based constitutive law to better approximate the direct integration model. The new model is very cost-effective and closely approximates the "true" strain energy as calculated by the direct integration when stress-strain nonlinearity or fiber dispersion angle is small. PMID:27138358

  12. Sasang Constitutional Medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Comparative Overview

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Junghee; Lee, Euiju; Kim, Chungmi; Lee, Junhee; Lixing, Lao

    2012-01-01

    Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) is a holistic typological constitution medicine which balances psychological, social, and physical aspects of an individual to achieve wellness and increase longevity. SCM has the qualities of preventative medicine, as it emphasizes daily health management based on constitutionally differentiated regimens and self-cultivation of the mind and body. This review's goal is to establish a fundamental understanding of SCM and to provide a foundation for further study. It compares the similarities and differences of philosophical origins, perspectives on the mind (heart), typological systems, pathology, and therapeutics between SCM and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). TCM is based on the Taoist view of the universe and humanity. The health and longevity of an individual depends on a harmonious relationship with the universe. On the other hand, SCM is based on the Confucian view of the universe and humanity. SCM focuses on the influence of human affairs on the psyche, physiology, and pathology. PMID:21941592

  13. Requirements for energy based constitutive modeling in tire mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchini, John R.; Peters, Jim M.; Mars, Will V.

    1995-08-01

    The history, requirements, and theoretical basis of a new energy based constitutive model for (rubber) material elasticity, hysteresis, and failure are presented. Energy based elasticity is handled by many constitutive models, both in one dimension and in three dimensions. Conversion of mechanical energy to heat can be modeled with viscoelasticity or as structural hysteresis. We are seeking unification of elasticity, hysteresis, and failure mechanisms such as fatigue and wear. An energy state characterization for failure criteria of (rubber) materials may provide this unification and also help explain the interaction of temperature effects with failure mechanisms which are described as creation of growth of internal crack surface. Improved structural modeling of tires with FEM should result from such a unified constitutive theory. The theory will also guide experimental work and should enable better interpretation of the results of computational stress analyses.

  14. Requirements for energy based constitutive modeling in tire mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luchini, John R.; Peters, Jim M.; Mars, Will V.

    1995-01-01

    The history, requirements, and theoretical basis of a new energy based constitutive model for (rubber) material elasticity, hysteresis, and failure are presented. Energy based elasticity is handled by many constitutive models, both in one dimension and in three dimensions. Conversion of mechanical energy to heat can be modeled with viscoelasticity or as structural hysteresis. We are seeking unification of elasticity, hysteresis, and failure mechanisms such as fatigue and wear. An energy state characterization for failure criteria of (rubber) materials may provide this unification and also help explain the interaction of temperature effects with failure mechanisms which are described as creation of growth of internal crack surface. Improved structural modeling of tires with FEM should result from such a unified constitutive theory. The theory will also guide experimental work and should enable better interpretation of the results of computational stress analyses.

  15. New constitutionalism and the social reproduction of caring institutions.

    PubMed

    Gill, Stephen; Bakker, Isabella

    2006-01-01

    This essay analyzes neo-liberal economic agreements and legal and political frameworks or what has been called the "new constitutionalism," a governance framework that empowers market forces to reshape economic and social development worldwide. The article highlights some consequences of new constitutionalism for caring institutions specifically, and for what feminists call social reproduction more generally: the biological reproduction of the species; the reproduction of labor power; and the reproduction of social institutions and processes associated with the creation and maintenance of communities. New constitutional governance frameworks fundamentally reshape conditions under which the care of human beings takes place. Caring institutions once governed by enabling professions geared to universal care are now determined increasingly by market values and private forces, and driven directly by the profit motive. This is one of the reasons why neo-liberalism is increasingly contested in both the North and the global South. PMID:16532302

  16. Consistency of certain constitutive relations with quantum electromagnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Horsley, S. A. R.

    2011-12-15

    Recent work by Philbin [New J. Phys. 12, 123008 (2010)] has provided a Lagrangian theory that establishes a general method for the canonical quantization of the electromagnetic field in any dispersive, lossy, linear dielectric. Working from this theory, we extend the Lagrangian description to reciprocal and nonreciprocal magnetoelectric (bianisotropic) media, showing that some versions of the constitutive relations are inconsistent with a real Lagrangian, and hence with quantization. This amounts to a restriction on the magnitude of the magnetoelectric coupling. Moreover, from the point of view of quantization, moving media are shown to be fundamentally different from stationary magnetoelectrics, despite the formal similarity in the constitutive relations.

  17. Constitutive models for rubber networks undergoing simultaneous crosslinking and scission.

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Aidan Patrick; Curro, John G.; Rottach, Dana R.; Grest, Gary Stephen; Budzien, Joanne L.; Lo, David Chi S.

    2006-01-01

    Constitutive models for chemically reacting networks are formulated based on a generalization of the independent network hypothesis. These models account for the coupling between chemical reaction and strain histories, and have been tested by comparison with microscopic molecular dynamics simulations. An essential feature of these models is the introduction of stress transfer functions that describe the interdependence between crosslinks formed and broken at various strains. Efforts are underway to implement these constitutive models into the finite element code Adagio. Preliminary results are shown that illustrate the effects of changing crosslinking and scission rates and history.

  18. Are there reliable constitutive laws for dynamic friction?

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Jim; Putelat, Thibaut; McKay, Andrew

    2015-09-28

    Structural vibration controlled by interfacial friction is widespread, ranging from friction dampers in gas turbines to the motion of violin strings. To predict, control or prevent such vibration, a constitutive description of frictional interactions is inevitably required. A variety of friction models are discussed to assess their scope and validity, in the light of constraints provided by different experimental observations. Three contrasting case studies are used to illustrate how predicted behaviour can be extremely sensitive to the choice of frictional constitutive model, and to explore possible experimental paths to discriminate between and calibrate dynamic friction models over the full parameter range needed for real applications. PMID:26303920

  19. A preliminary ferritic-martensitic stainless steel constitution diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Balmforth, M.C.; Lippold, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes preliminary research to develop a constitution diagram that will more accurately predict the microstructure of ferritic and martensitic stainless steel weld deposits. A button melting technique was used to produce a wide range of compositions using mixtures of conventional ferritic and martensitic stainless steels, including types 403, 409, 410, 430, 439 and 444. These samples were prepared metallographically, and the vol-% ferrite and martensite was determined quantitatively. In addition, the hardness and ferrite number (FN) were measured. Using this data, a preliminary constitution diagram is proposed that provides a more accurate method for predicting the microstructures of arc welds in ferritic and martensitic stainless steels.

  20. Problems of orthotropic plastic constitutive models: Non-associated flow and evolution of anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Haizhen

    Two main topics are addressed in this thesis for anisotropic plastic behavior, e.g. textured polycrystals: (i) non-associated plastic flow and (ii) deformation-induced evolution of microstructure. We consider a class of elastic-plastic materials that possess local orthotropic symmetry which is represented in terms of second-order orientation tensors. In developing constitutive equations, significant use is made of representation theory for functions of tensors (Wang, 1969, 1970; Smith, 1969, 1970). Recent developments in multiscale modeling have unequivocally demonstrated that plastic flow in a wide range of crystalline materials is non-associative (i.e., distinct yield and flow functions) due to the effects of non-glide stresses on the motion of dislocations and slip. As a consequence, experimental observations of tension and compression asymmetries are widely approached. To describe orthotropic, non-associated behavior for polycrystals, yield and flow functions are developed based upon representation theory. Anisotropic plastic flow is commonplace for all materials possessing non-random microstructures. The second part of work focuses on the development of anisotropic elastic-plastic constitutive models to account microstructural evolution. Examples of material systems include polycrystals, whisker-reinforced composites, polymers, as well as complex viscoplastic fluids. For persistent orthotropic behavior, microstructural evolution is represented by the rotation of orthonormal vectors, which is governed by the constitutive relations for plastic spin. Representations for scalar- and tensor-valued functions of tensors are also utilized to develop phenomenological constitutive relations for plastic spin. Good agreement is demonstrated with experimental data for microstructural evolution in textured polycrystals. The effects of both non-associated flow and evolution of microstructure on strain localization are investigated. From the analyses of stress and load maxima